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Sample records for accurate screening tests

  1. Quadruple screen test

    MedlinePlus

    ... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

  2. A feasibility study of UHPLC-HRMS accurate-mass screening methods for multiclass testing of organic contaminants in food.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ortega, Patricia; Lara-Ortega, Felipe J; García-Reyes, Juan F; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Trojanowicz, Marek; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The feasibility of accurate-mass multi-residue screening methods using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) using time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been evaluated, including over 625 multiclass food contaminants as case study. Aspects such as the selectivity and confirmation capability provided by HRMS with different acquisition modes (full-scan or full-scan combined with collision induced dissociation (CID) with no precursor ion isolation), and chromatographic separation along with main limitations such as sensitivity or automated data processing have been examined. Compound identification was accomplished with retention time matching and accurate mass measurements of the targeted ions for each analyte (mainly (de)protonated molecules). Compounds with the same nominal mass (isobaric species) were very frequent due to the large number of compounds included. Although 76% of database compounds were involved in isobaric groups, they were resolved in most cases (99% of these isobaric species were distinguished by retention time, resolving power, isotopic profile or fragment ions). Only three pairs could not be resolved with these tools. In-source CID fragmentation was evaluated in depth, although the results obtained in terms of information provided were not as thorough as those obtained using fragmentation experiments without precursor ion isolation (all ion mode). The latter acquisition mode was found to be the best suited for this type of large-scale screening method instead of classic product ion scan, as provided excellent fragmentation information for confirmatory purposes for an unlimited number of compounds. Leaving aside the sample treatment limitations, the main weaknesses noticed are basically the relatively low sensitivity for compounds which does not map well against electrospray ionization and also quantitation issues such as those produced by signal suppression due to either matrix effects from coeluting matrix or from

  3. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  4. Screening Tests for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... or colonoscopy) Diabetes screening Gonorrhea test HIV test Syphilis test Get tested for chlamydia yearly through age ... to be tested for HIV. Get tested for syphilis if you are at increased risk or pregnant. ...

  5. Screening Tests for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... questions you have. Make sure to ask about: Alcohol use Depression Weight Screening tests Screening tests Screening tests Ages ... for high cholesterol, and ways to improve cholesterol levels through lifestyle changes. ... Sheets - Alcohol Use and Health - This fact sheet talks about ...

  6. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer symptoms. There are different kinds of screening tests. Screening tests include the following: Physical exam and ... are linked to some types of cancer. Screening tests have risks. Not all screening tests are helpful ...

  7. Population-based Tay-Sachs screening among Ashkenazi Jewish young adults in the 21st century: Hexosaminidase A enzyme assay is essential for accurate testing.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Adele; Nakagawa, Sachiko; Keep, Rosanne; Dorsainville, Darnelle; Charrow, Joel; Aleck, Kirk; Hoffman, Jodi; Minkoff, Sherman; Finegold, David; Sun, Wei; Spencer, Andrew; Lebow, Johannah; Zhan, Jie; Apfelroth, Stephen; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole; Gross, Susan

    2009-11-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier screening, initiated in the 1970s, has reduced the birth-rate of Ashkenazi Jews with TSD worldwide by 90%. Recently, several nationwide programs have been established that provide carrier screening for the updated panel of Jewish genetic diseases on college campuses and in Jewish community settings. The goals of this study were to determine the performance characteristics of clinical TSD testing in college- and community-based screening programs and to determine if molecular testing alone is adequate in those settings. Clinical data for TSD testing were retrospectively anonymized and subsequently analyzed for 1,036 individuals who participated in these programs. The performance characteristics of the serum and the platelet Hexosaminidase assays were compared, and also correlated with the results of targeted DNA analysis. The serum assay identified 29 carriers and the platelet assay identified 35 carriers for carrier rates of 1/36 and 1/29, respectively. One hundred sixty-nine samples (16.3%) were inconclusive by serum assay in marked contrast to four inconclusive samples (0.4%) by the platelet assay. Molecular analysis alone would have missed four of the 35 carriers detected by the platelet assay, yielding a false negative rate of 11.4% with a sensitivity of 88.6%. Based on the results of this study, platelet assay was superior to serum with a minimal inconclusive rate. Due to changing demographics of the Ashkenazi Jewish population, molecular testing alone in the setting of broad-based population screening programs is not sufficient, and biochemical analysis should be the assay of choice. PMID:19876898

  8. Are Treponema pallidum Specific Rapid and Point-of-Care Tests for Syphilis Accurate Enough for Screening in Resource Limited Settings? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Yalda; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Shivkumar, Sushmita; Claessens, Christiane; Joseph, Lawrence; Pai, Nitika Pant

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid and point-of-care (POC) tests for syphilis are an invaluable screening tool, yet inadequate evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy against best reference standards limits their widespread global uptake. To fill this gap, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of rapid and POC tests in blood and serum samples against Treponema pallidum (TP) specific reference standards. Methods Five electronic databases (1980–2012) were searched, data was extracted from 33 articles, and Bayesian hierarchical models were fit. Results In serum samples, against a TP specific reference standard point estimates with 95% credible intervals (CrI) for the sensitivities of popular tests were: i) Determine, 90.04% (80.45, 95.21), ii) SD Bioline, 87.06% (75.67, 94.50), iii) VisiTect, 85.13% (72.83, 92.57), and iv) Syphicheck, 74.48% (56.85, 88.44), while specificities were: i) Syphicheck, 99.14% (96.37, 100), ii) Visitect, 96.45% (91.92, 99.29), iii) SD Bioline, 95.85% (89.89, 99.53), and iv) Determine, 94.15% (89.26, 97.66). In whole blood samples, sensitivities were: i) Determine, 86.32% (77.26, 91.70), ii) SD Bioline, 84.50% (78.81, 92.61), iii) Syphicheck, 74.47% (63.94, 82.13), and iv) VisiTect, 74.26% (53.62, 83.68), while specificities were: i) Syphicheck, 99.58% (98.91, 99.96), ii) VisiTect, 99.43% (98.22, 99.98), iii) SD Bioline, 97.95%(92.54, 99.33), and iv) Determine, 95.85% (92.42, 97.74). Conclusions Rapid and POC treponemal tests reported sensitivity and specificity estimates comparable to laboratory-based treponemal tests. In resource limited settings, where access to screening is limited and where risk of patients lost to follow up is high, the introduction of these tests has already been shown to improve access to screening and treatment to prevent stillbirths and neonatal mortality due to congenital syphilis. Based on the evidence, it is concluded that rapid and POC tests are useful in resource

  9. Newborn screening tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... at least 26 disorders on an expanded and standardized uniform panel. The most thorough screening panel checks ... diagnose illnesses. They show which babies need more testing to confirm or rule out illnesses. If follow- ...

  10. Environmental Test Screening Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeidler, Janet

    2000-01-01

    This procedure describes the methods to be used for environmental stress screening (ESS) of the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) lens assembly. Unless otherwise specified, the procedures shall be completed in the order listed, prior to performance of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP). The first unit, S/N 001, will be subjected to the Qualification Vibration Levels, while the remainder will be tested at the Operational Level. Prior to ESS, all units will undergo Pre-ESS Functional Testing that includes measuring the on-axis and plus or minus 0.95 full field Modulation Transfer Function and Back Focal Length. Next, all units will undergo ESS testing, and then Acceptance testing per PR 460.

  11. Manufactured soil screening test

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to provide a screening test that can be used to evaluate the potential for manufacturing artificial soil using dredged material, cellulose waste materials (e.g., yard waste compost, sawdust, wastepaper), and biosolids (e.g., N-Viro-reconditioned sewage sludge, BIONSOIL-reconstituted cow manure). This procedure will allow the most productive blend of any dredged material (uncontaminated or contaminated), cellulose, and biosolids to be determined and recommended for use in an environmentally productive and beneficial manner.

  12. What Screening Tests Are There?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Related Links Stay Informed Cancer Home What Screening Tests Are There? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... packs a day for 15 years. Risks of Screening Lung cancer screening has at least three risks— ...

  13. Neonatal Screening Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigue, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several laboratory experiments that are adaptations of clinical tests for certain genetic diseases in babies. Information and procedures are provided for tests for phenylketonuria (PKU), galactosemia, tyrosinemia, cystinuria, and mucopolysaccharidosis. Discusses the effects of each disease on the infants' development. (TW)

  14. TB Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... a risk that the first TST is a false-negative reaction, a second skin test is given ... species, for example Mycobacterium kansasii , will give a false-positive TST or IGRA result for TB. Positive ...

  15. Newborn screening tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... The blood is sent to a lab for analysis. Hearing test . A health care provider will place ... Morrow C et al. Reducing neonatal pain during routine heel lance procedures. MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing . 2010;35(6):346-54. ...

  16. Preschool visual acuity screening tests.

    PubMed Central

    Friendly, D S

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative merits of two screening tests used for visual acuity assessment of preschool children. The tests that were compared were the Good-Lite Company versions of the E-Test and of the STYCAR (Screening Test for Young Children and Retardates). The former is the most popular method for evaluating central acuity in young children in this nation; the STYCAR is a relatively new letter-matching-test developed in England, where it is widely employed. The E-Test poses left-right orientation problems which are eliminated by the symmetrical letters H, T, O and V utilized in the Letter-Matching-Test. Both visual acuity tests were administered on two separate occasions by personnel from the Prevention of Blindness Society of Metropolitan Washington to 633 preschool children in Washington, D.C. By random selection, 150 of the children received the E-Test at both sessions, 162 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at both sessions, 160 chilt athe the second session, and 161 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at the first session and the E-Test at the second session. The author medically examined the eyes of 408 of the 633 children without knowledge of which test had been initially administered. Statistical analysis of the data obtained from the study indicated that the Letter-Matching-Test was significantly better in terms of testability rates, group and individual instruction time, and performance time. The E-Test was more reliable in terms of test-retest acuity scores and was also more valid in terms of agreement between pass-fail results obtained at the first screening session and two levels of pass-fail refraction criteria. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B PMID:754379

  17. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  18. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    Member Login Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Resources & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs ...

  19. How Accurate Are Oral Reading Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Leo M.

    Errors in oral reading tests result from inaccuracies that tend to creep in because children are not totally consistent while taking a test and from inaccuracies caused when the examiner does not catch a word recognition error, giving credit for an answer that is more wrong than right or vice versa. Every test contains a standard error of…

  20. Accurate and noninvasive embryos screening during in vitro fertilization (IVF) assisted by Raman analysis of embryos culture medium Accurate and noninvasive embryos screening during IVF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, A. G.; Peng, J.; Zhao, Q. H.; Su, L.; Wang, X. H.; Hu, J. M.; Yang, J.

    2012-04-01

    In combination with morphological evaluation tests, we employ Raman spectroscopy to select higher potential reproductive embryos during in vitro fertilization (IVF) based on chemical composition of embryos culture medium. In this study, 57 Raman spectra are acquired from both higher and lower quality embryos culture medium (ECM) from 10 patients which have been preliminarily confirmed by clinical assay. Data are fit by using a linear combination model of least squares method in which 12 basis spectra represent the chemical features of ECM. The final fitting coefficients provide insight into the chemical compositions of culture medium samples and are subsequently used as criterion to evaluate the quality of embryos. The relative fitting coefficients ratios of sodium pyruvate/albumin and phenylalanine/albumin seem act as key roles in the embryo screening, attaining 85.7% accuracy in comparison with clinical pregnancy. The good results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy therefore is an important candidate for an accurate and noninvasive screening of higher quality embryos, which potentially decrease the time-consuming clinical trials during IVF.

  1. Hyperaldosteronism: Screening and Diagnostic Tests.

    PubMed

    Sabbadin, Chiara; Fallo, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common secondary cause of hypertension, accounting for 10 % of hypertensives and 20 % of those with drug-resistant hypertension. Aldosterone excess is associated with the development of adverse cardiovascular, renal and metabolic effects that are partly independent of its effect on blood pressure. Guidelines recommended wider screening for PA in an effort to maximize detection of patients who may benefit from optimal, specific management. All patient groups with increased prevalence of PA, including hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and those with obstructive sleep apnea, should be carefully screened for PA. Screening with aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) is the most practical and informative initial test. Subsequent confirmatory tests are: (1) oral salt loading; (2) saline infusion; (3) captopril challenge and (4) fludrocortisone suppression test. Confirmation of PA can avoid that patients with a false positive ARR would inappropriately undergo costly and harmful lateralization procedures. If confirmatory testing is positive, further investigations are directed toward determining the subtype of PA, as the treatment differs for each subtype. PMID:26971505

  2. Accurate interpretation of the Lachman test.

    PubMed

    Frank, C

    1986-12-01

    In a consecutive series of patients with knee complaints, tibial rotation consistently affected the interpretation of the Lachman test (passive anterior tibial translation in slight knee flexion). To perform the Lachman test correctly, the anterior tibial force must be applied posteromedially on the proximal tibia. This is best achieved by having the leg under examination on the same side of the bed as the examiner, and with slight external tibial rotation. Reaching across the bed to examine either leg can create either false positive or false negative Lachman results due to inadvertent tibial rotation (internal tibial rotation decreases translation) and inaccurate comparisons of the injured and normal legs. The importance of tibial rotation must be recognized if the Lachman test is to be used reliably and with maximum sensitivity. PMID:3780086

  3. Gage tests tube flares quickly and accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, F. D.

    1966-01-01

    Flared tube gage with a test cone that is precisely made with a tapering surface to complement the tube flare is capable of determining the accuracy of a tube flare efficiently and economically. This device should improve the speed, efficiency, and accuracy of tube flare inspections.

  4. How Are Newborn Screening Tests Done?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are newborn screening tests done? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Newborn screening typically consists of a blood test and a ...

  5. Validating the Mandola Colorvision Screen Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandola, John

    1983-01-01

    Tested the validity of the Mandola Colorvision Screening Test, a color confusion test involving geometric designs and a tracing technique, as a screening test for color vision defects in 82 preschool and kindergarten children. Results indicated that MCST separates medium to strong color vision defects from the normal population. (JAC)

  6. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Tests, Strategies, and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stracci, Fabrizio; Zorzi, Manuel; Grazzini, Grazia

    2014-01-01

    Screening has a central role in colorectal cancer (CRC) control. Different screening tests are effective in reducing CRC-specific mortality. Influence on cancer incidence depends on test sensitivity for pre-malignant lesions, ranging from almost no influence for guaiac-based fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) to an estimated reduction of 66–90% for colonoscopy. Screening tests detect lesions indirectly in the stool [gFOBT, fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), and fecal DNA] or directly by colonic inspection [flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, CT colonography (CTC), and capsule endoscopy]. CRC screening is cost-effective compared to no screening but no screening strategy is clearly better than the others. Stool tests are the most widely used in worldwide screening interventions. FIT will soon replace gFOBT. The use of colonoscopy as a screening test is increasing and this strategy has superseded all alternatives in the US and Germany. Despite its undisputed importance, CRC screening is under-used and participation rarely reaches 70% of target population. Strategies to increase participation include ensuring recommendation by physicians, introducing organized screening and developing new, more acceptable tests. Available evidence for DNA fecal testing, CTC, and capsule endoscopy is reviewed. PMID:25386553

  7. Glucose screening and tolerance tests during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy (OGTT); Glucose challenge test - pregnancy ... For the glucose screening test: You do not need to prepare or change your diet in any way. You will be asked to drink a ...

  8. Screening and Testing in Multiples.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Andriole, Stephanie; Evans, Shara M

    2016-06-01

    The choice of screening or invasive procedure in twin pregnancies is a personal choice of whether the patient wishes to take a small risk of having a baby with a serious disorder versus a small risk of having a complication because she wishes to avoid that. How to interpret such risks has profound effects on the perceived value of techniques, either leading to a decision to screening or going directly to chorionic villus sampling. There are profound issues surrounding the data and the interpretation of the data. No single short review can exhaustively examine all of the issues. PMID:27235913

  9. Instrument accurately measures small temperature changes on test surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.; Miller, H. B.

    1966-01-01

    Calorimeter apparatus accurately measures very small temperature rises on a test surface subjected to aerodynamic heating. A continuous thin sheet of a sensing material is attached to a base support plate through which a series of holes of known diameter have been drilled for attaching thermocouples to the material.

  10. Accurate models for P-gp drug recognition induced from a cancer cell line cytotoxicity screen.

    PubMed

    Levatić, Jurica; Ćurak, Jasna; Kralj, Marijeta; Šmuc, Tomislav; Osmak, Maja; Supek, Fran

    2013-07-25

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1) is a promiscuous drug efflux pump of substantial pharmacological importance. Taking advantage of large-scale cytotoxicity screening data involving 60 cancer cell lines, we correlated the differential biological activities of ∼13,000 compounds against cellular P-gp levels. We created a large set of 934 high-confidence P-gp substrates or nonsubstrates by enforcing agreement with an orthogonal criterion involving P-gp overexpressing ADR-RES cells. A support vector machine (SVM) was 86.7% accurate in discriminating P-gp substrates on independent test data, exceeding previous models. Two molecular features had an overarching influence: nearly all P-gp substrates were large (>35 atoms including H) and dense (specific volume of <7.3 Å(3)/atom) molecules. Seven other descriptors and 24 molecular fragments ("effluxophores") were found enriched in the (non)substrates and incorporated into interpretable rule-based models. Biological experiments on an independent P-gp overexpressing cell line, the vincristine-resistant VK2, allowed us to reclassify six compounds previously annotated as substrates, validating our method's predictive ability. Models are freely available at http://pgp.biozyne.com . PMID:23772653

  11. New Claus catalyst tests accurately reflect process conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Maglio, A.; Schubert, P.F.

    1988-09-12

    Methods for testing Claus catalysts are developed that more accurately represent the actual operating conditions in commercial sulfur recovery units. For measuring catalyst activity, an aging method has been developed that results in more meaningful activity data after the catalyst has been aged, because all catalysts undergo rapid initial deactivation in commercial units. An activity test method has been developed where catalysts can be compared at less than equilibrium conversion. A test has also been developed to characterize abrasion loss of Claus catalysts, in contrast to the traditional method of determining physical properties by measuring crush strengths. Test results from a wide range of materials correlated well with actual pneumatic conveyance attrition. Substantial differences in Claus catalyst properties were observed as a result of using these tests.

  12. Screening and Invasive Testing in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Monni, Giovanni; Iuculano, Ambra; Zoppi, Maria Angelica

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal screening and testing for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies poses a number of challenges: the exact estimate of the a priori risk of trisomy 21, the choice of prenatal screening test and/or invasive techniques to employ for the diagnosis and the impact of the result on the options of treatment in case of discordant results within a twin pair or among multiples. These different aspects are discussed below while recognizing that many issues remain unresolved. PMID:26237482

  13. Screening For Microcracking By Testing Unbalanced Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Papadapoulos, Demetrios S.

    1993-01-01

    Expensive, time-consuming thermal-cycling tests might be obviated. Experimental study demonstrates feasibility of relatively fast thermomechanical testing procedure for screening and ranking of matrix/fiber composite materials with respect to resistance to microcracking. Procedure intended to replace comprehensive thermal-cycling tests.

  14. Toxicology screen

    MedlinePlus

    Barbiturates - screen; Benzodiazepines - screen; Amphetamines - screen; Analgesics - screen; Antidepressants - screen; Narcotics - screen; Phenothiazines - screen; Drug abuse screen; Blood alcohol test

  15. Informatics-based, highly accurate, noninvasive prenatal paternity testing

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Allison; Baner, Johan; Demko, Zachary; Hill, Matthew; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Baird, Michael L.; Rabinowitz, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an informatics-based, noninvasive, prenatal paternity test using array-based single-nucleotide polymorphism measurements of cell-free DNA isolated from maternal plasma. Methods: Blood samples were taken from 21 adult pregnant women (with gestational ages between 6 and 21 weeks), and a genetic sample was taken from the corresponding biological fathers. Paternity was confirmed by genetic testing of the infant, products of conception, control of fertilization, and/or preimplantation genetic diagnosis during in vitro fertilization. Parental DNA samples and maternal plasma cell-free DNA were amplified and analyzed using a HumanCytoSNP-12 array. An informatics-based method measured single-nucleotide polymorphism data, confirming or rejecting paternity. Each plasma sample with a sufficient fetal cell-free DNA fraction was independently tested against the confirmed father and 1,820 random, unrelated males. Results: One of the 21 samples had insufficient fetal cell-free DNA. The test correctly confirmed paternity for the remaining 20 samples (100%) when tested against the biological father, with P values of <10−4. For the 36,400 tests using an unrelated male as the alleged father, 99.95% (36,382) correctly excluded paternity and 0.05% (18) were indeterminate. There were no miscalls. Conclusion: A noninvasive paternity test using informatics-based analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism array measurements accurately determined paternity early in pregnancy. PMID:23258349

  16. Test kit testing certifies soil screening accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, L.K.

    1994-08-01

    With quality controls and validation, site managers can use immunoassay with confidence. It is not enough to know which hazardous substances have contaminated a site. A manager must have an idea about how much is present and where. Traditionally, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry answered these questions, but today immunoassay soil test kits often provide more immediate results at a lower cost.

  17. Test equality between two binary screening tests with a confirmatory procedure restricted on screen positives.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2015-01-01

    In studies of screening accuracy, we may commonly encounter the data in which a confirmatory procedure is administered to only those subjects with screen positives for ethical concerns. We focus our discussion on simultaneously testing equality of sensitivity and specificity between two binary screening tests when only subjects with screen positives receive the confirmatory procedure. We develop four asymptotic test procedures and one exact test procedure. We derive sample size calculation formula for a desired power of detecting a difference at a given nominal [Formula: see text]-level. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these test procedures and the accuracy of the sample size calculation formula developed here in a variety of situations. Finally, we use the data obtained from a study of the prostate-specific-antigen test and digital rectal examination test on 949 Black men to illustrate the practical use of these test procedures and the sample size calculation formula. PMID:24836678

  18. Human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Castle, Philip E; Cremer, Miriam

    2013-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more reliable and sensitive but less specific than Papanicolaou (Pap) testing/cervical cytology for the detection of cervical precancer and cancer. HPV-negative women are at lower risk of cervical cancer than Pap-negative women. In high-resource settings, HPV testing can be used to make cervical cancer prevention programs more efficient by focusing clinical attention on women who have HPV. In lower-resource settings, where Pap testing has not been sustained or widespread, new, lower-cost HPV tests may make cervical cancer screening feasible. PMID:23732037

  19. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Basta, Nicholas T; Chaney, Rufus L.; Henry, Paula F.; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Sprague, Dan; Weber, John

    2016-01-01

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with phosphorus significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. Bioaccessibility of Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter (24%), or present as Pb sulfate (18%). Additional Pb was associated with P (chloropyromorphite, hydroxypyromorphite and tertiary Pb phosphate), and with Pb carbonates, leadhillite (a lead sulfate carbonate hydroxide), and Pb sulfide. The formation of chloropyromorphite reduced the bioavailability of Pb and the amendment of Pb-contaminated soils with P may be a thermodynamically favored means to sequester Pb.

  20. Screening tests: a review with examples

    PubMed Central

    Niebo, Ron; Utell, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Screening tests are widely used in medicine to assess the likelihood that members of a defined population have a particular disease. This article presents an overview of such tests including the definitions of key technical (sensitivity and specificity) and population characteristics necessary to assess the benefits and limitations of such tests. Several examples are used to illustrate calculations, including the characteristics of low dose computed tomography as a lung cancer screen, choice of an optimal PSA cutoff and selection of the population to undergo mammography. The importance of careful consideration of the consequences of both false positives and negatives is highlighted. Receiver operating characteristic curves are explained as is the need to carefully select the population group to be tested. PMID:25264934

  1. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W Nelson; Basta, Nicholas T; Chaney, Rufus L; Henry, Paula F P; Mosby, David E; Rattner, Barnett A; Scheckel, Kirk G; Sprague, Daniel T; Weber, John S

    2016-09-01

    Hazards of soil-borne lead (Pb) to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, the authors measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from 5 Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33% to 63%, with a mean of approximately 50%. Treatment of 2 of the soils with phosphorus (P) significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. Bioaccessibility of Pb in the test soils was then measured in 6 in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability: the relative bioavailability leaching procedure at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the Ohio State University in vitro gastrointestinal method, the urban soil bioaccessible lead test, the modified physiologically based extraction test, and the waterfowl physiologically based extraction test. All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the relative bioavailability leaching procedure at pH 2.5 and Ohio State University in vitro gastrointestinal tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter (24%), or present as Pb sulfate (18%). Additional Pb was associated with P (chloropyromorphite, hydroxypyromorphite, and tertiary Pb phosphate) and with Pb carbonates, leadhillite (a lead sulfate carbonate hydroxide), and Pb sulfide. The formation of chloropyromorphite reduced the bioavailability of Pb, and the amendment of Pb-contaminated soils with P may be a thermodynamically favored means to sequester Pb. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2311-2319. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of

  2. Cancer screening tests for small animals.

    PubMed

    Schleis, Stephanie E

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is increasingly more common. Several tests for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in companion animals have been developed. Screening tests discussed include those for lymphoid neoplasia, hemangiosarcoma, and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. None of these tests should be used in isolation for diagnosis. Vincristine and doxorubicin are mainstays in the treatment of canine lymphoma. However, it is important and accepted practice to test individuals of predisposed breeds for this mutation before administering these drugs in a lymphoma protocol. PMID:25174904

  3. Screened exchange hybrid density functional for accurate and efficient structures and interaction energies.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Caldeweyher, Eike; Grimme, Stefan

    2016-06-21

    We extend the recently introduced PBEh-3c global hybrid density functional [S. Grimme et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2015, 143, 054107] by a screened Fock exchange variant based on the Henderson-Janesko-Scuseria exchange hole model. While the excellent performance of the global hybrid is maintained for small covalently bound molecules, its performance for computed condensed phase mass densities is further improved. Most importantly, a speed up of 30 to 50% can be achieved and especially for small orbital energy gap cases, the method is numerically much more robust. The latter point is important for many applications, e.g., for metal-organic frameworks, organic semiconductors, or protein structures. This enables an accurate density functional based electronic structure calculation of a full DNA helix structure on a single core desktop computer which is presented as an example in addition to comprehensive benchmark results. PMID:27240749

  4. Characterization of small molecule binding. I. Accurate identification of strong inhibitors in virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bo; Wang, Jian; Li, Nan; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-28

    Accurately ranking docking poses remains a great challenge in computer-aided drug design. In this study, we present an integrated approach called MIEC-SVM that combines structure modeling and statistical learning to characterize protein-ligand binding based on the complex structure generated from docking. Using the HIV-1 protease as a model system, we showed that MIEC-SVM can successfully rank the docking poses and consistently outperformed the state-of-art scoring functions when the true positives only account for 1% or 0.5% of all the compounds under consideration. More excitingly, we found that MIEC-SVM can achieve a significant enrichment in virtual screening even when trained on a set of known inhibitors as small as 50, especially when enhanced by a model average approach. Given these features of MIEC-SVM, we believe it provides a powerful tool for searching for and designing new drugs. PMID:23259763

  5. A comparison of two psychiatric screening tests.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D P; Rickels, K; Downing, R; Hesbacher, P

    1976-07-01

    A comparison is made between the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Symptom Checklist (SCL) as psychiatric screening tests in community-based research projects. Both are shown to correlate equally well with independent clinical assessment, and the differences between them mainly reside in the form of their response scales. The GHQ works best as a screening test, since it has fewer false positives associated with its use, but it may miss those with long-standing disorders. The SCL tends not to miss long-standing disorders and furnishes diagnostic sub-scales if these are required. Both tests function better with men than with women and with whites than with blacks, but neither is affected by social class or age of the respondent. The study revealed high correlations between the symptoms of anxiety and depression, and indicated some possible differences between the symptom clusters seen in whites and in blacks. PMID:938806

  6. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  7. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb, we incorporated Pb-contaminated soils or Pb acetate into diets for Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), fed the quail for 15 days, and ...

  8. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEAD TO QUAIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contami...

  9. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  10. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  11. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  12. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  13. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  14. Advantages of the Quadruple Screen over noninvasive prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Keller, Nathan A; Rijshinghani, Asha

    2016-03-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is becoming increasingly popular with some offering it as a primary screen option in all patients in place of serum screening. Serum screening offers insight into placental function, which NIPT does not. Abnormal levels of analytes in the serum screen have been associated with pregnancy complications. PMID:27014443

  15. [Mokken scaling of the Cognitive Screening Test].

    PubMed

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2009-10-01

    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST) is a twenty-item orientation questionnaire in Dutch, that is commonly used to evaluate cognitive impairment. This study applied Mokken Scale Analysis, a non-parametric set of techniques derived from item response theory (IRT), to CST-data of 466 consecutive participants in psychogeriatric day care. The full item set and the standard short version of fourteen items both met the assumptions of the monotone homogeneity model, with scalability coefficient H = 0.39, which is considered weak. In order to select items that would fulfil the assumption of invariant item ordering or the double monotonicity model, the subjects were randomly partitioned into a training set (50% of the sample) and a test set (the remaining half). By means of an automated item selection eleven items were found to measure one latent trait, with H = 0.67 and item H coefficients larger than 0.51. Cross-validation of the item analysis in the remaining half of the subjects gave comparable values (H = 0.66; item H coefficients larger than 0.56). The selected items involve year, place of residence, birth date, the monarch's and prime minister's names, and their predecessors. Applying optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) it was found that the full set of twenty CST items performed best in distinguishing two predefined groups of patients of lower or higher cognitive ability, as established by an independent criterion derived from the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test. The chance corrected predictive value or prognostic utility was 47.5% for the full item set, 45.2% for the fourteen items of the standard short version of the CST, and 46.1% for the homogeneous, unidimensional set of selected eleven items. The results of the item analysis support the application of the CST in cognitive assessment, and revealed a more reliable 'short' version of the CST than the standard short version (CST14). PMID:21140955

  16. [Utilization of the screening test for discharge support].

    PubMed

    Ikedo, Hasue; Morimoto, Ritsuko; Matsumoto, Saeko; Nakajo, Ikuko; Nakagawa, Michiyo

    2005-12-01

    We hand out a list of screening tests for discharge support (the screening) to all patients upon admission, so that they can receive an early discharge. Implementing the screening as a balanced score card (BSC) evaluation index of the work performance by the nursing division, we were able to screen more than 40% of newly admitted patients immediately after the introduction of the screening. When more than two items of the screening questionnaire were checked, a discharge support intervention was introduced. Patients who checked items on the screening questionnaire have tended to request discharge support within a week of admission. PMID:16422486

  17. Screening tests for autoimmune-related immunotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Pieters, R; Albers, R

    1999-01-01

    A large number of chemicals induce or exacerbate autoimmune-like diseases in man. Because of the complexity of processes involved, these adverse effects are often if not always missed in standard toxicity testing. To date no validated and generally applicable predictive animal model exists and only a few chemicals have actually been shown to induce adverse autoimmune effects in certain animals. The popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) is a very promising animal test to (pre)screen for systemic immunosensitizing, including autoimmunogenic potential. This review describes the essentials of the various PLNAs against the background of current understanding of chemically induced systemic immunostimulation. The most simple primary PLNA measures enlargement of the popliteal lymph node 6-8 days after subcutaneous injection of a chemical into the footpad. The primary PLNA can distinguish between immunostimulating (both sensitizers and irritants) and innocent chemicals but does not assess the involvement of T cells or immunosensitization. For this, but also for elucidation of relevant mechanisms, detection of anamnestic responses in secondary PLNAs or responses to reporter antigens in the modified PLNA are suitable. To date over 100 compounds (drugs and environmental pollutants) have been tested, and results show a good correlation with reported immunostimulating (both autoimmunogenic and allergic) potential. Importantly, no false-negative chemicals were detected if metabolism was considered. The various types of the PLNA, but in particular the secondary and modified PLNAs, await extensive validation before they can be recommended as a standard test for autoimmunogenic potential. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10502529

  18. The panic disorder screener (PADIS): Development of an accurate and brief population screening tool.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Christensen, Helen

    2015-07-30

    The Panic Disorder Screener (PADIS) was developed as a new screener to identify panic disorder in the community and to assess severity of symptoms. The PADIS was developed to fill a gap in existing screening measures, as there are no brief panic screeners available that assess severity. The current study aimed to test the performance of the screener relative to the Patient Health Questionnaire-panic scale (PHQ-panic). The 4-item PADIS was administered to 12,336 young Australian adults, together with the PHQ-panic. A subsample of 1674 participants also completed a phone-based clinical interview to determine whether they met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder. The PADIS (77% sensitivity, 84% specificity) had higher sensitivity for identifying panic disorder based on clinical criteria than the PHQ-panic (57% sensitivity, 91% specificity), although with reduced specificity. Administration of the PADIS required a mean of 1.9 items, compared to 4.7 items for the PHQ-panic. Each one-point increase in PADIS score was associated with 69% increased odds of meeting clinical criteria for panic disorder. The PADIS was found to be a valid, reliable and brief panic screener that is freely available for use in research and clinical settings. PMID:25956758

  19. Screening Tests for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Joanne E.; Culpepper, Larry; Cerreto, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities need thoughtful, well-coordinated primary care from family physicians. However, evidence-based screening recommendations are lacking. We examined screening recommendations for common preventable conditions using the US Preventative Service Task Force guidelines. We also reviewed the literature about the prevalence of these conditions in adults with intellectual disabilities. Obesity, osteoporosis, and smoking are more prevalent in adults with intellectual disabilities, and enhanced screening for these conditions is recommended. Abnormal Papanicolaou smears and cervical cancer are less common in adults with intellectual disabilities and screening recommendations should be individualized. We also discussed strategies to make screening procedures less stressful for these patients. PMID:17615421

  20. Response to “Accurate Risk-Based Chemical Screening Relies on Robust Exposure Estimates”

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a correspondence (letter to the editor) with reference to comments by Rudel and Perovich on the article "Integration of Dosimetry, Exposure, and High-Throughput Screening Data in Chemical Toxicity Assessment". Article Reference: SI # 238882

  1. Patient Test Preference for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Screening Uptake in an Insured Urban Minority Population.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Randi L; Basch, Charles E; Zybert, Patricia; Basch, Corey H; Ullman, Ralph; Shmukler, Celia; King, Fionnuala; Neugut, Alfred I

    2016-06-01

    The study examines the role of patient colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test preference and CRC screening uptake in an insured, urban minority population. Study subjects were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to promote CRC screening. The interventions were educational, with an emphasis on colonoscopy screening. Subjects were 50+ years of age, fully insured for CRC screening, and out of compliance with current CRC screening recommendations. This paper includes those who answered a question about CRC screening test preference and indicated that they intended to receive such a test in the coming year (n = 453). CRC screening uptake was ascertained from medical claims data. Regardless of test preference, few received CRC screening (22.3 %). Those preferring the home stool test (HST) were less likely to get tested than those preferring a colonoscopy (16.6 vs 29.9 %, χ(2) = 9.9, p = .002). Preference for HST was more strongly associated with beliefs about colonoscopy than with knowledge about colonoscopy. In the context of an RCT emphasizing colonoscopy screening for CRC, patients expressing a preference for HST are at heightened risk of remaining unscreened. Colonoscopy should be recommended as the preferred CRC test, but HSTs should be accessible and encouraged for patients who are averse to colonoscopy.Clinical trials.gov: Identifier: NCT02392143. PMID:26585609

  2. Detecting Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Deaf People: The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Joanna; Denmark, Tanya; Marshall, Jane; Mummery, Cath; Woll, Bencie

    2015-11-01

    To provide accurate diagnostic screening of deaf people who use signed communication, cognitive tests must be devised in signed languages with normative deaf samples. This article describes the development of the first screening test for the detection of cognitive impairment and dementia in deaf signers. The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test uses standardized video administration to screen cognition using signed, rather than spoken or written, instructions and a large norm-referenced sample of 226 deaf older people. Percentiles are provided for clinical comparison. The tests showed good reliability, content validity, and correlation with age, intellectual ability, and education. Clinical discrimination was shown between the normative sample and 14 deaf patients with dementia. This innovative testing approach transforms the ability to detect dementia in deaf people, avoids the difficulties of using an interpreter, and enables culturally and linguistically sensitive assessment of deaf signers, with international potential for adaptation into other signed languages. PMID:26245349

  3. Health Screening: What Tests You Need and When

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Screening tests, such as mammograms, Pap smears, and colorectal cancer tests, can find diseases and ... your doctor about whether you should be tested. Pap Smears (Women): Have a Pap smear every 1 to ...

  4. Health Screening: What Tests You Need and When

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Screening tests, such as mammograms, Pap smears, and colorectal cancer tests, can find diseases ... your doctor about whether you should be tested. Pap Smears (Women): Have a Pap smear every 1 ...

  5. Cross-Validation of the Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliske, Rebecca M.; And Others

    The Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST) was developed to provide an estimate at recruiting stations of prospects' Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) scores. The CAST was designed to replace the paper-and-pencil Enlistment Screening Test (EST). The initial validation study of CAST indicated that CAST predicts AFQT at least as accurately…

  6. Diagnostic Performance of Visual Screening Tests in the Elderly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lança, Carla Costa; Carolino, Elisabete

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to determine and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of visual screening tests for detecting vision loss in elderly. This study is defined as study of diagnostic performance. The diagnostic accuracy of 5 visual tests -near convergence point, near accommodation point, stereopsis, contrast sensibility and amsler grid—was evaluated by means of the ROC method (receiver operating characteristics curves), sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/LR-). Visual acuity was used as the reference standard. A sample of 44 elderly aged 76.7 years (±9.32), who were institutionalized, was collected. The curves of contrast sensitivity and stereopsis are the most accurate (area under the curves were 0.814-p = 0.001, C.I.95%[0.653;0.975]— and 0.713-p = 0.027, C.I.95%[0,540;0,887], respectively). The scores with the best diagnostic validity for the stereopsis test were 0.605 (sensitivity 0.87, specificity 0.54; LR+ 1.89, LR-0.24) and 0.610 (sensitivity 0.81, specificity 0.54; LR+ 1.75, LR-0.36). The scores with higher diagnostic validity for the contrast sensibility test were 0.530 (sensitivity 0.94, specificity 0.69; LR+ 3.04, LR-0.09). The contrast sensitivity and stereopsis test's proved to be clinically useful in detecting vision loss in the elderly.

  7. Ocular screening tests of elementary school children

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of 507 abnormal retinal reflex images taken of Huntsville kindergarten and first grade students. The retinal reflex images were obtained by using an MSFC-developed Generated Retinal Reflex Image System (GRRIS) photorefractor. The system uses a 35 mm camera with a telephoto lens with an electronic flash attachment. Slide images of the eyes were examined for abnormalities. Of a total of 1835 students screened for ocular abnormalities, 507 were found to have abnormal retinal reflexes. The types of ocular abnormalities detected were hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, esotropia, exotropia, strabismus, and lens obstuctions. The report shows that the use of the photorefractor screening system is an effective low-cost means of screening school children for abnormalities.

  8. Older adults’ preferences for colorectal cancer-screening test attributes and test choice

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Christine E; Hess, Thomas M; Howard, Kirsten; Pignone, Michael P; Crutchfield, Trisha M; Hawley, Sarah T; Brenner, Alison T; Ward, Kimberly T; Lewis, Carmen L

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding which attributes of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests drive older adults’ test preferences and choices may help improve decision making surrounding CRC screening in older adults. Materials and methods To explore older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening test attributes and screening tests, we conducted a survey with a discrete choice experiment (DCE), a directly selected preferred attribute question, and an unlabeled screening test-choice question in 116 cognitively intact adults aged 70–90 years, without a history of CRC or inflammatory bowel disease. Each participant answered ten discrete choice questions presenting two hypothetical tests comprised of four attributes: testing procedure, mortality reduction, test frequency, and complications. DCE responses were used to estimate each participant’s most important attribute and to simulate their preferred test among three existing CRC-screening tests. For each individual, we compared the DCE-derived attributes to directly selected attributes, and the DCE-derived preferred test to a directly selected unlabeled test. Results Older adults do not overwhelmingly value any one CRC-screening test attribute or prefer one type of CRC-screening test over other tests. However, small absolute DCE-derived preferences for the testing procedure attribute and for sigmoidoscopy-equivalent screening tests were revealed. Neither general health, functional, nor cognitive health status were associated with either an individual’s most important attribute or most preferred test choice. The DCE-derived most important attribute was associated with each participant’s directly selected unlabeled test choice. Conclusion Older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening tests are not easily predicted. Medical providers should actively explore older adults’ preferences for CRC screening, so that they can order a screening test that is concordant with their patients’ values. Effective interventions are

  9. Histology Verification Demonstrates That Biospectroscopy Analysis of Cervical Cytology Identifies Underlying Disease More Accurately than Conventional Screening: Removing the Confounder of Discordance

    PubMed Central

    Gajjar, Ketan; Ahmadzai, Abdullah A.; Valasoulis, George; Trevisan, Júlio; Founta, Christina; Nasioutziki, Maria; Loufopoulos, Aristotelis; Kyrgiou, Maria; Stasinou, Sofia Melina; Karakitsos, Petros; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Da Gama-Rose, Bianca; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Martin, Francis L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Subjective visual assessment of cervical cytology is flawed, and this can manifest itself by inter- and intra-observer variability resulting ultimately in the degree of discordance in the grading categorisation of samples in screening vs. representative histology. Biospectroscopy methods have been suggested as sensor-based tools that can deliver objective assessments of cytology. However, studies to date have been apparently flawed by a corresponding lack of diagnostic efficiency when samples have previously been classed using cytology screening. This raises the question as to whether categorisation of cervical cytology based on imperfect conventional screening reduces the diagnostic accuracy of biospectroscopy approaches; are these latter methods more accurate and diagnose underlying disease? The purpose of this study was to compare the objective accuracy of infrared (IR) spectroscopy of cervical cytology samples using conventional cytology vs. histology-based categorisation. Methods Within a typical clinical setting, a total of n = 322 liquid-based cytology samples were collected immediately before biopsy. Of these, it was possible to acquire subsequent histology for n = 154. Cytology samples were categorised according to conventional screening methods and subsequently interrogated employing attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform IR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. IR spectra were pre-processed and analysed using linear discriminant analysis. Dunn’s test was applied to identify the differences in spectra. Within the diagnostic categories, histology allowed us to determine the comparative efficiency of conventional screening vs. biospectroscopy to correctly identify either true atypia or underlying disease. Results Conventional cytology-based screening results in poor sensitivity and specificity. IR spectra derived from cervical cytology do not appear to discriminate in a diagnostic fashion when categories were based on conventional screening

  10. Test-Retest Reliability of the AGS Early Screening Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas K.; And Others

    The test-retest reliability of the American Guidance Service (AGS) Early Screening Profiles (ESP)--a battery measuring development in the cognition/language, motor, and self-help/social areas--was examined. The ESP is a nationally normed screening battery for children ages 2 years 0 months through 6 years 11 months. In addition, parent and teacher…

  11. Structural and functional screening in human induced-pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes accurately identifies cardiotoxicity of multiple drug types

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, Kimberly R. Talbert, Dominique R.; Trusk, Patricia B.; Moran, Diarmuid M.; Shell, Scott A.; Bacus, Sarah

    2015-05-15

    Safety pharmacology studies that evaluate new drug entities for potential cardiac liability remain a critical component of drug development. Current studies have shown that in vitro tests utilizing human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CM) may be beneficial for preclinical risk evaluation. We recently demonstrated that an in vitro multi-parameter test panel assessing overall cardiac health and function could accurately reflect the associated clinical cardiotoxicity of 4 FDA-approved targeted oncology agents using hiPS-CM. The present studies expand upon this initial observation to assess whether this in vitro screen could detect cardiotoxicity across multiple drug classes with known clinical cardiac risks. Thus, 24 drugs were examined for their effect on both structural (viability, reactive oxygen species generation, lipid formation, troponin secretion) and functional (beating activity) endpoints in hiPS-CM. Using this screen, the cardiac-safe drugs showed no effects on any of the tests in our panel. However, 16 of 18 compounds with known clinical cardiac risk showed drug-induced changes in hiPS-CM by at least one method. Moreover, when taking into account the Cmax values, these 16 compounds could be further classified depending on whether the effects were structural, functional, or both. Overall, the most sensitive test assessed cardiac beating using the xCELLigence platform (88.9%) while the structural endpoints provided additional insight into the mechanism of cardiotoxicity for several drugs. These studies show that a multi-parameter approach examining both cardiac cell health and function in hiPS-CM provides a comprehensive and robust assessment that can aid in the determination of potential cardiac liability. - Highlights: • 24 drugs were tested for cardiac liability using an in vitro multi-parameter screen. • Changes in beating activity were the most sensitive in predicting cardiac risk. • Structural effects add in

  12. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... decides which tests are required. Ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. If your baby has ... state requires different tests, so ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. You also can visit ...

  13. Screen test for cadmium and nickel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, Angie H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1994-01-01

    A new procedure is described which was recently developed to quantify loading uniformity of nickel and cadmium plates and to screen finished electrodes prior to cell assembly. The technique utilizes the initial solubility rates of the active material in a standard chemical deloading solution at fixed conditions. The method can provide a reproducible indication of plate loading uniformity in situations where high surface loading limits the free flow of deloading solution into the internal porosity of the sinter plate. A preliminary study indicates that 'good' cell performance is associated with higher deloading rates.

  14. Predicting Test Performance: A Content Valid Approach to Screening Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannone, Ronald D.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the validity of a rationally developed biographical questionnaire for predicting content valid test performance for electrician applicants (N=221). Results showed that the utility of the questionnaire in screening applicant populations was both statistically and practically significant. (LLL)

  15. Advanced material testing in support of accurate sheet metal forming simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, Toshihiko

    2013-05-01

    This presentation is a review of experimental methods for accurately measuring and modeling the anisotropic plastic deformation behavior of metal sheets under a variety of loading paths: biaxial compression test, hydraulic bulge test, biaxial tension test using a cruciform specimen, multiaxial tube expansion test using a closed-loop electrohydraulic testing machine for the measurement of forming limit strains and stresses, combined tension-shear test, and in-plane stress reversal test. Observed material responses are compared with predictions using phenomenological plasticity models to highlight the importance of accurate material testing. Special attention is paid to the plastic deformation behavior of sheet metals commonly used in industry, and to verifying the validity of constitutive models based on anisotropic yield functions at a large plastic strain range. The effects of using appropriate material models on the improvement of predictive accuracy for forming defects, such as springback and fracture, are also presented.

  16. A comparison between Pap and HPV screening tests and screening methods

    PubMed Central

    Altobelli, Emma; Scarselli, Giorgio; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Fortunato, Carmine; Profeta, Valerio F.

    2016-01-01

    The present study assesses the results of cervical cancer (CC) screening over two 3-year periods (2008–2010 and 2011–2013) by comparing two screening tests [Papanicolaou (Pap) and human papillomavirus (HPV) tests] and two screening methods (organized and spontaneous). The study population includes women aged 25–64 years who underwent CC screening between 2008 and 2010 and/or 2011 and 2013, divided into those who responded to an invitation letter (organized screening) and those who spontaneously underwent testing at a public or private facility (non-programmed screening). Between 2008 and 2010, the response rates increased from 27.7% in 2008 to 44.5% in 2009 and 67.6% in 2010 (P<0.001). Women aged 25–34 years had the lowest response rate, whereas respondents were more frequent among women aged 35–44 and 45–54 years. Significant differences (P<0.001) were identified between organized and spontaneous screening test results with regard to diagnostic categories high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (50.5 vs. 49.5%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (42.8 vs. 57.2%) and undetermined lesion atypical glandular cells (AGC; 57.5 vs. 42.5%) or atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US; 54.2 vs. 45.8%). Compared with spontaneous screening, the organized programme resulted in a larger number of women screened for CC; it reduced the frequency of undetermined diagnoses (AGC, ASC-US), and identified a larger number of high-grade lesions. PMID:27446578

  17. Accurate bs and w testing important for crude-oil custody transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J. )

    1990-11-12

    This paper discusses how monitoring crude-oil sediment and water content at the field production site is essential in accurate crude-oil custody transfer operations. This is accomplished by manual methods, or on-line devices like capacitance, density, or energy-absorption analyzers. For custody-transfer purposes, sediment and water is determined by a test which follows one of the API manuals of petroleum measurement standards (MPMS). Typically, this test is conducted in the field by the field centrifuge method which, if performed properly, yields very accurate results. Laboratory tests can be performed, but sample handling becomes even more critical.

  18. Tests of walking balance for screening vestibular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Helen S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2013-01-01

    Few reliable tests are available for screening people rapidly for vestibular disorders although such tests would be useful for a variety of testing situations. Balance testing is widely performed but of unknown value for screening. The goal of this study was to determine the value of tests of walking balance for screening people with vestibular impairments. We tested three groups of patients with known vestibular impairments: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, unilateral vestibular weakness, and post-acoustic neuroma resection. We compared them to normal subjects. All subjects were independently ambulatory without gait aids. Subjects were tested on tandem walking (TW) with eyes open and eyes closed for 10 steps, walking with no additional head motions and with augmented head rotations in yaw for 7 m (WwHT), and an obstacle avoidance task, the Functional Mobility Test (FMT). Subjects wore a 3-D motion sensor centered at mid-torso to capture kinematic measures. Patients and normals differed significantly on some behavioral measures, such as the number of steps to perform TW, and on some but not all kinematic measures. ROC analyses, however, were at best only moderate, and failed to find strong differences and cut-points that would differentiate the groups. These findings suggest that although patients and normals differ in performance of these tests in some interesting ways the groups are not sufficiently different on these tests for easy use as screening tests to differentiate the populations. PMID:23000609

  19. Tests of walking balance for screening vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2012-01-01

    Few reliable tests are available for screening people rapidly for vestibular disorders although such tests would be useful for a variety of testing situations. Balance testing is widely performed but of unknown value for screening. The goal of this study was to determine the value of tests of walking balance for screening people with vestibular impairments. We tested three groups of patients with known vestibular impairments: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, unilateral vestibular weakness, and post-acoustic neuroma resection. We compared them to normal subjects. All subjects were independently ambulatory without gait aids. Subjects were tested on tandem walking (TW) with eyes open and eyes closed for 10 steps, walking with no additional head motions and with augmented head rotations in yaw for 7 m (WwHT), and an obstacle avoidance task, the Functional Mobility Test (FMT). Subjects wore a 3-D motion sensor centered at mid-torso to capture kinematic measures. Patients and normals differed significantly on some behavioral measures, such as the number of steps to perform TW, and on some but not all kinematic measures. ROC analyses, however, were at best only moderate, and failed to find strong differences and cut-points that would differentiate the groups. These findings suggest that although patients and normals differ in performance of these tests in some interesting ways the groups are not sufficiently different on these tests for easy use as screening tests to differentiate the populations. PMID:23000609

  20. Screening in the Dark: Ethical Considerations of Providing Screening Tests to Individuals When Evidence is Insufficient to Support Screening Populations

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Ingrid M.; Kass, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, screening tests using computed tomography (CT) have disseminated into practice and been marketed to patients despite neither conclusive evidence nor professional agreement about their efficacy and cost-effectiveness at the population level. This phenomenon raises questions about physicians’ professional roles and responsibilities within the setting of medical innovation, as well as the appropriate scope of patient autonomy and access to unproven screening technology. This article explores how physicians ought to respond when new screening examinations that lack conclusive evidence of overall population benefit emerge in the marketplace and are requested by individual patients. To this end, the article considers the nature of evidence and how it influences decision-making for screening at both the public policy and individual patient levels. We distinguish medical and ethical differences between screening recommended for a population and screening considered on an individual patient basis. Finally, we discuss specific cases to explore how evidence, patient risk factors and preferences, and physician judgment ought to balance when making individual patient screening decisions. PMID:19326299

  1. The gated integration technique for the accurate measurement of the autocorrelation function of speckle intensities scattered from random phase screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ningyu; Cheng, Chuanfu; Teng, Shuyun; Chen, Xiaoyi; Xu, Zhizhan

    2007-09-01

    A new approach based on the gated integration technique is proposed for the accurate measurement of the autocorrelation function of speckle intensities scattered from a random phase screen. The Boxcar used for this technique in the acquisition of the speckle intensity data integrates the photoelectric signal during its sampling gate open, and it repeats the sampling by a preset number, m. The average analog of the m samplings output by the Boxcar enhances the signal-to-noise ratio by √{m}, because the repeated sampling and the average make the useful speckle signals stable, while the randomly varied photoelectric noise is suppressed by 1/√{m}. In the experiment, we use an analog-to-digital converter module to synchronize all the actions such as the stepped movement of the phase screen, the repeated sampling, the readout of the averaged output of the Boxcar, etc. The experimental results show that speckle signals are better recovered from contaminated signals, and the autocorrelation function with the secondary maximum is obtained, indicating that the accuracy of the measurement of the autocorrelation function is greatly improved by the gated integration technique.

  2. Histologic subtypes, immunohistochemistry, FISH or molecular screening for the accurate diagnosis of ALK-rearrangement in lung cancer: a comprehensive study of Caucasian non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Just, Pierre-Alexandre; Cazes, Aurélie; Audebourg, Anne; Cessot, Anatole; Pallier, Karine; Danel, Claire; Vacher-Lavenu, Marie-Cécile; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Terris, Benoît; Blons, Hélène

    2012-06-01

    EML4-ALK adenocarcinomas constitute a new molecular subgroup of lung tumours that respond very well to crizotinib, an ALK inhibitor. However, the diagnosis of ALK rearrangement in lung cancer is challenging. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of five different methods in a series of 20 EGFR(wt/wt) lung adenocarcinomas from non- or light- smokers. Multiplex RT-PCR was considered as gold standard and identified four ALK-rearranged tumours among the 20 tested tumours. qRT-PCR got an interpretability rate of 100% and accurately typed all 20 tumours. qRT-PCR from corresponding formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens got an interpretability rate of 65%. Out of the four previously identified ALK-rearranged cases, three were interpretable and two were retrieved using FFPE qRT-PCR. ALK break-apart FISH got an interpretability rate of 60% and accurately typed all of the twelve remaining cases. Anti-ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC) accurately typed all twenty tumours using a cut-off value of strong staining of 100% tumour cells. The 16 non ALK-rearranged tumours got no/light staining in 13 cases, and a moderate staining of 80-100% tumour cells in 3 cases. We then analysed four solid signet-ring lung adenocarcinomas. FFPE qRT-PCR, FISH and immunohistochemistry were concordant in three cases, with positive and negative results in respectively one and two cases. The fourth case, which was positive by FISH and immunohistochemistry but negative by RT-PCR, was shown to have a non-EML4-ALK ALK-rearrangement. As various factors such as RNA quality, fixation quality and type of ALK rearrangement may impede ALK screening, we propose a combined FISH/molecular biology diagnostic algorithm in which anti-ALK immunohistochemistry is used as a pre-screening step. PMID:22153831

  3. Appraisal of Artificial Screening Techniques of Tomato to Accurately Reflect Field Performance of the Late Blight Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska, Marzena; Nowicki, Marcin; Kłosińska, Urszula; Maciorowski, Robert; Kozik, Elżbieta U.

    2014-01-01

    Late blight (LB) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans continues to thwart global tomato production, while only few resistant cultivars have been introduced locally. In order to gain from the released tomato germplasm with LB resistance, we compared the 5-year field performance of LB resistance in several tomato cultigens, with the results of controlled conditions testing (i.e., detached leaflet/leaf, whole plant). In case of these artificial screening techniques, the effects of plant age and inoculum concentration were additionally considered. In the field trials, LA 1033, L 3707, L 3708 displayed the highest LB resistance, and could be used for cultivar development under Polish conditions. Of the three methods using controlled conditions, the detached leaf and the whole plant tests had the highest correlation with thefield experiments. The plant age effect on LB resistance in tomato reported here, irrespective of the cultigen tested or inoculum concentration used, makes it important to standardize the test parameters when screening for resistance. Our results help show why other reports disagree on LB resistance in tomato. PMID:25279467

  4. SCREENING TESTS FOR IMPROVED METHANE CRACKING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J; Jeffrey Holder, J

    2007-07-16

    Bench scale (1 to 6 gram) methane cracking tests have been performed on a variety of pure elements, some alloys, and SAES{reg_sign} commercial getters St 101, St 198, St 707, St 737, and St 909 to determine methane cracking performance (MCP) of 5% methane in a helium carrier at 700 C, 101.3 kPa (760 torr) with a 10 sccm feed. The MCP was almost absent from some materials tested while others showed varying degrees of MCP. Re, Cr, V, Gd, and Mo powders had good MCP, but limited capacities. Nickel supported on kieselguhr (Ni/k), a Zr-Ni alloy, and the SAES{reg_sign} getters had good MCP in a helium carrier. The MCP of these same materials was suppressed in a hydrogen carrier stream and the MCP of the Zr-based materials was reduced by nitride formation when tested with a nitrogen carrier gas.

  5. The use of screening tests in spacecraft lubricant evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalogeras, Chris; Hilton, Mike; Carre, David; Didziulis, Stephen; Fleischauer, Paul

    1993-01-01

    A lubricant screening test fixture has been devised in order to satisfy the need to obtain lubricant performance data in a timely manner. This fixture has been used to perform short-term tests on potential lubricants for several spacecraft applications. The results of these tests have saved time by producing qualitative performance rankings of lubricant selections prior to life testing. To date, this test fixture has been used to test lubricants for 3 particular applications. The qualitative results from these tests have been verified by life test results and have provided insight into the function of various anti-wear additives.

  6. "Do-It-Yourself" Dementia Testing: Issues regarding an Alzheimer's Home Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kier, Frederick J.; Molinari, Victor

    2003-01-01

    The Early Alert Alzheimer's Home Screening Test (AHST) is a variant of the Smell Identification Test (SIT) and the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT), and recently became available for purchase by the general public. The validity and the practical utility of routine screening for individuals with asymptomatic cognitive impairment…

  7. The Milani Comparetti Motor Development Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trembath, Jack; And Others

    The manual describes procedures involved in administering and scoring a neurodevelopmental examination of children from birth to 2 years of age. The test is designed to be easily incorporated into routine health programs. The instrument is easily learned, quickly administered, objectively based, and capable of producing early evidence of…

  8. In-situ corrosion sensor for coating, testing and screening

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.D.; Dacres, C.M.; Krebs, L.A.

    2000-02-01

    An in-situ corrosion censor facilitates coating development and screening by detecting the early stages of corrosion well before degradation is visible. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the sensor extends the use of this established laboratory technique from immersion only to different accelerated test conditions (such as salt fog or humidity) and ambient service environments. By enabling a direct quantitative comparison of the early stages of coating deterioration and substrate corrosion that occur in laboratory accelerated tests and service or field conditions, the laboratory tests can be validated and coatings screened more quickly.

  9. Improvement of a rapid screening test for chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Iacobini, M; Duse, M; Di Coste, A; Balducci, L

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of CGD is made by demonstrating absent or markedly reduced oxidase activity in stimulated neutrophils. The screening test proposed is based upon the naked eye evaluation of the reduction of NBT on a solid surface. It seems to be a useful tool for rapid and inexpensive detection of CGD patients, especially for large-scale screening purposes. The test was carried out on forty-five subjects: two males affected by CGD, three female carriers and forty healthy donors. The test confirmed the results obtained with flow cytometric and NBT assays. PMID:24067482

  10. An Adolescent Version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Mark; Thurber, Steven; Hodgson, Joele M.

    2002-01-01

    Item content of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) was modified to make it more appropriate for young persons. The resulting test was found to have lower internal consistency than the adult MAST, but the elimination of five items with comparatively poor psychometric properties yielded an acceptable alpha coefficient. (Contains 10…

  11. Screening for Language Disorders in Stroke: German Validation of the Language Screening Test (LAST)

    PubMed Central

    Koenig-Bruhin, M.; Vanbellingen, T.; Schumacher, R.; Pflugshaupt, T.; Annoni, J.M.; Müri, R.M.; Bohlhalter, S.; Nyffeler, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening of aphasia in acute stroke is crucial for directing patients to early language therapy. The Language Screening Test (LAST), originally developed in French, is a validated language screening test that allows detection of a language deficit within a few minutes. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate two parallel German versions of the LAST. Methods The LAST includes subtests for naming, repetition, automatic speech, and comprehension. For the translation into German, task constructs and psycholinguistic criteria for item selection were identical to the French LAST. A cohort of 101 stroke patients were tested, all of whom were native German speakers. Validation of the LAST was based on (1) analysis of equivalence of the German versions, which was established by administering both versions successively in a subset of patients, (2) internal validity by means of internal consistency analysis, and (3) external validity by comparison with the short version of the Token Test in another subset of patients. Results The two German versions were equivalent as demonstrated by a high intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.91. Furthermore, an acceptable internal structure of the LAST was found (Cronbach's α = 0.74). A highly significant correlation (r = 0.74, p < 0.0001) between the LAST and the short version of the Token Test indicated good external validity of the scale. Conclusion The German version of the LAST, available in two parallel versions, is a new and valid language screening test in stroke. PMID:27194999

  12. Screening for Drug Abuse Among College Students: Modification of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.

    1978-01-01

    Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)

  13. An evaluation of the K2 asbestos screening test.

    PubMed

    Oestenstad, R K; Rose, V E

    1986-05-01

    The predictive ability of the K2 Asbestos Screening Test was determined by comparing the results obtained with the test and confirming analysis by polarizing light microscopy on 90 bulk insulation samples. The test yielded 38.9% true positives, 4.4% true negatives, 56.7% false positives and 0% false negatives. The proportion of false positives was significantly different from that reported by the researchers who developed the test and found that the test would not yield false positives. The results of this study are similar to those reported in a previous evaluation of the test. It was concluded that the screening test is not an effective screening tool because of the high proportion of false positives, as reflected by marginal values of specificity and positive predictive value. It was noted that problems with the test might result from failure of the wash steps to adequately remove positive interferences apparently associated with gypsum and mineral wool. Problems in interpreting color changes were noted also. PMID:3717007

  14. Developments in Screening Tests and Strategies for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sovich, Justin L.; Sartor, Zachary; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    Background. Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and second most common in women. It is the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality. In the United States, CRC is the third most common cause of cancer and second most common cause of cancer mortality. Incidence and mortality rates have steadily fallen, primarily due to widespread screening. Methods. We conducted keyword searches on PubMed in four categories of CRC screening: stool, endoscopic, radiologic, and serum, as well as news searches in Medscape and Google News. Results. Colonoscopy is the gold standard for CRC screening and the most common method in the United States. Technological improvements continue to be made, including the promising “third-eye retroscope.” Fecal occult blood remains widely used, particularly outside the United States. The first at-home screen, a fecal DNA screen, has also recently been approved. Radiological methods are effective but seldom used due to cost and other factors. Serum tests are largely experimental, although at least one is moving closer to market. Conclusions. Colonoscopy is likely to remain the most popular screening modality for the immediate future, although its shortcomings will continue to spur innovation in a variety of modalities. PMID:26504799

  15. Smartphone-based audiometric test for screening hearing loss in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Handzel, Ophir; Ness, Lior; Ben-Artzi-Blima, Miri; Fait-Ghelbendorf, Karin; Himmelfarb, Mordechai

    2016-02-01

    Hearing loss is widespread among the elderly. One of the main obstacles to rehabilitation is identifying individuals with potentially correctable hearing loss. Smartphone-based hearing tests can be administered at home, thus greatly facilitating access to screening. This study evaluates the use of a smartphone application as a screening tool for hearing loss in individuals aged ≥ 65 years. Twenty-six subjects aged 84.4 ± 6.73 years (mean ± SD) were recruited. Pure-tone audiometry was administered by both a smartphone application (uHear for iPhone, v1.0 Unitron, Canada) and a standard portable audiometer by trained personnel. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their hearing. Pure-tone thresholds were compared between the two testing modalities and correlated with the questionnaire results. The cutoff point for failing screening tests was a pure tone average of 40 dB for the frequencies 250-6,000 Hz. The smartphone application's pure tone thresholds were higher (poorer hearing) than the audiometric thresholds, with a significant difference in all frequencies but 2,000 Hz. The application and the audiometric values were in agreement for 24 subjects (92 %). The application had a sensitivity of 100 % and specificity of 60 % for screening compared with the audiometer. The questionnaire was significantly less accurate, having assigned a passing score to three participants who failed both the application and audiometric tests. While a smartphone application may not be able to accurately determine the level of hearing impairment, it is useful as a highly accessible portable audiometer substitute for screening for hearing loss in elderly populations. PMID:25655259

  16. Accurate electro-optical characterization of high power density GaAs-based laser diodes for screening strategies improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Vecchio, Pamela; Deshayes, Y.; Joly, Simon; Bettiati, M.; Laruelle, F.; Béchou, L.

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we report on a methodology based on reverse and forward current-voltage curves (I-V) and on Degree of Polarization (DoP) of electroluminescence measurements on 980 nm laser diodes chip-on-submount (CoS) for the improvement of screening tests. Current-voltage curves are performed at reverse bias up to breakdown voltage (VBR) using both a high current accuracy (< 1 pA) and high voltage resolution (< 10 mV) at different submount-temperatures (20-50°C). The DoP of luminescence of such devices, related to strains in materials and effect of shear strain on the birefringence, is calculated from the simultaneous measurement of TE (LTE) and TM (LTM) polarized light emissions. We observe that application of high reverse voltages occasionally produces significant micro-plasma (MP) pre-breakdown on reverse I-V characteristics as recently observed in InGaN/GaN LEDs and assumed to be a response of electrically active defects. Comparisons between breakdown voltages and number of MP, and changes of leakage current at low forward voltage (< 0.1 V) are considered. DoP measurements are also analyzed versus temperature. Finally the usefulness of these measurements for effective screening of devices is discussed.

  17. The impact of financing of screening tests on utilization and outcomes: The case of amniocentesis.

    PubMed

    Shurtz, Ity; Brzezinski, Amnon; Frumkin, Ayala

    2016-07-01

    We use a 1993 policy change in Israel's public healthcare system that lowered the eligibility age for amniocentesis to 35 to study the effects of financing of screening tests. Financing is found to have increased amniocentesis testing by about 35%. At ages above the eligibility threshold, utilization rates rose to roughly 33%, reflection nearly full takeup among prospective users of amniocentesis. Additionally, whereas below the age-35 threshold amniocentesis utilization rates increase with maternal age, this relation is muted above this age. Finally, no evidence is found that financing affects outcomes such as pregnancy terminations and births of children with Down syndrome. These results support the view that women above the eligibility threshold tend to refrain from acquiring inexpensive information about their degree of risk that absent the financing they would acquire, and instead, undergo the accurate and costly test regardless of additional information that noninvasive screening would provide. PMID:27062339

  18. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST): A Statistical Validation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Newman, Isadore; Brown, Russ

    2004-01-01

    This study extends the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST; M. L. Selzer, 1971) literature base by examining 4 issues related to the validity of the MAST scores. Specifically, the authors examine the validity of the MAST scores in light of the presence of impression management, participant demographic variables, and item endorsement…

  19. Tuberculosis Screening and Targeted Testing of College and University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Screening and targeted testing for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling and preventing infection on college and university campuses. Early detection provides an opportunity to promote the health of affected individuals through prompt diagnosis and treatment while preventing potential spread to others. Implementation of a screening…

  20. 76. View of copper screen shielded and grounded test area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. View of copper screen shielded and grounded test area in transmitter building no. 102, room 115. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  1. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  2. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  3. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  4. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  5. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  6. Preschool speech and language screening: further validation of the sentence repetition screening test.

    PubMed

    Sturner, R A; Funk, S G; Green, J A

    1996-12-01

    A recent review indicated that only one speech and language screening test (the Sentence Repetition Screening Test; SRST) designed for preschoolers has been successfully validated in a representative population. This study sought to replicate the SRST validation study using a somewhat younger age group and to compare predictive indices to typical measures of parent concern and teacher judgment. A sample of (N = 343) prekindergarten children (ages 54 to 66 months) attending school registration in the spring before kindergarten entry was tested with the SRST. A stratified sample of 76 returned for criteria testing within 2 months. Teacher ratings were obtained 5 months later. Outcome measures were standard language (Bankson and Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities) and speech articulation (Arizona) tests. With a prevalence of 11%, SRST prediction of language outcomes resulted in the following indices: sensitivity, .62; specificity, .91; predictive validity, .44; overreferral, 8.4%; and underreferral, 4%. Prediction of the articulation outcome with a prevalence of 11% resulted in indices as follows: sensitivity, .57; specificity, .95; predictive validity, .75; overreferral, 3.7%; and underreferral, 8.3%. Teacher ratings and a parent questionnaire (Speech and Language Screening Questionnaire) approached the same rate of prediction of articulation but with a higher overreferral rate. The predictive indices from the SRST exceeded the comparison measures for language outcomes. PMID:8960570

  7. [Electronic eikonometer: Measurement tests displayed on stereoscopic screen].

    PubMed

    Bourdy, C; James, Y

    2016-05-01

    We propose the presentation on a stereoscopic screen of the electronic eikonometer tests intended for analysis and measurement of perceptual effects of binocular disparity. These tests, so-called "built-in magnification tests" are constructed according to the same principle as those of preceding eikonometers (disparity variation parameters being included in each test presentation, which allows, for test observation and measurements during the examination, the removing of any intermediate optical system). The images of these tests are presented separately to each eye, according to active or passive stereoscopic screen technology: (1) Ogle Spatial Test to measure aniseikonia; (2) Fixation Disparity test: binocular nonius; (3) retinal correspondence test evaluated by nonius horopter; (4) stereoscopic test using Julesz' random-dot stereograms (RDS). All of these tests, with their variable parameters included, are preprogrammed by means of an associated mini-computer. This new system (a single screen for the presentation of tests for the right eye and left eye) will be much simpler to reproduce and install for all practitioners interested in the functional exploration of binocular vision. We develop the suitable methodology adapted to each type of examination, as well as manipulations to be performed by the operator. We then recall the possibilities for reducing aniseikonia thanks to some theoretical studies previously performed by matrix calculation of the size of the retinal images for different types of eye (emmetropia, axial or conformation anisometropia, aphakia) and for different means of correction (glasses, contact lenses, implants). Software for achieving these different tests is available, on request, at this address: eiconometre.electronique@gmail.com. PMID:27185662

  8. Comparison and evaluation of three screening tests of hereditary spherocytosis in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi-feng; Deng, Zeng-fu; Liao, Lin; Qiu, Yu-ling; Chen, Wen-qiang; Lin, Fa-quan

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to compare and evaluate the diagnostic value of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) by three screening tests, comparing mean spherical corpuscular volume (MSCV) to mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and flow cytometric osmotic fragility test. Peripheral blood was collected from 237 participators diagnosed at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, including 56 hereditary spherocytosis patients, 86 thalassemia patients, and 95 healthy people. The samples were examined by three tests, and the three screening tests were evaluated by the sensitivity and specificity of tests. The sensitivity was only 41.07%, and specificity was 94.47% when using MCHC >355 g/L as diagnostic criteria. The sensitivity was 89.28%, and specificity was 96.14% when using MSCV < MCV as the optimum cutoff point. When using the residual red cell percentage <23.6% as the diagnostic threshold in flow cytometric osmotic fragility test, the sensitivity was 85.71% and the specificity was 97.24%. Flow cytometry osmotic fragility test or comparing MSCV to MCV combined with smear examination of peripheral red blood cells morphology can be a simple, practical, and accurate hereditary spherocytosis (HS) laboratory screening method. PMID:25501660

  9. Brief screening tests for the diagnosis of dementia: comparison with the mini-mental state exam.

    PubMed

    Kilada, Sandy; Gamaldo, Alyssa; Grant, Elizabeth A; Moghekar, Abhay; Morris, John C; O'Brien, Richard J

    2005-01-01

    Dementia is a common and under-diagnosed problem among the elderly. An accurate screening test would greatly aid the ability of physicians to evaluate dementia and memory problems in clinical practice. We sought to determine whether simple and brief psychometric tests perform similarly to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in screening for dementia. Using a retrospective analysis, a series of standard, brief, psychometric tests were compared with each other and to the MMSE as screening tests for very mild dementia, using DSM-III-R criterion as the gold standard. Two independent cohorts from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging and the Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center were evaluated. We found that two brief and simple-to-administer tests appear to offer similar degrees of sensitivity and specificity to the MMSE. These are the recall of a five-item name and address, "John Brown 42 Market Street Chicago" and the one-minute verbal fluency for animals. Combining these two tests further improves sensitivity and specificity, surpassing the MMSE, to detect dementia in individuals with memory complaints. PMID:15764865

  10. Evaluation of a Screening Test for Female College Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To develop a screening test to detect female college athletes with eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/ DE). No validated eating disorder screening tests specifically for athletes have been available. Design and Setting: In this cross-sectional study, subjects from a large midwestern university completed 3 objective tests and a structured diagnostic interview. Measurements: A new test, developed and pilot tested by the researchers (Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire, AMDQ), and 2 tests normed for the general population (Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Bulimia Test-Revised) were used to identify ED/DE athletes. A structured, validated, diagnostic interview (Eating Disorder Examination, version 12.OD) was used to determine which test was most effective in screening female college athletes. Subjects: Subjects included 149 female athletes, ages 18 to 25 years, from 11 Division I and select club sports. Results: ED/DE subjects (35%) were found in almost every sport. Of the ED/DE subjects, 65% exhibited disordered eating, 25% were bulimic, 8% were classified as eating disordered not otherwise specified (NOS), and 2% were anorexic. The AMDQ more accurately identified ED/DE than any test or combination of items. The AMDQ produced superior results on 7 of 9 epidemiologic analyses; sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 77%, meaning that it correctly classified approximately 4 of every 5 persons who were truly exhibiting an eating disorder or disordered eating. Conclusions: We recommend that the AMDQ subsets, which met statistical criteria, be used to screen for ED/DE to enable early identification of athletes at the disordered eating or NOS stage and to initiate interventions before the disorder progresses. PMID:16558658

  11. Digital test signal generation: An accurate SNR calibration approach for the DSN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez-Luaces, B. O.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of generating analog test signals with accurate signal to noise ratios (SNRs) is described. High accuracy will be obtained by simultaneous generation of digital noise and signal spectra at a given baseband or bandpass limited bandwidth. The digital synthesis will provide a test signal embedded in noise with the statistical properties of a stationary random process. Accuracy will only be dependent on test integration time with a limit imposed by the system quantization noise (expected to be 0.02 dB). Setability will be approximately 0.1 dB. The first digital SNR generator to provide baseband test signals is being built and will be available in early 1991.

  12. Testing Tuberculosis Drug Efficacy in a Zebrafish High-Throughput Translational Medicine Screen

    PubMed Central

    Ordas, Anita; Raterink, Robert-Jan; Cunningham, Fraser; Jansen, Hans J.; Wiweger, Malgorzata I.; Jong-Raadsen, Susanne; Bos, Sabine; Bates, Robert H.; Barros, David; Meijer, Annemarie H.; Vreeken, Rob J.; Ballell-Pages, Lluís; Dirks, Ron P.

    2014-01-01

    The translational value of zebrafish high-throughput screens can be improved when more knowledge is available on uptake characteristics of potential drugs. We investigated reference antibiotics and 15 preclinical compounds in a translational zebrafish-rodent screening system for tuberculosis. As a major advance, we have developed a new tool for testing drug uptake in the zebrafish model. This is important, because despite the many applications of assessing drug efficacy in zebrafish research, the current methods for measuring uptake using mass spectrometry do not take into account the possible adherence of drugs to the larval surface. Our approach combines nanoliter sampling from the yolk using a microneedle, followed by mass spectrometric analysis. To date, no single physicochemical property has been identified to accurately predict compound uptake; our method offers a great possibility to monitor how any novel compound behaves within the system. We have correlated the uptake data with high-throughput drug-screening data from Mycobacterium marinum-infected zebrafish larvae. As a result, we present an improved zebrafish larva drug-screening platform which offers new insights into drug efficacy and identifies potential false negatives and drugs that are effective in zebrafish and rodents. We demonstrate that this improved zebrafish drug-screening platform can complement conventional models of in vivo Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected rodent assays. The detailed comparison of two vertebrate systems, fish and rodent, may give more predictive value for efficacy of drugs in humans. PMID:25385118

  13. Thermal Protection System Aerothermal Screening Tests in HYMETS Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, Christine E.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Alumni, Antonella I.; Chavez-Garcia, Jose F.; Splinter, Scott C.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Brewer, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project has been tasked to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. A screening arc jet test of seven rigid ablative TPS material candidates was performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center, in both an air and carbon dioxide test environment. Recession, mass loss, surface temperature, and backface thermal response were measured for each test specimen. All material candidates survived the Mars aerocapture relevant heating condition, and some materials showed a clear increase in recession rate in the carbon dioxide test environment. These test results supported subsequent down-selection of the most promising material candidates for further development.

  14. Dynamic visual acuity testing for screening patients with vestibular impairments

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Cohen, Helen S.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) may be a useful indicator of the function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) but most DVA tests involve active head motion in the yaw plane. During gait the passive, vertical VOR may be more relevant and passive testing would be less likely to elicit compensatory strategies. The goal of this study was to determine if testing dynamic visual acuity during passive vertical motion of the subject would differentiate normal subjects from patients with known vestibular disorders. Subjects, normals and patients who had been diagnosed with either unilateral vestibular weaknesses or were post-acoustic neuroma resections, sat in a chair that could oscillate vertically with the head either free or constrained with a cervical orthosis. They viewed a computer screen 2 m away that showed Landholt C optotypes in one of 8 spatial configurations and which ranged in size from 0.4 to 1.0 logMAR. They were tested while the chair was stationary and while it was moving. Scores were worse for both groups during the dynamic condition compared to the static condition. In the dynamic condition patients’ scores were significantly worse than normals’ scores. Younger and older age groups differed slightly but significantly; the sample size was too small to examine age differences by decade. The data suggest that many well-compensated patients have dynamic visual acuity that is as good as age-matched normals. Results of ROC analyses were only moderate, indicating that the differences between patients and normals were not strong enough, under the conditions tested, for this test to be useful for screening people to determine if they have vestibular disorders. Modifications of the test paradigm may make it more useful for screening potential patients. PMID:23000614

  15. Dynamic visual acuity testing for screening patients with vestibular impairments.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brian T; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Cohen, Helen S; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) may be a useful indicator of the function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) but most DVA tests involve active head motion in the yaw plane. During gait the passive, vertical VOR may be more relevant and passive testing would be less likely to elicit compensatory strategies. The goal of this study was to determine if testing dynamic visual acuity during passive vertical motion of the subject would differentiate normal subjects from patients with known vestibular disorders. Subjects, normals and patients who had been diagnosed with either unilateral vestibular weaknesses or were post-acoustic neuroma resections, sat in a chair that could oscillate vertically with the head either free or constrained with a cervical orthosis. They viewed a computer screen 2 m away that showed Landholt C optotypes in one of 8 spatial configurations and which ranged in size from 0.4 to 1.0 logMAR. They were tested while the chair was stationary and while it was moving. Scores were worse for both groups during the dynamic condition compared to the static condition. In the dynamic condition patients' scores were significantly worse than normals' scores. Younger and older age groups differed slightly but significantly; the sample size was too small to examine age differences by decade. The data suggest that many well-compensated patients have dynamic visual acuity that is as good as age-matched normals. Results of ROC analyses were only moderate, indicating that the differences between patients and normals were not strong enough, under the conditions tested, for this test to be useful for screening people to determine if they have vestibular disorders. Modifications of the test paradigm may make it more useful for screening potential patients. PMID:23000614

  16. Accurate Cold-Test Model of Helical TWT Slow-Wave Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Dayton, J. A., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, a method has been established to accurately calculate cold-test data for helical slow-wave structures using the three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic computer code, MAFIA. Cold-test parameters have been calculated for several helical traveling-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits possessing various support rod configurations, and results are presented here showing excellent agreement with experiment. The helical models include tape thickness, dielectric support shapes and material properties consistent with the actual circuits. The cold-test data from this helical model can be used as input into large-signal helical TWT interaction codes making it possible, for the first time, to design a complete TWT via computer simulation.

  17. Accurate Cold-Test Model of Helical TWT Slow-Wave Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Dayton, James A., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, a method has been established to accurately calculate cold-test data for helical slow-wave structures using the three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic computer code, MAxwell's equations by the Finite Integration Algorithm (MAFIA). Cold-test parameters have been calculated for several helical traveLing-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits possessing various support rod configurations, and results are presented here showing excellent agreement with experiment. The helical models include tape thickness, dielectric support shapes and material properties consistent with the actual circuits. The cold-test data from this helical model can be used as input into large-signal helical TWT interaction codes making It possible, for the first time, to design complete TWT via computer simulation.

  18. Accurate Cold-Test Model of Helical TWT Slow-Wave Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Dayton, James A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, a method has been established to accurately calculate cold-test data for helical slow-wave structures using the three-dimensional electromagnetic computer code, MAFIA. Cold-test parameters have been calculated for several helical traveling-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits possessing various support rod configurations, and results are presented here showing excellent agreement with experiment. The helical models include tape thickness, dielectric support shapes and material properties consistent with the actual circuits. The cold-test data from this helical model can be used as input into large-signal helical TWT interaction codes making it possible, for the first time, to design a complete TWT via computer simulation.

  19. A Score Based on Screening Tests to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment from Subjective Memory Complaints

    PubMed Central

    de Gobbi Porto, Fábio Henrique; Spíndola, Lívia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Figuerêdo do Vale, Patrícia Helena; Orsini, Marco; Nitrini, Ricardo; Dozzi Brucki, Sonia Maria

    2013-01-01

    It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from subjective memory complainers (SMC). Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB). We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR), and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF). A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29); LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3); LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14); delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9). The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy. PMID:24147213

  20. A powerful test of independent assortment that determines genome-wide significance quickly and accurately

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, W C L; Hager, V R

    2016-01-01

    In the analysis of DNA sequences on related individuals, most methods strive to incorporate as much information as possible, with little or no attention paid to the issue of statistical significance. For example, a modern workstation can easily handle the computations needed to perform a large-scale genome-wide inheritance-by-descent (IBD) scan, but accurate assessment of the significance of that scan is often hindered by inaccurate approximations and computationally intensive simulation. To address these issues, we developed gLOD—a test of co-segregation that, for large samples, models chromosome-specific IBD statistics as a collection of stationary Gaussian processes. With this simple model, the parametric bootstrap yields an accurate and rapid assessment of significance—the genome-wide corrected P-value. Furthermore, we show that (i) under the null hypothesis, the limiting distribution of the gLOD is the standard Gumbel distribution; (ii) our parametric bootstrap simulator is approximately 40 000 times faster than gene-dropping methods, and it is more powerful than methods that approximate the adjusted P-value; and, (iii) the gLOD has the same statistical power as the widely used maximum Kong and Cox LOD. Thus, our approach gives researchers the ability to determine quickly and accurately the significance of most large-scale IBD scans, which may contain multiple traits, thousands of families and tens of thousands of DNA sequences. PMID:27245422

  1. A powerful test of independent assortment that determines genome-wide significance quickly and accurately.

    PubMed

    Stewart, W C L; Hager, V R

    2016-08-01

    In the analysis of DNA sequences on related individuals, most methods strive to incorporate as much information as possible, with little or no attention paid to the issue of statistical significance. For example, a modern workstation can easily handle the computations needed to perform a large-scale genome-wide inheritance-by-descent (IBD) scan, but accurate assessment of the significance of that scan is often hindered by inaccurate approximations and computationally intensive simulation. To address these issues, we developed gLOD-a test of co-segregation that, for large samples, models chromosome-specific IBD statistics as a collection of stationary Gaussian processes. With this simple model, the parametric bootstrap yields an accurate and rapid assessment of significance-the genome-wide corrected P-value. Furthermore, we show that (i) under the null hypothesis, the limiting distribution of the gLOD is the standard Gumbel distribution; (ii) our parametric bootstrap simulator is approximately 40 000 times faster than gene-dropping methods, and it is more powerful than methods that approximate the adjusted P-value; and, (iii) the gLOD has the same statistical power as the widely used maximum Kong and Cox LOD. Thus, our approach gives researchers the ability to determine quickly and accurately the significance of most large-scale IBD scans, which may contain multiple traits, thousands of families and tens of thousands of DNA sequences. PMID:27245422

  2. The use of the osmole gap as a screening test for the presence of exogenous substances.

    PubMed

    Purssell, Roy A; Lynd, Larry D; Koga, Yoshikata

    2004-01-01

    The rapid and accurate diagnosis of toxic alcohol poisoning due to methanol (methyl alcohol) [MeOH] and ethylene glycol (EG), is paramount in preventing serious adverse outcomes. The quantitative measurement of specific serum levels of these substances using gas chromatography is expensive, time consuming and generally only available at major tertiary-care facilities. Therefore, because these toxic substances are osmotically active and the measurement of serum osmolality is easily performed and more readily available, the presence of an osmole gap (OG) has been adopted as an alternative screening test. By definition, the OG is the difference between the measured serum osmolality determined using the freezing point depression (Osm(m)) and the calculated serum molarity (Mc), which is estimated from the known and readily measurable osmotically active substances in the serum, in particular sodium, urea, glucose, and potassium and ethanol (alcohol). Thus, the OG=Osm(m)-Mc, and an OG above a specific threshold (the threshold of positivity) suggests the presence of unmeasured osmotically active substances, which could be indicative of a toxic exposure. The objectives of this study were to review the principles of evaluating screening tests, the theory behind the OG as a screening test and the literature upon which the adoption of the OG as a screening test has been based. This review revealed that there have been numerous equations derived and proposed for the estimation of the Mc, with the objective of developing empirical evidence of the best equation for the determination of the OG and ultimately the utility of OG as a screening test. However, the methods and statistical analysis employed have generally been inconsistent with recommended guidelines for screening test evaluation and although many equations have been derived, they have not been appropriately validated. Specific evidence of the clinical utility of the OG requires that a threshold of positivity be

  3. Strategies to Improve Repeat Fecal Occult Blood Testing Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terry C.; Arnold, Connie L.; Bennett, Charles L.; Wolf, Michael S.; Reynolds, Cristalyn; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Background A comparative effectiveness intervention by this team improved initial fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) rates from 3% to 53% among community clinic patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and costs associated with a literacy-informed intervention on repeat FOBT testing. Methods Between 2008 and 2011, a three-arm quasi-experiential comparative effectiveness evaluation was conducted in 8 community clinics in Louisiana. Clinics were randomly assigned to receive: enhanced care, a screening recommendation and FOBT kit annually; a brief educational intervention where patients additionally received a literacy appropriate pamphlet and simplified FOBT instructions; or nurse support where a nurse manager provided the education and followed up with phone support. In year 2 all materials were mailed. The study consisted of 461 patients, ages 50–85, with a negative initial FOBT. Results Repeat FOBT rates were 38% enhanced care, 33% education, and 59% with nurse support (p=0.017). After adjusting for age, race, gender, and literacy, patients receiving nurse support were 1.46 times more likely to complete repeat FOBT screening than those receiving education (95% CI 1.14–1.06, p=0.002) and 1.45 times more likely than those in enhanced care but this was not significant (95% CI 0.93–2.26 p=0.10). The incremental cost per additional person screened was $2,450 for nurse over enhanced care. Conclusion A mailed pamphlet and FOBT with simplified instructions did not improve annual screening. Impact Telephone outreach by a nurse manager was effective in improving rates of repeat FOBT yet this may be too costly for community clinics. PMID:24192009

  4. Produced water toxicity tests accurately measure the produced water toxicity in marine environments?

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, W.S.; Veil, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region VI has issued a general permit for offshore oil and gas discharges to the Gulf of Mexico that places numerical limits on whole effluent toxicity (WEI) for produced water. Recently proposed EPA general permits for other produced water discharges in Regions VI and X also include enforceable numerical limits on WET. Clearly, the industry will be conducting extensive produced water WET testing. Unfortunately, the WET test may not accurately measure the toxicity of the chemical constituents of produced water. Rather the mortality of test organisms may be attributable to (1) the high salinity of produced water, which causes salinity shock to the organisms, or (2) an ionic imbalance caused by excesses or deficiencies of one or more of seawater`s essential ions in the test chambers. Both of these effects are likely to be mitigated in actual offshore discharge settings, where the receiving water will be seawater and substantial dilution will be probable. Thus, the additional salinity of produced water will be rapidly assimilated, and the proper marine ionic balance will be quickly restored. Regulatory authorities should be aware of these factors when interpreting WET test results.

  5. Patch Testing with Dental Screening Series in Oral Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Woo-Il; Mun, Je-Ho; Song, Margaret; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Background The oral mucosa is constantly exposed to several irritants and allergens including dental materials, but the role of contact allergy in oral disease is obscure. Objective To analyze positive patch test results in patients with oral diseases and evaluate the clinical relevance of oral diseases with contact allergy to dental materials. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patch test results with dental screening series in 44 patients with oral disease from 2004~2011. Results Oral diseases included oral lichen planus (54.5%), cheilitis (27.3%), burning mouth syndrome (9.1%), and others (9.1%). Thirty-one of 44 patients (70.5%) had positive reactions to one or more allergens. The most commonly detected allergens were gold sodium thiosulfate (25.0%) and nickel sulfate (25.0%), followed by potassium dichromate (22.7%), cobalt (15.9%), palladium (6.8%), mercury (4.5%), copper (4.5%), and methylhydroquinone (4.5%). Six of 24 patients with oral lichen planus had a symptom in areas adjacent to dental materials and positive patch test reactions to allergens contained in the suspected dental materials. Conclusion Patch tests with dental screening series are worth considering for oral diseases, especially for oral lichen planus. PMID:26273153

  6. Standing balance tests for screening people with vestibular impairments

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Helen S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To improve the test standards for a version of the Romberg test and to determine if measuring kinematic variables improved its utility for screening. Study design Healthy controls and patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, postoperative acoustic neuroma resection, and chronic peripheral unilateral weakness were compared. Methods Subjects wore Bluetooth-enabled inertial motion units while standing on the floor or medium density, compliant foam, with eyes open or closed, with head still or moving in pitch or yaw. Dependent measures were time to perform each test condition, number of head movements made, and kinematic variables. Results Patients and controls did not differ significantly with eyes open or with eyes closed while on the floor. With eyes closed, on foam, some significant differences were found between patients and controls, especially for subjects older than age 59. Head movement conditions were more challenging than head still. Significantly fewer patients than controls could make enough head movements to obtain kinematic measures. Kinematics indicated that lateral balance control is significantly reduced in these patients compared to controls. Receiver Operator Characteristics and sensitivity/specificity analyses showed moderately good differences with older subjects. Conclusion Tests on foam with eyes closed, with head still or moving, may be useful as part of a screening battery for vestibular impairments, especially for older people. PMID:23877965

  7. Human papillomavirus ‘reflex' testing as a screening method in cases of minor cytological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Fröberg, M; Johansson, B; Hjerpe, A; Andersson, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV) ‘reflex genotyping' in cases of minor cytological abnormalities detected in the gynaecological screening programme in Stockholm, Sweden. Liquid-based cytology samples showing minor cytological abnormalities were analysed using HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche diagnostics). Colposcopically directed cervical biopsies were obtained and the HPV test results were correlated with the histological results. In all, 63% (70/112) of the samples were high-risk (HR) HPV (HR-HPV) positive. A statistically significant correlation was found between high-grade cervical lesions and HR-HPV (P=0.019), among which HPV 16, 18, and 31 were the most important. The negative predictive value of HR-HPV detection for histologically confirmed high-grade lesions was 100%. An age limit for HPV reflex testing may be motivated in cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (LSIL), because of high HR-HPV prevalence among younger women. By using HPV reflex genotyping, additional extensive workup can safely be avoided in about 50% of all cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and LSIL among women ⩾30 years. This screening strategy could potentially reduce the total abnormal cytology-reporting rate in the Swedish screening programme by about 1% and provide more accurately directed follow-up, guided by cytological appearance and HPV test results. PMID:18682715

  8. A new algorithm for generating highly accurate benchmark solutions to transport test problems

    SciTech Connect

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1997-06-01

    We present a new algorithm for solving the neutron transport equation in its discrete-variable form. The new algorithm is based on computing the full matrix relating the scalar flux spatial moments in all cells to the fixed neutron source spatial moments, foregoing the need to compute the angular flux spatial moments, and thereby eliminating the need for sweeping the spatial mesh in each discrete-angular direction. The matrix equation is solved exactly in test cases, producing a solution vector that is free from iteration convergence error, and subject only to truncation and roundoff errors. Our algorithm is designed to provide method developers with a quick and simple solution scheme to test their new methods on difficult test problems without the need to develop sophisticated solution techniques, e.g. acceleration, before establishing the worthiness of their innovation. We demonstrate the utility of the new algorithm by applying it to the Arbitrarily High Order Transport Nodal (AHOT-N) method, and using it to solve two of Burre`s Suite of Test Problems (BSTP). Our results provide highly accurate benchmark solutions, that can be distributed electronically and used to verify the pointwise accuracy of other solution methods and algorithms.

  9. Digital test signal generation: An accurate SNR calibration approach for the DSN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez-Luaces, Benito O.

    1993-01-01

    In support of the on-going automation of the Deep Space Network (DSN) a new method of generating analog test signals with accurate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is described. High accuracy is obtained by simultaneous generation of digital noise and signal spectra at the desired bandwidth (base-band or bandpass). The digital synthesis provides a test signal embedded in noise with the statistical properties of a stationary random process. Accuracy is dependent on test integration time and limited only by the system quantization noise (0.02 dB). The monitor and control as well as signal-processing programs reside in a personal computer (PC). Commands are transmitted to properly configure the specially designed high-speed digital hardware. The prototype can generate either two data channels modulated or not on a subcarrier, or one QPSK channel, or a residual carrier with one biphase data channel. The analog spectrum generated is on the DC to 10 MHz frequency range. These spectra may be up-converted to any desired frequency without loss on the characteristics of the SNR provided. Test results are presented.

  10. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the first steps in any alcohol screening... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin...

  11. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening... Alcohol Testing § 40.229 What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? EBTs and ASDs on the... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is...

  12. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  13. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  14. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  15. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  16. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  17. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  18. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  19. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  20. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  1. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  2. 78 FR 13069 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and, Management of Blood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests for Syphilis,'' dated March 2013. The draft guidance document provides revised recommendations for screening and testing of donors and management......

  3. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... who perform screening functions. 1546.407 Section 1546.407 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... Carrier Conducts Screening § 1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions. (a) Training required. Before performing screening functions, an individual must...

  4. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... who perform screening functions. 1544.407 Section 1544.407 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... Qualifications When the Aircraft Operator Performs Screening § 1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions. (a) Training required. Before performing screening functions,...

  5. Sharpening the Tandem Walking Test for Screening Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Helen S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Kung, Doris H.; Mosier, Dennis R.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Few tests of functional motor behavior are useful for rapidly screening people for lower extremity peripheral neuropathy. The goal of this study was to improve the widely used Tandem Walking test (TW). Methods We tested adult normals and ambulatory peripheral neuropathy patients (PN) with eyes open and eyes closed, while they performed TW on industrial carpeting, in sock-covered feet. Each subject wore a torso-mounted inertial motion unit to measure kinematic data. PN subjects’ data were also compared to historical data on patients with vestibular impairments (VI). Results The normal and PN groups differed significantly on TW on the number of steps completed. PN and VI data also differed significantly on both visual conditions. Kinematic data showed that PN patients were more unstable than normals. For the number of steps taken during the eyes open condition receiver operating characteristic (ROC) values were only 0.81. For the number of steps taken during the eyes closed condition, however, ROC=0.88. Although not optimal, this ROC value is better. Sensitivity and specificity at a cut-off of 2 steps were 0.81 and 0.92, respectively, and at a cut-off of 3 steps was 0.86 and 0.75, respectively. ROC values for kinematic data were all < 0.8 and, when combined with the ROC value for the number of steps, the total ROC value did not improve appreciably. Conclusions Although not ideal for screening patients who may have peripheral neuropathy, counting the number of steps during TW is a quick and useful clinical test. TW is most sensitive to peripheral neuropathy patients when they are tested with eyes closed. PMID:24096950

  6. Noninvasive prenatal screening or advanced diagnostic testing: caveat emptor.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Wapner, Ronald J; Berkowitz, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    The past few years have seen extraordinary advances in prenatal genetic practice led by 2 major technological advances; next-generation sequencing of cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma to noninvasively identify fetal chromosome abnormalities, and microarray analysis of chorionic villus sampling and amniotic fluid samples, resulting in increased cytogenetic resolution. Noninvasive prenatal screening of cell-free DNA has demonstrated sensitivity and specificity for trisomy 21 superior to all previous screening approaches with slightly lower performance for other common aneuploidies. These tests have rapidly captured an increasing market share, with substantial reductions in the number of chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis performed suggesting that physicians and patients regard such screening approaches as an equivalent replacement for diagnostic testing. Simultaneously, many clinical programs have noted significant decreases in patient counseling. In 2012 the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development funded a blinded comparison of karyotype with the emerging technology of array comparative genomic hybridization showing that in patients with a normal karyotype, 2.5% had a clinically relevant microdeletion or duplication identified. In pregnancies with an ultrasound-detected structural anomaly, 6% had an incremental finding, and of those with a normal scan, 1.6% had a copy number variant. For patients of any age with a normal ultrasound and karyotype, the chance of a pathogenic copy number variant is greater than 1%, similar to the age-related risk of aneuploidy in the fetus of a 38 year old. This risk is 4-fold higher than the risk of trisomy 21 in a woman younger than 30 years and 5- to 10-fold higher than the present accepted risk of a diagnostic procedure. Based on this, we contend that every patient, regardless of her age, be educated about these risks and offered the opportunity to have a diagnostic procedure with

  7. A valid, accurate, office based non-radioactive test for gastric emptying of solids

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J; Camilleri, M; Zinsmeister, A; Burton, D; Kost, L; Klein, P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Current breath tests for measurement of gastric emptying of solids are expensive, possibly inaccurate, and require cumbersome calculations.
AIMS—We wished to validate a simplified solid gastric emptying test using a [13C]Spirulina platensis breath test for accurate results relative to scintigraphy.
SUBJECTS—Thirty healthy volunteers.
METHODS—We measured gastric emptying of egg containing [13C]S platensis and 99mTc sulphur colloid by breath 13CO2 and scintigraphy over six hours. A generalised linear regression model was used to predict t1/2 and tLAG by scintigraphy from breath 13CO2 data. The model was cross validated and normative data calculated for a prepacked [13C]meal.
RESULTS—Regression models using all breath data over six hours, for the first three hours, and for samples at 75, 90, and 180 minutes ("reduced model") predicted t1/2 and tLAG values similar to scintigraphy (tLAG 43 (SD 12) min; t1/2 100 (20) min). Standard deviations of differences in t1/2 and tLAG between scintigraphy and the "reduced model" were both 10 minutes. Gastric t1/2 for the prepacked [13C]meal was 91 (15) min (10-90% range: 74-118).
CONCLUSION—The [13C]S platensis breath test and a simple formula using breath 13CO2 at baseline, 90, and 180 minutes measured gastric emptying t1/2 for solids with results that were comparable with scintigraphy.


Keywords: stable isotope; breath test; gastric emptying PMID:10807886

  8. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  9. The Free-Running Asthma Screening Test: An Approach to Screening for Exercise-Induced Asthma in Rural Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaman, Doris J.; Estes, Jenny

    1997-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in rural elementary schools, examining the use of a free-running asthma screening test and peak expiratory flow-rate measurement for school screening. Results indicated that 5.7% of the students had EIA. Absenteeism and poverty were related to EIA. (SM)

  10. Zinc protoporphyrin as screening test in female blood donors.

    PubMed

    Harthoorn-Lasthuizen, E J; Lindemans, J; Langenhuijsen, M M

    1998-04-01

    Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) was measured in 102 women blood donors to evaluate its usefulness in screening for evolving iron deficiency anemia, a reason for the deferral of donors. The results were compared with serum ferritin determinations. Five women were deferred before their first donation and eight women were deferred after one or two donations. Women with increased ZPP values all had low serum ferritin concentrations, indicating iron-deficient erythropoiesis that was caused by iron depletion. The positive predictive value of an increased ZPP in predicting deferral of the donor after one or two donations was 75%, whereas a serum ferritin concentration < or = 12 microg/L predicted deferral in 26% of the donors. The results indicate that the ZPP test can be recommended as a feasible and inexpensive predonation test to determine a subset of donors with iron-deficient erythropoiesis at risk of developing iron deficiency anemia. PMID:9554491

  11. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  12. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna; Motušić Aras, Ranka

    2016-01-01

    Aim To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Methods Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was referred to comprehensive eye examination at the Eye Clinic. Results 78.04% of children passed the screening test. Estimated prevalence of amblyopia was 8.08%. Testability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ZAPS study protocol were 99.19%, 100.00%, and 96.68% respectively. Conclusion The ZAPS study used the most discriminative VA test with optotypes in lines as they do not underestimate amblyopia. The estimated prevalence of amblyopia was considerably higher than reported elsewhere. To the best of our knowledge, the ZAPS study protocol reached the highest sensitivity and specificity when evaluating diagnostic accuracy of VA tests for screening. The pass level defined at ≤0.1 logMAR for 4-year-old children, using Lea Symbols in lines missed no amblyopia cases, advocating that both near and distance VA testing should be performed when screening for amblyopia. PMID:26935612

  13. Rapid screening for 67 drugs and metabolites in serum or plasma by accurate-mass LC-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Marin, Stephanie J; Hughes, John M; Lawlor, Bryan G; Clark, Chantry J; McMillin, Gwendolyn A

    2012-09-01

    Sixty-seven drugs and metabolites were detected in serum or plasma using a fast (7.5 min) liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) method. This method was developed as a blood drug screen, with emphasis on the detection of common drugs of abuse and drugs used to manage chronic pain. Qualitative drug detection may identify a drug exposure, assure patient adherence with prescribed therapy and document abstinence from non-prescribed medications. Compound identification is based on chromatographic retention time, mass, isotope spacing and isotope abundance. Data analysis software (Agilent) generates a compound score based on how well these observed criteria matched theoretical and empirical values. The method was validated using fortified samples and 299 residual patient specimens (920 positive results). All results were confirmed by gas chromatography-MS or LC-tandem MS. The accuracy of positive results (samples meeting all qualitative criteria for retention time, mass and compound score) was >90% for drugs and/or metabolites, except for two benzodiazepines. There were 35 false positive results (seven compounds, 3.8%) that could be distinguished by retention time and/or absence of metabolites. The most frequent was 6-acetylmorphine in the absence of morphine. The LC-TOF-MS targeted screening method presented represents a sensitive and specific technology for drug screening of serum or plasma. PMID:22802572

  14. An efficient algorithm to perform multiple testing in epistasis screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research in epistasis or gene-gene interaction detection for human complex traits has grown over the last few years. It has been marked by promising methodological developments, improved translation efforts of statistical epistasis to biological epistasis and attempts to integrate different omics information sources into the epistasis screening to enhance power. The quest for gene-gene interactions poses severe multiple-testing problems. In this context, the maxT algorithm is one technique to control the false-positive rate. However, the memory needed by this algorithm rises linearly with the amount of hypothesis tests. Gene-gene interaction studies will require a memory proportional to the squared number of SNPs. A genome-wide epistasis search would therefore require terabytes of memory. Hence, cache problems are likely to occur, increasing the computation time. In this work we present a new version of maxT, requiring an amount of memory independent from the number of genetic effects to be investigated. This algorithm was implemented in C++ in our epistasis screening software MBMDR-3.0.3. We evaluate the new implementation in terms of memory efficiency and speed using simulated data. The software is illustrated on real-life data for Crohn’s disease. Results In the case of a binary (affected/unaffected) trait, the parallel workflow of MBMDR-3.0.3 analyzes all gene-gene interactions with a dataset of 100,000 SNPs typed on 1000 individuals within 4 days and 9 hours, using 999 permutations of the trait to assess statistical significance, on a cluster composed of 10 blades, containing each four Quad-Core AMD Opteron(tm) Processor 2352 2.1 GHz. In the case of a continuous trait, a similar run takes 9 days. Our program found 14 SNP-SNP interactions with a multiple-testing corrected p-value of less than 0.05 on real-life Crohn’s disease (CD) data. Conclusions Our software is the first implementation of the MB-MDR methodology able to solve large-scale SNP

  15. Oxygen Compatibility Screening Tests in Oxygen-Rich Combustion Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckel, Anerew J.

    1997-01-01

    The identification and characterization of oxygen-rich compatible materials enables full-flow, staged combustion designs. Although these oxygen-rich designs offer significant cost, performance, and reliability benefits over existing systems, they have never been used operationally by the United States. If these systems are to be realized, it is critical to understand the long-term oxidative stability in high-temperature, high-pressure, oxygen-rich combustion environments. A unique facility has been constructed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to conduct tests of small-scale rocket engine materials and subcomponents in an oxygen-rich combustion environment that closely approximates a full-scale rocket engine. Thus, a broad range of advanced materials and concepts can be screened in a timely manner and at a relatively low cost.

  16. A high-throughput screening strategy for accurate quantification of menaquinone based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Xue, Zheng-Lian; Chen, Shao-Peng; Wang, Zhou; Zhang, Yong; Gong, Wei-Liang; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2016-06-01

    To enhance the screening efficiency and accuracy of a high-yield menaquinone (vitamin K2, MK) bacterial strain, a novel, quantitative method by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was developed. The staining technique was optimized to maximize the differences in fluorescence signals between spontaneous and MK-accumulating cells. The fluorescence carrier rhodamine 123 (Rh123), with its ability to reflect membrane potential, proved to be an appropriate fluorescent dye to connect the MK content with fluorescence signal quantitatively. To promote adequate access of the fluorescent molecule to the target and maintain higher cell survival rates, staining and incubation conditions were optimized. The results showed that 10 % sucrose facilitated uptake of Rh123, while maintaining a certain level of cell viability. The pre-treatment of cells with MgCl2 before staining with Rh123 also improved cell viability. Using FACS, 50 thousands cells can easily be assayed in less than 1 h. The optimized staining protocol yielded a linear response for the mean fluorescence against high performance liquid chromatography-measured MK content. We have developed a novel and useful staining protocol in the high-throughput evaluation of Flavobacterium sp. mutant libraries, using FACS to identify mutants with increased MK-accumulating properties. This study also provides reference for the screening of other industrial microbial strains. PMID:27001261

  17. "Do-it-yourself" dementia testing: issues regarding an Alzheimer's home screening test.

    PubMed

    Kier, Frederick J; Molinari, Victor

    2003-06-01

    The Early Alert Alzheimer's Home Screening Test (AHST) is a variant of the Smell Identification Test (SIT) and the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT), and recently became available for purchase by the general public. The validity and the practical utility of routine screening for individuals with asymptomatic cognitive impairment has not been established. There are considerable specific methodological concerns regarding the use of the AHST including the association of olfactory impairment with (a) age in the absence of cognitive impairment, (b) numerous acute and/or chronic medical conditions, and (c) lifestyle habits and social and/or demographic variables. General public misunderstanding of the difference between a screening and a diagnostic test, primary care physicians' frequent confusion about follow-up mechanisms for newly diagnosed patients with dementia, the possible lack of perceived counseling options for those self-diagnosed, and abuse of test findings create distinct possibilities for misuse of this test. The marketing of the AHST and its general use without appropriate public health educational safeguards is inappropriate and may be unethical. PMID:12810892

  18. Letter Report: LAW Simulant Development for Cast Stone Screening Test

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Swanberg, David J.; Eibling, Russell E.; Cozzi, Alex; Lindberg, Michael J.; Josephson, Gary B.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2013-03-27

    testing program was developed in fiscal year (FY) 2012 describing in some detail the work needed to develop and qualify Cast Stone as a waste form for the solidification of Hanford LAW (Westsik et al. 2012). Included within Westsik et al. (2012) is a section on the near-term needs to address Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-062-40ZZ. The objectives of the testing program to be conducted in FY 2013 and FY 2014 are to: • Determine an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form. • Evaluate sources of dry materials for preparing the LAW Cast Stone. • Demonstrate the robustness of the Cast Stone waste form for a range of LAW compositions. • Demonstrate the robustness of the formulation for variability in the Cast Stone process. • Provide Cast Stone contaminant release data for PA and risk assessment evaluations. The first step in determining an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form is to conduct screening tests to examine expected ranges in pretreated LAW composition, waste stream concentrations, dry-materials sources, and mix ratios of waste feed to dry blend. A statistically designed test matrix will be used to evaluate the effects of these key parameters on the properties of the Cast Stone as it is initially prepared and after curing. The second phase of testing will focus on selection of a baseline Cast Stone formulation for LAW and demonstrating that Cast Stone can meet expected waste form requirements for disposal in the IDF. It is expected that this testing will use the results of the screening tests to define a smaller suite of tests to refine the composition of the baseline Cast Stone formulation (e.g. waste concentration, water to dry mix ratio, waste loading).

  19. Tests Screening Reading Difficulty in Malayalam among Upper Primary School Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Design of a screening test for identifying reading difficult students in Malayalam and validation thereof among boys is made to help schools proactively intervene with such students. A battery of tests developed based on extant literature on screening tests, reviewed difficulties in reading Malayalam, and discrimination power of the draft tests is…

  20. Screening of the polyphenol content of tomato-based products through accurate-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF).

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Jáuregui, Olga; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2011-12-01

    Tomatoes, the second most important vegetable crop worldwide, are a key component in the so-called "Mediterranean diet" and its consumption has greatly increased worldwide over the past 2 decades, mostly due to a growing demand for tomato-based products such as ketchups, gazpachos and tomato juices. In this work, tomato-based products were analysed after a suitable work-up extraction procedure using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF) with negative ion detection using information-dependent acquisition (IDA) to determine their phenolic composition. The compounds were confirmed by accurate mass measurements in MS and MS(2) modes. The elemental composition was selected according to the accurate masses and isotopic pattern. In this way, 47 compounds (simple phenolic and hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids and flavone, flavonol, flavanone and dihydrochalcone derivatives) were identified in tomato-based products, five of them, as far as was known, were previously unreported in tomatoes. The phenolic fingerprint showed that tomato-based products differ in phenolic composition, principally in protocatechuic acid-O-hexoside, apigenin and its glycosylated forms, quercetin-O-dihexoside, kaempferol-C-hexoside and eriodictyol-O-dihexoside. Gazpacho showed the highest number of phenolic compounds due to the vegetables added for its production. PMID:25212313

  1. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; Schalie, W.H. van der; Leather, G.R.

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  2. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  3. [The "Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST)": initial validation and reliability studies].

    PubMed

    Schmidgen, H; Hoell, T; Regard, M; Landis, T; Rudolf, K H; Berzewski, H; Brock, M

    1994-01-01

    Medical examinations only insufficiently measure cognitive impairment in neurological and neurosurgical patients. Due to costs an personnel shortages, adequate neuropsychological test methods are typically bypassed. Indeed, the very size and methodological problems of current tests impede their application in clinical practice. To resolve this dissatisfying state of affairs, we have developed a standardized, scored form of initial neuropsychological examination. The Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST) comprises 45 items, is easy to handle, and can be conducted in 15-20 min. The NST measures psychic performance along functional parameters such as orientation in place and time, primary and secondary language, visuospatial ability, attention, and memory skills. We have assessed the validity and reliability of the NST in a prospective study. 129 neurosurgical patients (60% malignant or benign cerebral tumors, 21% vascular malformations with and without subarachnoid hemorrhage, 6% traumatic brain injury, 3% hydrocephalus, 10% others) and 52 control subjects were included in the study. The difference in average total NST-scores was highly significant for the two groups (t = -7.84, DF = 177.93, p < .001). In addition, two chronologically separate subsamples of NCH patients (N = 81) and controls (N = 35) were tested using the Mini-Mental State (MMS). The correlation between total NST-score and MMS results was r = .49 (p < .001). Cross-tabulation was used to set a cut-off score, by means of which 80% of the neurosurgical patients were identified as true positive and 74% of the controls as true negative. A 24-hour retest confirmed the NST as reliable to .85 (p < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7887046

  4. Emerging stool-based and blood-based non-invasive DNA tests for colorectal cancer screening: the importance of cancer prevention in addition to cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Pickhardt, Perry J

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening can be undertaken utilizing a variety of distinct approaches, which provides both opportunities and confusion. Traditionally, there has often been a trade-off between the degree of invasiveness of a screening test and its ability to prevent cancer, with fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and optical colonoscopy (OC) at each end of the spectrum. CT colonography (CTC), although currently underutilized for CRC screening, represents an exception since it is only minimally invasive, yet provides accurate evaluation for advanced adenomas. More recently, the FDA approved a multi-target stool DNA test (Cologuard) and a blood-based test (Epi proColon) for average-risk CRC screening. This commentary will provide an overview of these two new non-invasive tests, including the clinical indications, mechanism of action, and diagnostic performance. Relevance to radiology practice, including a comparison with CTC, will also be discussed. PMID:27259335

  5. NC-TEST: noncontact thermal emissions screening technique for drug and alcohol detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Drug abuse is highly correlated with criminal behavior. The typical drug-using criminal commits hundreds of crimes per year. The crime rate cannot be significantly reduced without a reduction in the percentage of the population abusing drugs and alcohol. Accurate and timely estimation of that percentage is important for policy decisions concerning crime control, public health measures, allocation of intervention resources for prevention and treatment, projections of criminal justice needs, and the evaluation of policy effectiveness. Such estimation is particularly difficult because self reporting is unreliable; and physical testing has to date required blood or urine analysis which is expensive and invasive, with the result that too few people are tested. MIKOS Ltd. has developed a non-contact, passive technique with the potential for automatic, real- time screening for drug and alcohol use. The system utilizes thermal radiation which is spontaneously and continuously emitted by the human body. Facial thermal patterns and changes in patterns are correlated with standardized effects of specific drugs and alcohol. A portable system incorporating the collection and analysis technique can be used episodically to collect data for estimating drug and alcohol use by general unknown populations such as crowds at airports, or it can be used for repetitive routine screening of specific known groups such as airline pilots, military personnel, school children, or persons on probation or parole.

  6. Colonoscopy as a screening test for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Schapira, M; Adler, M

    2005-01-01

    Colonoscopy is the current gold standard for the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal neoplasms. Several gastroenterological and/or endoscopical societies recommend screening by colonoscopy in high risk patients for colorectal cancer whilst for average risk patients colonoscopy remains a valid option. In some countries screening colonoscopy is now covered by medical insurance. It is also the final common pathway of all colorectal cancer screening methods. This paper addresses the advantages and also limitations of colonoscopy as the first procedure for colorectal screening and emphasizes the importance of organized training and continuous assessment of competence of gastroenterologists and the necessity to have quality control audits of the endoscopy units. PMID:16013645

  7. FIT for the future: a case for risk-based colorectal cancer screening using the faecal immunochemical test.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J A; Moss, S M; Smith, S; Seaman, H E; Taylor-Phillips, S; Parsons, N; Halloran, S P

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) is being replaced with the more accurate faecal immunochemical test (FIT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. From January 2016, the National Screening Committee in the UK has recommended a change from the gFOBT to the FIT following a successful Bowel Cancer Screening Programme pilot study with over 40 000 participants. Although the test has shown improved uptake and the ability to detect significantly more colorectal cancers and advanced adenomas, the higher uptake and test positivity will challenge the capacity of colonoscopy services. One of the main advantages of the FIT is that it provides a quantitative haemoglobin concentration which has been shown to relate to the risk of CRC. Risk scoring systems which combine the FIT concentration with risk factor assessment have been shown to improve the sensitivity of the test. This individualized approach to screening could enable those at greatest risk to be referred for colonoscopy, optimizing resource use and ultimately patient outcomes. PMID:27135192

  8. Calculated globulin (CG) as a screening test for antibody deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jolles, S; Borrell, R; Zouwail, S; Heaps, A; Sharp, H; Moody, M; Selwood, C; Williams, P; Phillips, C; Hood, K; Holding, S; El Shanawany, T

    2014-01-01

    Calculated globulin (total protein – albumin) is usually tested as part of a liver function test profile in both primary and secondary care and determines the serum globulin concentration, of which immunoglobulins are a major component. The main use hitherto of calculated globulin is to detect paraproteins when the level is high. This study investigated the potential to use low levels of calculated globulin to detect antibody deficiency. Serum samples with calculated globulin cut-off < 18 g/l based on results of a pilot study were collected from nine hospitals in Wales over a 12-month period. Anonymized request information was obtained and the samples tested for immunoglobulin levels, serum electrophoresis and, if appropriate, immunofixation. A method comparison for albumin measurement using bromocresol green and bromocresol purple was undertaken. Eighty-nine per cent (737 of 826) samples had an immunoglobulin (Ig)G level of < 6 g/l using the bromocresol green methodology with a cut-off of < 18 g/l, and 56% (459) had an IgG of < 4 g/l. Patients with both secondary and primary antibody deficiency were discovered and serum electrophoresis and immunofixation showed that 1·2% (10) had previously undetected small paraproteins associated with immune-paresis. Using bromocresol purple, 74% of samples had an IgG of < 6 g/l using a cut-off of < 23 g/l. Screening using calculated globulin with defined cut-off values detects both primary and secondary antibody deficiency and new paraproteins associated with immune-paresis. It is cheap, widely available and under-utilized. Antibody-deficient patients have been discovered using information from calculated globulin values, shortening diagnostic delay and time to treatment with immunoglobulin replacement therapy. PMID:24784320

  9. Accurate mass screening and identification of emerging contaminants in environmental samples by liquid chromatography-hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hogenboom, A C; van Leerdam, J A; de Voogt, P

    2009-01-16

    The European Reach legislation will possibly drive producers to develop newly designed chemicals that will be less persistent, bioaccumulative or toxic. If this innovation leads to an increased use of more hydrophilic chemicals it may result in higher mobilities of chemicals in the aqueous environment. As a result, the drinking water companies may face stronger demands on removal processes as the hydrophilic compounds inherently are more difficult to remove. Monitoring efforts will also experience a shift in focus to more water-soluble compounds. Screening source waters on the presence of (emerging) contaminants is an essential step in the control of the water cycle from source to tap water. In this article, some of our experiences are presented with the hybrid linear ion trap (LTQ) FT Orbitrap mass spectrometer, in the area of chemical water analysis. A two-pronged strategy in mass spectrometric research was employed: (i) exploring effluent, surface, ground- and drinking-water samples searching for accurate masses corresponding to target compounds (and their product ions) known from, e.g. priority lists or the scientific literature and (ii) full-scan screening of water samples in search of 'unknown' or unexpected masses, followed by MS(n) experiments to elucidate the structure of the unknowns. Applications of both approaches to emerging water contaminants are presented and discussed. Results are presented for target analysis search for pharmaceuticals, benzotriazoles, illicit drugs and for the identification of unknown compounds in a groundwater sample and in a polar extract of a landfill soil sample (a toxicity identification evaluation bioassay sample). The applications of accurate mass screening and identification described in this article demonstrate that the LC-LTQ FT Orbitrap MS is well equipped to meet the challenges posed by newly emerging polar contaminants. PMID:18771771

  10. Enzyme immunoassay for anti-treponemal IgG: screening or confirmatory test?

    PubMed Central

    Young, H; Moyes, A; McMillan, A; Patterson, J

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To review the performance of the Venereal Diseases Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) as a combined screen for syphilis to provide a baseline for assessing screening by anti-treponemal IGG EIA. METHODS: Between 1980 and 1987 all serum samples were screened by both VDRL and TPHA tests. The FTA-ABS test was also used in suspected early primary syphilis, or when one of the other tests was positive. A positive result in a screening test was confirmed by quantitative testing. From 1988 all specimens were screened with an enzyme immunoassay (Captia Syph G) as a single screening test. RESULTS: Of the 44 primary, 47 secondary, and 38 early latent cases of syphilis, the VDRL and TPHA detected 32 (73%) and 31 (71%) of the primary cases; the combination detected 37 (84%). All 85 cases of cases of secondary and early latent infection were reactive in the TPHA test, whereas the VDRL was reactive in only 68 (80%). EIA had a reported sensitivity of 82% for primary infection. CONCLUSIONS: EIA can be used as a single screening test for detecting early syphilis because its results are comparable with those of the combined VDRL and TPHA tests. The conventional VDRL test should not be used as a single screening test. PMID:1740512

  11. Orbiter Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Advanced Sealant Systems: Screening Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.; Lewis, Ronad K.; Norman, Ignacio; Chao, Dennis; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Oxidation protection for the Orbiter reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC consists of three components: silicon carbide coating, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) impregnated into the carbon substrate and a silicon based surface sealant (designated Type A). The Orbiter Type A sealant is being consumed each mission, which results in increased carbon-carbon substrate mass loss, which adversely impacts the mission life of the RCC components. In addition, the sealant loss in combination with launch pad contamination (salt deposit and zinc oxide) results in RCC pinholes. A sealant refurbishment schedule to maintain mission life and minimize affects of pin hole formation has been implemented in the Orbiter maintenance schedule. The objective of this investigation is to develop an advanced sealant system for the RCC that extends the refurbishment schedule by reducing sealant loss/pin hole formation and that can be applied to existing Orbiter RCC components. This paper presents the results of arc jet screening tests conducted on several sealants that are being considered for application to the Orbiter RCC.

  12. 4-Kallikrein Test and Kallikrein Markers in Prostate Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Michelle L; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2016-02-01

    A preponderance of clinical evidence supports a significant public health benefit for prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening and early detection of prostate cancer in appropriately counseled and selected men. Population-based screening with PSA decreases prostate cancer mortality; however, because of relatively poor specificity, PSA-based screening may also increase the detection of clinically insignificant cancers that would otherwise never require treatment. Use of newer biomarkers that increase the specificity for prostate cancer detection may aid in risk stratification and the appropriate identification of men for prostate biopsy. The authors review the 4-kallikrein panel and 4K probability score. PMID:26614027

  13. A simple screening test for variant transthyretins associated with familial transthyretin amyloidosis using isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Connors, L H; Ericsson, T; Skare, J; Jones, L A; Lewis, W D; Skinner, M

    1998-09-30

    Variant forms of the plasma protein transthyretin (TTR) are associated with the most frequently occurring type of familial systemic amyloidosis. Organ system involvement in transthyretin type amyloidosis (ATTR) is often similar to that which occurs in light chain amyloid disease (AL). The proper diagnosis of ATTR is important since treatment (liver transplantation) differs from that in AL (chemotherapy). We present a two-step test to screen sera for variant TTRs using non-denaturing gel electrophoresis performed in 7.5% acrylamide (PAGE) followed by isoelectric focusing (IEF) between pH 4.0 and 7.0 in 2.5 M urea. Serum samples from 110 patients with amyloidosis and their relatives were tested using this IEF technique and compared to genetic mutation results. Sera from patients with ATTR who underwent liver transplantation were also examined prior to and following surgery. IEF analysis showed the presence of both wild-type and variant TTR in 74 of the 110 serum samples tested. Genomic DNA from peripheral blood was used to identify TTR gene mutations in 77 of the 110 patients. Fifteen variants including Val122Ile, preponderant in the African-American population, could be demonstrated by IEF. The sensitivity of IEF was 96% (74/77) and the specificity was 100% (33/33). The predictive values for a positive or negative result were 100% (74/74) and 92% (33/36), respectively. There were no false-positive results and 4% (3/77) false-negative results. In sera from patients with ATTR who underwent liver transplantation, variant TTR was detected by IEF before, but not after, surgery. A simple, accurate, sensitive method is presented as a useful screening test for variant transthyretins associated with ATTR. PMID:9748569

  14. Attitudes of pregnant women and male partners towards non-invasive prenatal testing and widening the scope of prenatal screening

    PubMed Central

    van Schendel, Rachèl V; Kleinveld, Johanna H; Dondorp, Wybo J; Pajkrt, Eva; Timmermans, Danielle R M; Holtkamp, Kim C A; Karsten, Margreet; Vlietstra, Anne L; Lachmeijer, Augusta M A; Henneman, Lidewij

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and its potential to test for multiple disorders has received much attention. This study explores attitudes of women and men towards NIPT, and their views on widening the scope of prenatal testing in a country with a low uptake of prenatal screening (The Netherlands). Five focus groups with low-risk pregnant women (n=28), three focus groups with men (n=19) and 13 interviews with high- and low-risk pregnant women were conducted. Participants felt that current prenatal screening has great disadvantages such as uncertain results and risk of miscarriage from follow-up diagnostics. Characteristics of NIPT (accurate, safe and early testing) could therefore diminish these disadvantages of prenatal screening and help lower the barrier for participation. This suggests that NIPT might allow couples to decide about prenatal testing based mostly on their will to test or not, rather than largely based on fear of miscarriage risk or the uncertainty of results. The lower barrier for participation was also seen as a downside that could lead to uncritical use or pressure to test. Widening the scope of prenatal testing was seen as beneficial for severe disorders, although it was perceived difficult to determine where to draw the line. Participants argued that there should be a limit to the scope of NIPT, avoiding testing for minor abnormalities. The findings suggest that NIPT could enable more meaningful decision-making for prenatal screening. However, to ensure voluntary participation, especially when testing for multiple disorders, safeguards on the basis of informed decision-making will be of utmost importance. PMID:24642832

  15. A test of aquatic macroinvertebrate sub-sampling using a gridded screen

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, S.P.

    1994-12-31

    The Biological Resource Evaluations Team of Los Alamos National Laboratories assessed the reliability of a gridded screen sub-sampling technique to estimate aquatic macroinvertebrates in total samples. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected by kick sampling three riffles areas in Guaje Canyon, Los Alamos County, New Mexico during July and August, 1994. The study included 4,144 macroinvertebrates from samples consisting of 442 to 1005 individuals. The entire samples were spread onto a gridded screen, and 100 macroinvertebrates were randomly selected for identification. To simplify the results, identified macroinvertebrates were assigned to one of six categories: plecoptera, ephemeroptera, trichoptera, coleoptera, diptera, and non-insects. Three sub-samples were taken from each of six full samples. These counts were used as predicted values, while the total sample counts were used as actual values. Single-factor ANOVA tests showed no significant differences between predicted to actual (PTA) values. However, PTA differences indicated that lab-sorting was a more reliable method than live-sorting without a narcotizing agent. Large samples and large numbers in macroinvertebrate categories were tentatively linked with greater PTA differences. PTA differences were less than 5% in 80% of our trials and less than 10% in 95% of our trials. Despite the relatively small size of sub-samples, sub-samples included 60% of taxa found in the total samples. This sub-sampling technique provides accurate estimates of total sample composition in stream reaches rich enough to easily yield the required 100 individuals.

  16. Psychophysical Calibration of Mobile Touch-Screens for Vision Testing in the Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    The now ubiquitous nature of touch-screen displays in cell phones and tablet computers makes them an attractive option for vision testing outside of the laboratory or clinic. Accurate measurement of parameters such as contrast sensitivity, however, requires precise control of absolute and relative screen luminances. The nonlinearity of the display response (gamma) can be measured or checked using a minimum motion technique similar to that developed by Anstis and Cavanagh (1983) for the determination of isoluminance. While the relative luminances of the color primaries vary between subjects (due to factors such as individual differences in pre-retinal pigment densities), the gamma nonlinearity can be checked in the lab using a photometer. Here we compare results obtained using the psychophysical method with physical measurements for a number of different devices. In addition, we present a novel physical method using the device's built-in front-facing camera in conjunction with a mirror to jointly calibrate the camera and display. A high degree of consistency between devices is found, but some departures from ideal performance are observed. In spite of this, the effects of calibration errors and display artifacts on estimates of contrast sensitivity are found to be small.

  17. Coaxial test fixture and pulsed power supply for contact-material screening tests

    SciTech Connect

    Praeg, W.F.; McGhee, D.G.; Trachsel, C.A.; Zahn, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    A coaxial test fixture and a pulsed power supply have been built to conduct high-current screening tests on candidate materials for contacts to be used in first wall connectors on fusion devices, particularly tokamaks. The fixture was operated with half-sine-wave pulses of less than or equal to 300 kA; it is designed for carrying currents of up to 600 kA for approximately 300 ms at a repetition rate of 1 pulse every 5 minutes. The fixture is built as a vacuum vessel and capable of testing specimens in an ambient temperature of 300/sup 0/C. Instrumentation is provided to measure the current pulse, contact voltage drop, contact pressure, the strain caused by contact pressure, and the operating temperature. The test fixture, its power supply and possible future upgrades are described.

  18. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... measure educational gain? 462.41 Section 462.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... to accurately measure educational gain? (a) General. A local eligible provider must measure the... provider must— (1) Administer a pre-test to measure a student's educational functioning level at intake,...

  19. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... measure educational gain? 462.41 Section 462.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... to accurately measure educational gain? (a) General. A local eligible provider must measure the... provider must— (1) Administer a pre-test to measure a student's educational functioning level at intake,...

  20. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... measure educational gain? 462.41 Section 462.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... to accurately measure educational gain? (a) General. A local eligible provider must measure the... provider must— (1) Administer a pre-test to measure a student's educational functioning level at intake,...

  1. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... measure educational gain? 462.41 Section 462.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... to accurately measure educational gain? (a) General. A local eligible provider must measure the... provider must— (1) Administer a pre-test to measure a student's educational functioning level at intake,...

  2. Borehole flowmeter logging for the accurate design and analysis of tracer tests.

    PubMed

    Basiricò, Stefano; Crosta, Giovanni B; Frattini, Paolo; Villa, Alberto; Godio, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Tracer tests often give ambiguous interpretations that may be due to the erroneous location of sampling points and/or the lack of flow rate measurements through the sampler. To obtain more reliable tracer test results, we propose a methodology that optimizes the design and analysis of tracer tests in a cross borehole mode by using vertical borehole flow rate measurements. Experiments using this approach, herein defined as the Bh-flow tracer test, have been performed by implementing three sequential steps: (1) single-hole flowmeter test, (2) cross-hole flowmeter test, and (3) tracer test. At the experimental site, core logging, pumping tests, and static water-level measurements were previously carried out to determine stratigraphy, fracture characteristics, and bulk hydraulic conductivity. Single-hole flowmeter testing makes it possible to detect the presence of vertical flows as well as inflow and outflow zones, whereas cross-hole flowmeter testing detects the presence of connections along sets of flow conduits or discontinuities intercepted by boreholes. Finally, the specific pathways and rates of groundwater flow through selected flowpaths are determined by tracer testing. We conclude that the combined use of single and cross-borehole flowmeter tests is fundamental to the formulation of the tracer test strategy and interpretation of the tracer test results. PMID:25417730

  3. Use of clinical movement screening tests to predict injury in sport

    PubMed Central

    Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical movement screening tests are gaining popularity as a means to determine injury risk and to implement training programs to prevent sport injury. While these screens are being used readily in the clinical field, it is only recently that some of these have started to gain attention from a research perspective. This limits applicability and poses questions to the validity, and in some cases the reliability, of the clinical movement tests as they relate to injury prediction, intervention, and prevention. This editorial will review the following clinical movement screening tests: Functional Movement Screen™, Star Excursion Balance Test, Y Balance Test, Drop Jump Screening Test, Landing Error Scoring System, and the Tuck Jump Analysis in regards to test administration, reliability, validity, factors that affect test performance, intervention programs, and usefulness for injury prediction. It is important to review the aforementioned factors for each of these clinical screening tests as this may help clinicians interpret the current body of literature. While each of these screening tests were developed by clinicians based on what appears to be clinical practice, this paper brings to light that this is a need for collaboration between clinicians and researchers to ensure validity of clinically meaningful tests so that they are used appropriately in future clinical practice. Further, this editorial may help to identify where the research is lacking and, thus, drive future research questions in regards to applicability and appropriateness of clinical movement screening tools. PMID:27114928

  4. Use of clinical movement screening tests to predict injury in sport.

    PubMed

    Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan

    2016-04-18

    Clinical movement screening tests are gaining popularity as a means to determine injury risk and to implement training programs to prevent sport injury. While these screens are being used readily in the clinical field, it is only recently that some of these have started to gain attention from a research perspective. This limits applicability and poses questions to the validity, and in some cases the reliability, of the clinical movement tests as they relate to injury prediction, intervention, and prevention. This editorial will review the following clinical movement screening tests: Functional Movement Screen™, Star Excursion Balance Test, Y Balance Test, Drop Jump Screening Test, Landing Error Scoring System, and the Tuck Jump Analysis in regards to test administration, reliability, validity, factors that affect test performance, intervention programs, and usefulness for injury prediction. It is important to review the aforementioned factors for each of these clinical screening tests as this may help clinicians interpret the current body of literature. While each of these screening tests were developed by clinicians based on what appears to be clinical practice, this paper brings to light that this is a need for collaboration between clinicians and researchers to ensure validity of clinically meaningful tests so that they are used appropriately in future clinical practice. Further, this editorial may help to identify where the research is lacking and, thus, drive future research questions in regards to applicability and appropriateness of clinical movement screening tools. PMID:27114928

  5. Prenatal screening tests may be a warning for the partial molar pregnancy? case report

    PubMed Central

    Sargin, Mehmet Akif; Tug, Niyazi; Yassa, Murat; Yavuz, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening tests are frequently requested for chromosomal abnormalities. Placental pathologies in early pregnancy may be overlooked, especially in partial molar pregnancy. We are reporting an incorrect preliminary diagnosed case with an increased risk of Down syndrome in her first-trimester screening test due to partial molar pregnancy. PMID:26175814

  6. XENOENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS-TIERED SCREENING AND TESTING: FILLING KEY DATA GAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). High priority chemicals would be evaluated in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery. Chemicals positive in T1S would then be tested (Tier 2). T1S...

  7. XENOENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS-TIERED SCREENING AND TESTING: FILLING KEY DATA GAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). High priority chemicals would be evaluated in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery. Chemicals positive in T1S would then be tested...

  8. Pilot Testing a New Short Screen for the Assessment of Older Women's PTSD Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagana, Luciana; Schuitevoerder, Sage

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult for busy health care providers to perform routine screening for older women's posttraumatic stress symptomatology. This difficulty is due, at least partially, to a paucity of instruments specifically tested on such a population. To address this issue, in this preliminary study we tested an abbreviated screen from the set of 20…

  9. WOMEN’S INTENTIONS TO RECEIVE CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING WITH PRIMARY HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TESTING

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, Gina S.; Smith, Laurie W.; van Niekerk, Dirk J.; Khurshed, Fareeza; Krajden, Mel; Saraiya, Mona; Goel, Vivek; Rimer B, Barbara K.; Greene, Sandra B.; Hobbs, Suzanne; Coldman, Andrew J.; Franco, Eduardo L.

    2015-01-01

    We explored the potential impact of HPV testing on women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer in a cohort of Canadian women. Participants aged 25-65 from an ongoing trial were sent a questionnaire to assess women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer with HPV testing instead of Pap smears and to be screened every 4 years or after 25 years of age. We created scales for attitudes about HPV testing, perceived behavioural control and direct and indirect subjective norms. Demographic data and scales that were significantly different (p<0.1) between women who intended to be screened with HPV and those who did not intend were included in a stepwise logistic regression model. Of the 2016 invitations emailed, 1538 were received, and 981 completed surveys for a response rate of 63% (981/1538). Eighty-four percent of women (826/981) responded that they intended to attend for HPV-based cervical cancer screening, which decreased to 54.2% when the screening interval was extended, and decreased further to 51.4% when screening start was delayed to age 25. Predictors of intentions to undergo screening were attitudes (OR 1.22; 95%CI 1.15, 1.30), indirect subjective norms (OR 1.02; 95%CI 1.01, 1.03) and perceived behavioural control (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.10; 1.22). Intentions to be screened for cervical cancer with HPV testing decreased substantially when the screening interval was extended and screening started at age 25. Use of primary HPV testing may optimize the screening paradigm, but programs should ensure robust planning and education to mitigate any negative impact on screening attendance rates. PMID:23754203

  10. Mean Polyp per Patient Is an Accurate and Readily Obtainable Surrogate for Adenoma Detection Rate: Results from an Opportunistic Screening Colonoscopy Program

    PubMed Central

    Delavari, Alireza; Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Bishehsari, Faraz; Sobh Rakhshankhah, Elham; Delavari, Farnaz; Moossavi, Shirin; Khosravi, Pejman; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Merat, Shahin; Ansari, Reza; Vahedi, Homayoon; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Saberifiroozi, Mehdi; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The incidence of colorectal cancer is rising in several developing countries. In the absence of integrated endoscopy and pathology databases, adenoma detection rate (ADR), as a validated quality indicator of screening colonoscopy, is generally difficult to obtain in practice. We aimed to measure the correlation of polyp-related indicators with ADR in order to identify the most accurate surrogate(s) of ADR in routine practice. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the endoscopic and histopathological findings of patients who underwent colonoscopy at a tertiary gastrointestinal clinic. The overall ADR and advanced-ADR were calculated using patient-level data. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) was applied to measure the strength of the correlation between the quality metrics obtained by endoscopists. RESULTS A total of 713 asymptomatic adults aged 50 and older who underwent their first-time screening colonoscopy were included in this study. The ADR and advanced-ADR were 33.00% (95% CI: 29.52-36.54) and 13.18% (95% CI: 10.79-15.90), respectively. We observed good correlations between polyp detection rate (PDR) and ADR (r=0.93), and mean number of polyp per patient (MPP) and ADR (r=0.88) throughout the colon. There was a positive, yet insignificant correlation between advanced ADRs and non-advanced ADRs (r=0.42, p=0.35). CONCLUSION MPP is strongly correlated with ADR, and can be considered as a reliable and readily obtainable proxy for ADR in opportunistic screening colonoscopy programs. PMID:26609349

  11. Developmental Screenings in Rural Settings: A Comparison of the Child Development Review and the Denver II Developmental Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brachlow, Allison; Jordan, Augustus E.; Tervo, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Two developmental screening tests were applied to 73 children, aged 1 month-6.7 years, in Sioux Falls and the Cheyenne River Reservation (South Dakota). There were no racial differences; compared to urban children, rural reservation children of any race were more likely to pass the Child Development Review and to fail the Denver II Developmental…

  12. Reverse Fluorescence Enhancement and Colorimetric Bimodal Signal Readout Immunochromatography Test Strip for Ultrasensitive Large-Scale Screening and Postoperative Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yingyi; Guo, Weisheng; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Yudong; Fu, Weihua; Liu, Tingting; Wu, Xiaoli; Wang, Hanjie; Gong, Xiaoqun; Liang, Xing-Jie; Chang, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasensitive and quantitative fast screening of cancer biomarkers by immunochromatography test strip (ICTS) is still challenging in clinic. The gold nanoparticles (NPs) based ICTS with colorimetric readout enables a quick spectrum screening but suffers from nonquantitative performance; although ICTS with fluorescence readout (FICTS) allows quantitative detection, its sensitivity still deserves more efforts and attentions. In this work, by taking advantages of colorimetric ICTS and FICTS, we described a reverse fluorescence enhancement ICTS (rFICTS) with bimodal signal readout for ultrasensitive and quantitative fast screening of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In the presence of target, gold NPs aggregation in T line induced colorimetric readout, allowing on-the-spot spectrum screening in 10 min by naked eye. Meanwhile, the reverse fluorescence enhancement signal enabled more accurately quantitative detection with better sensitivity (5.89 pg/mL for CEA), which is more than 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the conventional FICTS. The accuracy and stability of the rFICTS were investigated with more than 100 clinical serum samples for large-scale screening. Furthermore, this rFICTS also realized postoperative monitoring by detecting CEA in a patient with colon cancer and comparing with CT imaging diagnosis. These results indicated this rFICTS is particularly suitable for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics in both resource-rich and resource-limited settings. PMID:27547984

  13. Changes in cervical cancer screening behavior for women attending Pap Test Week clinics

    PubMed Central

    Poliquin, V; Decker, K; Altman, AD; Lotocki, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective This retrospective study of all women who accessed the 2006 Manitoba Pap Test Week clinics was designed to determine factors associated with inadequate cervical cancer screening and changes in cervical cancer screening behavior. Methods Data were acquired using the CervixCheck Manitoba registry and an ancillary database of demographic information collected from clinic attendees. Results The study included 1124 women. Of these, 53% (n = 598) were under-screened (no Pap test in the previous 2 years) prior to accessing the clinics. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.03), no doctor (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.05–1.54), and living in Canada < 1 year (OR = 5.5, 95% CI 2.73–11.12) were associated with being under-screened prior to accessing the Pap Test Week clinics. Thirty-seven percent (n = 223) of under-screened women demonstrated improved screening status subsequent to the 2006 Pap Test Week (had a subsequent Papanicolaou [Pap] test performed within 2 years) and these women were more likely to live in an urban setting (P = 0.003), be younger (P < 0.001), originate outside Canada (P = 0.006), have lived in Canada for less than 1 year (P = 0.006), and have had an abnormal Pap test result in 2006 (P < 0.001). Previously under-screened women were less likely to become adequately-screened subsequent to 2006 if they had a Pap test performed at a Pap Test Week clinic compared to having a Pap test performed elsewhere (37% versus 60%, P < 0.001). Conclusion This study identified a subset of under-screened women accessing Pap Test Week clinics whose screening status might be most modifiable. PMID:23596357

  14. A test protocol to screen capacitors for radiation-induced charge loss.

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Hartman, E. Frederick

    2008-09-01

    This report presents a test protocol for screening capacitors dielectrics for charge loss due to ionizing radiation. The test protocol minimizes experimental error and provides a test method that allows comparisons of different dielectric types if exposed to the same environment and if the same experimental technique is used. The test acceptance or screening method is fully described in this report. A discussion of technical issues and possible errors and uncertainties is included in this report also.

  15. Red square test for visual field screening. A sensitive and simple bedside test.

    PubMed

    Mandahl, A

    1994-12-01

    A reliable bedside test for screening of visual field defects is a valuable tool in the examination of patients with a putative disease affecting the sensory visual pathways. Conventional methods such as Donders' confrontation method, counting fingers in the visual field periphery, of two-hand confrontation are not sufficiently sensitive to detect minor but nevertheless serious visual field defects. More sensitive methods requiring only simple tools are also described. In this study, a test card with four red squares surrounding a fixation target, a black dot, with a total test area of about 11 x 12.5 degrees at a distance of 30 cm, was designed for testing experience of red colour saturation in four quadrants, red square test. The Goldmann visual field was used as reference. 125 consecutive patients with pituitary adenoma (159 eyes), craniopharyngeoma (9 eyes), meningeoma (21 eyes), vascular hemisphere lesion (40 eyes), hemisphere tumour (10 eyes) and hemisphere abscess (2 eyes) were examined. The Goldmann visual field and red square test were pathological in pituitary adenomas in 35%, in craniopharyngeomas in 44%, in meningeomas in 52% and in hemisphere tumours or abscess in 100% of the eyes. Among these, no false-normal or false-pathological tests were found. However, in vascular hemisphere disease the corresponding figures were Goldmann visual field 90% and red square test 85%. The 5% difference (4 eyes) was due to Goldmann visual field defects strictly peripheral to the central 15 degrees. These defects were easily diagnosed with two-hand confrontation and PMID:7747575

  16. The nylon column dye test: a possible screening test of phagocyte function.

    PubMed

    Segal, A W; Peters, T J

    1975-12-01

    1. A simple quantitative test has been developed to investigate phagocyte function. 2. This test is performed by the addition of Nitroblue Tetrazolium to whole blood, followed by the isolation of leucocytes on a column of nylon wool. Dye reduction by phagocytes is apparent as a blue coloration of the column due to the formation of formazan. The formazan can be extracted from the column and measured spectrophotometrically. 3. The formation of formazan was found to be directly related to the number of phagocytes in blood. 4. Two patients with chronic granulomatous disease gave abnormal results, suggesting that the test procedure may be of value as a screening procedure for this disease. PMID:1106938

  17. Ocular Screening System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An ocular screening system designed for safe, convenient screening of large groups was developed at Marshall Space Flight Center, leading to the formation of Medical Sciences Corporation. The system identifies visual defects accurately and inexpensively, and includes a photorefractor telephoto lens and an electronic flash. Medical Sciences Corporation is using the device to test at schools, industrial plants, etc.

  18. Physiologic Screening Test for Eating Disorders/Disordered Eating Among Female Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Laurie J.S.; Coster, Daniel C.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Abood, Doris A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To develop and evaluate a physiologic screening test specifically designed for collegiate female athletes engaged in athletic competition or highly athletic performances in order to detect eating disorders/disordered eating. No such physiologically based test currently exists. Methods: Subjects included 148 (84.5%) of 175 volunteer, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (n = 92), club (n = 15), and dance team (n = 41) athletes 18 to 25 years old who attended a large, Midwestern university. Participants completed 4 tests: 2 normed for the general population (Eating Disorders Inventory-2 and Bulimia Test-Revised); a new physiologic test, developed and pilot tested by the investigators, called the Physiologic Screening Test; and the Eating Disorder Exam 12.0D, a structured, validated, diagnostic interview used for criterion validity. Results: The 18-item Physiologic Screening Test produced the highest sensitivity (87%) and specificity (78%) and was superior to the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (sensitivity = 62%, specificity = 74%) and Bulimia Test-Revised (sensitivity = 27%, specificity = 99%). A substantial number (n = 51, 35%) of athletes were classified as eating disordered/disordered eating. Conclusions: The Physiologic Screening Test should be considered for screening athletes for eating disorders/disordered eating. The Physiologic Screening Test seems to be a viable alternative to existing tests because it is specifically designed for female athletes, it is brief (4 measurements and 14 items), and validity is enhanced and response bias is lessened because the purpose is less obvious, especially when included as part of a mandatory preparticipation examination. PMID:14737209

  19. A Procedure for Accurately Measuring the Shaker Overturning Moment During Random Vibration Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeri, Reza D.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: For large system level random vibration tests, there may be some concerns about the shaker's capability for the overturning moment. It is the test conductor's responsibility to predict and monitor the overturning moment during random vibration tests. If the predicted moment is close to the shaker's capability, test conductor must measure the instantaneous moment at low levels and extrapolate to higher levels. That data will be used to decide whether it is safe to proceed to the next test level. Challenge: Kistler analog formulation for computing the real-time moment is only applicable to very limited cases in which we have 3 or 4 load cells installed at shaker interface with hardware. Approach: To overcome that limitation, a simple procedure was developed for computing the overturning moment time histories using the measured time histories of the individual load cells.

  20. Validation of a Low-Cost Paper-Based Screening Test for Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Piety, Nathaniel Z.; Yang, Xiaoxi; Kanter, Julie; Vignes, Seth M.; George, Alex; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The high childhood mortality and life-long complications associated with sickle cell anemia (SCA) in developing countries could be significantly reduced with effective prophylaxis and education if SCA is diagnosed early in life. However, conventional laboratory methods used for diagnosing SCA remain prohibitively expensive and impractical in this setting. This study describes the clinical validation of a low-cost paper-based test for SCA that can accurately identify sickle trait carriers (HbAS) and individuals with SCA (HbSS) among adults and children over 1 year of age. Methods and Findings In a population of healthy volunteers and SCA patients in the United States (n = 55) the test identified individuals whose blood contained any HbS (HbAS and HbSS) with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for both visual evaluation and automated analysis, and detected SCA (HbSS) with 93% sensitivity and 94% specificity for visual evaluation and 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity for automated analysis. In a population of post-partum women (with a previously unknown SCA status) at a primary obstetric hospital in Cabinda, Angola (n = 226) the test identified sickle cell trait carriers with 94% sensitivity and 97% specificity using visual evaluation (none of the women had SCA). Notably, our test permits instrument- and electricity-free visual diagnostics, requires minimal training to be performed, can be completed within 30 minutes, and costs about $0.07 in test-specific consumable materials. Conclusions Our results validate the paper-based SCA test as a useful low-cost tool for screening adults and children for sickle trait and disease and demonstrate its practicality in resource-limited clinical settings. PMID:26735691

  1. Test system accurately determines tensile properties of irradiated metals at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, P. J.; Skalka, R. J.; Vandergrift, E. F.

    1967-01-01

    Modified testing system determines tensile properties of irradiated brittle-type metals at cryogenic temperatures. The system includes a lightweight cryostat, split-screw grips, a universal joint, and a special temperature control system.

  2. Paradoxical effects of testing: retrieval enhances both accurate recall and suggestibility in eyewitnesses.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jason C K; Langley, Moses M

    2011-01-01

    Although retrieval practice typically enhances memory retention, it can also impair subsequent eyewitness memory accuracy (Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009). Specifically, participants who had taken an initial test about a witnessed event were more likely than nontested participants to recall subsequently encountered misinformation—an effect we called retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES). Here, we sought to test the generality of RES and to further elucidate its underlying mechanisms. To that end, we tested a dual mechanism account, which suggests that RES occurs because initial testing (a) enhances learning of the later misinformation by reducing proactive interference and (b) causes the reactivated memory trace to be more susceptible to later interference (i.e., a reconsolidation account). Three major findings emerged. First, RES was found after a 1-week delay, where a robust testing benefit occurred for event details that were not contradicted by later misinformation. Second, blockage of reconsolidation was unnecessary for RES to occur. Third, initial testing enhanced learning of the misinformation even when proactive interference played a minimal role. PMID:20919785

  3. HPV testing for cervical cancer screening appears more cost-effective than Papanicolau cytology in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bishai, David M.; Lőrincz, Attila; Shah, Keerti V.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández, Mauricio; Granados-García, Víctor; Pérez, Ruth; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the incremental costs and effects of different HPV testing strategies, when compared to Papanicolau cytology (Pap), for cervical cancer screening in Mexico. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) examined the specific costs and health outcomes associated with (1) no screening; (2) only the Pap test; (3) only self-administered HPV; (4) only clinician administered HPV; and (5) clinician administered HPV plus the Pap test. The costs of self- and clinician-HPV testing, as well as with the Pap test, were identified and quantified. Costs were reported in 2008 US dollars. The health outcome associated with these screening strategies was defined as the number of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer cases detected. This CEA was performed using the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Morelos, Mexico. Results Screening women between the ages of 30–80 for cervical cancer using clinical-HPV testing or the combination of clinical-HPV testing, and the Pap is always more cost-effective than using the Pap test alone. Conclusions This CEA indicates that HPV testing could be a cost-effective screening alternative for a large health delivery organization such as IMSS. These results may help policy-makers implement HPV testing as part of the IMSS cervical cancer screening program. PMID:21170578

  4. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Oxygen concentrations with various test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Solis, A. N.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to increase the versatility of the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the use of different test conditions in order to simulate various fire environments. The use of air flow at flow rates of 16 to 48 ml/sec maintains oxygen concentrations above 19 percent throughout the 30 min exposure period, compared to above 16 percent without forced air flow. These levels of oxygen are well within the tolerance range of mice, and approach the oxygen levels found in many real fire situations. Proposed minimum oxygen levels based on experience with rats are unduly restrictive on the use of other species such as mice, and tend to eliminate the cost savings which may more than justify the selection of mice.

  5. Advanced tests for early and accurate diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Zanusso, Gianluigi; Monaco, Salvatore; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Caughey, Byron

    2016-06-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a necessary to distinguish this untreatable disease from treatable rapidly progressive dementias, and to prevent iatrogenic transmission. Currently, definitive diagnosis of CJD requires detection of the abnormally folded, CJD-specific form of protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(CJD)) in brain tissue obtained postmortem or via biopsy; therefore, diagnosis of sporadic CJD in clinical practice is often challenging. Supporting investigations, including MRI, EEG and conventional analyses of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, are helpful in the diagnostic work-up, but do not allow definitive diagnosis. Recently, novel ultrasensitive seeding assays, based on the amplified detection of PrP(CJD), have improved the diagnostic process; for example, real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) is a sensitive method to detect prion-seeding activity in brain homogenate from humans with any subtype of sporadic CJD. RT-QuIC can also be used for in vivo diagnosis of CJD: its diagnostic sensitivity in detecting PrP(CJD) in CSF samples is 96%, and its specificity is 100%. Recently, we provided evidence that RT-QuIC of olfactory mucosa brushings is a 97% sensitive and 100% specific for sporadic CJD. These assays provide a basis for definitive antemortem diagnosis of prion diseases and, in doing so, improve prospects for reducing the risk of prion transmission. Moreover, they can be used to evaluate outcome measures in therapeutic trials for these as yet untreatable infections. PMID:27174240

  6. Identification and Validation of a Brief Test Anxiety Screening Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Segool, Natasha; Putwain, Dave

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of test-based accountability policies around the world has increased the pressure placed on students to perform well on state achievement tests. Educational researchers have begun taking a closer look at the reciprocal effects of test anxiety and high-stakes testing. However, existing test anxiety assessments lack efficiency and…

  7. A Viscoelastic Constitutive Model Can Accurately Represent Entire Creep Indentation Tests of Human Patella Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Saikat; Lindsey, Derek P.; Besier, Thor F.; Beaupre, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Cartilage material properties provide important insights into joint health, and cartilage material models are used in whole-joint finite element models. Although the biphasic model representing experimental creep indentation tests is commonly used to characterize cartilage, cartilage short-term response to loading is generally not characterized using the biphasic model. The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term and equilibrium material properties of human patella cartilage using a viscoelastic model representation of creep indentation tests. We performed 24 experimental creep indentation tests from 14 human patellar specimens ranging in age from 20 to 90 years (median age 61 years). We used a finite element model to reproduce the experimental tests and determined cartilage material properties from viscoelastic and biphasic representations of cartilage. The viscoelastic model consistently provided excellent representation of the short-term and equilibrium creep displacements. We determined initial elastic modulus, equilibrium elastic modulus, and equilibrium Poisson’s ratio using the viscoelastic model. The viscoelastic model can represent the short-term and equilibrium response of cartilage and may easily be implemented in whole-joint finite element models. PMID:23027200

  8. Paradoxical Effects of Testing: Retrieval Enhances Both Accurate Recall and Suggestibility in Eyewitnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jason C. K.; Langley, Moses M.

    2011-01-01

    Although retrieval practice typically enhances memory retention, it can also impair subsequent eyewitness memory accuracy (Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009). Specifically, participants who had taken an initial test about a witnessed event were more likely than nontested participants to recall subsequently encountered misinformation--an effect we…

  9. Revisiting the blind tests in crystal structure prediction: accurate energy ranking of molecular crystals.

    PubMed

    Asmadi, Aldi; Neumann, Marcus A; Kendrick, John; Girard, Pascale; Perrin, Marc-Antoine; Leusen, Frank J J

    2009-12-24

    In the 2007 blind test of crystal structure prediction hosted by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a hybrid DFT/MM method correctly ranked each of the four experimental structures as having the lowest lattice energy of all the crystal structures predicted for each molecule. The work presented here further validates this hybrid method by optimizing the crystal structures (experimental and submitted) of the first three CCDC blind tests held in 1999, 2001, and 2004. Except for the crystal structures of compound IX, all structures were reminimized and ranked according to their lattice energies. The hybrid method computes the lattice energy of a crystal structure as the sum of the DFT total energy and a van der Waals (dispersion) energy correction. Considering all four blind tests, the crystal structure with the lowest lattice energy corresponds to the experimentally observed structure for 12 out of 14 molecules. Moreover, good geometrical agreement is observed between the structures determined by the hybrid method and those measured experimentally. In comparison with the correct submissions made by the blind test participants, all hybrid optimized crystal structures (apart from compound II) have the smallest calculated root mean squared deviations from the experimentally observed structures. It is predicted that a new polymorph of compound V exists under pressure. PMID:19950907

  10. The use of experimental bending tests to more accurate numerical description of TBC damage process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, T.; Golewski, P.

    2016-04-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been extensively used in aircraft engines to protect critical engine parts such as blades and combustion chambers, which are exposed to high temperatures and corrosive environment. The blades of turbine engines are additionally exposed to high mechanical loads. These loads are created by the high rotational speed of the rotor (30 000 rot/min), causing the tensile and bending stresses. Therefore, experimental testing of coated samples is necessary in order to determine strength properties of TBCs. Beam samples with dimensions 50×10×2 mm were used in those studies. The TBC system consisted of 150 μm thick bond coat (NiCoCrAlY) and 300 μm thick top coat (YSZ) made by APS (air plasma spray) process. Samples were tested by three-point bending test with various loads. After bending tests, the samples were subjected to microscopic observation to determine the quantity of cracks and their depth. The above mentioned results were used to build numerical model and calibrate material data in Abaqus program. Brittle cracking damage model was applied for the TBC layer, which allows to remove elements after reaching criterion. Surface based cohesive behavior was used to model the delamination which may occur at the boundary between bond coat and top coat.

  11. Preschool Developmental Screening with Denver II Test in Semi-Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eratay, Emine; Bayoglu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and reliability of screening semi-urban preschool children with Denver II, developmental and neurological status was examined in relation with one-year outcome. Methodology: Denver II developmental screening test was applied to 583 children who visited family physicians or other health centers in a province of…

  12. Fluorescent screens and image processing for the APS linac test stand

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, W.; Ko, K.

    1992-12-01

    A fluorescent screen was used to monitor relative beam position and spot size of a 56-MeV electron beam in the linac test stand. A chromium doped alumina ceramic screen inserted into the beam was monitored by a video camera. The resulting image was captured using a frame grabber and stored into memory. Reconstruction and analysis of the stored image was performed using PV-WAVE. This paper will discuss the hardware and software implementation of the fluorescent screen and imaging system. Proposed improvements for the APS linac fluorescent screens and image processing will also be discussed.

  13. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... greatest extent practicable, ensure that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process... test? 40.241 Section 40.241 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  14. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... greatest extent practicable, ensure that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process... test? 40.241 Section 40.241 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  15. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... greatest extent practicable, ensure that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process... test? 40.241 Section 40.241 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  16. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... greatest extent practicable, ensure that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process... test? 40.241 Section 40.241 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  17. Early Education Screening Test Battery of Basic Skills Development: Criteria for Personalizing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    The development and content of the Early Education Screening Test Battery are described elsewhere (TM 000 184). This report provides norms for the Gross Motor Test (GMO), Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), four scales of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and the Behavior Rating Scale…

  18. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? 40.229 Section 40.229 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.229...

  19. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? 40.229 Section 40.229 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.229...

  20. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? 40.229 Section 40.229 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.229...

  1. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? 40.229 Section 40.229 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.229...

  2. Papanicolaou test screening and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus among women who have sex with women.

    PubMed Central

    Marrazzo, J M; Koutsky, L A; Kiviat, N B; Kuypers, J M; Stine, K

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of and attitudes toward Papanicolaou (Pap) test screening in women who have sex with women (WSW) and to determine prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS: Women were eligible if they reported having engaged in sex with another woman in the preceding year Medical and sexual histories were obtained. Cervical specimens for Pap tests and cervical and vaginal specimens for HPV DNA testing were collected. RESULTS: HPV DNA was detected in 31 of 248 WSW (13%). Women who had never had sex with men were less likely to have undergone pelvic examinations and had fewer recent Pap tests. Reasons for not undergoing Pap tests included lack of insurance, previous adverse experiences, and belief that Pap tests were unnecessary. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the occurrence of genital HPV, WSW do not receive adequate Pap test screening. Pap test screening recommendations should not differ for WSW, regardless of sexual history with men. PMID:11392939

  3. Radon testing behavior in a sample of individuals with high home radon screening measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.W.; Kross, B.C.; Vust, L.J. )

    1993-08-01

    Although radon exposure has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer, fewer than 6% of US homeowners test their homes for radon. This report examines participants' follow-up radon testing behavior subsequent to receiving an initial screening radon level greater than 20 pCi/L. Sixty-two participants in the Iowa State-Wide Rural Radon Screening Survey who had radon screening measurements over 20 pCi/L were questioned by phone survey 3 months after receipt of their radon screening result to assess: whether participants were aware of radon's health risk; if participants recalled the radon screening results; how participants perceived the relative health risk of radon and whether participants planned follow-up radon testing. Only 19% of the respondents specifically identified lung cancer as the possible adverse health outcome of high radon exposure, and the majority of participants underestimated the health risks high radon levels pose when compared to cigarettes and x-rays. In addition, less than one third (29%) of the participants actually remembered their radon screening level within 10 pCi/L 3 months after receiving their screening results. Only 53% of the individuals correctly interpreted their screening radon level as being in the high range, and only 39% of the participants planned follow-up radon measurements. Receipt of radon screening test results indicating high radon levels was not an adequate motivational factor in itself to stimulate further radon assessment or mitigation. The findings suggest that free radon screening will not result in a dramatic increase in subsequent homeowner initiated remediation or further recommended radon testing. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  4. Rotating Arc Jet Test Model: Time-Accurate Trajectory Heat Flux Replication in a Ground Test Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, Bernard; Grinstead, Jay; Dyakonov, Artem; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2011-01-01

    Though arc jet testing has been the proven method employed for development testing and certification of TPS and TPS instrumentation, the operational aspects of arc jets limit testing to selected, but constant, conditions. Flight, on the other hand, produces timevarying entry conditions in which the heat flux increases, peaks, and recedes as a vehicle descends through an atmosphere. As a result, we are unable to "test as we fly." Attempts to replicate the time-dependent aerothermal environment of atmospheric entry by varying the arc jet facility operating conditions during a test have proven to be difficult, expensive, and only partially successful. A promising alternative is to rotate the test model exposed to a constant-condition arc jet flow to yield a time-varying test condition at a point on a test article (Fig. 1). The model shape and rotation rate can be engineered so that the heat flux at a point on the model replicates the predicted profile for a particular point on a flight vehicle. This simple concept will enable, for example, calibration of the TPS sensors on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) aeroshell for anticipated flight environments.

  5. Rapid Screening of Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides in a Whey Permeate Product and Domestic Animal Milks by Accurate Mass Database and Tandem Mass Spectral Library.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Otter, Don E; Barile, Daniela

    2016-08-17

    A bovine milk oligosaccharide (BMO) library, prepared from cow colostrum, with 34 structures was generated and used to rapidly screen oligosaccharides in domestic animal milks and a whey permeate powder. The novel library was entered into a custom Personal Compound Database and Library (PCDL) and included accurate mass, retention time, and tandem mass spectra. Oligosaccharides in minute-sized samples were separated using nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled to a high resolution and sensitive quadrupole-Time of Flight (Q-ToF) MS system. Using the PCDL, 18 oligosaccharides were found in a BMO-enriched product obtained from whey permeate processing. The usefulness of the analytical system and BMO library was further validated using milks from domestic sheep and buffaloes. Through BMO PCDL searching, 15 and 13 oligosaccharides in the BMO library were assigned in sheep and buffalo milks, respectively, thus demonstrating significant overlap between oligosaccharides in bovine (cow and buffalo) and ovine (sheep) milks. This method was shown to be an efficient, reliable, and rapid tool to identify oligosaccharide structures using automated spectral matching. PMID:27428379

  6. Combined first trimester nuchal translucency and second trimester biochemical screening tests among normal pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Herman, A; Weinraub, Z; Dreazen, E; Arieli, S; Rozansky, S; Bukovsky, I; Maymon, R

    2000-10-01

    We prospectively examined whether first trimester nuchal translucency (NT) and second trimester triple test (TT) results are correlated, and determined overlapping and mutual screen-positive rates. Results of NT, TT, amniocentesis and pregnancy outcome were obtained in 508 normal pregnancies. Inter-test correlation was performed by comparing the likelihood ratios (LR). Overlapping of screen-positive cases, of NT and TT, was determined by comparing mutual risks for Down syndrome (DS) livebirth of > or = 1:380. Combined screen-positive rates were evaluated by using summation risk (NT and/or TT exhibiting a risk > or = 1:380) and calculated risk (new risk > or / =1:380, based on multiplication of LR(NT) and LR(TT)). Screen-positive rates between NT and TT differed significantly and when either test showed an increased risk for DS, the probability of the other to predict the same was negligible (p<0.001). Overall screen-positive rates, at a risk > or = 1:380, were 2% and 5.7% for NT and TT, respectively. Summation and calculated combining methods were associated with 7.5% and 2.0% screen-positive rates, respectively. Amniocentesis was performed on 20.7% of the cases, mostly screen-negative ones. Our results showed that, in normal pregnancies, NT and TT do not correlate and that their combined calculated risk in normal pregnancies is associated with a low screen-positive rate of 2.0%. PMID:11038452

  7. Accurate time delay technology in simulated test for high precision laser range finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhibin; Xiao, Wenjian; Wang, Weiming; Xue, Mingxi

    2015-10-01

    With the continuous development of technology, the ranging accuracy of pulsed laser range finder (LRF) is higher and higher, so the maintenance demand of LRF is also rising. According to the dominant ideology of "time analog spatial distance" in simulated test for pulsed range finder, the key of distance simulation precision lies in the adjustable time delay. By analyzing and comparing the advantages and disadvantages of fiber and circuit delay, a method was proposed to improve the accuracy of the circuit delay without increasing the count frequency of the circuit. A high precision controllable delay circuit was designed by combining the internal delay circuit and external delay circuit which could compensate the delay error in real time. And then the circuit delay accuracy could be increased. The accuracy of the novel circuit delay methods proposed in this paper was actually measured by a high sampling rate oscilloscope actual measurement. The measurement result shows that the accuracy of the distance simulated by the circuit delay is increased from +/- 0.75m up to +/- 0.15m. The accuracy of the simulated distance is greatly improved in simulated test for high precision pulsed range finder.

  8. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP) as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Quach, D.T.; Sakoulas, G.; Nizet, V.; Pogliano, J.; Pogliano, K.

    2016-01-01

    Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP), which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant (MRSA) clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71) within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS) from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS) S. aureus strains (n = 20) within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice. PMID:26981574

  9. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP) as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Quach, D T; Sakoulas, G; Nizet, V; Pogliano, J; Pogliano, K

    2016-02-01

    Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP), which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant (MRSA) clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71) within 1-2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS) from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS) S. aureus strains (n = 20) within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice. PMID:26981574

  10. COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY - OBJECTIVE 2: DEVELOPING APPROACHES FOR PRIORITIZING CHEMICALS FOR SUBSEQUENT SCREENING AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the strategic objectives of the Computational Toxicology Program is to develop approaches for prioritizing chemicals for subsequent screening and testing. Approaches currently available for this process require extensive resources. Therefore, less costly and time-extensi...

  11. USE OF THE LABORATORY RAT AS A MODEL IN ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The screening and testing program the US Environmental Protection Agency is currently developing to detect endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. EDCs have been shown to alter the following activities: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal [HPG] function; estrogen, androge...

  12. STRATEGIES TO REDUCE OR REPLACE THE USE OF ANIMALS IN THE ENDOCRINE SCREENING AND TESTING PROGRAM.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to detect alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function, estrogen, androgen and thyroid hormone synthesis and androgen (AR...

  13. Screening of several drugs of abuse in Italian workplace drug testing: performance comparisons of on-site screening tests and a fluorescence polarization immunoassay-based device.

    PubMed

    Basilicata, Pascale; Pieri, Maria; Settembre, Veronica; Galdiero, Alessandra; Della Casa, Elvira; Acampora, Antonio; Miraglia, Nadia

    2011-11-15

    According to the Italian laws, some categories of workers entrusted with duties possibly constituting a threat to security, physical safety, and health of third parties have to be screened to exclude the use/abuse of the following drugs of abuse: opiates, cocaine, cannabinoids, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methadone, and buprenorphine. Toxicological tests can be performed with urinary on-site rapid screening devices, provided that sensitivities up to specified cutoffs are ensured. The present study reports performances, in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, of an automatic on-site test and of an FPIA-based device, using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as a reference methodology. Three levels of concentration were tested, corresponding to the cutoff and to 2 and 3 times the limits, respectively. In terms of sensitivities, neither the on-site nor the benchtop instrumentations gave positive results, since values of zero percentage were obtained for concentrations up to 2-fold the limits. Even if good results were obtained in terms of specificity and accuracy by both devices, none of them seem to be adequate for the current application to the toxicological screening at workplaces. In fact, a rapid screening device can be used for drug tests provided that it ensures sensitivity at the prescribed cutoffs. Data showed that such is completely rejected and a more sensitive instrumentation should be preferred. PMID:21992470

  14. Overview of Non-Volatile Testing and Screening Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh

    2001-01-01

    Testing methods for memories and non-volatile memories have become increasingly sophisticated as they become denser and more complex. High frequency and faster rewrite times as well as smaller feature sizes have led to many testing challenges. This paper outlines several testing issues posed by novel memories and approaches to testing for radiation and reliability effects. We discuss methods for measurements of Total Ionizing Dose (TID).

  15. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  19. Development of materials screening tests for oxygen-enriched environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. L.; Pippen, D. L.

    1971-01-01

    The criteria governing materials to be used in an oxygen enriched atmosphere and tests to determine suitability for fireproof considerations in spacecraft design are discussed. The nine tests applied to materials before acceptance in spacecraft construction are presented. The application of the standard tests to determine ranking of materials is included.

  20. Toward Joint Hypothesis-Tests Seismic Event Screening Analysis: Ms|mb and Event Depth

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale; Selby, Neil

    2012-08-14

    Well established theory can be used to combine single-phenomenology hypothesis tests into a multi-phenomenology event screening hypothesis test (Fisher's and Tippett's tests). Commonly used standard error in Ms:mb event screening hypothesis test is not fully consistent with physical basis. Improved standard error - Better agreement with physical basis, and correctly partitions error to include Model Error as a component of variance, correctly reduces station noise variance through network averaging. For 2009 DPRK test - Commonly used standard error 'rejects' H0 even with better scaling slope ({beta} = 1, Selby et al.), improved standard error 'fails to rejects' H0.

  1. Assessing the offspring of workaholic parents: the Children of Workaholics Screening Test.

    PubMed

    Robinson, B E; Carroll, J J

    1999-06-01

    This study reports initial stages in the development of a self-report instrument that measures offsprings' mental disposition toward their parents' work habits. In an initial sitting, a battery of tests was administered to 207 young adults to assess the reliability and validity of the Children of Workaholics Screening Test. After a 2-wk. interval, the test was administered again. Test-retest reliability, split-half reliability, and concurrent validity are reported. The findings provide strong support for the utility of the Children of Workaholics Screening Test for assessing the offspring of workaholic parents. PMID:10485093

  2. Evaluation of a standard test method for screening fuels in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Sorini, S.S.; Schabron, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    A new screening method for fuel contamination in soils was recently developed as American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method D-5831-95, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This method uses low-toxicity chemicals and can be sued to screen organic- rich soils, as well as being fast, easy, and inexpensive to perform. Fuels containing aromatic compounds, such as diesel fuel and gasoline, as well as other aromatic-containing hydrocarbon materials, such as motor oil, crude oil, and cola oil, can be determined. The screening method for fuels in soils was evaluated by conducting a Collaborative study on the method. In the Collaborative study, a sand and an organic soil spiked with various concentrations of diesel fuel were tested. Data from the Collaborative study were used to determine the reproducibility (between participants) and repeatability (within participants) precision of the method for screening the test materials. The Collaborative study data also provide information on the performance of portable field equipment (patent pending) versus laboratory equipment for performing the screening method and a comparison of diesel concentration values determined using the screening method versus a laboratory method.

  3. An Investigation to Validate the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) Test to Identify Children with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    van der Lely, Heather K. J.; Payne, Elisabeth; McClelland, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Background The extraordinarily high incidence of grammatical language impairments in developmental disorders suggests that this uniquely human cognitive function is “fragile”. Yet our understanding of the neurobiology of grammatical impairments is limited. Furthermore, there is no “gold-standard” to identify grammatical impairments and routine screening is not undertaken. An accurate screening test to identify grammatical abilities would serve the research, health and education communities, further our understanding of developmental disorders, and identify children who need remediation, many of whom are currently un-diagnosed. A potential realistic screening tool that could be widely administered is the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) test – a 10 minute test that can be administered by professionals and non-professionals alike. Here we provide a further step in evaluating the validity and accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the GAPS test in identifying children who have Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Methods and Findings We tested three groups of children; two groups aged 3;6–6:6, a typically developing (n = 30) group, and a group diagnosed with SLI: (n = 11) (Young (Y)-SLI), and a further group aged 6;9–8;11 with SLI (Older (O)-SLI) (n = 10) who were above the test age norms. We employed a battery of language assessments including the GAPS test to assess the children's language abilities. For Y-SLI children, analyses revealed a sensitivity and specificity at the 5th and 10th percentile of 1.00 and 0.98, respectively, and for O-SLI children at the 10th and 15th percentile .83 and .90, respectively. Conclusions The findings reveal that the GAPS is highly accurate in identifying impaired vs. non-impaired children up to 6;8 years, and has moderate-to-high accuracy up to 9 years. The results indicate that GAPS is a realistic tool for the early identification of grammatical abilities and impairment in young children. A larger

  4. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening

    PubMed Central

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  5. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  6. Background: Preflight Screening, In-flight Capabilities, and Postflight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Charles Robert; Duncan, James

    2009-01-01

    Recommendations for minimal in-flight capabilities: Retinal Imaging - provide in-flight capability for the visual monitoring of ocular health (specifically, imaging of the retina and optic nerve head) with the capability of downlinking video/still images. Tonometry - provide more accurate and reliable in-flight capability for measuring intraocular pressure. Ultrasound - explore capabilities of current on-board system for monitoring ocular health. We currently have limited in-flight capabilities on board the International Space Station for performing an internal ocular health assessment. Visual Acuity, Direct Ophthalmoscope, Ultrasound, Tonometry(Tonopen):

  7. Outreach sexual infection screening and postal tests in men who have sex with men: are they comparable to clinic screening?

    PubMed

    Wood, Martyn; Ellks, Rachael; Grobicki, Moira

    2015-05-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have higher rates of poor sexual health. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has produced guidance on increasing the uptake of HIV testing to reduce undiagnosed infection in MSM. We report the results of a pilot outreach sexually transmitted infection service using nurse-delivered screening and self-sampled postal testing at a sex on premises venue with comparison made against a sexual health clinic service. Thirty men were included in each group. Users of the nurse-delivered and postal services were older (nurse service median age 57.5 years vs. postal kit service 47 years vs. clinic 35.5 years, p ≤ 0.001). Outreach groups were less likely to have undertaken sexually transmitted infection testing previously than the clinic group (53.3% and 60% vs. 93.3%, p ≤ 0.001). Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae testing uptake was comparable across groups (nurse outreach 86.6%, 'do it yourself' postal kit 100% vs. clinic 100%, p = 0.032), but uptake for blood tests was lower in the postal kit group (nurse outreach 83.3%, postal kit 53.3% vs. clinic 100%, p ≤ 0.001). No significant difference in active sexually transmitted infection positivity across the groups was observed. This combination outreach screening approach is effective in targeting MSM who use sex on premises venues. PMID:24912535

  8. Newborn screening for citrin deficiency and carnitine uptake defect using second-tier molecular tests

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis is a powerful tool for newborn screening, and many rare inborn errors of metabolism are currently screened using MS/MS. However, the sensitivity of MS/MS screening for several inborn errors, including citrin deficiency (screened by citrulline level) and carnitine uptake defect (CUD, screened by free carnitine level), is not satisfactory. This study was conducted to determine whether a second-tier molecular test could improve the sensitivity of citrin deficiency and CUD detection without increasing the false-positive rate. Methods Three mutations in the SLC25A13 gene (for citrin deficiency) and one mutation in the SLC22A5 gene (for CUD) were analyzed in newborns who demonstrated an inconclusive primary screening result (with levels between the screening and diagnostic cutoffs). Results The results revealed that 314 of 46 699 newborns received a second-tier test for citrin deficiency, and two patients were identified; 206 of 30 237 newborns received a second-tier testing for CUD, and one patient was identified. No patients were identified using the diagnostic cutoffs. Although the incidences for citrin deficiency (1:23 350) and CUD (1:30 000) detected by screening are still lower than the incidences calculated from the mutation carrier rates, the second-tier molecular test increases the sensitivity of newborn screening for citrin deficiency and CUD without increasing the false-positive rate. Conclusions Utilizing a molecular second-tier test for citrin deficiency and carnitine transporter deficiency is feasible. PMID:23394329

  9. Cervical cancer screening of HPV vaccinated populations: Cytology, molecular testing, both or none.

    PubMed

    El-Zein, Mariam; Richardson, Lyndsay; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer control includes primary prevention through vaccination to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and secondary prevention through screening to detect and treat cervical precancerous lesions. This review summarizes the evidence for the population impact of vaccines against oncogenic HPV types in reducing the prevalence of cervical precancerous lesions. We examine the gradual shift in screening technology from cervical cytology alone to cytology and HPV cotesting, and finally to the recognition that HPV testing can serve alone as the new screening paradigm, particularly in the initial post-vaccination era. We should expect an impact on screening performance and practices, as cohorts of HPV-vaccinated girls and adolescents reach cervical cancer screening age. In preparation for changes in the screening paradigm for the vaccination era, we propose that policymaking on cervical cancer screening should mirror current practices with other cancers as benchmarks. Cervical precancerous lesions will become a very rare condition following the widespread implementation of HPV vaccines with broader coverage in the number of preventable oncogenic types. Irrespective of screening technology, the false positive results will far outnumber the true positive ones, a tipping point that will herald a new period when the harms from cervical cancer screening will outweigh its benefits. We present a conceptual framework to guide decision making when we reach this point within 25-30 years. PMID:26631958

  10. Application of ORAL.screen saliva drug test for the screening of methamphetamine, MDMA, and MDEA incorporated in hair.

    PubMed

    Miki, Akihiro; Katagi, Munehiro; Shima, Noriaki; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi

    2004-03-01

    By the use of a one-step immunoassay drug test for oral fluid, a convenient and fairly sensitive screening method has been devised for methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) incorporated in hair. These drugs, in a 10-mg portion of hair, were extracted into 5M HCl/methanol (1:20, v/v), and the extract reconstituted in 100 micro L water was assayed with the saliva drug test ORAL.screen trade mark. The limits of detection were 0.5 ng/mg hair for d-MA, 0.8 ng/mg for dl-MDMA, and 1.0 ng/mg for dl-MDEA. The results are in good agreement with those of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. Although all positive results must be confirmed by either GC-MS or a specific alternative methodology, this method provided a simple screening, suitable for drug enforcement purposes, while requiring only a 10-mg hair specimen. PMID:15068568

  11. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and gUidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemic...

  12. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals... Qualifications When the Aircraft Operator Performs Screening § 1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of... on-the-job training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft operator...

  13. The Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) as a Predictor of Third-Grade Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichta, Lawrence J., Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Evaluated the Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) using a sample of 28 third graders. The third graders' scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test were correlated with their total STAR scores from prekindergarten testing. Results showed the STAR is a useful instrument for predicting third grade achievement. (Author/JAC)

  14. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... death and complications caused by colorectal cancer. SCREENING TESTS There are several ways to screen for colon ...

  15. [Return for HIV test results after voluntary screening in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that individuals who voluntarily undergo an HIV test in PVTCCs of the Douala district hospitals in Cameroon perceived real advantages and very few disadvantages and barriers to know their HIV status. Particular attention should be given to organizational factors that may be responsible for failure to return for HIV test results and post-test counselling.. PMID:27531439

  16. Stretch calculated from grip distance accurately approximates mid-specimen stretch in large elastic arteries in uniaxial tensile tests.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lian; Henningsen, Joseph; Salick, Max R; Crone, Wendy C; Gunderson, McLean; Dailey, Seth H; Chesler, Naomi C

    2015-07-01

    The mechanical properties of vascular tissues affect hemodynamics and can alter disease progression. The uniaxial tensile test is a simple and effective method for determining the stress-strain relationship in arterial tissue ex vivo. To enable calculation of strain, stretch can be measured directly with image tracking of markers on the tissue or indirectly from the distance between the grips used to hold the specimen. While the imaging technique is generally considered more accurate, it also requires more analysis, and the grip distance method is more widely used. The purpose of this study is to compare the stretch of the testing specimen calculated from the grip distance method to that obtained from the imaging method for canine descending aortas and large proximal pulmonary arteries. Our results showed a significant difference in stretch between the two methods; however, this difference was consistently less than 2%. Therefore, the grip distance method is an accurate approximation of the stretch in large elastic arteries in the uniaxial tensile test. PMID:25881308

  17. Stretch calculated from grip distance accurately approximates mid-specimen stretch in large elastic arteries in uniaxial tensile tests

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lian; Henningsen, Joseph; Salick, Max R.; Crone, Wendy C.; Gunderson, McLean; Dailey, Seth H.; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of vascular tissues affect hemodynamics and can alter disease progression. The uniaxial tensile test is a simple and effective method for determining the stress-strain relationship in arterial tissue ex vivo. To enable calculation of strain, stretch can be measured directly with image tracking of markers on the tissue or indirectly from the distance between the grips used to hold the specimen. While the imaging technique is generally considered more accurate, it also requires more analysis, and the grip distance method is more widely used. The purpose of this study is to compare the stretch of the testing specimen calculated from the grip distance method to that obtained from the imaging method for canine descending aortas and large proximal pulmonary arteries. Our results showed a significant difference in stretch between the two methods; however, this difference was consistently less than 2%. Therefore, the grip distance method is an accurate approximation of the stretch in large elastic arteries in the uniaxial tensile test. PMID:25881308

  18. Automated screening of propulsion system test data by neural networks, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, W. Andes; Whitehead, Bruce A.

    1992-01-01

    The evaluation of propulsion system test and flight performance data involves reviewing an extremely large volume of sensor data generated by each test. An automated system that screens large volumes of data and identifies propulsion system parameters which appear unusual or anomalous will increase the productivity of data analysis. Data analysts may then focus on a smaller subset of anomalous data for further evaluation of propulsion system tests. Such an automated data screening system would give NASA the benefit of a reduction in the manpower and time required to complete a propulsion system data evaluation. A phase 1 effort to develop a prototype data screening system is reported. Neural networks will detect anomalies based on nominal propulsion system data only. It appears that a reasonable goal for an operational system would be to screen out 95 pct. of the nominal data, leaving less than 5 pct. needing further analysis by human experts.

  19. Fecal DNA testing for colorectal cancer screening: Molecular targets and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Dhaliwal, Amaninder; Vlachostergios, Panagiotis J; Oikonomou, Katerina G; Moshenyat, Yitzchak

    2015-01-01

    The early detection of colorectal cancer with effective screening is essential for reduction of cancer-specific mortality. The addition of fecal DNA testing in the armamentarium of screening methods already in clinical use launches a new era in the noninvasive part of colorectal cancer screening and emanates from a large number of previous and ongoing clinical investigations and technological advancements. In this review, we discuss the molecular rational and most important genetic alterations hallmarking the early colorectal carcinogenesis process. Also, representative DNA targets-markers and key aspects of their testing at the clinical level in comparison or/and association with other screening methods are described. Finally, a critical view of the strengths and limitations of fecal DNA tests is provided, along with anticipated barriers and suggestions for further exploitation of their use. PMID:26483873

  20. Adaptation of High-Throughput Screening in Drug Discovery—Toxicological Screening Tests

    PubMed Central

    Szymański, Paweł; Markowicz, Magdalena; Mikiciuk-Olasik, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is one of the newest techniques used in drug design and may be applied in biological and chemical sciences. This method, due to utilization of robots, detectors and software that regulate the whole process, enables a series of analyses of chemical compounds to be conducted in a short time and the affinity of biological structures which is often related to toxicity to be defined. Since 2008 we have implemented the automation of this technique and as a consequence, the possibility to examine 100,000 compounds per day. The HTS method is more frequently utilized in conjunction with analytical techniques such as NMR or coupled methods e.g., LC-MS/MS. Series of studies enable the establishment of the rate of affinity for targets or the level of toxicity. Moreover, researches are conducted concerning conjugation of nanoparticles with drugs and the determination of the toxicity of such structures. For these purposes there are frequently used cell lines. Due to the miniaturization of all systems, it is possible to examine the compound’s toxicity having only 1–3 mg of this compound. Determination of cytotoxicity in this way leads to a significant decrease in the expenditure and to a reduction in the length of the study. PMID:22312262

  1. POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: COAL GASIFICATION SCREENING TEST RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal gasification test runs have been conducted in a semibatch, fixed-bed laboratory gasifier in order to evaluate various coals and operating conditions for pollutant generation. Thirty-eight tests have been completed using char, coal, lignite, and peat. Extensive analyses were ...

  2. Improving newborn screening laboratory test ordering and result reporting using health information exchange.

    PubMed

    Downs, Stephen M; van Dyck, Peter C; Rinaldo, Piero; McDonald, Clement; Howell, R Rodrey; Zuckerman, Alan; Downing, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Capture, coding and communication of newborn screening (NBS) information represent a challenge for public health laboratories, health departments, hospitals, and ambulatory care practices. An increasing number of conditions targeted for screening and the complexity of interpretation contribute to a growing need for integrated information-management strategies. This makes NBS an important test of tools and architecture for electronic health information exchange (HIE) in this convergence of individual patient care and population health activities. For this reason, the American Health Information Community undertook three tasks described in this paper. First, a newborn screening use case was established to facilitate standards harmonization for common terminology and interoperability specifications guiding HIE. Second, newborn screening coding and terminology were developed for integration into electronic HIE activities. Finally, clarification of privacy, security, and clinical laboratory regulatory requirements governing information exchange was provided, serving as a framework to establish pathways for improving screening program timeliness, effectiveness, and efficiency of quality patient care services. PMID:20064796

  3. Improving newborn screening laboratory test ordering and result reporting using health information exchange

    PubMed Central

    van Dyck, Peter C; Rinaldo, Piero; McDonald, Clement; Howell, R Rodrey; Zuckerman, Alan; Downing, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Capture, coding and communication of newborn screening (NBS) information represent a challenge for public health laboratories, health departments, hospitals, and ambulatory care practices. An increasing number of conditions targeted for screening and the complexity of interpretation contribute to a growing need for integrated information-management strategies. This makes NBS an important test of tools and architecture for electronic health information exchange (HIE) in this convergence of individual patient care and population health activities. For this reason, the American Health Information Community undertook three tasks described in this paper. First, a newborn screening use case was established to facilitate standards harmonization for common terminology and interoperability specifications guiding HIE. Second, newborn screening coding and terminology were developed for integration into electronic HIE activities. Finally, clarification of privacy, security, and clinical laboratory regulatory requirements governing information exchange was provided, serving as a framework to establish pathways for improving screening program timeliness, effectiveness, and efficiency of quality patient care services. PMID:20064796

  4. Space Shuttle reaction control subsystem propellant tank masked screen test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    During final development testing of the Space Shuttle Reaction Control Subsystem propellant tanks, a problem with pressure transients in the system was uncovered. Due to the nature of the tanks, performance tests to determine the impact of the transients on the expulsion efficiency of the tanks could not directly simulate the actual conditions which would be present in a low-gravity environment. However, by masking or covering various segments of the propellant acquisition device, a good simulation of a low-gravity environment was achieved in ground testing.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness between Double and Single Fecal Immunochemical Test(s) in a Mass Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shan-Rong; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Huang, Yan-Qin; Li, Qi-Long; Ma, Xin-Yuan; Zhang, Su-Zhan; Zheng, Shu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the cost-effectiveness between double and single Fecal Immunochemical Test(s) (FIT) in a mass CRC screening. A two-stage sequential screening was conducted. FIT was used as a primary screening test and recommended twice by an interval of one week at the first screening stage. We defined the first-time FIT as FIT1 and the second-time FIT as FIT2. If either FIT1 or FIT2 was positive (+), then a colonoscopy was recommended at the second stage. Costs were recorded and analyzed. A total of 24,419 participants completed either FIT1 or FIT2. The detection rate of advanced neoplasm was 19.2% among both FIT1+ and FIT2+, especially high among men with age ≥55 (27.4%). About 15.4% CRC, 18.9% advanced neoplasm, and 29.9% adenoma missed by FIT1 were detected by FIT2 alone. Average cost was $2,935 for double FITs and $2,121 for FIT1 to detect each CRC and $901 for double FITs and $680 for FIT1 to detect each advanced neoplasm. Double FITs are overall more cost-effective, having significantly higher positive and detection rates with an acceptable higher cost, than single FIT. Double FITs should be encouraged for the first screening in a mass CRC screening, especially in economically and medically underserved populations/areas/countries. PMID:27144171

  6. Comprehensive Carrier Screening and Molecular Diagnostic Testing for Recessive Childhood Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kingsmore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Of 7,028 disorders with suspected Mendelian inheritance, 1,139 are recessive and have an established molecular basis. Although individually uncommon, Mendelian diseases collectively account for ~20% of infant mortality and ~18% of pediatric hospitalizations. Molecular diagnostic testing is currently available for only ~300 recessive disorders. Preconception screening, together with genetic counseling of carriers, has resulted in remarkable declines in the incidence of several severe recessive diseases including Tay-Sachs disease and cystic fibrosis. However, extension of preconception screening and molecular diagnostic testing to most recessive disease genes has hitherto been impractical. Recently, we reported a preconception carrier screen / molecular diagnostic test for 448 recessive childhood diseases. The current status of this test is reviewed here. Currently, this reports analytical validity of the comprehensive carrier test. As the clinical validity and clinical utility in the contexts described is ascertained, this article will be updated. PMID:22872815

  7. Classification of audiograms by sequential testing: reliability and validity of an automated behavioral hearing screening algorithm.

    PubMed

    Eilers, R E; Ozdamar, O; Steffens, M L

    1993-05-01

    In 1990, CAST (classification of audiograms by sequential testing) was proposed and developed as an automated, innovative approach to screening infant hearing using a modified Bayesian method. The method generated a four-frequency audiogram in a minimal number of test trials using VRA (visual reinforcement audiometry) techniques. Computer simulations were used to explore the properties (efficiency and accuracy) of the paradigm. The current work is designed to further test the utility of the paradigm with human infants and young children. Accordingly, infants and children between 6 months and 2 years of age were screened for hearing loss. The algorithm's efficacy was studied with respect to validity and reliability. Validity was evaluated by comparing CAST results with tympanometric data and outcomes of staircase-based testing. Test-retest reliability was also assessed. Results indicate that CAST is a valid, efficient, reliable, and potentially cost-effective screening method. PMID:8318708

  8. Comprehensive carrier screening and molecular diagnostic testing for recessive childhood diseases.

    PubMed

    Kingsmore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Of 7,028 disorders with suspected Mendelian inheritance, 1,139 are recessive and have an established molecular basis. Although individually uncommon, Mendelian diseases collectively account for ~20% of infant mortality and ~18% of pediatric hospitalizations. Molecular diagnostic testing is currently available for only ~300 recessive disorders. Preconception screening, together with genetic counseling of carriers, has resulted in remarkable declines in the incidence of several severe recessive diseases including Tay-Sachs disease and cystic fibrosis. However, extension of preconception screening and molecular diagnostic testing to most recessive disease genes has hitherto been impractical. Recently, we reported a preconception carrier screen / molecular diagnostic test for 448 recessive childhood diseases. The current status of this test is reviewed here. Currently, this reports analytical validity of the comprehensive carrier test. As the clinical validity and clinical utility in the contexts described is ascertained, this article will be updated. PMID:22872815

  9. The Double Knee Swing Test - a practical example of The Performance Matrix Movement Screen.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Warrick

    2014-07-01

    Movement screens have been suggested as an appropriate tool to identify 'uncontrolled movement' within the human neuromusculoskeletal system. Movement screens test the Central Nervous System along with the muscular system, for their combined ability to successfully control low threshold forces, such as those affecting posture and alignment, or, high threshold forces, such as those requiring muscular strength to control. Further information such as the identification of an anatomical site and direction of a potential uncontrolled movement can be elicited by this type of testing. This paper describes a low threshold, movement screen test, designed to be part of a battery of tests, which when used as a whole, can identify injury risk or factors affecting performance limitations. The testing is suggested to be a suitable assessment tool for Pilates Teachers working in a rehabilitative environment. PMID:25042325

  10. Optimisation and Assessment of Three Modern Touch Screen Tablet Computers for Clinical Vision Testing

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Humza J.; Murray, Ian J.; Parry, Neil R. A.; Aslam, Tariq M.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration. PMID:24759774

  11. Colorectal cancer screening programme by faecal occult blood test in Tuscany: first round results.

    PubMed

    Grazzini, G; Castiglione, G; Ciabattoni, C; Franceschini, F; Giorgi, D; Gozzi, S; Mantellini, P; Lopane, P; Perco, M; Rubeca, T; Salvadori, P; Visioli, C B; Zappa, M

    2004-02-01

    Screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has been shown to be effective in reducing mortality from colorectal cancer. Tuscany was the first region in Italy in which a screening programme for colorectal cancer by FOBT was initiated region-wide. The aim of the paper was to describe organizational aspects, a quality control model and the results of this experience. From June 2000 to December 2001, 192583 subjects aged 50-70 were invited to undergo a 1-day immunochemical test without any dietary restriction. A total of 78505 subjects (41%) performed the screening test, of whom 4537 responders had a positive test result (5.8%). Among them, 1122 refused any form of assessment or underwent a colonoscopy outside the screening referral centres, with an overall assessment compliance of 75.3%. Malignancies were found in 193 patients and at least a high-risk adenomatous polyp in 692 patients. In about a quarter of the positive subjects who underwent assessment, cancer or high-risk adenoma was detected. In conclusion, data from this experience supported the feasibility of biennial colorectal screening programme by FOBT, particularly regarding invitation compliance and positivity rate. Further efforts are necessary to implement screening extension and to improve data collection. PMID:15075784

  12. On Efficient and Accurate Calculation of Significance P-Values for Sequence Kernel Association Testing of Variant Set.

    PubMed

    Wu, Baolin; Guan, Weihua; Pankow, James S

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss and develop alternative computational methods to accurately and efficiently calculate significance P-values for the commonly used sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and adaptive sum of SKAT and burden test (SKAT-O) for variant set association. We show that the existing software can lead to either conservative or inflated type I errors. We develop alternative and efficient computational algorithms that quickly compute the SKAT P-value and have well-controlled type I errors. In addition, we derive an alternative and simplified formula for calculating the significance P-value of SKAT-O, which sheds light on the development of efficient and accurate numerical algorithms. We implement the proposed methods in the publicly available R package that can be readily used or adapted to large-scale sequencing studies. Given that more and more large-scale exome and whole genome sequencing or re-sequencing studies are being conducted, the proposed methods are practically very important. We conduct extensive numerical studies to investigate the performance of the proposed methods. We further illustrate their usefulness with application to associations between rare exonic variants and fasting glucose levels in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. PMID:26757198

  13. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies.

    PubMed

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi

    2009-09-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination. PMID:19901435

  14. Non-targeted screening for contaminants in paper and board food-contact materials using effect-directed analysis and accurate mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bengtström, Linda; Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Trier, Xenia; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger; Granby, Kit; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Driffield, Malcolm; Højslev Petersen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Due to large knowledge gaps in chemical composition and toxicological data for substances involved, paper and board food-contact materials (P&B FCM) have been emerging as a FCM type of particular concern for consumer safety. This study describes the development of a step-by-step strategy, including extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, tentative identification of relevant substances and in vitro testing of selected tentatively identified substances. As a case study, we used two fractions from a recycled pizza box sample which exhibited aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity. These fractions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometers (QTOF MS) in order tentatively to identify substances. The elemental composition was determined for peaks above a threshold, and compared with entries in a commercial mass spectral library for GC-MS (GC-EI-QTOF MS) analysis and an in-house built library of accurate masses for substances known to be used in P&B packaging for UHPLC-QTOF analysis. Of 75 tentatively identified substances, 15 were initially selected for further testing in vitro; however, only seven were commercially available and subsequently tested in vitro and quantified. Of these seven, the identities of three pigments found in printing inks were confirmed by UHPLC tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ MS/MS). Two pigments had entries in the database, meaning that a material relevant accurate mass database can provide a fast tentative identification. Pure standards of the seven tentatively identified substances were tested in vitro but could not explain a significant proportion of the AhR-response in the extract. Targeted analyses of dioxins and PCBs, both well-known AhR agonists, was performed. However, the dioxins could explain approximately 3% of the activity observed in the pizza box extract indicating that some very AhR active substance(s) still remain to be

  15. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... means diabetes mellitus, a condition of abnormal glucose metabolism diagnosed using the following... post-glucose challenge greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL on two different occasions; or a random glucose test over 200 mg/dL for a person with symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes. Pre-diabetes means...

  16. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... means diabetes mellitus, a condition of abnormal glucose metabolism diagnosed using the following... post-glucose challenge greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL on two different occasions; or a random glucose test over 200 mg/dL for a person with symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes. Pre-diabetes means...

  17. COMPARATIVE SENSITIVITY OF NEUROBEHAVIORAL TESTS FOR CHEMICAL SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Guidelines for conducting neurobehavioral tests of motor activity, schedule-controlled operant performance, and a functional observational battery (FOB) were published by the U.S. EPA Office of Toxic Substances (1985). e have utilized a specific FOB protocol in conjunction with m...

  18. Rapid toxicity screening tests for aquatic biota. 1. Methodology and experiments with Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, C.R.; Persoone, G. )

    1993-04-01

    A promising new and rapid toxicity screening test was developed, the concept and principles of which are presented. The method consists of visual observation of in vivo inhibition of an enzymatic process, using a fluorescent substrate. Juvenile Daphnia magna was exposed to a toxicant dilution series for 1 h, after which the substrate was added and the enzymatic inhibition was observed visually, using a long-wave UV light. The 1-h EC50 results of 11 pure compounds are presented and compared to the conventional 24- and 48-h Daphnia magna EC50s. All 1-h fluorescence EC50s were of the same order of magnitude and correlated very well with the 24- and 48-h EC50s. The sensitivity and reproducibility of this cost-effective screening test were compared to those of the Microtox[reg sign] test. The scope for application and the potential of this new rapid toxicity screening test are evaluated.

  19. Evaluation of Hydroxyatrazine in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program’s Male and Female Pubertal Protocols.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of Hydroxyatrazine in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program’s Male and Female Pubertal Protocols. ABSTRACT Two critical components of the validation of any in vivo screening assay are to demonstrate sensitivity (ability to detect weak endocrine ...

  20. Assessing the relative accuracies of two screening tests in the presence of verification bias.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X H; Higgs, R E

    Epidemiological studies of dementia often use two-stage designs because of the relatively low prevalence of the disease and the high cost of ascertaining a diagnosis. The first stage of a two-stage design assesses a large sample with a screening instrument. Then, the subjects are grouped according to their performance on the screening instrument, such as poor, intermediate and good performers. The second stage involves a more extensive diagnostic procedure, such as a clinical assessment, for a particular subset of the study sample selected from each of these groups. However, not all selected subjects have the clinical diagnosis because some subjects may refuse and others are unable to be clinically assessed. Thus, some subjects screened do not have a clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, whether a subject has a clinical diagnosis depends not only on the screening test result but also on other factors, and the sampling fractions for the diagnosis are unknown and have to be estimated. One of the goals in these studies is to assess the relative accuracies of two screening tests. Any analysis using only verified cases may result in verification bias. In this paper, we propose the use of two bootstrap methods to construct confidence intervals for the difference in the accuracies of two screening tests in the presence of verification bias. We illustrate the application of the proposed methods to a simulated data set from a real two-stage study of dementia that has motivated this research. PMID:10844728

  1. A Comparison of Two Screening Tests (the Matrix Analogies Test--Short Form and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test) with the WISC-III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewett, Peter N.

    1995-01-01

    The concurrent validity of 2 brief intelligence tests, the Matrix Analogies Test-Short Form (MAT) and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) using a sample of 50 urban students. The MAT and K-BIT appeared equally useful as screening tests. (SLD)

  2. Multiple marker screening test: identification of fetal cystic hygroma, hydrops, and sex chromosome aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Wenstrom, K D; Boots, L R; Cosper, P C

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if the multiple marker screening test (maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, human chorionic gonadotrophin, and maternal age) detects fetal Turner syndrome or just cystic hygroma/hydrops. Multiple marker screening tests from 4 groups were compared: 1) Turner syndrome with hydrops/ hygroma group (n = 10) = fetuses with cystic hygroma/hydrops and a 45X karyotype, 2) Turner syndrome without hydrops/hygroma (n = 9) = sonographically unremarkable fetal Turner syndrome or Turner mosaic, 3) hydrops group (n = 8) = all cases of fetal cystic hygroma/hydrops excluding Turner syndrome, 4) sex chromosome aneuploidy group (n = 16) = other sonographically normal fetal sex chromosome aneuploidies. Positive screening tests (Down syndrome risk > or = 1:190 or MSAFP > or = 2.5 MOM) were found in 60% (6/10) of the Turner syndrome with hydrops/hygroma group, but only 11% (1/9) of the Turner syndrome without hydrops/hygroma group (P = .04). The incidence of positive screening tests in the Hydrops group was 75% (6/8), while it was only 12.5% (2/16) in the other sex chromosome aneuploidy group. We conclude that the multiple marker screening test identifies fetuses with cystic hygroma/hydrops, and may do so independently of the etiology of the hydrops. PMID:8796763

  3. Evaluation of three methods using deoxyribonuclease production as a screening test for Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Black, W. A.; Hodgson, R.; McKechnie, Ann

    1971-01-01

    Deoxyribonuclease (DNase) produced by Serratia marcescens is a characteristic feature which is useful in distinguishing this organism from closely related members of the Enterobacteriaceae. In an assessment of three methods of performing the DNase test as a screening procedure for Serratia marcescens, the conclusion was reached that the standard test was most suitable for use in the clinical bacteriology laboratory. PMID:4933661

  4. Does sensitivity measured from screening test-sets predict clinical performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, BaoLin P.; Lee, Warwick B.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia R.; Tapia, Kriscia A.; Ryan, John; Hung, Wai Tak; Thompson, Graham J.; Heard, Rob; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2014-03-01

    Aim: To examine the relationship between sensitivity measured from the BREAST test-set and clinical performance. Background: Although the UK and Australia national breast screening programs have regarded PERFORMS and BREAST test-set strategies as possible methods of estimating readers' clinical efficacy, the relationship between test-set and real life performance results has never been satisfactorily understood. Methods: Forty-one radiologists from BreastScreen New South Wales participated in this study. Each reader interpreted a BREAST test-set which comprised sixty de-identified mammographic examinations sourced from the BreastScreen Digital Imaging Library. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to compare the sensitivity measured from the BREAST test-set with screen readers' clinical audit data. Results: Results shown statistically significant positive moderate correlations between test-set sensitivity and each of the following metrics: rate of invasive cancer per 10 000 reads (r=0.495; p < 0.01); rate of small invasive cancer per 10 000 reads (r=0.546; p < 0.001); detection rate of all invasive cancers and DCIS per 10 000 reads (r=0.444; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Comparison between sensitivity measured from the BREAST test-set and real life detection rate demonstrated statistically significant positive moderate correlations which validated that such test-set strategies can reflect readers' clinical performance and be used as a quality assurance tool. The strength of correlation demonstrated in this study was higher than previously found by others.

  5. Assessment of an Interactive Computer-Based Patient Prenatal Genetic Screening and Testing Education Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jennifer M.; Sorenson, James R.; Bowling, J. Michael; Jennings-Grant, Tracey

    2005-01-01

    The Enhancing Patient Prenatal Education study tested the feasibility and educational impact of an interactive program for patient prenatal genetic screening and testing education. Patients at two private practices and one public health clinic participated (N = 207). The program collected knowledge and measures of anxiety before and after use of…

  6. Memory-Context Effects of Screen Color in Multiple-Choice and Fill-In Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestera, Gustavo E.; Clariana, Roy; Peck, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    In this experimental study, 44 undergraduates completed five computer-based instructional lessons and either two multiplechoice tests or two fill-in-the-blank tests. Color-coded borders were displayed during the lesson, adjacent to the screen text and illustrations. In the experimental condition, corresponding border colors were shown at posttest.…

  7. Report of the Results of the Screening Test Developed by the Early Decoding Strategies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Julia; Rothstein, Evelyn

    As part of a two-year project that examined the processes by which children initially approach the reading task, a screening test was designed to aid in the selection of the four kindergarten children who were to participate in the project. Consisting of seven parts, the test asked each child to do the following tasks: write his/her name; isolate…

  8. Simple Screening Test for Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm in the Middle School Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Tyler J.; Baker, Rachel H.; Weiss, Jason B.; Weiss, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This article recommends and provides results from a simple screening test that could be incorporated into a standardized school evaluation for all children participating in sports and physical education classes. The test can be employed by physical educators utilizing their own gym to identify children who demonstrate signs of exercise-induced…

  9. Pedigree-based random effect tests to screen gene pathways.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Marcio; Peralta, Juan M; Farook, Vidya; Puppala, Sobha; Kent, John W; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Blangero, John

    2014-01-01

    The new generation of sequencing platforms opens new horizons in the genetics field. It is possible to exhaustively assay all genetic variants in an individual and search for phenotypic associations. The whole genome sequencing approach, when applied to a large human sample like the San Antonio Family Study, detects a very large number (>25 million) of single nucleotide variants along with other more complex variants. The analytical challenges imposed by this number of variants are formidable, suggesting that methods are needed to reduce the overall number of statistical tests. In this study, we develop a single degree-of-freedom test of variants in a gene pathway employing a random effect model that uses an empirical pathway-specific genetic relationship matrix as the focal covariance kernel. The empirical pathway-specific genetic relationship uses all variants (or a chosen subset) from gene members of a given biological pathway. Using SOLAR's pedigree-based variance components modeling, which also allows for arbitrary fixed effects, such as principal components, to deal with latent population structure, we employ a likelihood ratio test of the pathway-specific genetic relationship matrix model. We examine all gene pathways in KEGG database gene pathways using our method in the first replicate of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 simulation of systolic blood pressure. Our random effect approach was able to detect true association signals in causal gene pathways. Those pathways could be easily be further dissected by the independent analysis of all markers. PMID:25519354

  10. Primary care provider practices and beliefs related to cervical cancer screening with the HPV test in Federally Qualified Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Roland, K.B.; Benard, V.B.; Greek, A.; Hawkins, N.A.; Manninen, D.; Saraiya, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer screening using the human papillomavirus (HPV) test and Pap test together (co-testing) is an option for average-risk women ≥30 years of age. With normal co-test results, screening intervals can be extended. The study objective is to assess primary care provider practices, beliefs, facilitators and barriers to using the co-test and extending screening intervals among low-income women. Method Data were collected from 98 providers in 15 Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) clinics in Illinois between August 2009 and March 2010 using a cross-sectional survey. Results 39% of providers reported using the co-test, and 25% would recommend a three-year screening interval for women with normal co-test results. Providers perceived greater encouragement for co-testing than for extending screening intervals with a normal co-test result. Barriers to extending screening intervals included concerns about patients not returning annually for other screening tests (77%), patient concerns about missing cancer (62%), and liability (52%). Conclusion Among FQHC providers in Illinois, few administered the co-test for screening and recommended appropriate intervals, possibly due to concerns over loss to follow-up and liability. Education regarding harms of too-frequent screening and false positives may be necessary to balance barriers to extending screening intervals. PMID:23628517

  11. Risk-Reducing Salpingo-oophorectomy and Ovarian Cancer Screening in 1077 Women After BRCA Testing

    PubMed Central

    Mannis, Gabriel N.; Fehniger, Julia E.; Creasman, Jennifer S.; Jacoby, Vanessa L.; Beattie, Mary S.

    2016-01-01

    Background For women at potentially increased risk for ovarian cancer, data regarding screening and risk reduction are limited. Previous studies have reported on the behaviors of BRCA mutation carriers, but less is known about the behaviors of non-BRCA carriers. We surveyed a large cohort of women after BRCA testing to identify the prevalence and posttest predictors of risk-reducing and screening interventions. Methods A median of 3.7 years after BRCA testing, 1447 women who received genetic counseling and BRCA testing at 2 hospital sites were surveyed, with a 77.6% response rate. We analyzed data from 1077 survey respondents. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify predictors of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), screening transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS), and screening serum cancer antigen 125 (CA-125). Results Among the respondents, 201 women (18.7%) received positive test results for a deleterious mutation, 103 women (9.6%) received true-negative results, and 773 women (71.8%) received uninformative results. Overall, 19.1% of eligible women underwent RRSO and 39.6% used screening procedures. A positive BRCA result predicted RRSO (odds ratio [OR], 28.1; 95% CI, 16.2-48.6), TVUS (9.5 [4.3-21.0]), and serum CA-125 (13.0 [5.5-29.0]). Similarly, a true-negative BRCA result reduced the OR for RRSO (0.1 [0.0-0.6]), TVUS (0.2 [0.1-0.5]), and serum CA-125 (0.3 [0.1-0.7]). Of the 71.8% of women who received uninformative results after BRCA testing, 12.3% subsequently underwent RRSO, 33.8% reported ever having undergone screening serum CA-125 since BRCA testing, and 37.3% reported ever having undergone screening TVUS since BRCA testing. Conclusions Results of BRCA testing strongly predict RRSO and ovarian cancer screening. Use of RRSO and ovarian screening was reported in a sizable percentage of non-BRCA carriers despite insufficient data to determine the effectiveness of these interventions. PMID:23247828

  12. The Clinical and Economic Benefits of Co-Testing Versus Primary HPV Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening: A Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Juan C.; Lacey, Michael J.; Lenhart, Gregory M.; Spitzer, Mark; Kulkarni, Rucha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Consensus United States cervical cancer screening guidelines recommend use of combination Pap plus human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for women aged 30 to 65 years. An HPV test was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2014 for primary cervical cancer screening in women age 25 years and older. Here, we present the results of clinical-economic comparisons of Pap plus HPV mRNA testing including genotyping for HPV 16/18 (co-testing) versus DNA-based primary HPV testing with HPV 16/18 genotyping and reflex cytology (HPV primary) for cervical cancer screening. Methods: A health state transition (Markov) model with 1-year cycling was developed using epidemiologic, clinical, and economic data from healthcare databases and published literature. A hypothetical cohort of one million women receiving triennial cervical cancer screening was simulated from ages 30 to 70 years. Screening strategies compared HPV primary to co-testing. Outcomes included total and incremental differences in costs, invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases, ICC deaths, number of colposcopies, and quality-adjusted life years for cost-effectiveness calculations. Comprehensive sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: In a simulation cohort of one million 30-year-old women modeled up to age 70 years, the model predicted that screening with HPV primary testing instead of co-testing could lead to as many as 2,141 more ICC cases and 2,041 more ICC deaths. In the simulation, co-testing demonstrated a greater number of lifetime quality-adjusted life years (22,334) and yielded $39.0 million in savings compared with HPV primary, thereby conferring greater effectiveness at lower cost. Conclusions: Model results demonstrate that co-testing has the potential to provide improved clinical and economic outcomes when compared with HPV primary. While actual cost and outcome data are evaluated, these findings are relevant to U.S. healthcare payers and women's health policy advocates

  13. [Cost effectiveness of human papilloma virus testing in cervical cancer screening: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Mejía, Aurelio; Salas, Walter

    2008-03-01

    Human papilloma virus DNA testing may improve the cost effectiveness of cervical cancer screening programs. However, the circumstances to get this improvement are not the same between countries. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of introducing human papilloma virus testing in the current screening practice both in developed and developing countries. We conducted a review of published articles since January 2000 until December 2006 related to the cost effectiveness of introducing human papilloma virus testing in cervical cancer screening programs. A total of 17 original researches and six reviews were analyzed. Human papilloma virus testing is cost effective in developed countries only if it is a complementary test to Pap test and used to determine the management of women with atypical squamus cells of undetermined significance, the interval among tests is increased more than two years and it is performed in women over 30 years. On the other hand, developing countries should establish first organized screening programs and guarantee full coverage and access to diagnosis and treatment. PMID:18645671

  14. Screen channel liquid acquisition device outflow tests in liquid hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, J. W.; Chato, D. J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325 × 2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3-24.2 K), pressures (100-350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010-0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

  15. Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests in Liquid Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; Chato, David J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325x2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3 - 24.2 K), pressures (100 - 350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010 - 0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

  16. Population Screening for Colorectal Cancer Means Getting FIT: The Past, Present, and Future of Colorectal Cancer Screening Using the Fecal Immunochemical Test for Hemoglobin (FIT)

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Callum G.; Halloran, Stephen P.; Young, Graeme P.

    2014-01-01

    Fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin (FIT) are changing the manner in which colorectal cancer (CRC) is screened. Although these tests are being performed worldwide, why is this test different from its predecessors? What evidence supports its adoption? How can this evidence best be used? This review addresses these questions and provides an understanding of FIT theory and practices to expedite international efforts to implement the use of FIT in CRC screening. PMID:24672652

  17. Materials screening chamber for testing materials resistance to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, H. G.; Carruth, Ralph

    1989-01-01

    A unique test chamber for exposing material to a known flux of oxygen atoms is described. The capabilities and operating parameters of the apparatus include production of an oxygen atom flux in excess of 5 x 10 to the 16th atoms/sq cm-sec, controlled heating of the sample specimen, RF circuitry to contain the plasma within a small volume, and long exposure times. Flux measurement capabilities include a calorimetric probe and a light titration system. Accuracy and limitations of these techniques are discussed. An extension to the main chamber to allow simultaneous ultraviolet and atomic oxygen exposure is discussed. The oxygen atoms produced are at thermal energies. Sample specimens are maintained at any selected temperature between ambient and 200 C, to within + or - 2 C. A representative example of measurements made using the chamber is presented.

  18. The long sitting screening test in elite cyclists.

    PubMed

    Mueller, P; McEvoy, M; Everett, S

    2005-12-01

    Pelvic rotation during cycling is important because it influences aerodynamics, cycling efficiency and the occurrence of overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not pelvic position in long sitting influences pelvic position during cycling. An observational, cross sectional, within-subjects study design was used. Thirty elite international track and road cyclists participated as subjects and two measures were undertaken. In long sitting, a digital inclinometer was positioned on the lumbosacral junction to give a static measure in degrees of sacral inclination (SI) relative to the horizontal. During active cycling, video analysis of reflective surface markers over the anterior superior iliac spine and posterior superior iliac spine was used to give a measure in degrees of anterior pelvic rotation (APR), by the angle between these two landmarks and the horizontal. No significant linear relationship was found between the two testing positions (r = 0.23, p = 0.22). PMID:16602164

  19. Mental health matters in elementary school: first-grade screening predicts fourth grade achievement test scores.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Maria Paz; Jellinek, Michael; George, Myriam; Hartley, Marcela; Squicciarini, Ana Maria; Canenguez, Katia M; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Yucel, Recai; White, Gwyne W; Guzman, Javier; Murphy, J Michael

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether mental health problems identified through screens administered in first grade are related to poorer academic achievement test scores in the fourth grade. The government of Chile uses brief teacher- and parent-completed measures [Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Revised (TOCA-RR) and Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-Cl)] to screen for mental health problems in about one-fifth of the country's elementary schools. In fourth grade, students take the national achievement tests (SIMCE) of language, mathematics and science. This study examined whether mental health problems identified through either or both screens predicted achievement test scores after controlling for student and family risk factors. A total of 17,252 students had complete first grade teacher forms and these were matched with fourth grade SIMCE data for 11,185 students, 7,903 of whom also had complete parent form data from the first grade. Students at risk on either the TOCA-RR or the PSC-Cl or both performed significantly worse on all SIMCE subtests. Even after controlling for covariates and adjusting for missing data, students with mental health problems on one screen in first grade had fourth grade achievement scores that were 14-18 points (~1/3 SD) lower than students screened as not at risk. Students at risk on both screens had scores that were on average 33 points lower than students at risk on either screen. Mental health problems in first grade were one of the strongest predictors of lower achievement test scores 3 years later, supporting the premise that for children mental health matters in the real world. PMID:21647553

  20. An assessment of the NASA flammability screening test and related aspects of material flammability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlemiller, Thomas J.

    1992-08-01

    The results of an assessment of the NASA flammability screening test (8060.1B) for materials to be used in manned spacecraft interiors are summarized. A set of materials was examined using the standard NASA test, a modified version of this test which incorporated external radiation and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) tests which measure ignitability, rate of heat release, and opposed flow flame spread behavior. Materials passing the standard NASA screening test showed widely varying degrees of flammability enhancement when subjected to external radiation (modified NASA test, NIST tests). Since such radiation is implicit in many normal fire scenarios, materials passing the standard NASA screening test should not be treated as non-flammable. The quantitative role of self-feedback of radiation remains to be fully clarified; an apparatus to examine this issue was built but no tests could be completed in the allotted time. The rate of heat release from the two-sided burning of thermally-thin materials was quantitatively compared to that for one-sided burning; this issue was believed to be at the heart of certain anomalies in the earlier stages of this study. A synergistic enhancement of heat release rate was indeed found for two-sided burning of three materials; two simplified models account for the origin of this effect. On the basis of this study, it is recommended that NASA supplement their existing flammability screening test with one that incorporates external radiation. It is further recommended that this supplemental test in normal gravity be correlated experimentally with a similar test in micro-gravity.

  1. Evaluation of the blue formazan spot test for screening glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pujades, A; Lewis, M; Salvati, A M; Miwa, S; Fujii, H; Zarza, R; Alvarez, R; Rull, E; Corrons, J L

    1999-06-01

    Several screening tests for glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency have been reported thus far, and a standardized method of testing was proposed by the International Council for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH). The screening test used in any particular laboratory depends upon a number of factors such as cost, time required, temperature, humidity, and availability of reagents. In this study, a direct comparison between three different G6PD screening methods has been undertaken. In 71 cases (50 hematologically normal volunteers, 9 hemizygous G6PD-deficient males, and 12 heterozygous deficient females), the blue formazan spot test (BFST) was compared with the conventional methemoglobin reduction test (HiRT) and the ICSH-recommended fluorescent spot test (FST-ICSH). In all cases, the results obtained with the three screening tests were correlated with the enzyme activity assayed spectrophotometrically. In hemizygous G6PD-deficient males, all cases were equally detected with the three methods: BFST (4.7-6.64, controls: 11.1-13.4), BMRT (score +3 in all 9 cases), and FST (no fluorescence in 9 cases). In heterozygous G6PD-deficient females, two methods detected 7 out of 12 cases (BFST: 8.71-11.75, controls: 11.1-13.4; and BMRT: score +3 in 7 cases), whereas the FST-ICSH missed all 12 cases that presented a variable degree of fluorescence. Although the sensitivity for G6PD-deficient carrier detection is the same for the BMRT and the BFST, the latter has the advantage of being semiquantitative and not merely qualitative. Unfortunately, none of the three screening tests compared here allowed the detection of the 100% heterozygote carrier state of G6PD deficiency. PMID:10407579

  2. Good laboratory practices for biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening for inherited metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    2012-04-01

    Biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening are essential laboratory services for the screening, detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of inborn errors of metabolism or inherited metabolic disorders. Under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) regulations, laboratory testing is categorized on the basis of the level of testing complexity as either waived (i.e., from routine regulatory oversight) or nonwaived testing (which includes tests of moderate and high complexity). Laboratories that perform biochemical genetic testing are required by CLIA regulations to meet the general quality systems requirements for nonwaived testing and the personnel requirements for high-complexity testing. Laboratories that perform public health newborn screening are subject to the same CLIA regulations and applicable state requirements. As the number of inherited metabolic diseases that are included in state-based newborn screening programs continues to increase, ensuring the quality of performance and delivery of testing services remains a continuous challenge not only for public health laboratories and other newborn screening facilities but also for biochemical genetic testing laboratories. To help ensure the quality of laboratory testing, CDC collaborated with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Food and Drug Administration, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Institutes of Health to develop guidelines for laboratories to meet CLIA requirements and apply additional quality assurance measures for these areas of genetic testing. This report provides recommendations for good laboratory practices that were developed based on recommendations from the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, with additional input from the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society; the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children; and representatives of newborn

  3. Comparison of Automated Treponemal and Nontreponemal Test Algorithms as First-Line Syphilis Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae-Woo; Park, Seong Yeon; Chae, Seok Lae

    2016-01-01

    Background Automated Mediace Treponema pallidum latex agglutination (TPLA) and Mediace rapid plasma reagin (RPR) assays are used by many laboratories for syphilis diagnosis. This study compared the results of the traditional syphilis screening algorithm and a reverse algorithm using automated Mediace RPR or Mediace TPLA as first-line screening assays in subjects undergoing a health checkup. Methods Samples from 24,681 persons were included in this study. We routinely performed Mediace RPR and Mediace TPLA simultaneously. Results were analyzed according to both the traditional algorithm and reverse algorithm. Samples with discordant results on the reverse algorithm (e.g., positive Mediace TPLA, negative Mediace RPR) were tested with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA). Results Among the 24,681 samples, 30 (0.1%) were found positive by traditional screening, and 190 (0.8%) by reverse screening. The identified syphilis rate and overall false-positive rate according to the traditional algorithm were lower than those according to the reverse algorithm (0.07% and 0.05% vs. 0.64% and 0.13%, respectively). A total of 173 discordant samples were tested with TPPA by using the reverse algorithm, of which 140 (80.9%) were TPPA positive. Conclusions Despite the increased false-positive results in populations with a low prevalence of syphilis, the reverse algorithm detected 140 samples with treponemal antibody that went undetected by the traditional algorithm. The reverse algorithm using Mediace TPLA as a screening test is more sensitive for the detection of syphilis. PMID:26522755

  4. Red-dot card test of the paracentral field as a screening test for optic nerve disease in onchocerciasis.

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, I.; Jones, B. R.; Babalola, O. E.; Cousens, S. N.; Bolarin, I.; Abiose, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new screening test for optic nerve pathology is described, consisting of a series of four red targets presented at an angle of 12 degrees in the paracentral field above and below the horizontal meridian. Nonperception and desaturation of the targets are recorded. Inter-observer variability studies found a kappa value = 0.8. A total of 6831 individuals aged > or = 5 years in communities that were mesoendemic for savanna onchocerciasis in Kaduna State, northern Nigeria, were screened using the test. Of the participants 22% were unable to complete the test; almost two-thirds of these (62%) were aged 5-8 years. After exclusion of those visually impaired or blind according to WHO criteria and those unable to complete the test, the test showed a sensitivity of 40% and a specificity of 98% for optic nerve disease when inability to visualize one or more targets was used as the definition of test failure. The sensitivity increased to 54% with a specificity of 96% when the criterion for failure included desaturation of one or more targets. These values compare favourably with those for other available screening methods. The test took 1-2 minutes to perform and was readily accepted by patients and nurses. Images Fig. 1 PMID:9060216

  5. Primary cervical cancer screening with an HPV mRNA test: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fismen, Silje; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Mortensen, Elin Synnøve; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the performance of a 5-type human papillomavirus (HPV) messenger RNA (mRNA) test in primary screening within the framework of the Norwegian population-based screening programme. Design Nationwide register-based cohort study. Setting In 2003–2004, general practitioners and gynaecologists recruited 18 852 women for participation in a primary screening study with a 5-type HPV mRNA test. Participants After excluding women with a history of abnormal smears and with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2+) before or until 3 months after screening, 11 220 women aged 25–69 years were eligible for study participation. The Norwegian Cancer Registry completed follow-up of CIN2+ through 31 December 2009. Interventions Follow-up according to the algorithm for cytology outcomes in the population-based Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme. Main outcome measures We estimated cumulative incidence of CIN grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) 72 months after the 5-type HPV mRNA test. Results 3.6% of the women were HPV mRNA-positive at baseline. The overall cumulative rate of CIN3+ was 1.3% (95% CI 1.1% to 1.5%) through 72 months of follow-up, 2.3% for women aged 25–33 years (n=3277) and 0.9% for women aged 34–69 years (n=7943). Cumulative CIN3+ rates by baseline status for HPV mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women aged 25–33 years were 22.2% (95% CI 14.5% to 29.8%) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.4% to 1.4%), respectively, and 16.6% (95% CI 10.7% to 22.5%) and 0.5% (95% CI 0.4% to 0.7%), respectively, in women aged 34–69 years. Conclusions The present cumulative incidence of CIN3+ is similar to rates reported in screening studies via HPV DNA tests. Owing to differences in biological rationale and test characteristics, there is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity that must be balanced when decisions on HPV tests in primary screening are taken. HPV mRNA testing may be used as primary screening for women aged 25–33 years and

  6. Analyzing slug tests in wells screened across the watertable: A field assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanford, K.L.; McElwee, C.D.

    2000-01-01

    The slug test is the most widely used technique for the in situ estimation of hydraulic conductivity in confined and unconfined formations. Currently, there are no generally accepted methods in the groundwater literature for the analysis of response data from slug tests performed in wells screened across the watertable. A field study was undertaken in an attempt to develop a set of practical guidelines for tests conducted in such wells. Three wells, screened within unconsolidated material exhibiting a range of hydraulic conductivities (.05-30.0 m/day), were installed to depths of up to 9 m (30 ft) in Kansas River alluvium that ranges in thickness from 15 m to 21 m (50 ft to 70 ft) near Lawrence, Kansas. Intensive well-development efforts removed any drilling debris that could interfere with well-formation hydraulics. Once the wells were developed properly, a series of slug tests was performed at each well. The tests were designed to assess the role of the unsaturated zone and the appropriateness of assuming a fixed hydraulic head upper boundary. The results of this investigation can be summarized as follows: (1) the sufficiency of well development should be based on repeat slug tests and not the clarity of pumped water; (2) the effective screen radius for best model analysis should be based on a mass balance and not nominal screen dimensions; (3) the watertable can be represented as a constant head boundary and flow in the unsaturated zone can be ignored in most situations; (4) conventional techniques for the analysis of slug-test data seem to be reasonable for slug tests conducted in wells screened across the watertable, when used with the appropriate effective screen radius and normalized head range; and (5) fluctuations in the watertable elevation through time can be exploited to obtain some insight into the nature of vertical variation in hydraulic conductivity at a well. The results of this investigation indicate that multiple slug tests should be performed at

  7. Accurate diagnosis of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome based upon objective test methods for characteristic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Twisk, Frank NM

    2015-01-01

    Although myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are considered to be synonymous, the definitional criteria for ME and CFS define two distinct, partially overlapping, clinical entities. ME, whether defined by the original criteria or by the recently proposed criteria, is not equivalent to CFS, let alone a severe variant of incapacitating chronic fatigue. Distinctive features of ME are: muscle weakness and easy muscle fatigability, cognitive impairment, circulatory deficits, a marked variability of the symptoms in presence and severity, but above all, post-exertional “malaise”: a (delayed) prolonged aggravation of symptoms after a minor exertion. In contrast, CFS is primarily defined by (unexplained) chronic fatigue, which should be accompanied by four out of a list of 8 symptoms, e.g., headaches. Due to the subjective nature of several symptoms of ME and CFS, researchers and clinicians have questioned the physiological origin of these symptoms and qualified ME and CFS as functional somatic syndromes. However, various characteristic symptoms, e.g., post-exertional “malaise” and muscle weakness, can be assessed objectively using well-accepted methods, e.g., cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cognitive tests. The objective measures acquired by these methods should be used to accurately diagnose patients, to evaluate the severity and impact of the illness objectively and to assess the positive and negative effects of proposed therapies impartially. PMID:26140274

  8. Accurate diagnosis of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome based upon objective test methods for characteristic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Twisk, Frank Nm

    2015-06-26

    Although myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are considered to be synonymous, the definitional criteria for ME and CFS define two distinct, partially overlapping, clinical entities. ME, whether defined by the original criteria or by the recently proposed criteria, is not equivalent to CFS, let alone a severe variant of incapacitating chronic fatigue. Distinctive features of ME are: muscle weakness and easy muscle fatigability, cognitive impairment, circulatory deficits, a marked variability of the symptoms in presence and severity, but above all, post-exertional "malaise": a (delayed) prolonged aggravation of symptoms after a minor exertion. In contrast, CFS is primarily defined by (unexplained) chronic fatigue, which should be accompanied by four out of a list of 8 symptoms, e.g., headaches. Due to the subjective nature of several symptoms of ME and CFS, researchers and clinicians have questioned the physiological origin of these symptoms and qualified ME and CFS as functional somatic syndromes. However, various characteristic symptoms, e.g., post-exertional "malaise" and muscle weakness, can be assessed objectively using well-accepted methods, e.g., cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cognitive tests. The objective measures acquired by these methods should be used to accurately diagnose patients, to evaluate the severity and impact of the illness objectively and to assess the positive and negative effects of proposed therapies impartially. PMID:26140274

  9. Accurate, Fast and Cost-Effective Diagnostic Test for Monosomy 1p36 Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Pricila da Silva; Pena, Heloisa B.; D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Koiffmann, Celia P.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2014-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5–0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs. PMID:24839341

  10. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Northrup, Jason C.; Lapierre, Coady; Kirk, Jeffrey; Rae, Cosette

    2015-01-01

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:26226007

  11. Research on target information optics communications transmission characteristic and performance in multi-screens testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hanshan

    2016-04-01

    To enhance the stability and reliability of multi-screens testing system, this paper studies multi-screens target optical information transmission link properties and performance in long-distance, sets up the discrete multi-tone modulation transmission model based on geometric model of laser multi-screens testing system and visible light information communication principle; analyzes the electro-optic and photoelectric conversion function of sender and receiver in target optical information communication system; researches target information transmission performance and transfer function of the generalized visible-light communication channel; found optical information communication transmission link light intensity space distribution model and distribution function; derives the SNR model of information transmission communication system. Through the calculation and experiment analysis, the results show that the transmission error rate increases with the increment of transmission rate in a certain channel modulation depth; when selecting the appropriate transmission rate, the bit error rate reach 0.01.

  12. Analysis of Screen Channel LAD Bubble Point Tests in Liquid Methane at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason; McQuillen, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of varying the liquid temperature and pressure on the bubble point pressure for screen channel Liquid Acquisition Devices in cryogenic liquid methane using gaseous helium across a wide range of elevated pressures and temperatures. Testing of a 325 x 2300 Dutch Twill screen sample was conducted in the Cryogenic Components Lab 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Test conditions ranged from 105 to 160K and 0.0965 - 1.78 MPa. Bubble point is shown to be a strong function of the liquid temperature and a weak function of the amount of subcooling at the LAD screen. The model predicts well for saturated liquid but under predicts the subcooled data.

  13. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet.

    PubMed

    Northrup, Jason C; Lapierre, Coady; Kirk, Jeffrey; Rae, Cosette

    2015-01-01

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term "Internet addiction" is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:26226007

  14. Down's syndrome screening: a controversial test, with more controversy to come!

    PubMed

    Reynolds, T M

    2000-12-01

    By 1998, most health authorities offered antenatal screening for Down's syndrome, usually by biochemical methods. To date, the development of this form of screening has not been coordinated by a national body and, consequently, there are wide variations in practice between localities. Fortunately, many of these variations have not led to any noticeable inequality of health provision, but the wide variation in risk cut offs used by different centres does. Other variations merely lead to potentially unnecessary expenditure; whereas it is believed that adding extra tests to the screening procedure is beneficial (such as double test to triple test), statistical evaluation of the confidence intervals for the detection rates quoted indicates that there is no evidence that the extra test provides an increase in detection. The cervical screening programme has progressively improved, partly through the auspices of a national framework. A similar national approach would benefit Down's screening and is only now being considered: the national screening committee (NSC) is currently drafting recommendations. To ensure optimum screening performance, the NSC should specify the risk thresholds applied, the screening protocols to be used--that is, an opt-in programme with a minimum (possibly even a maximum) of two biochemical analytes or a nuchal fold evaluation--and perhaps should even recommend national population parameters to be used for risk calculation. It might even be advisable for statistical work to be carried out to determine whether local derivation of medians is truly necessary. Furthermore, defined options for older women could be specified--for example, should all older patients have the option to proceed directly to amniocentesis if they wish or should National Health Service amniocentesis only be available for those with a "high risk" screening result. The difficulties that will face the NSC in deciding which screening policy to adopt are also considered

  15. Offer of rapid testing and alternative biological samples as practical tools to implement HIV screening programs.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Di Perri, Giovanni; Tiberi, Simon; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lillo, Flavia B

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of HIV testing has the objective to increase screening, identify and counsel persons with infection, link them to clinical services and reduce transmission. Rapid tests and/or alternative biological samples (like oral fluid) give the option for a better general consent in approaching screening, immediate referral of HIV positives to medical treatment and partner notification. We tested the performance characteristics of an oral fluid-based rapid HIV test (Rapidtest HIV lateral flow-Healthchem diag. LLC) in comparison with routinely utilized methods in a selected population of known positive (N = 121) or negative (N = 754) subjects. The sensitivity of the rapid test was 99.1% (one false negative sample) and the specificity 98.8%. Five negatives showed a faint reactivity, 3 of these were reactive also in the reference test, one with a p24 only reaction in Western blot. If these 3 samples were excluded from the analysis the specificity increases to 99.2%. Results from our study confirm that, although a continuous improvement of the test performance is still needed to minimize false negative and positive results, rapid test and alternative biological samples may contribute to HIV prevention strategies by reaching a larger population particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain. PMID:20128446

  16. Cervical Cancer Screening after Perimenopause: How Is Human Papillomavirus Test Performed?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women around the world. Recently in Korea, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased, but in all stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), CIN has shown a 91% increase from 1999 to 2008. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found to be the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 have been found in 70% of cervical cancer patients around the world. Cervical cancer screening such as cytology has limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about the need for the HPV test is becoming active in order to compensate for the limitation of cytology. After the role of HPV in cervical cancer was identified, the importance of HPV detection test as a screening was emphasized. Several tests have been developed and each test has its own advantages and disadvantages, and new test method to overcome the disadvantages is still being developed. Today's guidelines and tests are those you would choose from among the large number of cervical cancer screening guidelines and tests, based on the consideration that the selected guidelines and the test are effective. PMID:27617239

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening after Perimenopause: How Is Human Papillomavirus Test Performed?

    PubMed

    Chung, Soo-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women around the world. Recently in Korea, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased, but in all stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), CIN has shown a 91% increase from 1999 to 2008. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found to be the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 have been found in 70% of cervical cancer patients around the world. Cervical cancer screening such as cytology has limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about the need for the HPV test is becoming active in order to compensate for the limitation of cytology. After the role of HPV in cervical cancer was identified, the importance of HPV detection test as a screening was emphasized. Several tests have been developed and each test has its own advantages and disadvantages, and new test method to overcome the disadvantages is still being developed. Today's guidelines and tests are those you would choose from among the large number of cervical cancer screening guidelines and tests, based on the consideration that the selected guidelines and the test are effective. PMID:27617239

  18. Prevalence of major risk factors and use of screening tests for cancer in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Sauer, Ann Goding; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-04-01

    Much of the suffering and death from cancer could be prevented by more systematic efforts to reduce tobacco use, improve diet, increase physical activity, reduce obesity, and expand the use of established screening tests. Monitoring the prevalence of cancer risk factors and screening is important to measure progress and strengthen cancer prevention and early detection efforts. In this review article, we provide recent prevalence estimates for several cancer risk factors, including tobacco, obesity, physical activity, nutrition, ultraviolet radiation exposure as well as human papillomavirus and hepatitis B vaccination coverage and cancer screening prevalence in the United States. In 2013, cigarette smoking prevalence was 17.8% among adults nationally, but ranged from 10.3% in Utah to 27.3% in West Virginia. In addition, 15.7% of U.S. high school students were current smokers. In 2011-2012, obesity prevalence was high among both adults (34.9%) and adolescents (20.5%), but has leveled off since 2002. About 20.2% of high school girls were users of indoor tanning devices, compared with 5.3% of boys. In 2013, cancer screening prevalence ranged from 58.6% for colorectal cancer to 80.8% for cervical cancer and remains low among the uninsured, particularly for colorectal cancer screening where only 21.9% of eligible adults received recommended colorectal cancer screening. PMID:25834147

  19. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Exercise wheels and oxygen replenishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to improve the University of San Francisco/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the addition of exercise wheels to provide a different measure of incapacitation, and oxygen replenishment to offset any effect of oxygen depletion by the test animals. The addition of exercise wheels limited the number of animals in each test and doubled the required number of tests without any significant improvement in reproducibility. Oxygen replenishment appears to have an effect on survival in the last 5 minutes of the 30-minute test, but the effect is expected to be similar for most materials.

  20. Interpretation of Errors Made by Mandarin-Speaking Children on the Preschool Language Scales--5th Edition Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Yonggang; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Wyver, Shirley; Hinton, Amber; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated typical errors made by Mandarin-speaking children when measured by the Preschool Language Scales-fifth edition, Screening Test (PLS-5 Screening Test). The intention was to provide preliminary data for the development of a guideline for early childhood educators and psychologists who use the test with Mandarin-speaking children.…

  1. POLLUTANTS FROM SYNTHETIC FUELS PRODUCTION: ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION OF COAL GASIFICATION SCREENING TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an environmental evaluation of 38 screening test runs using a laboratory-scale, fixed-bed coal gasifier to study pollutants generated during the gasification of various coals. Pollutants were identified and quantitative analyses performed for tars, aqu...

  2. Screening for Breast Cancer: #BeBrave: A Life-Saving Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer #BeBrave: A Life-Saving Test Past Issues / Summer ... of others facing the disease. You discovered your breast cancer in an unusually public way. Would you tell ...

  3. Standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test on Infants from Yucatan, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomons, Hope C.

    1982-01-01

    Standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) on 288 babies raning in age from two to 54 weeks in Yucatan, Mexico, yielded such findings as that subtest scores increased with age, and that the DDST failed to identify a "questionable" 16 or 17 babies with borderline scores on the Bayley Motor Scale. (Author/MC)

  4. Counter immunoelectrophoresis as a rapid screening test for amoebic liver abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Tosswill, J H; Ridley, D S; Warhurst, D C

    1980-01-01

    Counter immunoelectrophoresis using cellulose acetate as the supporting medium was used as a rapid screening test for amoebic abscess. All the sera from 40 cases gave positive results. No false positives were obtained, but the results in intestinal amoebiasis were less reliable. An attempt was made to account for discrepancies in previous reports. PMID:6987273

  5. Academic hospital staff compliance with a fecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening program

    PubMed Central

    Vlachonikolou, Georgia; Gkolfakis, Paraskevas; Sioulas, Athanasios D; Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Melissaratou, Anastasia; Moustafa, Giannis-Aimant; Xanthopoulou, Eleni; Tsilimidos, Gerasimos; Tsironi, Ioanna; Filippidis, Paraskevas; Malli, Chrysoula; Dimitriadis, George D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    AIM To measure the compliance of an Academic Hospital staff with a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program using fecal immunochemical test (FIT). METHODS All employees of “Attikon” University General Hospital aged over 50 years were thoroughly informed by a team of physicians and medical students about the study aims and they were invited to undergo CRC screening using two rounds of FIT (DyoniFOB® Combo H, DyonMed SA, Athens, Greece). The tests were provided for free and subjects tested positive were subsequently referred for colonoscopy. One year after completing the two rounds, participants were asked to be re-screened by means of the same test. RESULTS Among our target population consisted of 211 employees, 59 (27.9%) consented to participate, but only 41 (19.4%) and 24 (11.4%) completed the first and the second FIT round, respectively. Female gender was significantly associated with higher initial participation (P = 0.005) and test completion - first and second round - (P = 0.004 and P = 0.05) rates, respectively. Physician’s (13.5% vs 70.2%, P < 0.0001) participation and test completion rates (7.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.0001 for the first and 2.3% vs 34%, P < 0.0001 for the second round) were significantly lower compared to those of the administrative/technical staff. Similarly, nurses participated (25.8% vs 70.2%, P = 0.0002) and completed the first test round (19.3% vs 57.6%, P = 0.004) in a significant lower rate than the administrative/technical staff. One test proved false positive. No participant repeated the test one year later. CONCLUSION Despite the well-organized, guided and supervised provision of the service, the compliance of the Academic Hospital personnel with a FIT-based CRC screening program was suboptimal, especially among physicians. PMID:27574556

  6. Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Intramural Research Program NESARC-III NIAAA Challenge Prize Grant Funding Funding Opportunities Application Process Management & Reporting ... AUDIT) can detect alcohol problems experienced in the last year. A score of 8+ on the AUDIT ...

  7. Health Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier ... Overweight and obesity Prostate cancer in men Which tests you need depends on your age, your sex, ...

  8. Evaluation of the modular inclined screen (MIS) at the Green Island Hydroelectric Project: 1995 test results

    SciTech Connect

    Shiers, P.F.; Downing, J.K.; Plizga, A.W.; Taft, E.P.; Amaral, S.V.; Cook, T.C.; Marks, R.A.; Winchell, F.C.

    1996-05-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) developed a fish diversion screen, known as the Modular Inclined Screen (MIS), to prevent fish mortality at water intakes. hydraulic model testing and successful biological evaluation of the MIS had been completed in the laboratory. Following discussions with various federal and state agencies, the Green Island hydroelectric Project was selected as the field test location. This project is located on the Hudson River, just north of Albany, in Green Island, New York. The MIS test facility was operated and tested in the fall of 1995. In addition to the MIS, the effectiveness of a strobe light system was studied to determine its ability to divert blueblack herring form the river to the MIS.

  9. Critical evaluation of screening techniques for emerging environmental contaminants based on accurate mass measurements with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, Joonas; Pellinen, Jukka; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea

    2012-03-01

    Emerging contaminants from wastewater effluent samples were analysed, using posttarget and nontarget analysis techniques. The samples were analysed with an ultra performance liquid chromatograph-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-TOF-MS), and the resulting data were processed with commercial deconvolution software. The method works well for posttarget analysis with prior information about the retention times of the compounds of interest. With positive polarity, 63 of 66 compounds and with negative polarity, 18 of 20 compounds were correctly identified in a spiked sample, while two compounds of a total of 88 fell out of the mass range. Furthermore, a four-stage process for identification was developed for the posttarget analysis lacking the retention time data. In the process, the number of candidate compounds was reduced by using the accurate mass of selected compounds in two steps (stages 1 and 2), structure-property relationships (stage 3) and isotope patterns of the analytes (stage 4). The process developed was validated by analysing wastewater samples spiked with 88 compounds. This procedure can be used to gain a preliminary indication of the presence of certain analytes in the samples. Nontarget analysis was tested by applying a theoretical mass spectra library for a wastewater sample spiked with six pharmaceuticals. The results showed a high number of false identifications. In addition, manual processing of the data was considered laborious and ineffective. Finally, the posttarget analysis was applied to a real wastewater sample. The analysis revealed the presence of six compounds that were afterwards confirmed with standard compounds as being correct. Three psycholeptics (nordiazepam, oxazepam and temazepam) could be tentatively identified, using the identification process developed. Posttarget analysis with UPLC-TOF-MS proved to be a promising method for analysing wastewater samples, while we concluded that the software for nontarget analysis will need

  10. Evaluation of Carbapenemase Screening and Confirmation Tests with Enterobacteriaceae and Development of a Practical Diagnostic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Florian P.; Castelberg, Claudio; Quiblier, Chantal; Bloemberg, Guido V.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable identification of carbapenemase-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is necessary to limit their spread. This study aimed to develop a diagnostic flow chart using phenotypic screening and confirmation tests that is suitable for implementation in different types of clinical laboratories. A total of 334 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates genetically characterized with respect to carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), and AmpC genes were analyzed. A total of 142/334 isolates (42.2%) were suspected of carbapenemase production, i.e., intermediate or resistant to ertapenem (ETP) and/or meropenem (MEM) and/or imipenem (IPM) according to EUCAST clinical breakpoints (CBPs). A group of 193/334 isolates (57.8%) showing susceptibility to ETP, MEM, and IPM was considered the negative-control group in this study. CLSI and EUCAST carbapenem CBPs and the new EUCAST MEM screening cutoff were evaluated as screening parameters. ETP, MEM, and IPM with or without aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) or EDTA combined-disk tests (CDTs) and the Carba NP-II test were evaluated as confirmation assays. EUCAST temocillin cutoffs were evaluated for OXA-48 detection. The EUCAST MEM screening cutoff (<25 mm) showed a sensitivity of 100%. The ETP APBA CDT on Mueller-Hinton agar containing cloxacillin (MH-CLX) displayed 100% sensitivity and specificity for class A carbapenemase confirmation. ETP and MEM EDTA CDTs showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for class B carbapenemases. Temocillin zone diameters/MIC testing on MH-CLX was highly specific for OXA-48 producers. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Carba NP-II test were 78.9, 100, 100, and 98.7%, respectively. Combining the EUCAST MEM carbapenemase screening cutoff (<25 mm), ETP (or MEM), APBA, and EDTA CDTs, and temocillin disk diffusion on MH-CLX promises excellent performance for carbapenemase detection. PMID:25355766

  11. Evaluation of carbapenemase screening and confirmation tests with Enterobacteriaceae and development of a practical diagnostic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Florian P; Castelberg, Claudio; Quiblier, Chantal; Bloemberg, Guido V; Hombach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Reliable identification of carbapenemase-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is necessary to limit their spread. This study aimed to develop a diagnostic flow chart using phenotypic screening and confirmation tests that is suitable for implementation in different types of clinical laboratories. A total of 334 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates genetically characterized with respect to carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), and AmpC genes were analyzed. A total of 142/334 isolates (42.2%) were suspected of carbapenemase production, i.e., intermediate or resistant to ertapenem (ETP) and/or meropenem (MEM) and/or imipenem (IPM) according to EUCAST clinical breakpoints (CBPs). A group of 193/334 isolates (57.8%) showing susceptibility to ETP, MEM, and IPM was considered the negative-control group in this study. CLSI and EUCAST carbapenem CBPs and the new EUCAST MEM screening cutoff were evaluated as screening parameters. ETP, MEM, and IPM with or without aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) or EDTA combined-disk tests (CDTs) and the Carba NP-II test were evaluated as confirmation assays. EUCAST temocillin cutoffs were evaluated for OXA-48 detection. The EUCAST MEM screening cutoff (<25 mm) showed a sensitivity of 100%. The ETP APBA CDT on Mueller-Hinton agar containing cloxacillin (MH-CLX) displayed 100% sensitivity and specificity for class A carbapenemase confirmation. ETP and MEM EDTA CDTs showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for class B carbapenemases. Temocillin zone diameters/MIC testing on MH-CLX was highly specific for OXA-48 producers. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Carba NP-II test were 78.9, 100, 100, and 98.7%, respectively. Combining the EUCAST MEM carbapenemase screening cutoff (<25 mm), ETP (or MEM), APBA, and EDTA CDTs, and temocillin disk diffusion on MH-CLX promises excellent performance for carbapenemase detection. PMID:25355766

  12. Subscale solid motor nozzle tests, phase 4 and nozzle materials screening and thermal characterization, phase 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J.; Dodson, J.; Laub, B.

    1979-01-01

    Subscale solid motor nozzles containing a baseline material or low cost materials to be considered as potential replacements for the baseline material are designed and tested. Data are presented from tests of four identically designed 2.5 inch throat diameter nozzles and one 7 inch throat diameter nozzle. The screening of new candidate low cost materials, as well as their thermophysical and thermochemical characterization is also discussed.

  13. Disparities in prenatal HIV testing: evidence for improving implementation of CDC screening guidelines.

    PubMed Central

    Pearlman, Deborah N.; Averbach, Abigail R.; Zierler, Sally; Cranston, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the within-group and between-group variation in prenatal HIV testing in a sample of low-income pregnant and recently postpartum women. METHODS: Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate proportional differences in prenatal HIV testing for the total sample and stratified by race. RESULTS: In bivariate analyses, race and site of care jointly affected the probability of being tested. Hispanic women had the highest probability of being tested in public practice settings but relative to white women, black women had a higher probability of being tested in public and private practice settings. Predictors of prenatal HIV testing differed by race. Receiving prenatal care in a community health center or hospital outpatient clinic increased the probability of testing for Hispanics. Being a recent victim of intimate partner violence was associated with less frequent testing for blacks. Positive beliefs about HIV screening, while significant for blacks and Hispanics, was the only factor associated with testing for whites. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that racial biases may be influencing providers' approach to testing, rather than CDC's 2001 guidelines for HIV screening of pregnant women. Study findings are being used to modify social marketing campaigns and improve provider trainings regarding prenatal HIV testing. PMID:16080457

  14. Toward accurate molecular identification of species in complex environmental samples: testing the performance of sequence filtering and clustering methods

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jullien M; Brown, Emily A; Chain, Frédéric J J; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-01-01

    Metabarcoding has the potential to become a rapid, sensitive, and effective approach for identifying species in complex environmental samples. Accurate molecular identification of species depends on the ability to generate operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that correspond to biological species. Due to the sometimes enormous estimates of biodiversity using this method, there is a great need to test the efficacy of data analysis methods used to derive OTUs. Here, we evaluate the performance of various methods for clustering length variable 18S amplicons from complex samples into OTUs using a mock community and a natural community of zooplankton species. We compare analytic procedures consisting of a combination of (1) stringent and relaxed data filtering, (2) singleton sequences included and removed, (3) three commonly used clustering algorithms (mothur, UCLUST, and UPARSE), and (4) three methods of treating alignment gaps when calculating sequence divergence. Depending on the combination of methods used, the number of OTUs varied by nearly two orders of magnitude for the mock community (60–5068 OTUs) and three orders of magnitude for the natural community (22–22191 OTUs). The use of relaxed filtering and the inclusion of singletons greatly inflated OTU numbers without increasing the ability to recover species. Our results also suggest that the method used to treat gaps when calculating sequence divergence can have a great impact on the number of OTUs. Our findings are particularly relevant to studies that cover taxonomically diverse species and employ markers such as rRNA genes in which length variation is extensive. PMID:26078860

  15. Celiac disease in Tunisian children: a second screening study using a "new generation" rapid test.

    PubMed

    Hariz, Mongi Ben; Laadhar, Lilia; Kallel-Sellami, Maryam; Siala, Nadia; Bouraoui, Saadia; Bouziri, Sonia; Borgi, Abdelhafidh; Karouia, Faouzia; Maherzi, Ahmed; Makni, Sondès

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to estimate celiac disease prevalence in school-children in the island of Djerba and assess rapid method feasibility for screening. We screened 2064 schoolchildren by a rapid method to detect IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase and IgA deficiency. Children with positive results were tested for IgA anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium by conventional tests. In positive children, intestinal biopsy was performed. IgA deficiency suspected by rapid method was confirmed by nephelometry. In these cases IgG anti-endomysium was performed. Rapid test was positive in 7 children; conventional serology was positive in all and 6 of them accepted the biopsy. Total villous atrophy was observed in 5 while intestinal mucosa was normal in one. Among children with positive serology, 3 had silent form, 1 chronic diarrhea, one growth failure and 2 had borderline growth. IgA deficiency was suspected in 13 cases and was confirmed in 11 children tested. Prevalence of celiac disease was 0.24-0.34% and that of IgA deficiency 0.5-0.6%. This screening study confirms that celiac disease is relatively common in schoolchildren in Tunisia. It confirms also that even those with symptoms typical for celiac disease escape diagnosis. Rapid test is better accepted by parents and children than test requiring a venous blood sample. PMID:23883201

  16. Crafting Appealing Text Messages to Encourage Colorectal Cancer Screening Test Completion: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Shellie D; Denizard-Thompson, Nancy; Kronner, Donna; Miller, David P

    2015-01-01

    texting shorthand phrases and complicated replies); they did not want messages that contain bad news or test results. They wanted the ability to choose alternative options such as email or phone calls. Conclusions Older adults are receptive to receiving cancer screening text messages from health care providers. Sharing sample messages with patients may increase acceptance of this tool in the clinic setting. Supportive tailored text messaging reminders could enhance uptake of colorectal cancer screening by enhancing patient self-efficacy and providing cues to action to complete colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing. PMID:26537553

  17. The triple test as a screening technique for Down syndrome: reliability and relevance

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Tim

    2010-01-01

    The triple test is a second trimester screening test used to identify those pregnant women who should be offered a diagnostic test to identify whether their fetus has an aneuploidy. It was first described in 1988, but has largely been superseded by newer tests either conducted earlier in the first trimester (ie, the combined test, using ultrasound measurement of nuchal translucency, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and human chorionic gonadotrophin [hCG]) or in the second trimester (ie, the quadruple test, using α-fetoprotein, hCG, uE3, and inhibin). These newer tests have been introduced because they offer greater detection and lower screen positive results thereby enhancing diagnosis rates, while decreasing the risk of iatrogenic harm caused by the invasive testing required when collecting suitable sample tissue. Noninvasive alternatives to the triple test have been identified, but these have not been adopted despite 13 years of development. It is likely, therefore, that the triple test (or variants thereof) will continue to be used in routine antenatal care for the foreseeable future. PMID:21072301

  18. Adhesion characteristics of silver tracks screen-printed on polyimide with an environmental reliability test.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Seok; Myung, Woo-Ram; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2012-07-01

    Printable and flexible electronics are increasingly being used in numerous applications that are miniaturized, multi-functional and lightweight. Simultaneously, reliability issues of the printed and flexible electronic devices are getting more attention. The adhesion of screen-printed silver (Ag) tracks on a polyimide (PI) film was investigated after two kinds of the environmental reliability test: a constant-temperature storage test, and a steady-state temperature and humidity storage test. Atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) was adopted on the PI film surface to improve the poor adhesion derived from the inherent hydrophobicity. The Ag tracks constructed via screen printing were sintered at 250 degrees C for 30 min in air using a box-type muffle furnace. Some samples were exposed under 85 degrees C and 85% relative humidity (RH) for various durations (24, 72, 168 and 500 h), and others were aged at 85 degrees C with same durations to compare the influence of moisture on the adhesion. The adhesion of the screen-printed Ag tracks was evaluated by a roll-type 90 degrees peel test. The peel strength of the screen-printed Ag tracks decreased by 76.74% and 69.88% after 500 h run of the 85 degrees C/85% RH test, and the aging test, respectively. The weakest adhesion was 4.98 gf/mm after the 500 h run of the 85 degrees C/85% RH test. To demonstrate these experimental results, the microstructural evolution and chemical bonding states of the interfacial surfaces were characterized using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), respectively. PMID:22966651

  19. Accurate Time-Dependent Traveling-Wave Tube Model Developed for Computational Bit-Error-Rate Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenal growth of the satellite communications industry has created a large demand for traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) operating with unprecedented specifications requiring the design and production of many novel devices in record time. To achieve this, the TWT industry heavily relies on computational modeling. However, the TWT industry's computational modeling capabilities need to be improved because there are often discrepancies between measured TWT data and that predicted by conventional two-dimensional helical TWT interaction codes. This limits the analysis and design of novel devices or TWT's with parameters differing from what is conventionally manufactured. In addition, the inaccuracy of current computational tools limits achievable TWT performance because optimized designs require highly accurate models. To address these concerns, a fully three-dimensional, time-dependent, helical TWT interaction model was developed using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell code MAFIA (Solution of MAxwell's equations by the Finite-Integration-Algorithm). The model includes a short section of helical slow-wave circuit with excitation fed by radiofrequency input/output couplers, and an electron beam contained by periodic permanent magnet focusing. A cutaway view of several turns of the three-dimensional helical slow-wave circuit with input/output couplers is shown. This has been shown to be more accurate than conventionally used two-dimensional models. The growth of the communications industry has also imposed a demand for increased data rates for the transmission of large volumes of data. To achieve increased data rates, complex modulation and multiple access techniques are employed requiring minimum distortion of the signal as it is passed through the TWT. Thus, intersymbol interference (ISI) becomes a major consideration, as well as suspected causes such as reflections within the TWT. To experimentally investigate effects of the physical TWT on ISI would be

  20. Prevalence of bovine and human brucellosis in western Algeria: comparison of screening tests.

    PubMed

    Aggad, H; Boukraa, L

    2006-01-01

    A serological study was carried out in Tiaret province in western Algeria on 1032 cows distributed in 95 flocks to estimate the prevalence of Brucella infection and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of a range of agglutination tests. Screening tests showed 31.5% of herds positive using the buffered plate antigen test and 26.3% using the rose Bengal test compared with 15.7% with the complement fixation test. Using the complement fixation test as the gold standard for confirmatory tests, the Rivanol test was found to be more sensitive but less specific than tube agglutination in detecting brucellosis infection. Three isolates were identified from 105 blood samples from humans with brucellosis and 50 samples of milk and tissues from infected cows and they were all Brucella melitensis biovar 3. PMID:17037229

  1. A Comprehensive Review of School-Based Body Mass Index Screening Programs and Their Implications for School Health: Do the Controversies Accurately Reflect the Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggieri, Dominique G.; Bass, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whereas legislation for body mass index (BMI) surveillance and screening programs has passed in 25 states, the programs are often subject to ethical debates about confidentiality and privacy, school-to-parent communication, and safety and self-esteem issues for students. Despite this debate, no comprehensive analysis has been completed…

  2. Effect of rehydration on guaiac-based faecal occult blood testing in colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed Central

    Castiglione, G.; Biagini, M.; Barchielli, A.; Grazzini, G.; Mazzotta, A.; Salvadori, P.; Scillone, L.; Ciatto, S.

    1993-01-01

    Screening for colorectal cancer by means of unhydrated Hemoccult (HO) is in progress in the Province of Florence since 1982. In 1990 rehydrated HO was introduced in the town of Empoli. Five adjacent municipalities where screening had started in 1987 were selected for comparison. In both areas subjects aged 40-70 were invited by mail to undergo the screening protocol. HO-positive subjects were invited to undergo either pancolonoscopy or a combination of left colonoscopy and double contrast barium enema. HO-negative subjects were invited to repeat screening 2 years later. The positivity rate of HO was significantly higher (P < 0.001) for rehydrated (5%) as compared to unhydrated (3.1%) HO. The positive predictive values for cancer (unhydrated: 5.8%; rehydrated: 8.9%) and for adenomas (unhydrated: 26.7%; rehydrated: 25.5%) did not significantly differ. The detection rates of rehydrated HO were significantly higher as compared to unhydrated HO both for cancer (0.37% vs 0.15%; P < 0.05) and adenomas (1.06% vs 0.72%; P < 0.05%). In the present experience rehydration doesn't produce any decrease in the positive predictive value for cancer or adenomas and the increase in the positivity rate appears quite acceptable when considering the significant increase in the detection rates of cancer and adenomas. We conclude that rehydrated HO should be introduced as the standard test for screening in order to increase sensitivity for colorectal cancer and adenomas. PMID:8494714

  3. Pose prediction and virtual screening performance of GOLD scoring functions in a standardized test.

    PubMed

    Liebeschuetz, John W; Cole, Jason C; Korb, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    The performance of all four GOLD scoring functions has been evaluated for pose prediction and virtual screening under the standardized conditions of the comparative docking and scoring experiment reported in this Edition. Excellent pose prediction and good virtual screening performance was demonstrated using unmodified protein models and default parameter settings. The best performing scoring function for both pose prediction and virtual screening was demonstrated to be the recently introduced scoring function ChemPLP. We conclude that existing docking programs already perform close to optimally in the cognate pose prediction experiments currently carried out and that more stringent pose prediction tests should be used in the future. These should employ cross-docking sets. Evaluation of virtual screening performance remains problematic and much remains to be done to improve the usefulness of publically available active and decoy sets for virtual screening. Finally we suggest that, for certain target/scoring function combinations, good enrichment may sometimes be a consequence of 2D property recognition rather than a modelling of the correct 3D interactions. PMID:22371207

  4. A new diagnostic test for Gaucher disease suitable for population screening.

    PubMed

    Sakallah, S A; Sansieri, C; Kopp, D W; Cooper, D L; Barranger, J A

    1994-08-01

    A new test for the diagnosis of Gaucher disease is described. The test is designed to screen large numbers of clinical specimens from high-risk populations. It consists of duplex PCR amplification of genomic DNA followed by hybridization to alkaline phosphatase-conjugated allele-specific oligonucleotide probes (ASOs). High melting temperature PCR primers were used to increase specificity and eliminate the need for a separate annealing step. All hybridization and washing steps were performed at one temperature. Chemiluminescent detection of signals is fast, and results are easily interpreted directly from x-ray films. Currently, the test is being used in our laboratories to screen Ashkenazi Jewish populations in whom Gaucher disease is common. PMID:9018309

  5. Assessments of cognitive abilities in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease with a touch screen test.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chuljung; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-03-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience both motor output deficits and cognitive disabilities. Various PD rodent models have been developed to investigate the genetic and brain circuit-related causes of PD and have contributed to the basic and clinical research and to therapeutic strategies for this disease. Most studies using PD rodent models have focused on the motor output deficits, rather than cognitive disabilities due to the lack of appropriate testing tools that do not require significant motor abilities. In this study, we assessed the cognitive disabilities of PD model mice using a touch screen test that required only little motor ability. We found that the PD model mice, which had motor deficits caused by unilateral striatal dopaminergic degeneration, successfully underwent operant conditioning with a touch screen test. Additionally, we found that the PD model mice demonstrated impaired location discrimination, but intact attention and reversal learning in the cognitive tests. Therefore, the touch screen test is useful for assessing hidden cognitive disabilities in disease model animals with decreased motor function. PMID:26698399

  6. Medical and lay attitudes towards genetic screening and testing in Finland.

    PubMed

    Toiviainen, Hanna; Jallinoja, Piia; Aro, Arja R; Hemminki, Elina

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physicians', midwives' and lay people's attitudes towards genetic screening and testing to find out whether medical education and experience influence attitudes of genetic screening and testing. The study was based on comparison of answers to joint questions in three different cross-sectional postal surveys between October 1996 and April 1998 in Finland. Target groups were physicians (study base n=772, response rate 74%, including gynaecologists, paediatricians, general practitioners and clinical geneticists), midwives and public health nurses (collectively referred to as midwives in the following; n=800, response rate 79%), and lay people (n=2000, response rate 62%). Midwives were more worried about the consequences of genetic testing and stressed the autonomy of the customer more strongly than lay people did. Furthermore, professionals considered that lay peoples' expectations as regards to genetic testing are too high. Having more medical education was related to having less 'cannot say' and missing responses. Our results do not suggest that major conflicts about the direction of genetic testing and screening would arise in near future. However, different positions and interests should be considered. Reporting in public about new prospects and developments in medical genetics should pay more attention also to concerns for balancing promises and drawbacks. PMID:12891376

  7. Reliability and validity of the Leuven Perceptual Organization Screening Test (L-POST).

    PubMed

    Vancleef, Kathleen; Acke, Elia; Torfs, Katrien; Demeyere, Nele; Lafosse, Christophe; Humphreys, Glyn; Wagemans, Johan; de-Wit, Lee

    2015-09-01

    Neuropsychological tests of visual perception mostly assess high-level processes like object recognition. Object recognition, however, relies on distinct mid-level processes of perceptual organization that are only implicitly tested in classical tests. Furthermore, the psychometric properties of the existing instruments are limited. To fill this gap, the Leuven perceptual organization screening test (L-POST) was developed, in which a wide range of mid-level phenomena are measured in 15 subtests. In this study, we evaluated reliability and validity of the L-POST. Performance on the test is evaluated relative to a norm sample of more than 1,500 healthy control participants. Cronbach's alpha of the norm sample and test-retest correlations for 20 patients provide evidence for adequate reliability of L-POST performance. The convergent and discriminant validity of the test was assessed in 40 brain-damaged patients, whose performance on the L-POST was compared with standard clinical tests of visual perception and other measures of cognitive function. The L-POST showed high sensitivity to visual dysfunction and decreased performance was specific to visual problems. In conclusion, the L-POST is a reliable and valid screening test for perceptual organization. It offers a useful online tool for researchers and clinicians to get a broader overview of the mid-level processes that are preserved or disrupted in a given patient. PMID:25042381

  8. Population-based colorectal cancer screening: comparison of two fecal occult blood test

    PubMed Central

    Zubero, Miren B.; Arana-Arri, Eunate; Pijoan, José I.; Portillo, Isabel; Idigoras, Isabel; López-Urrutia, Antonio; Samper, Ana; Uranga, Begoña; Rodríguez, Carmen; Bujanda, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of screening for colorectal cancer is to improve prognosis by the detection of cancer at its early stages. In order to inform the decision on the specific test to be used in the population-based program in the Basque Autonomous Region (Spain), we compared two immunochemical fecal occult blood quantitative tests (I-FOBT). Methods: Residents of selected study areas, aged 50–69 years, were invited to participate in the screening. Two tests based on latex agglutination (OC-Sensor and FOB Gold) were randomly assigned to different study areas. A colonoscopy was offered to patients with a positive test result. The cut-off point used to classify a result as positive, according to manufacturer’s recommendations, was 100 ng/ml for both tests. Results: The invited population included 37,999 individuals. Participation rates were 61.8% (n = 11,162) for OC-Sensor and 59.1% (n = 11,786) for FOB Gold (p = 0.008). Positive rate for OC-Sensor was 6.6% (n = 737) and 8.5% (n = 1,002) for FOB Gold (p < 0.0001). Error rates were higher for FOB gold (2.3%) than for OC-Sensor (0.2%; p < 0.0001). Predictive positive value (PPV) for total malignant and premalignant lesions was 62.4% for OC-Sensor and 58.9% for FOB Gold (p = 0.137), respectively. Conclusion: OC-Sensor test appears to be superior for I-FOBT-based colorectal cancer screening, given its acceptance, ease of use, associated small number of errors and its screening accuracy. FOB Gold on the other hand, has higher rate of positive values, with more colonoscopies performed, it shows higher detection incidence rates, but involves more false positives. PMID:24454288

  9. Screening Mammography: Test Set Data Can Reasonably Describe Actual Clinical Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Warwick; McEntee, Mark F.; Kench, Peter L.; Reed, Warren M.; Heard, Rob; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the extent to which test set reading can represent actual clinical reporting in screening mammography. Materials and Methods: Institutional ethics approval was granted, and informed consent was obtained from each participating screen reader. The need for informed consent with respect to the use of patient materials was waived. Two hundred mammographic examinations were selected from examinations reported by 10 individual expert screen readers, resulting in 10 reader-specific test sets. Data generated from actual clinical reports were compared with three test set conditions: clinical test set reading with prior images, laboratory test set reading with prior images, and laboratory test set reading without prior images. A further set of five expert screen readers was asked to interpret a common set of images in two identical test set conditions to establish a baseline for intraobserver variability. Confidence scores (from 1 to 4) were assigned to the respective decisions made by readers. Region-of-interest (ROI) figures of merit (FOMs) and side-specific sensitivity and specificity were described for the actual clinical reporting of each reader-specific test set and were compared with those for the three test set conditions. Agreement between pairs of readings was performed by using the Kendall coefficient of concordance. Results: Moderate or acceptable levels of agreement were evident (W = 0.69–0.73, P < .01) when describing group performance between actual clinical reporting and test set conditions that were reasonably close to the established baseline (W = 0.77, P < .01) and were lowest when prior images were excluded. Higher median values for ROI FOMs were demonstrated for the test set conditions than for the actual clinical reporting values; this was possibly linked to changes in sensitivity. Conclusion: Reasonable levels of agreement between actual clinical reporting and test set conditions can be achieved, although inflated sensitivity

  10. Analysis of Screen Channel LAD Bubble Point Tests in Liquid Oxygen at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason; McQuillen, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the key parameters that affect the bubble point pressure for screen channel Liquid Acquisition Devices in cryogenic liquid oxygen at elevated pressures and temperatures. An in depth analysis of the effect of varying temperature, pressure, and pressurization gas on bubble point is presented. Testing of a 200 x 1400 and 325 x 2300 Dutch Twill screen sample was conducted in the Cryogenics Components Lab 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Test conditions ranged from 92 to 130K and 0.138 - 1.79 MPa. Bubble point is shown to be a strong function of temperature with a secondary dependence on pressure. The pressure dependence is believed to be a function of the amount of evaporation and condensation occurring at the screen. Good agreement exists between data and theory for normally saturated liquid but the model generally under predicts the bubble point in subcooled liquid. Better correlation with the data is obtained by using the liquid temperature at the screen to determine surface tension of the fluid, as opposed to the bulk liquid temperature.

  11. Evaluation and establishing the performance of different screening tests for tetracycline residues in animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Okerman, L; Croubels, S; Cherlet, M; De Wasch, K; De Backer, P; Van Hoof, J

    2004-02-01

    Four methods intended for screening muscle tissue for residues belonging to the tetracycline group were compared using artificially contaminated as well as incurred samples. Two agar diffusion methods were studied: one with Bacillus subtilis as a test strain, the second with Bacillus cereus. Two variants of each method were compared: thin plates for analysis of intact or minced meat, and thick plates for analysis of meat fluid. The thin plate variants could not be evaluated with artificially contaminated samples because it was impossible to prepare homogeneously spiked, undiluted meat. The thick plates were suited for doxycycline and chlortetracycline, but they did not detect oxytetracycline or tetracycline in spiked meat fluid. The results of these tests done on incurred meat were very good for doxycycline and satisfying or just failing for oxytetracycline, while the best detection capability was obtained when intact frozen meat was examined on thin plates seeded with B. cereus. Two commercially available screening tests were also evaluated. The Premi(R) test, an inhibitor test with Bacillus stearothermophilus as a test strain and an indicator for growth, was not suited for detection of tetracyclines up to the maximum residue limit. Tetrasensor(R), a receptor test specific for tetracyclines, proved a quick and simple test able to detect meat samples artificially contaminated with tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline or chlortetracycline, as well as meat incurred with oxytetracycline or doxycycline. PMID:14754636

  12. Screening for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains three sections: Fundamentals of Screening, Screening Tests, and Screening for Specific Cancer Sites. Each section consists of several chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Principles of Screening and of the Evaluation of Screening Programs; Economic Aspects of Screening; Cervical Cytology; Screening Tests for Bladder Cancer; Fecal Occult Blood Testing; Screening for Cancer of the Cervix; Screening for Gastric Cancer; and Screening for Oral Cancer.

  13. Patients' perceptions of colorectal cancer screening tests and preparatory education in federally qualified health centers.

    PubMed

    Gwede, Clement K; Koskan, Alexis M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Davis, Stacy N; Ealey, Jamila; Abdulla, Rania; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Elliott, Gloria; Lopez, Diana; Shibata, David; Roetzheim, Richard G; Meade, Cathy D

    2015-06-01

    This study explored federally qualified health center (FQHC) patients' perceptions about colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) tests, including immunochemical fecal occult blood tests (iFOBT), as well as preferences for receiving in-clinic education about CRCS. Eight mixed gender focus groups were conducted with 53 patients. Findings centered on three thematic factors: (1) motivators and impediments to CRCS, (2) test-specific preferences and receptivity to iFOBTs, and (3) preferences for entertaining and engaging plain language materials. Results informed the development of educational priming materials to increase CRCS using iFOBT in FQHCs. PMID:25249181

  14. Evaluation of Contact Separation Force Testing as a Screening Methodology for Electrical Socket Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Chris; Greenwell, Chris; Brusse, jay; Krus, Dennis; Leidecker, Henning

    2009-01-01

    During system level testing intermittent and permanent open circuit failures of mated, crimp removable, electrical contact pairs were experienced. The root cause of the failures was determined to be low (but not zero) contact forces applied by the socket contact tines against the engaging pin. The low contact force reduces the effectiveness of the wiping action of the socket tines against the pin. The observed failure mode may be produced when insufficient wiping during mate, demate and small relative movement in use allows for the accumulation of debris or insulating films that electrically separate the contact pair. The investigation identified at least three manufacturing process control problems associated with the socket contacts that enabled shipment of contacts susceptible to developing low contact forces: (1) Improper heat treatment of the socket tines resulting in plastic rather than elastic behavior; (2) Overly thinned socket tines at their base resulting in reduced pin retention forces; (3) insufficient screening tests to identify parts susceptible to the aforementioned failure mechanisms. The results from an extensive screening program of socket contacts utilizing the industry standard contact separation force test procedures are described herein. The investigation shows this method to be capable of identifying initially weak sockets. However, sockets whose contact retention forces may degrade during use may not be screened out by pin retention testing alone. Further investigations are required to correlate low contact retention forces with increased electrical contact resistance in the presence of insulating films that may accumulate in the use environment.

  15. Measuring the quality-of-life effects of diagnostic and screening tests.

    PubMed

    Swan, J Shannon; Miksad, Rebecca A

    2009-08-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is a central concept for understanding the outcomes of medical care. When used in cost-effectiveness analysis, HRQL is typically measured for conditions persisting over long time frames (years), and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) values are generated. Consequently, years are the basic unit of time for cost-effectiveness analysis results: dollars spent per QALY gained. However, shorter term components of health care may also affect HRQL, and there is increased interest in measuring and accounting for these events. In radiology, the short-term HRQL effects of screening and diagnostic testing may affect a test's cost-effectiveness, even though they may only last for days. The unique challenge in radiology HRQL assessment is to realistically tap into the testing and screening experience while remaining consistent with QALY theory. The authors review HRQL assessment and highlight methods developed to specifically address the short-term effects of radiologic screening and testing. PMID:19643385

  16. Use of the laboratory rat as a model in endocrine disruptor screening and testing.

    PubMed

    Gray, L E; Wilson, V; Noriega, N; Lambright, C; Furr, J; Stoker, T E; Laws, S C; Goldman, J; Cooper, R L; Foster, P M D

    2004-01-01

    The screening and testing program the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently developing to detect endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. EDCs have been shown to alter the following activities: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function; estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone synthesis; and androgen and estrogen receptor-mediated effects in mammals and other animals. The value and limitations of mammalian in vivo assays are described that involve the use of the laboratory rat, the EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee species of choice. The discussion includes the evaluation of high-priority chemicals positive in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery, and of subsequent testing in the Tier 2 (T2) battery, with additional short-term screening assays proposed for use in T1.5 to eliminate any uncertainty about T1S results. Descriptions include the in vivo uterotropic assay, which detects estrogens and antiestrogens; the pubertal female assay, which assesses steroidogenesis, antithyroid activity, antiestrogenicity, and HPG function; and the Hershberger assay, which detects the weight of androgen-dependent tissues in castrate-immature-male rats (antiandrogens). Of the several alternative mammalian in vivo assays proposed, a short-term pubertal male rat assay appears most promising for inclusion in T1 or T1.5. An additional in utero-lactational screening protocol is being evaluated, but appears to be better suited for T1.5 or T2 due to the size, complexity, and duration of the assay. The adult intact male assay, also proposed as an alternative for T1, attempts to identify EDCs in a hormonal battery, but has limited value as a screen due to lack of sensitivity and specificity. For Tier 2 testing, the number of endocrine-sensitive endpoints and offspring (F1) examined in multigenerational tests must be thoughtfully expanded for EDCs on a mode-of-action-specific basis, with consideration given to tailoring T2 based on

  17. Stereo tests as a screening tool for strabismus: which is the best choice?

    PubMed Central

    Ancona, Chiara; Stoppani, Monica; Odazio, Veronica; La Spina, Carlo; Corradetti, Giulia; Bandello, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare four stereo tests (Lang I, Lang II, Titmus, and TNO) and assess their effectiveness. The main focus of this study is to identify the most useful stereo test as a challenging tool in the screening of strabismus. Patients and methods A total of 143 Caucasian subjects, 74 males (52%) and 69 females (48%), aged between 4 years and 78 years (mean age 19.09±15.12 years) were examined at our Strabismus Service (Scientific Institute San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy) and included in this observational cross-sectional study. Subjects recruited in this study were either affected by strabismus, including microstrabismic patients, or healthy volunteers. Subjects affected by ophthalmological diseases, other than strabismus, were excluded. All patients underwent both ophthalmological and orthoptic examination, including stereo tests, Hirschberg Corneal Light Reflex Test, Worth Four-Dot Test, the 4 Prism Diopter Base-Out Test, Cover Testing, Bruckner Test, visual acuity, automated refraction under 1% tropicamide cycloplegia and thereafter, posterior pole evaluation. Results All data were processed using the IBM SPSS Statistics, Version 2.0, to perform all statistical calculations. The main finding of this study is that Lang I stereo test achieved the highest sensitivity (89.8%) and specificity (95.2%) in detecting strabismus, including microstrabismus as well, compared to all the other stereoacuity tests. Furthermore, Lang I is the stereo test with the highest positive predictive value and negative predictive value, both greater than 90%. Conclusion The stereo test with the highest sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value is Lang I. These results suggest its applicability as a screening test for strabismus in people older than 4 years. PMID:25419114

  18. Comparison of three marine screening tests and four Oslo and Paris Commission procedures to evaluate toxicity of offshore chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Weideborg, M.; Vik, E.A.; Oefjord, G.D.; Kjoennoe, O.

    1997-02-01

    The results from the screening toxicity tests Artemia salina, Microtox{reg_sign}, and Mitochondria RET test were compared with those obtained from OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commissions)-authorized procedures for testing of offshore chemicals (Skeletonema costatum, Acartia tonsa, Abra alba, and Corophium volutator). In this study 82 test substances (26 non-water soluble) were included. The Microtox test was found to be the most sensitive of the three screening tests. Microtox and Mitochondria RET test results showed good correlation with results from Acartia and Skeletonema testing, and it was concluded that the Microtox test was a suitable screening test as a base for assessment of further testing, especially regarding water-soluble chemicals. Sensitivity of Artemia salina to the tested chemicals was too low for it to be an appropriate bioassay organism for screening testing. A very good correlation was found between the results obtained with the Skeletonema and Acartia tests. The results indicated no need for more than one of the Skeletonema or Acartia tests if the Skeletonema median effective concentration or Acartia median lethal concentration was greater than 200 mg/L. The sediment-reworker tests (A. Alba or C. volutator) for chemicals that are likely to end up in the sediments (non-water soluble or surfactants) should be performed, independent of results from screening tests and other OSPAR species.

  19. Thermal Testing and Analysis of an Efficient High-Temperature Multi-Screen Internal Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, Stefan; Handrick, Karin; Daryabeigi, Kamran

    2007-01-01

    Conventional multi-layer insulations exhibit excellent insulation performance but they are limited to the temperature range to which their components reflective foils and spacer materials are compatible. For high temperature applications, the internal multi-screen insulation IMI has been developed that utilizes unique ceramic material technology to produce reflective screens with high temperature stability. For analytical insulation sizing a parametric material model is developed that includes the main contributors for heat flow which are radiation and conduction. The adaptation of model-parameters based on effective steady-state thermal conductivity measurements performed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) allows for extrapolation to arbitrary stack configurations and temperature ranges beyond the ones that were covered in the conductivity measurements. Experimental validation of the parametric material model was performed during the thermal qualification test of the X-38 Chin-panel, where test results and predictions showed a good agreement.

  20. Synthetic crude oils carcinogenicity screening tests. Progress report, September 15, 1979-March 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, W.H.; Deye, J.F.; King, C.F.; Hartgrove, R.W.; Krahn, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Four crude oils (H Coal-Fuel Oil Mode, Occidental in situ Shale Oil, Exxon Donor Solvent Liquid, and SRC II) which were distilled into four fractions (naphtha, mid-distillate, gas oil and residue) for analysis and biological screening testing during the last report period were tested for mutagenicity by the Ames test and for tumor initiating activity by an initiation/promotion (skin painting) test. Substantial agreement exists between Ames and skin painting results. Low boiling naphtha fractions of the 4 crude oils showed little or no mutagenicity or tumor initiating activity by the two tests used. The higher boiling fractions (gas oils and residues) and the crude oils themselves were mutagenic and exhibited tumor initiation activity. The coal derived fractions were more active by both tests than the shale oil fractions.

  1. Receipt of Glucose Testing and Performance of Two US Diabetes Screening Guidelines, 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Bullard, Kai McKeever; Ali, Mohammed K.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Geiss, Linda S.; Saydah, Sharon H.; Albu, Jeanine B.; Cowie, Catherine C.; Sohler, Nancy; Albright, Ann; Gregg, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Screening guidelines are used to help identify prediabetes and diabetes before implementing evidence-based prevention and treatment interventions. We examined screening practices benchmarking against two US guidelines, and the capacity of each guideline to identify dysglycemia. Methods Using 2007–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, we analyzed nationally-representative, cross-sectional data from 5,813 fasting non-pregnant adults aged ≥20 years without self-reported diabetes. We examined proportions of adults eligible for diagnostic glucose testing and those who self-reported receiving testing in the past three years, as recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF-2008) guidelines. For each screening guideline, we also assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative predictive values in identifying dysglycemia (defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dl or hemoglobin A1c ≥5.7%). Results In 2007–2012, 73.0% and 23.7% of US adults without diagnosed diabetes met ADA and USPSTF-2008 criteria for screening, respectively; and 91.5% had at least one major risk factor for diabetes. Of those ADA- or USPSTF-eligible adults, about 51% reported being tested within the past three years. Eligible individuals not tested were more likely to be lower educated, poorer, uninsured, or have no usual place of care compared to tested eligible adults. Among adults with ≥1 major risk factor, 45.7% reported being tested, and dysglycemia yields (i.e., PPV) ranged from 45.8% (high-risk ethnicity) to 72.6% (self-reported prediabetes). ADA criteria and having any risk factor were more sensitive than the USPSTF-2008 guideline (88.8–97.7% vs. 31.0%) but less specific (13.5–39.7% vs. 82.1%) in recommending glucose testing, resulting in lower PPVs (47.7–54.4% vs. 58.4%). Conclusion Diverging recommendations and variable performance of different guidelines may be impeding

  2. The comparative cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening using faecal immunochemical test vs. colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Martin C S; Ching, Jessica Y L; Chan, Victor C W; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2015-01-01

    Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) and colonoscopy are two common screening tools for colorectal cancer(CRC). Most cost-effectiveness studies focused on survival as the outcome, and were based on modeling techniques instead of real world observational data. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of these two tests to detect colorectal neoplastic lesions based on data from a 5-year community screening service. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was assessed based on the detection rates of neoplastic lesions, and costs including screening compliance, polypectomy, colonoscopy complications, and staging of CRC detected. A total of 5,863 patients received yearly FIT and 4,869 received colonoscopy. Compared with FIT, colonoscopy detected notably more adenomas (23.6% vs. 1.6%) and advanced lesions or cancer (4.2% vs. 1.2%). Using FIT as control, the ICER of screening colonoscopy in detecting adenoma, advanced adenoma, CRC and a composite endpoint of either advanced adenoma or stage I CRC was US$3,489, US$27,962, US$922,762 and US$23,981 respectively. The respective ICER was US$3,597, US$439,513, -US$2,765,876 and US$32,297 among lower-risk subjects; whilst the corresponding figure was US$3,153, US$14,852, US$184,162 and US$13,919 among higher-risk subjects. When compared to FIT, colonoscopy is considered cost-effective for screening adenoma, advanced neoplasia, and a composite endpoint of advanced neoplasia or stage I CRC. PMID:26338314

  3. The comparative cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening using faecal immunochemical test vs. colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Martin CS; Ching, Jessica YL; Chan, Victor CW; Sung, Joseph JY

    2015-01-01

    Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) and colonoscopy are two common screening tools for colorectal cancer(CRC). Most cost-effectiveness studies focused on survival as the outcome, and were based on modeling techniques instead of real world observational data. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of these two tests to detect colorectal neoplastic lesions based on data from a 5-year community screening service. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was assessed based on the detection rates of neoplastic lesions, and costs including screening compliance, polypectomy, colonoscopy complications, and staging of CRC detected. A total of 5,863 patients received yearly FIT and 4,869 received colonoscopy. Compared with FIT, colonoscopy detected notably more adenomas (23.6% vs. 1.6%) and advanced lesions or cancer (4.2% vs. 1.2%). Using FIT as control, the ICER of screening colonoscopy in detecting adenoma, advanced adenoma, CRC and a composite endpoint of either advanced adenoma or stage I CRC was US$3,489, US$27,962, US$922,762 and US$23,981 respectively. The respective ICER was US$3,597, US$439,513, -US$2,765,876 and US$32,297 among lower-risk subjects; whilst the corresponding figure was US$3,153, US$14,852, US$184,162 and US$13,919 among higher-risk subjects. When compared to FIT, colonoscopy is considered cost-effective for screening adenoma, advanced neoplasia, and a composite endpoint of advanced neoplasia or stage I CRC. PMID:26338314

  4. A quick screening test of competency to stand trial for defendants with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Smith, S A; Hudson, R L

    1995-02-01

    19 terms and concepts from evaluations of competency to stand trial of 55 defendants with mental retardation were rated to examine whether a quick screening test could be devised that would differentiate those who were judged competent or not competent. A multiple regression and discriminant analysis gave four items that yielded maximum predictability (R = .84): court strategy, plead, testify, and jury. Guilty, trial, and prosecutor were also significantly more difficult for those who were not competent than those who were. PMID:7770598

  5. Application of electrochemical breath test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in screening of Moscow students.

    PubMed

    Kukushkina, I A; Korotkova, O A; Loginov, I A; Vasilieva, E A; Yashina, N V; Anokhina, I V; Kozlov, A V; Tumanova, G M; Tedoradze, R V; Dalin, M V

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection is analyzed by the results of screening of first- and fourth-year students of Moscow Institute of Foreign Affairs using HelicoSense Scientific breath test system. Age-related dynamics of the infection in patients examined for the first time has been traced. The data on infection rates in patients after eradication therapy are presented. PMID:22803077

  6. Oscillating-flow regenerator test rig: Woven screen and metal felt results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedeon, D.; Wood, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    We present correlating expressions, in terms of Reynolds or Peclet numbers, for friction factors, Nusselt numbers, enhanced axial conduction ratios, and overall heat flux ratios in four porous regenerator samples representative of stirling cycle regenerators: two woven screen samples and two random wire samples. Error estimates and comparison of data with others suggest our correlations are reliable, but we need to test more samples over a range of porosities before our results will become generally useful.

  7. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Cancer.gov

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  8. Generic Test Plan for Solubility Screening Tests of Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    PERSON, J.C.

    2000-02-16

    Waste pretreatment and immobilization requires the tank waste to be retrieved. Retrieval from tanks may require dilution. This test determines the effects of dilution on the mass of solids and their composition. This test plan gives test instructions, example data sheets, a waste compatibility review, and a waste stream fact sheet.

  9. Blood transfusion in bimaxillary orthognathic operations: need for testing of type and screen.

    PubMed

    Fenner, Matthias; Kessler, Peter; Holst, Stefan; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Holst, Alexandra Ioana

    2009-12-01

    We prospectively evaluated the incidence of blood transfusion in 105 consecutively treated patients (45 men and 60 women) having bimaxillary orthognathic operations, to find out whether type and screen testing are adequate in clinical practice. All patients had Le Fort I osteotomy combined with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy of the ramus. The preoperative routine was restricted to type and screen testing and verification of ABO/Rhesus (Rh) status. Autologous blood donation or routine cross-matching of allogeneic units of blood was not done. Intraoperative haemoglobin concentrations and the need for blood transfusion in patients having bimaxillary osteotomies were recorded in a prospective database. The mean duration of operation was 196 min (range 115-325). The median length of hospital stay was 8 days (range 4-16). The mean (SD) reduction in haemoglobin during operation was 34 (16)g/L in men and 32 (10)g/L in women (p=0.32). No patients had an allogeneic blood transfusion. We found that type and screen testing and verification of ABO/Rh status seems to be an adequate precaution to manage blood loss. As reflected by the low rate of transfusion in the present study, severe haemorrhage that requires transfusion of allogeneic blood has become the exception rather than the rule in bimaxillary orthognathic operations. PMID:19608311

  10. Buprenorphine detection in hair samples by immunometric screening test: preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Svaizer, Fiorenza; Lotti, Andrea; Gottardi, Massimo; Miozzo, Maria Pia

    2010-03-20

    The recent introduction of buprenorphine use by the Drug Addiction Services has induced toxicology laboratories to develop new qualitative or semiquantitative screening assay for its determination in hair samples. The aim of this preliminary study was to verify the correlation between the buprenorphine intake and the immunometric screening test results (VMA-T Comedical and buprenorphine CEDIA/Thermo-Fisher/Microgenics reagents) and therefore their comparison with the liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) results. Hair samples were obtained from 32 subjects without buprenorphine-therapy reported and 17 in treatment. In glass test tube with hermetic cap were weighed 33 mg of 49 finely cut hair samples, washed with 1 mL of SLV-VMA-T washing solution, which is then completely sucked and eliminated. The samples were extracted with 400 microL of VMA-T reagent for an hour at 100 degrees C. The extracts were analysed by immunometric screening test on ILab 650 chemistry analyser, using buprenorphine CEDIA reagent assay. From the 32 non-takers of drug, 30 semiquantitative results were less than 10 pg/mg and 2 were over 10 pg/mg; from the 17 subjects with therapy, all were over 10 pg/mg (range 13-50 pg/mg); no samples were false-negative. Results suggest that exist a good relationship between the administration of buprenorphine and its concentration in hair, detectable through this method and reagents line. PMID:20080369

  11. Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus From Organ Donors Despite Nucleic Acid Test Screening.

    PubMed

    Suryaprasad, A; Basavaraju, S V; Hocevar, S N; Theodoropoulos, N; Zuckerman, R A; Hayden, T; Forbi, J C; Pegues, D; Levine, M; Martin, S I; Kuehnert, M J; Blumberg, E A

    2015-07-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is recommended for screening of organ donors, yet not all donor infections may be detected. We describe three US clusters of HCV transmission from donors at increased risk for HCV infection. Donor's and recipients' medical records were reviewed. Newly infected recipients were interviewed. Donor-derived HCV infection was considered when infection was newly detected after transplantation in recipients of organs from increased risk donors. Stored donor sera and tissue samples were tested for HCV RNA with high-sensitivity quantitative PCR. Posttransplant and pretransplant recipient sera were tested for HCV RNA. Quasispecies analysis of hypervariable region-1 was used to establish genetic relatedness of recipient HCV variants. Each donor had evidence of injection drug use preceding death. Of 12 recipients, 8 were HCV-infected-6 were newly diagnosed posttransplant. HCV RNA was retrospectively detected in stored samples from donor immunologic tissue collected at organ procurement. Phylogenetic analysis showed two clusters of closely related HCV variants from recipients. These investigations identified the first known HCV transmissions from increased risk organ donors with negative NAT screening, indicating very recent donor infection. Recipient informed consent and posttransplant screening for blood-borne pathogens are essential when considering increased risk donors. PMID:25943299

  12. Clinical testing of the Ultra-Vision screen-film system for maxillofacial radiography.

    PubMed

    Sewerin, I P

    1994-03-01

    The Ultra-Vision screen (Du Pont, Towanda, Pa.) contains a yttrium tantalate phosphor-emitting ultraviolet light and eliminates the crossover effect. Increased resolution has been proven in vitro and the purpose of the present study was to test these findings in a clinical situation. Fifteen pairs of skull radiographs were produced with the use of Du Pont Ultra-Vision Rapid screens and Kodak Lanex (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, N.Y.) screens both belonging to speed class 400. Objects were a cadaver head, a 3M phantom head (3M Corp., St. Paul, Minn.), and patients who were serially radiographed as controls in a dental implant study. The radiographs had identical densities, but contrast was varied deliberately. Twelve observers judged the radiographs blindly. Ninety-two percent of the ratings with respect to resolution favored the Ultra-Vision system. However, great doubt was expressed regarding contrast. The agreement between the observers was tested by a Cochran's Q test. The results confirm that the Ultra-Vision system exhibits an improved resolution compared with the Lanex system. Ultra-Vision is recommended whether improved resolution of the radiographs or an expected reduced patient dose is preferred. PMID:8170665

  13. Hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis with accurate-mass database and parallel reaction monitoring for high-throughput screening and quantification of multi-xenobiotics in honey.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Jinzhen; Jin, Yue; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Wen; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhai, Lifei; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhou, Jinhui

    2016-01-15

    This study reports a rapid, automated screening and quantification method for the determination of multi-xenobiotic residues in honey using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap) with a user-built accurate-mass database plus parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). The database contains multi-xenobiotic information including formulas, adduct types, theoretical exact mass and retention time, characteristic fragment ions, ion ratios, and mass accuracies. A simple sample preparation method was developed to reduce xenobiotic loss in the honey samples. The screening method was validated based on retention time deviation, mass accuracy via full scan-data-dependent MS/MS (full scan-ddMS2), multi-isotope ratio, characteristic ion ratio, sensitivity, and positive/negative switching performance between the spiked sample and corresponding standard solution. The quantification method based on the PRM mode is a promising new quantitative tool which we validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, recovery (accuracy), repeatability (precision), decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), matrix effects, and carry-over. The optimized methods proposed in this study enable the automated screening and quantification of 157 compounds in less than 15 min in honey. The results of this study, as they represent a convenient protocol for large-scale screening and quantification, also provide a research approach for analysis of various contaminants in other matrices. PMID:26724099

  14. Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.; Moore, Leslie K.; Harrington, Neil; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Borchert, Jerry; Trainer, Vera L.

    2013-01-01

    The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A). The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters. PMID:24084788

  15. New Screening Test Developed for the Blanching Resistance of Copper Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus U.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's extensive efforts towards more efficient, safer, and more affordable space transportation include the development of new thrust-cell liner materials with improved capabilities and longer lives. For rocket engines fueled with liquid hydrogen, an important metric of liner performance is resistance to blanching, a phenomenon of localized wastage by cycles of oxidation-reduction due to local imbalance in the oxygen-fuel ratio. The current liner of the Space Shuttle Main Engine combustion chamber, a Cu-3Ag-0.5Zr alloy (NARloy-Z) is degraded in service by blanching. Heretofore, evaluating a liner material for blanching resistance involved elaborate and expensive hot-fire tests performed on rocket test stands. To simplify that evaluation, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center developed a screening test that uses simple, in situ oxidation-reduction cycling in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The principle behind this test is that resistance to oxidation or to the reduction of oxide, or both, implies resistance to blanching. Using this test as a preliminary tool to screen alloys for blanching resistance can improve reliability and save time and money. In this test a small polished coupon is hung in a TGA furnace at the desired (service) temperature. Oxidizing and reducing gases are introduced cyclically, in programmed amounts. Cycle durations are chosen by calibration, such that all copper oxides formed by oxidation are fully reduced in the next reduction interval. The sample weight is continuously acquired by the TGA as usual.

  16. Screening tests for the rapid detection of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L; Moore, Leslie K; Harrington, Neil; Adams, Nicolaus G; Borchert, Jerry; Trainer, Vera L

    2013-10-01

    The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test "pre-harvest" shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A). The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer's recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters. PMID:24084788

  17. Applicability of Screening Tests for Oxytetracycline in the Milk of Three Breeds of Goats.

    PubMed

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry, and the presence of antibiotic residues in milk is a health hazard. The objectives of this study were to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in the milk of three breeds of goats using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and screening tests. It was also essential to explore the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats and examine the applicability of Charm ROSA and SNAP screening tests. The qualitative results of these tests were compared with the quantitative results of the HPLC method. Fifteen milking does, five each from the Alpine, LaMancha, and Nubian breeds, were selected from the herd at Prairie View A&M University. Milk samples containing antibiotic residues were deproteinized by HCl and acetonitrile, and then oxytetracycline was extracted from the supernatant. The residues of oxytetracycline in goat's milk up to 110 h after injection were qualitatively detected using the Charm ROSA test. Similarly, the SNAP test detected the antibiotic residues in milk up to 110 h after treatment. The HPLC results indicated that oxytetracycline residues in milk from Alpine goats were below the tolerance level (300 ng/ml) 82 h after drug treatment (72 h for LaManchas, 58 h for Nubians); however, the results of the screening tests would indicate longer withdrawal periods for milk from the breeds of goats studied, which would result in economic losses to goat's milk producers. The results of this study also indicated that oxytetracycline was not stable in raw goat's milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and that the concentrations decreased significantly. Commercial goat's milk is usually exposed to several hours of refrigeration and then to pasteurization. The results of this study indicated that, if oxytetracycline was present in raw goat's milk, the concentration would decrease significantly before it was marketed. PMID:27296606

  18. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    SciTech Connect

    Taxvig, Camilla Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-02-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  19. Testing the Woman Abuse Screening Tool to Identify Intimate Partner Violence in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L.; Katz, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance. PMID:25012952

  20. Urine Toxicology Screen in Multiple Sleep Latency Test: The Correlation of Positive Tetrahydrocannabinol, Drug Negative Patients, and Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dzodzomenyo, Samuel; Stolfi, Adrienne; Splaingard, Deborah; Earley, Elizabeth; Onadeko, Oluwole; Splaingard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Drugs can influence results of multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT). We sought to identify the effect of marijuana on MSLT results in pediatric patients evaluated for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Methods: This is a retrospective study of urine drug screens performed the morning before MSLT in 383 patients < 21 years old referred for EDS. MSLT results were divided into those with (1) (−) urine drug screens, (2) urine drug screens (+) for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alone or THC plus other drugs, and (3) urine drug screens (+) for drugs other than THC. Groups were compared with Fisher exact tests or one-way ANOVA. Results: 38 (10%) urine drug tests were (+): 14 for THC and 24 for other drugs. Forty-three percent of patients with drug screen (+) for THC had MSLT findings consistent with narcolepsy, 0% consistent with idiopathic hypersomnia, 29% other, and 29% normal. This was statistically different from those with (−) screens (24% narcolepsy, 20% idiopathic hypersomnia, 6% other, 50% normal), and those (+) for drugs other than THC (17% narcolepsy, 33% idiopathic hypersomnia, 4% other, 46% normal (p = 0.01). Six percent (6/93) of patients with MSLT findings consistent with narcolepsy were drug screen (+) for THC; 71% of patients with drug screen (+) for THC had multiple sleep onset REM periods (SOREMS). There were no (+) urine drug screens in patients < 13 years old. Conclusion: Many pediatric patients with (+) urine drug screens for THC met MSLT criteria for narcolepsy or had multiple SOREMs. Drug screening is important in interpreting MSLT findings for children ≥ 13 years. Citation: Dzodzomenyo S, Stolfi A, Splaingard D, Earley E, Onadeko O, Splaingard M. Urine toxicology screen in multiple sleep latency test: the correlation of positive tetrahydrocannabinol, drug negative patients, and narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):93–99. PMID:25348245

  1. Room Temperature Bubble Point Tests on Porous Screens: Implications for Cryogenic Liquid Acquisition Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason; Mann, J. Adin, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results for room temperature bubble point tests conducted at the Cedar Creek Road Cryogenic Complex, Cell 7 (CCL-7) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The purpose of these tests was to investigate the performance of three different fine mesh screens in room temperature liquids to provide pretest predictions in cryogenic liquid nitrogen (LN2) and hydrogen (LH2) as part of NASA's microgravity LAD technology development program. Bench type tests based on the maximum bubble point method were conducted for a 325 x 2300, 450 x 2750, and 510 x 3600 mesh sample in pure room temperature liquid methanol, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, water, and mixtures of methanol and water to cover the intermediate to upper surface tension range. A theoretical model for the bubble point pressure is derived from the Young-LaPlace equation for the pressure drop across a curved interface. Governing equations are reduced in complexity through a set of simplifying assumptions to permit direct comparison with the experimental data. Screen pore sizes are estimated from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to make pretest predictions. Pore sizes based on SEM analysis are compared with historical data available in the literature for the 325 x 2300 and 450 x 2750 screens as well with data obtained from bubble point tests conducted in this work. Experimental results show that bubble point pressure is proportional to the surface tension of the liquid. We show that there is excellent agreement between data and model for pure fluids when the data is corrected for non-zero contact angle measured on the screens using a modified Sessile Drop technique. SEM image analysis of the three meshes indicated that bubble point pressure would be a maximum for the finest mesh screen. The pore diameters based on SEM analysis and experimental data obtained here are in excellent agreement for the 325 x 2300 and 450 x 2750 meshes, but not for the finest 510 x 3600 mesh. Therefore the simplified model

  2. Effect of screening tests on the lifetime statistics of injection lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, R. T., Jr.

    1980-11-01

    Standard oxide-stripe defined GaAs(GaAl)As lasers were aged at room temperature at high CW power (20 mW); the current was increased during aging to maintain this output level and the lasers were considered dead when they could no longer produce 20 mW, regardless of current. The laser lifetime data were subjected to a simple screening test to identify the longer lived units. The effect this test has on the lifetime distribution and on the reliability of a system composed of a set of these lasers is considered.

  3. New strategies for blood donor screening for hepatitis B virus: nucleic acid testing versus immunoassay methods.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Mary C; Busch, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Serologic testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) has historically been the foundation of blood screening, while HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT) was recently developed to detect HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-negative blood units donated during early acute infection. Comparison data on seroconversion panels using HBsAg assays of varying sensitivities and pooled- or single-sample NAT, along with viral load estimates corresponding to HBsAg assay detection limits, have provided information on the theoretical benefits of NAT relative to HBsAg. Model-derived estimates have generally been predictive of the yields of DNA-positive, HBsAg-negative window period blood units detected in a number of studies from Europe, Japan, and the US. Studies indicate that the added benefit of pooled-sample NAT is relatively small in areas of low endemicity, with greater yields in areas highly endemic for HBV. Single-sample NAT would offer more significant early window period closure and could prevent a moderate number of residual HBV transmissions not detected by HBsAg assays; however, no fully automated single-sample HBV NAT systems are currently available.Even single-sample HBV NAT may not substitute for anti-HBc screening, as indicated by studies of donors with isolated anti-HBc who have extremely low DNA levels undetectable by standard single-sample NAT and who have been associated with transfusion-transmitted HBV. Moreover, HBsAg testing may still be needed even in the setting of combined anti-HBc and NAT screening. HBsAg-positive units from donors in the chronic stage of infection may contain very low or intermittently detectable DNA levels that single-sample NAT would miss. Although such donors are usually anti-HBc reactive and would be interdicted by anti-HBc screening, some lack anti-HBc. Extensive parallel testing will be needed to determine whether single-sample NAT in combination with anti-HBc might be sufficient to

  4. Triple Test Screening for Down Syndrome: An Egyptian-Tailored Study

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Youssef, Hazem S.; Kamal, Manal M.; Mehaney, Dina A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of Down syndrome (DS) in Egypt varies between 1∶555 and 1∶770 and its screening by triple test is becoming increasingly popular nowadays. Results, however, seem inaccurate due to the lack of Egyptian-specific information needed for risk calculation and a clear policy for programme implementation. Our study aimed at calculation and validation of the triple marker medians used in screening Egyptian females as well as to recommend programme conventions to unify screening in this country. Methods The study was conducted on 668 Egyptian women, in weeks 15–20 of pregnancy as proven by sonar. Chorionic gonadotropin (CG), α-fetoprotein (AFP) and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) were measured on Siemens Immulite analyzer. Medians of the three parameters were calculated, regressed against gestational age (GA) and weighted by the number of participants/week. Equations were derived to adjust each parameter to the maternal weight and were centered on the median Egyptian weight. Prisca software was fed with the above data, multiples-of-median (MoM) and DS risks were calculated and the screening performance was evaluated at a mid-trimester risk cutoff of 1∶270. Results Log-linear [AFP/uE3 = 10(A+B*GA)] and exponential equations [CG = A*e (B*GA)] were derived and the regressed medians were found to follow similar patterns to other Asian and Western medians. Oestriol was always lowest (even halved) while CG and AFP were intermediate. A linear reciprocal model best fitted weight distribution among Egyptians and successfully adjusted each parameter to a weight of 78.2 kg. Epidemiological monitoring of these recommendations revealed satisfactory performance in terms of 6.7% initial positive rate and 1.00 grand MoM. Conclusions Adoption of the above recommendations is hoped to pave the way to a successful DS screening programme tailored to Egyptian peculiarities. PMID:25330176

  5. Chinese geneticists' views of ethical issues in genetic testing and screening: evidence for eugenics in China.

    PubMed

    Mao, X

    1998-09-01

    To identify Chinese geneticists' views of ethical issues in genetic testing and screening, a national survey was conducted. Of 402 Chinese geneticists asked to participate, 255 (63%) returned by mail anonymous questionnaires. The majority of respondents thought that genetic testing should be offered in the workplace for alpha-antitrypsin deficiency (95%) and the predisposition of executives to heart disease, cancer, and diabetes (94%); that genetic testing should be included in preemployment physical examinations (86%); that governments should require premarital carrier tests (86%), newborn screening for sickle cell (77%), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (71%); and that children should be tested for genes for late-onset disorders such as Huntington disease (85%), susceptibility to cancers (85%), familial hypercholesterolemia (84%), alcoholism (69%), and Alzheimer disease (61%). Most believed that partners should know each other's genetic status before marriage (92%), that carriers of the same defective gene should not mate with each other (91%), and that women should have a prenatal diagnosis if medically indicated (91%). The majority said that in China decisions about family planning were shared by the couple (82%). More than half had views that, in China, there were no laws to prohibit disability discrimination (64%), particularly to protect people with adult polycystic kidney disease (57%), cystic fibrosis (56%), or genetic predisposition to other diseases (50%). To some extent, these results might provide a basis for a discussion of eugenics in China, particularly about China's Maternal and Infant Health Care Law (1994). PMID:9718350

  6. Correlation of pregnancy outcome with quadruple screening test at second trimester

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Shahla; Rouholahnejad, Rahele; Asnafi, Nesa; Sharbatdaran, Majid; Zakershob, Marziihe; Bouzari, Zinatossadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal levels of the markers AFP, hCG, and uE3 could be useful in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study was designed to determine the correlation between second trimester maternal serum markers and adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). Methods: In this historical cohort study, we randomly followed 231 obstetric patients with quadruple screening test in 14-18 weeks of gestation from March 2012 to March 2013 in a medical laboratory in Babol, Iran. We measured maternal serum levels of alphafetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), unconjugated estriol (uE3), and inhibin-A. The risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) were then compared between patients with negative and positive test results. We used Chi-square and Fisher-exact tests for qualitative variables and t-test for quantitative variables. Demographic differences between the two groups were minimized by applying logistic regression. Results: The risk of having an APO such as pre-eclampsia (p=0.008), fetal growth restriction (p=0.028) and premature rupture of membrane (p=0.040) increased significantly in patients with abnormal markers. Conclusion: Abnormal results of quadruple screening test could be associated with APO in women with normal appearing fetus. PMID:26913244

  7. Screen channel liquid acquisition device bubble point tests in liquid nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, J. W.

    2016-03-01

    The primary parameter for gauging performance of a liquid acquisition device (LAD) is the bubble point pressure, or differential pressure across a screen pore that overcomes the surface tension of the liquid at that pore. Recently, cryogenic bubble point tests were conducted in liquid nitrogen across a parametric trade space to examine the influential factors that govern LAD performance, and 1873 data points were collected. Three fine mesh screen samples (325 × 2300, 450 × 2750, 510 × 3600) were tested over a wide range of liquid temperatures (67-114 K) and pressures (0.032-1.83 MPa), using both autogenous (gaseous nitrogen) and non-condensable (gaseous helium) pressurization schemes. Experimental results in liquid nitrogen are compared to recently reported results in liquid hydrogen, oxygen, and methane. Results indicate a significant gain in performance is achievable over the baseline 325 × 2300 reference bubble point by using a finer mesh, operating at a colder liquid temperature, and pressurizing and subcooling the liquid with the noncondensable pressurant. Results also show that the cryogenic bubble point is heavily affected by enhanced heating and cooling at the screen liquid/vapor interface by evaporation and condensation.

  8. Otoacoustic emissions as a screening test for hearing impairment in children.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, M P; Williamson, T J; Lenton, S W; Tarlow, M J; Rudd, P T

    1995-01-01

    Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) are low amplitude sound waves produced by the healthy cochlea. They can be recorded with a microphone in the external ear. TEOAEs are abolished by hearing losses of 30 dB or more. The feasibility of using TEOAEs as a screening test for hearing loss in children was studied. TEOAE recordings were attempted in 56 children attending an audiology clinic. Recordings were possible from both ears in 52 children; of these 104 ears, 32 had hearing deficits of 30 dB or more. Hearing status was compared with the results of six TEOAE screening criteria. All criteria had a sensitivity of 1.00. Four standard TEOAE criteria yielded specificities of 0.46-0.58. Two new criteria derived from analysis of limited frequencies from the TEOAE waveform gave specificities of 0.76 and 0.82. It can be concluded that, when appropriate pass/fail criteria are employed, TEOAEs are a feasible screening test in children. PMID:7763058

  9. Development of the floret test for screening the initiability of explosive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The Floret test was developed as a small scale screening experiment to characterise the initiability and divergence of novel explosive train materials; providing a route to undertake initial optimisation of explosive formulations. The test utilises an explosively driven, aluminium flyer plate to impact a 12.6 mm diameter, by 4 mm long explosive sample; the output from which is characterised by profiling the dent imparted into an adjacent copper witness block. The aluminium flyer plate characteristics are varied in order to assess the initiability of the samples, yielding an estimate of the initiation spot size for the explosive. A summary of the results generated thus far in Floret will be reported. These results have improved understanding of the initiation characteristics of the Floret test and, using a case study of optimising the test to study HMX based materials, provided insight into the initiation behaviour of explosive materials to flyer plate impacts.

  10. Evaluation of some candidate materials for automobile thermal reactors in engine-dynamometer screening tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldrieve, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Fourteen materials were evaluated in engine screening tests on full-size thermal reactors for automobile engine pollution control systems. Cyclic test-stand engine operation provided 2 hours at 1040 C and a 20-minute air-cool to 70 C each test cycle. Each reactor material was exposed to 83 cycles in 200 hours of engine testing. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and distortion, the best materials included two ferritic iron alloys (Ge 1541 and Armco 18S/R), several commercial oxidation-resistant coatings on AlSl 651 (19-9 DL), and possibly uncoated AISI 310. The best commercial coatings were Cr-Al, Ni-Cr, and a glass ceramic.

  11. Economic Evaluations of Pharmacogenetic and Pharmacogenomic Screening Tests: A Systematic Review. Second Update of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wilffert, Bob; Boersma, Cornelis; Annemans, Lieven; Vegter, Stefan; van Boven, Job F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Due to extended application of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic screening (PGx) tests it is important to assess whether they provide good value for money. This review provides an update of the literature. Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed and papers published between August 2010 and September 2014, investigating the cost-effectiveness of PGx screening tests, were included. Papers from 2000 until July 2010 were included via two previous systematic reviews. Studies’ overall quality was assessed with the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument. Results We found 38 studies, which combined with the previous 42 studies resulted in a total of 80 included studies. An average QHES score of 76 was found. Since 2010, more studies were funded by pharmaceutical companies. Most recent studies performed cost-utility analysis, univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and discussed limitations of their economic evaluations. Most studies indicated favorable cost-effectiveness. Majority of evaluations did not provide information regarding the intrinsic value of the PGx test. There were considerable differences in the costs for PGx testing. Reporting of the direction and magnitude of bias on the cost-effectiveness estimates as well as motivation for the chosen economic model and perspective were frequently missing. Conclusions Application of PGx tests was mostly found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy. We found that only the minority of recent pharmacoeconomic evaluations assessed the intrinsic value of the PGx tests. There was an increase in the number of studies and in the reporting of quality associated characteristics. To improve future evaluations, scenario analysis including a broad range of PGx tests costs and equal costs of comparator drugs to assess the intrinsic value of the PGx tests, are recommended. In addition, robust clinical evidence regarding PGx tests’ efficacy remains of utmost importance. PMID

  12. Using pretest data to screen low-reactivity individuals in the autonomic-based concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Ogawa, Tokihiro; Tsuneoka, Michiko; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    The concealed information test (CIT) can be used to assess whether an individual possesses crime-related information. However, its discrimination performance has room for improvement. We examined whether screening out participants who do not respond distinctively on a pretest improves the diagnosticity of a mock-crime CIT. Before conducting the CIT, we gave a pretest to 152 participants, 80 of whom were assigned as guilty. Pretest screening significantly improved the diagnostic value of the mock-crime CIT; however, it also led to a substantial number of undiagnosed participants (33.6%). Pretest screening holds promise, but its application would benefit from dedicated measures for screening out participants. PMID:25208848

  13. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population. PMID:26990386

  14. Usefulness of a handheld nebulizer in cough test to screen for silent aspiration.

    PubMed

    Wakasugi, Yoko; Tohara, Haruka; Nakane, Ayako; Murata, Shino; Mikushi, Shinya; Susa, Chiaki; Takashima, Maho; Umeda, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Ruriko; Uematsu, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Cough test to screen for silent aspiration (SA) was reported, and the effectiveness was excellent. However, the device was rather large so that the portability was poor. So, the purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of a handheld nebulizer for the test and verify the reproducibility of the method. The subjects were 160 patients who were suspected of having dysphagia and underwent videofluorography (VF) or videoendoscopy (VE). They inhaled 1.0 % citric acid-physiologic saline orally for 1 min using a handheld nebulizer, and the examiner observed the number of coughs: more than five coughs was considered as negative (normal), while less than four coughs was regarded as positive. Among the subjects, 70 patients administered the cough test and VF or VE twice or more at some intervals. The k coefficient was calculated in reproducibility. Using the results of the VF or VE examination as the standards, for SA detection, the sensitivity was 0.86, specificity was 0.71, positive predictive value was 0.53, and negative predictive value was 0.93. The k coefficient was 0.79. In conclusion, the handheld nebulizer was useful in the cough test to screen for SA. Furthermore, satisfactory reproducibility was shown. PMID:23053789

  15. Proposal for a screening test to evaluate the fate of organic micropollutants in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Roberta; Vismara, Renato; Dal Ben, Ilaria; Gorla, Elena; Romele, Laura

    2011-04-01

    The concentrations of organic micropollutants are usually low in wastewaters (order of magnitude of mg L(-1)). However, their emission standards, especially in the case of carcinogenic and bioaccumulating substances, are often much lower (order of magnitude of microg L(-1)). Since these substances, in some cases, can be adsorbable or volatile, their removal via volatilization, biodegradation or sludge adsorption in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) becomes a significant feature to include in the usual design process, in order to verify the emission standards in gas and sludge too. In this study a simple screening batch test for the evaluation of the fate of organic micropollutants in water, air and sludge is presented. The test is set up by means of simple laboratory instruments and simulates an activated sludge tank process. In this study the results obtained for four substances with different chemical properties (i.e. toluene, benz(a)anthracene, phenol and benzene) are presented. The screening test proposed can be a useful tool to assess in about one month the fate of organic micropollutants in an activated sludge tank of a WWTP. Moreover, the test can constitute a useful support in the use of mathematical models, since it allows the verification of model results and the calibration of the reactions involved in the removal process. PMID:21877546

  16. [Faecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening: high quality for a good price].

    PubMed

    van Veldhuizen, Harriët; Bonfrer, J M G Hans; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) awarded the immunochemical faecal occult blood test (IFOBT) to FOB Gold of Sentinel following a European call for tenders. The contract-awarding procedure included the application of quality knock-out criteria, which were met by two suppliers. The decisive factor was the best price/quality ratio. A recent review indicated that, at present, no single IFOBT is better than any other. The decision to opt for a test manufactured by a different supplier than was used in the previous screening pilots made it necessary to re-determine the cut-off value. This value has now been set (88 ng/ml) and is confirmed by a laboratory test. Colonoscopy-related capacity planning, as well as its diagnostic yield, depends on numerous factors; therefore, the RIVM is currently monitoring the referral percentage and number of adenomas detected and is collaborating on quality terms. Any necessary adjustments are to be made during the introduction of the screening test. PMID:23594877

  17. Selective pressures for accurate altruism targeting: evidence from digital evolution for difficult-to-test aspects of inclusive fitness theory.

    PubMed

    Clune, Jeff; Goldsby, Heather J; Ofria, Charles; Pennock, Robert T

    2011-03-01

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that natural selection will favour altruist genes that are more accurate in targeting altruism only to copies of themselves. In this paper, we provide evidence from digital evolution in support of this prediction by competing multiple altruist-targeting mechanisms that vary in their accuracy in determining whether a potential target for altruism carries a copy of the altruist gene. We compete altruism-targeting mechanisms based on (i) kinship (kin targeting), (ii) genetic similarity at a level greater than that expected of kin (similarity targeting), and (iii) perfect knowledge of the presence of an altruist gene (green beard targeting). Natural selection always favoured the most accurate targeting mechanism available. Our investigations also revealed that evolution did not increase the altruism level when all green beard altruists used the same phenotypic marker. The green beard altruism levels stably increased only when mutations that changed the altruism level also changed the marker (e.g. beard colour), such that beard colour reliably indicated the altruism level. For kin- and similarity-targeting mechanisms, we found that evolution was able to stably adjust altruism levels. Our results confirm that natural selection favours altruist genes that are increasingly accurate in targeting altruism to only their copies. Our work also emphasizes that the concept of targeting accuracy must include both the presence of an altruist gene and the level of altruism it produces. PMID:20843843

  18. Selective pressures for accurate altruism targeting: evidence from digital evolution for difficult-to-test aspects of inclusive fitness theory

    PubMed Central

    Clune, Jeff; Goldsby, Heather J.; Ofria, Charles; Pennock, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that natural selection will favour altruist genes that are more accurate in targeting altruism only to copies of themselves. In this paper, we provide evidence from digital evolution in support of this prediction by competing multiple altruist-targeting mechanisms that vary in their accuracy in determining whether a potential target for altruism carries a copy of the altruist gene. We compete altruism-targeting mechanisms based on (i) kinship (kin targeting), (ii) genetic similarity at a level greater than that expected of kin (similarity targeting), and (iii) perfect knowledge of the presence of an altruist gene (green beard targeting). Natural selection always favoured the most accurate targeting mechanism available. Our investigations also revealed that evolution did not increase the altruism level when all green beard altruists used the same phenotypic marker. The green beard altruism levels stably increased only when mutations that changed the altruism level also changed the marker (e.g. beard colour), such that beard colour reliably indicated the altruism level. For kin- and similarity-targeting mechanisms, we found that evolution was able to stably adjust altruism levels. Our results confirm that natural selection favours altruist genes that are increasingly accurate in targeting altruism to only their copies. Our work also emphasizes that the concept of targeting accuracy must include both the presence of an altruist gene and the level of altruism it produces. PMID:20843843

  19. Why screening tests to predict injury do not work-and probably never will…: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Roald

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses if and how a periodic health examination to screen for risk factors for injury can be used to mitigate injury risk. The key question asked is whether it is possible to use screening tests to identify who is at risk for a sports injury-in order to address the deficit through a targeted intervention programme. The paper demonstrates that to validate a screening test to predict and prevent sports injuries, at least 3 steps are needed. First, a strong relationship needs to be demonstrated in prospective studies between a marker from a screening test and injury risk (step 1). Second, the test properties need to be examined in relevant populations, using appropriate statistical tools (step 2). Unfortunately, there is currently no example of a screening test for sports injuries with adequate test properties. Given the nature of potential screening tests (where test performance is usually measured on a continuous scale from low to high), substantial overlap is to be expected between players with high and low risk of injury. Therefore, although there are a number of tests demonstrating a statistically significant association with injury risk, and therefore help the understanding of causative factors, such tests are unlikely to be able to predict injury with sufficient accuracy. The final step needed is to document that an intervention programme targeting athletes identified as being at high risk through a screening programme is more beneficial than the same intervention programme given to all athletes (step 3). To date, there is no intervention study providing support for screening for injury risk. PMID:27095747

  20. Asbestos screening process

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The paper discusses and demonstrates a simple asbestos screening test developed by Kupel and Kim. Standard tests to determine asbestos content in building materials cost up to $500.00 to perform. With 2 simple tests and kit devised by two men, anyone can perform these tests that now cost 25 cents each. And they are accurate. If positive results are obtained, the materials are sent to the lab for analysis. The two tests consist of use of acids, bases and reagents to test for iron and manganese content.

  1. Maximising the efficiency of clinical screening programmes: balancing predictive genetic testing with a right not to know

    PubMed Central

    Schuurman, Agnes G; van der Kolk, Dorina M; Verkerk, Marian A; Birnie, Erwin; Ranchor, Adelita V; Plantinga, Mirjam; van Langen, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    We explored the dilemma between patients' right not to know their genetic status and the efficient use of health-care resources in the form of clinical cancer screening programmes. Currently, in the Netherlands, 50% risk carriers of heritable cancer syndromes who choose not to know their genetic status have access to the same screening programmes as proven mutation carriers. This implies an inefficient use of health-care resources, because half of this group will not carry the familial mutation. At the moment, only a small number of patients are involved; however, the expanding possibilities for genetic risk profiling means this issue must be addressed because of potentially adverse societal and financial impact. The trade-off between patients' right not to know their genetic status and efficient use of health-care resources was discussed in six focus groups with health-care professionals and patients from three Dutch university hospitals. Professionals prefer patients to undergo a predictive DNA test as a prerequisite for entering cancer screening programmes. Professionals prioritise treating sick patients or proven mutation carriers over screening untested individuals. Participation in cancer screening programmes without prior DNA testing is, however, supported by most professionals, as testing is usually delayed and relatively few patients are involved at present. Reducing the number of 50% risk carriers undergoing screening is expected to be achieved by: offering more psychosocial support, explaining the iatrogenic risks of cancer screening, increasing out-of-pocket costs, and offering a less stringent screening programme for 50% risk carriers. PMID:25564039

  2. Maximising the efficiency of clinical screening programmes: balancing predictive genetic testing with a right not to know.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, Agnes G; van der Kolk, Dorina M; Verkerk, Marian A; Birnie, Erwin; Ranchor, Adelita V; Plantinga, Mirjam; van Langen, Irene M

    2015-09-01

    We explored the dilemma between patients' right not to know their genetic status and the efficient use of health-care resources in the form of clinical cancer screening programmes. Currently, in the Netherlands, 50% risk carriers of heritable cancer syndromes who choose not to know their genetic status have access to the same screening programmes as proven mutation carriers. This implies an inefficient use of health-care resources, because half of this group will not carry the familial mutation. At the moment, only a small number of patients are involved; however, the expanding possibilities for genetic risk profiling means this issue must be addressed because of potentially adverse societal and financial impact. The trade-off between patients' right not to know their genetic status and efficient use of health-care resources was discussed in six focus groups with health-care professionals and patients from three Dutch university hospitals. Professionals prefer patients to undergo a predictive DNA test as a prerequisite for entering cancer screening programmes. Professionals prioritise treating sick patients or proven mutation carriers over screening untested individuals. Participation in cancer screening programmes without prior DNA testing is, however, supported by most professionals, as testing is usually delayed and relatively few patients are involved at present. Reducing the number of 50% risk carriers undergoing screening is expected to be achieved by: offering more psychosocial support, explaining the iatrogenic risks of cancer screening, increasing out-of-pocket costs, and offering a less stringent screening programme for 50% risk carriers. PMID:25564039

  3. Test and evaluation of the 2.4-micron photorefractor ocular screening system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    An improved 2.4-m photorefractor ocular screening system was tested and evaluated. The photorefractor system works on the principal of obtaining a colored photograph of both human eyes; and, by analysis of the retinal reflex images, certain ocular defects can be detected such a refractive error, strabismus, and lens obstructions. The 2.4-m photorefractory system uses a 35-mm camera with a telephoto lens and an electronic flash attachment. Retinal reflex images obtained from the new 2.4-m system are significantly improved over earlier systems in image quality. Other features were also improved, notably portability and reduction in mass. A total of 706 school age children were photorefracted, 211 learning disabled and 495 middle school students. The total students having abnormal retinal reflexes were 156 or 22 percent, and 133 or 85 percent of the abnormal had refractive error indicated. Ophthalmological examination was performed on 60 of these students and refractive error was verified in 57 or 95 percent of those examined. The new 2.4-m system has a NASA patent pending and is authorized by the FDA. It provides a reliable means of rapidly screening the eyes of children and young adults for vision problems. It is especially useful for infants and other non-communicative children who cannot be screened by the more conventional methods such as the familiar E chart.

  4. Working towards a test for screening visual skills in a complex visual environment.

    PubMed

    Menozzi, M; Baumer-Bergande, E; Seiffert, B

    2012-01-01

    We developed a test for screening visual skills under similar conditions as at workplace. The test was administered to 207 participants, recruited in the working population. Six-digit numbers were super-imposed on a video of a drive and presented for 300 ms in the central visual field and in the periphery. Participants reported whether or not the integer '3' was included in the numbers. Normative data for the test were computed using 150 data sets of participants reporting not to take drugs and with an age ranging between 15 y and 67 y. Participants performed better in the central visual field than in periphery. The test could successfully be completed by participants of all ages without the need of adjustment of settings. Comparison of 46 data sets recorded in participants taking drugs (30 y-68 y) with age matched participants not taking drugs demonstrates an additional potential application of the test. Practitioner Summary: Developed test delivers comparative estimates of visual skills within short time and appears as valuable and cheap complementation to current testing procedures in industrial practice. The test can be used in a preventive and in educative manner to monitor effects of factors like fatigue, sleep deprivation or drug consumption. PMID:22928619

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of fecal immunochemical test in average- and familial-risk colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Inés; Hernandez, Vicent; González-Mao, Carmen; Rivera, Concepción; Iglesias, Felipe; Alves, María Teresa; Cid, Lucía; Soto, Santiago; De-Castro, Luisa; Vega, Pablo; Hermo, Jose Antonio; Macenlle, Ramiro; Martínez, Alfonso; Estevez, Pamela; Cid, Estela; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Portillo, Isabel; Bujanda, Luis; Fernández-Seara, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Background There is little information about the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in familial-risk colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Objectives The objective of this article is to investigate whether FIT diagnostic accuracy for advanced neoplasia (AN) differs between average and familial-risk (first-degree relative) patients. Methods A total of 1317 consecutive participants (595 familial) who collected one stool sample before performing a colonoscopy as a CRC screening test were included. FIT diagnostic accuracy for AN was evaluated with Chi-square test at a 20 µg hemoglobin/g of feces cut-off value. Finally, we determined which variables were independently related to AN. Results An AN was found in 151 (11.5%) patients. The overall accuracy was not statistically different between both cohorts for AN (88.4%, 91.7%; p = 0.051). At the cut-off stablished, differences in FIT sensitivity (31.1%, 40.6%; p = 0.2) or specificity (96.5%, 97.3%; p = 0.1) were not statistically significant. Finally, independent variables such as sex (male) (odds ratio (OR) 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–3.1), age (50–65, >65 years) (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–4.3; OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–6.1), previous colonoscopy (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.9) and FIT ≥20 µg/g feces (OR 17.7, 95% CI 10.8–29.1) were associated with AN diagnosis. Conclusions FIT accuracy for AN detection is equivalent in average and familial-risk CRC screening cohorts. PMID:25452848

  6. Old and New Ideas for Data Screening and Assumption Testing for Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Flora, David B.; LaBrish, Cathy; Chalmers, R. Philip

    2011-01-01

    We provide a basic review of the data screening and assumption testing issues relevant to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis along with practical advice for conducting analyses that are sensitive to these concerns. Historically, factor analysis was developed for explaining the relationships among many continuous test scores, which led to the expression of the common factor model as a multivariate linear regression model with observed, continuous variables serving as dependent variables, and unobserved factors as the independent, explanatory variables. Thus, we begin our paper with a review of the assumptions for the common factor model and data screening issues as they pertain to the factor analysis of continuous observed variables. In particular, we describe how principles from regression diagnostics also apply to factor analysis. Next, because modern applications of factor analysis frequently involve the analysis of the individual items from a single test or questionnaire, an important focus of this paper is the factor analysis of items. Although the traditional linear factor model is well-suited to the analysis of continuously distributed variables, commonly used item types, including Likert-type items, almost always produce dichotomous or ordered categorical variables. We describe how relationships among such items are often not well described by product-moment correlations, which has clear ramifications for the traditional linear factor analysis. An alternative, non-linear factor analysis using polychoric correlations has become more readily available to applied researchers and thus more popular. Consequently, we also review the assumptions and data-screening issues involved in this method. Throughout the paper, we demonstrate these procedures using an historic data set of nine cognitive ability variables. PMID:22403561

  7. Xenoendocrine disrupters-tiered screening and testing: filling key data gaps.

    PubMed

    Gray, L E; Ostby, J; Wilson, V; Lambright, C; Bobseine, K; Hartig, P; Hotchkiss, A; Wolf, C; Furr, J; Price, M; Parks, L; Cooper, R L; Stoker, T E; Laws, S C; Degitz, S J; Jensen, K M; Kahl, M D; Korte, J J; Makynen, E A; Tietge, J E; Ankley, G T

    2002-12-27

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to detect alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function, estrogen (ER), androgen (AR) and thyroid hormone synthesis and AR and ER receptor-mediated effects in mammals and other animals. High priority chemicals would be evaluated in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery and chemicals positive in T1S would then be tested (Tier 2). T1S includes in vitro ER and AR receptor binding and/or gene expression, an assessment of steroidogenesis and mammalian (rat) and nonmammalian in vivo assays (Table 1). In vivo, the uterotropic assay detects estrogens and antiestrogens, while steroidogenesis, antithyroid activity, (anti)estrogenicity and HPG function are assessed in a 'Pubertal Female Assay'. (Anti-) androgens are detected in the Hershberger Assay (weight of AR-dependent tissues in castrate-immature-male rats). Fish and amphibian assays also are being developed. The fathead minnow assay can identify EDCs displaying several mechanisms of concern, including AR and ER receptor agonists and antagonists and inhibitors of steroid hormone synthesis. An amphibian metamorphosis assay is being developed to detect thyroid-active substances. Several alternative mammalian in vivo assays have been proposed. Of these, a short-term pubertal male rat assay appears most promising. An in utero-lactational screening protocol also is being evaluated. For Tier 2, the numbers of endocrine sensitive endpoints and offspring (F1) examined in multigenerational tests need to be expanded for EDCs. Consideration should be given to tailoring T2, based on the results of T1S. Tier 1 and 2 also should examine relevant mixtures of EDCs. Toxicants that induce malformations in AR-dependent tissues produce cumulative effects even when two chemicals act via different mechanisms of action. PMID:12505339

  8. Improvement of the SOS/umu test for preliminary screening of mutagens

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Toyoaki ); Nakamura, Seiichi; Oda, Yoshimitsu )

    1990-01-01

    A short-term system to detect environmental mutagens is presented by using a plasmid(pSK1002) carrying a fused gene umuC'-'lacZ introduced into Salmonella typhimurium TA1535. Higher sensitivity, repeatability, and simplicity were achieved when (1) the culture volume taken from 2hrs after treatment with test compound was increased to 1.5ml diluted with distilled water to 2.5ml, (2) the 15{mu} 1 of 3% SDS solution saturated with chloroform was used as the disruptor of the cell membrane, and (3) an incubation temperature of 37C was used. At the above experimental conditions, the time required for the mutagen test was shortened to 3hrs. Based on the results of the present study, it seems that the improved SOS/umu test is useful for screening of mutagenic complex environmental mixtures.

  9. Exploratory screening tests of several alloys and coatings for automobile thermal reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldrieve, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A total of 23 materials (including uncoated ferritic and austenitic iron-base alloys, uncoated nickel and cobalt-base superalloys, and several different coatings on AISI 304 stainless steel) were screened as test coupons on a rack in an automobile thermal reactor. Test exposures were generally 51 hours including 142 thermal cycles of 10 minutes at 1010 + or - 30 C test coupon temperature and 7-minutes cool-down to about 510 C. Materials that exhibited corrosion resistance better than that of Hastelloy X include: a ferritic iron alloy with 6 weight percent aluminum; three nickel-base superalloys; two diffused-aluminum coatings on AISI 304; and a Ni-Cr slurry-sprayed coating on AISI 304. Preliminary comparison is made on the performance of the directly impinged coupons and a reactor core of the same material.

  10. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis.

    PubMed

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-07-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive samples, 704 fresh syphilis-negative samples, 48 preselected potentially interfering samples, and 30 "borderline" samples and was compared head to head with the commercially available Lumipulse G TP-N. In this study, the HISCL anti-TP assay was in perfect agreement with the applied testing algorithms with an overall agreement of 100%, comparable to that of Lumipulse G TP-N (99.63%). The sensitivity and specificity of the HISCL anti-TP assay were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.42% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.37% to 100%), respectively. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its favorable sensitivity and specificity, the HISCL anti-TP assay may represent a new choice for syphilis screening in high-volume laboratories. PMID:25972403

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of VIA and HPV detection as primary and sequential screening tests in a cervical cancer screening demonstration project in India.

    PubMed

    Basu, Partha; Mittal, Srabani; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Singh, Priyanka; Panda, Chinmay; Dutta, Sankhadeep; Mandal, Ranajit; Das, Pradip; Biswas, Jaydip; Muwonge, Richard; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-08-15

    Visual inspection after acetic acid application (VIA) and human papillomavirus (HPV) detection tests have been recommended to screen women for cervical cancer in low and middle income countries. A demonstration project in rural India screened 39,740 women with both the tests to compare their accuracies in real population setting. The project also evaluated the model of screening women in the existing primary health care facilities, evaluating the screen positive women with colposcopy (and biopsy) in the same setup and recalling the women diagnosed to have disease for treatment at tertiary center. Accuracy of VIA and HPV test used sequentially was also studied. VIA was performed by trained health workers and Hybrid Capture II (HC II) assay was used for oncogenic HPV detection. Test positivity was 7.1% for VIA and 4.7% for HC II. Detection rate of CIN 3+ disease was significantly higher with HC II than VIA. Sensitivities of VIA and HC II to detect 162 histology proved CIN 3+ lesions were 67.9 and 91.2%, respectively after adjusting for verification bias. Specificity for the same disease outcome and verification bias correction was 93.2% for VIA and 96.9% for HC II. Triaging of VIA positive women with HPV test would have considerably improved the positive predictive value (4.0 to 37.5% to detect CIN 3+) without significant drop in sensitivity. All VIA positive women and 74.0% of HC II positive women had colposcopy. There was high compliance to treatment and significant stage-shift of the screen-detected cancers towards more early stage. PMID:25631198

  12. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—Cast Stone and Alkali Alumino-Silicate Geopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Parker, Kent E.; Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2010-06-28

    PNNL is conducting screening tests on the candidate waste forms to provide a basis for comparison and to resolve the formulation and data needs identified in the literature review. This report documents the screening test results on the Cast Stone cementitious waste form and the Geopolymer waste form. Test results suggest that both the Cast Stone and Geopolymer appear to be viable waste forms for the solidification of the secondary liquid wastes to be treated in the ETF. The diffusivity for technetium from the Cast Stone monoliths was in the range of 1.2 × 10-11 to 2.3 × 10-13 cm2/s during the 63 days of testing. The diffusivity for technetium from the Geopolymer was in the range of 1.7 × 10-10 to 3.8 × 10-12 cm2/s through the 63 days of the test. These values compare with a target of 1 × 10-9 cm2/s or less. The Geopolymer continues to show some fabrication issues with the diffusivities ranging from 1.7 × 10-10 to 3.8 × 10-12 cm2/s for the better-performing batch to from 1.2 × 10-9 to 1.8 × 10-11 cm2/s for the poorer-performing batch. In the future more comprehensive and longer term performance testing will be conducted, to further evaluate whether or not these waste forms will meet the regulation and performance criteria needed to cost-effectively dispose of secondary wastes.

  13. Testing the ability of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to accurately report the effects of medication on their behavior.

    PubMed

    Ardoin, S P; Martens, B K

    2000-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often treated with central nervous system stimulants, making the evaluation of medication effects an important topic for applied behavior analysts. Because assessment protocols emphasize informant reports and direct observations of child behavior, little is known about the extent to which children themselves can accurately report medication effects. Double-blind placebo-controlled procedures were used to examine whether 6 children with ADHD could recognize the effects of their medication. The children were given math worksheets to complete for 15 min during each of 14 sessions while on medication and placebo. Children completed a self-evaluation form at the end of each session, and ratings were compared to observed behavior and academic performance. Results indicated that 3 children were able to accurately report their medication status at levels greater than chance, whereas the accuracy of reports by all children was related to dosage level, differences in behavior, and the presence of adverse effects. The implications of these results for placebo-controlled research, self-monitoring of dosage levels, and accuracy training are discussed. PMID:11214033

  14. APPRAISAL OF PRENATAL ANTI-TOXOPLASMA GONDII (IGG+IGM)- IHA/IGM-ELISA SCREENING IN SINGLE SAMPLES VIA IGG AVIDITY TEST.

    PubMed

    El-Bali, Mohammed; Zaglool, Dina A M; Khodari, Yousif A W; Al-Harthi, Saeed A

    2016-04-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is associated with important morbidity and mortality. Since vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii can occur in acute cases, antenatal screening for recent infections is vital. Accurate determination of acute toxoplasmosis requires a combination of immunoassays, usually not routinely applied for screening purposes. This study evaluated the anti-T. gondii (IgG+IgM)/IgM prenatal screening procedure by IgG avidity assay. The routine prenatal screening for (IgG+IgM) anti-T. gondii by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) in serum samples was done of 2247 pregnant women who attended two hospitals between 2011 and 2013 revealed 487 (21.7%) positive samples. Examination of IHA-positive sera by IgM and IgG/IgG-avidity concurrent ELISA tests revealed 7 positive and 3 border-line IgM-ELISA titers during the initial check-up of 10 women, who were then followed up at 3-4 week-intervals. Among these, 4 (40%) showed simultaneous high avidity IgG antibodies, indicating distant infection by the parasite, and no anti-T. gondii specific IgG could be detected in follow-up sera of two cases (20%), indicating false IgM initial positive results. Only 4 (40%) women showed simultaneous IgM and low avidity IgG antibodies indicating active infections. Avoidance of an over-diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis Anti-T. gondii (IgG+IgM)/IgM prenatal screening must be supplemented by a discriminative test like IgG avidity ELISA. PMID:27363056

  15. MRSA Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? MRSA Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture At a Glance ...

  16. Incidence and predictors of screen failures due to positive urine tests for alcohol, drugs of abuse, and cotinine among normal healthy research volunteers (NHRVs): analysis of data from 687 NHRVs screened at a large clinical pharmacology unit in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nada, Adel; Baxter, Shawn; Loraas, Erik; Somberg, John C

    2008-01-01

    Accurate medical histories for all NHRVs screening to participate in clinical pharmacology trials are vital to ensure volunteers' safety, and integrity of study results. Evidence from previous studies illustrate the potential for NHRVs to misrepresent their histories, especially when monetary incentives are offered, and the need to objectively verify these self-reported histories whenever practical. This study demonstrates that among the sample participants, all of whom self-reported a negative history of drug and alcohol abuse and tobacco smoking, 16% failed urine testing for either alcohol and drugs of abuse (6%), or cotinine (11%). Male sex and increased number of screenings in the preceding 12 months were significantly associated with increased odds for urine screen failure whereas increased enrollments in the same time period and increased study stipend decreased the same odds. These results emphasize the importance of diligently screening NHRVs participating in phase I clinical trails. PMID:18496258

  17. An evaluation of chemical screening test kits for lead in paint

    SciTech Connect

    Oglesby, L.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act (Title X) requires abatement and management of lead-based paint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three chemical screening test kits using materials and methods from one study and subjecting the results to the statistical analysis of another. The three kits were used to predict the presence of lead in paint at ten weight concentrations from 0.04 to 3.97%. Paint was applied to four wood boards yielding a sample size of 40. Four boards were painted with lead-free paint and used as blanks. All of the boards were tested with the three test kits by an untrained individual having no knowledge of the actual lead content. Sensitivity, specificity, and false positive and negative rates were calculated for the test kit results. The manufactures` detection limits, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.80, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.42, false positive ranged from 0 to 58%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. At the 0.5% Federal threshold level, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.94, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.5, false positives ranged from 0 to 11.1%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. The observed false positive and false negative rates for all three kits were found to be significantly lower than those reported in a previous study. These results indicate that the kits perform very well at the Federal threshold, with two of the kits having false negative rates below 12.5% and false positive rates of 3.13%. These results indicate that these two kits would probably be acceptable screening tests for lead in paint.

  18. Neither Fair nor Accurate: Research-Based Reasons Why High-Stakes Tests Should Not Be Used to Evaluate Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Current and former leaders of many major urban school districts, including Washington, D.C.'s Michelle Rhee and New Orleans' Paul Vallas, have sought to use tests to evaluate teachers. In fact, the use of high-stakes standardized tests to evaluate teacher performance in the manner of value-added measurement (VAM) has become one of the cornerstones…

  19. Screening Test. Battery for Dental Laboratory Specialist Course: Development and Validation. Final Report for Period July 1974-June 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, John J.; Jensen, Harald E.

    In order to develop a valid replacement for the difficult to administer and costly Chalk Carving Test presently used in screening Dental Laboratory Specialist (DLS) candidates, an experimental battery of perceptual tests was given to 172 prospective DLS students. Dexterity tests were also given to a subsample. Experimental laboratory ratings and…

  20. The autologous serum skin test: a screening test for autoantibodies in chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Sabroe, R A; Grattan, C E; Francis, D M; Barr, R M; Kobza Black, A; Greaves, M W

    1999-03-01

    One-third of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) have circulating functional autoantibodies against the high affinity IgE receptor FcepsilonRI, or IgE. The intradermal injection of autologous serum causes a weal and flare reaction in many patients with CIU, and this reaction forms the basis of the autologous serum skin test (ASST). We have determined the parameters of the ASST which define the optimal sensitivity and specificity for the identification of patients with autoantibodies. Two physicians (R.A. S. and C.E.H.G.) performed ASSTs in a total of 155 patients with CIU, 40 healthy control subjects, 15 patients with dermographism, nine with cholinergic urticaria and 10 with atopic eczema. Patients were classified as having functional autoantibodies by demonstrating in vitro serum-evoked histamine release from the basophils of two healthy donors. There were significant differences (P < 0.001) in the mean weal diameter, weal volume, weal redness and flare area of the intradermal serum-induced cutaneous responses at 30 min between patients with CIU with autoantibodies and either those without autoantibodies or control subjects. The optimum combined sensitivity and specificity of the ASST was obtained if a positive test was defined as a red serum-induced weal with a diameter of >/= 1.5 mm than the saline-induced response at 30 min. For R.A.S. and C.E.H.G., the ASST sensitivity was 65% and 71% and specificity was 81% and 78%, respectively. Using these criteria, the following subjects had positive ASSTs: none of 15 dermographics, none of 10 atopics, one of nine cholinergics and one of 40 controls. PMID:10233264

  1. Crucial test for covariant density functional theory with new and accurate mass measurements from Sn to Pa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P. W.; Song, L. S.; Sun, B.; Geissel, H.; Meng, J.

    2012-12-01

    The covariant density functional theory with the point-coupling interaction PC-PK1 is compared with new and accurate experimental masses in the element range from 50 to 91. The experimental data are from a mass measurement performed with the storage ring mass spectrometry at Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) [Chen , Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/j.nuclphysa.2012.03.002 882, 71 (2012)]. Although the microscopic theory contains only 11 parameters, it agrees well with the experimental data. The comparison is characterized by a rms deviation of 0.859 MeV. For even-even nuclei, the theory agrees within about 600 keV. Larger deviations are observed in this comparison for the odd-A and odd-odd nuclei. Improvements and possible reasons for the deviations are discussed in this contribution as well.

  2. Development of new non-invasive tests for colorectal cancer screening: The relevance of information on adenoma detection

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Ulrike; Knudsen, Amy B.; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Kuntz, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are actively pursuing the development of a new non-invasive test (NIT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening as an alternative to fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs). The majority of pilot studies focus on the detection of invasive CRC rather than precursor lesions (i.e., adenomas). We aimed to explore the relevance of adenoma detection for the viability of an NIT for CRC screening by considering a hypothetical test that does not detect adenomas beyond chance. We used the Simulation Model of Colorectal Cancer (SimCRC) to estimate the effectiveness of CRC screening and the lifetime costs (payers’ perspective) for a cohort of US 50-year-olds to whom CRC screening is offered from age 50–75. We compared annual screening with guaiac and immunochemical FOBTs (with sensitivities up to 70% and 24% for CRC and adenomas, respectively) to annual screening with a hypothetical NIT (sensitivity of 90% for CRC, no detection of adenomas beyond chance, specificity and cost similar to FOBTs). Screening with the NIT was not more effective, but was 29–44% more costly than screening with FOBTs. The findings were robust to varying the screening interval, the NIT’s sensitivity for CRC, adherence rates favoring the NIT, and the NIT’s unit cost. A comparative modelling approach using a model that assumes a shorter adenoma dwell time (MISCAN-COLON) confirmed the superiority of the immunochemical FOBT over a NIT with no ability to detect adenomas. Information on adenoma detection is crucial to determine whether a new NIT is a viable alternative to FOBTs for CRC screening. Current evidence thus lacks an important piece of information to identify marker candidates that hold real promise and deserve further (large-scale) evaluation. PMID:25403937

  3. Different screening tests and milk somatic cell count for the prevalence of subclinical bovine mastitis in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Md Nazmul; Das, Ziban Chandra; Talukder, Anup Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Shah; Rahman, Abu Nasar Md Aminoor

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cows with subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an important tool for sustainable dairying and implementing effective mastitis control strategies. A total of 892 quarters milk samples from 228 lactating cows were screened by California mastitis test (CMT), White side test (WST), Surf field mastitis test (SFMT), and somatic cell count (SCC) to study the prevalence of bovine SCM in some selected areas of Bangladesh. Out of 228 cows, 148 (64.9%), 138 (60.5%), 132 (57.9%), and 164 (71.9%) were found positive for SCM by CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC, respectively. The prevalence of bovine SCM was diagnosed 45.7, 40.2, 36.6, and 29.6% in Chittagong, Sirajgonj, Mymensingh, and Gazipur districts, respectively, based on a combination of all tests. The overall quarter-wise prevalence of SCM was 45.7, 43.5, 41.2, and 55.0% for CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC. Single quarters and left front quarters were more prone to SCM (P < 0.05). Friesian crossbred cows (56.4%), BCS 2.0-2.5 (55.4%), and parity 4-6 (52.4%), the late lactation stage (5-8 months; 64.7%) and high yielding cows (16-20 L/day; 65.3%) were more susceptible to SCM (P < 0.05). The sensitivity of the CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC was 65.8, 57.9, 51.0, and 82.5%; specificity 76.2, 72.4, 69.5, and 89.4%; percentage accuracy 70.0, 64.8, 59.9, and 85.2%; positive predictive value 75.2, 69.8, 64.9, and 92.7%, respectively. The categories of CMT reactions were strongly correlated with SCC (P < 0.05). Kappa value of SCC was higher than that of other tests (SCC>CMT>WST>SFMT). Thus, CMT was concluded to be the most accurate (r = 0.782) field diagnostic test after laboratory test like SCC (r = 0.924). However, the use of any single test may not be reliable in diagnosing SCM, while the result of CMT supported by SCC might be used effectively to pinpoint diagnosis of SCM in dairy animals than alone. PMID:25326717

  4. Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: a comparative study on three testing methods.

    PubMed

    Koleva, Irina I; van Beek, Teris A; Linssen, Jozef P H; de Groot, Aede; Evstatieva, Lyuba N

    2002-01-01

    Three methods widely employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity, namely 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) and beta-carotene bleaching test (BCBT), have been compared with regard to their application in the screening of plant extracts. The strengths and limitations of each method have been illustrated by testing a number of extracts, of differing polarity, from plants of the genus Sideritis, and two known antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene and rosmarinic acid). The sample polarity was important for the exhibited activity in the BCBT and HS-GC methods but not for the DPPH method. The complex composition of the extracts and partition phenomena affected their activity in each assay. The value of the BCBT method appears to be limited to less polar samples. Although slow, the HS-GC method is preferable for assessing the antioxidant inhibitory properties on the formation of unwanted secondary volatile products. Being rapid, simple and independent of sample polarity, the DPPH method is very convenient for the quick screening of many samples for radical scavenging activity. PMID:11899609

  5. Improving the quantitative testing of fast aspherics surfaces with null screen using Dijkstra algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Oliva, Víctor Iván; Castañeda Mendoza, Álvaro; Campos García, Manuel; Díaz Uribe, Rufino

    2011-09-01

    The null screen is a geometric method that allows the testing of fast aspherical surfaces, this method measured the local slope at the surface and by numerical integration the shape of the surface is measured. The usual technique for the numerical evaluation of the surface is the trapezoidal rule, is well-known fact that the truncation error increases with the second power of the spacing between spots of the integration path. Those paths are constructed following spots reflected on the surface and starting in an initial select spot. To reduce the numerical errors in this work we propose the use of the Dijkstra algorithm.1 This algorithm can find the shortest path from one spot (or vertex) to another spot in a weighted connex graph. Using a modification of the algorithm it is possible to find the minimal path from one select spot to all others ones. This automates and simplifies the integration process in the test with null screens. In this work is shown the efficient proposed evaluating a previously surface with a traditional process.

  6. Physical examination tests for screening and diagnosis of cervicogenic headache: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Ochoa, J; Benítez-Martínez, J; Lluch, E; Santacruz-Zaragozá, S; Gómez-Contreras, P; Cook, C E

    2016-02-01

    It has been suggested that differential diagnosis of headaches should consist of a robust subjective examination and a detailed physical examination of the cervical spine. Cervicogenic headache (CGH) is a form of headache that involves referred pain from the neck. To our knowledge, no studies have summarized the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests for CGH. The aim of this study was to summarize the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests used to diagnose CGH. A systematic review following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines was performed in four electronic databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase and Scopus). Full text reports concerning physical tests for the diagnosis of CGH which reported the clinometric properties for assessment of CGH, were included and screened for methodological quality. Quality Appraisal for Reliability Studies (QAREL) and Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy (QUADAS-2) scores were completed to assess article quality. Eight articles were retrieved for quality assessment and data extraction. Studies investigating diagnostic reliability of physical examination tests for CGH scored poorer on methodological quality (higher risk of bias) than those of diagnostic accuracy. There is sufficient evidence showing high levels of reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the selected physical examination tests for the diagnosis of CGH. The cervical flexion-rotation test (CFRT) exhibited both the highest reliability and the strongest diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of CGH. PMID:26423982

  7. A Small Area In-Situ MEMS Test Structure to Accurately Measure Fracture Strength by Electrostatic Probing

    SciTech Connect

    Bitsie, Fernando; Jensen, Brian D.; de Boer, Maarten

    1999-07-15

    We have designed, fabricated, tested and modeled a first generation small area test structure for MEMS fracture studies by electrostatic rather than mechanical probing. Because of its small area, this device has potential applications as a lot monitor of strength or fatigue of the MEMS structural material. By matching deflection versus applied voltage data to a 3-D model of the test structure, we develop high confidence that the local stresses achieved in the gage section are greater than 1 GPa. Brittle failure of the polycrystalline silicon was observed.

  8. Usability Testing of a National Substance Use Screening Tool Embedded in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    DeStio, Catherine; McCullagh, Lauren; Kapoor, Sandeep; Morley, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is currently being implemented into health systems nationally via paper and electronic methods. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the integration of an electronic SBIRT tool into an existing paper-based SBIRT clinical workflow in a patient-centered medical home. Methods Usability testing was conducted in an academic ambulatory clinic. Two rounds of usability testing were done with medical office assistants (MOAs) using a paper and electronic version of the SBIRT tool, with two and four participants, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed to determine the impact of both tools on clinical workflow. A second round of usability testing was done with the revised electronic version and compared with the first version. Results Personal workflow barriers cited in the first round of testing were that the electronic health record (EHR) tool was disruptive to patient’s visits. In Round 2 of testing, MOAs reported favoring the electronic version due to improved layout and the inclusion of an alert system embedded in the EHR. For example, using the system usability scale (SUS), MOAs reported a grade “1” for the statement, “I would like to use this system frequently” during the first round of testing but a “5” during the second round of analysis. Conclusions The importance of testing usability of various mediums of tools used in health care screening is highlighted by the findings of this study. In the first round of testing, the electronic tool was reported as less user friendly, being difficult to navigate, and time consuming. Many issues faced in the first generation of the tool were improved in the second generation after usability was evaluated. This study demonstrates how usability testing of an electronic SBRIT tool can help to identify challenges that can impact clinical workflow. However, a limitation of this study was the small sample size

  9. Detection limits of four antimicrobial residue screening tests for beta-lactams in goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Sierra, D; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; Luengo, C; Corrales, J C; Morales, C T; de la Fe, C; Guirao, I; Gonzalo, C

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the detection limits (DL) of several antibiotic residue screening tests with the maximum residue limits (MRL) authorized by the EU according to the guidance for the standardized evaluation of microbial inhibitor tests of the International Dairy Federation. Composite antibiotic-free milk samples from 30 primiparous Murciano-Granadina goats in good health condition were used to prepare test samples spiked with different concentrations of each antimicrobial. In total, 5,760 analytical determinations of 10 beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin-G, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin, cefadroxyl, cefalexin, cefoperazone, and cefuroxime) were performed using 4 antibiotic residue screening tests: the brilliant black reduction test BRT AiM (AiM-Analytik in Milch Produktions-und Vertriebs GmbH, München, Germany), Delvotest MCS (DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands), Eclipse 100 (ZEU-Inmunotec SL, Zaragoza, Spain), and the Copan Milk Test (CMT; Copan Italia SpA, Brescia, Italy). For each method, we estimated the detection limits of the antimicrobial agents using a logistic regression model. Using the CMT and Delvotest on samples spiked with the 8 antibiotics for which MRL were available, DL were at or below the MRL. The BRT test provided DL at or below the MRL for all of the agents except cefalexin, whereas the Eclipse 100 method failed to detect 4 antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, and cefoperazone) at MRL or below. Logistic regression-determined levels of agreement were highest for the CMT method (98.6 to 100%) and lowest for Eclipse 100 (66.3 to 100%). In general, agreement levels indicated good correlation between observed results and those predicted by logistic regression. The lowest b values (closely related to test sensitivity) were recorded for the cephalosporins (0.074 to 0.430) and highest for penicillin G, ampicillin, and amoxicillin (11.270 to 11.504). Delvotest and CMT best

  10. Screen Cage Ion Plating (SCIP) and scratch testing of polycrystalline aluminum oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    A screen cage ion plating (SCIP) technique was developed to apply silver films on electrically nonconducting aluminum oxide. It is shown that SCIP has remarkable throwing power; surfaces to be coated need not be in direct line of sight with the evaporation source. Scratch tests, employing a diamond stylus with a 200 micro m radius tip, were performed on uncoated and on silver coated alumina. Subsequent surface analysis show that a significant amount of silver remains on the scratched surfaces, even in areas where high stylus load produced severe crack patterns in the ceramic. Friction coefficients were lowered during the scratch tests on the coated alumina indicating that this modification of the ion planting process should be useful for applying lubricating films of soft metals to electrical insulating materials. The very good throwing power of SCIP also strongly suggests general applicability of this process in other areas of technology, e.g., electronics, in addition to tribology.

  11. Cumulative risk of false positive test in relation to breast symptoms in mammography screening: a historical prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deependra; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Malila, Nea; Anttila, Ahti

    2016-09-01

    Mammography has been found effective as the primary screening test for breast cancer. We estimated the cumulative probability of false positive screening test results with respect to symptom history reported at screen. A historical prospective cohort study was done using individual screening data from 413,611 women aged 50-69 years with 2,627,256 invitations for mammography screening between 1992 and 2012 in Finland. Symptoms (lump, retraction, and secretion) were reported at 56,805 visits, and 48,873 visits resulted in a false positive mammography result. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of at least one false positive test and true positive at screening visits. The estimates were compared among women with and without symptoms history. The estimated cumulative probabilities were 18 and 6 % for false positive and true positive results, respectively. In women with a history of a lump, the cumulative probabilities of false positive test and true positive were 45 and 16 %, respectively, compared to 17 and 5 % with no reported lump. In women with a history of any given symptom, the cumulative probabilities of false positive test and true positive were 38 and 13 %, respectively. Likewise, women with a history of a 'lump and retraction' had the cumulative false positive probability of 56 %. The study showed higher cumulative risk of false positive tests and more cancers detected in women who reported symptoms compared to women who did not report symptoms at screen. The risk varies substantially, depending on symptom types and characteristics. Information on breast symptoms influences the balance of absolute benefits and harms of screening. PMID:27496148

  12. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assessment policy; (3)(i) Administer post-tests with a secure, parallel, equated form of the same test—either traditional paper and pencil or computer-administered instruments—for which forms are constructed prior...

  13. Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J. B.; Moss, T. A.

    1993-06-01

    Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW(sub t) reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz lamp heated boilers to screen candidate boiling stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750 degree C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot press sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric discharge machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical, dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

  14. Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.

    1993-06-01

    Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW{sub t} reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz-lamp-heated boilers to screen candidate boiling-stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750{degree}C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot-press-sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric-discharge-machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

  15. Rapid electrochemical screening of engine coolants. Correlation of electrochemical potentiometric measurements with ASTM D 1384 glassware corrosion test

    SciTech Connect

    Doucet, G.P.; Jackson, J.M.; Kriegel, O.A.; Passwater, D.K.; Prieto, N.E.

    1999-08-01

    Engine coolants are typically subjected to comprehensive performance evaluations that involve multiple laboratory and field tests. These tests can take several weeks to conduct and can be expensive. The tests can involve everything from preliminary chemical screening to long term fleet tests. An important test conducted at the beginning of coolant formula development to screen the corrosion performance of engine coolants is described in ASTM D 1384. If the coolant formula passes the test, it is then subjected to more rigorous testing. Conducting the test described in ASTM D 1384 takes two weeks, and determining the coolant corrosion performance under several test parameters can takes resources and time that users seldom have. Therefore, it is very desirable to have tests that can be used for rapid screening and quality assurance of coolants. The purpose of this study was to conduct electrochemical tests that can ultimately be used for quick initial screening of engine coolants. The specific intent of the electrochemical tests is to use ASTM D 1384 as a model and to attempt to duplicate its results. Implementation of the electrochemical tests could accelerate the process of selecting promising coolant formulas and reduce coolant evaluation time and cost. Various electrochemical tests were conducted to determine the corrosion performance of several engine coolant formulas. The test results were compared to those obtained from the ASTM D 1384 test. These tests were conducted on the same metal specimens and under similar conditions as those used in the ASTM D 1384 test. The electrochemical tests included the determination of open circuit potential (OCP) for the various metal specimens, anodic and cathodic polarization curves for the various metal specimens, corrosion rate for metal specimens involved in a galvanic triad, and critical pitting potential (CPP) for aluminum (pitting of aluminum engine components and cooling systems is a cause for concern). The details for

  16. Rapid screening for soil ecotoxicity with a battery of luminescent bacteria tests.

    PubMed

    Heinlaan, Margit; Kahru, Anne; Kasemets, Kaja; Kurvet, Imbi; Waterlot, Cristophe; Sepp, Kalev; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Douay, Francis

    2007-03-01

    A bacterial test battery, involving i) Microtox, an aquatic test, ii) the Flash assay, a soil-suspension test (with Vibrio fischeri as the test organism), and iii) the Metal Detector assay, a semi-specific aquatic test for heavy metals (with recombinant luminescent Escherichia coli), was used in a combined toxicological and chemical hazard assessment of Estonian soils sampled from a former Soviet military airfield (13 samples) and from traffic-influenced roadsides (5 samples). The soils showed slightly elevated levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), but not of heavy metals. In most of the samples, the levels of TPH did not exceed the Estonian permitted limit values set for residential areas. Toxicity testing was performed on both fresh and dried soils, after aqueous extraction for 1 hour and 24 hours. The toxicity results obtained with the Microtox test did not significantly differ in all of the sample treatment schemes; however, it appeared that the drying and sieving of the soils increased the bioavailability of toxicants, probably due to an enlarged reactive soil surface area. According to chemical analysis of the soils and the data from the Microtox test and the Metal Detector assay (performed on aqueous elutriates of the soils), these soils would not be considered to be hazardous. In contrast, the Flash assay performed on soil-water suspensions of dried soils, showed that most of the soils were toxic and thus probably contained undetermined particle-bound bioavailable toxicants. The photobacterial toxicity test (the Flash assay) can be recommended for the rapid screening of soils, as it is sensitive, cheap and inexpensive, and provides valuable information on particle-bound bioavailable toxicants, useful for complementing a chemical analysis and for assessing the risks originating from polluted soils. PMID:17411358

  17. Implementation of a Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing and Modification

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andrew Christopher; Haskins, Brianna Lyn; Saeed Zafar, Zubair; Chen, Guanling; Chinai, Sneha A

    2016-01-01

    Background The administration of health screeners in a hospital setting has traditionally required (1) clinicians to ask questions and log answers, which can be time consuming and susceptible to error, or (2) patients to complete paper-and-pencil surveys, which require third-party entry of information into the electronic health record and can be vulnerable to error and misinterpretation. A highly promising method that avoids these limitations and bypasses third-party interpretation is direct entry via a computerized inventory. Objective To (1) computerize medical and behavioral health screening for use in general medical settings, (2) optimize patient acceptability and feasibility through iterative usability testing and modification cycles, and (3) examine how age relates to usability. Methods A computerized version of 15 screeners, including behavioral health screeners recommended by a National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research collaborative workgroup, was subjected to systematic usability testing and iterative modification. Consecutive adult, English-speaking patients seeking treatment in an urban emergency department were enrolled. Acceptability was defined as (1) the percentage of eligible patients who agreed to take the assessment (initiation rate) and (2) average satisfaction with the assessment (satisfaction rate). Feasibility was defined as the percentage of the screening items completed by those who initiated the assessment (completion rate). Chi-square tests, analyses of variance, and Pearson correlations were used to detect whether improvements in initiation, satisfaction, and completion rates were seen over time and to examine the relation between age and outcomes. Results Of 2157 eligible patients approached, 1280 agreed to complete the screening (initiation rate=59.34%). Statistically significant increases were observed over time in satisfaction (F 3,1061=3.35, P=.019) and completion rates (F 3,1276=25.44, P<.001

  18. A comparison of the FAST, Premi and KIS tests for screening antibiotic residues in beef kidney juice and serum.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marilyn J; Lehotay, Steven J

    2008-04-01

    Three microbial inhibition-based screening methods, the fast antimicrobial screening test (FAST), the Premi test, and the kidney inhibition swab (KIS) test, were evaluated using penicillin G, sulfadimethoxine, oxytetracyline, tylosin, danofloxacin, streptomycin, neomycin, and spectinomycin at a range of fortified concentrations in beef kidney juice and beef serum. Each antibiotic was individually tested simultaneously using the different assays in replicate experiments. Detection threshold concentrations for each analyte in each screening assay were determined for the different matrices. Each assay gave a different detectability profile for the different antibiotics, with the largest differences related to neomycin, which was more sensitively detected by the FAST, and penicillin G, which was detected at lower levels by the Premi and KIS tests. In addition to practical considerations, analysts can use the information presented in this study to evaluate each kit for applicability to their monitoring needs. PMID:18253723

  19. Scaled Composites' Doug Shane examines the screen of his ground control station during tests in New

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Scaled Composites' Doug Shane examines the screen of his ground control station during tests in New Mexico. Shane used this configuration as the ground control station to remotely pilot the Proteus aircraft during a NASA sponsored series of test flights. The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  20. Synthetic crude oils carcinogenicity screening tests. Final report, October 16, 1978-August 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, W.H.; Deye, J.F.; Hartgrove, R.W.; King, C.F.; Krahn, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Eight crude oils (Southern Louisiana Petroleum, H Coal Syncrude, H Coal Fuel Oil, SRC II, Exxon Donor Solvent Liquid, Occidental in situ Shale Oil, Paraho Shale Oil and Geokinetics in situ Shale Oil) were distilled into, or have been received, as four fractions for analysis and screening for biological (mutagenicity and tumor initiating) activity. Results of selected analytical tests have been obtained on the undistilled crude oils and the fractions. Salmonella typhimurium mutation assay and an accelerated tumor initiation-promotion test have been run on the undistilled crude oils and the fractions. Low boiling (naphtha) fractions of all eight materials showed little or no mutagenicity or skin tumor initiating activity by the two tests used. The higher boiling fractions (gas oils and residues) and the crude oils themselves were mutagenic and exhibited tumor initiation activity. The coal derived fractions were more active by both tests than the shale oil samples, the latter were similar to the petroleum controls. Few differences were apparent in biological activity between coal derived samples of equivalent boiling range among the various coal liquefaction processes, except that the SRC II naphtha sample showed a degree of acute toxicity through skin absorption not exhibited by the other samples. Generally the results agreed closely for the various samples between the salmonella mutation assay with activation and the skin tumor initiation test.

  1. To Evaluate the Different Rapid Screening Tests for Diagnosis of Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Rajdev, Sangeeta; Mulla, Summaiya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Leptospirosis is an acute febrile disease, in tropical and sub-tropical regions of world. It has been under-reported in India, due to presence of non-specific symptoms and unavailability of appropriate laboratory diagnostic facilities in most part of the country. The diagnosis of leptospirosis is usually based on demonstration of antibodies by different serological tests. Aim: The present study aims to evaluate and compare commercially available rapid test. Design and Settings: Case control study. Materials and Methods: Three screening tests (Leptocheck WB, Latex agglutination test and SD leptospira) were compared by using 100 serum samples randomly obtained from clinical cases of Leptospirosis admitted in new civil hospital, Surat, Gujarat. All the patients with acute Leptospirosis were included in this 4-months pilot study from July 2011 to October 2011. All the results were compared with IgM ELISA and MAT for confirmation of diagnosis. Results: Leptocheck WB, Latex agglutination test and SD leptospira had sensitivities of 84.8%, 84.8% and 72.7% & specificities of 37.3%, 71.2% and 71.2% respectively as compared to MAT. Leptocheck WB, Latex agglutination test and SD leptospira had sensitivities of 90.7%, 89.7% and 53.7% & specificities of 93.4%, 90.9% and 60% respectively as compared to IgM ELISA. Conclusion: Latex agglutination test kit and Leptocheck WB were found to be highly sensitive and specific. Neither of these tests require specialized equipment, and could be performed in peripheral laboratories with relatively little expertise. PMID:25859456

  2. Quantitative computerized color vision testing in diabetic retinopathy: A possible screening tool?

    PubMed Central

    Al Saeidi, Rashid; Kernt, Marcus; Kreutzer, Thomas C; Rudolph, Guenther; Neubauer, Aljoscha S; Haritoglou, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a computerized color vision testing (Arden color contrast test) as a screening test for detection of diabetic macular edema (DME). Materials and Methods: A consecutive, prospective case series of 83 eyes of 42 diabetic patients with and without macular edema was enrolled. Macular edema was assessed clinically by stereoscopic grading and by central retinal thickness measurement with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Additionally, a computerized chromatest for the protan- and tritan-axis was performed. Analysis of test characteristics included receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and calculated sensitivity and specificity. Results: Sixty-one eyes had clinically significant macular edema (CSME). OCT yielded an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.92. Color vision testing yielded an AUC of 0.82 for the tritan- and 0.80 for the protan-axis. Using a cut off of 199 microns OCT resulted in a 100% sensitivity at 39% specificity. With a cut-off of 4.85, color testing yielded a sensitivity of 100% at a specificity of 8% on the tritan-axis, respectively. Considering OCT instead of clinical examination as a reference standard resulted in a comparable high sensitivity, but low specificity for color vision testing. Disturbance of the tritan axis was more pronounced than for the protan axis in present macular edema and also better correlated (r = 0.46) with retinal thickness measured with OCT. Conclusions: Computerized, quantitative color testing using the chromatest allows detection of diabetic maculopathy with high sensitivity. However, only a low specificity exists for retinal macular edema, as in diabetic retinopathy (DR) frequently abnormalities of the tritan axis exist before any retinal thickening occurs. PMID:24391371

  3. Health Screenings and Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... your primary doctor. Blood Tests – A Common Screening Method (Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) Click ... tests, see What Are Blood Tests? Other Screening Methods Doctors can't screen for all diseases and ...

  4. An Optimized Method for Accurate Fetal Sex Prediction and Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy Detection in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibo; Ding, Jie; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Qin; Xiang, Jingjing; Li, Qiong; Xuan, Liming; Kong, Lingyin; Mao, Yan; Zhu, Yijun; Shen, Jingjing; Liang, Bo; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) combined with bioinformatic analysis has been widely applied to detect fetal chromosomal aneuploidies such as trisomy 21, 18, 13 and sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) by sequencing cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) from maternal plasma, so-called non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, many technical challenges, such as dependency on correct fetal sex prediction, large variations of chromosome Y measurement and high sensitivity to random reads mapping, may result in higher false negative rate (FNR) and false positive rate (FPR) in fetal sex prediction as well as in SCAs detection. Here, we developed an optimized method to improve the accuracy of the current method by filtering out randomly mapped reads in six specific regions of the Y chromosome. The method reduces the FNR and FPR of fetal sex prediction from nearly 1% to 0.01% and 0.06%, respectively and works robustly under conditions of low fetal DNA concentration (1%) in testing and simulation of 92 samples. The optimized method was further confirmed by large scale testing (1590 samples), suggesting that it is reliable and robust enough for clinical testing. PMID:27441628

  5. An Optimized Method for Accurate Fetal Sex Prediction and Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy Detection in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; He, Quanze; Li, Haibo; Ding, Jie; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Qin; Xiang, Jingjing; Li, Qiong; Xuan, Liming; Kong, Lingyin; Mao, Yan; Zhu, Yijun; Shen, Jingjing; Liang, Bo; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) combined with bioinformatic analysis has been widely applied to detect fetal chromosomal aneuploidies such as trisomy 21, 18, 13 and sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) by sequencing cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) from maternal plasma, so-called non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, many technical challenges, such as dependency on correct fetal sex prediction, large variations of chromosome Y measurement and high sensitivity to random reads mapping, may result in higher false negative rate (FNR) and false positive rate (FPR) in fetal sex prediction as well as in SCAs detection. Here, we developed an optimized method to improve the accuracy of the current method by filtering out randomly mapped reads in six specific regions of the Y chromosome. The method reduces the FNR and FPR of fetal sex prediction from nearly 1% to 0.01% and 0.06%, respectively and works robustly under conditions of low fetal DNA concentration (1%) in testing and simulation of 92 samples. The optimized method was further confirmed by large scale testing (1590 samples), suggesting that it is reliable and robust enough for clinical testing. PMID:27441628

  6. A Maximal Graded Exercise Test to Accurately Predict VO2max in 18-65-Year-Old Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, James D.; Bradshaw, Danielle I.; Hyde, Annette; Vehrs, Pat R.; Hager, Ronald L.; Yanowitz, Frank G.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an age-generalized regression model to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO sub 2 max) based on a maximal treadmill graded exercise test (GXT; George, 1996). Participants (N = 100), ages 18-65 years, reached a maximal level of exertion (mean plus or minus standard deviation [SD]; maximal heart rate [HR sub…

  7. Are the Original and Second Edition of the California Verbal Learning Test Equally Accurate in Detecting Malingering?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greve, Kevin W.; Curtis, Kelly L.; Bianchini, Kevin J.; Ord, Jonathan S.

    2009-01-01

    This two-part study sought to determine the equivalence of the California Verbal Learning Tests (CVLT-1 and CVLT-2) in the detection of malingering in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and chronic pain. Part 1 compared a variety of scores from the two versions in carefully matched patient groups. Part 2 used criterion groups (known-groups) methodology…

  8. Reliability of SleepStrip as a screening test in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    PubMed

    Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Yılmaz, Metin; Tutar, Hakan; Aydil, Utku; Kızıl, Yusuf; Damar, Murat; Kemaloğlu, Yusuf K

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common sleep disorder and related to multiple conditions that cause mortality in adults. In the present study, reliability of SleepStrip, a disposable screening device for detection of OSAS, is tested. In this prospective, nonrandomized double-blinded single cohort study at an academic health center, the performance of the SleepStrip in detecting respiratory events and establishing an SleepStrip score (Sscore) in domestic use were compared to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) obtained by the standard polysomnography (PSG) recordings in the sleep laboratory. Forty-one patients who have the PSG results participated the study and wore the SleepStrips at home. Test efficiency rate was 75% and there was a positive correlation between PSG-AHI scores and Sscores (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). However, diagnostic accuracy analysis showed that the correlation between Sscores and PSG-AHI scores were significant only at AHI > 30 levels. The SleepStrip has 100% specificity and positive predictive values, but it also has low negative predictive and sensitivity values. The SleepStrip is not a reliable screening test in differential diagnosis among simple snorers, mild, moderate and severe OSAS patients. However, high Sscores highly indicate the presence of moderate-severe OSAS. We can safely send these patients to split-night PSG and continuous, automatic, bi-level positive airway pressure (CPAP/BPAP/APAP) titration at the same night. The SleepStrip may increase the effective use of the sleep laboratories. PMID:24861563

  9. Useful second-tier tests in expanded newborn screening of isovaleric acidemia and methylmalonic aciduria.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Yosuke; Hata, Ikue; Tajima, Go

    2010-10-01

    Common use of pivalate-generating antibiotics in newborns in Japan and low cutoff value of C5-acylcarnitine (C5) to detect mild forms of isovaleric acidemia (IVA) led to 1,065 positive results from IVA screening among 146,000 newborns tested by tandem mass spectrometry over the last 3 years. Using our method to determine isovalerylglycine (IVG) levels in dried blood spots (DBS) as a second-tier test with IVG cutoff value of 0.5 nmol/ml in DBS, one patient with severe IVA was identified, and no recall of the second DBS was needed. Retrospective analysis revealed that most patients with moderate to severe forms of IVA have decreased free-carnitine levels shortly after birth and higher levels of IVG than those of C5, which suggests that this method is useful in evaluating the severity of IVA. Another second-tier test, to measure methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels in DBS by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), has been developed to overcome difficulties in screening methylmalonic aciduria (MMAU) and propionic acidemia. Methanol extract from DBS was dried and derivatized using N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide. GC/MS was performed using splitless injection, electron-impact ionization, and selected ion monitoring for data recording. MMAU patients had much higher DBS concentrations of MMA (24.2-321.9 nmol/ml) than control newborns (0.34 ± 0.11 nmol/ml). MMA measurement in DBS was thought to provide useful information about the severity of MMAU, as MMAU patients with high levels of MMA had decreased levels of free carnitine and mildly increased levels of propionylcarnitine. PMID:20440648

  10. Spinolaminar Line Test as a Screening Tool for C1 Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Yasushi; Kelly, Michael P; Song, Kwang-Sup; Park, Moon Soo; Chuntarapas, Tapanut; Vo, Katie D; Yeom, Jin S; Takeshita, Katsushi; Riew, K Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Objective To clarify the sensitivity of C3-C2 spinolaminar line test as a screening tool for the stenosis of C1 space available for the cord (SAC). Methods Spine clinic records from April 2005 to August 2011 were reviewed. The C1 SAC was measured on lateral radiographs, and the relative positions between a C1 posterior arch and the C3-C2 spinolaminar line were examined and considered "positive" when the C1 ring lay ventral to the line. Computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were utilized to measure precise diameters of C1 and C2 SAC and to check the existence of spinal cord compression. Results Four hundred eighty-seven patients were included in this study. There were 246 men and 241 women, with an average age of 53 years (range: 18 to 86). The mean SAC at C1 on radiographs was 21.2 mm (range: 13.5 to 28.2). Twenty-one patients (4.3%) were positive for the spinolaminar line test; all of these patients had C1 SAC of 19.4 mm or less. Eight patients (1.6%) had C1 SAC smaller than C2 on CT examination; all of these patients had a positive spinolaminar test, with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97%). MRI analysis revealed that two of the eight patients with a smaller C1 SAC had spinal cord compression at the C1 level. Conclusion Although spinal cord compression at the level of atlas without instability is a rare condition, the spinolaminar line can be used as a screening of C1 stenosis. PMID:27190740

  11. Spinolaminar Line Test as a Screening Tool for C1 Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Yasushi; Kelly, Michael P.; Song, Kwang-Sup; Park, Moon Soo; Chuntarapas, Tapanut; Vo, Katie D.; Yeom, Jin S.; Takeshita, Katsushi; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Objective To clarify the sensitivity of C3–C2 spinolaminar line test as a screening tool for the stenosis of C1 space available for the cord (SAC). Methods Spine clinic records from April 2005 to August 2011 were reviewed. The C1 SAC was measured on lateral radiographs, and the relative positions between a C1 posterior arch and the C3–C2 spinolaminar line were examined and considered “positive” when the C1 ring lay ventral to the line. Computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were utilized to measure precise diameters of C1 and C2 SAC and to check the existence of spinal cord compression. Results Four hundred eighty-seven patients were included in this study. There were 246 men and 241 women, with an average age of 53 years (range: 18 to 86). The mean SAC at C1 on radiographs was 21.2 mm (range: 13.5 to 28.2). Twenty-one patients (4.3%) were positive for the spinolaminar line test; all of these patients had C1 SAC of 19.4 mm or less. Eight patients (1.6%) had C1 SAC smaller than C2 on CT examination; all of these patients had a positive spinolaminar test, with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97%). MRI analysis revealed that two of the eight patients with a smaller C1 SAC had spinal cord compression at the C1 level. Conclusion Although spinal cord compression at the level of atlas without instability is a rare condition, the spinolaminar line can be used as a screening of C1 stenosis. PMID:27190740

  12. Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) papillomaviruses: vaccine antigen candidates and screening test development.

    PubMed

    Rehtanz, Manuela; Bossart, Gregory D; Doescher, Bethany; Rector, Annabel; Van Ranst, Marc; Fair, Patricia A; Jenson, Alfred B; Ghim, Shin-Je

    2009-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) have been shown as being the etiologic agents of various benign and malignant tumours in many vertebrate species. In dolphins and porpoises, a high prevalence of orogenital tumours has recently been documented with at least four distinct novel species-specific PV types detected in such lesions. Therefore, we generated the immunological reagents to establish a serological screening test to determine the prevalence of PV infection in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins [(Tursiops truncatus (Tt)]. Using the baculovirus expression system, virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from the L1 proteins of two TtPV types, TtPV1 and TtPV2, were generated. Polyclonal antibodies against TtPV VLPs were produced in rabbits and their specificity for the VLPs was confirmed. Electron microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies revealed that the generated VLPs self-assembled into particles presenting conformational immunodominant epitopes. As such, these particles are potential antigen candidates for a TtPV vaccine. Subsequently, the VLPs served as antigens in initial ELISA tests using sera from six bottlenose dolphins to investigate PV antibody presence. Three of these sera were derived from dolphins with genital tumour history and showed positive PV ELISA reactivity, while the remaining sera from lesion-free dolphins were PV antibody-negative. The results suggest that the developed screening test may serve as a potential tool for determining PV prevalence and thus for observing transmission rates in dolphin populations as the significance of PV infection in cetaceans starts to unfold. PMID:18676105

  13. The 'BlueScreen HC' assay as a decision making test in the genotoxicity assessment of flavour and fragrance materials.

    PubMed

    Etter, Sylvain; Birrell, Louise; Cahill, Paul; Scott, Heather; Billinton, Nick; Walmsley, Richard M; Smith, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    The genotoxicity of a library of 70 flavour and fragrance substances having a high proportion of in vivo and/or carcinogenicity test data has been assessed using the GADD45a-GLuc 'BlueScreen HC' genotoxicity assay, with and without exogenous metabolic activation. There are only limited genotoxicity and carcinogenicity study data for compounds in this applicability domain, but this study allowed the following conclusions: (i) The BlueScreen HC results are highly predictive of positive results from regulator-required in vitro genotoxicity assays for the test set of materials; the moderate negative predictivity of BlueScreen HC from the in vitro test set of material is mainly due to the high rate of false positive in regulatory in vitro mammalian tests. (ii) BlueScreen HC negative results are predictive of negative in vivo results and provide a specific prediction of in vivo genotoxicity assay results. (iii) In this applicability domain, which comprises a large proportion of relatively low molecular weight molecules, a 1mM testing limit maintains the sensitivity of the assay, and increases specificity. (iv) The predictive capacity and specificity to in vivo genotoxins and carcinogens, coupled to a microplate format with low compound requirement supports further investigation of the BlueScreen HC assay as a useful tool in prioritizing the assessment of new F&F materials and in filling data gaps on materials with no or limited regulatory test data for genotoxicity. PMID:26003925

  14. New Advances of Preimplantation and Prenatal Genetic Screening and Noninvasive Testing as a Potential Predictor of Health Status of Babies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The current morphologically based selection of human embryos for transfer cannot detect chromosome aneuploidies. So far, only biopsy techniques have been able to screen for chromosomal aneuploidies in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) or screening (PGS) involves the biopsy of oocyte polar bodies or embryonic cells and has become a routine clinical procedure in many IVF clinics worldwide, including recent development of comprehensive chromosome screening of all 23 pairs of chromosomes by microarrays for aneuploidy screening. The routine preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnosis (PND) require testing in an aggressive manner. These procedures may be invasive to the growing embryo and fetus and potentially could compromise the clinical outcome. Therefore the aim of this review is to summarize not only the new knowledge on preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnosis in humans, but also on the development of potential noninvasive embryo and fetal testing that might play an important role in the future. PMID:24783200

  15. Is a random urinary albumin concentration a useful screening test in insulin-treated diabetic patients?

    PubMed

    Beatty, O L; Ritchie, C M; Hadden, D R; Kennedy, L; Bell, P M; Atkinson, A B

    1994-09-01

    The debate continues on how to screen for microalbuminuria in clinical practice in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Our study assesses the value of a spot morning urine specimen obtained at a clinic visit. In 1984, as part of a randomised survey of our diabetes clinic, 43 of 249 patients with insulin treated diabetes mellitus, were found to have microalbuminuria (urinary albumin concentration 35-300 ug ml-1) on a spot morning urine sample. These subjects were compared with an age-matched control group from the 1984 cohort who did not have microalbuminuria. Eight years later, in the group with microalbuminuria, 10 had died compared to six in the control group (p = 0.17) with 62.5% of all deaths being from cardiovascular disease. In the group with microalbuminuria, 10 of 27 still had incipient nephropathy while five had progressed to nephropathy. In the group without microalbuminuria only three of 33 patients had progressed to microalbuminuria while none had progressed to nephropathy. In conclusion a spot morning urine sample is a useful screening test to identify patients at risk of progression to nephropathy. PMID:7982765

  16. Comparison of the performance of screening test for gestational diabetes in singleton versus twin pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun Ji; Kwon, Ja Young; Cho, Hee Young; Park, Yong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective We compared the performance of the 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) in singleton versus twin pregnancies and investigated the need for adjusting GCT cutoff values for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in twin pregnancies among Korean women. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed in women who underwent GCT at 24 to 28 weeks' gestation and delivered in our department between January 2000 and April 2008. GCT performance was compared between singleton and twin pregnancies for an ideal cutoff value of the GCT for GDM screening. Results GCT results were available in 3,578 pregnancies (3,435 singleton and 143 twin pregnancies). The mean GCT value was higher in the twin group than in the singleton group. Women in the twin group had a higher mean GCT value (P=0.043) and a higher incidence of GCT ≥130, ≥135, and ≥140 mg/dL (P=0.014, 0.005, and 0.015, respectively). The false positive rate for GCT ≥140 mg/dL was significantly higher in the twin than in the singleton group (P=0.042). The optimal GCT screening cutoff value appears to be ≥145 mg/dL in twin pregnancies. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the GCT is associated with a higher false positive rate in twin rather than singleton pregnancies. This study suggests we should consider adjusting the GCT cutoff value for GDM in Korean twin pregnancies. PMID:26623406

  17. Screening for Nephropathy in Diabetes Mellitus: Is Micral-Test Valid among All Diabetics?

    PubMed Central

    Afifa, Koubaa; Belguith Asma, Sriha; Nabil, Harzallah; Ahlem, Bellaleh; Mounira, Sahtout; Kawthar, Younes; Sonia, Triki; Ilhem, Hellara; Fadoua, Neffati; Fadhel, Najjar; Mohamed, Soltani

    2016-01-01

    Background. Using Micral-test (MT) for screening microalbuminuria (MA) among type 2 diabetics (T2D) is helpful. We aimed at determining prevalence of MA and at describing the MT validity. Methods. We studied 182 T2D followed up in family medicine. Two 24-hour urinary quantitative assays of MA had been used as a gold standard. Results. Prevalence of MA was 23%, CI 95%: 16.9–29.1. MT validity was 77% for sensitivity, 88% for negative predictive value, and 0.2 for Kappa coefficient (p = 0.001). Among subjects having a blood pressure ≥130/80 mmHg, having a CHT/HDL ratio ≥ 3, being a T2D for more than 5 years, and being women, negative predictive values were, respectively, 91%, 89%, 95%, and 91%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.81 in men (p = 0.008) and 0.80 when diabetes duration exceeds 5 years (p = 0.001). The MA value at 100% Sp for MT was 35 mg/L. Conclusion. The use of MT in primary healthcare for yearly screening for MA in T2D must be accentuated especially when diabetes duration exceeds 5 years or when associated with other cardiovascular risks. PMID:27294192

  18. Toxicological assessment of heavy straight run naphtha in a repeated dose/reproductive toxicity screening test.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; Steup, David; Schreiner, Ceinwen; Podhasky, Paula; Malley, Linda A; Roberts, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline blending stocks (naphthas) are comprised of normal, iso- and cycloparaffins and aromatic hydrocarbons with carbon numbers ranging from C4 to C12. Heavy straight run naphtha (HSRN, CAS number 64741-41-9) was selected for toxicity screening because substances of this type contain relatively high levels (28%) of cycloparaffins by comparison to other naphtha streams and the data complement toxicity information on other gasoline blending streams. Rats were exposed by inhalation to wholly vaporized material at levels of approximately 100, 500, or 3000 parts per million (ppm) daily to screen the potential for systemic toxicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and developmental effects to postnatal day 4. All animals survived the treatment period. Principal effects of repeated exposure included increased liver weights in males and females, increased kidney weights in males, and histological changes in the thyroid, secondary to liver enzyme induction. These changes were not considered to be toxicologically meaningful and are not relevant to humans. There were no treatment-related effects in functional observation tests or motor activity; no significant reductions in fertility or changes in other reproductive parameters; and no evidence of developmental toxicity in offspring. The overall no observed adverse effect concentration was 3000 ppm (approximately 13, 600 mg/m(3)). In conclusion the HSRN effects on liver and kidney are consistent with the results of other studies of volatile fractions or other naphthas or formulated gasoline, and there were no HSRN effects on neurological developmental or reproductive parameters. PMID:24179027

  19. Development of an electrical conductivity screening test for mine waste assessments.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Warner, Richard C; Honaker, Rick Q

    2016-10-01

    An environmental concern at mining operations is the potential leaching of trace elements from overburden and byproduct streams of processing plants. To provide a timely assessment of this concern, electrical conductivity of the leachate emanating from the plant waste streams can be measured as an indicator of the trace element content levels using the USGS Field Leach Test (FLT). However, the research reported in this publication revealed the need to modify the FLT procedure to improve the precision of the test results. The primary issue involved the importance of leachant volume-to-particle surface area ratio in the assessment of the leaching potential for a given source. To determine the key factors impacting leachability of a given material, a statistically-designed parametric study was performed. The experimental program evaluated the effects of particle surface area, the leachant volume-to-surface area ratio, and the amount of oxidant used to expedite the leaching rate during the test. The results revealed that the significant parameters are leachant volume-to-solid surface area ratio and the amount of oxidant. The findings were used to recommend a modification to the conductivity screening test. PMID:27351901

  20. Hydramite II screening tests of potential bremsstrahlung converter debris shield materials

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Hedemann, M.A.; Stark, M.A.

    1986-03-01

    Results of a brief test series aimed at screening a number of potential bremsstrahlung converter debris shield materials are reported. These tests were run on Sandia National Laboratories' Hydramite II accelerator using a diode configuration which produces a pinched electron beam. The materials tested include: (1) laminated Kevlar 49/polyester and E-glass/polyester composites, (2) a low density laminated Kevlar 49 composite, and (3) two types of through-the-thickness reinforced Kevlar 49 composites. As expected, tests using laminated Kevlar 49/polyester shields showed that shield permanent set (i.e., permanent deflection) increased with increasing tantalum conversion foil thickness and decreased with increasing shield thickness. The through-the-thickness reinforced composites developed localized, but severe, back surface damage. The laminated composites displayed little back surface damage, although extensive internal matrix cracking and ply delaminations were generated. Roughly the same degree of permanent set was produced in shields made from the low density Kevlar 49 composite and the Kevlar 49/polyester. The E-glass reinforced shields exhibited relatively low levels of permanent set.

  1. Screening tests of representative nuclear power plant components exposed to secondary environments created by fires

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.

    1986-06-01

    This report presents results of screening tests to determine component survivability in secondary environments created by fires, specifically increased temperatures, increased humidity, and the presence of particulates and corrosive vapors. Additionally, chloride concentrations were measured in the exhaust from several of the tests used to provide fire environments. Results show actual failure or some indication of failure for strip chart recorders, electronic counters, an oscilloscope amplifier, and switches and relays. The chart recorder failures resulted from accumulation of particulates on the pen slider mechanisms. The electronic counter experienced leakage current failures on circuit boards after the fire exposure and exposure to high humidity. The oscillosocpe amplifier experienced thermal-related drift as high as 20% before thermal protective circuitry shut the unit down. In some cases, switches and relays experienced high contact resistances with the low voltages levels used for the mesurements. Finally, relays tested to thermal failure experienced various failures, all at temperatures ranging from 150/sup 0/C to above 350/sup 0/C. The chloride measurements show that most of the hydrogen chloride generated in the test fires is combined with particulate by the time it reaches the exhaust duct, indicating that hydrogen chloride condensation may be less likely than small scale data implies. 13 refs., 36 figs.

  2. Tuberculin Skin Tests versus Interferon-Gamma Release Assays in Tuberculosis Screening among Immigrant Visa Applicants

    PubMed Central

    Chuke, Stella O.; Yen, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Laserson, Kayla F.; Phuoc, Nguyen Huu; Trinh, Nguyen An; Nhung, Duong Thi Cam; Mai, Vo Thi Chi; Qui, An Dang; Hai, Hoang Hoa; Loan, Le Thien Huong; Jones, Warren G.; Whitworth, William C.; Shah, J. Jina; Painter, John A.; Mazurek, Gerald H.; Maloney, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Use of tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) and interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) as part of tuberculosis (TB) screening among immigrants from high TB-burden countries has not been fully evaluated. Methods. Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTBI) based on TST, or the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-G), was determined among immigrant applicants in Vietnam bound for the United States (US); factors associated with test results and discordance were assessed; predictive values of TST and QFT-G for identifying chest radiographs (CXRs) consistent with TB were calculated. Results. Of 1,246 immigrant visa applicants studied, 57.9% were TST positive, 28.3% were QFT-G positive, and test agreement was 59.4%. Increasing age was associated with positive TST results, positive QFT-G results, TST-positive but QFT-G-negative discordance, and abnormal CXRs consistent with TB. Positive predictive values of TST and QFT-G for an abnormal CXR were 25.9% and 25.6%, respectively. Conclusion. The estimated prevalence of MTBI among US-bound visa applicants in Vietnam based on TST was twice that based on QFT-G, and 14 times higher than a TST-based estimate of MTBI prevalence reported for the general US population in 2000. QFT-G was not better than TST at predicting abnormal CXRs consistent with TB. PMID:24738031

  3. Zebrafish obesogenic test: a tool for screening molecules that target adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Ouadah, Nafia; Babin, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary and xenobiotic compounds may alter endocrine signaling and lipid homeostasis, thus inducing obesity. We describe a short-term assay method, the zebrafish obesogenic (ZO) test, for examining the effects of diet, drugs, and environmental contaminants, singly or in combination, on white adipose tissue (WAT) dynamics in live larvae. The ZO test is an intermediate step in obesity research, between in vitro and rodent assays, and may be also used to study the effect of environmental toxicants on the adiposity of aquatic species. The procedure, using Nile Red (NR) fluorescent probe to reveal adipocyte lipid droplets, is suitable for pharmaceutical or toxicological screening. Larvae treated at an environmentally-relevant concentration of tributyltin chloride (TBT), an environmental obesogen, exhibited a remarkable increase in adiposity, irrespective of the lipid composition of the background diet. Exogenous compounds, e.g., rosiglitazone or TBT, known to increase adiposity in the fasting state, were classified as obesogenic. Anti-obesogenic compounds favored a decrease in adiposity in the fasting state. The ZO test, using adipocyte lipid droplet size and adiposity as its endpoints, is a whole-organism alternative testing assay for obesogenic and anti-obesogenic compounds and mixtures and provides relevant information for environmental and human risk assessments. PMID:21724975

  4. The monitoring of heparin administration by screening tests in experimental dogs.

    PubMed

    Mischke, R; Jacobs, C

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between different screening tests of haemostasis and amidolytic plasma activities of unfractionated (standard) heparin in dogs. Different doses of intravenous (i.v.) [25, 50 or 100 IU Kg(-1)bodyweight (BW)] and subcutaneous (s.c.) heparin (250, 500 and 750 IU kg(-1)) were given to groups each of five clinically healthy adult beagles. Measurements of heparin activity with a factor Xa-dependent chromogenic substrate, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (two different reagents), thrombin time (TT, two different thrombin activities in the reagent: 3 and 6 IU ml(-1)) and the reaction time of the resonance thrombogram (RTG -r) with two different measuring devices were performed at different times. The relationship between ratio values (actual/baseline values) of the coagulation tests and heparin activity was analysed based on regression analysis and correlation coefficient. The greatest alterations were seen for the TT([3 IU ml(-1)])and the RTG -r which were near or exceeded the upper limit of measuring range, if 25 IU kg(-1)BW heparin were given i.v. at heparin plasma levels of 0.54 +/- 0.13 IU ml(-1). These results show, that only APTT and TT measured with high thrombin activity assay appear suitable for guiding high dose heparin therapy in dogs. Averaged alterations of APTT ratio in canine plasma were less than those observed in people for similar plasma heparin levels, indicating that the guideline extrapolated from people for monitoring high dose heparin therapy using APTT may not be valid for use in dogs. After coagulation times had been converted into ratio values, based on regression analysis and Wilcoxon's test, differences of heparin sensitivity were found not only for TT measured with different thrombin activities but also for different APTT reagents (P < 0.001). The correlation between amidylotic antifactor Xa activity and ratio of coagulation times was only moderate and found to be

  5. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... called the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and stool DNA test (sDNA). Sigmoidoscopy : This test uses a small ...

  6. Using Benefit-Cost Ratio to Select Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Test Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Heather L.; Neely, Stephen T.; Gorga, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Current protocols presumably use criteria that are chosen on the basis of the sensitivity and specificity rates they produce. Such an approach emphasizes test performance, but does not include societal implications of the benefit of early identification. The purpose of the present analysis was to evaluate an approach to selecting criteria for use in UNHS programs that utilizes BCR to demonstrate an alternative method to audiologists, administrators, and others involved in UNHS protocol decisions. Design Existing data from over 1200 ears were used to analyze benefit-cost ratio (BCR) as a function of DPOAE level. These data were selected because both audiometric and DPOAE data were available on every ear. Although these data were not obtained in newborns, this compromise was necessary because audiometric outcomes (especially in infants with congenital hearing loss) in neonates are either lacking or limited in number. As such, it is important to note that the characteristics of responses from the group of subjects that formed the bases of the present analyses are different from those for neonates. This limits the extent to which actual criterion levels can be selected but should not affect the general approach of using BCR as a framework for considering UNHS criteria. Estimates of the prevalence of congenital hearing loss identified through UNHS in 37 states and U.S. territories in 2004 were used to calculate BCR. A range of estimates for the lifetime monetary benefits and yearly costs for UNHS were used, based on data available in the literature. Still, exact benefits and costs are difficult to know. Both one-step (DPOAE alone) and two-step (DPOAE followed by AABR) screening paradigms were considered in the calculation of BCR. The influence of middle-ear effusion was simulated by incorporating a range of expected DPOAE level reductions into an additional BCR analyses. Results Our calculations indicate that for a range of proposed benefit and cost estimates

  7. [Embryonic stem cell test in screening of medicine and other chemicals].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Xu, Jinsen

    2005-02-01

    The technique of embryonic stem cell test (EST) has been developed and used in vitro to screen new medicines and other chemicals. According to toxicity, such medicines and chemicals can be classified as: non-toxic, weak toxic and/or strong toxic. EST shows merits such as no requirement of the sacrifice of pregnant animals, no side-effects on human or animals for candidate medicines and chemicals, higher sensitivity of embryonic stem cells when compared with the sensitivity of ordinary tissues of adult samples in toxicologic researches, higher accuracy when combined with computing techniques, and possible quantitation based on techniques of molecular biology. Advances in utility of EST technique were reviewed and the prospect of technique was also discussed in this paper. PMID:15762145

  8. [LAST-Q: Adaptation and normalisation in Quebec of the Language Screening Test].

    PubMed

    Bourgeois-Marcotte, J; Flamand-Roze, C; Denier, C; Monetta, L

    2015-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to adapt and to establish normative data for the recently developed Language Screening Test (LAST; Flamand-Roze et al., 2011) in the French-Canadian population according to age and level of education. After an adaptation process, 100 French-Canadian speakers were evaluated with the LAST-Q. As expected, a perfect score of 15/15 was obtained for all high level education participants, and a score of 14/15 was obtained for all participants with a lowest level of education or aged 80 years or more. Thanks to this adaptation, LAST-Q can be used in acute patients in stroke unit in Quebec. PMID:25917163

  9. Evaluation of ELISA screening test for detecting aflatoxin in biogenic dust samples

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic chemical that is sometimes produced when agricultural commodities are infested by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. Parasiticus. Aflatoxin has been found to be present in air samples taken around persons handling materials likely to be contaminated. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of using an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit that was developed to screen for aflatoxin in bulk agricultural commodities, to an air sample. Samples were taken from two environments likely to be contaminated with aflatoxin, a dairy farm feed mixing operation and a peanut bagging operation. The dust collected from these environments was considered to be biogenic, in that it originated primarily from biological materials.

  10. How Accurate Are Blood (or Breath) Tests for Identifying Self-Reported Heavy Drinking Among People with Alcohol Dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Bertholet, Nicolas; Winter, Michael R.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Saitz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Aims Managing patients with alcohol dependence includes assessment for heavy drinking, typically by asking patients. Some recommend biomarkers to detect heavy drinking but evidence of accuracy is limited. Methods Among people with dependence, we assessed the performance of disialo-carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%dCDT, ≥1.7%), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, ≥66 U/l), either %dCDT or GGT positive, and breath alcohol (> 0) for identifying 3 self-reported heavy drinking levels: any heavy drinking (≥4 drinks/day or >7 drinks/week for women, ≥5 drinks/day or >14 drinks/week for men), recurrent (≥5 drinks/day on ≥5 days) and persistent heavy drinking (≥5 drinks/day on ≥7 consecutive days). Subjects (n = 402) with dependence and current heavy drinking were referred to primary care and assessed 6 months later with biomarkers and validated self-reported calendar method assessment of past 30-day alcohol use. Results The self-reported prevalence of any, recurrent and persistent heavy drinking was 54, 34 and 17%. Sensitivity of %dCDT for detecting any, recurrent and persistent self-reported heavy drinking was 41, 53 and 66%. Specificity was 96, 90 and 84%, respectively. %dCDT had higher sensitivity than GGT and breath test for each alcohol use level but was not adequately sensitive to detect heavy drinking (missing 34–59% of the cases). Either %dCDT or GGT positive improved sensitivity but not to satisfactory levels, and specificity decreased. Neither a breath test nor GGT was sufficiently sensitive (both tests missed 70–80% of cases). Conclusions Although biomarkers may provide some useful information, their sensitivity is low the incremental value over self-report in clinical settings is questionable. PMID:24740846

  11. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates by the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, W B; van Pelt, C; Luijendijk, A; Verbrugh, H A; Goessens, W H

    1999-09-01

    The slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) antigen in 87 of 90 genetically diverse methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) stock culture strains, leading to a sensitivity of 97%. The three discrepant MRSA strains displayed positive results only after induction of the mecA gene by exposure to methicillin. Both mecA PCR and MRSA-Screen displayed negative results among the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains (n = 106), as well as for Micrococcus spp. (n = 10), members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (n = 10), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 10), and Enterococcus spp. (n = 10) (specificity = 100%). Producing the same PBP2a antigen, all 10 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strains score positived in both the latex test and the mecA PCR. Consequently, the MRSA-Screen test should be applied only after identification of the MRSA strain to the species level to rule out coagulase-negative staphylococci. In conclusion, due to excellent specificity and sensitivity the MRSA-Screen latex test has the potential to be successfully used for routine applications in the microbiology laboratory. PMID:10449498

  12. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  13. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  14. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  15. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  16. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  17. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Preliminary Development of a UK Screen for Mainstream Primary-School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Fiona J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bolton, Patrick; Brayne, Carol

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a pilot and follow-up study of the development of a screening test for Asperger Syndrome (AS) and relates social and communication conditions in children aged 4-11. Results suggest that the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test may be useful for identifying children at risk for AS and related conditions, in a mainstream…

  18. The Screening Test for Emotional Problems--Teacher-Report Version (Step-T): Studies of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Butler, Caitlin; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Screening Test for Emotional Problems-Teacher Version (STEP-T) was designed to identify students aged 7-17 years with wide-ranging emotional disturbances. Coefficients alpha and test-retest reliability were adequate for all subscales except Anxiety. The hypothesized five-factor model fit the data very well and external aspects of validity were…

  19. Development and model testing of anti-mortem screening methodology to predict prescribed drug withholds in heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, cow-side test for the presence of drug residues in live animal fluids would provide useful information for tissue drug residue avoidance programs. This work describes adaptation and evaluation of rapid screening tests to detect drug residues in serum and urine. Medicated herd animals had...

  20. Effectiveness of antigliadin antibodies as a screening test for celiac disease in children

    PubMed Central

    Chartrand, L J; Agulnik, J; Vanounou, T; Russo, P A; Baehler, P; Seidman, E G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of serologic antigliadin antibody (AGA) testing in predicting celiac disease in children. DESIGN: Prospective clinical assessment. SETTING: Hôpital Sainte-Justine, montreal. PATIENTS: A total of 176 children with possible celiac disease who were referred for duodenal biopsy between January 1992 and June 1995. OUTCOME MEASURES: IgA and IgG AGA titres, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); duodenal biopsy; clinical outcome on a gluten-free diet. RESULTS: Of the 176 children 30 were found to have celiac disease according to the criteria of the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN). The sensitivity and specificity of the IgA AGA titre, as well as its positive and negative predictive values, were 80%, 92%, 67% and 96% respectively; the corresponding values for the IgG AGA titre were 83%, 79%, 45% and 96%. The respective values for IgA and IgG AGA titres combined were 93%, 71%, 43% and 98%. Only 2 of the 30 patients with celiac disease had false-negative results for both IgA and IgG AGA titres. The IgA and IgG AGA titres decreased significantly (p < 0.005) in all 11 patients after being on a gluten-free diet for at least 10 months and reached normal values in 8. CONCLUSION: AGA screening for celiac disease permits better selection of patients for duodenal biopsy and adds specificity to the histologic diagnosis. Such screening cannot replace intestinal biopsy, which remains the gold standard for diagnosis. PMID:9294391

  1. Performance of blue-yellow screening test for antimicrobial detection in ovine milk.

    PubMed

    Linage, B; Gonzalo, C; Carriedo, J A; Asensio, J A; Blanco, M A; De La Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F

    2007-12-01

    Drug residues in milk are important because of public health and industrial implications. The detection limits of 25 antimicrobial agents were determined by the blue-yellow screening method in ovine milk. For each drug, 8 concentrations were tested on 20 ovine milk samples from individual ewes in midlactation. Detection limits determined by means of logistic regression were below European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRL) for penicillin G (3 to 4 microg/kg), ceftiofur (96 to 107 microg/kg), framycetin (720 to 781 microg/kg), neomycin (915 to 1,084 microg/kg), and tylosin (44 to 51 microg/kg). Detection limits for ampicillin (5 to 6 microg/kg), cloxacillin (33 to 42 microg/kg), cefoperazone (73 to 82 microg/kg), cefalexin (160 to 202 microg/kg), gentamycin (355 to 382 microg/kg), streptomycin (3,063 to 3,593 microg/kg), tilmicosin (109 to 131 microg/kg), erythromycin (444 to 522 microg/kg), spyramicin (1,106 to 1,346 microg/kg), sulfadimethoxine (101 to 119 microg/kg), sulfathiazole (122 to 151 microg/kg), sulfamethazine (309 to 328 microg/kg), sulfanilamide (1,750 to 2,674 microg/kg), tetracycline (233 to 257 microg/kg), oxytetracycline (398 to 501 microg/kg), doxycycline (323 to 419 microg/kg), chlortetracycline (3,331 to 3,989 microg/kg), danofloxacin (4.7 to 5.5 mg/kg), enrofloxacin (41 to 46 mg/kg), and flumequin (63 to 71 mg/kg) were higher than the EU-MRL. Although the blue-yellow method showed improved sensitivity compared with other tests studied in ovine milk, the performance of screening methods for detecting antimicrobial agents in milk of this species should be improved. PMID:18024727

  2. The effectiveness of FOBT vs. FIT: A meta-analysis on colorectal cancer screening test

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinezhad, Maryam; Majdzadeh, Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Delavari, Alireza; Mohtasham, Farideh

    2016-01-01

    Background: After lung and prostate cancers, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer worldwide. Every year, more than one million people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer worldwide and half of these patients die from this disease, making it the fourth leading cause of death in the world. This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness of the two colorectal diagnostic tests of FOBT (fecal occult blood test) and FIT (fecal immunochemical test)) in terms of technical performance. Methods: To retrieve the relevant evidence, appropriate medical databases such as Cochrane library, NHSEED, Scopus and Google scholar were searched from February 2013 to July 2014, using free-texts and Mesh. In this study, inclusion/exclusion criteria of the papers, randomized controlled trials, economic evaluations, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and meta-syntheses of the effectiveness of FIT versus FOBT tests in moderate-risk populations (age: 50 to 70 years), which had reported the least of such outcomes as sensitivity, specificity and clinical outcomes were reviewed. The analyses of the effectiveness outcomes were performed in the form of meta-analysis. Results: Five papers were eligible to be included in the final phase of the study for synthesis. FIT showed a better performance in participation and positivity rate. Moreover, in terms of false positive and negative rate, FIT showed fewer rates compared to FOBT (RR:-4.06; 95% CI (-7.89-0.24), and NN-scope (Number need to scope) (2.2% vs. 1.6%), and NN-screen (Number need to screen) (84% vs. 31-49% in different cut off levels) showed significant differences in FOBT vs. FIT, respectively. Conclusion: In the five included studies (3, 11-14), the acceptability of FIT was more than FOBT. However, in our meta-analysis, no difference was found between the two tests. FIT was significant in positivity rate and had a better performance in

  3. Prenatal diagnosis after ART success: the role of early combined screening tests in counselling pregnant patients.

    PubMed

    Ghisoni, L; Ferrazzi, E; Castagna, C; Levi Setti, P E; Masini, A C; Pigni, A

    2003-10-01

    First-trimester Down syndrome screening may cause a higher false positive rate in pregnant patients who have undergone ART (assisted reproductive technologies). The aim of this paper is to contribute to this analysis with the second largest series of combined biophysical and biochemical tests in the first trimester of pregnancy after ART. One hundred and forty-two singleton successful ART pregnancies were selected for this study: 50 pregnancies induced by using in-vitro fertilization (IVF), and 92 using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Each patient was matched with three naturally conceived pregnancies based on maternal age and gestational age. Free beta-HCG and PAPP-A were measured on dried blood spots and converted to MoMs. Nuchal translucency (NT) was measured by certified operators. Mean maternal age was 33 +/- 4. NT, free beta-HCG and PAPP-A values of the control cases were not significantly different from local standards evaluated on 3043 cases. NT between ART pregnancies and matched controls was not significantly different. PAPP-A was reduced but not significantly lower in ART pregnancies. Free beta-HCG was the only analyte that resulted in significantly higher values in ART pregnancies (1.12 MoM) versus controls (0.99 MoM). No significant differences were found for biochemical values observed between ICSI and IVF patients. The screen positive rates observed in ART and control pregnancies were 5.5 per cent and 4.6 per cent respectively. NT measurements were not affected by ART pregnancies. Our results (non-significant lower values of PAPP-A and significantly higher free beta-HCG values) were consistent with other reported series. The increase in the screen positive rate determined by these biological variations was not greater than 0.9 per cent. This higher false positive rate has a negligible impact on counselling ART patients. The algorithm used to calculate the relative risk after the combined tests should not be changed until the detection rate

  4. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... A positive result on a screening test does not confirm that the person has HIV infection. More tests are needed to confirm HIV infection. A negative test ...

  5. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    PubMed Central

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina; Pedersen, Helle; Lönnberg, Stefan; Nygård, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance. To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25–69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup) or visiting their physician for a cervical smear. Self-sampled specimens were split and analyzed for the presence of high-risk (hr) HPV by the CLART® HPV2 test and the digene® Hybrid Capture (HC)2 test. The control group consisted of 2593 women who received a 2nd reminder letter according to the current guidelines of the NCCSP. The attendance rates were 33.4% in the intervention group and 23.2% in the control group, with similar attendance rates for both self-sampling devices. Women in the self-sampling subgroup responded favorably to both self-sampling devices and cited not remembering receiving a call for screening as the most dominant reason for previous non-attendance. Thirty-two of 34 (94.1%) hrHPV-positive women in the self-sampling subgroup attended follow-up. In conclusion, self-sampling increased attendance rates and was feasible and well received. This study lends further support to the proposal that self-sampling may be a valuable alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway. PMID:27073929

  6. Associations Between Functional Movement Screening, the Y Balance Test, and Injuries in Coast Guard Training.

    PubMed

    Cosio-Lima, Ludmila; Knapik, Joseph J; Shumway, Richard; Reynolds, Katy; Lee, Youngil; Greska, Eric; Hampton, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Tests that have the ability to predict injuries in various military and athletic populations are important because of the role they could play in primary prevention. Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and Y Balance Tests (YBT) may provide this prognostic ability. This study examined the association between injuries and age, physical characteristics, FMS, and upper and lower body YBTs among Coast Guard Maritime Security Response Team (MSRT) candidates. Thirty-one male Coast Guard Maritime Security Response Team candidates were administered the 7 FMS tests and lower- and upper-body YBTs before their intense 2-month training course. Age, height, weight, and body mass index were also obtained. Physical training-related injuries were recorded during the course. Injury incidence was 41%. Older age and lower scores on either FMS or the upper-body YBT were associated with higher injury risk. Performance of the lower-body YBT was not associated with injury risk. This is the first investigation showing that lower scores on the upper-body YBT were associated with higher injury risk and is in consonance with previous investigations demonstrating associations between lower FMS scores and higher injury risk. Certain limitations need to be addressed. Future studies should determine if FMS and the YBTs have prognostic ability in other populations. PMID:27391617

  7. Follow-up to abnormal cancer screening tests: Considering the multilevel context of care

    PubMed Central

    Zapka, Jane M.; Edwards, Heather M.; Chollette, Veronica; Taplin, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    The call for multilevel interventions to improve the quality of follow-up to abnormal cancer screening has been out for a decade but published work emphasizes individual approaches, and conceptualizations differ regarding the definition of levels. To investigate the scope and methods being undertaken in this focused area of follow-up to abnormal tests (breast, colon, cervical), we reviewed recent literature and grants (2007-2012) funded by the National Cancer Institute. A structured search yielded 16 grants with varying definitions of “follow-up” (e.g. completion of recommended tests, time to diagnosis); most included minority racial/ethnic group participants. Ten grants concentrated on measurement/intervention development, and 13 piloted or tested interventions (categories not mutually exclusive). All studies considered patient level factors and effects. While some directed interventions at provider levels, few measured group characteristics and effects of interventions on the providers or levels other than the patient. Multilevel interventions are being proposed, but clarity regarding endpoints, definition of levels, and measures is needed. The differences in the conceptualization of levels and factors that affect practice need empirical exploration and we need to measure their salient characteristics to advance our understanding of how context affects cancer care delivery in a changing practice and policy environment. PMID:25073625

  8. Follow-up to abnormal cancer screening tests: considering the multilevel context of care.

    PubMed

    Zapka, Jane M; Edwards, Heather M; Chollette, Veronica; Taplin, Stephen H

    2014-10-01

    The call for multilevel interventions to improve the quality of follow-up to abnormal cancer screening has been out for a decade, but published work emphasizes individual approaches, and conceptualizations differ regarding the definition of levels. To investigate the scope and methods being undertaken in this focused area of follow-up to abnormal tests (breast, colon, cervical), we reviewed recent literature and grants (2007-2012) funded by the National Cancer Institute. A structured search yielded 16 grants with varying definitions of "follow-up" (e.g., completion of recommended tests, time to diagnosis); most included minority racial/ethnic group participants. Ten grants concentrated on measurement/intervention development and 13 piloted or tested interventions (categories not mutually exclusive). All studies considered patient-level factors and effects. Although some directed interventions at provider levels, few measured group characteristics and effects of interventions on the providers or levels other than the patient. Multilevel interventions are being proposed, but clarity about endpoints, definition of levels, and measures is needed. The differences in the conceptualization of levels and factors that affect practice need empirical exploration, and we need to measure their salient characteristics to advance our understanding of how context affects cancer care delivery in a changing practice and policy environment. PMID:25073625

  9. [Evaluation of peruvian money test in screening of cognitive impairment among older adults].

    PubMed

    Oscanoa, Teodoro J; Cieza, Edwin; Parodi, José F; Paredes, Napoleón

    2016-03-01

    Objectives To evaluate the Peruvian adaptation of the money test (Eurotest) for identifying cognitive impairment among >60-year-old adults. Materials and methods This is a phase I study of diagnostic test, with a convenience sampling and calculation of the test´s sensitivity and specificity, based on a pretest prevalence of 50%. The criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) were used for the operational definition of patients with cognitive impairment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify the optimal cut-off value. Results The study evaluated 42 cases and 42 controls; there was no significant difference between age (77.88 ± 6.01 years vs. 6.49 76.14 ± years) and years of education (13.69 ± 3.70 years vs. 8.17 ± 4.71 years). The Peruvian version of the Eurotest has a sensitivity of 90.5% and specificity of 83.3% with cut-off value of 24. Conclusions The Peruvian adapted version of the Eurotest, called prueba de la moneda peruana could be useful in screening for cognitive impairment among older adults. PMID:27384624

  10. Designing null phase screens to test a fast plano-convex aspheric lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelOlmo-Márquez, Jesús; Castán-Ricaño, Diana; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2015-08-01

    We have obtained a formula to represent the wavefront produced by a plano-convex aspheric lens with symmetry of revolution considering a plane wavefront propagating parallel to the optical axis and impinging on the refracting surface, it is called a zero-distance phase front, being it the first wavefront to be out of the optical system. Using a concept of differential geometry called parallel curves it is possible to obtain an analytic formula to represent the wavefront propagated at arbitrary distances through the optical axis. In order to evaluate qualitatively a plano-convex aspheric lens, we have modified slightly an interferometer Tywman-Green as follow: In the reference beam we use a plane mirror and the beam of test we have used a spatial light modulator (SLM) to compensate the phase produced by the lens under test. It will be called a null phase interferometer. The main idea is to recombine both wavefronts in order to get a null interferogram, otherwise we will associate the patterns of the interferogram to deformations of the lens under test. The null phase screens are formed with concentric circumferences assuming different gray levels printed on SLM.

  11. Barriers for Compliance to Breast, Colorectal, and Cervical Screening Cancer Tests among Hispanic Patients.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Diaz, Christine; Betancourt, Elba; Ruiz-Candelaria, Yelitza; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    Hispanics are less likely to undergo screening tests for colorectal cancer and cervical cancer than non-Hispanic whites. Compliance with mammography, fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), colonoscopy, and cervical smears (PAP) and barriers for compliance were studied. A descriptive study was performed with 194 ambulatory patients while they attended routine medical visits. Women are more likely than men to undergo a colonoscopy. Conversely, FOBT was most likely reported by men. Reasons for compliance with FOBT differed by gender. Men were most likely to avoid FOBT due to lack of knowledge whereas women reported that physicians do not recommend the procedure. Both men and women reported that lack of physician's recommendation was their primary reason for not undergoing a colonoscopy. Men tend to report lack of knowledge about colonoscopy procedure. A higher mammogram utilization rate was reported by women older than 40 years. PAP smears were reported by 74% of women older than 21 years. The major reasons for avoiding mammography and PAP tests were having a busy schedule, fear, and feeling uncomfortable during the procedure. In a multivariate regression analysis, occupational status was found to be a predictor for compliance with FOBT and colonoscopy. PMID:26703676

  12. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a dual neuropsychological screening test: An fMRI approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kana Pick-out Test (KPT), which uses Kana or Japanese symbols that represent syllables, requires parallel processing of discrete (pick-out) and continuous (reading) dual tasks. As a dual task, the KPT is thought to test working memory and executive function, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and is widely used in Japan as a clinical screen for dementia. Nevertheless, there has been little neurological investigation into PFC activity during this test. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate changes in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in young healthy adults during performance of a computerized KPT dual task (comprised of reading comprehension and picking out vowels) and compared it to its single task components (reading or vowel pick-out alone). Results Behavioral performance of the KPT degraded compared to its single task components. Performance of the KPT markedly increased BOLD signal intensity in the PFC, and also activated sensorimotor, parietal association, and visual cortex areas. In conjunction analyses, bilateral BOLD signal in the dorsolateral PFC (Brodmann's areas 45, 46) was present only in the KPT. Conclusions Our results support the central bottleneck theory and suggest that the dorsolateral PFC is an important mediator of neural activity for both short-term storage and executive processes. Quantitative evaluation of the KPT with fMRI in healthy adults is the first step towards understanding the effects of aging or cognitive impairment on KPT performance. PMID:22640773

  13. Population Screening for Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Using a Novel Blood Test

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Graham S.; Burk-Rafel, Jesse; Edgeworth, Julie Ann; Sicilia, Anita; Abdilahi, Sabah; Korteweg, Justine; Mackey, Jonathan; Thomas, Claire; Wang, Guosu; Schott, Jonathan M.; Mummery, Catherine; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Mead, Simon; Collinge, John

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Our study indicates a prototype blood-based variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) assay has sufficient sensitivity and specificity to justify a large study comparing vCJD prevalence in the United Kingdom with a bovine spongiform encephalopathy–unexposed population. In a clinical diagnostic capacity, the assay’s likelihood ratios dramatically change an individual’s pretest disease odds to posttest probabilities and can confirm vCJD infection. OBJECTIVES To determine the diagnostic accuracy of a prototype blood test for vCJD and hence its suitability for clinical use and for screening prion-exposed populations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective, cross-sectional diagnostic study of blood samples from national blood collection and prion disease centers in the United States and United Kingdom. Anonymized samples were representative of the US blood donor population (n = 5000), healthy UK donors (n = 200), patients with nonprion neurodegenerative diseases (n = 352), patients in whom a prion disease diagnosis was likely (n = 105), and patients with confirmed vCJD (n = 10). MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE Presence of vCJD infection determined by a prototype test (now in clinical diagnostic use) that captures, enriches, and detects disease-associated prion protein from whole blood using stainless steel powder. RESULTS The assay’s specificity among the presumed negative American donor samples was 100% (95% CI, 99.93%-100%) and was confirmed in a healthy UK cohort (100% specificity; 95% CI, 98.2%-100%). Of potentially cross-reactive blood samples from patients with nonprion neurodegenerative diseases, no samples tested positive (100% specificity; 95% CI, 98.9%-100%). Among National Prion Clinic referrals in whom a prion disease diagnosis was likely, 2 patients with sporadic CJD tested positive (98.1% specificity; 95% CI, 93.3%-99.8%). Finally, we reconfirmed but could not refine our previous sensitivity estimate in a small blind panel of samples

  14. Defeminization in Daphnia magna: A screening test for endocrine-disruptors in the environment?

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritsen, A.A.M.; Hoeven, N. van der

    1995-12-31

    Long term consequences associated with exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment have been found in mammals, birds, fish, turtles and gastropods. Despite their important role, however, hardly any attention has been paid to the long term effects of such chemicals on crustaceans. Experiments originally carried out to quantify the ability of Daphnia magna to recover from short term exposure to para-tert-pentylphenol, revealed the endocrine disrupting properties of the test compound. During one of the experiments animals were divided into six (8 hour) age groups between 0 and 48 hours and exposed to 6 mg of para-tert-pentylphenol 1{sup {minus}1} for a period of 8 hours. Within the age groups of 16 to 24 and of 24 to 32 hours old 51 and 70% of the females respectively lag-fed behind in growth and showed reduced fertility. In addition to this, about 37 and 16% of these females showed malformations suggesting defeminization. The males showed no delay in growth and had no malformations. Furthermore, in terms of survival the males were shown to be less sensitive towards the test compound than the females. The type of effects in females and the sharp distinction between the effects on males and females are indicative for the estrogenicity of para-tert-pentylphenol. The estrogenic effects of a number alkylphenols, including para-tert-pentylphenol, were demonstrated in rats and confirmed in tests with the human breast cell MCF7. To the best of knowledge estrogenicity has not been recorded before for any chemical for any crustacean. The observation of estrogenic effects in D. magna opens up the way to a standardized test for screening chemicals with potentially endocrine disrupting properties. Such a test may be a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment and conservation of environmental and human health.

  15. Adrenal Venous Sampling in Patients With Positive Screening but Negative Confirmatory Testing for Primary Aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Umakoshi, Hironobu; Naruse, Mitsuhide; Wada, Norio; Ichijo, Takamasa; Kamemura, Kohei; Matsuda, Yuichi; Fujii, Yuichi; Kai, Tatsuya; Fukuoka, Tomikazu; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Ogo, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tomoko; Nanba, Kazutaka; Tsuiki, Mika

    2016-05-01

    Adrenal venous sampling is considered to be the most reliable diagnostic procedure to lateralize aldosterone excess in primary aldosteronism (PA). However, normative criteria have not been established partially because of a lack of data in non-PA hypertensive patients. The aim of the study was to investigate aldosterone concentration and its gradient in the adrenal vein of non-PA hypertensive patients. We retrospectively studied the results of cosyntropin-stimulated adrenal venous sampling in 40 hypertensive patients who showed positive screening testing but negative results in 2 confirmatory tests/captopril challenge test and saline infusion test. Plasma aldosterone concentration, aldosterone/cortisol ratio, its higher/lower ratio (lateralization index) in the adrenal vein with cosyntropin stimulation were measured. Median plasma aldosterone concentration in the adrenal vein was 25 819 pg/mL (range, 5154-69 920) in the higher side and 12 953 (range, 1866-36 190) pg/mL in the lower side (P<0.001). There was a significant gradient in aldosterone/cortisol ratio between the higher and the lower sides (27.2 [5.4-66.0] versus 17.3 [4.0-59.0] pg/mL per μg/dL;P<0.001) with lateralization index ranging from 1.01 to 3.87. The aldosterone lateralization gradient was between 1 to 2 in 32 patients and 2 to 4 in 8 patients. None of the patients showed lateralization index ≥4. The present study demonstrated that plasma aldosterone concentration in the adrenal veins showed significant variation and lateralization gradient even in non-PA hypertensive patients. Adrenal venous sampling aldosterone lateralization gradients between 2 and 4 should be interpreted with caution in patients with PA because these gradients can be found even in patients with negative confirmatory testing for PA. PMID:26975712

  16. The New York State Physical Fitness Screening Test for Boys and Girls Grades 4-12. A Manual for Teachers of Physical Education. (1984 Revision).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This manual presents a physical fitness screening test for fourth through twelfth grade students in New York. Norms, originally developed in 1962 and updated in 1975, are also presented. The Physical Fitness Screening Test is an individual performance-type test composed of four different test items--agility, strength, speed, and endurance.…

  17. The New York State Physical Fitness Screening Test for Boys and Girls Grades 4-12 (1976 Revision). A Manual for Teachers of Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The New York State Physical Fitness Screening Test, an individual performance-type test composed of four different test items, was developed to provide school personnel with an instrument for use in determining the physical fitness of pupils and to screen pupils who are physically underdeveloped. The original norms for the test were obtained in…

  18. Testing the assumption in ergonomics software that overall shoulder strength can be accurately calculated by treating orthopedic axes as independent.

    PubMed

    Hodder, Joanne N; La Delfa, Nicholas J; Potvin, Jim R

    2016-08-01

    To predict shoulder strength, most current ergonomics software assume independence of the strengths about each of the orthopedic axes. Using this independent axis approach (IAA), the shoulder can be predicted to have strengths as high as the resultant of the maximum moment about any two or three axes. We propose that shoulder strength is not independent between axes, and propose an approach that calculates the weighted average (WAA) between the strengths of the axes involved in the demand. Fifteen female participants performed maximum isometric shoulder exertions with their right arm placed in a rigid adjustable brace affixed to a tri-axial load cell. Maximum exertions were performed in 24 directions, including four primary directions, horizontal flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, and at 15° increments in between those axes. Moments were computed and comparisons made between the experimentally collected strengths and those predicted by the IAA and WAA methods. The IAA over-predicted strength in 14 of 20 non-primary exertions directions, while the WAA underpredicted strength in only 2 of these directions. Therefore, it is not valid to assume that shoulder axes are independent when predicting shoulder strengths between two orthopedic axes, and the WAA is an improvement over current methods for the posture tested. PMID:26145486

  19. Effectiveness of fecal immunochemical testing in reducing colorectal cancer mortality from the One Million Taiwanese Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Han-Mo; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Lee, Yi-Chia; Pan, Shin-Liang; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Liao, Chao-Sheng; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Koong, Shin-Lan; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The effectiveness of fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) in reducing colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality has not yet been fully assessed in a large, population-based service screening program. METHODS A prospective cohort study of the follow-up of approximately 5 million Taiwanese from 2004 to 2009 was conducted to compare CRC mortality for an exposed (screened) group and an unexposed (unscreened) group in a population-based CRC screening service targeting community residents of Taiwan who were 50 to 69 years old. Given clinical capacity, this nationwide screening program was first rolled out in 2004. In all, 1,160,895 eligible subjects who were 50 to 69 years old (ie, 21.4% of the 5,417,699 subjects of the underlying population) participated in the biennial nationwide screening program by 2009. RESULTS The actual effectiveness in reducing CRC mortality attributed to the FIT screening was 62% (relative rate for the screened group vs the unscreened group, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.42) with a maximum follow-up of 6 years. The 21.4% coverage of the population receiving FIT led to a significant 10% reduction in CRC mortality (relative rate, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.95) after adjustments for a self-selection bias. CONCLUSIONS This large, prospective Taiwanese cohort undergoing population-based FIT screening for CRC had the statistical power to demonstrate a significant CRC mortality reduction, although the follow-up time was short. Although such findings are informative for health decision makers, continued follow-up of this large cohort will be required to estimate the long-term impact of FIT screening if the covered population is expanded. Cancer 2015;121:3221–3229. © 2015 American Cancer Society. A significant reduction in colorectal cancer mortality resulting from fecal immunochemical testing is demonstrated by a large, population-based, nationwide service screening program with a maximum follow-up of 6 years. Although long

  20. Cost-effectiveness of population-based screening for colorectal cancer: a comparison of guaiac-based faecal occult blood testing, faecal immunochemical testing and flexible sigmoidoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, L; Tilson, L; Whyte, S; O'Ceilleachair, A; Walsh, C; Usher, C; Tappenden, P; Chilcott, J; Staines, A; Barry, M; Comber, H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several colorectal cancer-screening tests are available, but it is uncertain which provides the best balance of risks and benefits within a screening programme. We evaluated cost-effectiveness of a population-based screening programme in Ireland based on (i) biennial guaiac-based faecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) at ages 55–74, with reflex faecal immunochemical testing (FIT); (ii) biennial FIT at ages 55–74; and (iii) once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSIG) at age 60. Methods: A state-transition model was used to estimate costs and outcomes for each screening scenario vs no screening. A third party payer perspective was adopted. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken. Results: All scenarios would be considered highly cost-effective compared with no screening. The lowest incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER vs no screening €589 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained) was found for FSIG, followed by FIT (€1696) and gFOBT (€4428); gFOBT was dominated. Compared with FSIG, FIT was associated with greater gains in QALYs and reductions in lifetime cancer incidence and mortality, but was more costly, required considerably more colonoscopies and resulted in more complications. Results were robust to variations in parameter estimates. Conclusion: Population-based screening based on FIT is expected to result in greater health gains than a policy of gFOBT (with reflex FIT) or once-only FSIG, but would require significantly more colonoscopy resources and result in more individuals experiencing adverse effects. Weighing these advantages and disadvantages presents a considerable challenge to policy makers. PMID:22343624