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Sample records for accurate screening tests

  1. A Highly Accurate Inclusive Cancer Screening Test Using Caenorhabditis elegans Scent Detection

    PubMed Central

    Uozumi, Takayuki; Shinden, Yoshiaki; Mimori, Koshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Ueda, Naoko; Hamakawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Early detection and treatment are of vital importance to the successful eradication of various cancers, and development of economical and non-invasive novel cancer screening systems is critical. Previous reports using canine scent detection demonstrated the existence of cancer-specific odours. However, it is difficult to introduce canine scent recognition into clinical practice because of the need to maintain accuracy. In this study, we developed a Nematode Scent Detection Test (NSDT) using Caenorhabditis elegans to provide a novel highly accurate cancer detection system that is economical, painless, rapid and convenient. We demonstrated wild-type C. elegans displayed attractive chemotaxis towards human cancer cell secretions, cancer tissues and urine from cancer patients but avoided control urine; in parallel, the response of the olfactory neurons of C. elegans to the urine from cancer patients was significantly stronger than to control urine. In contrast, G protein α mutants and olfactory neurons-ablated animals were not attracted to cancer patient urine, suggesting that C. elegans senses odours in urine. We tested 242 samples to measure the performance of the NSDT, and found the sensitivity was 95.8%; this is markedly higher than that of other existing tumour markers. Furthermore, the specificity was 95.0%. Importantly, this test was able to diagnose various cancer types tested at the early stage (stage 0 or 1). To conclude, C. elegans scent-based analyses might provide a new strategy to detect and study disease-associated scents. PMID:25760772

  2. A feasibility study of UHPLC-HRMS accurate-mass screening methods for multiclass testing of organic contaminants in food.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ortega, Patricia; Lara-Ortega, Felipe J; García-Reyes, Juan F; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Trojanowicz, Marek; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The feasibility of accurate-mass multi-residue screening methods using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) using time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been evaluated, including over 625 multiclass food contaminants as case study. Aspects such as the selectivity and confirmation capability provided by HRMS with different acquisition modes (full-scan or full-scan combined with collision induced dissociation (CID) with no precursor ion isolation), and chromatographic separation along with main limitations such as sensitivity or automated data processing have been examined. Compound identification was accomplished with retention time matching and accurate mass measurements of the targeted ions for each analyte (mainly (de)protonated molecules). Compounds with the same nominal mass (isobaric species) were very frequent due to the large number of compounds included. Although 76% of database compounds were involved in isobaric groups, they were resolved in most cases (99% of these isobaric species were distinguished by retention time, resolving power, isotopic profile or fragment ions). Only three pairs could not be resolved with these tools. In-source CID fragmentation was evaluated in depth, although the results obtained in terms of information provided were not as thorough as those obtained using fragmentation experiments without precursor ion isolation (all ion mode). The latter acquisition mode was found to be the best suited for this type of large-scale screening method instead of classic product ion scan, as provided excellent fragmentation information for confirmatory purposes for an unlimited number of compounds. Leaving aside the sample treatment limitations, the main weaknesses noticed are basically the relatively low sensitivity for compounds which does not map well against electrospray ionization and also quantitation issues such as those produced by signal suppression due to either matrix effects from coeluting matrix or from

  3. A feasibility study of UHPLC-HRMS accurate-mass screening methods for multiclass testing of organic contaminants in food.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ortega, Patricia; Lara-Ortega, Felipe J; García-Reyes, Juan F; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Trojanowicz, Marek; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The feasibility of accurate-mass multi-residue screening methods using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) using time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been evaluated, including over 625 multiclass food contaminants as case study. Aspects such as the selectivity and confirmation capability provided by HRMS with different acquisition modes (full-scan or full-scan combined with collision induced dissociation (CID) with no precursor ion isolation), and chromatographic separation along with main limitations such as sensitivity or automated data processing have been examined. Compound identification was accomplished with retention time matching and accurate mass measurements of the targeted ions for each analyte (mainly (de)protonated molecules). Compounds with the same nominal mass (isobaric species) were very frequent due to the large number of compounds included. Although 76% of database compounds were involved in isobaric groups, they were resolved in most cases (99% of these isobaric species were distinguished by retention time, resolving power, isotopic profile or fragment ions). Only three pairs could not be resolved with these tools. In-source CID fragmentation was evaluated in depth, although the results obtained in terms of information provided were not as thorough as those obtained using fragmentation experiments without precursor ion isolation (all ion mode). The latter acquisition mode was found to be the best suited for this type of large-scale screening method instead of classic product ion scan, as provided excellent fragmentation information for confirmatory purposes for an unlimited number of compounds. Leaving aside the sample treatment limitations, the main weaknesses noticed are basically the relatively low sensitivity for compounds which does not map well against electrospray ionization and also quantitation issues such as those produced by signal suppression due to either matrix effects from coeluting matrix or from

  4. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  5. Screening Tests for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... or colonoscopy) Diabetes screening Gonorrhea test HIV test Syphilis test Get tested for chlamydia yearly through age ... to be tested for HIV. Get tested for syphilis if you are at increased risk or pregnant. ...

  6. Screening Tests for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... questions you have. Make sure to ask about: Alcohol use Depression Weight Screening tests Screening tests Screening tests Ages ... for high cholesterol, and ways to improve cholesterol levels through lifestyle changes. ... Sheets - Alcohol Use and Health - This fact sheet talks about ...

  7. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer symptoms. There are different kinds of screening tests. Screening tests include the following: Physical exam and ... are linked to some types of cancer. Screening tests have risks. Not all screening tests are helpful ...

  8. Population-based Tay-Sachs screening among Ashkenazi Jewish young adults in the 21st century: Hexosaminidase A enzyme assay is essential for accurate testing.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Adele; Nakagawa, Sachiko; Keep, Rosanne; Dorsainville, Darnelle; Charrow, Joel; Aleck, Kirk; Hoffman, Jodi; Minkoff, Sherman; Finegold, David; Sun, Wei; Spencer, Andrew; Lebow, Johannah; Zhan, Jie; Apfelroth, Stephen; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole; Gross, Susan

    2009-11-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier screening, initiated in the 1970s, has reduced the birth-rate of Ashkenazi Jews with TSD worldwide by 90%. Recently, several nationwide programs have been established that provide carrier screening for the updated panel of Jewish genetic diseases on college campuses and in Jewish community settings. The goals of this study were to determine the performance characteristics of clinical TSD testing in college- and community-based screening programs and to determine if molecular testing alone is adequate in those settings. Clinical data for TSD testing were retrospectively anonymized and subsequently analyzed for 1,036 individuals who participated in these programs. The performance characteristics of the serum and the platelet Hexosaminidase assays were compared, and also correlated with the results of targeted DNA analysis. The serum assay identified 29 carriers and the platelet assay identified 35 carriers for carrier rates of 1/36 and 1/29, respectively. One hundred sixty-nine samples (16.3%) were inconclusive by serum assay in marked contrast to four inconclusive samples (0.4%) by the platelet assay. Molecular analysis alone would have missed four of the 35 carriers detected by the platelet assay, yielding a false negative rate of 11.4% with a sensitivity of 88.6%. Based on the results of this study, platelet assay was superior to serum with a minimal inconclusive rate. Due to changing demographics of the Ashkenazi Jewish population, molecular testing alone in the setting of broad-based population screening programs is not sufficient, and biochemical analysis should be the assay of choice. PMID:19876898

  9. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... first step, you will have a glucose screening test: You DO NOT need to prepare or change ...

  10. Environmental Test Screening Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeidler, Janet

    2000-01-01

    This procedure describes the methods to be used for environmental stress screening (ESS) of the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) lens assembly. Unless otherwise specified, the procedures shall be completed in the order listed, prior to performance of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP). The first unit, S/N 001, will be subjected to the Qualification Vibration Levels, while the remainder will be tested at the Operational Level. Prior to ESS, all units will undergo Pre-ESS Functional Testing that includes measuring the on-axis and plus or minus 0.95 full field Modulation Transfer Function and Back Focal Length. Next, all units will undergo ESS testing, and then Acceptance testing per PR 460.

  11. Manufactured soil screening test

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to provide a screening test that can be used to evaluate the potential for manufacturing artificial soil using dredged material, cellulose waste materials (e.g., yard waste compost, sawdust, wastepaper), and biosolids (e.g., N-Viro-reconditioned sewage sludge, BIONSOIL-reconstituted cow manure). This procedure will allow the most productive blend of any dredged material (uncontaminated or contaminated), cellulose, and biosolids to be determined and recommended for use in an environmentally productive and beneficial manner.

  12. Two Language Screening Tests Compared with Developmental Sentence Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxley, Lynn; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The performance of 90 children between the ages of four and six years on two language screening tests was compared with their performance on Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) to determine the accuracy of these screening tests in identifying language impairments. The Bankson Language Screening Test was generally accurate in the identification of…

  13. What Screening Tests Are There?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Related Links Stay Informed Cancer Home What Screening Tests Are There? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... packs a day for 15 years. Risks of Screening Lung cancer screening has at least three risks— ...

  14. Head Injury Screening Tests Approved

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160556.html Head Injury Screening Tests Approved Assess brain function after possible concussions To use the sharing features ... HealthDay News) -- New computer software to assess the brain's function after a traumatic head injury have been approved ...

  15. Neonatal Screening Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigue, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several laboratory experiments that are adaptations of clinical tests for certain genetic diseases in babies. Information and procedures are provided for tests for phenylketonuria (PKU), galactosemia, tyrosinemia, cystinuria, and mucopolysaccharidosis. Discusses the effects of each disease on the infants' development. (TW)

  16. TB Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... a risk that the first TST is a false-negative reaction, a second skin test is given ... species, for example Mycobacterium kansasii , will give a false-positive TST or IGRA result for TB. Positive ...

  17. How Accurate Are Oral Reading Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Leo M.

    Errors in oral reading tests result from inaccuracies that tend to creep in because children are not totally consistent while taking a test and from inaccuracies caused when the examiner does not catch a word recognition error, giving credit for an answer that is more wrong than right or vice versa. Every test contains a standard error of…

  18. Preschool visual acuity screening tests.

    PubMed Central

    Friendly, D S

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative merits of two screening tests used for visual acuity assessment of preschool children. The tests that were compared were the Good-Lite Company versions of the E-Test and of the STYCAR (Screening Test for Young Children and Retardates). The former is the most popular method for evaluating central acuity in young children in this nation; the STYCAR is a relatively new letter-matching-test developed in England, where it is widely employed. The E-Test poses left-right orientation problems which are eliminated by the symmetrical letters H, T, O and V utilized in the Letter-Matching-Test. Both visual acuity tests were administered on two separate occasions by personnel from the Prevention of Blindness Society of Metropolitan Washington to 633 preschool children in Washington, D.C. By random selection, 150 of the children received the E-Test at both sessions, 162 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at both sessions, 160 chilt athe the second session, and 161 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at the first session and the E-Test at the second session. The author medically examined the eyes of 408 of the 633 children without knowledge of which test had been initially administered. Statistical analysis of the data obtained from the study indicated that the Letter-Matching-Test was significantly better in terms of testability rates, group and individual instruction time, and performance time. The E-Test was more reliable in terms of test-retest acuity scores and was also more valid in terms of agreement between pass-fail results obtained at the first screening session and two levels of pass-fail refraction criteria. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B PMID:754379

  19. Accurate statistical tests for smooth classification images.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Alan; Worsley, Keith J; Schyns, Philippe G; Arguin, Martin; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2005-10-05

    Despite an obvious demand for a variety of statistical tests adapted to classification images, few have been proposed. We argue that two statistical tests based on random field theory (RFT) satisfy this need for smooth classification images. We illustrate these tests on classification images representative of the literature from F. Gosselin and P. G. Schyns (2001) and from A. B. Sekuler, C. M. Gaspar, J. M. Gold, and P. J. Bennett (2004). The necessary computations are performed using the Stat4Ci Matlab toolbox.

  20. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  1. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    Member Login Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Resources & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs ...

  2. Gage tests tube flares quickly and accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, F. D.

    1966-01-01

    Flared tube gage with a test cone that is precisely made with a tapering surface to complement the tube flare is capable of determining the accuracy of a tube flare efficiently and economically. This device should improve the speed, efficiency, and accuracy of tube flare inspections.

  3. Accurate and noninvasive embryos screening during in vitro fertilization (IVF) assisted by Raman analysis of embryos culture medium Accurate and noninvasive embryos screening during IVF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, A. G.; Peng, J.; Zhao, Q. H.; Su, L.; Wang, X. H.; Hu, J. M.; Yang, J.

    2012-04-01

    In combination with morphological evaluation tests, we employ Raman spectroscopy to select higher potential reproductive embryos during in vitro fertilization (IVF) based on chemical composition of embryos culture medium. In this study, 57 Raman spectra are acquired from both higher and lower quality embryos culture medium (ECM) from 10 patients which have been preliminarily confirmed by clinical assay. Data are fit by using a linear combination model of least squares method in which 12 basis spectra represent the chemical features of ECM. The final fitting coefficients provide insight into the chemical compositions of culture medium samples and are subsequently used as criterion to evaluate the quality of embryos. The relative fitting coefficients ratios of sodium pyruvate/albumin and phenylalanine/albumin seem act as key roles in the embryo screening, attaining 85.7% accuracy in comparison with clinical pregnancy. The good results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy therefore is an important candidate for an accurate and noninvasive screening of higher quality embryos, which potentially decrease the time-consuming clinical trials during IVF.

  4. How Are Newborn Screening Tests Done?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are newborn screening tests done? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Newborn screening typically consists of a blood test and a ...

  5. Comparison of Two Screening Tests: Gesell Developmental Test and Meeting Street School Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Lenell; Buttery, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Pearson product-moment correlations were computed for selected subtests of The Gesell Developmental Test and The Meeting Street School Screening Test. The selected subtests are moderately correlated, suggesting that either test might be used in a battery. (Author)

  6. Validating the Mandola Colorvision Screen Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandola, John

    1983-01-01

    Tested the validity of the Mandola Colorvision Screening Test, a color confusion test involving geometric designs and a tracing technique, as a screening test for color vision defects in 82 preschool and kindergarten children. Results indicated that MCST separates medium to strong color vision defects from the normal population. (JAC)

  7. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Tests, Strategies, and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stracci, Fabrizio; Zorzi, Manuel; Grazzini, Grazia

    2014-01-01

    Screening has a central role in colorectal cancer (CRC) control. Different screening tests are effective in reducing CRC-specific mortality. Influence on cancer incidence depends on test sensitivity for pre-malignant lesions, ranging from almost no influence for guaiac-based fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) to an estimated reduction of 66–90% for colonoscopy. Screening tests detect lesions indirectly in the stool [gFOBT, fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), and fecal DNA] or directly by colonic inspection [flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, CT colonography (CTC), and capsule endoscopy]. CRC screening is cost-effective compared to no screening but no screening strategy is clearly better than the others. Stool tests are the most widely used in worldwide screening interventions. FIT will soon replace gFOBT. The use of colonoscopy as a screening test is increasing and this strategy has superseded all alternatives in the US and Germany. Despite its undisputed importance, CRC screening is under-used and participation rarely reaches 70% of target population. Strategies to increase participation include ensuring recommendation by physicians, introducing organized screening and developing new, more acceptable tests. Available evidence for DNA fecal testing, CTC, and capsule endoscopy is reviewed. PMID:25386553

  8. Screening and testing in multiples.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Andriole, Stephanie

    2010-09-01

    The same principles for diagnosis and screening in singleton pregnancies apply to multiples. However, there can be significant differences in the safety and efficacy of all approaches with multiple gestations. This article deals with specific aspects of screening in multiple pregnancies.

  9. Instrument accurately measures small temperature changes on test surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.; Miller, H. B.

    1966-01-01

    Calorimeter apparatus accurately measures very small temperature rises on a test surface subjected to aerodynamic heating. A continuous thin sheet of a sensing material is attached to a base support plate through which a series of holes of known diameter have been drilled for attaching thermocouples to the material.

  10. Screening and Testing in Multiples.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Andriole, Stephanie; Evans, Shara M

    2016-06-01

    The choice of screening or invasive procedure in twin pregnancies is a personal choice of whether the patient wishes to take a small risk of having a baby with a serious disorder versus a small risk of having a complication because she wishes to avoid that. How to interpret such risks has profound effects on the perceived value of techniques, either leading to a decision to screening or going directly to chorionic villus sampling. There are profound issues surrounding the data and the interpretation of the data. No single short review can exhaustively examine all of the issues.

  11. Screening and Testing in Multiples.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Andriole, Stephanie; Evans, Shara M

    2016-06-01

    The choice of screening or invasive procedure in twin pregnancies is a personal choice of whether the patient wishes to take a small risk of having a baby with a serious disorder versus a small risk of having a complication because she wishes to avoid that. How to interpret such risks has profound effects on the perceived value of techniques, either leading to a decision to screening or going directly to chorionic villus sampling. There are profound issues surrounding the data and the interpretation of the data. No single short review can exhaustively examine all of the issues. PMID:27235913

  12. New Claus catalyst tests accurately reflect process conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Maglio, A.; Schubert, P.F.

    1988-09-12

    Methods for testing Claus catalysts are developed that more accurately represent the actual operating conditions in commercial sulfur recovery units. For measuring catalyst activity, an aging method has been developed that results in more meaningful activity data after the catalyst has been aged, because all catalysts undergo rapid initial deactivation in commercial units. An activity test method has been developed where catalysts can be compared at less than equilibrium conversion. A test has also been developed to characterize abrasion loss of Claus catalysts, in contrast to the traditional method of determining physical properties by measuring crush strengths. Test results from a wide range of materials correlated well with actual pneumatic conveyance attrition. Substantial differences in Claus catalyst properties were observed as a result of using these tests.

  13. LCD display screen performance testing for handheld thermal imaging cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinaburg, Joshua B.; Amon, Francine; Hamins, Anthony; Boynton, Paul

    2006-05-01

    Handheld thermal imaging cameras are an important tool for the first responder community. As their use becomes more prevalent, it will become important for a set of standard test metrics to be available to characterize the performance of these cameras. A major factor in the performance of the imagers is the quality of the image on a display screen. An imager may employ any type of display screen, but the results of this paper will focus on those using liquid crystal displays. First responders, especially firefighters, in the field rely on the performance of this screen to relay vital information during critical situations. Current research on thermal imaging camera performance metrics for first responder applications uses trained observer tests or camera composite output signal measurements. Trained observer tests are subjective and composite output tests do not evaluate the performance of the complete imaging system. It is the goal of this work to develop a non-nondestructive, objective method that tests the performance of the entire thermal imaging camera system, from the infrared destructive, sensor to the display screen. Application of existing display screen performance metrics to thermal imaging cameras requires additional consideration. Most display screen test metrics require a well defined electronic input, with either full black or white pixel input, often encompassing detailed spatial patterns and resolution. Well characterized thermal inputs must be used to obtain accurate, repeatable, and non-destructive display screen measurements for infrared cameras. For this work, a thermal target is used to correlate the measured camera output with the actual display luminance. A test method was developed to determine display screen luminance. A well characterized CCD camera and digital recording device were used to determine an electro-optical transfer function for thermal imaging cameras. This value directly relates the composite output signal to the luminance

  14. Screening For Microcracking By Testing Unbalanced Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Papadapoulos, Demetrios S.

    1993-01-01

    Expensive, time-consuming thermal-cycling tests might be obviated. Experimental study demonstrates feasibility of relatively fast thermomechanical testing procedure for screening and ranking of matrix/fiber composite materials with respect to resistance to microcracking. Procedure intended to replace comprehensive thermal-cycling tests.

  15. Pitfalls in accurate estimation of overdiagnosis: implications for screening policy and compliance.

    PubMed

    Feig, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    Stories in the public media that 30 to 50% of screen-detected breast cancers are overdiagnosed dissuade women from being screened because overdiagnosed cancers would never result in death if undetected yet do result in unnecessary treatment. However, such concerns are unwarranted because the frequency of overdiagnosis, when properly calculated, is only 0 to 5%. In the previous issue of Breast Cancer Research, Duffy and Parmar report that accurate estimation of the rate of overdiagnosis recognizes the effect of lead time on detection rates and the consequent requirement for an adequate number of years of follow-up. These indispensable elements were absent from highly publicized studies that overestimated the frequency of overdiagnosis.

  16. Test kit testing certifies soil screening accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, L.K.

    1994-08-01

    With quality controls and validation, site managers can use immunoassay with confidence. It is not enough to know which hazardous substances have contaminated a site. A manager must have an idea about how much is present and where. Traditionally, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry answered these questions, but today immunoassay soil test kits often provide more immediate results at a lower cost.

  17. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Basta, Nicholas T; Chaney, Rufus L.; Henry, Paula F.; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Sprague, Dan; Weber, John

    2016-01-01

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with phosphorus significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. Bioaccessibility of Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter (24%), or present as Pb sulfate (18%). Additional Pb was associated with P (chloropyromorphite, hydroxypyromorphite and tertiary Pb phosphate), and with Pb carbonates, leadhillite (a lead sulfate carbonate hydroxide), and Pb sulfide. The formation of chloropyromorphite reduced the bioavailability of Pb and the amendment of Pb-contaminated soils with P may be a thermodynamically favored means to sequester Pb.

  18. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W Nelson; Basta, Nicholas T; Chaney, Rufus L; Henry, Paula F P; Mosby, David E; Rattner, Barnett A; Scheckel, Kirk G; Sprague, Daniel T; Weber, John S

    2016-09-01

    Hazards of soil-borne lead (Pb) to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, the authors measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from 5 Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33% to 63%, with a mean of approximately 50%. Treatment of 2 of the soils with phosphorus (P) significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. Bioaccessibility of Pb in the test soils was then measured in 6 in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability: the relative bioavailability leaching procedure at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the Ohio State University in vitro gastrointestinal method, the urban soil bioaccessible lead test, the modified physiologically based extraction test, and the waterfowl physiologically based extraction test. All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the relative bioavailability leaching procedure at pH 2.5 and Ohio State University in vitro gastrointestinal tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter (24%), or present as Pb sulfate (18%). Additional Pb was associated with P (chloropyromorphite, hydroxypyromorphite, and tertiary Pb phosphate) and with Pb carbonates, leadhillite (a lead sulfate carbonate hydroxide), and Pb sulfide. The formation of chloropyromorphite reduced the bioavailability of Pb, and the amendment of Pb-contaminated soils with P may be a thermodynamically favored means to sequester Pb. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2311-2319. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of

  19. Screening tests: a review with examples

    PubMed Central

    Niebo, Ron; Utell, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Screening tests are widely used in medicine to assess the likelihood that members of a defined population have a particular disease. This article presents an overview of such tests including the definitions of key technical (sensitivity and specificity) and population characteristics necessary to assess the benefits and limitations of such tests. Several examples are used to illustrate calculations, including the characteristics of low dose computed tomography as a lung cancer screen, choice of an optimal PSA cutoff and selection of the population to undergo mammography. The importance of careful consideration of the consequences of both false positives and negatives is highlighted. Receiver operating characteristic curves are explained as is the need to carefully select the population group to be tested. PMID:25264934

  20. Is the Posner Reaction Time Test More Accurate Than Clinical Tests in Detecting Left Neglect in Acute and Chronic Stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Rengachary, Jennifer; d'Avossa, Giovanni; Sapir, Ayelet; Shulman, Gordon L.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of common clinical tests for left neglect with that of a computerized reaction time Posner test in a stroke population. Design Neglect measures were collected longitudinally in stroke patients at the acute (≈2wk) and chronic (≈9mo) stage. Identical measures were collected in a healthy control group. Setting Inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation. Participants Acute stroke patients (n=59) with left neglect, 30 of whom were tested longitudinally; healthy age-matched controls (n=30). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures A receiver operating characteristic analysis, ranking the measures' sensitivity and specificity using a single summary statistic. Results Most clinical tests were adequately accurate at the acute stage, but many were near chance at the chronic stage. The Posner test was the most sensitive test at both stages, the most sensitive variable being the reaction time difference for detecting targets appearing on the left compared to the right side. Conclusions Computerized reaction time tests can be used to screen for subtle but potentially clinically relevant left neglect, which may not be detectable by conventional clinical tests, especially at the chronic stage. Such tests may be useful to assess the severity of the patients' deficits and provide more accurate measures of the degree of recovery in clinical trials than established clinical measures. PMID:19969172

  1. Screened exchange hybrid density functional for accurate and efficient structures and interaction energies.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Caldeweyher, Eike; Grimme, Stefan

    2016-06-21

    We extend the recently introduced PBEh-3c global hybrid density functional [S. Grimme et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2015, 143, 054107] by a screened Fock exchange variant based on the Henderson-Janesko-Scuseria exchange hole model. While the excellent performance of the global hybrid is maintained for small covalently bound molecules, its performance for computed condensed phase mass densities is further improved. Most importantly, a speed up of 30 to 50% can be achieved and especially for small orbital energy gap cases, the method is numerically much more robust. The latter point is important for many applications, e.g., for metal-organic frameworks, organic semiconductors, or protein structures. This enables an accurate density functional based electronic structure calculation of a full DNA helix structure on a single core desktop computer which is presented as an example in addition to comprehensive benchmark results. PMID:27240749

  2. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  3. Advances in multiphasic screening and testing.

    PubMed

    Miller, C E

    1967-11-01

    The multiphasic testing center of the future will probably be used both for periodic screening tests and for referrals by practicing physicians. Recent widespread interest of several branches of the Federal Government in multiphasic screening stems from the possibility that, through its use, the enormous cost of chronic illness to the country may be reduced.Recent advances in automation and the storage, retrieval, and analysis of data by computers make it economically feasible to obtain much more information about the patient's health than ever before. New instrument developments include both screening and diagnostic analysis of electrocardiograms by computers, analysis of heart sounds by computer, and a wide variety of other physiological and biochemical instruments. To allow for the inclusion and evaluation of these new procedures, a number of multiphasic testing centers will be needed which can do both research and routine testing. Close cooperation between the medical profession, the public health services and industry will be needed to best serve both the public and the medical profession.

  4. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb, we incorporated Pb-contaminated soils or Pb acetate into diets for Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), fed the quail for 15 days, and ...

  5. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEAD TO QUAIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contami...

  6. SIDS reprotoxicity screening test update: testing strategies and use.

    PubMed

    Gelbke, Heinz-Peter; Fleig, Helmut; Meder, Matthias

    2004-04-01

    The OECD screening information data set (SIDS) project is a cooperative effort of OECD member countries and industry to assess the hazard/risk posed to human health and the environment by high production volume (HPV) chemicals, and to assign priorities for further work. To date, work has been initiated on about 1000 HPV chemicals. Abbreviated reproduction and developmental toxicity screening tests (OECD test guidelines 421 and 422) were developed specifically for the SIDS project. These tests, though not providing a complete characterization of reproductive or developmental hazard, are accepted in USA and Japan as fulfilling the requirement of an initial reproduction and developmental toxicity evaluation for HPV chemicals. Based on the OECD-approved SIDS initial assessments for 54 substances tested according to guideline 421 or 422, these tests are providing useful data for initial hazard assessment. PMID:15041141

  7. Validation of the Quick Cognitive Screening Test.

    PubMed

    Mate-Kole, C C; Major, A; Lenzer, I; Connolly, J F

    1994-08-01

    Reports in the literature suggest that 70% to 80% of cognitive deficits with probable organic basis are undetected in patients at risk, especially if symptoms are minimal. Studies have shown that clinically convenient beside screening tests show low sensitivity with a high rate of false-negative results. The purpose of this study was to validate a sensitive mid-range cognitive screening test to detect cognitive deficits, including those not usually identified by bedside mental status examinations. The Quick Cognitive Screening Test (QCST) was initially developed and subsequently adapted from original unpublished work by the late John McFie. The test was designed to detect global cognitive dysfunction and specific areas of cognitive dysfunction. Areas assessed included orientation, attention and concentration, memory, language, construction, perception, spatial ability, and abstract reasoning. Scoring is multidimensional, each subtest having a score, plus summary and global scores. Thirty-eight neurological patients with a cerebrovascular accident, traumatic brain injury, and other miscellaneous diagnoses, were recruited from a tertiary care center for physical rehabilitation. Fifteen residents from a psychiatric rehabilitation center were also recruited. Thirty-two healthy volunteers from the community served as age-matched controls. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) was used to establish reliability and validity of the QCST. The National Adult Reading Test (NART) was used to estimate premorbid intellectual functioning. Results showed that the QCST identified cognitive impairment in all of the neurological and psychiatric patients assessed. Oneway analyses of variance of five summary scores showed significant differences between the groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  9. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  10. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  11. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  12. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  13. Advantages of the Quadruple Screen over noninvasive prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Keller, Nathan A; Rijshinghani, Asha

    2016-03-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is becoming increasingly popular with some offering it as a primary screen option in all patients in place of serum screening. Serum screening offers insight into placental function, which NIPT does not. Abnormal levels of analytes in the serum screen have been associated with pregnancy complications. PMID:27014443

  14. [Mokken scaling of the Cognitive Screening Test].

    PubMed

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2009-10-01

    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST) is a twenty-item orientation questionnaire in Dutch, that is commonly used to evaluate cognitive impairment. This study applied Mokken Scale Analysis, a non-parametric set of techniques derived from item response theory (IRT), to CST-data of 466 consecutive participants in psychogeriatric day care. The full item set and the standard short version of fourteen items both met the assumptions of the monotone homogeneity model, with scalability coefficient H = 0.39, which is considered weak. In order to select items that would fulfil the assumption of invariant item ordering or the double monotonicity model, the subjects were randomly partitioned into a training set (50% of the sample) and a test set (the remaining half). By means of an automated item selection eleven items were found to measure one latent trait, with H = 0.67 and item H coefficients larger than 0.51. Cross-validation of the item analysis in the remaining half of the subjects gave comparable values (H = 0.66; item H coefficients larger than 0.56). The selected items involve year, place of residence, birth date, the monarch's and prime minister's names, and their predecessors. Applying optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) it was found that the full set of twenty CST items performed best in distinguishing two predefined groups of patients of lower or higher cognitive ability, as established by an independent criterion derived from the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test. The chance corrected predictive value or prognostic utility was 47.5% for the full item set, 45.2% for the fourteen items of the standard short version of the CST, and 46.1% for the homogeneous, unidimensional set of selected eleven items. The results of the item analysis support the application of the CST in cognitive assessment, and revealed a more reliable 'short' version of the CST than the standard short version (CST14).

  15. Uses and Abuses of Developmental Screening and School Readiness Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisels, Samuel J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the uses and abuses of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Tests and similar tests. First, discusses developmental screening and readiness tests, then focuses on the Gesell tests, specifically addressing their validity and questioning their current uses. Discusses implications of using readiness tests for assigning children to…

  16. Evaluation of a Screening Test for Female College Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    Developed the Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire (AMDQ) to detect female college athletes with eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/DE). Athletes from various sports completed the AMDQ, two other tests, and a structured diagnostic interview to determine which test screened most effectively. The AMDQ identified ED/DE more accurately than the…

  17. Qualitative evaluation of the reagin screen test.

    PubMed Central

    Black, D A; Ray, P E; Therrell, B L

    1976-01-01

    After a preliminary study of 557 sera used as a procedural training exercise, the Reagin screen test (RST) for the macroscopic detection of reagin (as an aid to detecting syphilis) was qualitatively compared to the rapid plasma Reagin (RPR) (circle) card test and Veneral Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide test on 435 random portions of sera using fluorescent treponemal antibody adsorption (FTA-ABS) results as a comparative base. A comparison of total agreement (positive and negative) with the FTA-ABS results led to the following order. RPRCT (I5.5%), VDRL (79.8%), and RST (74.5%). Of the total samples shown to be reactive by the FTA-ABS procedure, the percentage of these interpreted as nonreactive (i.e., "false negative") by the procedures compared was considerably higher with the RST procedure (29.3%) than with either the RPRCT (10.9%) or the VDRL (7.1%) procedures. Minor problems encountered with procedural techniques are also mentioned. PMID:783187

  18. Response to “Accurate Risk-Based Chemical Screening Relies on Robust Exposure Estimates”

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a correspondence (letter to the editor) with reference to comments by Rudel and Perovich on the article "Integration of Dosimetry, Exposure, and High-Throughput Screening Data in Chemical Toxicity Assessment". Article Reference: SI # 238882

  19. Colorectal cancer screening tests: pros and cons, and for whom?

    PubMed

    Forbes, Geoffrey M

    2008-04-01

    The past decade has seen major advances internationally in the implementation of colorectal cancer screening, influenced in differing ways by the profession, the public and by government. Relatively unique to colorectal cancer screening is the availability of so many test alternatives, which have substantial variation in methodology. While perhaps spoilt for choice, discerning the key advantages and disadvantages of each test is often difficult, depending on the perspective from which screening is viewed. Accordingly, this article provides an evaluation of screening tests as might be perceived by governments, the patient and the profession. Aligned issues such as choosing a screening test and provision of informed consent are discussed. Finally, the article identifies current problems with various screening tests that, if attended to, might change the perception of a test's value to a particular interest group. PMID:19072355

  20. Detecting Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Deaf People: The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Joanna; Denmark, Tanya; Marshall, Jane; Mummery, Cath; Woll, Bencie

    2015-11-01

    To provide accurate diagnostic screening of deaf people who use signed communication, cognitive tests must be devised in signed languages with normative deaf samples. This article describes the development of the first screening test for the detection of cognitive impairment and dementia in deaf signers. The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test uses standardized video administration to screen cognition using signed, rather than spoken or written, instructions and a large norm-referenced sample of 226 deaf older people. Percentiles are provided for clinical comparison. The tests showed good reliability, content validity, and correlation with age, intellectual ability, and education. Clinical discrimination was shown between the normative sample and 14 deaf patients with dementia. This innovative testing approach transforms the ability to detect dementia in deaf people, avoids the difficulties of using an interpreter, and enables culturally and linguistically sensitive assessment of deaf signers, with international potential for adaptation into other signed languages. PMID:26245349

  1. Solid phase red cell adherence immunoassay for anti-HIV 1: a simple, rapid, and accurate method for donor screening.

    PubMed

    Watson-Williams, E J; Yee, J L; Carlson, J R; Mertens, S C; Holland, P; Sinor, L; Plapp, F V

    1988-01-01

    In technically developed countries in which acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a risk to the recipients of blood or tissue, it is mandatory to screen the donor for evidence of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection. Current tests, based on enzyme-linked immunoassay, are time-consuming and expensive and as such are unsuitable for developing countries. We describe a second generation test using anti-human IgG coupled to red cells as the indicator of antibody having reacted with test antigen (1). The test is complete within ten minutes, simple to perform and to read and has 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity compared with Western blot. It is ideal for the rapid screening of organ donors and for the screening of blood donors where cost is a major consideration.

  2. Diagnostic Performance of Visual Screening Tests in the Elderly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lança, Carla Costa; Carolino, Elisabete

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to determine and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of visual screening tests for detecting vision loss in elderly. This study is defined as study of diagnostic performance. The diagnostic accuracy of 5 visual tests -near convergence point, near accommodation point, stereopsis, contrast sensibility and amsler grid—was evaluated by means of the ROC method (receiver operating characteristics curves), sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/LR-). Visual acuity was used as the reference standard. A sample of 44 elderly aged 76.7 years (±9.32), who were institutionalized, was collected. The curves of contrast sensitivity and stereopsis are the most accurate (area under the curves were 0.814-p = 0.001, C.I.95%[0.653;0.975]— and 0.713-p = 0.027, C.I.95%[0,540;0,887], respectively). The scores with the best diagnostic validity for the stereopsis test were 0.605 (sensitivity 0.87, specificity 0.54; LR+ 1.89, LR-0.24) and 0.610 (sensitivity 0.81, specificity 0.54; LR+ 1.75, LR-0.36). The scores with higher diagnostic validity for the contrast sensibility test were 0.530 (sensitivity 0.94, specificity 0.69; LR+ 3.04, LR-0.09). The contrast sensitivity and stereopsis test's proved to be clinically useful in detecting vision loss in the elderly.

  3. Ocular screening tests of elementary school children

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of 507 abnormal retinal reflex images taken of Huntsville kindergarten and first grade students. The retinal reflex images were obtained by using an MSFC-developed Generated Retinal Reflex Image System (GRRIS) photorefractor. The system uses a 35 mm camera with a telephoto lens with an electronic flash attachment. Slide images of the eyes were examined for abnormalities. Of a total of 1835 students screened for ocular abnormalities, 507 were found to have abnormal retinal reflexes. The types of ocular abnormalities detected were hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, esotropia, exotropia, strabismus, and lens obstuctions. The report shows that the use of the photorefractor screening system is an effective low-cost means of screening school children for abnormalities.

  4. Accurate mass screening of pharmaceuticals and fungicides in water by U-HPLC-Exactive Orbitrap MS.

    PubMed

    Chitescu, Carmen Lidia; Oosterink, Efraim; de Jong, Jacob; Linda Stolker, Alida Adriana Maria

    2012-07-01

    The use of pharmaceuticals in livestock production is a potential source of surface water, groundwater and soil contamination. Possible impacts of antibiotics on the environment include toxicity and the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Monitoring programs are required to record the presence of these substances in the environment. A rapid, versatile and selective multi-method was developed and validated for screening 43 pharmaceutical and fungicides compounds, in surface and groundwater, in one single full-scan MS method, using benchtop U-HPLC-Exactive Orbitrap MS at 50,000 (FWHM) resolution. Detection was based on calculated exact masses and on retention time. Sample volume, pH conditions and solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample clean-up conditions were optimized. In the final method, 74 % of the compounds had recoveries higher than 80 %, 15 % of the compounds had recoveries between 60 % and 80 %, and 7 % of the compounds had recoveries between 40 % and 50 %. One of the compounds (itraconazole) had a recovery lower than 10 % and nystatin was not detected. The level of detection was 10 ng L(-1) for 61 % of the compounds, 50 ng L(-1) for 32 % and 100 ng L(-1) for 5%. In-house validation, based on EU guidelines, proves that the detection capability CCβ is lower than 10 ng L(-1) (for β error 5 %) for 37 % of the compounds, lower than 50 ng L(-1) for 35 % of the compounds and lower than 100 ng L(-1) for 14 % of compounds. This study demonstrates that the ultra-high resolution and reliable mass accuracy of Exactive Orbitrap MS permits the detection of pharmaceutical residues in a concentration range of 10-100 ng L(-1), applying a post target screening approach, in the multi-method conditions.

  5. Older adults’ preferences for colorectal cancer-screening test attributes and test choice

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Christine E; Hess, Thomas M; Howard, Kirsten; Pignone, Michael P; Crutchfield, Trisha M; Hawley, Sarah T; Brenner, Alison T; Ward, Kimberly T; Lewis, Carmen L

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding which attributes of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests drive older adults’ test preferences and choices may help improve decision making surrounding CRC screening in older adults. Materials and methods To explore older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening test attributes and screening tests, we conducted a survey with a discrete choice experiment (DCE), a directly selected preferred attribute question, and an unlabeled screening test-choice question in 116 cognitively intact adults aged 70–90 years, without a history of CRC or inflammatory bowel disease. Each participant answered ten discrete choice questions presenting two hypothetical tests comprised of four attributes: testing procedure, mortality reduction, test frequency, and complications. DCE responses were used to estimate each participant’s most important attribute and to simulate their preferred test among three existing CRC-screening tests. For each individual, we compared the DCE-derived attributes to directly selected attributes, and the DCE-derived preferred test to a directly selected unlabeled test. Results Older adults do not overwhelmingly value any one CRC-screening test attribute or prefer one type of CRC-screening test over other tests. However, small absolute DCE-derived preferences for the testing procedure attribute and for sigmoidoscopy-equivalent screening tests were revealed. Neither general health, functional, nor cognitive health status were associated with either an individual’s most important attribute or most preferred test choice. The DCE-derived most important attribute was associated with each participant’s directly selected unlabeled test choice. Conclusion Older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening tests are not easily predicted. Medical providers should actively explore older adults’ preferences for CRC screening, so that they can order a screening test that is concordant with their patients’ values. Effective interventions are

  6. Reference module selection criteria for accurate testing of photovoltaic (PV) panels

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, J.N.; Gariki, Govardhan Rao; Nagalakhsmi, V.

    2010-01-15

    It is shown that for accurate testing of PV panels the correct selection of reference modules is important. A detailed description of the test methodology is given. Three different types of reference modules, having different I{sub SC} (short circuit current) and power (in Wp) have been used for this study. These reference modules have been calibrated from NREL. It has been found that for accurate testing, both I{sub SC} and power of the reference module must be either similar or exceed to that of modules under test. In case corresponding values of the test modules are less than a particular limit, the measurements may not be accurate. The experimental results obtained have been modeled by using simple equivalent circuit model and associated I-V equations. (author)

  7. Highly sensitive and accurate screening of 40 dyes in soft drinks by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feng; Zhao, Yansheng; Yong, Wei; Sun, Li; Jiang, Guibin; Chu, Xiaogang

    2011-06-15

    A method combining solid phase extraction with high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the highly sensitive and accurate screening of 40 dyes, most of which are banned in foods. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify a large number of dyes for the first time, and demonstrated greater accuracy and sensitivity than the conventional liquid chromatography-ultraviolet/visible methods. The limits of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for the dyes are 0.0001-0.01 mg/L except for Tartrazine, Amaranth, New Red and Ponceau 4R, with detection limits of 0.5, 0.25, 0.125 and 0.125 mg/L, respectively. When this method was applied to screening of dyes in soft drinks, the recoveries ranged from 91.1 to 105%. This method has been successfully applied to screening of illegal dyes in commercial soft drink samples, and it is valuable to ensure the safety of food.

  8. Test-Retest Reliability of the AGS Early Screening Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas K.; And Others

    The test-retest reliability of the American Guidance Service (AGS) Early Screening Profiles (ESP)--a battery measuring development in the cognition/language, motor, and self-help/social areas--was examined. The ESP is a nationally normed screening battery for children ages 2 years 0 months through 6 years 11 months. In addition, parent and teacher…

  9. An Optimized Fluorescence-Based Bidimensional Immunoproteomic Approach for Accurate Screening of Autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Launay, David; Sobanski, Vincent; Dussart, Patricia; Chafey, Philippe; Broussard, Cédric; Duban-Deweer, Sophie; Vermersch, Patrick; Prin, Lionel; Lefranc, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Serological proteome analysis (SERPA) combines classical proteomic technology with effective separation of cellular protein extracts on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and identification of the antigenic spot of interest by mass spectrometry. A critical point is related to the antigenic target characterization by mass spectrometry, which depends on the accuracy of the matching of antigenic reactivities on the protein spots during the 2D immunoproteomic procedures. The superimposition, based essentially on visual criteria of antigenic and protein spots, remains the major limitation of SERPA. The introduction of fluorescent dyes in proteomic strategies, commonly known as 2D-DIGE (differential in-gel electrophoresis), has boosted the qualitative capabilities of 2D electrophoresis. Based on this 2D-DIGE strategy, we have improved the conventional SERPA by developing a new and entirely fluorescence-based bi-dimensional immunoproteomic (FBIP) analysis, performed with three fluorescent dyes. To optimize the alignment of the different antigenic maps, we introduced a landmark map composed of a combination of specific antibodies. This methodological development allows simultaneous revelation of the antigenic, landmark and proteomic maps on each immunoblot. A computer-assisted process using commercially available software automatically leads to the superimposition of the different maps, ensuring accurate localization of antigenic spots of interest. PMID:26132557

  10. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... decides which tests are required. Ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. If your baby has ... state requires different tests, so ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. You also can visit ...

  11. Structural and functional screening in human induced-pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes accurately identifies cardiotoxicity of multiple drug types

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, Kimberly R. Talbert, Dominique R.; Trusk, Patricia B.; Moran, Diarmuid M.; Shell, Scott A.; Bacus, Sarah

    2015-05-15

    Safety pharmacology studies that evaluate new drug entities for potential cardiac liability remain a critical component of drug development. Current studies have shown that in vitro tests utilizing human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CM) may be beneficial for preclinical risk evaluation. We recently demonstrated that an in vitro multi-parameter test panel assessing overall cardiac health and function could accurately reflect the associated clinical cardiotoxicity of 4 FDA-approved targeted oncology agents using hiPS-CM. The present studies expand upon this initial observation to assess whether this in vitro screen could detect cardiotoxicity across multiple drug classes with known clinical cardiac risks. Thus, 24 drugs were examined for their effect on both structural (viability, reactive oxygen species generation, lipid formation, troponin secretion) and functional (beating activity) endpoints in hiPS-CM. Using this screen, the cardiac-safe drugs showed no effects on any of the tests in our panel. However, 16 of 18 compounds with known clinical cardiac risk showed drug-induced changes in hiPS-CM by at least one method. Moreover, when taking into account the Cmax values, these 16 compounds could be further classified depending on whether the effects were structural, functional, or both. Overall, the most sensitive test assessed cardiac beating using the xCELLigence platform (88.9%) while the structural endpoints provided additional insight into the mechanism of cardiotoxicity for several drugs. These studies show that a multi-parameter approach examining both cardiac cell health and function in hiPS-CM provides a comprehensive and robust assessment that can aid in the determination of potential cardiac liability. - Highlights: • 24 drugs were tested for cardiac liability using an in vitro multi-parameter screen. • Changes in beating activity were the most sensitive in predicting cardiac risk. • Structural effects add in

  12. Advanced material testing in support of accurate sheet metal forming simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, Toshihiko

    2013-05-01

    This presentation is a review of experimental methods for accurately measuring and modeling the anisotropic plastic deformation behavior of metal sheets under a variety of loading paths: biaxial compression test, hydraulic bulge test, biaxial tension test using a cruciform specimen, multiaxial tube expansion test using a closed-loop electrohydraulic testing machine for the measurement of forming limit strains and stresses, combined tension-shear test, and in-plane stress reversal test. Observed material responses are compared with predictions using phenomenological plasticity models to highlight the importance of accurate material testing. Special attention is paid to the plastic deformation behavior of sheet metals commonly used in industry, and to verifying the validity of constitutive models based on anisotropic yield functions at a large plastic strain range. The effects of using appropriate material models on the improvement of predictive accuracy for forming defects, such as springback and fracture, are also presented.

  13. Screen test for cadmium and nickel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, Angie H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1994-01-01

    A new procedure is described which was recently developed to quantify loading uniformity of nickel and cadmium plates and to screen finished electrodes prior to cell assembly. The technique utilizes the initial solubility rates of the active material in a standard chemical deloading solution at fixed conditions. The method can provide a reproducible indication of plate loading uniformity in situations where high surface loading limits the free flow of deloading solution into the internal porosity of the sinter plate. A preliminary study indicates that 'good' cell performance is associated with higher deloading rates.

  14. Accurate bs and w testing important for crude-oil custody transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J. )

    1990-11-12

    This paper discusses how monitoring crude-oil sediment and water content at the field production site is essential in accurate crude-oil custody transfer operations. This is accomplished by manual methods, or on-line devices like capacitance, density, or energy-absorption analyzers. For custody-transfer purposes, sediment and water is determined by a test which follows one of the API manuals of petroleum measurement standards (MPMS). Typically, this test is conducted in the field by the field centrifuge method which, if performed properly, yields very accurate results. Laboratory tests can be performed, but sample handling becomes even more critical.

  15. A comparison between Pap and HPV screening tests and screening methods

    PubMed Central

    Altobelli, Emma; Scarselli, Giorgio; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Fortunato, Carmine; Profeta, Valerio F.

    2016-01-01

    The present study assesses the results of cervical cancer (CC) screening over two 3-year periods (2008–2010 and 2011–2013) by comparing two screening tests [Papanicolaou (Pap) and human papillomavirus (HPV) tests] and two screening methods (organized and spontaneous). The study population includes women aged 25–64 years who underwent CC screening between 2008 and 2010 and/or 2011 and 2013, divided into those who responded to an invitation letter (organized screening) and those who spontaneously underwent testing at a public or private facility (non-programmed screening). Between 2008 and 2010, the response rates increased from 27.7% in 2008 to 44.5% in 2009 and 67.6% in 2010 (P<0.001). Women aged 25–34 years had the lowest response rate, whereas respondents were more frequent among women aged 35–44 and 45–54 years. Significant differences (P<0.001) were identified between organized and spontaneous screening test results with regard to diagnostic categories high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (50.5 vs. 49.5%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (42.8 vs. 57.2%) and undetermined lesion atypical glandular cells (AGC; 57.5 vs. 42.5%) or atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US; 54.2 vs. 45.8%). Compared with spontaneous screening, the organized programme resulted in a larger number of women screened for CC; it reduced the frequency of undetermined diagnoses (AGC, ASC-US), and identified a larger number of high-grade lesions. PMID:27446578

  16. Tests of walking balance for screening vestibular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Helen S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2013-01-01

    Few reliable tests are available for screening people rapidly for vestibular disorders although such tests would be useful for a variety of testing situations. Balance testing is widely performed but of unknown value for screening. The goal of this study was to determine the value of tests of walking balance for screening people with vestibular impairments. We tested three groups of patients with known vestibular impairments: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, unilateral vestibular weakness, and post-acoustic neuroma resection. We compared them to normal subjects. All subjects were independently ambulatory without gait aids. Subjects were tested on tandem walking (TW) with eyes open and eyes closed for 10 steps, walking with no additional head motions and with augmented head rotations in yaw for 7 m (WwHT), and an obstacle avoidance task, the Functional Mobility Test (FMT). Subjects wore a 3-D motion sensor centered at mid-torso to capture kinematic measures. Patients and normals differed significantly on some behavioral measures, such as the number of steps to perform TW, and on some but not all kinematic measures. ROC analyses, however, were at best only moderate, and failed to find strong differences and cut-points that would differentiate the groups. These findings suggest that although patients and normals differ in performance of these tests in some interesting ways the groups are not sufficiently different on these tests for easy use as screening tests to differentiate the populations. PMID:23000609

  17. Retrospective screening of relevant pesticide metabolites in food using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry and accurate-mass databases of parent molecules and diagnostic fragment ions.

    PubMed

    Polgár, László; García-Reyes, Juan F; Fodor, Péter; Gyepes, Attila; Dernovics, Mihály; Abrankó, László; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the detection and characterization of relevant pesticide metabolites in food is an important task in order to evaluate their formation, kinetics, stability, and toxicity. In this article, a methodology for the systematic screening of pesticides and their main metabolites in fruit and vegetable samples is described, using LC-HRMS and accurate-mass database search of parent compounds and their diagnostic fragment ions. The approach is based on (i) search for parent pesticide molecules; (ii) search for their metabolites in the positive samples, assuming common fragmentation pathways between the metabolites and parent pesticide molecules; and (iii) search for pesticide conjugates using the data from both parent species and diagnostic fragment ions. An accurate-mass database was constructed consisting of 1396 compounds (850 parent compounds, 447 fragment ions and 99 metabolites). The screening process was performed by the software in an automated fashion. The proposed methodology was evaluated with 29 incurred samples and the output obtained was compared to standard pesticide testing methods (targeted LC-MS/MS). Examples on the application of the proposed approach are shown, including the detection of several pesticide glycosides derivatives, which were found with significantly relevant intensities. Glucose-conjugated forms of parent compounds (e.g., fenhexamid-O-glucoside) and those of metabolites (e.g., despropyl-iprodione-N-glycoside) were detected. Facing the lack of standards for glycosylated pesticides, the study was completed with the synthesis of fenhexamid-O-glucoside for quantification purposes. In some cases the pesticide derivatives were found in a relatively high ratio, drawing the attention to these kinds of metabolites and showing that they should not be neglected in multi-residue methods. The global coverage obtained on the 29 analyzed samples showed the usefulness and benefits of the proposed approach and highlights the practical

  18. Screening in the Dark: Ethical Considerations of Providing Screening Tests to Individuals When Evidence is Insufficient to Support Screening Populations

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Ingrid M.; Kass, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, screening tests using computed tomography (CT) have disseminated into practice and been marketed to patients despite neither conclusive evidence nor professional agreement about their efficacy and cost-effectiveness at the population level. This phenomenon raises questions about physicians’ professional roles and responsibilities within the setting of medical innovation, as well as the appropriate scope of patient autonomy and access to unproven screening technology. This article explores how physicians ought to respond when new screening examinations that lack conclusive evidence of overall population benefit emerge in the marketplace and are requested by individual patients. To this end, the article considers the nature of evidence and how it influences decision-making for screening at both the public policy and individual patient levels. We distinguish medical and ethical differences between screening recommended for a population and screening considered on an individual patient basis. Finally, we discuss specific cases to explore how evidence, patient risk factors and preferences, and physician judgment ought to balance when making individual patient screening decisions. PMID:19326299

  19. Appraisal of Artificial Screening Techniques of Tomato to Accurately Reflect Field Performance of the Late Blight Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska, Marzena; Nowicki, Marcin; Kłosińska, Urszula; Maciorowski, Robert; Kozik, Elżbieta U.

    2014-01-01

    Late blight (LB) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans continues to thwart global tomato production, while only few resistant cultivars have been introduced locally. In order to gain from the released tomato germplasm with LB resistance, we compared the 5-year field performance of LB resistance in several tomato cultigens, with the results of controlled conditions testing (i.e., detached leaflet/leaf, whole plant). In case of these artificial screening techniques, the effects of plant age and inoculum concentration were additionally considered. In the field trials, LA 1033, L 3707, L 3708 displayed the highest LB resistance, and could be used for cultivar development under Polish conditions. Of the three methods using controlled conditions, the detached leaf and the whole plant tests had the highest correlation with thefield experiments. The plant age effect on LB resistance in tomato reported here, irrespective of the cultigen tested or inoculum concentration used, makes it important to standardize the test parameters when screening for resistance. Our results help show why other reports disagree on LB resistance in tomato. PMID:25279467

  20. SCREENING TESTS FOR IMPROVED METHANE CRACKING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J; Jeffrey Holder, J

    2007-07-16

    Bench scale (1 to 6 gram) methane cracking tests have been performed on a variety of pure elements, some alloys, and SAES{reg_sign} commercial getters St 101, St 198, St 707, St 737, and St 909 to determine methane cracking performance (MCP) of 5% methane in a helium carrier at 700 C, 101.3 kPa (760 torr) with a 10 sccm feed. The MCP was almost absent from some materials tested while others showed varying degrees of MCP. Re, Cr, V, Gd, and Mo powders had good MCP, but limited capacities. Nickel supported on kieselguhr (Ni/k), a Zr-Ni alloy, and the SAES{reg_sign} getters had good MCP in a helium carrier. The MCP of these same materials was suppressed in a hydrogen carrier stream and the MCP of the Zr-based materials was reduced by nitride formation when tested with a nitrogen carrier gas.

  1. Aptitude and Reading Tests for Consideration in Designing a Screening and Diagnostic Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Dorothy A.

    Aptitude and reading tests to be administered to technical college students are discussed in considering the design of a screening and diagnostic test battery. Diagnosis is condidered as a series of sequential steps: screening; testing; individualized program planning; program implementation; and investigation of the causes of reading difficulty.…

  2. "Do-It-Yourself" Dementia Testing: Issues regarding an Alzheimer's Home Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kier, Frederick J.; Molinari, Victor

    2003-01-01

    The Early Alert Alzheimer's Home Screening Test (AHST) is a variant of the Smell Identification Test (SIT) and the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT), and recently became available for purchase by the general public. The validity and the practical utility of routine screening for individuals with asymptomatic cognitive impairment…

  3. The use of screening tests in spacecraft lubricant evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalogeras, Chris; Hilton, Mike; Carre, David; Didziulis, Stephen; Fleischauer, Paul

    1993-01-01

    A lubricant screening test fixture has been devised in order to satisfy the need to obtain lubricant performance data in a timely manner. This fixture has been used to perform short-term tests on potential lubricants for several spacecraft applications. The results of these tests have saved time by producing qualitative performance rankings of lubricant selections prior to life testing. To date, this test fixture has been used to test lubricants for 3 particular applications. The qualitative results from these tests have been verified by life test results and have provided insight into the function of various anti-wear additives.

  4. [Comparison of eight screening tests for ant-HCV antibody].

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yamashita, Naoko; Nakano, Takasi; Tahara, Kazuko; Asari, Seishi; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2002-09-01

    We compared eight HCV screening tests for detection of anti-HCV antibody; Ortho Quick Chaser HCV Ab (QC), Ortho HCV Ab ELISA III (ELISA), Ortho HVC Ab PA test III (PA), Lumipulse II Ortho HCV (LUMI), IMx HCV.DAINAPACKII (IMx), ARCHITECT HCV (ARCH), Immucheck.F-HCV C50 Ab (Immu), RANREAM HCV Ab Ex II (RAN). Sera from six hundred patients were examined by these eight screening tests. The positive rates of the eight screening tests were from 9.0% to 13.2%. Forty-five sera showed discrepant results between the eight screening tests, and about half of them showed weak positive reaction and/or false positive. Twenty-five of the forty-five sera were negative for ant-HCV antibody in the CHIRON RIBA III confirmatory test, and forty-four of them were negative for HCV-RNA in the PCR method. The agreement rates between the two reagents were from 95.5% to 99.2%, but were not always high between the two reagents that used similar antigen. The specificities and sensitivities evaluated by using the RIBA III confirmatory test were excellent in ELISA, LUMI, IMx, ARCH and Immu. Three BBI seroconversion panels were used to compare the positive readings in the initial stage of HCV infection by eight screening tests. ELISA and ARCH showed the earliest positive readings, and then IMx, LUMI = RAN, PA, QC and Immu in this order. These findings indicate that ELISA and ARCH were the most excellent in the sensitivity, specificity and early diagnosis of HCV infection. However, we must pay attention to the weak positive reaction in the screening tests, because there is a possibility of "false positive".

  5. Improvement of a rapid screening test for chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Iacobini, M; Duse, M; Di Coste, A; Balducci, L

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of CGD is made by demonstrating absent or markedly reduced oxidase activity in stimulated neutrophils. The screening test proposed is based upon the naked eye evaluation of the reduction of NBT on a solid surface. It seems to be a useful tool for rapid and inexpensive detection of CGD patients, especially for large-scale screening purposes. The test was carried out on forty-five subjects: two males affected by CGD, three female carriers and forty healthy donors. The test confirmed the results obtained with flow cytometric and NBT assays. PMID:24067482

  6. In-situ corrosion sensor for coating, testing and screening

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.D.; Dacres, C.M.; Krebs, L.A.

    2000-02-01

    An in-situ corrosion censor facilitates coating development and screening by detecting the early stages of corrosion well before degradation is visible. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the sensor extends the use of this established laboratory technique from immersion only to different accelerated test conditions (such as salt fog or humidity) and ambient service environments. By enabling a direct quantitative comparison of the early stages of coating deterioration and substrate corrosion that occur in laboratory accelerated tests and service or field conditions, the laboratory tests can be validated and coatings screened more quickly.

  7. Mailed fecal-immunochemical test for colon cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Daly, Jeanette M; Levy, Barcey T; Merchant, Mary L; Wilbur, Jason

    2010-06-01

    Various interventions have been implemented to increase the rate of colon cancer screening. The purpose of this study was to determine if persons who are regular patients of a clinic, ages 50-64 years, and not up-to-date with colon cancer screening will complete the at-home fecal-immunochemical test (FIT) if it is mailed to them. This intervention was designed to have the subject avoid the signing of an informed consent and having to ask for the screening test; and, only one stool specimen was needed. Three hundred and fifty potential subjects were randomly selected from an electronic medical record database after meeting inclusion criteria. Eighty-seven fecal immunochemical tests were returned. Seven of the FIT kit results were positive for occult blood. Each respondent was sent a letter giving them their results. A minimal cue CRC screening intervention, a FIT kit sent in the mail without prerequisite of a signed informed consent, was offered to the study subjects. Twenty-six percent of the eligible persons were screened for colon cancer by this method. A mailed FIT kit or one handed to the patient at an office visit has minimal cost which can be recovered through insurance coverage. Commitment by health care providers is necessary for prevention. This method is one of several that could reach the hard to screen population.

  8. An Adolescent Version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Mark; Thurber, Steven; Hodgson, Joele M.

    2002-01-01

    Item content of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) was modified to make it more appropriate for young persons. The resulting test was found to have lower internal consistency than the adult MAST, but the elimination of five items with comparatively poor psychometric properties yielded an acceptable alpha coefficient. (Contains 10…

  9. Screening for Language Disorders in Stroke: German Validation of the Language Screening Test (LAST)

    PubMed Central

    Koenig-Bruhin, M.; Vanbellingen, T.; Schumacher, R.; Pflugshaupt, T.; Annoni, J.M.; Müri, R.M.; Bohlhalter, S.; Nyffeler, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening of aphasia in acute stroke is crucial for directing patients to early language therapy. The Language Screening Test (LAST), originally developed in French, is a validated language screening test that allows detection of a language deficit within a few minutes. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate two parallel German versions of the LAST. Methods The LAST includes subtests for naming, repetition, automatic speech, and comprehension. For the translation into German, task constructs and psycholinguistic criteria for item selection were identical to the French LAST. A cohort of 101 stroke patients were tested, all of whom were native German speakers. Validation of the LAST was based on (1) analysis of equivalence of the German versions, which was established by administering both versions successively in a subset of patients, (2) internal validity by means of internal consistency analysis, and (3) external validity by comparison with the short version of the Token Test in another subset of patients. Results The two German versions were equivalent as demonstrated by a high intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.91. Furthermore, an acceptable internal structure of the LAST was found (Cronbach's α = 0.74). A highly significant correlation (r = 0.74, p < 0.0001) between the LAST and the short version of the Token Test indicated good external validity of the scale. Conclusion The German version of the LAST, available in two parallel versions, is a new and valid language screening test in stroke. PMID:27194999

  10. Screening tests during prenatal care: does practice follow the evidence?

    PubMed

    Siddique, Juned; Lantos, John D; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2012-01-01

    To examine whether the frequency of four screening tests during prenatal care conforms to evidence of effectiveness. We estimated rates of urine culture, anemia screening, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and urinalysis during prenatal care. To do this, we used national probability samples of office visits to physicians (National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) and to hospital outpatient departments (National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) from 2001 to 2006. We compare observed rates to recommendations from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). On average, women received a urine culture in less than half of pregnancies. Women received just over one anemia screening on average per pregnancy. From 2001-2003, women received an average of 5.6 urinalyses per pregnancy; the average dropped to 4.3 urinalyses per pregnancy in 2004-2006. On average, women received just under one OGTT per pregnancy. Minorities and older women tend to get more anemia screenings, urine cultures, and OGTTs than white women and younger women. Compared to USPSTF recommendations, too few women are receiving a urine culture during prenatal care. In contrast, women receive far too many urinalyses, but the rate appears to be falling. Anemia screening conforms closely to recommendations. The USPSTF does not recommend for or against universal diabetes screening using OGTT. Women appear to receive OGTT routinely.

  11. Accurate screening for synthetic preservatives in beverage using high performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu Qin; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Yan Yan; Yong, Wei; Chu, Xiao Gang; Fang, Yan Yan; Zweigenbaum, Jerry

    2008-02-11

    In this study, liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/TOF-MS) is applied to qualitation and quantitation of 18 synthetic preservatives in beverage. The identification by HPLC/TOF-MS is accomplished with the accurate mass (the subsequent generated empirical formula) of the protonated molecules [M+H]+ or the deprotonated molecules [M-H]-, along with the accurate mass of their main fragment ions. In order to obtain sufficient sensitivity for quantitation purposes (using the protonated or deprotonated molecule) and additional qualitative mass spectrum information provided by the fragments ions, segment program of fragmentor voltages is designed in positive and negative ion mode, respectively. Accurate mass measurements are highly useful in the complex sample analyses since they allow us to achieve a high degree of specificity, often needed when other interferents are present in the matrix. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 3 ppm. The 18 compounds behave linearly in the 0.005-5.0mg.kg(-1) concentration range, with correlation coefficient >0.996. The recoveries at the tested concentrations of 1.0mg.kg(-1)-100mg.kg(-1) are 81-106%, with coefficients of variation <7.5%. Limits of detection (LODs) range from 0.0005 to 0.05 mg.kg(-1), which are far below the required maximum residue level (MRL) for these preservatives in foodstuff. The method is suitable for routine quantitative and qualitative analyses of synthetic preservatives in foodstuff.

  12. Structural and functional screening in human induced-pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes accurately identifies cardiotoxicity of multiple drug types.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Kimberly R; Talbert, Dominique R; Trusk, Patricia B; Moran, Diarmuid M; Shell, Scott A; Bacus, Sarah

    2015-05-15

    Safety pharmacology studies that evaluate new drug entities for potential cardiac liability remain a critical component of drug development. Current studies have shown that in vitro tests utilizing human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CM) may be beneficial for preclinical risk evaluation. We recently demonstrated that an in vitro multi-parameter test panel assessing overall cardiac health and function could accurately reflect the associated clinical cardiotoxicity of 4 FDA-approved targeted oncology agents using hiPS-CM. The present studies expand upon this initial observation to assess whether this in vitro screen could detect cardiotoxicity across multiple drug classes with known clinical cardiac risks. Thus, 24 drugs were examined for their effect on both structural (viability, reactive oxygen species generation, lipid formation, troponin secretion) and functional (beating activity) endpoints in hiPS-CM. Using this screen, the cardiac-safe drugs showed no effects on any of the tests in our panel. However, 16 of 18 compounds with known clinical cardiac risk showed drug-induced changes in hiPS-CM by at least one method. Moreover, when taking into account the Cmax values, these 16 compounds could be further classified depending on whether the effects were structural, functional, or both. Overall, the most sensitive test assessed cardiac beating using the xCELLigence platform (88.9%) while the structural endpoints provided additional insight into the mechanism of cardiotoxicity for several drugs. These studies show that a multi-parameter approach examining both cardiac cell health and function in hiPS-CM provides a comprehensive and robust assessment that can aid in the determination of potential cardiac liability.

  13. A New Test Rig for Accurate Nonparametric Measurement and Characterization of Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montecucco, Andrea; Buckle, James; Siviter, Jonathan; Knox, Andrew R.

    2013-07-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are increasingly employed in large-scale applications, therefore accurate performance data are necessary to permit precise designs and simulations. However, there is still no standardized method to test the electrical and thermal performance of TEGs. This paper presents an innovative test system to assess device performance in the "real world." The fixture allows the hot temperature to be increased up to 800°C with minimal thermal losses and thermal shock; the clamping load can be adjusted up to 5 kN, and the temperatures are sensed by thermocouples placed directly on the TEG's surfaces. A computer program controls all the instruments in order to minimize errors and to aid accurate measurement and test repeatability. The test rig can measure four TEGs simultaneously, each one individually controlled and heated by a maximum electrical power of 2 kW. This allows testing of the effects of series and parallel connection of TEGs under mismatched conditions, e.g., dimensions, clamping force, temperature, etc. The test rig can be employed both as a performance evaluator and as a quality control unit, due to the ability to provide nonparametric testing of four TEGs concurrently. It can also be used to rapidly characterize devices of different dimensions at the same time.

  14. A fluorescent multiplex-DGGE screening test for mutations in the BRCA1 gene.

    PubMed

    Kuperstein, Graciela; Jack, Elaine; Narod, Steven A

    2006-01-01

    Screening for mutations in the BRCA1 gene is challenging because of the wide spectrum of mutations found in this large gene. As the extensive exon 11 is commonly screened by the protein truncation test (PTT), here a fluorescent multiplex denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (FMD) mutation screening technique was developed to test the remaining numerous small exons and splice sites of the gene. The method is based upon the use of an efficient multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the target regions, followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) separation of the amplicon mixture, and the immediate achievement of results by wet gel scanning. The technique was applied to screen 16 samples with different BRCA1 sequence variants distributed over 12 exons. All variants were detected. In addition, 188 DNA samples from ovarian cancer patients were screened, identifying 22 new sequence variants (11.7% of the samples) and 243 common polymorphisms in the BRCA1 locus. Variants included 16 single nucleotide substitutions, 3 deletions of 2 nucleotides, 1 deletion of 4 nucleotides, and 2 insertions of 1 nucleotide. The FMD test provides an accurate, fast, nonradioactive and cost-efficient way to scan the BRCA1 gene with high sensitivity and an ease of result interpretation. This technique may prove to be a useful research tool for the detection of mutations and polymorphisms in the BRCA1 gene and for large-scale epidemiologic studies. PMID:16544996

  15. Screening for Drug Abuse Among College Students: Modification of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.

    1978-01-01

    Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)

  16. Multifrequency excitation method for rapid and accurate dynamic test of micromachined gyroscope chips.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yan; Zhou, Bin; Xing, Chao; Zhang, Rong

    2014-10-17

    A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE) method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE) method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and 600-Hz bandwidth was dramatically reduced from 10 min to 6 s. A multifrequency signal with an equal amplitude and initial linear-phase-difference distribution was generated to ensure test repeatability and accuracy. The current test system based on LabVIEW using the SFE method was modified to use the MFE method without any hardware changes. The experimental results verified that the MFE method can be an ideal solution for large-scale dynamic testing of gyroscope chips and gyroscopes.

  17. Multifrequency Excitation Method for Rapid and Accurate Dynamic Test of Micromachined Gyroscope Chips

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yan; Zhou, Bin; Xing, Chao; Zhang, Rong

    2014-01-01

    A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE) method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE) method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and 600-Hz bandwidth was dramatically reduced from 10 min to 6 s. A multifrequency signal with an equal amplitude and initial linear-phase-difference distribution was generated to ensure test repeatability and accuracy. The current test system based on LabVIEW using the SFE method was modified to use the MFE method without any hardware changes. The experimental results verified that the MFE method can be an ideal solution for large-scale dynamic testing of gyroscope chips and gyroscopes. PMID:25330052

  18. Smartphone-based audiometric test for screening hearing loss in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Handzel, Ophir; Ness, Lior; Ben-Artzi-Blima, Miri; Fait-Ghelbendorf, Karin; Himmelfarb, Mordechai

    2016-02-01

    Hearing loss is widespread among the elderly. One of the main obstacles to rehabilitation is identifying individuals with potentially correctable hearing loss. Smartphone-based hearing tests can be administered at home, thus greatly facilitating access to screening. This study evaluates the use of a smartphone application as a screening tool for hearing loss in individuals aged ≥ 65 years. Twenty-six subjects aged 84.4 ± 6.73 years (mean ± SD) were recruited. Pure-tone audiometry was administered by both a smartphone application (uHear for iPhone, v1.0 Unitron, Canada) and a standard portable audiometer by trained personnel. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their hearing. Pure-tone thresholds were compared between the two testing modalities and correlated with the questionnaire results. The cutoff point for failing screening tests was a pure tone average of 40 dB for the frequencies 250-6,000 Hz. The smartphone application's pure tone thresholds were higher (poorer hearing) than the audiometric thresholds, with a significant difference in all frequencies but 2,000 Hz. The application and the audiometric values were in agreement for 24 subjects (92 %). The application had a sensitivity of 100 % and specificity of 60 % for screening compared with the audiometer. The questionnaire was significantly less accurate, having assigned a passing score to three participants who failed both the application and audiometric tests. While a smartphone application may not be able to accurately determine the level of hearing impairment, it is useful as a highly accessible portable audiometer substitute for screening for hearing loss in elderly populations. PMID:25655259

  19. Smartphone-based audiometric test for screening hearing loss in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Handzel, Ophir; Ness, Lior; Ben-Artzi-Blima, Miri; Fait-Ghelbendorf, Karin; Himmelfarb, Mordechai

    2016-02-01

    Hearing loss is widespread among the elderly. One of the main obstacles to rehabilitation is identifying individuals with potentially correctable hearing loss. Smartphone-based hearing tests can be administered at home, thus greatly facilitating access to screening. This study evaluates the use of a smartphone application as a screening tool for hearing loss in individuals aged ≥ 65 years. Twenty-six subjects aged 84.4 ± 6.73 years (mean ± SD) were recruited. Pure-tone audiometry was administered by both a smartphone application (uHear for iPhone, v1.0 Unitron, Canada) and a standard portable audiometer by trained personnel. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their hearing. Pure-tone thresholds were compared between the two testing modalities and correlated with the questionnaire results. The cutoff point for failing screening tests was a pure tone average of 40 dB for the frequencies 250-6,000 Hz. The smartphone application's pure tone thresholds were higher (poorer hearing) than the audiometric thresholds, with a significant difference in all frequencies but 2,000 Hz. The application and the audiometric values were in agreement for 24 subjects (92 %). The application had a sensitivity of 100 % and specificity of 60 % for screening compared with the audiometer. The questionnaire was significantly less accurate, having assigned a passing score to three participants who failed both the application and audiometric tests. While a smartphone application may not be able to accurately determine the level of hearing impairment, it is useful as a highly accessible portable audiometer substitute for screening for hearing loss in elderly populations.

  20. The impact of financing of screening tests on utilization and outcomes: The case of amniocentesis.

    PubMed

    Shurtz, Ity; Brzezinski, Amnon; Frumkin, Ayala

    2016-07-01

    We use a 1993 policy change in Israel's public healthcare system that lowered the eligibility age for amniocentesis to 35 to study the effects of financing of screening tests. Financing is found to have increased amniocentesis testing by about 35%. At ages above the eligibility threshold, utilization rates rose to roughly 33%, reflection nearly full takeup among prospective users of amniocentesis. Additionally, whereas below the age-35 threshold amniocentesis utilization rates increase with maternal age, this relation is muted above this age. Finally, no evidence is found that financing affects outcomes such as pregnancy terminations and births of children with Down syndrome. These results support the view that women above the eligibility threshold tend to refrain from acquiring inexpensive information about their degree of risk that absent the financing they would acquire, and instead, undergo the accurate and costly test regardless of additional information that noninvasive screening would provide.

  1. The impact of financing of screening tests on utilization and outcomes: The case of amniocentesis.

    PubMed

    Shurtz, Ity; Brzezinski, Amnon; Frumkin, Ayala

    2016-07-01

    We use a 1993 policy change in Israel's public healthcare system that lowered the eligibility age for amniocentesis to 35 to study the effects of financing of screening tests. Financing is found to have increased amniocentesis testing by about 35%. At ages above the eligibility threshold, utilization rates rose to roughly 33%, reflection nearly full takeup among prospective users of amniocentesis. Additionally, whereas below the age-35 threshold amniocentesis utilization rates increase with maternal age, this relation is muted above this age. Finally, no evidence is found that financing affects outcomes such as pregnancy terminations and births of children with Down syndrome. These results support the view that women above the eligibility threshold tend to refrain from acquiring inexpensive information about their degree of risk that absent the financing they would acquire, and instead, undergo the accurate and costly test regardless of additional information that noninvasive screening would provide. PMID:27062339

  2. Tuberculosis Screening and Targeted Testing of College and University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Screening and targeted testing for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling and preventing infection on college and university campuses. Early detection provides an opportunity to promote the health of affected individuals through prompt diagnosis and treatment while preventing potential spread to others. Implementation of a screening…

  3. Evaluating the Initial Version of a New Cognitive Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Marcia S.; Deuel, Lois-Lynn Stoyko; Urbano, Richard C.; Fletcher, Kathryn L.; Torres, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    The performance on a cognitive screening test of 37 children (ages 4-6) with mild mental retardation or learning disabilities was compared to their peers. The tasks constituting the initial version of the battery were evaluated in terms of their classification accuracy and yielded a set of five different cognitive tasks. (CR)

  4. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST): A Statistical Validation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Newman, Isadore; Brown, Russ

    2004-01-01

    This study extends the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST; M. L. Selzer, 1971) literature base by examining 4 issues related to the validity of the MAST scores. Specifically, the authors examine the validity of the MAST scores in light of the presence of impression management, participant demographic variables, and item endorsement…

  5. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  6. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  7. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  8. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  9. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  10. Psychometric Characteristics of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Robert

    The Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRST) is widely used to identify "developmentally immature" children for placement in extra-year, transition programs in spite of a problematic absence of psychometric evidence and research support. In this study of psychometric characteristics of the GSRST, teacher ratings of classroom performance and…

  11. Tiered screening and testing strategy for xenoestrogens and antiandrogens.

    PubMed

    Gray, L E

    1998-12-28

    Anthropogenic chemicals that disrupt endocrine function during critical stages of development can produce profound reproductive alterations in both wildlife and humans. Of the tens of thousands of chemicals in existence, few have been tested for their ability to disrupt the endocrine system. Newly enacted legislation requires that the USEPA develop a chemical screening and testing program for endocrine effects. At present, the Endocrine Disrupters Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC) is considering a screening battery (Tier 1) to detect (anti)estrogenic (E) (anti)androgenic (A) and antithyroid activities using in vivo and in vitro assays. In addition, the battery should detect alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary function, steroid/thyroid hormone synthesis as well as receptor-mediated effects in mammals and other taxa. Chemicals positive in Tier 1 should be labeled as potential endocrine disrupters and subjected to testing (Tier 2). The present discussion will provide examples of in vitro (receptor binding, gene expression and steroidogenesis) and in vivo assays for screening. Short-term in vivo assays which have been used to detect estrogenicity for over 70 years are still useful in this regard. Identification of (anti)androgenic activity is easily accomplished by examination of growth of androgen-dependent tissues in young castrated male rats, determination of the age at puberty (balanopreputial separation) or by examination of reproductive malformations after in utero exposure (hypospadias, testicular non-descent, retained nipples, a vaginal pouch, prostate agenesis, and reduced anogenital distance). Pubertal assays with intact animals will not only detect chemicals that alter E-A function via their nuclear receptors, but also will detect altered hormone synthesis and alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. While in utero assays are critical for testing, presently they are not included in screening because they can be relatively

  12. Digital test signal generation: An accurate SNR calibration approach for the DSN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez-Luaces, B. O.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of generating analog test signals with accurate signal to noise ratios (SNRs) is described. High accuracy will be obtained by simultaneous generation of digital noise and signal spectra at a given baseband or bandpass limited bandwidth. The digital synthesis will provide a test signal embedded in noise with the statistical properties of a stationary random process. Accuracy will only be dependent on test integration time with a limit imposed by the system quantization noise (expected to be 0.02 dB). Setability will be approximately 0.1 dB. The first digital SNR generator to provide baseband test signals is being built and will be available in early 1991.

  13. Evaluation of Fecal Immunochemical Tests for CRC Screening

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Jeanette M.; Bay, Camden P.; Levy, Barcey T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces the mortality due to CRC. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the variation in the products available for CRC screening. Purpose The purpose of this study was to summarize the accuracy of results of individual FIT products across pathology proficiency testing programs. Methods Secondary data analysis of proficiency testing programs’ FIT results. Results Four of seven proficiency testing program’s FIT evaluations were obtained for a two-year period. Fourteen unique FIT brands were evaluated by at least one of the four proficiency testing programs. Five of the products performed similarly with sensitivities ranging from 98.1% to 98.8% and specificities from 98.1% to 99.6%. Ninety-three percent of the FIT tests completed were manual CLIA-waived FITs. Conclusions About two-thirds of the commonly used FIT products performed acceptably on spiked samples of human hemoglobin. However, some had low sensitivity and specificity and probably should not be used for population-based or other screening. Further investigation to determine appropriate, reliable products for fecal occult blood testing is warranted. PMID:23799674

  14. MUSCULOSKELETAL SCREENING AND FUNCTIONAL TESTING: CONSIDERATIONS FOR BASKETBALL ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Markwick, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Youth participation in basketball is on the rise, with basketball one of the top five participation sports in Australia. With increased participation there is a need for greater awareness of the importance of the pre-participation examination, including musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing as part of a multidisciplinary approach to reducing the risk for future injuries. As majority of all basketball injuries affect the lower extremities, pre-participation musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing should assess fundamental movement qualities throughout the kinetic chain with an emphasis on lower extremity force characteristics, specifically eccentric loading tasks. Thus, the purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the existing literature elucidating pre-participation musculoskeletal screening and functional performance tests that can be used as a framework for rehabilitation professionals in assessing basketball athletes’ readiness to safely perform the movement demands of their sport. Methods Relevant articles published between 2000 and 2016 using the search terms ‘musculoskeletal screening’, ‘functional testing’, ‘youth athletes’, and ‘basketball’ were identified using MEDLINE. From a basketball-specific perspective, several relevant musculoskeletal assessments were identified, including: the Functional Hop Test Combination, the Landing Error Scoring System, the Tuck Jump Assessment, the Weight-Bearing Lunge Test, and the Star Excursion Balance Test. Each of these assessments creates movement demands that allow for easy identification of inefficient and/or compensatory movement tendencies. A basic understanding of musculoskeletal deficits including bilateral strength and flexibility imbalances, lower crossed syndrome, and dominance-related factors are key components in determination of injury risk. Discussion Assessment of sport-specific movement demands through

  15. Accurate Cold-Test Model of Helical TWT Slow-Wave Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Dayton, James A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, a method has been established to accurately calculate cold-test data for helical slow-wave structures using the three-dimensional electromagnetic computer code, MAFIA. Cold-test parameters have been calculated for several helical traveling-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits possessing various support rod configurations, and results are presented here showing excellent agreement with experiment. The helical models include tape thickness, dielectric support shapes and material properties consistent with the actual circuits. The cold-test data from this helical model can be used as input into large-signal helical TWT interaction codes making it possible, for the first time, to design a complete TWT via computer simulation.

  16. Accurate Cold-Test Model of Helical TWT Slow-Wave Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Dayton, J. A., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, a method has been established to accurately calculate cold-test data for helical slow-wave structures using the three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic computer code, MAFIA. Cold-test parameters have been calculated for several helical traveling-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits possessing various support rod configurations, and results are presented here showing excellent agreement with experiment. The helical models include tape thickness, dielectric support shapes and material properties consistent with the actual circuits. The cold-test data from this helical model can be used as input into large-signal helical TWT interaction codes making it possible, for the first time, to design a complete TWT via computer simulation.

  17. Accurate Cold-Test Model of Helical TWT Slow-Wave Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Dayton, James A., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, a method has been established to accurately calculate cold-test data for helical slow-wave structures using the three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic computer code, MAxwell's equations by the Finite Integration Algorithm (MAFIA). Cold-test parameters have been calculated for several helical traveLing-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits possessing various support rod configurations, and results are presented here showing excellent agreement with experiment. The helical models include tape thickness, dielectric support shapes and material properties consistent with the actual circuits. The cold-test data from this helical model can be used as input into large-signal helical TWT interaction codes making It possible, for the first time, to design complete TWT via computer simulation.

  18. Brief screening tests for the diagnosis of dementia: comparison with the mini-mental state exam.

    PubMed

    Kilada, Sandy; Gamaldo, Alyssa; Grant, Elizabeth A; Moghekar, Abhay; Morris, John C; O'Brien, Richard J

    2005-01-01

    Dementia is a common and under-diagnosed problem among the elderly. An accurate screening test would greatly aid the ability of physicians to evaluate dementia and memory problems in clinical practice. We sought to determine whether simple and brief psychometric tests perform similarly to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in screening for dementia. Using a retrospective analysis, a series of standard, brief, psychometric tests were compared with each other and to the MMSE as screening tests for very mild dementia, using DSM-III-R criterion as the gold standard. Two independent cohorts from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging and the Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center were evaluated. We found that two brief and simple-to-administer tests appear to offer similar degrees of sensitivity and specificity to the MMSE. These are the recall of a five-item name and address, "John Brown 42 Market Street Chicago" and the one-minute verbal fluency for animals. Combining these two tests further improves sensitivity and specificity, surpassing the MMSE, to detect dementia in individuals with memory complaints. PMID:15764865

  19. A powerful test of independent assortment that determines genome-wide significance quickly and accurately

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, W C L; Hager, V R

    2016-01-01

    In the analysis of DNA sequences on related individuals, most methods strive to incorporate as much information as possible, with little or no attention paid to the issue of statistical significance. For example, a modern workstation can easily handle the computations needed to perform a large-scale genome-wide inheritance-by-descent (IBD) scan, but accurate assessment of the significance of that scan is often hindered by inaccurate approximations and computationally intensive simulation. To address these issues, we developed gLOD—a test of co-segregation that, for large samples, models chromosome-specific IBD statistics as a collection of stationary Gaussian processes. With this simple model, the parametric bootstrap yields an accurate and rapid assessment of significance—the genome-wide corrected P-value. Furthermore, we show that (i) under the null hypothesis, the limiting distribution of the gLOD is the standard Gumbel distribution; (ii) our parametric bootstrap simulator is approximately 40 000 times faster than gene-dropping methods, and it is more powerful than methods that approximate the adjusted P-value; and, (iii) the gLOD has the same statistical power as the widely used maximum Kong and Cox LOD. Thus, our approach gives researchers the ability to determine quickly and accurately the significance of most large-scale IBD scans, which may contain multiple traits, thousands of families and tens of thousands of DNA sequences. PMID:27245422

  20. A powerful test of independent assortment that determines genome-wide significance quickly and accurately.

    PubMed

    Stewart, W C L; Hager, V R

    2016-08-01

    In the analysis of DNA sequences on related individuals, most methods strive to incorporate as much information as possible, with little or no attention paid to the issue of statistical significance. For example, a modern workstation can easily handle the computations needed to perform a large-scale genome-wide inheritance-by-descent (IBD) scan, but accurate assessment of the significance of that scan is often hindered by inaccurate approximations and computationally intensive simulation. To address these issues, we developed gLOD-a test of co-segregation that, for large samples, models chromosome-specific IBD statistics as a collection of stationary Gaussian processes. With this simple model, the parametric bootstrap yields an accurate and rapid assessment of significance-the genome-wide corrected P-value. Furthermore, we show that (i) under the null hypothesis, the limiting distribution of the gLOD is the standard Gumbel distribution; (ii) our parametric bootstrap simulator is approximately 40 000 times faster than gene-dropping methods, and it is more powerful than methods that approximate the adjusted P-value; and, (iii) the gLOD has the same statistical power as the widely used maximum Kong and Cox LOD. Thus, our approach gives researchers the ability to determine quickly and accurately the significance of most large-scale IBD scans, which may contain multiple traits, thousands of families and tens of thousands of DNA sequences.

  1. Adequacy of the ELISA test for screening corneal transplant donors.

    PubMed

    Goode, S M; Hertzmark, E; Steinert, R F

    1988-10-15

    Using a simple mathematical model, we calculated the risk for a patient undergoing penetrating keratoplasty to receive a cornea from a human immunodeficiency virus-infected donor despite negative results on serologic testing of donor serum. This error in serologic testing occurred when false-negative results were obtained from the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used to screen donor corneas for human immunodeficiency virus exposure. The average risk of transplanting an infected cornea was low, 0.03%, but increased by a factor of ten when donor tissue from donors at high risk for AIDS was used. Current screening procedures are probably adequate to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, but increased vigilance for high-risk donor populations may be appropriate.

  2. HPV testing as a screen for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Annekathryn

    2015-06-30

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as a necessary factor in the development of pre-invasive and invasive cancers of the lower genital tract, of which cervical cancer is the most prevalent. A molecular understanding of malignant transformation and epidemiologic information has led to the development of many strategies for detection and early intervention. Newer tests for oncogenic subtypes of HPV have made it possible to predict the risk of future development of cervical cancer. This review summarizes the current understanding of HPV related disease and examines the role of HPV testing as a screening tool for cervical cancer. It summarizes the data from prospective and randomized controlled trials on HPV screening from Europe and North America and includes smaller studies from low and middle income countries where cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women.

  3. Validation of a brief form of the Competency Screening Test.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, R A

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the predictive validity of a brief, five item version of the Competency Screening Test (CST). Subjects were 140 defendants admitted to the forensic unit of a state hospital for evaluation of competency to stand trial. Scores on the brief version of the CST were used to predict competency decisions made by a multidisciplinary treatment team. In addition, the predictive validity of the brief version was compared with that of the standard CST. Both versions of the test exhibited significant relationships with staff decisions. However, the reliability of the brief version was lower than that of the standard CST because of the smaller number of items involved. Although the brief CST should not provide the sole basis for a decision about competency, it may be a useful component of a comprehensive program of competency evaluation, particularly when a rapid, preliminary screening instrument is needed.

  4. Police corruption and psychological testing: a strategy for preemployment screening.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Bruce A; Claussen, Natalie

    2003-06-01

    The prediction, control, and prevention of police corruption represent pervasive and enduring problems. Researchers have suggested that intervention at the preemployment screening stage may be the best solution. However, investigators have acknowledged that existing assessment practices are flawed. This article proposes a strategy for the preemployment screening of law enforcement personnel. In particular, it examines the utility of the Inwald Personality Inventory and the Revised-NEO Personality Inventory in relation to assessing antisocial behavioral tendencies and conscientious personality traits, respectively, and argues that their combined use, appropriately administered in a testing situation, represents a reliable and valid predictor of good job performance. The article speculatively comments on this strategy for purposes of psychological testing, future research in the field, and law enforcement administration practices.

  5. Thermal Protection System Aerothermal Screening Tests in HYMETS Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, Christine E.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Alumni, Antonella I.; Chavez-Garcia, Jose F.; Splinter, Scott C.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Brewer, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project has been tasked to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. A screening arc jet test of seven rigid ablative TPS material candidates was performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center, in both an air and carbon dioxide test environment. Recession, mass loss, surface temperature, and backface thermal response were measured for each test specimen. All material candidates survived the Mars aerocapture relevant heating condition, and some materials showed a clear increase in recession rate in the carbon dioxide test environment. These test results supported subsequent down-selection of the most promising material candidates for further development.

  6. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin all alcohol screening tests, regardless of the type of testing device you are using: (a) When a specific...

  7. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin all alcohol screening tests, regardless of the type of testing device you are using: (a) When a specific...

  8. Dynamic visual acuity testing for screening patients with vestibular impairments.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brian T; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Cohen, Helen S; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) may be a useful indicator of the function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) but most DVA tests involve active head motion in the yaw plane. During gait the passive, vertical VOR may be more relevant and passive testing would be less likely to elicit compensatory strategies. The goal of this study was to determine if testing dynamic visual acuity during passive vertical motion of the subject would differentiate normal subjects from patients with known vestibular disorders. Subjects, normals and patients who had been diagnosed with either unilateral vestibular weaknesses or were post-acoustic neuroma resections, sat in a chair that could oscillate vertically with the head either free or constrained with a cervical orthosis. They viewed a computer screen 2 m away that showed Landholt C optotypes in one of 8 spatial configurations and which ranged in size from 0.4 to 1.0 logMAR. They were tested while the chair was stationary and while it was moving. Scores were worse for both groups during the dynamic condition compared to the static condition. In the dynamic condition patients' scores were significantly worse than normals' scores. Younger and older age groups differed slightly but significantly; the sample size was too small to examine age differences by decade. The data suggest that many well-compensated patients have dynamic visual acuity that is as good as age-matched normals. Results of ROC analyses were only moderate, indicating that the differences between patients and normals were not strong enough, under the conditions tested, for this test to be useful for screening people to determine if they have vestibular disorders. Modifications of the test paradigm may make it more useful for screening potential patients.

  9. Dynamic visual acuity testing for screening patients with vestibular impairments.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brian T; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Cohen, Helen S; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) may be a useful indicator of the function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) but most DVA tests involve active head motion in the yaw plane. During gait the passive, vertical VOR may be more relevant and passive testing would be less likely to elicit compensatory strategies. The goal of this study was to determine if testing dynamic visual acuity during passive vertical motion of the subject would differentiate normal subjects from patients with known vestibular disorders. Subjects, normals and patients who had been diagnosed with either unilateral vestibular weaknesses or were post-acoustic neuroma resections, sat in a chair that could oscillate vertically with the head either free or constrained with a cervical orthosis. They viewed a computer screen 2 m away that showed Landholt C optotypes in one of 8 spatial configurations and which ranged in size from 0.4 to 1.0 logMAR. They were tested while the chair was stationary and while it was moving. Scores were worse for both groups during the dynamic condition compared to the static condition. In the dynamic condition patients' scores were significantly worse than normals' scores. Younger and older age groups differed slightly but significantly; the sample size was too small to examine age differences by decade. The data suggest that many well-compensated patients have dynamic visual acuity that is as good as age-matched normals. Results of ROC analyses were only moderate, indicating that the differences between patients and normals were not strong enough, under the conditions tested, for this test to be useful for screening people to determine if they have vestibular disorders. Modifications of the test paradigm may make it more useful for screening potential patients. PMID:23000614

  10. What's in a Name? The Impact of Accurate Staphylococcus pseudintermedius Identification on Appropriate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria in the Staphylococcus intermedius group, including Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, often encode mecA-mediated methicillin resistance. Reliable detection of this phenotype for proper treatment and infection control decisions requires that these coagulase-positive staphylococci are accurately identified and specifically that they are not misidentified as S. aureus. As correct species level bacterial identification becomes more commonplace in clinical laboratories, one can expect to see changes in guidance for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation. The study by Wu et al. in this issue (M. T. Wu, C.-A. D. Burnham, L. F. Westblade, J. Dien Bard, S. D. Lawhon, M. A. Wallace, T. Stanley, E. Burd, J. Hindler, R. M. Humphries, J Clin Microbiol 54:535–542, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02864-15) highlights the impact of robust identification of S. intermedius group organisms on the selection of appropriate antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and interpretation. PMID:26763965

  11. What's in a Name? The Impact of Accurate Staphylococcus pseudintermedius Identification on Appropriate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing.

    PubMed

    Limbago, Brandi M

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria in the Staphylococcus intermedius group, including Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, often encode mecA-mediated methicillin resistance. Reliable detection of this phenotype for proper treatment and infection control decisions requires that these coagulase-positive staphylococci are accurately identified and specifically that they are not misidentified as S. aureus. As correct species level bacterial identification becomes more commonplace in clinical laboratories, one can expect to see changes in guidance for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation. The study by Wu et al. in this issue (M. T. Wu, C.-A. D. Burnham, L. F. Westblade, J. Dien Bard, S. D. Lawhon, M. A. Wallace, T. Stanley, E. Burd, J. Hindler, R. M. Humphries, J Clin Microbiol 54:535-542, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02864-15) highlights the impact of robust identification of S. intermedius group organisms on the selection of appropriate antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and interpretation.

  12. Long maximal incremental tests accurately assess aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men.

    PubMed

    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Capodaglio, Paolo; Brunani, Amelia; Fanari, Paolo; Salvadori, Alberto; Malatesta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min) (STest) and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min) (LTest)] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2) without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2) completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1) and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO) reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and peak heart rate (HRpeak) of each test. There were no significant differences in [Formula: see text] (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1) and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm) between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between [Formula: see text] (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001) and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001) during both tests. [Formula: see text] and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity.

  13. Produced water toxicity tests accurately measure the produced water toxicity in marine environments?

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, W.S.; Veil, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region VI has issued a general permit for offshore oil and gas discharges to the Gulf of Mexico that places numerical limits on whole effluent toxicity (WEI) for produced water. Recently proposed EPA general permits for other produced water discharges in Regions VI and X also include enforceable numerical limits on WET. Clearly, the industry will be conducting extensive produced water WET testing. Unfortunately, the WET test may not accurately measure the toxicity of the chemical constituents of produced water. Rather the mortality of test organisms may be attributable to (1) the high salinity of produced water, which causes salinity shock to the organisms, or (2) an ionic imbalance caused by excesses or deficiencies of one or more of seawater`s essential ions in the test chambers. Both of these effects are likely to be mitigated in actual offshore discharge settings, where the receiving water will be seawater and substantial dilution will be probable. Thus, the additional salinity of produced water will be rapidly assimilated, and the proper marine ionic balance will be quickly restored. Regulatory authorities should be aware of these factors when interpreting WET test results.

  14. A Score Based on Screening Tests to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment from Subjective Memory Complaints

    PubMed Central

    de Gobbi Porto, Fábio Henrique; Spíndola, Lívia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Figuerêdo do Vale, Patrícia Helena; Orsini, Marco; Nitrini, Ricardo; Dozzi Brucki, Sonia Maria

    2013-01-01

    It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from subjective memory complainers (SMC). Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB). We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR), and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF). A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29); LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3); LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14); delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9). The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy. PMID:24147213

  15. Digital test signal generation: An accurate SNR calibration approach for the DSN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez-Luaces, Benito O.

    1993-01-01

    In support of the on-going automation of the Deep Space Network (DSN) a new method of generating analog test signals with accurate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is described. High accuracy is obtained by simultaneous generation of digital noise and signal spectra at the desired bandwidth (base-band or bandpass). The digital synthesis provides a test signal embedded in noise with the statistical properties of a stationary random process. Accuracy is dependent on test integration time and limited only by the system quantization noise (0.02 dB). The monitor and control as well as signal-processing programs reside in a personal computer (PC). Commands are transmitted to properly configure the specially designed high-speed digital hardware. The prototype can generate either two data channels modulated or not on a subcarrier, or one QPSK channel, or a residual carrier with one biphase data channel. The analog spectrum generated is on the DC to 10 MHz frequency range. These spectra may be up-converted to any desired frequency without loss on the characteristics of the SNR provided. Test results are presented.

  16. A new algorithm for generating highly accurate benchmark solutions to transport test problems

    SciTech Connect

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1997-06-01

    We present a new algorithm for solving the neutron transport equation in its discrete-variable form. The new algorithm is based on computing the full matrix relating the scalar flux spatial moments in all cells to the fixed neutron source spatial moments, foregoing the need to compute the angular flux spatial moments, and thereby eliminating the need for sweeping the spatial mesh in each discrete-angular direction. The matrix equation is solved exactly in test cases, producing a solution vector that is free from iteration convergence error, and subject only to truncation and roundoff errors. Our algorithm is designed to provide method developers with a quick and simple solution scheme to test their new methods on difficult test problems without the need to develop sophisticated solution techniques, e.g. acceleration, before establishing the worthiness of their innovation. We demonstrate the utility of the new algorithm by applying it to the Arbitrarily High Order Transport Nodal (AHOT-N) method, and using it to solve two of Burre`s Suite of Test Problems (BSTP). Our results provide highly accurate benchmark solutions, that can be distributed electronically and used to verify the pointwise accuracy of other solution methods and algorithms.

  17. Frequency of dense fine speckled pattern in immunofluorescence screening test

    PubMed Central

    Şener, Aslı Gamze; Afşar, İlhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective The presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), directed against intracellular antigens, is a distinctive feature of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs). The standard test for antinuclear antibody screening is the indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). Anti-dense fine speckled 70 (anti-DFS70) antibodies were initially identified as an ANA IIF pattern from a patient with interstitial cystitis, but they were later associated with various other conditions. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of anti-DFS70 antibodies in a cohort of patients undergoing routine ANA testing. Material and Methods From January 2011 to January 2012, a total of 5800 serum samples were screened for ANA by IIF (Euroimmune AG, Lübeck, Germany). DFS pattern was searched. Results ANA were present in 1302 (22.4%) of all patients. There were 16 (1.2%) anti-DFS70 antibody-positive patients. The number of females and males who have anti-DFS70 antibody was eleven and five, respectively. All of the samples presented a titer of ≥1/320. There was one patient with SARD from the rheumatology department. Another 15 patients were from gastroenterology, endocrinology, and general internal medicine. Conclusion Although a distinctive clinical association has not been reported, anti-DFS70 have been proposed as a significant biomarker for the exclusion of SARD. The present study is a preliminary study. There is a need for a reliable assay to ensure reactivity to DFS70 and screening large populations. PMID:27708940

  18. Approximate likelihood-ratio test for branches: A fast, accurate, and powerful alternative.

    PubMed

    Anisimova, Maria; Gascuel, Olivier

    2006-08-01

    We revisit statistical tests for branches of evolutionary trees reconstructed upon molecular data. A new, fast, approximate likelihood-ratio test (aLRT) for branches is presented here as a competitive alternative to nonparametric bootstrap and Bayesian estimation of branch support. The aLRT is based on the idea of the conventional LRT, with the null hypothesis corresponding to the assumption that the inferred branch has length 0. We show that the LRT statistic is asymptotically distributed as a maximum of three random variables drawn from the chi(0)2 + chi(1)2 distribution. The new aLRT of interior branch uses this distribution for significance testing, but the test statistic is approximated in a slightly conservative but practical way as 2(l1- l2), i.e., double the difference between the maximum log-likelihood values corresponding to the best tree and the second best topological arrangement around the branch of interest. Such a test is fast because the log-likelihood value l2 is computed by optimizing only over the branch of interest and the four adjacent branches, whereas other parameters are fixed at their optimal values corresponding to the best ML tree. The performance of the new test was studied on simulated 4-, 12-, and 100-taxon data sets with sequences of different lengths. The aLRT is shown to be accurate, powerful, and robust to certain violations of model assumptions. The aLRT is implemented within the algorithm used by the recent fast maximum likelihood tree estimation program PHYML (Guindon and Gascuel, 2003).

  19. Strategies to Improve Repeat Fecal Occult Blood Testing Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terry C.; Arnold, Connie L.; Bennett, Charles L.; Wolf, Michael S.; Reynolds, Cristalyn; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Background A comparative effectiveness intervention by this team improved initial fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) rates from 3% to 53% among community clinic patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and costs associated with a literacy-informed intervention on repeat FOBT testing. Methods Between 2008 and 2011, a three-arm quasi-experiential comparative effectiveness evaluation was conducted in 8 community clinics in Louisiana. Clinics were randomly assigned to receive: enhanced care, a screening recommendation and FOBT kit annually; a brief educational intervention where patients additionally received a literacy appropriate pamphlet and simplified FOBT instructions; or nurse support where a nurse manager provided the education and followed up with phone support. In year 2 all materials were mailed. The study consisted of 461 patients, ages 50–85, with a negative initial FOBT. Results Repeat FOBT rates were 38% enhanced care, 33% education, and 59% with nurse support (p=0.017). After adjusting for age, race, gender, and literacy, patients receiving nurse support were 1.46 times more likely to complete repeat FOBT screening than those receiving education (95% CI 1.14–1.06, p=0.002) and 1.45 times more likely than those in enhanced care but this was not significant (95% CI 0.93–2.26 p=0.10). The incremental cost per additional person screened was $2,450 for nurse over enhanced care. Conclusion A mailed pamphlet and FOBT with simplified instructions did not improve annual screening. Impact Telephone outreach by a nurse manager was effective in improving rates of repeat FOBT yet this may be too costly for community clinics. PMID:24192009

  20. Patch Testing with Dental Screening Series in Oral Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Woo-Il; Mun, Je-Ho; Song, Margaret; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Background The oral mucosa is constantly exposed to several irritants and allergens including dental materials, but the role of contact allergy in oral disease is obscure. Objective To analyze positive patch test results in patients with oral diseases and evaluate the clinical relevance of oral diseases with contact allergy to dental materials. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patch test results with dental screening series in 44 patients with oral disease from 2004~2011. Results Oral diseases included oral lichen planus (54.5%), cheilitis (27.3%), burning mouth syndrome (9.1%), and others (9.1%). Thirty-one of 44 patients (70.5%) had positive reactions to one or more allergens. The most commonly detected allergens were gold sodium thiosulfate (25.0%) and nickel sulfate (25.0%), followed by potassium dichromate (22.7%), cobalt (15.9%), palladium (6.8%), mercury (4.5%), copper (4.5%), and methylhydroquinone (4.5%). Six of 24 patients with oral lichen planus had a symptom in areas adjacent to dental materials and positive patch test reactions to allergens contained in the suspected dental materials. Conclusion Patch tests with dental screening series are worth considering for oral diseases, especially for oral lichen planus. PMID:26273153

  1. Expanded newborn screening by mass spectrometry: New tests, future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ombrone, Daniela; Giocaliere, Elisa; Forni, Giulia; Malvagia, Sabrina; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has become a leading technology used in clinical chemistry and has shown to be particularly sensitive and specific when used in newborn screening (NBS) tests. The success of tandem mass spectrometry is due to important advances in hardware, software and clinical applications during the last 25 years. MS/MS permits a very rapid measurement of many metabolites in different biological specimens by using filter paper spots or directly on biological fluids. Its use in NBS give us the chance to identify possible treatable metabolic disorders even when asymptomatic and the benefits gained by this type of screening is now recognized worldwide. Today the use of MS/MS for second-tier tests and confirmatory testing is promising especially in the early detection of new disorders such as some lysosomal storage disorders, ADA and PNP SCIDs, X-adrenoleucodistrophy (X-ALD), Wilson disease, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The new challenge for the future will be reducing the false positive rate by using second-tier tests, avoiding false negative results by using new specific biomarkers and introducing new treatable disorders in NBS programs.

  2. Impact of screening test performance and cost on mortality reduction and cost-effectiveness of multimodal ovarian cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Charles W.; Hawley, Sarah; Thorpe, Jason D.; Marticke, Simone; McIntosh, Martin; Gambhir, Sanjiv; Urban, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing ovarian cancer screening trials are investigating the efficacy of a two-step screening strategy using currently available blood and imaging tests (CA125 and transvaginal sonography [TVS]). Concurrently, efforts to develop new biomarkers and imaging tests seek to improve screening performance beyond its current lim its. This study estimates the mortality reduction, years of life saved and cost-effectiveness achievable by annual multimodal screening using rising CA125 to select women for TVS, and predicts improvements achievable by replacing currently available screening tests with hypothetical counter parts with better performance characteristics. An existing stochastic micro-simulation model is refined and used to screen a virtual cohort of 1 million women from age 45 to 85. Each woman is assigned a detailed disease course and screening results timeline. The pre-clinical behavior of CA125 and TVS is simulated using empirical data derived from clinical trials. Simulations in which the disease incidence and performance characteristics of the screening tests are independently varied are performed in order to evaluate the impact of these factors on overall screening performance and costs. Our results demonstrate that when applied to women at average risk, annual screening using rising CA125 to select women for TVS achieves modest mortality reduction (~13%) and falls with in currently accepted cost-effectiveness guidelines. Screening outcomes are relatively insensitive to second-line test performance and costs. Identification of a first line test that perform s substantially better than CA125 and has similar costs is required in order for screening to reduce ovarian mortality by at least 25% and be reasonably cost-effective. PMID:22750949

  3. Hemozoin detection may provide an inexpensive, sensitive, 1-minute malaria test that could revolutionize malaria screening.

    PubMed

    Grimberg, Brian T; Grimberg, Kerry O

    2016-10-01

    Malaria remains widespread throughout the tropics and is a burden to the estimated 3.5 billion people who are exposed annually. The lack of a fast and accurate diagnostic method contributes to preventable malaria deaths and its continued transmission. In many areas diagnosis is made solely based on clinical presentation. Current methods for malaria diagnosis take more than 20 minutes from the time blood is drawn and are frequently inaccurate. The introduction of an accurate malaria diagnostic that can provide a result in less than 1 minute would allow for widespread screening and treatment of endemic populations, and enable regions that have gained a foothold against malaria to prevent its return. Using malaria parasites' waste product, hemozoin, as a biomarker for the presence of malaria could be the tool needed to develop this rapid test. PMID:27530228

  4. Hemozoin detection may provide an inexpensive, sensitive, 1-minute malaria test that could revolutionize malaria screening.

    PubMed

    Grimberg, Brian T; Grimberg, Kerry O

    2016-10-01

    Malaria remains widespread throughout the tropics and is a burden to the estimated 3.5 billion people who are exposed annually. The lack of a fast and accurate diagnostic method contributes to preventable malaria deaths and its continued transmission. In many areas diagnosis is made solely based on clinical presentation. Current methods for malaria diagnosis take more than 20 minutes from the time blood is drawn and are frequently inaccurate. The introduction of an accurate malaria diagnostic that can provide a result in less than 1 minute would allow for widespread screening and treatment of endemic populations, and enable regions that have gained a foothold against malaria to prevent its return. Using malaria parasites' waste product, hemozoin, as a biomarker for the presence of malaria could be the tool needed to develop this rapid test.

  5. Buffered Plate Antigen Test as a Screening Test for Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Nidia E.; Bolpe, Jorge E.

    1998-01-01

    Brucellosis in Argentina is currently investigated in bank donor blood by the standard plate agglutination test (PAT). This study evaluated the buffered plate antigen test (BPA), now used to screen for bovine brucellosis, as a screen for human disease. Of 57 sera from patients with culture-confirmed brucellosis, 100% were detected with the BPA. Of 142 sera positive by rose bengal (RB) and complement fixation (CF), from patients with clinical evidence of brucellosis, the BPA detected 100%. Of 307 sera from a nonsymptomatic population that were RB and CF negative, the BPA detected 99.67% of the negative sera. The data indicate that the BPA is satisfactory compared to the other agglutination tests employed. It is an inexpensive and practical screening test and reduces the nonspecific reactions detected by the PAT. PMID:9574720

  6. Prostate cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    ... not do an accurate job of screening for prostate cancer. ... and anxiety, even if you do not have prostate cancer. Side effects from further testing. If your PSA test is higher than normal, you may need to ...

  7. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  8. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  9. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  10. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  11. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  12. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  13. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  14. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  15. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  16. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  17. Noninvasive prenatal screening or advanced diagnostic testing: caveat emptor.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Wapner, Ronald J; Berkowitz, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    The past few years have seen extraordinary advances in prenatal genetic practice led by 2 major technological advances; next-generation sequencing of cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma to noninvasively identify fetal chromosome abnormalities, and microarray analysis of chorionic villus sampling and amniotic fluid samples, resulting in increased cytogenetic resolution. Noninvasive prenatal screening of cell-free DNA has demonstrated sensitivity and specificity for trisomy 21 superior to all previous screening approaches with slightly lower performance for other common aneuploidies. These tests have rapidly captured an increasing market share, with substantial reductions in the number of chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis performed suggesting that physicians and patients regard such screening approaches as an equivalent replacement for diagnostic testing. Simultaneously, many clinical programs have noted significant decreases in patient counseling. In 2012 the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development funded a blinded comparison of karyotype with the emerging technology of array comparative genomic hybridization showing that in patients with a normal karyotype, 2.5% had a clinically relevant microdeletion or duplication identified. In pregnancies with an ultrasound-detected structural anomaly, 6% had an incremental finding, and of those with a normal scan, 1.6% had a copy number variant. For patients of any age with a normal ultrasound and karyotype, the chance of a pathogenic copy number variant is greater than 1%, similar to the age-related risk of aneuploidy in the fetus of a 38 year old. This risk is 4-fold higher than the risk of trisomy 21 in a woman younger than 30 years and 5- to 10-fold higher than the present accepted risk of a diagnostic procedure. Based on this, we contend that every patient, regardless of her age, be educated about these risks and offered the opportunity to have a diagnostic procedure with

  18. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  19. Developing and testing lay literature about breast cancer screening for African American women.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Elizabeth Ann; Coon, Sharon; Mohrmann, Carolyn; Hardin, Susan; Stewart, Beth; Gibson, Regina Shoate; Cantrell, Mary; Lord, Janet; Heard, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Written materials about breast cancer screening for African American women with low literacy skills are needed. Available materials were not at or below third-grade reading levels, were not culturally sensitive, and were not accurate in illustrating correct breast self-examination (BSE) techniques. Focus groups representing the target population helped the authors design a pamphlet describing how to perform BSE and a motivational picture book to help women overcome barriers to screening. The authors chose a food theme for the cover of the pamphlet written at a third-grade level and suggested a photographic version. In the motivational book, two women address barriers to screening and replace myths and fears with facts and actions. Data from 162 women showed that they learned from both the photographic and illustrated versions. Women in the photographic group found significantly more lumps in the silicone models, so the authors chose that version to use in final testing. Finally, nurses pretested a group of patients before they reviewed the materials and post-tested another group after they reviewed them. The group who had reviewed the materials had greater knowledge of and intent to follow the guidelines and received higher scores on BSE techniques.

  20. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  1. Test concentration setting for fish in vivo endocrine screening assays.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, James R; Panter, Grace H; Weltje, Lennart; Thorpe, Karen L

    2013-08-01

    Fish in vivo screening methods to detect endocrine active substances, specifically interacting with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, have been developed by both the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA). In application of these methods, i.e. regulatory testing, this paper provides a proposal on the setting of test concentrations using all available acute and chronic data and also discusses the importance of avoiding the confounding effects of systemic toxicity on endocrine endpoints. This guidance is aimed at reducing the number of false positives and subsequently the number of inappropriate definitive vertebrate studies potentially triggered by effects consequent to systemic, rather than endocrine, toxicity. At the same time it provides a pragmatic approach that maximizes the probability of detecting an effect, if it exists, thus limiting the potential for false negative outcomes.

  2. The Free-Running Asthma Screening Test: An Approach to Screening for Exercise-Induced Asthma in Rural Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaman, Doris J.; Estes, Jenny

    1997-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in rural elementary schools, examining the use of a free-running asthma screening test and peak expiratory flow-rate measurement for school screening. Results indicated that 5.7% of the students had EIA. Absenteeism and poverty were related to EIA. (SM)

  3. BioBloom tools: fast, accurate and memory-efficient host species sequence screening using bloom filters

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Justin; Sadeghi, Sara; Raymond, Anthony; Jackman, Shaun D.; Nip, Ka Ming; Mar, Richard; Mohamadi, Hamid; Butterfield, Yaron S.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Birol, Inanç

    2014-01-01

    Large datasets can be screened for sequences from a specific organism, quickly and with low memory requirements, by a data structure that supports time- and memory-efficient set membership queries. Bloom filters offer such queries but require that false positives be controlled. We present BioBloom Tools, a Bloom filter-based sequence-screening tool that is faster than BWA, Bowtie 2 (popular alignment algorithms) and FACS (a membership query algorithm). It delivers accuracies comparable with these tools, controls false positives and has low memory requirements. Availability and implementaion: www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/biobloomtools Contact: cjustin@bcgsc.ca or ibirol@bcgsc.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25143290

  4. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna; Motušić Aras, Ranka

    2016-01-01

    Aim To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Methods Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was referred to comprehensive eye examination at the Eye Clinic. Results 78.04% of children passed the screening test. Estimated prevalence of amblyopia was 8.08%. Testability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ZAPS study protocol were 99.19%, 100.00%, and 96.68% respectively. Conclusion The ZAPS study used the most discriminative VA test with optotypes in lines as they do not underestimate amblyopia. The estimated prevalence of amblyopia was considerably higher than reported elsewhere. To the best of our knowledge, the ZAPS study protocol reached the highest sensitivity and specificity when evaluating diagnostic accuracy of VA tests for screening. The pass level defined at ≤0.1 logMAR for 4-year-old children, using Lea Symbols in lines missed no amblyopia cases, advocating that both near and distance VA testing should be performed when screening for amblyopia. PMID:26935612

  5. Screening hallucinogenic drugs: systematic study of three behavioral tests.

    PubMed

    Silva, M T; Calil, H M

    1975-05-28

    The effects of several hallucinogenic and non-hallucinogenic drugs have been studied on three behavioral tests proposed as useful indexes of hallucinogenic activity: "head-twitching" in mice, defecation in an open-field, and suppression of responding on a differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) schedule of reinforcement. According to the original propositions, after administration of hallucinogenic agents the frequency of head-twitches would increase in mice, the defecation of rats in an open field would decrease without consistent change in ambulation, rearing and grooming, and the responding of rats on a DRL schedule would yield a typical cumulative record pattern. It was found that the head-twitch test was sensitive to mescaline and LSD-25, but not to delta9-THC or to myristicin and elemicin. Besides, the data on interobserver agreement suggested there is a high degree of subjectivity involved in assessing this response. In the open-field test, non-hallucinogenic drugs such as chlorpromazine and apomorphine fell into the hallucinogenic pattern proposed. In addition, the post-injection interval selected seemed to critically affect defecation scores. The DRL "hallucinogenic" pattern occurred nonspecifically after administration of hallucinogenic and non-hallucinogenic drugs. It was concluded that the three tests have limited value for screening purposes.

  6. Health Screening: What Tests You Need and When

    MedlinePlus

    ... been sexually active or are older than 21. Prostate Cancer Screening (Men): Talk to your doctor about the possible benefits and harms of prostate cancer screening if you are considering having a prostate-specific ...

  7. Oxygen Compatibility Screening Tests in Oxygen-Rich Combustion Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckel, Anerew J.

    1997-01-01

    The identification and characterization of oxygen-rich compatible materials enables full-flow, staged combustion designs. Although these oxygen-rich designs offer significant cost, performance, and reliability benefits over existing systems, they have never been used operationally by the United States. If these systems are to be realized, it is critical to understand the long-term oxidative stability in high-temperature, high-pressure, oxygen-rich combustion environments. A unique facility has been constructed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to conduct tests of small-scale rocket engine materials and subcomponents in an oxygen-rich combustion environment that closely approximates a full-scale rocket engine. Thus, a broad range of advanced materials and concepts can be screened in a timely manner and at a relatively low cost.

  8. The modified card agglutination test: an accurate tool for detecting anaplasmosis in Columbian black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Howarth, A; Hokama, Y; Amerault, T E

    1976-07-01

    Inoculation of susceptible calves confirmed that the modified card agglutination test accurately detected the anaplasmosis infection status of each of 35 Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). Anaplasma marginale, and specific antibodies, were demonstrated only in calves which received blood from deer that were positive by the card test. The modified card agglutination testing of deer serum was performed in the manner recommended for testing cattle serum with bovine-origin antigen and bovine serum factor.

  9. Accurate Relative Location Estimates for the North Korean Nuclear Tests Using Empirical Slowness Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, S. J.; Pabian, F.; Näsholm, S. P.; Kværna', T.; Mykkeltveit, S.

    2016-10-01

    Declared North Korean nuclear tests in 2006, 2009, 2013, and 2016 were observed seismically at regional and teleseismic distances. Waveform similarity allows the events to be located relatively with far greater accuracy than the absolute locations can be determined from seismic data alone. There is now significant redundancy in the data given the large number of regional and teleseismic stations that have recorded multiple events, and relative location estimates can be confirmed independently by performing calculations on many mutually exclusive sets of measurements. Using a 1-dimensional global velocity model, the distances between the events estimated using teleseismic P phases are found to be approximately 25% shorter than the distances between events estimated using regional Pn phases. The 2009, 2013, and 2016 events all take place within 1 km of each other and the discrepancy between the regional and teleseismic relative location estimates is no more than about 150 m. The discrepancy is much more significant when estimating the location of the more distant 2006 event relative to the later explosions with regional and teleseismic estimates varying by many hundreds of meters. The relative location of the 2006 event is challenging given the smaller number of observing stations, the lower signal-to-noise ratio, and significant waveform dissimilarity at some regional stations. The 2006 event is however highly significant in constraining the absolute locations in the terrain at the Punggye-ri test-site in relation to observed surface infrastructure. For each seismic arrival used to estimate the relative locations, we define a slowness scaling factor which multiplies the gradient of seismic traveltime versus distance, evaluated at the source, relative to the applied 1-d velocity model. A procedure for estimating correction terms which reduce the double-difference time residual vector norms is presented together with a discussion of the associated uncertainty. The

  10. [Does education influence the results of the Amsterdam Dementia-Screening Test (ADS)?].

    PubMed

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the correlation between education and the results of five dementia screening tests. In a study of 551 consecutively enrolled psychogeriatric day care attendants individual differences in education explained only very small portions of variance (< or = 0.63%) in four tests (visual recognition memory, orientation, category fluency and alternating sequences) of the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test, a standard neuropsychological battery. The only exception was graphical copying of two- or three-dimensional geometric designs, where education explained 6.25% of the variance in copying accuracy. The more education participants had (from incomplete or complete primary education, through extended primary education, lower technical and vocational training, and secondary to higher education), the better their copying performance was. There was however one exception, in that participants with secondary education copied designs significantly less accurately than participants with lower technical and vocational training. Differences in copying accuracy of subjects with higher versus lower educational attainment were largest for participants matched for high levels of cognitive function. More severe cognitive impairment attenuated education effects. Higher education did not protect against decline of copying performance as a consequence of increasing cognitive impairment. For each of three educational levels, premorbid copying performance was estimated by constructing a regression equation using an independent measure of cognitive functioning (in terms of visual recognition memory, orientation and category fluency) as the predictor variable. The results support the clinical utility of controlling for educational level when interpreting individual copying performance. PMID:12611290

  11. Letter Report: LAW Simulant Development for Cast Stone Screening Test

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Swanberg, David J.; Eibling, Russell E.; Cozzi, Alex; Lindberg, Michael J.; Josephson, Gary B.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2013-03-27

    testing program was developed in fiscal year (FY) 2012 describing in some detail the work needed to develop and qualify Cast Stone as a waste form for the solidification of Hanford LAW (Westsik et al. 2012). Included within Westsik et al. (2012) is a section on the near-term needs to address Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-062-40ZZ. The objectives of the testing program to be conducted in FY 2013 and FY 2014 are to: • Determine an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form. • Evaluate sources of dry materials for preparing the LAW Cast Stone. • Demonstrate the robustness of the Cast Stone waste form for a range of LAW compositions. • Demonstrate the robustness of the formulation for variability in the Cast Stone process. • Provide Cast Stone contaminant release data for PA and risk assessment evaluations. The first step in determining an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form is to conduct screening tests to examine expected ranges in pretreated LAW composition, waste stream concentrations, dry-materials sources, and mix ratios of waste feed to dry blend. A statistically designed test matrix will be used to evaluate the effects of these key parameters on the properties of the Cast Stone as it is initially prepared and after curing. The second phase of testing will focus on selection of a baseline Cast Stone formulation for LAW and demonstrating that Cast Stone can meet expected waste form requirements for disposal in the IDF. It is expected that this testing will use the results of the screening tests to define a smaller suite of tests to refine the composition of the baseline Cast Stone formulation (e.g. waste concentration, water to dry mix ratio, waste loading).

  12. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  13. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  14. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; Schalie, W.H. van der; Leather, G.R.

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  15. Tests Screening Reading Difficulty in Malayalam among Upper Primary School Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Design of a screening test for identifying reading difficult students in Malayalam and validation thereof among boys is made to help schools proactively intervene with such students. A battery of tests developed based on extant literature on screening tests, reviewed difficulties in reading Malayalam, and discrimination power of the draft tests is…

  16. NC-TEST: noncontact thermal emissions screening technique for drug and alcohol detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Drug abuse is highly correlated with criminal behavior. The typical drug-using criminal commits hundreds of crimes per year. The crime rate cannot be significantly reduced without a reduction in the percentage of the population abusing drugs and alcohol. Accurate and timely estimation of that percentage is important for policy decisions concerning crime control, public health measures, allocation of intervention resources for prevention and treatment, projections of criminal justice needs, and the evaluation of policy effectiveness. Such estimation is particularly difficult because self reporting is unreliable; and physical testing has to date required blood or urine analysis which is expensive and invasive, with the result that too few people are tested. MIKOS Ltd. has developed a non-contact, passive technique with the potential for automatic, real- time screening for drug and alcohol use. The system utilizes thermal radiation which is spontaneously and continuously emitted by the human body. Facial thermal patterns and changes in patterns are correlated with standardized effects of specific drugs and alcohol. A portable system incorporating the collection and analysis technique can be used episodically to collect data for estimating drug and alcohol use by general unknown populations such as crowds at airports, or it can be used for repetitive routine screening of specific known groups such as airline pilots, military personnel, school children, or persons on probation or parole.

  17. Emerging stool-based and blood-based non-invasive DNA tests for colorectal cancer screening: the importance of cancer prevention in addition to cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Pickhardt, Perry J

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening can be undertaken utilizing a variety of distinct approaches, which provides both opportunities and confusion. Traditionally, there has often been a trade-off between the degree of invasiveness of a screening test and its ability to prevent cancer, with fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and optical colonoscopy (OC) at each end of the spectrum. CT colonography (CTC), although currently underutilized for CRC screening, represents an exception since it is only minimally invasive, yet provides accurate evaluation for advanced adenomas. More recently, the FDA approved a multi-target stool DNA test (Cologuard) and a blood-based test (Epi proColon) for average-risk CRC screening. This commentary will provide an overview of these two new non-invasive tests, including the clinical indications, mechanism of action, and diagnostic performance. Relevance to radiology practice, including a comparison with CTC, will also be discussed. PMID:27259335

  18. FIT for the future: a case for risk-based colorectal cancer screening using the faecal immunochemical test.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J A; Moss, S M; Smith, S; Seaman, H E; Taylor-Phillips, S; Parsons, N; Halloran, S P

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) is being replaced with the more accurate faecal immunochemical test (FIT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. From January 2016, the National Screening Committee in the UK has recommended a change from the gFOBT to the FIT following a successful Bowel Cancer Screening Programme pilot study with over 40 000 participants. Although the test has shown improved uptake and the ability to detect significantly more colorectal cancers and advanced adenomas, the higher uptake and test positivity will challenge the capacity of colonoscopy services. One of the main advantages of the FIT is that it provides a quantitative haemoglobin concentration which has been shown to relate to the risk of CRC. Risk scoring systems which combine the FIT concentration with risk factor assessment have been shown to improve the sensitivity of the test. This individualized approach to screening could enable those at greatest risk to be referred for colonoscopy, optimizing resource use and ultimately patient outcomes. PMID:27135192

  19. 77 FR 15101 - Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... systems. Extensive background on the Agency's endocrine program is available at http://www.epa.gov/endo..., ``Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Policies and Procedures for Initial Screening,'' (74 FR 17560), http... AGENCY Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening...

  20. The free running athletic screening test as a screening test for exercise-induced asthma in high school.

    PubMed

    Randolph, C; Fraser, B; Matasavage, C

    1997-01-01

    As part of a multicenter study envisioned by the American College of Allergy Sports Committee to screen for exercise-induced asthma, 303 high school students, freshman and sophomore gym classes, completed a questionnaire concerning exercise-related asthma, chronic asthma, and atopy. The study group included 124 females (41%) and 179 males (59%) with an average and median age of 15 years and a range of 13-17 years, and included 99% Caucasian and 1% nonCaucasian students, all attending the same parochial high school. After obtaining informed consent, 112 (37%) agreed to a free running test with initial challenge on an outdoor cinder track during April-June 1995. All challenges were conducted between 8:00 A.M. and noon with relative-humidity 59% and average temperature 15 degrees C. The challenge consisted of 7 minutes of continuous running on the cinder track with a doubling of pulse rate to 160/min during the run. Peak expiratory flows were taken at baseline, 0, 5, and 10 minutes postexercise. Twenty nine of 112 (26%) of the students were initially assessed as positive challenges, defined as a 15% decline in peak flow following exercise on the first challenge. However, four students self-recovered; thus 25 of 112 (22%) were qualified as true positives. Of these 25, 20 (80%) agreed to be reexercised. Fourteen of 20 (70%) were positive, yielding a prevalence rate of 14/112 (12.5%). Sixteen of these 20 (80%) were then exercised a third time using spirometry pre- and postexercise. Eight were positive, yielding a prevalence rate of 8/112 (7%). The questionnaire correlated significantly with the challenge, particularly when read by section (p = 0.000001) rather than globally positive or negative (p = 0.00008), with a specificity of 64%, sensitivity of 94%, positive predictive value of 44%, and negative predictive value of 97%. In summary, inexpensive and familiar free-running tests can be a useful screening test to confirm the questionnaire which is sensitive (94%) in

  1. Technical report: Ethical and policy issues in genetic testing and screening of children.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Ross, Laine Friedman; Saal, Howard M; David, Karen L; Anderson, Rebecca R

    2013-03-01

    The genetic testing and genetic screening of children are commonplace. Decisions about whether to offer genetic testing and screening should be driven by the best interest of the child. The growing literature on the psychosocial and clinical effects of such testing and screening can help inform best practices. This technical report provides ethical justification and empirical data in support of the proposed policy recommendations regarding such practices in a myriad of settings.

  2. Orbiter Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Advanced Sealant Systems: Screening Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.; Lewis, Ronad K.; Norman, Ignacio; Chao, Dennis; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Oxidation protection for the Orbiter reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC consists of three components: silicon carbide coating, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) impregnated into the carbon substrate and a silicon based surface sealant (designated Type A). The Orbiter Type A sealant is being consumed each mission, which results in increased carbon-carbon substrate mass loss, which adversely impacts the mission life of the RCC components. In addition, the sealant loss in combination with launch pad contamination (salt deposit and zinc oxide) results in RCC pinholes. A sealant refurbishment schedule to maintain mission life and minimize affects of pin hole formation has been implemented in the Orbiter maintenance schedule. The objective of this investigation is to develop an advanced sealant system for the RCC that extends the refurbishment schedule by reducing sealant loss/pin hole formation and that can be applied to existing Orbiter RCC components. This paper presents the results of arc jet screening tests conducted on several sealants that are being considered for application to the Orbiter RCC.

  3. Borehole flowmeter logging for the accurate design and analysis of tracer tests.

    PubMed

    Basiricò, Stefano; Crosta, Giovanni B; Frattini, Paolo; Villa, Alberto; Godio, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Tracer tests often give ambiguous interpretations that may be due to the erroneous location of sampling points and/or the lack of flow rate measurements through the sampler. To obtain more reliable tracer test results, we propose a methodology that optimizes the design and analysis of tracer tests in a cross borehole mode by using vertical borehole flow rate measurements. Experiments using this approach, herein defined as the Bh-flow tracer test, have been performed by implementing three sequential steps: (1) single-hole flowmeter test, (2) cross-hole flowmeter test, and (3) tracer test. At the experimental site, core logging, pumping tests, and static water-level measurements were previously carried out to determine stratigraphy, fracture characteristics, and bulk hydraulic conductivity. Single-hole flowmeter testing makes it possible to detect the presence of vertical flows as well as inflow and outflow zones, whereas cross-hole flowmeter testing detects the presence of connections along sets of flow conduits or discontinuities intercepted by boreholes. Finally, the specific pathways and rates of groundwater flow through selected flowpaths are determined by tracer testing. We conclude that the combined use of single and cross-borehole flowmeter tests is fundamental to the formulation of the tracer test strategy and interpretation of the tracer test results. PMID:25417730

  4. Screening test of stimulants in human urine utilizing headspace gas chromatography for field test.

    PubMed

    Tsuchihashi, H; Nakajima, K; Nishikawa, M; Suzuki, S; Oka, Y; Otsuki, K

    1990-03-01

    An accurate and simple screening method of stimulants in human urine using headspace gas chromatography utilizing heat of dissolution of potassium carbonate was developed. A 4.9-g portion of potassium carbonate was put into the vial prior to sending to the field, and a 5-ml aliquot of urine, suspected of containing stimulants and internal standard components was pipetted. After the vial was sealed and shaken by hand, 1 ml of its headspace gas was taken by disposable syringe and injected into the gas chromatograph. A compact gas chromatograph device with flame ionization detector and fused silica capillary column was developed for this experiment. Detection limits of methamphetamine and amphetamine were 1.0 micrograms/ml and 1.5 micrograms/ml, respectively. PMID:2335332

  5. Horizontal lang two-pencil test as a screening test for stereopsis and binocularity

    PubMed Central

    Nongpiur, Monisha E; Sharma, Pradeep

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the horizontal Lang two-pencil test as a bedside test to detect gross stereopsis. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four strabismic subjects divided into two groups based on the amount of deviation, and 40 normal subjects were studied. Sensory status examination including binocularity and stereopsis were evaluated with Bagolini, Titmus test and the Netherlands organisation for applied scientific research (TNO), Randot, synoptophore and horizontal Lang two-pencil test. Results: The subjects in the group with smaller deviation showed better performance on all the four stereo tests and over 90% demonstrated presence of fusion. When compared to TNO and Randot for determining presence of stereopsis, the horizontal Lang two-pencil test demonstrated sensitivity of 100% and 83.9%, specificity of 77.8% and 73.7%, and negative predictive value of 100% and 100% respectively. It also showed 100% specificity as a test for binocularity when compared with the Bagolini striated glass test. Conclusion: Horizontal Lang two-pencil test, an easily performed test with a high sensitivity and negative predictive value can be used as a screening test to detect gross stereopsis and binocularity. PMID:20534917

  6. Psychophysical Calibration of Mobile Touch-Screens for Vision Testing in the Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    The now ubiquitous nature of touch-screen displays in cell phones and tablet computers makes them an attractive option for vision testing outside of the laboratory or clinic. Accurate measurement of parameters such as contrast sensitivity, however, requires precise control of absolute and relative screen luminances. The nonlinearity of the display response (gamma) can be measured or checked using a minimum motion technique similar to that developed by Anstis and Cavanagh (1983) for the determination of isoluminance. While the relative luminances of the color primaries vary between subjects (due to factors such as individual differences in pre-retinal pigment densities), the gamma nonlinearity can be checked in the lab using a photometer. Here we compare results obtained using the psychophysical method with physical measurements for a number of different devices. In addition, we present a novel physical method using the device's built-in front-facing camera in conjunction with a mirror to jointly calibrate the camera and display. A high degree of consistency between devices is found, but some departures from ideal performance are observed. In spite of this, the effects of calibration errors and display artifacts on estimates of contrast sensitivity are found to be small.

  7. A test of aquatic macroinvertebrate sub-sampling using a gridded screen

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, S.P.

    1994-12-31

    The Biological Resource Evaluations Team of Los Alamos National Laboratories assessed the reliability of a gridded screen sub-sampling technique to estimate aquatic macroinvertebrates in total samples. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected by kick sampling three riffles areas in Guaje Canyon, Los Alamos County, New Mexico during July and August, 1994. The study included 4,144 macroinvertebrates from samples consisting of 442 to 1005 individuals. The entire samples were spread onto a gridded screen, and 100 macroinvertebrates were randomly selected for identification. To simplify the results, identified macroinvertebrates were assigned to one of six categories: plecoptera, ephemeroptera, trichoptera, coleoptera, diptera, and non-insects. Three sub-samples were taken from each of six full samples. These counts were used as predicted values, while the total sample counts were used as actual values. Single-factor ANOVA tests showed no significant differences between predicted to actual (PTA) values. However, PTA differences indicated that lab-sorting was a more reliable method than live-sorting without a narcotizing agent. Large samples and large numbers in macroinvertebrate categories were tentatively linked with greater PTA differences. PTA differences were less than 5% in 80% of our trials and less than 10% in 95% of our trials. Despite the relatively small size of sub-samples, sub-samples included 60% of taxa found in the total samples. This sub-sampling technique provides accurate estimates of total sample composition in stream reaches rich enough to easily yield the required 100 individuals.

  8. Simultaneous measurement in mass and mass/mass mode for accurate qualitative and quantitative screening analysis of pharmaceuticals in river water.

    PubMed

    Martínez Bueno, M J; Ulaszewska, Maria M; Gomez, M J; Hernando, M D; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2012-09-21

    A new approach for the analysis of pharmaceuticals (target and non-target) in water by LC-QTOF-MS is described in this work. The study has been designed to assess the performance of the simultaneous quantitative screening of target compounds, and the qualitative analysis of non-target analytes, in just one run. The features of accurate mass full scan mass spectrometry together with high MS/MS spectral acquisition rates - by means of information dependent acquisition (IDA) - have demonstrated their potential application in this work. Applying this analytical strategy, an identification procedure is presented based on library searching for compounds which were not included a priori in the analytical method as target compounds, thus allowing their characterization by data processing of accurate mass measurements in MS and MS/MS mode. The non-target compounds identified in river water samples were ketorolac, trazodone, fluconazole, metformin and venlafaxine. Simultaneously, this strategy allowed for the identification of other compounds which were not included in the library by screening the highest intensity peaks detected in the samples and by analysis of the full scan TOF-MS, isotope pattern and MS/MS spectra - the example of loratadine (histaminergic) is described. The group of drugs of abuse selected as target compounds for evaluation included analgesics, opioids and psychostimulants. Satisfactory results regarding sensitivity and linearity of the developed method were obtained. Limits of detection for the selected target compounds were from 0.003 to 0.01 μg/L and 0.01 to 0.5 μg/L, in MS and MS/MS mode, respectively - by direct sample injection of 100 μL.

  9. A Procedure for Accurately Measuring the Shaker Overturning Moment During Random Vibration Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeri, Reza D.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: For large system level random vibration tests, there may be some concerns about the shaker's capability for the overturning moment. It is the test conductor's responsibility to predict and monitor the overturning moment during random vibration tests. If the predicted moment is close to the shaker's capability, test conductor must measure the instantaneous moment at low levels and extrapolate to higher levels. That data will be used to decide whether it is safe to proceed to the next test level. Challenge: Kistler analog formulation for computing the real-time moment is only applicable to very limited cases in which we have 3 or 4 load cells installed at shaker interface with hardware. Approach: To overcome that limitation, a simple procedure was developed for computing the overturning moment time histories using the measured time histories of the individual load cells.

  10. Use of clinical movement screening tests to predict injury in sport.

    PubMed

    Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan

    2016-04-18

    Clinical movement screening tests are gaining popularity as a means to determine injury risk and to implement training programs to prevent sport injury. While these screens are being used readily in the clinical field, it is only recently that some of these have started to gain attention from a research perspective. This limits applicability and poses questions to the validity, and in some cases the reliability, of the clinical movement tests as they relate to injury prediction, intervention, and prevention. This editorial will review the following clinical movement screening tests: Functional Movement Screen™, Star Excursion Balance Test, Y Balance Test, Drop Jump Screening Test, Landing Error Scoring System, and the Tuck Jump Analysis in regards to test administration, reliability, validity, factors that affect test performance, intervention programs, and usefulness for injury prediction. It is important to review the aforementioned factors for each of these clinical screening tests as this may help clinicians interpret the current body of literature. While each of these screening tests were developed by clinicians based on what appears to be clinical practice, this paper brings to light that this is a need for collaboration between clinicians and researchers to ensure validity of clinically meaningful tests so that they are used appropriately in future clinical practice. Further, this editorial may help to identify where the research is lacking and, thus, drive future research questions in regards to applicability and appropriateness of clinical movement screening tools. PMID:27114928

  11. Use of clinical movement screening tests to predict injury in sport

    PubMed Central

    Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical movement screening tests are gaining popularity as a means to determine injury risk and to implement training programs to prevent sport injury. While these screens are being used readily in the clinical field, it is only recently that some of these have started to gain attention from a research perspective. This limits applicability and poses questions to the validity, and in some cases the reliability, of the clinical movement tests as they relate to injury prediction, intervention, and prevention. This editorial will review the following clinical movement screening tests: Functional Movement Screen™, Star Excursion Balance Test, Y Balance Test, Drop Jump Screening Test, Landing Error Scoring System, and the Tuck Jump Analysis in regards to test administration, reliability, validity, factors that affect test performance, intervention programs, and usefulness for injury prediction. It is important to review the aforementioned factors for each of these clinical screening tests as this may help clinicians interpret the current body of literature. While each of these screening tests were developed by clinicians based on what appears to be clinical practice, this paper brings to light that this is a need for collaboration between clinicians and researchers to ensure validity of clinically meaningful tests so that they are used appropriately in future clinical practice. Further, this editorial may help to identify where the research is lacking and, thus, drive future research questions in regards to applicability and appropriateness of clinical movement screening tools. PMID:27114928

  12. Prenatal screening tests may be a warning for the partial molar pregnancy? case report

    PubMed Central

    Sargin, Mehmet Akif; Tug, Niyazi; Yassa, Murat; Yavuz, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening tests are frequently requested for chromosomal abnormalities. Placental pathologies in early pregnancy may be overlooked, especially in partial molar pregnancy. We are reporting an incorrect preliminary diagnosed case with an increased risk of Down syndrome in her first-trimester screening test due to partial molar pregnancy. PMID:26175814

  13. HIV testing at a community health center before and after implementing universal screening.

    PubMed

    Kayingo, Gerald; Bruce, Robert Douglas

    2016-08-01

    This study analyzed the quality of HIV screening at one of the largest community health centers in Connecticut. The data indicated that implementing universal HIV screening increased the proportion of underrepresented minorities and women tested, reducing the HIV testing disparities that previously existed at this center. PMID:27467298

  14. XENOENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS-TIERED SCREENING AND TESTING: FILLING KEY DATA GAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). High priority chemicals would be evaluated in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery. Chemicals positive in T1S would then be tested (Tier 2). T1S...

  15. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  16. A general and accurate approach for computing the statistical power of the transmission disequilibrium test for complex disease genes.

    PubMed

    Chen, W M; Deng, H W

    2001-07-01

    Transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) is a nuclear family-based analysis that can test linkage in the presence of association. It has gained extensive attention in theoretical investigation and in practical application; in both cases, the accuracy and generality of the power computation of the TDT are crucial. Despite extensive investigations, previous approaches for computing the statistical power of the TDT are neither accurate nor general. In this paper, we develop a general and highly accurate approach to analytically compute the power of the TDT. We compare the results from our approach with those from several other recent papers, all against the results obtained from computer simulations. We show that the results computed from our approach are more accurate than or at least the same as those from other approaches. More importantly, our approach can handle various situations, which include (1) families that consist of one or more children and that have any configuration of affected and nonaffected sibs; (2) families ascertained through the affection status of parent(s); (3) any mixed sample with different types of families in (1) and (2); (4) the marker locus is not a disease susceptibility locus; and (5) existence of allelic heterogeneity. We implement this approach in a user-friendly computer program: TDT Power Calculator. Its applications are demonstrated. The approach and the program developed here should be significant for theoreticians to accurately investigate the statistical power of the TDT in various situations, and for empirical geneticists to plan efficient studies using the TDT.

  17. Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. 13C-urea breath test.

    PubMed

    Graham, D Y; Klein, P D

    2000-12-01

    The preferred schema for management of Helicobacter pylori infection is diagnosis, treatment, and confirmation of cure. The 13C-urea breath test is ideal for active H. pylori infection for those in whom endoscopy is not required (e.g., those in whom cancer is not suspected) because it offers the combination of simplicity, accuracy, reliability, and absence of exposure to radioactivity. New versions of the test also offer increasing simplicity and lower costs. PMID:11190073

  18. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An...

  19. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An...

  20. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An...

  1. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An...

  2. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An...

  3. Developmental Screenings in Rural Settings: A Comparison of the Child Development Review and the Denver II Developmental Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brachlow, Allison; Jordan, Augustus E.; Tervo, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Two developmental screening tests were applied to 73 children, aged 1 month-6.7 years, in Sioux Falls and the Cheyenne River Reservation (South Dakota). There were no racial differences; compared to urban children, rural reservation children of any race were more likely to pass the Child Development Review and to fail the Denver II Developmental…

  4. The Slingerland Screening Tests for Identifying Children with Specific Language Disability: Screening for Learning Disabilities in First Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinero, Thomas E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The responses on the Slingerland Screening Tests for identifying children with specific learning disabilities of 29 learning disabled and 11 nondisabled children in Grade 1 distinguished the two groups, except for copying (near vision). Copying (far vision) and auditory, visual, and kinesthetic perception and discrimination together were the…

  5. Reverse Fluorescence Enhancement and Colorimetric Bimodal Signal Readout Immunochromatography Test Strip for Ultrasensitive Large-Scale Screening and Postoperative Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yingyi; Guo, Weisheng; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Yudong; Fu, Weihua; Liu, Tingting; Wu, Xiaoli; Wang, Hanjie; Gong, Xiaoqun; Liang, Xing-Jie; Chang, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasensitive and quantitative fast screening of cancer biomarkers by immunochromatography test strip (ICTS) is still challenging in clinic. The gold nanoparticles (NPs) based ICTS with colorimetric readout enables a quick spectrum screening but suffers from nonquantitative performance; although ICTS with fluorescence readout (FICTS) allows quantitative detection, its sensitivity still deserves more efforts and attentions. In this work, by taking advantages of colorimetric ICTS and FICTS, we described a reverse fluorescence enhancement ICTS (rFICTS) with bimodal signal readout for ultrasensitive and quantitative fast screening of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In the presence of target, gold NPs aggregation in T line induced colorimetric readout, allowing on-the-spot spectrum screening in 10 min by naked eye. Meanwhile, the reverse fluorescence enhancement signal enabled more accurately quantitative detection with better sensitivity (5.89 pg/mL for CEA), which is more than 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the conventional FICTS. The accuracy and stability of the rFICTS were investigated with more than 100 clinical serum samples for large-scale screening. Furthermore, this rFICTS also realized postoperative monitoring by detecting CEA in a patient with colon cancer and comparing with CT imaging diagnosis. These results indicated this rFICTS is particularly suitable for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics in both resource-rich and resource-limited settings. PMID:27547984

  6. A test protocol to screen capacitors for radiation-induced charge loss.

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Hartman, E. Frederick

    2008-09-01

    This report presents a test protocol for screening capacitors dielectrics for charge loss due to ionizing radiation. The test protocol minimizes experimental error and provides a test method that allows comparisons of different dielectric types if exposed to the same environment and if the same experimental technique is used. The test acceptance or screening method is fully described in this report. A discussion of technical issues and possible errors and uncertainties is included in this report also.

  7. Advanced tests for early and accurate diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Zanusso, Gianluigi; Monaco, Salvatore; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Caughey, Byron

    2016-06-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a necessary to distinguish this untreatable disease from treatable rapidly progressive dementias, and to prevent iatrogenic transmission. Currently, definitive diagnosis of CJD requires detection of the abnormally folded, CJD-specific form of protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(CJD)) in brain tissue obtained postmortem or via biopsy; therefore, diagnosis of sporadic CJD in clinical practice is often challenging. Supporting investigations, including MRI, EEG and conventional analyses of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, are helpful in the diagnostic work-up, but do not allow definitive diagnosis. Recently, novel ultrasensitive seeding assays, based on the amplified detection of PrP(CJD), have improved the diagnostic process; for example, real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) is a sensitive method to detect prion-seeding activity in brain homogenate from humans with any subtype of sporadic CJD. RT-QuIC can also be used for in vivo diagnosis of CJD: its diagnostic sensitivity in detecting PrP(CJD) in CSF samples is 96%, and its specificity is 100%. Recently, we provided evidence that RT-QuIC of olfactory mucosa brushings is a 97% sensitive and 100% specific for sporadic CJD. These assays provide a basis for definitive antemortem diagnosis of prion diseases and, in doing so, improve prospects for reducing the risk of prion transmission. Moreover, they can be used to evaluate outcome measures in therapeutic trials for these as yet untreatable infections. PMID:27174240

  8. Can script concordance testing be used in nursing education to accurately assess clinical reasoning skills?

    PubMed

    Dawson, Tyia; Comer, Linda; Kossick, Mark A; Neubrander, Judy

    2014-05-01

    The Script Concordance Test (SCT) has been used successfully in medical schools to assess clinical reasoning in medical students, but it has not been widely used in nursing education. The purpose of this study was to provide additional evidence of the validity and reliability of the SCT in evaluating clinical reasoning in nursing students by replicating a previous study. The test was administered to 48 first-year Bachelor of Science in Nursing students. A scoring grid was developed using the aggregate scores method based on the modal responses of 13 panel members. The reliability of the scores was measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the scores of the students and the panel were compared using a t test. The difference between the panel's and the students' scores was statistically significant, and the reliability of the scores is high. The SCT provides a reliable, standardized, and easy-to-administer method of evaluating clinical reasoning in nursing students.

  9. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... screening test result? 40.247 Section 40.247 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.247 What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is...

  10. Revisiting the blind tests in crystal structure prediction: accurate energy ranking of molecular crystals.

    PubMed

    Asmadi, Aldi; Neumann, Marcus A; Kendrick, John; Girard, Pascale; Perrin, Marc-Antoine; Leusen, Frank J J

    2009-12-24

    In the 2007 blind test of crystal structure prediction hosted by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a hybrid DFT/MM method correctly ranked each of the four experimental structures as having the lowest lattice energy of all the crystal structures predicted for each molecule. The work presented here further validates this hybrid method by optimizing the crystal structures (experimental and submitted) of the first three CCDC blind tests held in 1999, 2001, and 2004. Except for the crystal structures of compound IX, all structures were reminimized and ranked according to their lattice energies. The hybrid method computes the lattice energy of a crystal structure as the sum of the DFT total energy and a van der Waals (dispersion) energy correction. Considering all four blind tests, the crystal structure with the lowest lattice energy corresponds to the experimentally observed structure for 12 out of 14 molecules. Moreover, good geometrical agreement is observed between the structures determined by the hybrid method and those measured experimentally. In comparison with the correct submissions made by the blind test participants, all hybrid optimized crystal structures (apart from compound II) have the smallest calculated root mean squared deviations from the experimentally observed structures. It is predicted that a new polymorph of compound V exists under pressure.

  11. The use of experimental bending tests to more accurate numerical description of TBC damage process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, T.; Golewski, P.

    2016-04-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been extensively used in aircraft engines to protect critical engine parts such as blades and combustion chambers, which are exposed to high temperatures and corrosive environment. The blades of turbine engines are additionally exposed to high mechanical loads. These loads are created by the high rotational speed of the rotor (30 000 rot/min), causing the tensile and bending stresses. Therefore, experimental testing of coated samples is necessary in order to determine strength properties of TBCs. Beam samples with dimensions 50×10×2 mm were used in those studies. The TBC system consisted of 150 μm thick bond coat (NiCoCrAlY) and 300 μm thick top coat (YSZ) made by APS (air plasma spray) process. Samples were tested by three-point bending test with various loads. After bending tests, the samples were subjected to microscopic observation to determine the quantity of cracks and their depth. The above mentioned results were used to build numerical model and calibrate material data in Abaqus program. Brittle cracking damage model was applied for the TBC layer, which allows to remove elements after reaching criterion. Surface based cohesive behavior was used to model the delamination which may occur at the boundary between bond coat and top coat.

  12. Paradoxical Effects of Testing: Retrieval Enhances Both Accurate Recall and Suggestibility in Eyewitnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jason C. K.; Langley, Moses M.

    2011-01-01

    Although retrieval practice typically enhances memory retention, it can also impair subsequent eyewitness memory accuracy (Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009). Specifically, participants who had taken an initial test about a witnessed event were more likely than nontested participants to recall subsequently encountered misinformation--an effect we…

  13. Revisiting the blind tests in crystal structure prediction: accurate energy ranking of molecular crystals.

    PubMed

    Asmadi, Aldi; Neumann, Marcus A; Kendrick, John; Girard, Pascale; Perrin, Marc-Antoine; Leusen, Frank J J

    2009-12-24

    In the 2007 blind test of crystal structure prediction hosted by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a hybrid DFT/MM method correctly ranked each of the four experimental structures as having the lowest lattice energy of all the crystal structures predicted for each molecule. The work presented here further validates this hybrid method by optimizing the crystal structures (experimental and submitted) of the first three CCDC blind tests held in 1999, 2001, and 2004. Except for the crystal structures of compound IX, all structures were reminimized and ranked according to their lattice energies. The hybrid method computes the lattice energy of a crystal structure as the sum of the DFT total energy and a van der Waals (dispersion) energy correction. Considering all four blind tests, the crystal structure with the lowest lattice energy corresponds to the experimentally observed structure for 12 out of 14 molecules. Moreover, good geometrical agreement is observed between the structures determined by the hybrid method and those measured experimentally. In comparison with the correct submissions made by the blind test participants, all hybrid optimized crystal structures (apart from compound II) have the smallest calculated root mean squared deviations from the experimentally observed structures. It is predicted that a new polymorph of compound V exists under pressure. PMID:19950907

  14. Test Review: Siegel, B. (2004). "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test--II (PDDST-II)." San Antonio, TX: Harcourt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Janine M.; Duncan, C. Randy; Francis, Garnett C.

    2007-01-01

    The "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test-II (PDDST-II)--Early Childhood Screener for Autistic Spectrum Disorders" is a clinical screening tool for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) designed for use by nonspecialist clinicians. It was designed to differentiate children as young as 18 months who…

  15. Accurate assessment of work done and power during a Wingate anaerobic test.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Kathryn L; Gordon, Rae S; Baker, Julien S; Davies, Bruce

    2007-04-01

    A Monark cycle ergometer is used in physiological studies to measure work done and power. In this paper, the accuracy of a Monark rope-braked cycle ergometer was examined for a Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT). The traditional method of determining brake torque fails to take into account rope-brake theory and, as the brake torque is used to determine the moment of inertia of the flywheel, a second error is introduced into the calculation to determine the work done or power. In this study, the rope tensions were measured to determine the actual brake torque. A deceleration test was carried out to determine the moment of inertia of the system. The work done by subjects of different masses was calculated for various accelerations and it was found that the traditional calculations overestimate work done and power by between 12% and 14.7%. PMID:17486163

  16. Susceptibility testing: accurate and reproducible minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and non-inhibitory concentration (NIC) values.

    PubMed

    Lambert, R J; Pearson, J

    2000-05-01

    Measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of a substance by current methods is straightforward, whereas obtaining useful comparative information from the tests can be more difficult. A simple technique and a method of data analysis are reported which give the experimentalist more useful information from susceptibility testing. This method makes use of a 100-well microtitre plate and the analysis uses all the growth information, obtained by turbidometry, from each and every well of the microtitre plate. A modified Gompertz function is used to fit the data, from which a more exact value can be obtained for the MIC. The technique also showed that at certain concentrations of inhibitor, there was no effect on growth relative to a control well (zero inhibitor). Above a threshold value, which has been termed the non-inhibitory concentration or NIC, growth becomes limiting until it reaches the MIC, where no growth relative to the control is observed.

  17. Ocular Screening System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An ocular screening system designed for safe, convenient screening of large groups was developed at Marshall Space Flight Center, leading to the formation of Medical Sciences Corporation. The system identifies visual defects accurately and inexpensively, and includes a photorefractor telephoto lens and an electronic flash. Medical Sciences Corporation is using the device to test at schools, industrial plants, etc.

  18. Validation of a Low-Cost Paper-Based Screening Test for Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Piety, Nathaniel Z.; Yang, Xiaoxi; Kanter, Julie; Vignes, Seth M.; George, Alex; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The high childhood mortality and life-long complications associated with sickle cell anemia (SCA) in developing countries could be significantly reduced with effective prophylaxis and education if SCA is diagnosed early in life. However, conventional laboratory methods used for diagnosing SCA remain prohibitively expensive and impractical in this setting. This study describes the clinical validation of a low-cost paper-based test for SCA that can accurately identify sickle trait carriers (HbAS) and individuals with SCA (HbSS) among adults and children over 1 year of age. Methods and Findings In a population of healthy volunteers and SCA patients in the United States (n = 55) the test identified individuals whose blood contained any HbS (HbAS and HbSS) with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for both visual evaluation and automated analysis, and detected SCA (HbSS) with 93% sensitivity and 94% specificity for visual evaluation and 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity for automated analysis. In a population of post-partum women (with a previously unknown SCA status) at a primary obstetric hospital in Cabinda, Angola (n = 226) the test identified sickle cell trait carriers with 94% sensitivity and 97% specificity using visual evaluation (none of the women had SCA). Notably, our test permits instrument- and electricity-free visual diagnostics, requires minimal training to be performed, can be completed within 30 minutes, and costs about $0.07 in test-specific consumable materials. Conclusions Our results validate the paper-based SCA test as a useful low-cost tool for screening adults and children for sickle trait and disease and demonstrate its practicality in resource-limited clinical settings. PMID:26735691

  19. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Oxygen concentrations with various test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Solis, A. N.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to increase the versatility of the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the use of different test conditions in order to simulate various fire environments. The use of air flow at flow rates of 16 to 48 ml/sec maintains oxygen concentrations above 19 percent throughout the 30 min exposure period, compared to above 16 percent without forced air flow. These levels of oxygen are well within the tolerance range of mice, and approach the oxygen levels found in many real fire situations. Proposed minimum oxygen levels based on experience with rats are unduly restrictive on the use of other species such as mice, and tend to eliminate the cost savings which may more than justify the selection of mice.

  20. Computerized reminders for five preventive screening tests: generation of patient-specific letters incorporating physician preferences.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D. J.; Gross, R.; Buchanan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Compliance with preventive screening tests is inadequate in the United States. We describe a computer based system for generating reminder letters to patients who may have missed their indicated screening tests because they do not visit a provider regularly or missed their tests despite the fact that they do visit a provider. We started with national recommendations and generated a local consensus for test indications. We then used this set of indications and our electronic record to determine test deficiencies in our pilot pool of 3073 patients. The computer generated customized reminder letters targeting several tests. Physicians chose any patients who should not receive letters. The response rate for fecal occult blood (FOB) testing was 33% compared with an 18% historical compliance rate within the same community. FOB reminders generated improved test compliance. Test execution must be considered when commencing a program of screening test reminders. PMID:11079954

  1. Universal screening test based on analysis of circulating organ-enriched microRNAs: a novel approach to diagnostic screening.

    PubMed

    Sheinerman, Kira S; Umansky, Samuil

    2015-03-01

    Early disease detection leads to more effective and cost-efficient treatment. It is especially important for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, because progression of these pathologies leads to significant and frequently irreversible changes in underlying pathophysiological processes. At the same time, the development of specific screening tests for detection of each of the hundreds of human pathologies in asymptomatic stage may be impractical. Here, we discuss a recently proposed concept: the development of minimally invasive Universal Screening Test (UST) based on analysis of organ-enriched microRNAs in plasma and other bodily fluids. The UST is designed to detect the presence of a pathology in particular organ systems, organs, tissues or cell types without diagnosing a specific disease. Once the pathology is detected, more specific, and if necessary invasive and expensive, tests can be administered to precisely define the nature of the disease. Here, we discuss recent studies and analyze the data supporting the UST approach.

  2. Rotating Arc Jet Test Model: Time-Accurate Trajectory Heat Flux Replication in a Ground Test Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, Bernard; Grinstead, Jay; Dyakonov, Artem; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2011-01-01

    Though arc jet testing has been the proven method employed for development testing and certification of TPS and TPS instrumentation, the operational aspects of arc jets limit testing to selected, but constant, conditions. Flight, on the other hand, produces timevarying entry conditions in which the heat flux increases, peaks, and recedes as a vehicle descends through an atmosphere. As a result, we are unable to "test as we fly." Attempts to replicate the time-dependent aerothermal environment of atmospheric entry by varying the arc jet facility operating conditions during a test have proven to be difficult, expensive, and only partially successful. A promising alternative is to rotate the test model exposed to a constant-condition arc jet flow to yield a time-varying test condition at a point on a test article (Fig. 1). The model shape and rotation rate can be engineered so that the heat flux at a point on the model replicates the predicted profile for a particular point on a flight vehicle. This simple concept will enable, for example, calibration of the TPS sensors on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) aeroshell for anticipated flight environments.

  3. HPV testing for cervical cancer screening appears more cost-effective than Papanicolau cytology in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bishai, David M.; Lőrincz, Attila; Shah, Keerti V.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández, Mauricio; Granados-García, Víctor; Pérez, Ruth; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the incremental costs and effects of different HPV testing strategies, when compared to Papanicolau cytology (Pap), for cervical cancer screening in Mexico. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) examined the specific costs and health outcomes associated with (1) no screening; (2) only the Pap test; (3) only self-administered HPV; (4) only clinician administered HPV; and (5) clinician administered HPV plus the Pap test. The costs of self- and clinician-HPV testing, as well as with the Pap test, were identified and quantified. Costs were reported in 2008 US dollars. The health outcome associated with these screening strategies was defined as the number of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer cases detected. This CEA was performed using the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Morelos, Mexico. Results Screening women between the ages of 30–80 for cervical cancer using clinical-HPV testing or the combination of clinical-HPV testing, and the Pap is always more cost-effective than using the Pap test alone. Conclusions This CEA indicates that HPV testing could be a cost-effective screening alternative for a large health delivery organization such as IMSS. These results may help policy-makers implement HPV testing as part of the IMSS cervical cancer screening program. PMID:21170578

  4. Accurate time delay technology in simulated test for high precision laser range finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhibin; Xiao, Wenjian; Wang, Weiming; Xue, Mingxi

    2015-10-01

    With the continuous development of technology, the ranging accuracy of pulsed laser range finder (LRF) is higher and higher, so the maintenance demand of LRF is also rising. According to the dominant ideology of "time analog spatial distance" in simulated test for pulsed range finder, the key of distance simulation precision lies in the adjustable time delay. By analyzing and comparing the advantages and disadvantages of fiber and circuit delay, a method was proposed to improve the accuracy of the circuit delay without increasing the count frequency of the circuit. A high precision controllable delay circuit was designed by combining the internal delay circuit and external delay circuit which could compensate the delay error in real time. And then the circuit delay accuracy could be increased. The accuracy of the novel circuit delay methods proposed in this paper was actually measured by a high sampling rate oscilloscope actual measurement. The measurement result shows that the accuracy of the distance simulated by the circuit delay is increased from +/- 0.75m up to +/- 0.15m. The accuracy of the simulated distance is greatly improved in simulated test for high precision pulsed range finder.

  5. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP) as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Quach, D T; Sakoulas, G; Nizet, V; Pogliano, J; Pogliano, K

    2016-02-01

    Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP), which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant (MRSA) clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71) within 1-2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS) from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS) S. aureus strains (n = 20) within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice. PMID:26981574

  6. Lower-Limb Power cannot be Estimated Accurately from Vertical Jump Tests

    PubMed Central

    Tessier, Jean-François; Basset, Fabien-A; Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand

    2013-01-01

    The countermovement jump test is often adopted to monitor lower-limb power of an individual. Despite several studies on the validity of this test, there is still a need to determine the minimal difference needed to be confident that a difference in power between two individuals is present or that a true change in the performance of an individual has occurred. In this study, power was measured from ground reaction forces and compared to that obtained from predictive equations for two groups of subjects (67 trained and 20 highly trained individuals). The height of each jump was determined with kinematic techniques. The main outcome is a large discrepancy between power calculated from ground reaction forces and that calculated from predictive equations. For the trained group, the R-square value between power and predicted power was 0.53 and the minimal difference to consider that two individuals were different was 821.7 W. For the highly trained individuals, a much larger R-square value was obtained (0.94). Despite this, the minimal difference to consider that two individuals were different was still large (689.3 W). The large minimal differences obtained raise serious concerns about using countermovement jumps for appraisal and monitoring of lower-limb power of an individual. PMID:24235979

  7. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP) as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Quach, D.T.; Sakoulas, G.; Nizet, V.; Pogliano, J.; Pogliano, K.

    2016-01-01

    Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP), which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant (MRSA) clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71) within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS) from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS) S. aureus strains (n = 20) within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice. PMID:26981574

  8. Measurement of testicular volume in smaller testes: how accurate is the conventional orchidometer?

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Chieh; Huang, William J S; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different methods, including the Seager orchidometer (SO) and ultrasonography (US), for assessing testicular volume of smaller testes (testes volume less than 18 mL). Moreover, the equations used for the calculations--the Hansen formula (length [L] x width [W](2) x 0.52, equation A), the prolate ellipsoid formula (L x W x height [H] x 0.52, equation B), and the Lambert equation (L x W x H x 0.71, equation C)--were also examined and compared with the gold standard testicular volume obtained by water displacement (Archimedes principle). In this study, 30 testes from 15 men, mean age 75.3 (+/-8.3) years, were included. They all had advanced prostate cancer and were admitted for orchiectomy. Before the procedure, all the testes were assessed using SO and US. The dimensions were then input into each equation to obtain the volume estimates. The testicular volume by water displacement was 8.1 +/- 3.5 mL. Correlation coefficients (R(2)) of the 2 different methods (SO, US) to the gold standard were 0.70 and 0.85, respectively. The calculated testicular volumes were 9.2 +/- 3.9 mL (measured by SO, equation A), 11.9 +/- 5.2 mL (measured by SO, equation C), 7.3 +/- 4.2 mL (measured by US, equation A), 6.5 +/- 3.3 mL (measured by US, equation B) and 8.9 +/- 4.5 mL (measured by US, equation C). Only the mean size measured by US and volume calculated with the Hansen equation (equation A) and the mean size measured by US and volume calculated with the Lambert equation (equation C) showed no significant differences when compared with the volumes estimated by water displacement (mean difference 0.81 mL, P = .053, and 0.81 mL, P = .056, respectively). Based on our measurements, we categorized testicular volume by different cutoff values (7.0 mL, 7.5 mL, 8.0 mL, and 8.5 mL) to calculate a new constant for use in the Hansen equation. The new constant was 0.59. We then reexamined the equations using the new 0.59 constant, and found

  9. Identification and Validation of a Brief Test Anxiety Screening Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Segool, Natasha; Putwain, Dave

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of test-based accountability policies around the world has increased the pressure placed on students to perform well on state achievement tests. Educational researchers have begun taking a closer look at the reciprocal effects of test anxiety and high-stakes testing. However, existing test anxiety assessments lack efficiency and…

  10. Optimizing odor identification testing as quick and accurate diagnostic tool for Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahlknecht, Philipp; Pechlaner, Raimund; Boesveldt, Sanne; Volc, Dieter; Pinter, Bernardette; Reiter, Eva; Müller, Christoph; Krismer, Florian; Berendse, Henk W.; van Hilten, Jacobus J.; Wuschitz, Albert; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Högl, Birgit; Djamshidian, Atbin; Nocker, Michael; Göbel, Georg; Gasperi, Arno; Kiechl, Stefan; Willeit, Johann; Poewe, Werner

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate odor identification testing as a quick, cheap, and reliable tool to identify PD. Methods Odor identification with the 16‐item Sniffin' Sticks test (SS‐16) was assessed in a total of 646 PD patients and 606 controls from three European centers (A, B, and C), as well as 75 patients with atypical parkinsonism or essential tremor and in a prospective cohort of 24 patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (center A). Reduced odor sets most discriminative for PD were determined in a discovery cohort derived from a random split of PD patients and controls from center A using L1‐regularized logistic regression. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed in the rest of the patients/controls as validation cohorts. Results Olfactory performance was lower in PD patients compared with controls and non‐PD patients in all cohorts (each P < 0.001). Both the full SS‐16 and a subscore of the top eight discriminating odors (SS‐8) were associated with an excellent discrimination of PD from controls (areas under the curve ≥0.90; sensitivities ≥83.3%; specificities ≥82.0%) and from non‐PD patients (areas under the curve ≥0.91; sensitivities ≥84.1%; specificities ≥84.0%) in all cohorts. This remained unchanged when patients with >3 years of disease duration were excluded from analysis. All 8 incident PD cases among patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder were predicted with the SS‐16 and the SS‐8 (sensitivity, 100%; positive predictive value, 61.5%). Conclusions Odor identification testing provides excellent diagnostic accuracy in the distinction of PD patients from controls and diagnostic mimics. A reduced set of eight odors could be used as a quick tool in the workup of patients presenting with parkinsonism and for PD risk indication. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and

  11. Identification of dysphagia using the Toronto Bedside Swallowing Screening Test (TOR-BSST©): are 10 teaspoons of water necessary?

    PubMed

    Martino, Rosemary; Maki, Ellen; Diamant, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Dysphagia screening often includes administration of water. This study assessed the accuracy in identifying dysphagia with each additional teaspoon of water. The original research of the TOR-BSST(©) permitted this assessment. Trained nurses from acute and rehabilitation facilities prospectively administered the TOR-BSST(©) to 311 eligible stroke inpatients. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for the water item using 10 teaspoons plus a sip as the standard. The proportion of positive screenings was 59.2% in acute and 38.5% in rehabilitation. Of all four items that form the TOR-BSST(©), the water swallow item contributed to the identification of dysphagia in 42.7% in acute and 29.0% in rehabilitation patients. Across all patients, dysphagia accuracy was that five teaspoons resulted in a sensitivity of 79% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 70-86), eight a sensitivity of 92% (95% CI = 85-96) and 10 a sensitivity of 96% (95% CI = 90-99). Although a primary contributor, the water swallow item alone does not identify all patients with dysphagia. For a water swallow to accurately identify dysphagia, it is critical to administer 10 teaspoons. The TOR-BSST(©) water swallow item contributes largely to the total TOR-BSST(©)'s screening score and in making the test highly accurate and reliable.

  12. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the first steps in any alcohol screening... steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin all..., including showing the employee the instructions on the back of the ATF. (f) Complete Step 1 of the ATF....

  13. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the first steps in any alcohol screening... steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin all..., including showing the employee the instructions on the back of the ATF. (f) Complete Step 1 of the ATF....

  14. Preschool Developmental Screening with Denver II Test in Semi-Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eratay, Emine; Bayoglu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and reliability of screening semi-urban preschool children with Denver II, developmental and neurological status was examined in relation with one-year outcome. Methodology: Denver II developmental screening test was applied to 583 children who visited family physicians or other health centers in a province of…

  15. The Adolescent Health Review: Test of a Computerized Screening Tool in School-Based Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patricia A.; Beebe, Timothy J.; Funk, Eunkyung; Rancome, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Implemented a computerized screening instrument, the Adolescent Health Review, in urban school-based clinics to test the viability of a stand-alone screening process and its acceptance by patients and providers, examining the relationship between health risks and the stated purpose for the clinic visit. Patients and providers readily accepted the…

  16. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in USA.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M A; Tortolero-Luna, G; Gold, R S

    1998-01-01

    Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD=11.5), 84% reported annual household incomes ($15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years). Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

  17. A Screening Test for Wilson's Disease and its Application to Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Diane Wilson

    1967-01-01

    Varied modes of onset make the early diagnosis of Wilson's disease difficult. A deficiency of serum ceruloplasmin, usually characteristic of the disease, was used as the basis for a screening test. Simple test materials and provision for handling about 50 plasma samples simultaneously made this test feasible for large-scale screening. The screening test was applied to 336 persons hospitalized for psychiatric disorders, to detect patients with Wilson's disease before the classical symptoms appeared. Two patients with ceruloplasmin levels below the normal limits were detected but did not have Wilson's disease. Further application of the screening test to relatives of patients known to have Wilson's disease and to individuals with any symptoms of the disease (hepatic disease, extrapyramidal dysfunction, psychiatric disorders, behaviour problems in children) would aid in early diagnosis and more effective treatment. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:6017170

  18. Early Education Screening Test Battery of Basic Skills Development: Criteria for Personalizing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    The development and content of the Early Education Screening Test Battery are described elsewhere (TM 000 184). This report provides norms for the Gross Motor Test (GMO), Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), four scales of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and the Behavior Rating Scale…

  19. Fluorescent screens and image processing for the APS linac test stand

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, W.; Ko, K.

    1992-12-01

    A fluorescent screen was used to monitor relative beam position and spot size of a 56-MeV electron beam in the linac test stand. A chromium doped alumina ceramic screen inserted into the beam was monitored by a video camera. The resulting image was captured using a frame grabber and stored into memory. Reconstruction and analysis of the stored image was performed using PV-WAVE. This paper will discuss the hardware and software implementation of the fluorescent screen and imaging system. Proposed improvements for the APS linac fluorescent screens and image processing will also be discussed.

  20. Rapid Screening of Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides in a Whey Permeate Product and Domestic Animal Milks by Accurate Mass Database and Tandem Mass Spectral Library.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Otter, Don E; Barile, Daniela

    2016-08-17

    A bovine milk oligosaccharide (BMO) library, prepared from cow colostrum, with 34 structures was generated and used to rapidly screen oligosaccharides in domestic animal milks and a whey permeate powder. The novel library was entered into a custom Personal Compound Database and Library (PCDL) and included accurate mass, retention time, and tandem mass spectra. Oligosaccharides in minute-sized samples were separated using nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled to a high resolution and sensitive quadrupole-Time of Flight (Q-ToF) MS system. Using the PCDL, 18 oligosaccharides were found in a BMO-enriched product obtained from whey permeate processing. The usefulness of the analytical system and BMO library was further validated using milks from domestic sheep and buffaloes. Through BMO PCDL searching, 15 and 13 oligosaccharides in the BMO library were assigned in sheep and buffalo milks, respectively, thus demonstrating significant overlap between oligosaccharides in bovine (cow and buffalo) and ovine (sheep) milks. This method was shown to be an efficient, reliable, and rapid tool to identify oligosaccharide structures using automated spectral matching. PMID:27428379

  1. Rapid Screening of Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides in a Whey Permeate Product and Domestic Animal Milks by Accurate Mass Database and Tandem Mass Spectral Library.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Otter, Don E; Barile, Daniela

    2016-08-17

    A bovine milk oligosaccharide (BMO) library, prepared from cow colostrum, with 34 structures was generated and used to rapidly screen oligosaccharides in domestic animal milks and a whey permeate powder. The novel library was entered into a custom Personal Compound Database and Library (PCDL) and included accurate mass, retention time, and tandem mass spectra. Oligosaccharides in minute-sized samples were separated using nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled to a high resolution and sensitive quadrupole-Time of Flight (Q-ToF) MS system. Using the PCDL, 18 oligosaccharides were found in a BMO-enriched product obtained from whey permeate processing. The usefulness of the analytical system and BMO library was further validated using milks from domestic sheep and buffaloes. Through BMO PCDL searching, 15 and 13 oligosaccharides in the BMO library were assigned in sheep and buffalo milks, respectively, thus demonstrating significant overlap between oligosaccharides in bovine (cow and buffalo) and ovine (sheep) milks. This method was shown to be an efficient, reliable, and rapid tool to identify oligosaccharide structures using automated spectral matching.

  2. Evolution of motor activity tests into a screening reality.

    PubMed

    Mullenix, P J

    1989-03-01

    Measures of activity have changed in ways that their utility in screening for neurotoxicity has vastly improved. New computer pattern recognition systems now provide rapid, objective tools for identifying animal behavior. Advances in data analysis procedures have replaced the percent change in overall activity level with measures of initiations, total time and temporal structure for multiple behaviors and sequences. These advances can distinguish hyperactivities induced by different mechanisms and rank their neurotoxic potential, a feat not possible with photocell devices generally used in laboratories today. With the recent technological improvements, it is possible that a measure of activity will become one of the best predictors of malfunction in the central nervous system.

  3. Radon testing behavior in a sample of individuals with high home radon screening measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.W.; Kross, B.C.; Vust, L.J. )

    1993-08-01

    Although radon exposure has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer, fewer than 6% of US homeowners test their homes for radon. This report examines participants' follow-up radon testing behavior subsequent to receiving an initial screening radon level greater than 20 pCi/L. Sixty-two participants in the Iowa State-Wide Rural Radon Screening Survey who had radon screening measurements over 20 pCi/L were questioned by phone survey 3 months after receipt of their radon screening result to assess: whether participants were aware of radon's health risk; if participants recalled the radon screening results; how participants perceived the relative health risk of radon and whether participants planned follow-up radon testing. Only 19% of the respondents specifically identified lung cancer as the possible adverse health outcome of high radon exposure, and the majority of participants underestimated the health risks high radon levels pose when compared to cigarettes and x-rays. In addition, less than one third (29%) of the participants actually remembered their radon screening level within 10 pCi/L 3 months after receiving their screening results. Only 53% of the individuals correctly interpreted their screening radon level as being in the high range, and only 39% of the participants planned follow-up radon measurements. Receipt of radon screening test results indicating high radon levels was not an adequate motivational factor in itself to stimulate further radon assessment or mitigation. The findings suggest that free radon screening will not result in a dramatic increase in subsequent homeowner initiated remediation or further recommended radon testing. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  4. Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: interim clinical guidance.

    PubMed

    Huh, Warner K; Ault, Kevin A; Chelmow, David; Davey, Diane D; Goulart, Robert A; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kinney, Walter K; Massad, L Stewart; Mayeaux, Edward J; Saslow, Debbie; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lawson, Herschel W; Einstein, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    In 2011, the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology updated screening guidelines for the early detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. Recommended screening strategies were cytology and cotesting (cytology in combination with hrHPV testing). These guidelines also addressed the use of hrHPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, which was not recommended for use at that time. There is now a growing body of evidence for screening with primary hrHPV testing, including a prospective US-based registration study. Thirteen experts including representatives from the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Cancer Society, American Society of Cytopathology, College of American Pathologists, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology, convened to provide interim guidance for primary hrHPV screening. This guidance panel was specifically triggered by an application to the FDA for a currently marketed HPV test to be labeled for the additional indication of primary cervical cancer screening. Guidance was based on literature review and review of data from the FDA registration study, supplemented by expert opinion. This document aims to provide information for healthcare providers who are interested in primary hrHPV testing and an overview of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this strategy for screening as well as to highlight areas in need of further investigation.

  5. Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: interim clinical guidance.

    PubMed

    Huh, Warner K; Ault, Kevin A; Chelmow, David; Davey, Diane D; Goulart, Robert A; Garcia, Francisco A; Kinney, Walter K; Massad, L Stewart; Mayeaux, Edward J; Saslow, Debbie; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lawson, Herschel W; Einstein, Mark H

    2015-04-01

    In 2011, the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology updated screening guidelines for the early detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. Recommended screening strategies were cytology or cotesting (cytology in combination with high-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing). These guidelines also addressed the use of hrHPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, which was not recommended for use at that time. There is now a growing body of evidence for screening with primary hrHPV testing, including a prospective US-based registration study. Thirteen experts including representatives from the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Cancer Society, American Society of Cytopathology, College of American Pathologists, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology, convened to provide interim guidance for primary hrHPV screening. This guidance panel was specifically triggered by an application to the FDA for a currently marketed HPV test to be labeled for the additional indication of primary cervical cancer screening. Guidance was based on literature review and review of data from the FDA registration study, supplemented by expert opinion. This document aims to provide information for health care providers who are interested in primary hrHPV testing and an overview of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this strategy for screening as well as to highlight areas in need of further investigation.

  6. Stretch calculated from grip distance accurately approximates mid-specimen stretch in large elastic arteries in uniaxial tensile tests.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lian; Henningsen, Joseph; Salick, Max R; Crone, Wendy C; Gunderson, McLean; Dailey, Seth H; Chesler, Naomi C

    2015-07-01

    The mechanical properties of vascular tissues affect hemodynamics and can alter disease progression. The uniaxial tensile test is a simple and effective method for determining the stress-strain relationship in arterial tissue ex vivo. To enable calculation of strain, stretch can be measured directly with image tracking of markers on the tissue or indirectly from the distance between the grips used to hold the specimen. While the imaging technique is generally considered more accurate, it also requires more analysis, and the grip distance method is more widely used. The purpose of this study is to compare the stretch of the testing specimen calculated from the grip distance method to that obtained from the imaging method for canine descending aortas and large proximal pulmonary arteries. Our results showed a significant difference in stretch between the two methods; however, this difference was consistently less than 2%. Therefore, the grip distance method is an accurate approximation of the stretch in large elastic arteries in the uniaxial tensile test. PMID:25881308

  7. Hydrogen sulfide detection based on reflection: from a poison test approach of ancient China to single-cell accurate localization.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hao; Ma, Zhuoran; Wang, Song; Gong, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2014-08-01

    With the inspiration of an ancient Chinese poison test approach, we report a rapid hydrogen sulfide detection strategy in specific areas of live cells using silver needles with good spatial resolution of 2 × 2 μm(2). Besides the accurate-localization ability, this reflection-based strategy also has attractive merits of convenience and robust response when free pretreatment and short detection time are concerned. The success of endogenous H2S level evaluation in cellular cytoplasm and nuclear of human A549 cells promises the application potential of our strategy in scientific research and medical diagnosis.

  8. Overview of Non-Volatile Testing and Screening Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh

    2001-01-01

    Testing methods for memories and non-volatile memories have become increasingly sophisticated as they become denser and more complex. High frequency and faster rewrite times as well as smaller feature sizes have led to many testing challenges. This paper outlines several testing issues posed by novel memories and approaches to testing for radiation and reliability effects. We discuss methods for measurements of Total Ionizing Dose (TID).

  9. STRATEGIES TO REDUCE OR REPLACE THE USE OF ANIMALS IN THE ENDOCRINE SCREENING AND TESTING PROGRAM.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to detect alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function, estrogen, androgen and thyroid hormone synthesis and androgen (AR...

  10. COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY - OBJECTIVE 2: DEVELOPING APPROACHES FOR PRIORITIZING CHEMICALS FOR SUBSEQUENT SCREENING AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the strategic objectives of the Computational Toxicology Program is to develop approaches for prioritizing chemicals for subsequent screening and testing. Approaches currently available for this process require extensive resources. Therefore, less costly and time-extensi...

  11. Development of materials screening tests for oxygen-enriched environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. L.; Pippen, D. L.

    1971-01-01

    The criteria governing materials to be used in an oxygen enriched atmosphere and tests to determine suitability for fireproof considerations in spacecraft design are discussed. The nine tests applied to materials before acceptance in spacecraft construction are presented. The application of the standard tests to determine ranking of materials is included.

  12. A simplified screening test for identifying people with low vision in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Keeffe, J. E.; Lovie-Kitchin, J. E.; Maclean, H.; Taylor, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    Simple but effective tests have been produced for screening subjects with low vision in developing countries. These tests of distance and near vision, based on the E test, were evaluated and validated in trials with people aged 4-90 years, and have been field tested in the health, education and rehabilitation services in 32 developing countries. Their sensitivity and specificity as screening tools for low vision have been calculated; sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 96% for the distance vision test, and sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 84% for the near vision test. The content and format of the tests have been demonstrated to be appropriate for developing countries, and their effectiveness for screening for low vision has been confirmed. PMID:9002333

  13. Background: Preflight Screening, In-flight Capabilities, and Postflight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Charles Robert; Duncan, James

    2009-01-01

    Recommendations for minimal in-flight capabilities: Retinal Imaging - provide in-flight capability for the visual monitoring of ocular health (specifically, imaging of the retina and optic nerve head) with the capability of downlinking video/still images. Tonometry - provide more accurate and reliable in-flight capability for measuring intraocular pressure. Ultrasound - explore capabilities of current on-board system for monitoring ocular health. We currently have limited in-flight capabilities on board the International Space Station for performing an internal ocular health assessment. Visual Acuity, Direct Ophthalmoscope, Ultrasound, Tonometry(Tonopen):

  14. Evaluation of Two Phenotypic Screening Tests for Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Pantel, Alix; Souzy, Dimitri; Sotto, Albert

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of two rapid tests for detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) strains. The sensitivities and the specificities were 97.6% and 94.4% for the Rapid CARB Screen and 98.8% and 93.1% for the KPC/MBL & OXA-48 Confirm tests, providing the usefulness of these tools for screening CPE in microbiology wards. PMID:26224841

  15. Toward Joint Hypothesis-Tests Seismic Event Screening Analysis: Ms|mb and Event Depth

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale; Selby, Neil

    2012-08-14

    Well established theory can be used to combine single-phenomenology hypothesis tests into a multi-phenomenology event screening hypothesis test (Fisher's and Tippett's tests). Commonly used standard error in Ms:mb event screening hypothesis test is not fully consistent with physical basis. Improved standard error - Better agreement with physical basis, and correctly partitions error to include Model Error as a component of variance, correctly reduces station noise variance through network averaging. For 2009 DPRK test - Commonly used standard error 'rejects' H0 even with better scaling slope ({beta} = 1, Selby et al.), improved standard error 'fails to rejects' H0.

  16. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  1. Developing and Testing of an Oral Health Screening Tool for Midwives to Assess Pregnant Woman.

    PubMed

    George, Ajesh; Ajwani, Shilpi; Johnson, Maree; Dahlen, Hannah; Blinkhorn, Anthony; Bhole, Sameer; Ellis, Sharon; Zheng, Catherine; Dawes, William

    2015-01-01

    Maternal oral health is important, and midwives are encouraged to screen women for dental problems. We aimed to develop and test a midwifery oral health screening tool. A three-item tool was tested as part of a trial involving 300 women in Southwestern Sydney. A two-item combination showed better sensitivity (98%) and had a positive predictive value of 88%. Specificity was 40%, and negative predictive value was 80%. A two-item screening tool has been identified that is sensitive to identifying dental problems and facilitating referrals. Further validation using a larger sample is required to reassess the tool's specificity.

  2. Evaluation of a standard test method for screening fuels in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Sorini, S.S.; Schabron, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    A new screening method for fuel contamination in soils was recently developed as American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method D-5831-95, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This method uses low-toxicity chemicals and can be sued to screen organic- rich soils, as well as being fast, easy, and inexpensive to perform. Fuels containing aromatic compounds, such as diesel fuel and gasoline, as well as other aromatic-containing hydrocarbon materials, such as motor oil, crude oil, and cola oil, can be determined. The screening method for fuels in soils was evaluated by conducting a Collaborative study on the method. In the Collaborative study, a sand and an organic soil spiked with various concentrations of diesel fuel were tested. Data from the Collaborative study were used to determine the reproducibility (between participants) and repeatability (within participants) precision of the method for screening the test materials. The Collaborative study data also provide information on the performance of portable field equipment (patent pending) versus laboratory equipment for performing the screening method and a comparison of diesel concentration values determined using the screening method versus a laboratory method.

  3. Astrophysical tests of gravity: a screening map of the nearby universe

    SciTech Connect

    Cabré, Anna; Vikram, Vinu; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Koyama, Kazuya E-mail: vinu@sas.upenn.edu E-mail: bjain@physics.upenn.edu

    2012-07-01

    Astrophysical tests of modified gravity theories in the nearby universe have been emphasized recently by Hui 2009 and Jain 2011. A key element of such tests is the screening mechanism whereby general relativity is restored in massive halos or high density environments like the Milky Way. In chameleon theories of gravity, including all f(R) models, field dwarf galaxies may be unscreened and therefore feel an extra force, as opposed to screened galaxies. The first step to study differences between screened and unscreened galaxies is to create a 3D screening map. We use N-body simulations to test and calibrate simple approximations to determine the level of screening in galaxy catalogs. Sources of systematic errors in the screening map due to observational inaccuracies are modeled and their contamination is estimated. We then apply our methods to create a map out to 200 Mpc in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint using data from the Sloan survey and other sources. In two companion papers this map will be used to carry out new tests of gravity using distance indicators and the disks of dwarf galaxies. We also make our screening map publicly available.

  4. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening

    PubMed Central

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  5. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  6. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  7. [Return for HIV test results after voluntary screening in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that individuals who voluntarily undergo an HIV test in PVTCCs of the Douala district hospitals in Cameroon perceived real advantages and very few disadvantages and barriers to know their HIV status. Particular attention should be given to organizational factors that may be responsible for failure to return for HIV test results and post-test counselling.. PMID:27531439

  8. Cervical cancer screening of HPV vaccinated populations: Cytology, molecular testing, both or none.

    PubMed

    El-Zein, Mariam; Richardson, Lyndsay; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer control includes primary prevention through vaccination to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and secondary prevention through screening to detect and treat cervical precancerous lesions. This review summarizes the evidence for the population impact of vaccines against oncogenic HPV types in reducing the prevalence of cervical precancerous lesions. We examine the gradual shift in screening technology from cervical cytology alone to cytology and HPV cotesting, and finally to the recognition that HPV testing can serve alone as the new screening paradigm, particularly in the initial post-vaccination era. We should expect an impact on screening performance and practices, as cohorts of HPV-vaccinated girls and adolescents reach cervical cancer screening age. In preparation for changes in the screening paradigm for the vaccination era, we propose that policymaking on cervical cancer screening should mirror current practices with other cancers as benchmarks. Cervical precancerous lesions will become a very rare condition following the widespread implementation of HPV vaccines with broader coverage in the number of preventable oncogenic types. Irrespective of screening technology, the false positive results will far outnumber the true positive ones, a tipping point that will herald a new period when the harms from cervical cancer screening will outweigh its benefits. We present a conceptual framework to guide decision making when we reach this point within 25-30 years. PMID:26631958

  9. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals... Qualifications When the Aircraft Operator Performs Screening § 1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of... on-the-job training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft operator...

  10. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals... Carrier Conducts Screening § 1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform... test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each foreign air carrier must ensure...

  11. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and gUidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemic...

  12. The Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) as a Predictor of Third-Grade Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichta, Lawrence J., Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Evaluated the Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) using a sample of 28 third graders. The third graders' scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test were correlated with their total STAR scores from prekindergarten testing. Results showed the STAR is a useful instrument for predicting third grade achievement. (Author/JAC)

  13. Predictive Properties of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test within Samples from Two Treatment Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerji, Madhabi

    The predictive properties of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRT) were examined, taking into account the stated purposes of the test and the context of test use. Two samples were used: (1) a control sample of 55 students (21 males and 34 females) whose GSRT scores were not used for placement or tracking; and (2) a treatment sample of…

  14. How reliable is the fifty-gram, one-hour glucose screening test?

    PubMed

    Sacks, D A; Abu-Fadil, S; Greenspoon, J S; Fotheringham, N

    1989-09-01

    The Second International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes recommended screening all pregnant women with a 1-hour 50 gm oral glucose screening test, given without regard to time of day or time elapsed from the last meal. This study was designed to evaluate the reproducibility of that test, given under those clinical conditions. Thirty women with gestational diabetes and 80 control volunteers between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation were tested at the same time of day on two successive days. Of the 30 women with diabetes, three (10%) had glucose screening test results below the 135 mg/dl threshold on both days and 10 (33%) had results that straddled the threshold on successive days. Test results of 11 control women also straddled the threshold. Among these 21 women with results that straddled the threshold, there was no difference in mean glucose screening test results in diabetic women compared with nondiabetic ones. We conclude that, as currently recommended, the 1-hour glucose screening test is moderately reproducible. Reliance should not be placed on a single normal test result, particularly among patients with risk factors.

  15. Automated screening of propulsion system test data by neural networks, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, W. Andes; Whitehead, Bruce A.

    1992-01-01

    The evaluation of propulsion system test and flight performance data involves reviewing an extremely large volume of sensor data generated by each test. An automated system that screens large volumes of data and identifies propulsion system parameters which appear unusual or anomalous will increase the productivity of data analysis. Data analysts may then focus on a smaller subset of anomalous data for further evaluation of propulsion system tests. Such an automated data screening system would give NASA the benefit of a reduction in the manpower and time required to complete a propulsion system data evaluation. A phase 1 effort to develop a prototype data screening system is reported. Neural networks will detect anomalies based on nominal propulsion system data only. It appears that a reasonable goal for an operational system would be to screen out 95 pct. of the nominal data, leaving less than 5 pct. needing further analysis by human experts.

  16. Neither One-Time Negative Screening Tests nor Negative Colposcopy Provides Absolute Reassurance against Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Philip E.; Rodríguez, Ana C.; Burk, Robert D.; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Solomon, Diane; Sherman, Mark E.; Jeronimo, Jose; Alfaro, Mario; Morales, Jorge; Guillén, Diego; Hutchinson, Martha L.; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiffman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A population sample of 10,049 women living in Guanacaste, Costa Rica was recruited into a natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia study in 1993–4. At the enrollment visit, we applied multiple state-of-the-art cervical cancer screening methods to detect prevalent cervical cancer and to prevent subsequent cervical cancers by the timely detection and treatment of precancerous lesions. Women were screened at enrollment with 3 kinds of cytology (often reviewed by more than one pathologist), visual inspection, and Cervicography. Any positive screening test led to colposcopic referral and biopsy and/or excisional treatment of CIN2 or worse. We retrospectively tested stored specimens with an early HPV test (Hybrid Capture Tube Test) and for >40 HPV genotypes using a research PCR assay. We followed women typically 5–7 years and some up to 11 years. Nonetheless, sixteen cases of invasive cervical cancer were diagnosed during follow-up. Six cancer cases were failures at enrollment to detect abnormalities by cytology screening; three of the six were also negative at enrollment by sensitive HPV DNA testing. Seven cancers represent failures of colposcopy to diagnose cancer or a precancerous lesion in screen-positive women. Finally, three cases arose despite attempted excisional treatment of precancerous lesions. Based on this evidence, we suggest that no current secondary cervical cancer prevention technologies applied once in a previously under-screened population is likely to be 100% efficacious in preventing incident diagnoses of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:19569231

  17. Validation testing of shallow notched round-bar screening test specimens. [for the space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vroman, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    The capability of shallow-notched, round-bar, tensile specimens for screening critical environments as they affect the material fracture properties of the space shuttle main engine was tested and analyzed. Specimens containing a 0.050-inch-deep circumferential sharp notch were cyclically loaded in a 5000-psi hydrogen environment at temperatures of +70 and -15 F. Replication of test results and a marked change in cyclic life because of temperature variation demonstrated the validity of the specimen type to be utilized for screening tests.

  18. A screening test for the determination of ethylene sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Archambault, Daniel J; Li, Xiaomei; Foster, Kenneth R; Jack, T R

    2006-04-01

    Ethephon, which releases ethylene within plant tissues after application, was chosen to perform assessments of the relative sensitivity of crops to ethylene and to determine which stages of plant development were most sensitive. The species chosen were: barley, wheat, oats, canola and field pea, all of which are important crops in the province of Alberta, Canada. Plants were treated with ethephon at one of 7 different stages. Plants were assessed for their vegetative and reproductive growth, including height, biomass, yield and seed quality. Visual symptoms were photographed and documented to compare them with symptoms caused by ethylene applied as a gas. It was concluded that in barley, wheat and canola the late vegetative and early reproductive stages were most sensitive, at least when sensitivity was defined as reductions in yield and quality. As for field pea, ethephon had no effect on yield but did cause increased numbers of pods, which in certain conditions could lead to increased yields. Significant effects on vegetative growth were only observed in the early vegetative stages of development but with no effects on yield. The screening protocol successfully identified sensitive cultivars and growth stages for further investigation of the effects of ethylene exposure.

  19. Improving newborn screening laboratory test ordering and result reporting using health information exchange

    PubMed Central

    van Dyck, Peter C; Rinaldo, Piero; McDonald, Clement; Howell, R Rodrey; Zuckerman, Alan; Downing, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Capture, coding and communication of newborn screening (NBS) information represent a challenge for public health laboratories, health departments, hospitals, and ambulatory care practices. An increasing number of conditions targeted for screening and the complexity of interpretation contribute to a growing need for integrated information-management strategies. This makes NBS an important test of tools and architecture for electronic health information exchange (HIE) in this convergence of individual patient care and population health activities. For this reason, the American Health Information Community undertook three tasks described in this paper. First, a newborn screening use case was established to facilitate standards harmonization for common terminology and interoperability specifications guiding HIE. Second, newborn screening coding and terminology were developed for integration into electronic HIE activities. Finally, clarification of privacy, security, and clinical laboratory regulatory requirements governing information exchange was provided, serving as a framework to establish pathways for improving screening program timeliness, effectiveness, and efficiency of quality patient care services. PMID:20064796

  20. Classification of audiograms by sequential testing: reliability and validity of an automated behavioral hearing screening algorithm.

    PubMed

    Eilers, R E; Ozdamar, O; Steffens, M L

    1993-05-01

    In 1990, CAST (classification of audiograms by sequential testing) was proposed and developed as an automated, innovative approach to screening infant hearing using a modified Bayesian method. The method generated a four-frequency audiogram in a minimal number of test trials using VRA (visual reinforcement audiometry) techniques. Computer simulations were used to explore the properties (efficiency and accuracy) of the paradigm. The current work is designed to further test the utility of the paradigm with human infants and young children. Accordingly, infants and children between 6 months and 2 years of age were screened for hearing loss. The algorithm's efficacy was studied with respect to validity and reliability. Validity was evaluated by comparing CAST results with tympanometric data and outcomes of staircase-based testing. Test-retest reliability was also assessed. Results indicate that CAST is a valid, efficient, reliable, and potentially cost-effective screening method. PMID:8318708

  1. Comprehensive Carrier Screening and Molecular Diagnostic Testing for Recessive Childhood Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kingsmore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Of 7,028 disorders with suspected Mendelian inheritance, 1,139 are recessive and have an established molecular basis. Although individually uncommon, Mendelian diseases collectively account for ~20% of infant mortality and ~18% of pediatric hospitalizations. Molecular diagnostic testing is currently available for only ~300 recessive disorders. Preconception screening, together with genetic counseling of carriers, has resulted in remarkable declines in the incidence of several severe recessive diseases including Tay-Sachs disease and cystic fibrosis. However, extension of preconception screening and molecular diagnostic testing to most recessive disease genes has hitherto been impractical. Recently, we reported a preconception carrier screen / molecular diagnostic test for 448 recessive childhood diseases. The current status of this test is reviewed here. Currently, this reports analytical validity of the comprehensive carrier test. As the clinical validity and clinical utility in the contexts described is ascertained, this article will be updated. PMID:22872815

  2. The Double Knee Swing Test - a practical example of The Performance Matrix Movement Screen.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Warrick

    2014-07-01

    Movement screens have been suggested as an appropriate tool to identify 'uncontrolled movement' within the human neuromusculoskeletal system. Movement screens test the Central Nervous System along with the muscular system, for their combined ability to successfully control low threshold forces, such as those affecting posture and alignment, or, high threshold forces, such as those requiring muscular strength to control. Further information such as the identification of an anatomical site and direction of a potential uncontrolled movement can be elicited by this type of testing. This paper describes a low threshold, movement screen test, designed to be part of a battery of tests, which when used as a whole, can identify injury risk or factors affecting performance limitations. The testing is suggested to be a suitable assessment tool for Pilates Teachers working in a rehabilitative environment. PMID:25042325

  3. Comprehensive carrier screening and molecular diagnostic testing for recessive childhood diseases.

    PubMed

    Kingsmore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Of 7,028 disorders with suspected Mendelian inheritance, 1,139 are recessive and have an established molecular basis. Although individually uncommon, Mendelian diseases collectively account for ~20% of infant mortality and ~18% of pediatric hospitalizations. Molecular diagnostic testing is currently available for only ~300 recessive disorders. Preconception screening, together with genetic counseling of carriers, has resulted in remarkable declines in the incidence of several severe recessive diseases including Tay-Sachs disease and cystic fibrosis. However, extension of preconception screening and molecular diagnostic testing to most recessive disease genes has hitherto been impractical. Recently, we reported a preconception carrier screen / molecular diagnostic test for 448 recessive childhood diseases. The current status of this test is reviewed here. Currently, this reports analytical validity of the comprehensive carrier test. As the clinical validity and clinical utility in the contexts described is ascertained, this article will be updated. PMID:22872815

  4. Optimisation and assessment of three modern touch screen tablet computers for clinical vision testing.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Humza J; Murray, Ian J; Parry, Neil R A; Aslam, Tariq M

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.

  5. Development and pilot testing of a vitiligo screening tool.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Vaneeta M; Gunasekera, Nicole S; Silwal, Sujeeta; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2015-01-01

    Studies aimed at understanding the pathology, genetics, and therapeutic response of vitiligo rely on asking a single question about 'physician-diagnosed' vitiligo on surveys to identify subjects for research. However, this type of self-reporting is not sufficient. Our objective was to determine if the patient-administered Vitiligo Screening Tool (VISTO) is a sensitive and specific instrument for the detection of vitiligo in an adult population. The VISTO consists of eight closed-ended questions to assess whether the survey participant has ever been diagnosed with vitiligo by a healthcare worker and uses characteristic pictures and descriptions to inquire about the subtype and extent of any skin lesions. 159 patients at the Brigham and Women's Hospital dermatology clinic with or without a diagnosis of vitiligo were recruited. A board-certified dermatologist confirmed or excluded the diagnosis of vitiligo in each subject. 147 completed questionnaires were analyzed, 47 cases and 100 controls. The pictorial question showed 97.9% sensitivity and 98% specificity for diagnosis of vitiligo. Answering "yes" to being diagnosed with vitiligo by a dermatologist and choosing one photographic representation of vitiligo showed 95.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity for diagnosis of vitiligo. We conclude that VISTO is a highly sensitive and specific, low-burden, self-administered tool for identifying vitiligo among adult English speakers. We believe this tool will provide a simple, cost-effective way to confirm vitiligo prior to enrollment in clinical trials as well as for gathering large-scale epidemiologic data in remote populations. Future work to refine the VISTO is needed prior to use in genotype-phenotype correlation studies.

  6. Non-targeted screening for contaminants in paper and board food-contact materials using effect-directed analysis and accurate mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bengtström, Linda; Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Trier, Xenia; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger; Granby, Kit; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Driffield, Malcolm; Højslev Petersen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Due to large knowledge gaps in chemical composition and toxicological data for substances involved, paper and board food-contact materials (P&B FCM) have been emerging as a FCM type of particular concern for consumer safety. This study describes the development of a step-by-step strategy, including extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, tentative identification of relevant substances and in vitro testing of selected tentatively identified substances. As a case study, we used two fractions from a recycled pizza box sample which exhibited aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity. These fractions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometers (QTOF MS) in order tentatively to identify substances. The elemental composition was determined for peaks above a threshold, and compared with entries in a commercial mass spectral library for GC-MS (GC-EI-QTOF MS) analysis and an in-house built library of accurate masses for substances known to be used in P&B packaging for UHPLC-QTOF analysis. Of 75 tentatively identified substances, 15 were initially selected for further testing in vitro; however, only seven were commercially available and subsequently tested in vitro and quantified. Of these seven, the identities of three pigments found in printing inks were confirmed by UHPLC tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ MS/MS). Two pigments had entries in the database, meaning that a material relevant accurate mass database can provide a fast tentative identification. Pure standards of the seven tentatively identified substances were tested in vitro but could not explain a significant proportion of the AhR-response in the extract. Targeted analyses of dioxins and PCBs, both well-known AhR agonists, was performed. However, the dioxins could explain approximately 3% of the activity observed in the pizza box extract indicating that some very AhR active substance(s) still remain to be

  7. Non-targeted screening for contaminants in paper and board food-contact materials using effect-directed analysis and accurate mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bengtström, Linda; Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Trier, Xenia; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger; Granby, Kit; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Driffield, Malcolm; Højslev Petersen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Due to large knowledge gaps in chemical composition and toxicological data for substances involved, paper and board food-contact materials (P&B FCM) have been emerging as a FCM type of particular concern for consumer safety. This study describes the development of a step-by-step strategy, including extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, tentative identification of relevant substances and in vitro testing of selected tentatively identified substances. As a case study, we used two fractions from a recycled pizza box sample which exhibited aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity. These fractions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometers (QTOF MS) in order tentatively to identify substances. The elemental composition was determined for peaks above a threshold, and compared with entries in a commercial mass spectral library for GC-MS (GC-EI-QTOF MS) analysis and an in-house built library of accurate masses for substances known to be used in P&B packaging for UHPLC-QTOF analysis. Of 75 tentatively identified substances, 15 were initially selected for further testing in vitro; however, only seven were commercially available and subsequently tested in vitro and quantified. Of these seven, the identities of three pigments found in printing inks were confirmed by UHPLC tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ MS/MS). Two pigments had entries in the database, meaning that a material relevant accurate mass database can provide a fast tentative identification. Pure standards of the seven tentatively identified substances were tested in vitro but could not explain a significant proportion of the AhR-response in the extract. Targeted analyses of dioxins and PCBs, both well-known AhR agonists, was performed. However, the dioxins could explain approximately 3% of the activity observed in the pizza box extract indicating that some very AhR active substance(s) still remain to be

  8. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies.

    PubMed

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi

    2009-09-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination.

  9. [Community-based hearing screening project in Tochigi prefecture and results thorough audiometric test].

    PubMed

    Fukami, Satoru; Nakamura, Mamiko; Baba, Kohtaro; Hirabayashi, Hideki; Haruna, Shinichi; Ichimura, Keiichi; Ishikawa, Kotaro

    2009-02-01

    Community-based hearing screening projects have the objectives of screening hearing to identify early and intervene in cases of hearing-impaired infants and to consider how to implement mass screening, education, and support suitable. This project started in Tochigi prefecture in 2002. Of 6198 infants undergoing automatic auditory brainstem response (ABR), those rescreened accounted for 1.1% and those referred for diagnostic testing for 0.7%. After initial thorough audiometric testing, 20 infants were suggested to have bilateral hearing loss, although this was finally reduced to 17. Inconsistency between automatic and conventional ABR was found in 10 cases. Automatic ABR showed 7 false-positive and 3 false-negative cases, all of which finally proved to be within normal range hearing. Newborn-hearing screening enabled infants with hearing loss to be identified early. Japan has yet, however, to implement needed medical treatment and appropriate educational and support systems for hearing-impaired infants. PMID:19317225

  10. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... receive the benefit: (1) Hypertension. (2) Dyslipidemia. (3) Obesity, defined as a body mass index greater... criteria: a fasting blood sugar greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL on two different occasions; a 2-hour... this subpart are met: (1) Fasting blood glucose test. (2) Post-glucose challenges including, but...

  11. Sweat testing for cystic fibrosis. Diagnostic screening with a combination chloride ion-selective electrode.

    PubMed Central

    Bray, P T; Clark, G C; Moody, G J; Thomas, G; Thomas, J D

    1978-01-01

    Screening of sweat chloride in newborn infants with the Orion Skin Chloride Measuring System and incorporating some procedural innovations is described. The results indicate that while diagnostic screening for cystic fibrosis can be readily undertaken, the test with the chloride ion-selective electrode is best left at least to the second day of life or later because of insufficient sweating in very young babies. Measurements on 2 babies with cystic fibrosis are also discussed. PMID:686774

  12. Rapid toxicity screening tests for aquatic biota. 1. Methodology and experiments with Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, C.R.; Persoone, G. )

    1993-04-01

    A promising new and rapid toxicity screening test was developed, the concept and principles of which are presented. The method consists of visual observation of in vivo inhibition of an enzymatic process, using a fluorescent substrate. Juvenile Daphnia magna was exposed to a toxicant dilution series for 1 h, after which the substrate was added and the enzymatic inhibition was observed visually, using a long-wave UV light. The 1-h EC50 results of 11 pure compounds are presented and compared to the conventional 24- and 48-h Daphnia magna EC50s. All 1-h fluorescence EC50s were of the same order of magnitude and correlated very well with the 24- and 48-h EC50s. The sensitivity and reproducibility of this cost-effective screening test were compared to those of the Microtox[reg sign] test. The scope for application and the potential of this new rapid toxicity screening test are evaluated.

  13. Coagulation tests on capillary blood. A screening procedure for use in small children.

    PubMed

    DORMANDY, K M; HARDISTY, R M

    1961-09-01

    A method of investigating the coagulation mechanism is described.Results obtained by this procedure are compared with those of tests carried out on venous blood obtained simultaneously from normal subjects and patients with a variety of clotting defects. Good correlation was found between the results of P and P tests on venous and capillary blood, and also between thromboplastin screening tests on capillary blood and antihaemophilic and Christmas factor levels. The methods described have proved reliable as a pre-operative screening procedure in routine use over a period of nearly two years.

  14. Denver Developmental Screening Test survey of Bangkok children.

    PubMed

    Sriyaporn, P P; Pissasoontorn, W; Sakdisawadi, O

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary developmental survey (using DDST) of 1442 Bangkok children who were between the ages of two weeks and six years was conducted between June 1983 and December 1987. The results of this study showed that the 25th percentile for the development of Bangkok children in the areas of personal-social, fine motor adaptive, language and gross motor skills were comparable to the children in original samples in Denver. Although the Bangkok group seems to have passed many test items at earlier ages, the 75th-90th percentile in each test item was generally more delayed in the Bangkok group. The investigative team suggests that further research for the purpose of establishing a norm for the DDST be pursued on the basis of geographical sampling more than socioeconomical sampling that was used in this study.

  15. Pedigree-based random effect tests to screen gene pathways.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Marcio; Peralta, Juan M; Farook, Vidya; Puppala, Sobha; Kent, John W; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Blangero, John

    2014-01-01

    The new generation of sequencing platforms opens new horizons in the genetics field. It is possible to exhaustively assay all genetic variants in an individual and search for phenotypic associations. The whole genome sequencing approach, when applied to a large human sample like the San Antonio Family Study, detects a very large number (>25 million) of single nucleotide variants along with other more complex variants. The analytical challenges imposed by this number of variants are formidable, suggesting that methods are needed to reduce the overall number of statistical tests. In this study, we develop a single degree-of-freedom test of variants in a gene pathway employing a random effect model that uses an empirical pathway-specific genetic relationship matrix as the focal covariance kernel. The empirical pathway-specific genetic relationship uses all variants (or a chosen subset) from gene members of a given biological pathway. Using SOLAR's pedigree-based variance components modeling, which also allows for arbitrary fixed effects, such as principal components, to deal with latent population structure, we employ a likelihood ratio test of the pathway-specific genetic relationship matrix model. We examine all gene pathways in KEGG database gene pathways using our method in the first replicate of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 simulation of systolic blood pressure. Our random effect approach was able to detect true association signals in causal gene pathways. Those pathways could be easily be further dissected by the independent analysis of all markers. PMID:25519354

  16. History, evolution, and current status of radiologic imaging tests for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Levine, Marc S; Yee, Judy

    2014-11-01

    Colorectal cancer screening is thought to be an effective tool with which to reduce the mortality from colorectal cancer through early detection and removal of colonic adenomas and early colon cancers. In this article, we review the history, evolution, and current status of imaging tests of the colon-including single-contrast barium enema, double-contrast barium enema, computed tomographic (CT) colonography, and magnetic resonance (MR) colonography-for colorectal cancer screening. Despite its documented value in the detection of colonic polyps, the double-contrast barium enema has largely disappeared as a screening test because it is widely perceived as a labor-intensive, time-consuming, and technically demanding procedure. In the past decade, the barium enema has been supplanted by CT colonography as the major imaging test in colorectal cancer screening in the United States, with MR colonography emerging as another viable option in Europe. Although MR colonography does not require ionizing radiation, the radiation dose for CT colonography has decreased substantially, and regular screening with this technique has a high benefit-to-risk ratio. In recent years, CT colonography has been validated as an effective tool for use in colorectal cancer screening that is increasingly being disseminated.

  17. Evaluation of Hydroxyatrazine in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program’s Male and Female Pubertal Protocols.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of Hydroxyatrazine in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program’s Male and Female Pubertal Protocols. ABSTRACT Two critical components of the validation of any in vivo screening assay are to demonstrate sensitivity (ability to detect weak endocrine ...

  18. Does sensitivity measured from screening test-sets predict clinical performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, BaoLin P.; Lee, Warwick B.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia R.; Tapia, Kriscia A.; Ryan, John; Hung, Wai Tak; Thompson, Graham J.; Heard, Rob; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2014-03-01

    Aim: To examine the relationship between sensitivity measured from the BREAST test-set and clinical performance. Background: Although the UK and Australia national breast screening programs have regarded PERFORMS and BREAST test-set strategies as possible methods of estimating readers' clinical efficacy, the relationship between test-set and real life performance results has never been satisfactorily understood. Methods: Forty-one radiologists from BreastScreen New South Wales participated in this study. Each reader interpreted a BREAST test-set which comprised sixty de-identified mammographic examinations sourced from the BreastScreen Digital Imaging Library. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to compare the sensitivity measured from the BREAST test-set with screen readers' clinical audit data. Results: Results shown statistically significant positive moderate correlations between test-set sensitivity and each of the following metrics: rate of invasive cancer per 10 000 reads (r=0.495; p < 0.01); rate of small invasive cancer per 10 000 reads (r=0.546; p < 0.001); detection rate of all invasive cancers and DCIS per 10 000 reads (r=0.444; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Comparison between sensitivity measured from the BREAST test-set and real life detection rate demonstrated statistically significant positive moderate correlations which validated that such test-set strategies can reflect readers' clinical performance and be used as a quality assurance tool. The strength of correlation demonstrated in this study was higher than previously found by others.

  19. Assessment of an Interactive Computer-Based Patient Prenatal Genetic Screening and Testing Education Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jennifer M.; Sorenson, James R.; Bowling, J. Michael; Jennings-Grant, Tracey

    2005-01-01

    The Enhancing Patient Prenatal Education study tested the feasibility and educational impact of an interactive program for patient prenatal genetic screening and testing education. Patients at two private practices and one public health clinic participated (N = 207). The program collected knowledge and measures of anxiety before and after use of…

  20. Verbal Fluency as a Rapid Screening Test for Cognitive Impairment in Early Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Torralva, Teresa; Laffaye, Teresa; Báez, Sandra; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Bruno, Diana; Chade, Anabel; Ibañez, Agustin; Manes, Facundo; Gershanik, Oscar; Roca, María

    2015-01-01

    The phonological verbal fluency test can act as a fast screening test to detect cognitive deficits in neurological conditions. In the present study, its utility in the detection of executive deficits in patients with early Parkinson's disease is demonstrated. PMID:26067437

  1. Simple Screening Test for Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm in the Middle School Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Tyler J.; Baker, Rachel H.; Weiss, Jason B.; Weiss, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This article recommends and provides results from a simple screening test that could be incorporated into a standardized school evaluation for all children participating in sports and physical education classes. The test can be employed by physical educators utilizing their own gym to identify children who demonstrate signs of exercise-induced…

  2. Memory-Context Effects of Screen Color in Multiple-Choice and Fill-In Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestera, Gustavo E.; Clariana, Roy; Peck, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    In this experimental study, 44 undergraduates completed five computer-based instructional lessons and either two multiplechoice tests or two fill-in-the-blank tests. Color-coded borders were displayed during the lesson, adjacent to the screen text and illustrations. In the experimental condition, corresponding border colors were shown at posttest.…

  3. Psychometric Characteristics and Appropriate Use of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the adequacy of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRST) to gauge 46 kindergartners' readiness. Found agreement between GSRST and teacher assessments of student readiness. Test-retest and interrater reliability were below acceptable levels, and lower than figures yielded by a quantitative scoring method. Concluded that GSRST…

  4. Manual for the Deaf-Blind Program and Ability Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyall, J.; And Others

    Presented are a manual and a screening test to assist teachers and professionals to determine the functional ability level and individual program needs of deaf blind and multiply handicapped children. It is noted that the individually administered 10-minute test, based on Gesell's developmental theory, consists of items in seven basic…

  5. Multiple marker screening test: identification of fetal cystic hygroma, hydrops, and sex chromosome aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Wenstrom, K D; Boots, L R; Cosper, P C

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if the multiple marker screening test (maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, human chorionic gonadotrophin, and maternal age) detects fetal Turner syndrome or just cystic hygroma/hydrops. Multiple marker screening tests from 4 groups were compared: 1) Turner syndrome with hydrops/ hygroma group (n = 10) = fetuses with cystic hygroma/hydrops and a 45X karyotype, 2) Turner syndrome without hydrops/hygroma (n = 9) = sonographically unremarkable fetal Turner syndrome or Turner mosaic, 3) hydrops group (n = 8) = all cases of fetal cystic hygroma/hydrops excluding Turner syndrome, 4) sex chromosome aneuploidy group (n = 16) = other sonographically normal fetal sex chromosome aneuploidies. Positive screening tests (Down syndrome risk > or = 1:190 or MSAFP > or = 2.5 MOM) were found in 60% (6/10) of the Turner syndrome with hydrops/hygroma group, but only 11% (1/9) of the Turner syndrome without hydrops/hygroma group (P = .04). The incidence of positive screening tests in the Hydrops group was 75% (6/8), while it was only 12.5% (2/16) in the other sex chromosome aneuploidy group. We conclude that the multiple marker screening test identifies fetuses with cystic hygroma/hydrops, and may do so independently of the etiology of the hydrops. PMID:8796763

  6. The use of rapid diagnostic tests for transfusion infectious screening in Africa: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Pruett, Cristina R; Vermeulen, Marion; Zacharias, Pete; Ingram, Charlotte; Tayou Tagny, Claude; Bloch, Evan M

    2015-01-01

    Infectious risk associated with blood transfusion remains a major public health challenge in Africa, where prevalence rates of the major transfusion-transmissible infections (ie, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus, and syphilis) are among the highest in the world. Resource-limited blood services often operate with minimal predonation screening safeguards, prompting exclusive reliance on laboratory testing to mitigate infectious risk. Transfusion screening with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has been adopted in areas that lack the capacity to support the routine use of more sophisticated technologies. However, uncertainty surrounding the performance of some RDTs in the field has spurred debate regarding their application to blood donation screening. Our review of the literature identified 17 studies that evaluated RDTs for the infectious screening of blood donors in Africa. The review highlights the variable performance of available RDTs and the importance of their use in a quality-assured manner. Deficiencies in performance observed with some RDTs underscore the need to validate test kits prior to use under field conditions with locally acquired samples. Suboptimal sensitivities of some available tests, specifically hepatitis B virus rapid assays, question their suitability in single-test algorithms, particularly in high-prevalence regions. Although RDTs have limitations, many of which can be addressed through improved training and quality systems, they are frequently the only viable option for infectious screening in resource-poor African countries. Therefore, additional studies and specific guidelines regarding the use of RDTs in the context of blood safety are needed.

  7. The Clinical and Economic Benefits of Co-Testing Versus Primary HPV Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening: A Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Juan C.; Lacey, Michael J.; Lenhart, Gregory M.; Spitzer, Mark; Kulkarni, Rucha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Consensus United States cervical cancer screening guidelines recommend use of combination Pap plus human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for women aged 30 to 65 years. An HPV test was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2014 for primary cervical cancer screening in women age 25 years and older. Here, we present the results of clinical-economic comparisons of Pap plus HPV mRNA testing including genotyping for HPV 16/18 (co-testing) versus DNA-based primary HPV testing with HPV 16/18 genotyping and reflex cytology (HPV primary) for cervical cancer screening. Methods: A health state transition (Markov) model with 1-year cycling was developed using epidemiologic, clinical, and economic data from healthcare databases and published literature. A hypothetical cohort of one million women receiving triennial cervical cancer screening was simulated from ages 30 to 70 years. Screening strategies compared HPV primary to co-testing. Outcomes included total and incremental differences in costs, invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases, ICC deaths, number of colposcopies, and quality-adjusted life years for cost-effectiveness calculations. Comprehensive sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: In a simulation cohort of one million 30-year-old women modeled up to age 70 years, the model predicted that screening with HPV primary testing instead of co-testing could lead to as many as 2,141 more ICC cases and 2,041 more ICC deaths. In the simulation, co-testing demonstrated a greater number of lifetime quality-adjusted life years (22,334) and yielded $39.0 million in savings compared with HPV primary, thereby conferring greater effectiveness at lower cost. Conclusions: Model results demonstrate that co-testing has the potential to provide improved clinical and economic outcomes when compared with HPV primary. While actual cost and outcome data are evaluated, these findings are relevant to U.S. healthcare payers and women's health policy advocates

  8. Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: interim clinical guidance.

    PubMed

    Huh, Warner K; Ault, Kevin A; Chelmow, David; Davey, Diane D; Goulart, Robert A; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kinney, Walter K; Massad, L Stewart; Mayeaux, Edward J; Saslow, Debbie; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lawson, Herschel W; Einstein, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    In 2011, the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology updated screening guidelines for the early detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. Recommended screening strategies were cytology or cotesting (cytology in combination with high-risk human papillomavirus [hrHPV] testing). These guidelines also addressed the use of hrHPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, which was not recommended for use at that time. There is now a growing body of evidence for screening with primary hrHPV testing, including a prospective U.S.-based registration study. Thirteen experts, including representatives from the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Cancer Society, the American Society of Cytopathology, the College of American Pathologists, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology, convened to provide interim guidance for primary hrHPV screening. This guidance panel was specifically triggered by an application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for a currently marketed HPV test to be labeled for the additional indication of primary cervical cancer screening. Guidance was based on literature review and review of data from the FDA registration study, supplemented by expert opinion. This document aims to provide information for health care providers who are interested in primary hrHPV testing and an overview of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this strategy for screening as well as to highlight areas in need of further investigation.

  9. [History of the development of screening tests for cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Yelda A; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the best known malignancies. Currently, it is accepted that the etiological factor is persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Even before the identification of its etiological factors, methods such as Pap cytology and colposcopy were developed as tools for early diagnosis on CC and its precursor lesions. At the time when such tests were being developed, they were not fully accepted by the scientific community of the time; however, as time went by, the dissemination of knowledge, and more extensive application, these tests were finally included within the international guidelines. The implementation of programs with adequate coverage and quality allowed a significant reduction in the incidence and mortality of CC. However this did not occur widely, and CC is still a public health problem in developing countries. From the epidemiological and molecular viewpoint, knowledge on HPVs laid the foundations for the development of new prevention strategies based on vaccination and molecular detection of the causal agent, currently accepted as strategies for primary and secondary prevention. It is expected that the implementation of these strategies will have a greater impact on the control on CC and other malignancies associated with HPV infection. PMID:26506482

  10. Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests in Liquid Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; Chato, David J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325x2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3 - 24.2 K), pressures (100 - 350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010 - 0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

  11. [History of the development of screening tests for cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Yelda A; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the best known malignancies. Currently, it is accepted that the etiological factor is persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Even before the identification of its etiological factors, methods such as Pap cytology and colposcopy were developed as tools for early diagnosis on CC and its precursor lesions. At the time when such tests were being developed, they were not fully accepted by the scientific community of the time; however, as time went by, the dissemination of knowledge, and more extensive application, these tests were finally included within the international guidelines. The implementation of programs with adequate coverage and quality allowed a significant reduction in the incidence and mortality of CC. However this did not occur widely, and CC is still a public health problem in developing countries. From the epidemiological and molecular viewpoint, knowledge on HPVs laid the foundations for the development of new prevention strategies based on vaccination and molecular detection of the causal agent, currently accepted as strategies for primary and secondary prevention. It is expected that the implementation of these strategies will have a greater impact on the control on CC and other malignancies associated with HPV infection.

  12. Primary care provider practices and beliefs related to cervical cancer screening with the HPV test in Federally Qualified Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Roland, K.B.; Benard, V.B.; Greek, A.; Hawkins, N.A.; Manninen, D.; Saraiya, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer screening using the human papillomavirus (HPV) test and Pap test together (co-testing) is an option for average-risk women ≥30 years of age. With normal co-test results, screening intervals can be extended. The study objective is to assess primary care provider practices, beliefs, facilitators and barriers to using the co-test and extending screening intervals among low-income women. Method Data were collected from 98 providers in 15 Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) clinics in Illinois between August 2009 and March 2010 using a cross-sectional survey. Results 39% of providers reported using the co-test, and 25% would recommend a three-year screening interval for women with normal co-test results. Providers perceived greater encouragement for co-testing than for extending screening intervals with a normal co-test result. Barriers to extending screening intervals included concerns about patients not returning annually for other screening tests (77%), patient concerns about missing cancer (62%), and liability (52%). Conclusion Among FQHC providers in Illinois, few administered the co-test for screening and recommended appropriate intervals, possibly due to concerns over loss to follow-up and liability. Education regarding harms of too-frequent screening and false positives may be necessary to balance barriers to extending screening intervals. PMID:23628517

  13. Biological and analytical variations of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests and the activity of coagulation factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Shou, Weiling; Wu, Wei; Guo, Ye; Zhang, Yujuan; Huang, Chunmei; Cui, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To accurately estimate longitudinal changes in individuals, it is important to take into consideration the biological variability of the measurement. The few studies available on the biological variations of coagulation parameters are mostly outdated. We confirmed the published results using modern, fully automated methods. Furthermore, we added data for additional coagulation parameters. At 8:00 am, 12:00 pm, and 4:00 pm on days 1, 3, and 5, venous blood was collected from 31 healthy volunteers. A total of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests as well as the activity of coagulation factors were analyzed; these included prothrombin time, fibrinogen (Fbg), activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time activity, activated partial thromboplastin time ratio, fibrin(-ogen) degradation products, as well as the activity of factor II, factor V, factor VII, factor VIII, factor IX, and factor X. All intraindividual coefficients of variation (CVI) values for the parameters of the screening tests (except Fbg) were less than 5%. Conversely, the CVI values for the activity of coagulation factors were all greater than 5%. In addition, we calculated the reference change value to determine whether a significant difference exists between two test results from the same individual.

  14. Does total manual rescreening of negative pap tests screened by the ThinPrep imaging system add any value?

    PubMed

    Martin, Erica L; Michael, Claire W; Bomeisl, Philip E; Shyu, Susan; Wasman, Jay K

    2014-10-01

    We compared the performance of utilizing the ThinPrep® Imaging System (TIS) according to the manufacturer's directions to screening with the TIS plus total manual rescreening in Pap tests that were initially diagnosed as NIL to determine whether manual rescreening decreases the false-negative rate for epithelial lesions. Three thousand three hundred forty cases were diagnosed as NIL on the 22 fields of view selected by the TIS and subsequently manually rescreened by the same cytotechnologist. Six hundred seventy-four cases were sent to a cytopathologist for final diagnosis based on review criteria. Biopsy follow-up and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) test results were noted if available for cases with a diagnosis of ASCUS or above. Three thousand one hundred fifty-nine (94.6%) were confirmed NIL and 181 cases were diagnosed as abnormal on manual rescreen. There were 147 ASCUS, 6 ASCH, 9 AGC, 19 LSIL, and 0 HSIL cases. The overall false-negative rate of screening for atypia/SIL with the TIS was 5.4%. Of the 147 cases with HPV results, 43 (29%) were positive. Only 1 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 was found on biopsy follow-up, in a case of ASCUS with a positive HPV. Based on our data, the TIS for screening of Pap tests is reliable in NIL cases as compared to total manual rescreening. The majority of the false-negative cases were diagnosed as ASCUS on subsequent review, with 0 HSIL cases. Our results confirm that the TIS is highly accurate in excluding HSIL, negating the need for total manual rescreening of NIL Pap tests.

  15. Treadmill exercise testing of mass screening for coronary risk factors.

    PubMed

    Allen, W H; Aronow, W S; De Cristofaro, D

    1976-01-01

    The prevalence of an abnormal maximal treadmill stress test (MTST) was correlated with coronary risk factors in 1,077 asymptomatic adults (709 men and 368 women) in Long Beach, California. Of 1,077 adults, 113 (10.5%) had a positive MTST. A positive MTST was correlated with sex (p less than 0.001), age (p less than 0.001), a serum cholesterol less than or equal to 200 mg% (p less than 0.02), hypertriglyceridemia (p less than 0.05), cigarette smoking (p less than 0.025), and with the number of coronary risk factors (p less than 0.005) but not with hypertension, cigar or pipe smoking, obesity, or blood sugar.

  16. Materials screening chamber for testing materials resistance to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, H. G.; Carruth, Ralph

    1989-01-01

    A unique test chamber for exposing material to a known flux of oxygen atoms is described. The capabilities and operating parameters of the apparatus include production of an oxygen atom flux in excess of 5 x 10 to the 16th atoms/sq cm-sec, controlled heating of the sample specimen, RF circuitry to contain the plasma within a small volume, and long exposure times. Flux measurement capabilities include a calorimetric probe and a light titration system. Accuracy and limitations of these techniques are discussed. An extension to the main chamber to allow simultaneous ultraviolet and atomic oxygen exposure is discussed. The oxygen atoms produced are at thermal energies. Sample specimens are maintained at any selected temperature between ambient and 200 C, to within + or - 2 C. A representative example of measurements made using the chamber is presented.

  17. The validity of cognitive testing in screening for dementia.

    PubMed

    Stockton, P; Cohen-Mansfield, J; Billig, N

    1998-02-01

    The concept of "cognitive impairment," as an indicator of dementia, defined in 1980 as a loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning, is the model which has been adopted for a condition, which has recently been reclassified from an "organic" to a "cognitive disorder." Data derived from the assessment of a sample of older people demonstrated the extreme sensitivity of a widely employed cognitive assessment instrument to all levels of educational experience, and educational correlates, notably level of physical disability, were identified as other independent predictors of test performance. The analyses raise questions with regard to the reinterpretation of "lack of education," from a confounding factor in prevalence estimates of cognitive impairment to a "risk factor" for dementia, and support those who have questioned the validity of the one-dimensional "cognitive paradigm," and the trend to diagnosis based upon objective assessment with standardized instruments.

  18. Accurate, fast and cost-effective diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36 using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Pricila da Silva; Pena, Heloisa B; D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Koiffmann, Celia P; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2014-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5-0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs.

  19. Accurate diagnosis of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome based upon objective test methods for characteristic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Twisk, Frank NM

    2015-01-01

    Although myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are considered to be synonymous, the definitional criteria for ME and CFS define two distinct, partially overlapping, clinical entities. ME, whether defined by the original criteria or by the recently proposed criteria, is not equivalent to CFS, let alone a severe variant of incapacitating chronic fatigue. Distinctive features of ME are: muscle weakness and easy muscle fatigability, cognitive impairment, circulatory deficits, a marked variability of the symptoms in presence and severity, but above all, post-exertional “malaise”: a (delayed) prolonged aggravation of symptoms after a minor exertion. In contrast, CFS is primarily defined by (unexplained) chronic fatigue, which should be accompanied by four out of a list of 8 symptoms, e.g., headaches. Due to the subjective nature of several symptoms of ME and CFS, researchers and clinicians have questioned the physiological origin of these symptoms and qualified ME and CFS as functional somatic syndromes. However, various characteristic symptoms, e.g., post-exertional “malaise” and muscle weakness, can be assessed objectively using well-accepted methods, e.g., cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cognitive tests. The objective measures acquired by these methods should be used to accurately diagnose patients, to evaluate the severity and impact of the illness objectively and to assess the positive and negative effects of proposed therapies impartially. PMID:26140274

  20. Accurate, Fast and Cost-Effective Diagnostic Test for Monosomy 1p36 Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Pricila da Silva; Pena, Heloisa B.; D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Koiffmann, Celia P.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2014-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5–0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs. PMID:24839341

  1. Predictive value of specific ultrasound findings when used as a screening test for abnormalities on VCUG

    PubMed Central

    Logvinenko, Tanya; Chow, Jeanne S.; Nelson, Caleb P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Renal and bladder ultrasound (RBUS) is often used as an initial screening test for children after urinary tract infection (UTI). The 2011 AAP guidelines specifically recommend that RBUS be performed first, with voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) to be performed only if the ultrasound is abnormal. While prior research has suggested that RBUS is neither sensitive nor specific for VCUG findings, such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), it is uncertain as to whether specific RBUS findings, alone or in combination, might make RBUS more useful as a predictor of VCUG abnormalities. Aims To evaluate the association of specific RBUS with VCUG findings, and determine whether predictive models that accurately predict patients at high risk of VCUG abnormalities, based on RBUS findings, can be constructed. Methods and study sample A total of 3995 patients were identified with VCUG and RBUS performed on the same day. The RBUS and VCUG reports were reviewed and the findings were classified. Analysis was limited to patients aged 0–60 months with no prior postnatal genitourinary imaging and no history of prenatal hydronephrosis. Analysis The associations between large numbers of specific RBUS findings with abnormalities seen on VCUG were investigated. Both multivariate logistic models and a neural network machine learning algorithms were constructed to evaluate the predictive power of RBUS for VCUG abnormalities (including VUR or bladder/urethral findings). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and area under receiving operating curves (AUROC) of RBUS for VCUG abnormalities were determined. Results A total of 2259 patients with UTI as the indication for imaging were identified. The RBUS was reported as “normal” in 75.0%. On VCUG, any VUR was identified in 41.7%, VUR grade >II in 20.9%, and VUR grade >III in 2.8%. Many individual RBUS findings were significantly associated with VUR on VCUG. Despite these strong univariate associations, multivariate modeling

  2. Population Screening for Colorectal Cancer Means Getting FIT: The Past, Present, and Future of Colorectal Cancer Screening Using the Fecal Immunochemical Test for Hemoglobin (FIT)

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Callum G.; Halloran, Stephen P.; Young, Graeme P.

    2014-01-01

    Fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin (FIT) are changing the manner in which colorectal cancer (CRC) is screened. Although these tests are being performed worldwide, why is this test different from its predecessors? What evidence supports its adoption? How can this evidence best be used? This review addresses these questions and provides an understanding of FIT theory and practices to expedite international efforts to implement the use of FIT in CRC screening. PMID:24672652

  3. Screening and tests of materials for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    The outgassing properties of materials and other considerations on materials acceptance for space applications are discussed. The uses of the outgassing data for the evaluation of important performance characteristics of a space system are indicated. The deficiencies and advantages of the ASTM-E595-77 test method and materials acceptance criteria are discussed. Also discussed are the advantages for the selection of the materials and the uses of the data provided by the long-term measurements of the outgassing rates and surface re-emission of materials. The paper concludes that the results of the ASTM method with additional derived data on the material properties can be used for the initial evaluation of a space system's characteristics. Materials data on outgassing and re-emission rates at various temperatures obtained from the more expensive, long-term QCM and TGA measurements should be obtained when a detailed analysis of a system is suggested based on the various considerations discussed in the paper.

  4. Conducting and interpreting slug tests in monitoring wells with partially submerged screens

    SciTech Connect

    Binkhorst, G.K.; Robbins, G.A.

    1998-03-01

    Slug tests conducted in ground water monitoring wells are the most widely used method by the environmental consulting industry for determining hydraulic conductivity at contamination sites. Conducting and interpreting slug tests in wells with screen sections and sand packs that span the water table are severely complicated by sand pack drainage and resaturation. Sand pack drainage greatly reduces the actual head difference between the well and the formation. Resaturation of the drained sand pack must be properly accounted for, or the formation hydraulic conductivity will be underestimated. The magnitude of error is a function of the well geometry, sand pack properties, and the model chosen to interpret the data. A method has been developed to correct for sand pack resaturation by calculating the specific yield of a drained sand pack using the early recharge data of a slug test. Slug tests were conducted in one well in which the water table varied over time, creating both partially and fully submerged screen and sand pack conditions for comparative testing. The mid-time, log-linear portion of slug test data was corrected using the calculated specific yield of the drained sand pack to yield essentially the same hydraulic conductivity value as the fully submerged screen results. Not accounting for sand pack resaturation would have yielded a hydraulic conductivity value that was lower than the submerged screen results by a factor of seven.

  5. Red-dot card test of the paracentral field as a screening test for optic nerve disease in onchocerciasis.

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, I.; Jones, B. R.; Babalola, O. E.; Cousens, S. N.; Bolarin, I.; Abiose, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new screening test for optic nerve pathology is described, consisting of a series of four red targets presented at an angle of 12 degrees in the paracentral field above and below the horizontal meridian. Nonperception and desaturation of the targets are recorded. Inter-observer variability studies found a kappa value = 0.8. A total of 6831 individuals aged > or = 5 years in communities that were mesoendemic for savanna onchocerciasis in Kaduna State, northern Nigeria, were screened using the test. Of the participants 22% were unable to complete the test; almost two-thirds of these (62%) were aged 5-8 years. After exclusion of those visually impaired or blind according to WHO criteria and those unable to complete the test, the test showed a sensitivity of 40% and a specificity of 98% for optic nerve disease when inability to visualize one or more targets was used as the definition of test failure. The sensitivity increased to 54% with a specificity of 96% when the criterion for failure included desaturation of one or more targets. These values compare favourably with those for other available screening methods. The test took 1-2 minutes to perform and was readily accepted by patients and nurses. Images Fig. 1 PMID:9060216

  6. Good laboratory practices for biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening for inherited metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    2012-04-01

    Biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening are essential laboratory services for the screening, detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of inborn errors of metabolism or inherited metabolic disorders. Under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) regulations, laboratory testing is categorized on the basis of the level of testing complexity as either waived (i.e., from routine regulatory oversight) or nonwaived testing (which includes tests of moderate and high complexity). Laboratories that perform biochemical genetic testing are required by CLIA regulations to meet the general quality systems requirements for nonwaived testing and the personnel requirements for high-complexity testing. Laboratories that perform public health newborn screening are subject to the same CLIA regulations and applicable state requirements. As the number of inherited metabolic diseases that are included in state-based newborn screening programs continues to increase, ensuring the quality of performance and delivery of testing services remains a continuous challenge not only for public health laboratories and other newborn screening facilities but also for biochemical genetic testing laboratories. To help ensure the quality of laboratory testing, CDC collaborated with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Food and Drug Administration, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Institutes of Health to develop guidelines for laboratories to meet CLIA requirements and apply additional quality assurance measures for these areas of genetic testing. This report provides recommendations for good laboratory practices that were developed based on recommendations from the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, with additional input from the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society; the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children; and representatives of newborn

  7. Primary cervical cancer screening with an HPV mRNA test: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fismen, Silje; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Mortensen, Elin Synnøve; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the performance of a 5-type human papillomavirus (HPV) messenger RNA (mRNA) test in primary screening within the framework of the Norwegian population-based screening programme. Design Nationwide register-based cohort study. Setting In 2003–2004, general practitioners and gynaecologists recruited 18 852 women for participation in a primary screening study with a 5-type HPV mRNA test. Participants After excluding women with a history of abnormal smears and with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2+) before or until 3 months after screening, 11 220 women aged 25–69 years were eligible for study participation. The Norwegian Cancer Registry completed follow-up of CIN2+ through 31 December 2009. Interventions Follow-up according to the algorithm for cytology outcomes in the population-based Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme. Main outcome measures We estimated cumulative incidence of CIN grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) 72 months after the 5-type HPV mRNA test. Results 3.6% of the women were HPV mRNA-positive at baseline. The overall cumulative rate of CIN3+ was 1.3% (95% CI 1.1% to 1.5%) through 72 months of follow-up, 2.3% for women aged 25–33 years (n=3277) and 0.9% for women aged 34–69 years (n=7943). Cumulative CIN3+ rates by baseline status for HPV mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women aged 25–33 years were 22.2% (95% CI 14.5% to 29.8%) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.4% to 1.4%), respectively, and 16.6% (95% CI 10.7% to 22.5%) and 0.5% (95% CI 0.4% to 0.7%), respectively, in women aged 34–69 years. Conclusions The present cumulative incidence of CIN3+ is similar to rates reported in screening studies via HPV DNA tests. Owing to differences in biological rationale and test characteristics, there is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity that must be balanced when decisions on HPV tests in primary screening are taken. HPV mRNA testing may be used as primary screening for women aged 25–33 years and

  8. The early detection of Salla disease through second-tier tests in newborn screening: how to face incidental findings.

    PubMed

    Couce, María L; Macías-Vidal, Judit; Castiñeiras, Daisy E; Bóveda, María D; Fraga, José M; Fernández-Marmiesse, Ana; Coll, María J

    2014-09-01

    We describe here a 34 months child, practically asymptomatic which presented with high levels of free sialic acid in urine by biochemical detection in second-tier tests newborn screening and with two disease causing mutations in SLC17A5 gene. SLC17A5 mutation analysis showed p.Tyr306* previously described and the novel mutation p.Leu167Pro. This early onset diagnosis allowed us to perform a fast and accurate genetic counseling to the family, helped to better understanding the natural history of this rare disease and probably it could promote cost reduction in future diagnostic tests in the hypothetic case of starting symptoms without diagnosis established. Moreover, an early diagnosis could save family from a long period of time until achieving a definitive diagnostic and to develop an early symptomatic and supportive management of patient to attenuate, as much as possible, disease complications. But, above all, this case illustrates the huge ethical dilemma which arises from any secondary finding (second tier) in newborn screening.

  9. Analyzing slug tests in wells screened across the watertable: A field assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanford, K.L.; McElwee, C.D.

    2000-01-01

    The slug test is the most widely used technique for the in situ estimation of hydraulic conductivity in confined and unconfined formations. Currently, there are no generally accepted methods in the groundwater literature for the analysis of response data from slug tests performed in wells screened across the watertable. A field study was undertaken in an attempt to develop a set of practical guidelines for tests conducted in such wells. Three wells, screened within unconsolidated material exhibiting a range of hydraulic conductivities (.05-30.0 m/day), were installed to depths of up to 9 m (30 ft) in Kansas River alluvium that ranges in thickness from 15 m to 21 m (50 ft to 70 ft) near Lawrence, Kansas. Intensive well-development efforts removed any drilling debris that could interfere with well-formation hydraulics. Once the wells were developed properly, a series of slug tests was performed at each well. The tests were designed to assess the role of the unsaturated zone and the appropriateness of assuming a fixed hydraulic head upper boundary. The results of this investigation can be summarized as follows: (1) the sufficiency of well development should be based on repeat slug tests and not the clarity of pumped water; (2) the effective screen radius for best model analysis should be based on a mass balance and not nominal screen dimensions; (3) the watertable can be represented as a constant head boundary and flow in the unsaturated zone can be ignored in most situations; (4) conventional techniques for the analysis of slug-test data seem to be reasonable for slug tests conducted in wells screened across the watertable, when used with the appropriate effective screen radius and normalized head range; and (5) fluctuations in the watertable elevation through time can be exploited to obtain some insight into the nature of vertical variation in hydraulic conductivity at a well. The results of this investigation indicate that multiple slug tests should be performed at

  10. Toward accurate molecular identification of species in complex environmental samples: testing the performance of sequence filtering and clustering methods

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jullien M; Brown, Emily A; Chain, Frédéric J J; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-01-01

    Metabarcoding has the potential to become a rapid, sensitive, and effective approach for identifying species in complex environmental samples. Accurate molecular identification of species depends on the ability to generate operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that correspond to biological species. Due to the sometimes enormous estimates of biodiversity using this method, there is a great need to test the efficacy of data analysis methods used to derive OTUs. Here, we evaluate the performance of various methods for clustering length variable 18S amplicons from complex samples into OTUs using a mock community and a natural community of zooplankton species. We compare analytic procedures consisting of a combination of (1) stringent and relaxed data filtering, (2) singleton sequences included and removed, (3) three commonly used clustering algorithms (mothur, UCLUST, and UPARSE), and (4) three methods of treating alignment gaps when calculating sequence divergence. Depending on the combination of methods used, the number of OTUs varied by nearly two orders of magnitude for the mock community (60–5068 OTUs) and three orders of magnitude for the natural community (22–22191 OTUs). The use of relaxed filtering and the inclusion of singletons greatly inflated OTU numbers without increasing the ability to recover species. Our results also suggest that the method used to treat gaps when calculating sequence divergence can have a great impact on the number of OTUs. Our findings are particularly relevant to studies that cover taxonomically diverse species and employ markers such as rRNA genes in which length variation is extensive. PMID:26078860

  11. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet.

    PubMed

    Northrup, Jason C; Lapierre, Coady; Kirk, Jeffrey; Rae, Cosette

    2015-07-28

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term "Internet addiction" is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  12. Analysis of Screen Channel LAD Bubble Point Tests in Liquid Methane at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason; McQuillen, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of varying the liquid temperature and pressure on the bubble point pressure for screen channel Liquid Acquisition Devices in cryogenic liquid methane using gaseous helium across a wide range of elevated pressures and temperatures. Testing of a 325 x 2300 Dutch Twill screen sample was conducted in the Cryogenic Components Lab 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Test conditions ranged from 105 to 160K and 0.0965 - 1.78 MPa. Bubble point is shown to be a strong function of the liquid temperature and a weak function of the amount of subcooling at the LAD screen. The model predicts well for saturated liquid but under predicts the subcooled data.

  13. Testing a fast off-axis parabolic mirror by using tilted null screens.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Alejo, M; Díaz-Uribe, R

    2006-04-20

    We propose the design of tilted null screens for testing off-axis segments of conic surfaces. The tilt allows us to control the size of the screen and the sensitivity of the test. For positive tilt angles the sensitivity is increased while the size of the screen is reduced in the sagittal caustic region and vice versa in the tangential caustic region. Further analysis and preliminary experimental results are presented for a fast off-axis concave parabolic mirror with an elliptical aperture. An offset distance of X(C) = 25.4 mm yields radius of curvature at the vertex R = 20.4 mm; major axis of the mirror D(M) = 49.4 mm; and minor axis D(m) = 29.5 mm.

  14. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Northrup, Jason C.; Lapierre, Coady; Kirk, Jeffrey; Rae, Cosette

    2015-01-01

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:26226007

  15. Research on target information optics communications transmission characteristic and performance in multi-screens testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hanshan

    2016-04-01

    To enhance the stability and reliability of multi-screens testing system, this paper studies multi-screens target optical information transmission link properties and performance in long-distance, sets up the discrete multi-tone modulation transmission model based on geometric model of laser multi-screens testing system and visible light information communication principle; analyzes the electro-optic and photoelectric conversion function of sender and receiver in target optical information communication system; researches target information transmission performance and transfer function of the generalized visible-light communication channel; found optical information communication transmission link light intensity space distribution model and distribution function; derives the SNR model of information transmission communication system. Through the calculation and experiment analysis, the results show that the transmission error rate increases with the increment of transmission rate in a certain channel modulation depth; when selecting the appropriate transmission rate, the bit error rate reach 0.01.

  16. Cervical Cancer Screening after Perimenopause: How Is Human Papillomavirus Test Performed?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women around the world. Recently in Korea, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased, but in all stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), CIN has shown a 91% increase from 1999 to 2008. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found to be the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 have been found in 70% of cervical cancer patients around the world. Cervical cancer screening such as cytology has limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about the need for the HPV test is becoming active in order to compensate for the limitation of cytology. After the role of HPV in cervical cancer was identified, the importance of HPV detection test as a screening was emphasized. Several tests have been developed and each test has its own advantages and disadvantages, and new test method to overcome the disadvantages is still being developed. Today's guidelines and tests are those you would choose from among the large number of cervical cancer screening guidelines and tests, based on the consideration that the selected guidelines and the test are effective. PMID:27617239

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening after Perimenopause: How Is Human Papillomavirus Test Performed?

    PubMed

    Chung, Soo-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women around the world. Recently in Korea, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased, but in all stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), CIN has shown a 91% increase from 1999 to 2008. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found to be the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 have been found in 70% of cervical cancer patients around the world. Cervical cancer screening such as cytology has limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about the need for the HPV test is becoming active in order to compensate for the limitation of cytology. After the role of HPV in cervical cancer was identified, the importance of HPV detection test as a screening was emphasized. Several tests have been developed and each test has its own advantages and disadvantages, and new test method to overcome the disadvantages is still being developed. Today's guidelines and tests are those you would choose from among the large number of cervical cancer screening guidelines and tests, based on the consideration that the selected guidelines and the test are effective. PMID:27617239

  18. Offer of rapid testing and alternative biological samples as practical tools to implement HIV screening programs.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Di Perri, Giovanni; Tiberi, Simon; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lillo, Flavia B

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of HIV testing has the objective to increase screening, identify and counsel persons with infection, link them to clinical services and reduce transmission. Rapid tests and/or alternative biological samples (like oral fluid) give the option for a better general consent in approaching screening, immediate referral of HIV positives to medical treatment and partner notification. We tested the performance characteristics of an oral fluid-based rapid HIV test (Rapidtest HIV lateral flow-Healthchem diag. LLC) in comparison with routinely utilized methods in a selected population of known positive (N = 121) or negative (N = 754) subjects. The sensitivity of the rapid test was 99.1% (one false negative sample) and the specificity 98.8%. Five negatives showed a faint reactivity, 3 of these were reactive also in the reference test, one with a p24 only reaction in Western blot. If these 3 samples were excluded from the analysis the specificity increases to 99.2%. Results from our study confirm that, although a continuous improvement of the test performance is still needed to minimize false negative and positive results, rapid test and alternative biological samples may contribute to HIV prevention strategies by reaching a larger population particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain. PMID:20128446

  19. Cervical Cancer Screening after Perimenopause: How Is Human Papillomavirus Test Performed?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women around the world. Recently in Korea, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased, but in all stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), CIN has shown a 91% increase from 1999 to 2008. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found to be the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 have been found in 70% of cervical cancer patients around the world. Cervical cancer screening such as cytology has limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about the need for the HPV test is becoming active in order to compensate for the limitation of cytology. After the role of HPV in cervical cancer was identified, the importance of HPV detection test as a screening was emphasized. Several tests have been developed and each test has its own advantages and disadvantages, and new test method to overcome the disadvantages is still being developed. Today's guidelines and tests are those you would choose from among the large number of cervical cancer screening guidelines and tests, based on the consideration that the selected guidelines and the test are effective.

  20. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Exercise wheels and oxygen replenishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to improve the University of San Francisco/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the addition of exercise wheels to provide a different measure of incapacitation, and oxygen replenishment to offset any effect of oxygen depletion by the test animals. The addition of exercise wheels limited the number of animals in each test and doubled the required number of tests without any significant improvement in reproducibility. Oxygen replenishment appears to have an effect on survival in the last 5 minutes of the 30-minute test, but the effect is expected to be similar for most materials.

  1. Accurate Time-Dependent Traveling-Wave Tube Model Developed for Computational Bit-Error-Rate Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenal growth of the satellite communications industry has created a large demand for traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) operating with unprecedented specifications requiring the design and production of many novel devices in record time. To achieve this, the TWT industry heavily relies on computational modeling. However, the TWT industry's computational modeling capabilities need to be improved because there are often discrepancies between measured TWT data and that predicted by conventional two-dimensional helical TWT interaction codes. This limits the analysis and design of novel devices or TWT's with parameters differing from what is conventionally manufactured. In addition, the inaccuracy of current computational tools limits achievable TWT performance because optimized designs require highly accurate models. To address these concerns, a fully three-dimensional, time-dependent, helical TWT interaction model was developed using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell code MAFIA (Solution of MAxwell's equations by the Finite-Integration-Algorithm). The model includes a short section of helical slow-wave circuit with excitation fed by radiofrequency input/output couplers, and an electron beam contained by periodic permanent magnet focusing. A cutaway view of several turns of the three-dimensional helical slow-wave circuit with input/output couplers is shown. This has been shown to be more accurate than conventionally used two-dimensional models. The growth of the communications industry has also imposed a demand for increased data rates for the transmission of large volumes of data. To achieve increased data rates, complex modulation and multiple access techniques are employed requiring minimum distortion of the signal as it is passed through the TWT. Thus, intersymbol interference (ISI) becomes a major consideration, as well as suspected causes such as reflections within the TWT. To experimentally investigate effects of the physical TWT on ISI would be

  2. Cervical screening by visual inspection, HPV testing, liquid-based and conventional cytology in Amazonian Peru.

    PubMed

    Almonte, Maribel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Winkler, Jennifer L; Cuzick, Jack; Tsu, Vivien; Robles, Sylvia; Takahashi, Rina; Sasieni, Peter

    2007-08-15

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem in many developing countries, where cytology screening has been ineffective. We compared four tests to identify the most appropriate for screening in countries with limited resources. Nineteen midwives screened 5,435 women with visual inspection (VIA) and collected cervical samples for HPV testing, liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). If VIA was positive, a doctor performed magnified VIA. CC was read locally, LBC was read in Lima and HPV testing was done in London. Women with a positive screening test were offered colposcopy or cryotherapy (with biopsy). Inadequacy rates were 5% and 11% for LBC and CC respectively, and less than 0.1% for VIA and HPV. One thousand eight hundred eighty-one women (84% of 2,236) accepted colposcopy/cryotherapy: 79 had carcinoma in situ or cancer (CIS+), 27 had severe- and 42 moderate-dysplasia on histology. We estimated a further 6.5 cases of CIS+ in women without a biopsy. Sensitivity for CIS+ (specificity for less than moderate dysplasia) was 41.2% (76.7%) for VIA, 95.8% (89.3%) for HPV, 80.3% (83.7%) for LBC, and 42.5% (98.7%) for CC. Sensitivities for moderate dysplasia or worse were better for VIA (54.9%) and less favourable for HPV and cytology. In this setting, VIA and CC missed the majority of high-grade disease. Overall, HPV testing performed best. VIA gives immediate results, but will require investment in regular training and supervision. Further work is needed to determine whether screened-positive women should all be treated or triaged with a more specific test. PMID:17437272

  3. Interpretation of Errors Made by Mandarin-Speaking Children on the Preschool Language Scales--5th Edition Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Yonggang; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Wyver, Shirley; Hinton, Amber; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated typical errors made by Mandarin-speaking children when measured by the Preschool Language Scales-fifth edition, Screening Test (PLS-5 Screening Test). The intention was to provide preliminary data for the development of a guideline for early childhood educators and psychologists who use the test with Mandarin-speaking children.…

  4. [Is 'attention' important for the results of dementia screening? Relation among Digit Span Test, CST amd ADS in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Mol, B A; de Jonghe, J F; Lindeboom, J

    2000-02-01

    This study focused on the relationship between attention and dementia screening test performance, using the adapted Wechsler's Digit Span test for elderly patients, the Cognitive Screening Test (CST) and the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test (ADS6). Participants were dementia patients and psychiatric patients (n = 147). In both groups no floor-effect was found on the Digit Span test. Principal components analysis showed that CST and ADS6-scores had relatively high loadings on one factor, in contrast to digit span scores that loaded on a second factor. On average, psychiatric patients did hardly worse than normal controls. Attention deficits were more apparent in dementia patients. Considering a maximum of r = .41, these more or less subtle deficits were only moderately related to dementia screening test performance. It is concluded that the adapted Digit Span test is suitable for measuring attention deficits in elderly patients. However, Digit Span predicts performance on dementia screening test only to a modest degree.

  5. Academic hospital staff compliance with a fecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening program

    PubMed Central

    Vlachonikolou, Georgia; Gkolfakis, Paraskevas; Sioulas, Athanasios D; Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Melissaratou, Anastasia; Moustafa, Giannis-Aimant; Xanthopoulou, Eleni; Tsilimidos, Gerasimos; Tsironi, Ioanna; Filippidis, Paraskevas; Malli, Chrysoula; Dimitriadis, George D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    AIM To measure the compliance of an Academic Hospital staff with a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program using fecal immunochemical test (FIT). METHODS All employees of “Attikon” University General Hospital aged over 50 years were thoroughly informed by a team of physicians and medical students about the study aims and they were invited to undergo CRC screening using two rounds of FIT (DyoniFOB® Combo H, DyonMed SA, Athens, Greece). The tests were provided for free and subjects tested positive were subsequently referred for colonoscopy. One year after completing the two rounds, participants were asked to be re-screened by means of the same test. RESULTS Among our target population consisted of 211 employees, 59 (27.9%) consented to participate, but only 41 (19.4%) and 24 (11.4%) completed the first and the second FIT round, respectively. Female gender was significantly associated with higher initial participation (P = 0.005) and test completion - first and second round - (P = 0.004 and P = 0.05) rates, respectively. Physician’s (13.5% vs 70.2%, P < 0.0001) participation and test completion rates (7.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.0001 for the first and 2.3% vs 34%, P < 0.0001 for the second round) were significantly lower compared to those of the administrative/technical staff. Similarly, nurses participated (25.8% vs 70.2%, P = 0.0002) and completed the first test round (19.3% vs 57.6%, P = 0.004) in a significant lower rate than the administrative/technical staff. One test proved false positive. No participant repeated the test one year later. CONCLUSION Despite the well-organized, guided and supervised provision of the service, the compliance of the Academic Hospital personnel with a FIT-based CRC screening program was suboptimal, especially among physicians. PMID:27574556

  6. Correlation between glycated haemoglobin and glucose testing for diabetes mellitus screening.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nandini; Joshi, Sandeep; Deshpande, V K; Biswas, D A

    2013-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1C is used to screen and diagnose diabetes but measurement of glucose in the blood is subject to several limitations, many of which are not widely appreciated. Blood glucose testing should be taken into consideration before taking the patient to be diabetic on the basis of abnormal HbA1c values.

  7. Testing public health ethics: why the CDC's HIV screening recommendations may violate the least infringement principle.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Matthew W; Maman, Suzanne; Groves, Allison K; King, Elizabeth J; Wyckoff, Sarah C

    2011-01-01

    The CDC's HIV screening recommendations for health care settings advocate abandoning two important autonomy protections: (1) pretest counseling and (2) the requirement that providers obtain affirmative agreement from patients prior to testing. The recommendations may violate the least infringement principle because there is insufficient evidence to conclude that abandoning pretest counseling or affirmative agreement requirements will further the CDC's stated public health goals.

  8. The Use of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration as a Group Screening Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryzwansky, Walter B.

    1977-01-01

    This article investigates teacher use of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) as a screening instrument with groups of young school-age children. Findings argue for some refinement in the scoring system in order to improve consistency in scoring. (Author)

  9. Evaluation of the modular inclined screen (MIS) at the Green Island Hydroelectric Project: 1995 test results

    SciTech Connect

    Shiers, P.F.; Downing, J.K.; Plizga, A.W.; Taft, E.P.; Amaral, S.V.; Cook, T.C.; Marks, R.A.; Winchell, F.C.

    1996-05-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) developed a fish diversion screen, known as the Modular Inclined Screen (MIS), to prevent fish mortality at water intakes. hydraulic model testing and successful biological evaluation of the MIS had been completed in the laboratory. Following discussions with various federal and state agencies, the Green Island hydroelectric Project was selected as the field test location. This project is located on the Hudson River, just north of Albany, in Green Island, New York. The MIS test facility was operated and tested in the fall of 1995. In addition to the MIS, the effectiveness of a strobe light system was studied to determine its ability to divert blueblack herring form the river to the MIS.

  10. The status of diagnostic testing following referral from universal newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Windmill, Sue; Windmill, Ian M

    2006-05-01

    The Joint Committee on Infant Hearing 2000 position statement includes guidelines for the development of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention programs. These guidelines provide specific recommendations for the audiologic test battery for infants who fail a newborn infant hearing screening. The recommended test battery includes electrophysiologic measures such as the ABR, frequency specific electrophysiologic tests, bone-conducted ABR, OAEs, tympanometry using high frequency probe stimuli, and acoustic reflexes. In the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 42 centers are listed as providing follow-up diagnostic testing services for infants failing the newborn hearing screening. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how many of these centers were abiding by the Joint Committee guidelines. Results show that only three of 42 centers listed are providing services that meet the guidelines. Less than 50% of infants identified with hearing loss are referred for genetic evaluations by the audiologist. Only 19 of the 42 sites listed provide amplification services for infants identified with hearing loss.

  11. Subscale solid motor nozzle tests, phase 4 and nozzle materials screening and thermal characterization, phase 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J.; Dodson, J.; Laub, B.

    1979-01-01

    Subscale solid motor nozzles containing a baseline material or low cost materials to be considered as potential replacements for the baseline material are designed and tested. Data are presented from tests of four identically designed 2.5 inch throat diameter nozzles and one 7 inch throat diameter nozzle. The screening of new candidate low cost materials, as well as their thermophysical and thermochemical characterization is also discussed.

  12. [Measurement of evoked acoustic otoemissions: an early screening test of neonatal deafness].

    PubMed

    Morgon, Alain

    2002-01-01

    Every child born with deafness displays a pathological language development. An early and specific approach is mandatory, hence requiring an universal hearing screening. Available evidence indicate that performing acoustic otoemissions prior to six months of age is the most reliable method. The recording of the AOE is performed successfully from the 30th week of conceptual age. To obtain AOE in the newborn, one needs to wait until the 3rd day post delivery in 98% of cases. The reliability of the test, the socio-economical cost, the consequences of the screening and the role of the family have to be discussed.

  13. Celiac disease in Tunisian children: a second screening study using a "new generation" rapid test.

    PubMed

    Hariz, Mongi Ben; Laadhar, Lilia; Kallel-Sellami, Maryam; Siala, Nadia; Bouraoui, Saadia; Bouziri, Sonia; Borgi, Abdelhafidh; Karouia, Faouzia; Maherzi, Ahmed; Makni, Sondès

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to estimate celiac disease prevalence in school-children in the island of Djerba and assess rapid method feasibility for screening. We screened 2064 schoolchildren by a rapid method to detect IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase and IgA deficiency. Children with positive results were tested for IgA anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium by conventional tests. In positive children, intestinal biopsy was performed. IgA deficiency suspected by rapid method was confirmed by nephelometry. In these cases IgG anti-endomysium was performed. Rapid test was positive in 7 children; conventional serology was positive in all and 6 of them accepted the biopsy. Total villous atrophy was observed in 5 while intestinal mucosa was normal in one. Among children with positive serology, 3 had silent form, 1 chronic diarrhea, one growth failure and 2 had borderline growth. IgA deficiency was suspected in 13 cases and was confirmed in 11 children tested. Prevalence of celiac disease was 0.24-0.34% and that of IgA deficiency 0.5-0.6%. This screening study confirms that celiac disease is relatively common in schoolchildren in Tunisia. It confirms also that even those with symptoms typical for celiac disease escape diagnosis. Rapid test is better accepted by parents and children than test requiring a venous blood sample. PMID:23883201

  14. Development and model testing of antemortem screening methodology to predict required drug withholds in heifers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Shuna A; Salter, Robert S; Goldsmith, Tim; Quintana, Julio; Rapnicki, Paul; Shuck, Karen; Wells, Jim E; Schneider, Marilyn J; Griffin, Dee

    2014-02-01

    A simple, cow-side test for the presence of drug residues in live animal fluids would provide useful information for tissue drug residue avoidance programs. This work describes adaptation and evaluation of rapid screening tests to detect drug residues in serum and urine. Medicated heifers had urine, serum, and tissue biopsy samples taken while on drug treatment. Samples were tested by rapid methods and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The adapted microbial inhibition method, kidney inhibition swab test, was useful in detecting sulfadimethoxine in serum, and its response correlated with the prescribed withdrawal time for the drug, 5 to 6 days posttreatment. The lateral flow screening method for flunixin and beta-lactams, adapted for urine, was useful in predicting flunixin in liver detected by HPLC, 96 h posttreatment. The same adapted methods were not useful to detect ceftiofur in serum or urine due to a lack of sensitivity at the levels of interest. These antemortem screening test studies demonstrated that the method selected, and the sampling matrix chosen (urine or serum), will depend on the drug used and should be based on animal treatment history if available. The live animal tests demonstrated the potential for verification that an individual animal is free of drug residues before sale for human consumption.

  15. Asymptomatic maternal 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria detected by her unaffected baby's neonatal screening test

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Hee

    2014-01-01

    3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (3MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder in which leucine catabolism is hampered, leading to increased urinary excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine. In addition, 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine levels increase in the blood, and the elevated levels form the basis of neonatal screening. 3MCC deficiency symptoms are variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurological abnormality to a normal, asymptomatic phenotype. Although 3MCC deficiency was previously considered to be rare, it has been found to be one of the most common metabolic disorders in newborns after the neonatal screening test using tandem mass spectrometry was introduced. Additionally, asymptomatic 3MCC deficient mothers have been identified due to abnormal results of unaffected baby's neonatal screening test. Some of the 3MCC-deficient mothers show symptoms such as fatigue, myopathy, or metabolic crisis with febrile illnesses. In the current study, we identified an asymptomatic 3MCC deficient mother when she showed abnormal results during a neonatal screening test of a healthy infant. PMID:25114694

  16. Asymptomatic maternal 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria detected by her unaffected baby's neonatal screening test.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Hee; Hong, Yong Hee

    2014-07-01

    3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (3MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder in which leucine catabolism is hampered, leading to increased urinary excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine. In addition, 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine levels increase in the blood, and the elevated levels form the basis of neonatal screening. 3MCC deficiency symptoms are variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurological abnormality to a normal, asymptomatic phenotype. Although 3MCC deficiency was previously considered to be rare, it has been found to be one of the most common metabolic disorders in newborns after the neonatal screening test using tandem mass spectrometry was introduced. Additionally, asymptomatic 3MCC deficient mothers have been identified due to abnormal results of unaffected baby's neonatal screening test. Some of the 3MCC-deficient mothers show symptoms such as fatigue, myopathy, or metabolic crisis with febrile illnesses. In the current study, we identified an asymptomatic 3MCC deficient mother when she showed abnormal results during a neonatal screening test of a healthy infant.

  17. A Comprehensive Review of School-Based Body Mass Index Screening Programs and Their Implications for School Health: Do the Controversies Accurately Reflect the Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggieri, Dominique G.; Bass, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whereas legislation for body mass index (BMI) surveillance and screening programs has passed in 25 states, the programs are often subject to ethical debates about confidentiality and privacy, school-to-parent communication, and safety and self-esteem issues for students. Despite this debate, no comprehensive analysis has been completed…

  18. Recommendations for a step‐wise comparative approach to the evaluation of new screening tests for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Senore, Carlo; Mandel, Jack S.; Allison, James E.; Atkin, Wendy S.; Benamouzig, Robert; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Silva, Mahinda De; Guittet, Lydia; Halloran, Stephen P.; Haug, Ulrike; Hoff, Geir; Itzkowitz, Steven H.; Leja, Marcis; Levin, Bernard; Meijer, Gerrit A.; O'Morain, Colm A.; Parry, Susan; Rabeneck, Linda; Rozen, Paul; Saito, Hiroshi; Schoen, Robert E.; Seaman, Helen E.; Steele, Robert J. C.; Sung, Joseph J. Y.; Winawer, Sidney J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND New screening tests for colorectal cancer continue to emerge, but the evidence needed to justify their adoption in screening programs remains uncertain. METHODS A review of the literature and a consensus approach by experts was undertaken to provide practical guidance on how to compare new screening tests with proven screening tests. RESULTS Findings and recommendations from the review included the following: Adoption of a new screening test requires evidence of effectiveness relative to a proven comparator test. Clinical accuracy supported by programmatic population evaluation in the screening context on an intention‐to‐screen basis, including acceptability, is essential. Cancer‐specific mortality is not essential as an endpoint provided that the mortality benefit of the comparator has been demonstrated and that the biologic basis of detection is similar. Effectiveness of the guaiac‐based fecal occult blood test provides the minimum standard to be achieved by a new test. A 4‐phase evaluation is recommended. An initial retrospective evaluation in cancer cases and controls (Phase 1) is followed by a prospective evaluation of performance across the continuum of neoplastic lesions (Phase 2). Phase 3 follows the demonstration of adequate accuracy in these 2 prescreening phases and addresses programmatic outcomes at 1 screening round on an intention‐to‐screen basis. Phase 4 involves more comprehensive evaluation of ongoing screening over multiple rounds. Key information is provided from the following parameters: the test positivity rate in a screening population, the true‐positive and false‐positive rates, and the number needed to colonoscope to detect a target lesion. CONCLUSIONS New screening tests can be evaluated efficiently by this stepwise comparative approach. Cancer 2016;122:826–39. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. PMID:26828588

  19. Adhesion characteristics of silver tracks screen-printed on polyimide with an environmental reliability test.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Seok; Myung, Woo-Ram; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2012-07-01

    Printable and flexible electronics are increasingly being used in numerous applications that are miniaturized, multi-functional and lightweight. Simultaneously, reliability issues of the printed and flexible electronic devices are getting more attention. The adhesion of screen-printed silver (Ag) tracks on a polyimide (PI) film was investigated after two kinds of the environmental reliability test: a constant-temperature storage test, and a steady-state temperature and humidity storage test. Atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) was adopted on the PI film surface to improve the poor adhesion derived from the inherent hydrophobicity. The Ag tracks constructed via screen printing were sintered at 250 degrees C for 30 min in air using a box-type muffle furnace. Some samples were exposed under 85 degrees C and 85% relative humidity (RH) for various durations (24, 72, 168 and 500 h), and others were aged at 85 degrees C with same durations to compare the influence of moisture on the adhesion. The adhesion of the screen-printed Ag tracks was evaluated by a roll-type 90 degrees peel test. The peel strength of the screen-printed Ag tracks decreased by 76.74% and 69.88% after 500 h run of the 85 degrees C/85% RH test, and the aging test, respectively. The weakest adhesion was 4.98 gf/mm after the 500 h run of the 85 degrees C/85% RH test. To demonstrate these experimental results, the microstructural evolution and chemical bonding states of the interfacial surfaces were characterized using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), respectively. PMID:22966651

  20. Crafting Appealing Text Messages to Encourage Colorectal Cancer Screening Test Completion: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Shellie D; Denizard-Thompson, Nancy; Kronner, Donna; Miller, David P

    2015-01-01

    texting shorthand phrases and complicated replies); they did not want messages that contain bad news or test results. They wanted the ability to choose alternative options such as email or phone calls. Conclusions Older adults are receptive to receiving cancer screening text messages from health care providers. Sharing sample messages with patients may increase acceptance of this tool in the clinic setting. Supportive tailored text messaging reminders could enhance uptake of colorectal cancer screening by enhancing patient self-efficacy and providing cues to action to complete colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing. PMID:26537553

  1. Determination of whether screening tests for chronic atrophic gastritis really has a positive predictive value.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Flaviano; D'Angelo, Valentina; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Barchiesi, Vittoria; Rizzo, Marianna; Cantile, Monica; Botti, Gerardo; Cavalcanti, Ernesta

    2015-09-01

    Intestinal‑type gastric adenocarcinomas are preceded by precancerous lesions, which begin with chronic atrophic gastritis. Over the last few years, multiple serological screening techniques have been performed and commercialized for the diagnosis of chronic atrophic gastritis. In the present study, 123 patients were recruited at the International Cancer Institute 'G. Pascale' Foundation (Naples, Italy) to test commercial kits for the serological determination of chronic atrophic gastritis, supported by histological analysis, according to the International Group of Gastroenterologists 'Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment Staging System'. The results revealed a significant discrepancy between serological screening and histological evaluation in 10.6% of patients, which highlighted the dubious positive predictive value of commercial serological screening kits.

  2. Postural stability and rotational tests: their effectiveness for screening dizzy patients.

    PubMed

    Wall, C; Black, F O

    1983-01-01

    Results of independently interpreted computerized stationary platform posturography and white noise rotational tests were compared with diagnoses for 110 patients. Using the criterion that an abnormal result from either test classified the subject as abnormal, the sensitivity estimate for the pair of tests was 78% for persons with diagnoses known to result in vestibular dysfunction. The specificity estimate was 90%. Both a vestibulo-ocular and a vestibulo-spinal test were required for effective screening. Consecutive tests performed over five days showed the rotation test to be much less variable than posturography. Rotation testing is therefore preferred for following the performance of patients having disorders thought to cause fluctuating vestibular systems. Interobserver reliability rates were 83% for posturography and 93% for rotation tests. PMID:6601356

  3. Health Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier ... Overweight and obesity Prostate cancer in men Which tests you need depends on your age, your sex, ...

  4. Pose prediction and virtual screening performance of GOLD scoring functions in a standardized test.

    PubMed

    Liebeschuetz, John W; Cole, Jason C; Korb, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    The performance of all four GOLD scoring functions has been evaluated for pose prediction and virtual screening under the standardized conditions of the comparative docking and scoring experiment reported in this Edition. Excellent pose prediction and good virtual screening performance was demonstrated using unmodified protein models and default parameter settings. The best performing scoring function for both pose prediction and virtual screening was demonstrated to be the recently introduced scoring function ChemPLP. We conclude that existing docking programs already perform close to optimally in the cognate pose prediction experiments currently carried out and that more stringent pose prediction tests should be used in the future. These should employ cross-docking sets. Evaluation of virtual screening performance remains problematic and much remains to be done to improve the usefulness of publically available active and decoy sets for virtual screening. Finally we suggest that, for certain target/scoring function combinations, good enrichment may sometimes be a consequence of 2D property recognition rather than a modelling of the correct 3D interactions.

  5. Pose prediction and virtual screening performance of GOLD scoring functions in a standardized test.

    PubMed

    Liebeschuetz, John W; Cole, Jason C; Korb, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    The performance of all four GOLD scoring functions has been evaluated for pose prediction and virtual screening under the standardized conditions of the comparative docking and scoring experiment reported in this Edition. Excellent pose prediction and good virtual screening performance was demonstrated using unmodified protein models and default parameter settings. The best performing scoring function for both pose prediction and virtual screening was demonstrated to be the recently introduced scoring function ChemPLP. We conclude that existing docking programs already perform close to optimally in the cognate pose prediction experiments currently carried out and that more stringent pose prediction tests should be used in the future. These should employ cross-docking sets. Evaluation of virtual screening performance remains problematic and much remains to be done to improve the usefulness of publically available active and decoy sets for virtual screening. Finally we suggest that, for certain target/scoring function combinations, good enrichment may sometimes be a consequence of 2D property recognition rather than a modelling of the correct 3D interactions. PMID:22371207

  6. Relation between perceived driving disability and scores of vision screening tests

    PubMed Central

    van Rijn, L J; Wilhelm, H; Emesz, M; Kaper, R; Heine, S; Nitsch, S; Grabner, G; Völker-Dieben, H J

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine the relation between perceived driving disability and vision screening tests. Methods: 93 subjects, aged 50 years and over, with binocular visual acuity of at least 20/80. Perceived driving disability (PDD) was assessed by a questionnaire. Subtracting daytime from night-time driving question scores revealed PDD at night (PDDN), subtracting scores of questions for driving in familiar places from those in unfamiliar places revealed PDD at unfamiliar places (PDDU). Results: PDD was strongly related to visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and useful field of view (UFOV). Specific relations existed between PDDN and Nyktotests and Mesotests and between PDDU and UFOV. These associations were enhanced in a subset of subjects with better visual acuities. Conclusions: Vision screening tests correlate well with perceived driving disabilities, especially when a subtraction method is used in the questionnaire to reveal condition dependent disabilities. Additional tests for visual acuity are useful, especially in subjects with better visual acuity. PMID:12386085

  7. Assessments of cognitive abilities in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease with a touch screen test.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chuljung; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-03-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience both motor output deficits and cognitive disabilities. Various PD rodent models have been developed to investigate the genetic and brain circuit-related causes of PD and have contributed to the basic and clinical research and to therapeutic strategies for this disease. Most studies using PD rodent models have focused on the motor output deficits, rather than cognitive disabilities due to the lack of appropriate testing tools that do not require significant motor abilities. In this study, we assessed the cognitive disabilities of PD model mice using a touch screen test that required only little motor ability. We found that the PD model mice, which had motor deficits caused by unilateral striatal dopaminergic degeneration, successfully underwent operant conditioning with a touch screen test. Additionally, we found that the PD model mice demonstrated impaired location discrimination, but intact attention and reversal learning in the cognitive tests. Therefore, the touch screen test is useful for assessing hidden cognitive disabilities in disease model animals with decreased motor function. PMID:26698399

  8. Population-based colorectal cancer screening: comparison of two fecal occult blood test

    PubMed Central

    Zubero, Miren B.; Arana-Arri, Eunate; Pijoan, José I.; Portillo, Isabel; Idigoras, Isabel; López-Urrutia, Antonio; Samper, Ana; Uranga, Begoña; Rodríguez, Carmen; Bujanda, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of screening for colorectal cancer is to improve prognosis by the detection of cancer at its early stages. In order to inform the decision on the specific test to be used in the population-based program in the Basque Autonomous Region (Spain), we compared two immunochemical fecal occult blood quantitative tests (I-FOBT). Methods: Residents of selected study areas, aged 50–69 years, were invited to participate in the screening. Two tests based on latex agglutination (OC-Sensor and FOB Gold) were randomly assigned to different study areas. A colonoscopy was offered to patients with a positive test result. The cut-off point used to classify a result as positive, according to manufacturer’s recommendations, was 100 ng/ml for both tests. Results: The invited population included 37,999 individuals. Participation rates were 61.8% (n = 11,162) for OC-Sensor and 59.1% (n = 11,786) for FOB Gold (p = 0.008). Positive rate for OC-Sensor was 6.6% (n = 737) and 8.5% (n = 1,002) for FOB Gold (p < 0.0001). Error rates were higher for FOB gold (2.3%) than for OC-Sensor (0.2%; p < 0.0001). Predictive positive value (PPV) for total malignant and premalignant lesions was 62.4% for OC-Sensor and 58.9% for FOB Gold (p = 0.137), respectively. Conclusion: OC-Sensor test appears to be superior for I-FOBT-based colorectal cancer screening, given its acceptance, ease of use, associated small number of errors and its screening accuracy. FOB Gold on the other hand, has higher rate of positive values, with more colonoscopies performed, it shows higher detection incidence rates, but involves more false positives. PMID:24454288

  9. Analysis of Screen Channel LAD Bubble Point Tests in Liquid Oxygen at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason; McQuillen, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the key parameters that affect the bubble point pressure for screen channel Liquid Acquisition Devices in cryogenic liquid oxygen at elevated pressures and temperatures. An in depth analysis of the effect of varying temperature, pressure, and pressurization gas on bubble point is presented. Testing of a 200 x 1400 and 325 x 2300 Dutch Twill screen sample was conducted in the Cryogenics Components Lab 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Test conditions ranged from 92 to 130K and 0.138 - 1.79 MPa. Bubble point is shown to be a strong function of temperature with a secondary dependence on pressure. The pressure dependence is believed to be a function of the amount of evaporation and condensation occurring at the screen. Good agreement exists between data and theory for normally saturated liquid but the model generally under predicts the bubble point in subcooled liquid. Better correlation with the data is obtained by using the liquid temperature at the screen to determine surface tension of the fluid, as opposed to the bulk liquid temperature.

  10. 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II deficiency on newborn screening test.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Vitor Guilherme Brito de; Oliveira, Renata Santarem de; Gameleira, Kallianna Paula Duarte; Cruz, Cátia Barbosa; Lofrano-Porto, Adriana

    2014-08-01

    3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase II (3β-HSD) deficiency represents a rare CAH variant. Newborns affected with its classic form have salt wasting in early infancy and genital ambiguity in both sexes. High levels of 17-hydroxypregnenolone (Δ517OHP) are characteristic, but extra-adrenal conversion to 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) may lead to positive results on newborn screening tests. Filter paper 17OHP on newborn screening test was performed by immunofluorometric assay, and serum determinations of 17OHP and Δ517OHP, by radioimmunoassay. A 46,XY infant with genital ambiguity and adrenal crisis at three months of age presented a positive result on newborn screening for CAH. Serum determinations of 17OHP and Δ517OHP were elevated, and a high Δ517OHP/cortisol relation was compatible with the diagnosis of 3β-HSD deficiency. Molecular analysis of the HSD3B2 gene from the affected case revealed the presence of the homozygous p.P222Q mutation, whereas his parents were heterozygous for it. We present the first report of 3β-HSD type II deficiency genotype-proven detected at the Newborn Screening Program in Brazil. The case described herein corroborates the strong genotype-phenotype correlation associated with the HSD3B2 p.P222Q mutation, which leads to a classic salt-wasting 3β-HSD deficiency. Further evaluation of 17OHP assays used in newborn screening tests would aid in determining their reproducibility, as well as the potential significance of moderately elevated 17OHP levels as an early indicator to the diagnosis of other forms of classic CAH, beyond 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

  11. Patients’ Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening Tests and Preparatory Education in Federally Qualified Health Centers1

    PubMed Central

    Gwede, Clement K.; Koskan, Alexis M.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Davis, Stacy N.; Ealey, Jamila; Abdulla, Rania; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Elliott, Gloria; Lopez, Diana; Shibata, David; Roetzheim, Richard G.; Meade, Cathy D.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study explored federally qualified health center (FQHC) patients’ perceptions about colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) tests, including immunochemical fecal occult blood tests (iFOBT), as well as preferences for receiving in-clinic education about CRCS. Methods Eight mixed-gender focus groups were conducted with 53 patients. Results Findings centered on three thematic factors: 1) motivators and impediments to CRCS, 2) test-specific preferences and receptivity to iFOBTs, and 3) preferences for entertaining and engaging plain language materials. Conclusion Results informed the development of educational priming materials to increase CRCS using iFOBT in FQHCs. PMID:25249181

  12. Patients' perceptions of colorectal cancer screening tests and preparatory education in federally qualified health centers.

    PubMed

    Gwede, Clement K; Koskan, Alexis M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Davis, Stacy N; Ealey, Jamila; Abdulla, Rania; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Elliott, Gloria; Lopez, Diana; Shibata, David; Roetzheim, Richard G; Meade, Cathy D

    2015-06-01

    This study explored federally qualified health center (FQHC) patients' perceptions about colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) tests, including immunochemical fecal occult blood tests (iFOBT), as well as preferences for receiving in-clinic education about CRCS. Eight mixed gender focus groups were conducted with 53 patients. Findings centered on three thematic factors: (1) motivators and impediments to CRCS, (2) test-specific preferences and receptivity to iFOBTs, and (3) preferences for entertaining and engaging plain language materials. Results informed the development of educational priming materials to increase CRCS using iFOBT in FQHCs.

  13. Patients' perceptions of colorectal cancer screening tests and preparatory education in federally qualified health centers.

    PubMed

    Gwede, Clement K; Koskan, Alexis M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Davis, Stacy N; Ealey, Jamila; Abdulla, Rania; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Elliott, Gloria; Lopez, Diana; Shibata, David; Roetzheim, Richard G; Meade, Cathy D

    2015-06-01

    This study explored federally qualified health center (FQHC) patients' perceptions about colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) tests, including immunochemical fecal occult blood tests (iFOBT), as well as preferences for receiving in-clinic education about CRCS. Eight mixed gender focus groups were conducted with 53 patients. Findings centered on three thematic factors: (1) motivators and impediments to CRCS, (2) test-specific preferences and receptivity to iFOBTs, and (3) preferences for entertaining and engaging plain language materials. Results informed the development of educational priming materials to increase CRCS using iFOBT in FQHCs. PMID:25249181

  14. Screening for chromosomal abnormalities using combined test in the first trimester of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Yeon; Jang, In Ae; Lee, Min Ah; Kim, Young Ju; Chun, Sun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to review the screening performance of combined test at the Ewha Womans University Mokdong hospital. Methods All women admitted for routine antenatal care between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2012 with a known pregnancy outcome were included in this study, totaling 1,156 women with singleton pregnancies presenting at 10 to 13 weeks of gestation. Women were offered screening using a combination of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, free β-human chorionic gonadotropin and fetal nuchal translucency thickness. Those with an estimated risk of ≥1 in 250 of carrying a fetus with trisomy 21 or ≥1 in 300 risk of trisomy 18 were offered genetic counseling with the option of an invasive diagnostic test. Results The median of gestational age was 11+3 weeks, the median of crown-rump length was 47.1 mm, and the median age of the women was 31 years. The detection rate was 80% for trisomy 21 (4 of 5) and 100% for trisomy 13 and 18 (all 2). The false-positive rate was 7.73% for trisomy 21 and 1.21% for trisomy 18. Conclusion This study was the first large population study performed with the aim of analyzing the performance of the combined test in Korea. This study demonstrated that the detection rates and other figures of the first trimester combined test are comparable to the results reported in other papers worldwide. Consequently, if strict conditions for good screening outcomes are achieved, the first trimester combined test might well be the earliest detectable screening, improving detection rates without increasing karyotyping or economic and other implications that inevitably ensue. PMID:27668198

  15. Screening for chromosomal abnormalities using combined test in the first trimester of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Yeon; Jang, In Ae; Lee, Min Ah; Kim, Young Ju; Chun, Sun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to review the screening performance of combined test at the Ewha Womans University Mokdong hospital. Methods All women admitted for routine antenatal care between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2012 with a known pregnancy outcome were included in this study, totaling 1,156 women with singleton pregnancies presenting at 10 to 13 weeks of gestation. Women were offered screening using a combination of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, free β-human chorionic gonadotropin and fetal nuchal translucency thickness. Those with an estimated risk of ≥1 in 250 of carrying a fetus with trisomy 21 or ≥1 in 300 risk of trisomy 18 were offered genetic counseling with the option of an invasive diagnostic test. Results The median of gestational age was 11+3 weeks, the median of crown-rump length was 47.1 mm, and the median age of the women was 31 years. The detection rate was 80% for trisomy 21 (4 of 5) and 100% for trisomy 13 and 18 (all 2). The false-positive rate was 7.73% for trisomy 21 and 1.21% for trisomy 18. Conclusion This study was the first large population study performed with the aim of analyzing the performance of the combined test in Korea. This study demonstrated that the detection rates and other figures of the first trimester combined test are comparable to the results reported in other papers worldwide. Consequently, if strict conditions for good screening outcomes are achieved, the first trimester combined test might well be the earliest detectable screening, improving detection rates without increasing karyotyping or economic and other implications that inevitably ensue.

  16. Evaluation of Contact Separation Force Testing as a Screening Methodology for Electrical Socket Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Chris; Greenwell, Chris; Brusse, jay; Krus, Dennis; Leidecker, Henning

    2009-01-01

    During system level testing intermittent and permanent open circuit failures of mated, crimp removable, electrical contact pairs were experienced. The root cause of the failures was determined to be low (but not zero) contact forces applied by the socket contact tines against the engaging pin. The low contact force reduces the effectiveness of the wiping action of the socket tines against the pin. The observed failure mode may be produced when insufficient wiping during mate, demate and small relative movement in use allows for the accumulation of debris or insulating films that electrically separate the contact pair. The investigation identified at least three manufacturing process control problems associated with the socket contacts that enabled shipment of contacts susceptible to developing low contact forces: (1) Improper heat treatment of the socket tines resulting in plastic rather than elastic behavior; (2) Overly thinned socket tines at their base resulting in reduced pin retention forces; (3) insufficient screening tests to identify parts susceptible to the aforementioned failure mechanisms. The results from an extensive screening program of socket contacts utilizing the industry standard contact separation force test procedures are described herein. The investigation shows this method to be capable of identifying initially weak sockets. However, sockets whose contact retention forces may degrade during use may not be screened out by pin retention testing alone. Further investigations are required to correlate low contact retention forces with increased electrical contact resistance in the presence of insulating films that may accumulate in the use environment.

  17. Measuring the quality-of-life effects of diagnostic and screening tests.

    PubMed

    Swan, J Shannon; Miksad, Rebecca A

    2009-08-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is a central concept for understanding the outcomes of medical care. When used in cost-effectiveness analysis, HRQL is typically measured for conditions persisting over long time frames (years), and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) values are generated. Consequently, years are the basic unit of time for cost-effectiveness analysis results: dollars spent per QALY gained. However, shorter term components of health care may also affect HRQL, and there is increased interest in measuring and accounting for these events. In radiology, the short-term HRQL effects of screening and diagnostic testing may affect a test's cost-effectiveness, even though they may only last for days. The unique challenge in radiology HRQL assessment is to realistically tap into the testing and screening experience while remaining consistent with QALY theory. The authors review HRQL assessment and highlight methods developed to specifically address the short-term effects of radiologic screening and testing. PMID:19643385

  18. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Cancer.gov

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  19. Stereo tests as a screening tool for strabismus: which is the best choice?

    PubMed Central

    Ancona, Chiara; Stoppani, Monica; Odazio, Veronica; La Spina, Carlo; Corradetti, Giulia; Bandello, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare four stereo tests (Lang I, Lang II, Titmus, and TNO) and assess their effectiveness. The main focus of this study is to identify the most useful stereo test as a challenging tool in the screening of strabismus. Patients and methods A total of 143 Caucasian subjects, 74 males (52%) and 69 females (48%), aged between 4 years and 78 years (mean age 19.09±15.12 years) were examined at our Strabismus Service (Scientific Institute San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy) and included in this observational cross-sectional study. Subjects recruited in this study were either affected by strabismus, including microstrabismic patients, or healthy volunteers. Subjects affected by ophthalmological diseases, other than strabismus, were excluded. All patients underwent both ophthalmological and orthoptic examination, including stereo tests, Hirschberg Corneal Light Reflex Test, Worth Four-Dot Test, the 4 Prism Diopter Base-Out Test, Cover Testing, Bruckner Test, visual acuity, automated refraction under 1% tropicamide cycloplegia and thereafter, posterior pole evaluation. Results All data were processed using the IBM SPSS Statistics, Version 2.0, to perform all statistical calculations. The main finding of this study is that Lang I stereo test achieved the highest sensitivity (89.8%) and specificity (95.2%) in detecting strabismus, including microstrabismus as well, compared to all the other stereoacuity tests. Furthermore, Lang I is the stereo test with the highest positive predictive value and negative predictive value, both greater than 90%. Conclusion The stereo test with the highest sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value is Lang I. These results suggest its applicability as a screening test for strabismus in people older than 4 years. PMID:25419114

  20. Comparison of three marine screening tests and four Oslo and Paris Commission procedures to evaluate toxicity of offshore chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Weideborg, M.; Vik, E.A.; Oefjord, G.D.; Kjoennoe, O.

    1997-02-01

    The results from the screening toxicity tests Artemia salina, Microtox{reg_sign}, and Mitochondria RET test were compared with those obtained from OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commissions)-authorized procedures for testing of offshore chemicals (Skeletonema costatum, Acartia tonsa, Abra alba, and Corophium volutator). In this study 82 test substances (26 non-water soluble) were included. The Microtox test was found to be the most sensitive of the three screening tests. Microtox and Mitochondria RET test results showed good correlation with results from Acartia and Skeletonema testing, and it was concluded that the Microtox test was a suitable screening test as a base for assessment of further testing, especially regarding water-soluble chemicals. Sensitivity of Artemia salina to the tested chemicals was too low for it to be an appropriate bioassay organism for screening testing. A very good correlation was found between the results obtained with the Skeletonema and Acartia tests. The results indicated no need for more than one of the Skeletonema or Acartia tests if the Skeletonema median effective concentration or Acartia median lethal concentration was greater than 200 mg/L. The sediment-reworker tests (A. Alba or C. volutator) for chemicals that are likely to end up in the sediments (non-water soluble or surfactants) should be performed, independent of results from screening tests and other OSPAR species.

  1. A comparison of fasting plasma glucose and glucose challenge test for screening of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Poomalar, G K; Rangaswamy, V

    2013-07-01

    Glucose challenge test (GCT) has been used as an effective screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), though it has its own limitations. Hence, we assessed the effectiveness of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as a simpler alternative procedure. A prospective study was done in 500 pregnant women with gestational age between 22 and 37 weeks. FPG, GCT and GTT were performed in all patients using the glucose oxidase/peroxidase method. The overall sensitivity and specificity of GCT were 75.0% and 92.0%, respectively and the corresponding values for FPG were 88.8% and 95.2%. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 42.2% and 97.9% for GCT and 59.2% and 99.1% for FPG, respectively. We conclude that FPG can be used as an effective screening tool for gestational diabetes mellitus.

  2. Thermal Testing and Analysis of an Efficient High-Temperature Multi-Screen Internal Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, Stefan; Handrick, Karin; Daryabeigi, Kamran

    2007-01-01

    Conventional multi-layer insulations exhibit excellent insulation performance but they are limited to the temperature range to which their components reflective foils and spacer materials are compatible. For high temperature applications, the internal multi-screen insulation IMI has been developed that utilizes unique ceramic material technology to produce reflective screens with high temperature stability. For analytical insulation sizing a parametric material model is developed that includes the main contributors for heat flow which are radiation and conduction. The adaptation of model-parameters based on effective steady-state thermal conductivity measurements performed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) allows for extrapolation to arbitrary stack configurations and temperature ranges beyond the ones that were covered in the conductivity measurements. Experimental validation of the parametric material model was performed during the thermal qualification test of the X-38 Chin-panel, where test results and predictions showed a good agreement.

  3. A proposal of decision tree to screen putative antidepressants using forced swim and tail suspension tests.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Michel; Chenu, Franck; Ripoll, Nadège; David, Denis Joseph Paul

    2005-11-01

    Interstrain mice variability in response to antidepressant drugs has been reported in the most commonly utilized behavioural animal models of depression: the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST). The behaviour of mice was examined in both tests for screening various antidepressants with different biochemical mechanism of action. Previous studies have revealed that drug sensitivity depends on the strain and test used. Swiss mice is the most sensitive strain to detect serotonin and/or noradrenaline antidepressants whereas C57BL/6J was the only strain sensitive to bupropion (dopaminergic agent) using the FST. In the TST, all antidepressants studied decreased the immobility time in Swiss and C57BL/6J strains. Detection of an antidepressant-like activity could be performed using only one test (TST with Swiss mice or FST with Swiss and C57Bl/6 Rj mice), but both tests are necessary to conclude on the mechanism of action.

  4. Performance of rapid tests and algorithms for HIV screening in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Loukou, Y G; Cabran, M A; Yessé, Zinzendorf Nanga; Adouko, B M O; Lathro, S J; Agbessi-Kouassi, K B T

    2014-01-01

    Seven rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) of HIV were evaluated by a panel group who collected serum samples from patients in Abidjan (HIV-1 = 203, HIV-2 = 25, HIV-dual = 25, HIV = 305). Kit performances were recorded after the reference techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following RDTs showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity higher than 99%: Determine, Oraquick, SD Bioline, BCP, and Stat-Pak. These kits were used to establish infection screening strategies. The combination with 2 or 3 of these tests in series or parallel algorithms showed that series combinations with 2 tests (Oraquick and Bioline) and 3 tests (Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak) gave the best performances (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%). However, the combination with 2 tests appeared to be more onerous than the combination with 3 tests. The combination with Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak tests serving as a tiebreaker could be an alternative to the HIV/AIDS serological screening in Abidjan.

  5. Receipt of Glucose Testing and Performance of Two US Diabetes Screening Guidelines, 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Bullard, Kai McKeever; Ali, Mohammed K.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Geiss, Linda S.; Saydah, Sharon H.; Albu, Jeanine B.; Cowie, Catherine C.; Sohler, Nancy; Albright, Ann; Gregg, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Screening guidelines are used to help identify prediabetes and diabetes before implementing evidence-based prevention and treatment interventions. We examined screening practices benchmarking against two US guidelines, and the capacity of each guideline to identify dysglycemia. Methods Using 2007–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, we analyzed nationally-representative, cross-sectional data from 5,813 fasting non-pregnant adults aged ≥20 years without self-reported diabetes. We examined proportions of adults eligible for diagnostic glucose testing and those who self-reported receiving testing in the past three years, as recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF-2008) guidelines. For each screening guideline, we also assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative predictive values in identifying dysglycemia (defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dl or hemoglobin A1c ≥5.7%). Results In 2007–2012, 73.0% and 23.7% of US adults without diagnosed diabetes met ADA and USPSTF-2008 criteria for screening, respectively; and 91.5% had at least one major risk factor for diabetes. Of those ADA- or USPSTF-eligible adults, about 51% reported being tested within the past three years. Eligible individuals not tested were more likely to be lower educated, poorer, uninsured, or have no usual place of care compared to tested eligible adults. Among adults with ≥1 major risk factor, 45.7% reported being tested, and dysglycemia yields (i.e., PPV) ranged from 45.8% (high-risk ethnicity) to 72.6% (self-reported prediabetes). ADA criteria and having any risk factor were more sensitive than the USPSTF-2008 guideline (88.8–97.7% vs. 31.0%) but less specific (13.5–39.7% vs. 82.1%) in recommending glucose testing, resulting in lower PPVs (47.7–54.4% vs. 58.4%). Conclusion Diverging recommendations and variable performance of different guidelines may be impeding

  6. The comparative cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening using faecal immunochemical test vs. colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Martin CS; Ching, Jessica YL; Chan, Victor CW; Sung, Joseph JY

    2015-01-01

    Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) and colonoscopy are two common screening tools for colorectal cancer(CRC). Most cost-effectiveness studies focused on survival as the outcome, and were based on modeling techniques instead of real world observational data. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of these two tests to detect colorectal neoplastic lesions based on data from a 5-year community screening service. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was assessed based on the detection rates of neoplastic lesions, and costs including screening compliance, polypectomy, colonoscopy complications, and staging of CRC detected. A total of 5,863 patients received yearly FIT and 4,869 received colonoscopy. Compared with FIT, colonoscopy detected notably more adenomas (23.6% vs. 1.6%) and advanced lesions or cancer (4.2% vs. 1.2%). Using FIT as control, the ICER of screening colonoscopy in detecting adenoma, advanced adenoma, CRC and a composite endpoint of either advanced adenoma or stage I CRC was US$3,489, US$27,962, US$922,762 and US$23,981 respectively. The respective ICER was US$3,597, US$439,513, -US$2,765,876 and US$32,297 among lower-risk subjects; whilst the corresponding figure was US$3,153, US$14,852, US$184,162 and US$13,919 among higher-risk subjects. When compared to FIT, colonoscopy is considered cost-effective for screening adenoma, advanced neoplasia, and a composite endpoint of advanced neoplasia or stage I CRC. PMID:26338314

  7. The comparative cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening using faecal immunochemical test vs. colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Martin C S; Ching, Jessica Y L; Chan, Victor C W; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2015-01-01

    Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) and colonoscopy are two common screening tools for colorectal cancer(CRC). Most cost-effectiveness studies focused on survival as the outcome, and were based on modeling techniques instead of real world observational data. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of these two tests to detect colorectal neoplastic lesions based on data from a 5-year community screening service. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was assessed based on the detection rates of neoplastic lesions, and costs including screening compliance, polypectomy, colonoscopy complications, and staging of CRC detected. A total of 5,863 patients received yearly FIT and 4,869 received colonoscopy. Compared with FIT, colonoscopy detected notably more adenomas (23.6% vs. 1.6%) and advanced lesions or cancer (4.2% vs. 1.2%). Using FIT as control, the ICER of screening colonoscopy in detecting adenoma, advanced adenoma, CRC and a composite endpoint of either advanced adenoma or stage I CRC was US$3,489, US$27,962, US$922,762 and US$23,981 respectively. The respective ICER was US$3,597, US$439,513, -US$2,765,876 and US$32,297 among lower-risk subjects; whilst the corresponding figure was US$3,153, US$14,852, US$184,162 and US$13,919 among higher-risk subjects. When compared to FIT, colonoscopy is considered cost-effective for screening adenoma, advanced neoplasia, and a composite endpoint of advanced neoplasia or stage I CRC. PMID:26338314

  8. Oscillating-flow regenerator test rig: Woven screen and metal felt results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedeon, D.; Wood, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    We present correlating expressions, in terms of Reynolds or Peclet numbers, for friction factors, Nusselt numbers, enhanced axial conduction ratios, and overall heat flux ratios in four porous regenerator samples representative of stirling cycle regenerators: two woven screen samples and two random wire samples. Error estimates and comparison of data with others suggest our correlations are reliable, but we need to test more samples over a range of porosities before our results will become generally useful.

  9. A quick screening test of competency to stand trial for defendants with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Smith, S A; Hudson, R L

    1995-02-01

    19 terms and concepts from evaluations of competency to stand trial of 55 defendants with mental retardation were rated to examine whether a quick screening test could be devised that would differentiate those who were judged competent or not competent. A multiple regression and discriminant analysis gave four items that yielded maximum predictability (R = .84): court strategy, plead, testify, and jury. Guilty, trial, and prosecutor were also significantly more difficult for those who were not competent than those who were.

  10. Statistical studies of animal response data from USF toxicity screening test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Statistical examination of animal response data obtained using Procedure B of the USF toxicity screening test method indicates that the data deviate only slightly from a normal or Gaussian distribution. This slight departure from normality is not expected to invalidate conclusions based on theoretical statistics. Comparison of times to staggering, convulsions, collapse, and death as endpoints shows that time to death appears to be the most reliable endpoint because it offers the lowest probability of missed observations and premature judgements.

  11. A simple screening test for fatty acid oxidation defects using whole-blood palmitate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Seargeant, L E; Balachandra, K; Mallory, C; Dilling, L A; Greenberg, C R

    1999-08-01

    We report that measurement of whole-blood palmitate oxidation is a rapid and inexpensive screening test for fatty acid oxidation defects. The assay has been adapted from published assays using cultured fibroblasts or isolated white blood cells. Micro whole-blood samples are incubated with tritiated palmitic acid as substrate. The tritiated water produced is proportional to the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of palmitic acid. Patients with confirmed beta-oxidation defects show low whole-blood palmitate oxidation.

  12. Buprenorphine detection in hair samples by immunometric screening test: preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Svaizer, Fiorenza; Lotti, Andrea; Gottardi, Massimo; Miozzo, Maria Pia

    2010-03-20

    The recent introduction of buprenorphine use by the Drug Addiction Services has induced toxicology laboratories to develop new qualitative or semiquantitative screening assay for its determination in hair samples. The aim of this preliminary study was to verify the correlation between the buprenorphine intake and the immunometric screening test results (VMA-T Comedical and buprenorphine CEDIA/Thermo-Fisher/Microgenics reagents) and therefore their comparison with the liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) results. Hair samples were obtained from 32 subjects without buprenorphine-therapy reported and 17 in treatment. In glass test tube with hermetic cap were weighed 33 mg of 49 finely cut hair samples, washed with 1 mL of SLV-VMA-T washing solution, which is then completely sucked and eliminated. The samples were extracted with 400 microL of VMA-T reagent for an hour at 100 degrees C. The extracts were analysed by immunometric screening test on ILab 650 chemistry analyser, using buprenorphine CEDIA reagent assay. From the 32 non-takers of drug, 30 semiquantitative results were less than 10 pg/mg and 2 were over 10 pg/mg; from the 17 subjects with therapy, all were over 10 pg/mg (range 13-50 pg/mg); no samples were false-negative. Results suggest that exist a good relationship between the administration of buprenorphine and its concentration in hair, detectable through this method and reagents line. PMID:20080369

  13. Blood transfusion in bimaxillary orthognathic operations: need for testing of type and screen.

    PubMed

    Fenner, Matthias; Kessler, Peter; Holst, Stefan; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Holst, Alexandra Ioana

    2009-12-01

    We prospectively evaluated the incidence of blood transfusion in 105 consecutively treated patients (45 men and 60 women) having bimaxillary orthognathic operations, to find out whether type and screen testing are adequate in clinical practice. All patients had Le Fort I osteotomy combined with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy of the ramus. The preoperative routine was restricted to type and screen testing and verification of ABO/Rhesus (Rh) status. Autologous blood donation or routine cross-matching of allogeneic units of blood was not done. Intraoperative haemoglobin concentrations and the need for blood transfusion in patients having bimaxillary osteotomies were recorded in a prospective database. The mean duration of operation was 196 min (range 115-325). The median length of hospital stay was 8 days (range 4-16). The mean (SD) reduction in haemoglobin during operation was 34 (16)g/L in men and 32 (10)g/L in women (p=0.32). No patients had an allogeneic blood transfusion. We found that type and screen testing and verification of ABO/Rh status seems to be an adequate precaution to manage blood loss. As reflected by the low rate of transfusion in the present study, severe haemorrhage that requires transfusion of allogeneic blood has become the exception rather than the rule in bimaxillary orthognathic operations. PMID:19608311

  14. The King–Devick test for sideline concussion screening in collegiate football

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Danielle F.; Balcer, Laura J.; Galetta, Steven L.; Evans, Greg; Gimre, Matthew; Watt, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sports-related concussion has received increasing attention as a result of neurologic sequelae seen among athletes, highlighting the need for a validated, rapid screening tool. The King–Devick (K–D) test requires vision, eye movements, language function and attention in order to perform and has been proposed as a promising tool for assessment of concussion. We investigated the K–D test as a sideline screening tool in a collegiate cohort to determine the effect of concussion. Methods Athletes (n = 127, mean age 19.6 ± 1.2 years) from the Wheaton College football and men's and women's basketball teams underwent baseline K–D testing at pre-season physicals for the 2012–2013 season. K–D testing was administered immediately on the sidelines for football players with suspected head injury during regular games and changes compared to baseline were determined. Post-season testing was also performed to compare non-concussed athletes’ test performance. Results Concussed athletes (n = 11) displayed sideline K–D scores that were significantly higher (worse) than baseline (36.5 ± 5.6 s vs. 31.3 ± 4.5 s, p < 0.005, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Post-season testing demonstrated improvement of scores and was consistent with known learning effects (35.1 ± 5.2 s vs. 34.4 ± 5.0 s, p < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Test-retest reliability was analyzed between baseline and post-season administrations of the K–D test resulting in high levels of test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.95 [95% Confidence Interval 0.85–1.05]). Conclusions The data show worsening of K–D test scores following concussion further supporting utility of the K–D test as an objective, reliable and effective sideline visual screening tool to help identify athletes with concussion. PMID:25649742

  15. Screening for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains three sections: Fundamentals of Screening, Screening Tests, and Screening for Specific Cancer Sites. Each section consists of several chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Principles of Screening and of the Evaluation of Screening Programs; Economic Aspects of Screening; Cervical Cytology; Screening Tests for Bladder Cancer; Fecal Occult Blood Testing; Screening for Cancer of the Cervix; Screening for Gastric Cancer; and Screening for Oral Cancer.

  16. Hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis with accurate-mass database and parallel reaction monitoring for high-throughput screening and quantification of multi-xenobiotics in honey.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Jinzhen; Jin, Yue; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Wen; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhai, Lifei; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhou, Jinhui

    2016-01-15

    This study reports a rapid, automated screening and quantification method for the determination of multi-xenobiotic residues in honey using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap) with a user-built accurate-mass database plus parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). The database contains multi-xenobiotic information including formulas, adduct types, theoretical exact mass and retention time, characteristic fragment ions, ion ratios, and mass accuracies. A simple sample preparation method was developed to reduce xenobiotic loss in the honey samples. The screening method was validated based on retention time deviation, mass accuracy via full scan-data-dependent MS/MS (full scan-ddMS2), multi-isotope ratio, characteristic ion ratio, sensitivity, and positive/negative switching performance between the spiked sample and corresponding standard solution. The quantification method based on the PRM mode is a promising new quantitative tool which we validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, recovery (accuracy), repeatability (precision), decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), matrix effects, and carry-over. The optimized methods proposed in this study enable the automated screening and quantification of 157 compounds in less than 15 min in honey. The results of this study, as they represent a convenient protocol for large-scale screening and quantification, also provide a research approach for analysis of various contaminants in other matrices.

  17. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised as a potential screening test for elderly drivers.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Inês S; Simões, Mário R; Marôco, João

    2012-11-01

    Considerable research has shown that neuropsychological tests are predictive of real-world driving ability. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a brief cognitive test that has been commonly used in the assessment of older drivers. However, this test has inherent problems that limit its validity to evaluate cognitive abilities related to driving and to screen for driving impairments in non-demented people. Therefore, it is useful to test new screening instruments that may predict potential unsafe drivers who require an in-depth neuropsychological assessment in a specialised centre. To date, the utility of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) as an indicator of driving ability has not been established. In the current study, fifty older drivers (mean age=73.1 years) who were referred for a psychological assessment, the protocol of which included the ACE-R, underwent an on-road driving test. Using linear discriminant analyses, the results highlighted the higher classification accuracy of the ACE-R compared to the MMSE score, particularly for detecting unsafe drivers. Measures of visuospatial and executive functions, which are not incorporated in the MMSE score, had an incremental value in the prediction of driving ability. This emerging brief cognitive test may warrant additional study for use in the fitness to drive assessment of older adults. PMID:23036407

  18. Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.; Moore, Leslie K.; Harrington, Neil; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Borchert, Jerry; Trainer, Vera L.

    2013-01-01

    The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A). The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters. PMID:24084788

  19. New Screening Test Developed for the Blanching Resistance of Copper Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus U.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's extensive efforts towards more efficient, safer, and more affordable space transportation include the development of new thrust-cell liner materials with improved capabilities and longer lives. For rocket engines fueled with liquid hydrogen, an important metric of liner performance is resistance to blanching, a phenomenon of localized wastage by cycles of oxidation-reduction due to local imbalance in the oxygen-fuel ratio. The current liner of the Space Shuttle Main Engine combustion chamber, a Cu-3Ag-0.5Zr alloy (NARloy-Z) is degraded in service by blanching. Heretofore, evaluating a liner material for blanching resistance involved elaborate and expensive hot-fire tests performed on rocket test stands. To simplify that evaluation, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center developed a screening test that uses simple, in situ oxidation-reduction cycling in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The principle behind this test is that resistance to oxidation or to the reduction of oxide, or both, implies resistance to blanching. Using this test as a preliminary tool to screen alloys for blanching resistance can improve reliability and save time and money. In this test a small polished coupon is hung in a TGA furnace at the desired (service) temperature. Oxidizing and reducing gases are introduced cyclically, in programmed amounts. Cycle durations are chosen by calibration, such that all copper oxides formed by oxidation are fully reduced in the next reduction interval. The sample weight is continuously acquired by the TGA as usual.

  20. Slug tests in wells screened across the water table: some additional considerations.

    PubMed

    Butler, J J

    2014-01-01

    The majority of slug tests done at sites of shallow groundwater contamination are performed in wells screened across the water table and are affected by mechanisms beyond those considered in the standard slug-test models. These additional mechanisms give rise to a number of practical issues that are yet to be fully resolved; four of these are addressed here. The wells in which slug tests are performed were rarely installed for that purpose, so the well design can result in problematic (small signal to noise ratio) test data. The suitability of a particular well design should thus always be assessed prior to field testing. In slug tests of short duration, it can be difficult to identify which portion of the test represents filter-pack drainage and which represents formation response; application of a mass balance can help confirm that test phases have been correctly identified. A key parameter required for all slug test models is the casing radius. However, in this setting, the effective casing radius (borehole radius corrected for filter-pack porosity), not the nominal well radius, is required; this effective radius is best estimated directly from test data. Finally, although conventional slug-test models do not consider filter-pack drainage, these models will yield reasonable hydraulic conductivity estimates when applied to the formation-response phase of a test from an appropriately developed well.

  1. Applicability of Screening Tests for Oxytetracycline in the Milk of Three Breeds of Goats.

    PubMed

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry, and the presence of antibiotic residues in milk is a health hazard. The objectives of this study were to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in the milk of three breeds of goats using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and screening tests. It was also essential to explore the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats and examine the applicability of Charm ROSA and SNAP screening tests. The qualitative results of these tests were compared with the quantitative results of the HPLC method. Fifteen milking does, five each from the Alpine, LaMancha, and Nubian breeds, were selected from the herd at Prairie View A&M University. Milk samples containing antibiotic residues were deproteinized by HCl and acetonitrile, and then oxytetracycline was extracted from the supernatant. The residues of oxytetracycline in goat's milk up to 110 h after injection were qualitatively detected using the Charm ROSA test. Similarly, the SNAP test detected the antibiotic residues in milk up to 110 h after treatment. The HPLC results indicated that oxytetracycline residues in milk from Alpine goats were below the tolerance level (300 ng/ml) 82 h after drug treatment (72 h for LaManchas, 58 h for Nubians); however, the results of the screening tests would indicate longer withdrawal periods for milk from the breeds of goats studied, which would result in economic losses to goat's milk producers. The results of this study also indicated that oxytetracycline was not stable in raw goat's milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and that the concentrations decreased significantly. Commercial goat's milk is usually exposed to several hours of refrigeration and then to pasteurization. The results of this study indicated that, if oxytetracycline was present in raw goat's milk, the concentration would decrease significantly before it was marketed.

  2. Adoption of Liquid-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Tests by Family Physicians and Gynecologists

    PubMed Central

    Rappaport, Karen M; Forrest, Christopher B; Holtzman, Neil A

    2004-01-01

    Objective To examine reasons for the adoption of liquid-based cervical cancer screening tests. Data Sources/Study Setting A mailed survey of 250 family physicians and 250 gynecologists in Maryland in 2000. Additional data were obtained from the AMA Master File of Physicians. Study Design Key outcome variables in this cross-sectional survey were early adoption of a liquid-based test by the end of 1997 and overall adoption by the time of the survey. Adoption was viewed in terms of a supply and demand theoretical framework with marketing influencing physician and patient demand as well as supply by insurance companies and laboratories. Data Collection Random samples of family physicians and gynecologists were selected from the AMA Master File of Physicians. The overall response rate was 61.9 percent. Principal Findings By 2000, 96 percent of gynecologists and 75 percent of family physicians in Maryland were using liquid-based cervical cancer screening tests, most commonly the ThinPrep® Pap Test™. Gynecologists were more likely than family physicians to have been early adopters (34 percent versus 5 percent, p<.01). Part of this variation in adoption was due to aggressive marketing to gynecologists, who were more likely than family physicians to receive information in the mail from the test manufacturer (89 percent versus 56 percent, p<.01) and to have been informed by the manufacturer that a patient had inquired about physicians' use of the test (22 percent versus 8 percent, p<.01). Conclusions The rapid diffusion of liquid-based cervical cancer screening tests occurred despite general agreement that the Pap smear has been one of the most successful cancer prevention interventions ever. Commercial marketing campaigns appear to contribute to the more rapid rate of diffusion of technology among specialists compared with generalists. PMID:15230935

  3. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    SciTech Connect

    Taxvig, Camilla Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-02-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  4. Applicability of Screening Tests for Oxytetracycline in the Milk of Three Breeds of Goats.

    PubMed

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry, and the presence of antibiotic residues in milk is a health hazard. The objectives of this study were to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in the milk of three breeds of goats using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and screening tests. It was also essential to explore the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats and examine the applicability of Charm ROSA and SNAP screening tests. The qualitative results of these tests were compared with the quantitative results of the HPLC method. Fifteen milking does, five each from the Alpine, LaMancha, and Nubian breeds, were selected from the herd at Prairie View A&M University. Milk samples containing antibiotic residues were deproteinized by HCl and acetonitrile, and then oxytetracycline was extracted from the supernatant. The residues of oxytetracycline in goat's milk up to 110 h after injection were qualitatively detected using the Charm ROSA test. Similarly, the SNAP test detected the antibiotic residues in milk up to 110 h after treatment. The HPLC results indicated that oxytetracycline residues in milk from Alpine goats were below the tolerance level (300 ng/ml) 82 h after drug treatment (72 h for LaManchas, 58 h for Nubians); however, the results of the screening tests would indicate longer withdrawal periods for milk from the breeds of goats studied, which would result in economic losses to goat's milk producers. The results of this study also indicated that oxytetracycline was not stable in raw goat's milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and that the concentrations decreased significantly. Commercial goat's milk is usually exposed to several hours of refrigeration and then to pasteurization. The results of this study indicated that, if oxytetracycline was present in raw goat's milk, the concentration would decrease significantly before it was marketed. PMID:27296606

  5. Evaluation of screening tests for predicting older driver performance and safety assessed by an on-road test.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanne M; Horswill, Mark S; Lacherez, Philippe F; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-01-01

    A number of tests and test batteries are available for the prediction of older driver safety, but many of these have not been validated against standardized driving outcome measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate a series of previously described screening tests in terms of their ability to predict the potential for safe and unsafe driving. Participants included 79 community-dwelling older drivers (M=72.16 years, SD=5.46; range 65-88 years; 57 males and 22 females) who completed a previously validated multi-disciplinary driving assessment, a hazard perception test, a hazard change detection test and a battery of vision and cognitive tests. Participants also completed a standardized on-road driving assessment. The multi-disciplinary test battery had the highest predictive ability with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 73%, followed by the hazard perception test which demonstrated a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 61%. These findings suggest that a relatively simple and practical battery of tests from a range of domains has the capacity to predict safe and unsafe driving in older adults.

  6. Selective pressures for accurate altruism targeting: evidence from digital evolution for difficult-to-test aspects of inclusive fitness theory.

    PubMed

    Clune, Jeff; Goldsby, Heather J; Ofria, Charles; Pennock, Robert T

    2011-03-01

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that natural selection will favour altruist genes that are more accurate in targeting altruism only to copies of themselves. In this paper, we provide evidence from digital evolution in support of this prediction by competing multiple altruist-targeting mechanisms that vary in their accuracy in determining whether a potential target for altruism carries a copy of the altruist gene. We compete altruism-targeting mechanisms based on (i) kinship (kin targeting), (ii) genetic similarity at a level greater than that expected of kin (similarity targeting), and (iii) perfect knowledge of the presence of an altruist gene (green beard targeting). Natural selection always favoured the most accurate targeting mechanism available. Our investigations also revealed that evolution did not increase the altruism level when all green beard altruists used the same phenotypic marker. The green beard altruism levels stably increased only when mutations that changed the altruism level also changed the marker (e.g. beard colour), such that beard colour reliably indicated the altruism level. For kin- and similarity-targeting mechanisms, we found that evolution was able to stably adjust altruism levels. Our results confirm that natural selection favours altruist genes that are increasingly accurate in targeting altruism to only their copies. Our work also emphasizes that the concept of targeting accuracy must include both the presence of an altruist gene and the level of altruism it produces.

  7. Testing the woman abuse screening tool to identify intimate partner violence in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L; Katz, Alan R

    2015-04-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance.

  8. Testing the Woman Abuse Screening Tool to Identify Intimate Partner Violence in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L.; Katz, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance. PMID:25012952

  9. Genetic screening technology: ethical issues in access to tests by employers and health insurance committees.

    PubMed

    Faden, R R; Kass, N E

    1993-01-01

    Whereas the introduction of new technologies previously has raised the ethical question of who ought to have access to a new procedure or device, genetic testing technology raises the new ethical question of to whom access to a new technology ought to be limited. In this article we discuss the implications of employers and private health insurance companies having access to genetic testing technology. Although there may be legitimate business interests in allowing employers and insurers to conduct genetic screening, there are other valid societal interests in regulating or limiting the use of this technology by third parties. Public policy developed in the area of new genetic technology must reflect such interests.

  10. Room Temperature Bubble Point Tests on Porous Screens: Implications for Cryogenic Liquid Acquisition Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason; Mann, J. Adin, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results for room temperature bubble point tests conducted at the Cedar Creek Road Cryogenic Complex, Cell 7 (CCL-7) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The purpose of these tests was to investigate the performance of three different fine mesh screens in room temperature liquids to provide pretest predictions in cryogenic liquid nitrogen (LN2) and hydrogen (LH2) as part of NASA's microgravity LAD technology development program. Bench type tests based on the maximum bubble point method were conducted for a 325 x 2300, 450 x 2750, and 510 x 3600 mesh sample in pure room temperature liquid methanol, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, water, and mixtures of methanol and water to cover the intermediate to upper surface tension range. A theoretical model for the bubble point pressure is derived from the Young-LaPlace equation for the pressure drop across a curved interface. Governing equations are reduced in complexity through a set of simplifying assumptions to permit direct comparison with the experimental data. Screen pore sizes are estimated from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to make pretest predictions. Pore sizes based on SEM analysis are compared with historical data available in the literature for the 325 x 2300 and 450 x 2750 screens as well with data obtained from bubble point tests conducted in this work. Experimental results show that bubble point pressure is proportional to the surface tension of the liquid. We show that there is excellent agreement between data and model for pure fluids when the data is corrected for non-zero contact angle measured on the screens using a modified Sessile Drop technique. SEM image analysis of the three meshes indicated that bubble point pressure would be a maximum for the finest mesh screen. The pore diameters based on SEM analysis and experimental data obtained here are in excellent agreement for the 325 x 2300 and 450 x 2750 meshes, but not for the finest 510 x 3600 mesh. Therefore the simplified model

  11. Does knowledge influence pap test screening among young African-American women?

    PubMed

    Bynum, Shalanda A; Guillaume, Daphnee A; Brandt, Heather M; Fletcher, Faith E

    2014-09-01

    Pap test screening among African-American women has substantially increased. However, African-American women continue to bear the burden of cervical cancer as compared to White women. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of Pap test knowledge on cervical screening history among young African-American women. Between January and April 2009, 320 women from historically black colleges and universities located in the southeastern United States who met study inclusion criteria completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire to assess their awareness, knowledge, and behaviors related to human papillomavirus and cervical cancer prevention and control. Seventy-six percent of women reported ever having a Pap test, 54 % reported having a Pap test less than 1 year ago, and 25 % reported ever having an abnormal Pap test result. The overall mean score on the six-point Pap test knowledge scale was 4.46 ± 1.02. Women who reported having an abnormal Pap test (4.96 ± 0.82) had significantly higher Pap test knowledge compared to those never having an abnormal result (4.49 ± 1.04), p < 0.01. No other differences were found. Efforts to improve Pap test knowledge among all women, including those with no prior abnormal Pap test history, are critical to cervical cancer prevention and control over the life course. Such efforts should include creating information that is relevant to the population and enables informed decision making about cervical health.

  12. Urine Toxicology Screen in Multiple Sleep Latency Test: The Correlation of Positive Tetrahydrocannabinol, Drug Negative Patients, and Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dzodzomenyo, Samuel; Stolfi, Adrienne; Splaingard, Deborah; Earley, Elizabeth; Onadeko, Oluwole; Splaingard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Drugs can influence results of multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT). We sought to identify the effect of marijuana on MSLT results in pediatric patients evaluated for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Methods: This is a retrospective study of urine drug screens performed the morning before MSLT in 383 patients < 21 years old referred for EDS. MSLT results were divided into those with (1) (−) urine drug screens, (2) urine drug screens (+) for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alone or THC plus other drugs, and (3) urine drug screens (+) for drugs other than THC. Groups were compared with Fisher exact tests or one-way ANOVA. Results: 38 (10%) urine drug tests were (+): 14 for THC and 24 for other drugs. Forty-three percent of patients with drug screen (+) for THC had MSLT findings consistent with narcolepsy, 0% consistent with idiopathic hypersomnia, 29% other, and 29% normal. This was statistically different from those with (−) screens (24% narcolepsy, 20% idiopathic hypersomnia, 6% other, 50% normal), and those (+) for drugs other than THC (17% narcolepsy, 33% idiopathic hypersomnia, 4% other, 46% normal (p = 0.01). Six percent (6/93) of patients with MSLT findings consistent with narcolepsy were drug screen (+) for THC; 71% of patients with drug screen (+) for THC had multiple sleep onset REM periods (SOREMS). There were no (+) urine drug screens in patients < 13 years old. Conclusion: Many pediatric patients with (+) urine drug screens for THC met MSLT criteria for narcolepsy or had multiple SOREMs. Drug screening is important in interpreting MSLT findings for children ≥ 13 years. Citation: Dzodzomenyo S, Stolfi A, Splaingard D, Earley E, Onadeko O, Splaingard M. Urine toxicology screen in multiple sleep latency test: the correlation of positive tetrahydrocannabinol, drug negative patients, and narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):93–99. PMID:25348245

  13. New strategies for blood donor screening for hepatitis B virus: nucleic acid testing versus immunoassay methods.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Mary C; Busch, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Serologic testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) has historically been the foundation of blood screening, while HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT) was recently developed to detect HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-negative blood units donated during early acute infection. Comparison data on seroconversion panels using HBsAg assays of varying sensitivities and pooled- or single-sample NAT, along with viral load estimates corresponding to HBsAg assay detection limits, have provided information on the theoretical benefits of NAT relative to HBsAg. Model-derived estimates have generally been predictive of the yields of DNA-positive, HBsAg-negative window period blood units detected in a number of studies from Europe, Japan, and the US. Studies indicate that the added benefit of pooled-sample NAT is relatively small in areas of low endemicity, with greater yields in areas highly endemic for HBV. Single-sample NAT would offer more significant early window period closure and could prevent a moderate number of residual HBV transmissions not detected by HBsAg assays; however, no fully automated single-sample HBV NAT systems are currently available.Even single-sample HBV NAT may not substitute for anti-HBc screening, as indicated by studies of donors with isolated anti-HBc who have extremely low DNA levels undetectable by standard single-sample NAT and who have been associated with transfusion-transmitted HBV. Moreover, HBsAg testing may still be needed even in the setting of combined anti-HBc and NAT screening. HBsAg-positive units from donors in the chronic stage of infection may contain very low or intermittently detectable DNA levels that single-sample NAT would miss. Although such donors are usually anti-HBc reactive and would be interdicted by anti-HBc screening, some lack anti-HBc. Extensive parallel testing will be needed to determine whether single-sample NAT in combination with anti-HBc might be sufficient to

  14. Chinese geneticists' views of ethical issues in genetic testing and screening: evidence for eugenics in China.

    PubMed

    Mao, X

    1998-09-01

    To identify Chinese geneticists' views of ethical issues in genetic testing and screening, a national survey was conducted. Of 402 Chinese geneticists asked to participate, 255 (63%) returned by mail anonymous questionnaires. The majority of respondents thought that genetic testing should be offered in the workplace for alpha-antitrypsin deficiency (95%) and the predisposition of executives to heart disease, cancer, and diabetes (94%); that genetic testing should be included in preemployment physical examinations (86%); that governments should require premarital carrier tests (86%), newborn screening for sickle cell (77%), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (71%); and that children should be tested for genes for late-onset disorders such as Huntington disease (85%), susceptibility to cancers (85%), familial hypercholesterolemia (84%), alcoholism (69%), and Alzheimer disease (61%). Most believed that partners should know each other's genetic status before marriage (92%), that carriers of the same defective gene should not mate with each other (91%), and that women should have a prenatal diagnosis if medically indicated (91%). The majority said that in China decisions about family planning were shared by the couple (82%). More than half had views that, in China, there were no laws to prohibit disability discrimination (64%), particularly to protect people with adult polycystic kidney disease (57%), cystic fibrosis (56%), or genetic predisposition to other diseases (50%). To some extent, these results might provide a basis for a discussion of eugenics in China, particularly about China's Maternal and Infant Health Care Law (1994). PMID:9718350

  15. Correlation of pregnancy outcome with quadruple screening test at second trimester

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Shahla; Rouholahnejad, Rahele; Asnafi, Nesa; Sharbatdaran, Majid; Zakershob, Marziihe; Bouzari, Zinatossadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal levels of the markers AFP, hCG, and uE3 could be useful in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study was designed to determine the correlation between second trimester maternal serum markers and adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). Methods: In this historical cohort study, we randomly followed 231 obstetric patients with quadruple screening test in 14-18 weeks of gestation from March 2012 to March 2013 in a medical laboratory in Babol, Iran. We measured maternal serum levels of alphafetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), unconjugated estriol (uE3), and inhibin-A. The risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) were then compared between patients with negative and positive test results. We used Chi-square and Fisher-exact tests for qualitative variables and t-test for quantitative variables. Demographic differences between the two groups were minimized by applying logistic regression. Results: The risk of having an APO such as pre-eclampsia (p=0.008), fetal growth restriction (p=0.028) and premature rupture of membrane (p=0.040) increased significantly in patients with abnormal markers. Conclusion: Abnormal results of quadruple screening test could be associated with APO in women with normal appearing fetus. PMID:26913244

  16. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-tests with an adaptive test that uses computerized algorithms for selecting and administering items in... the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1830-0027) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 9212)...

  17. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-tests with an adaptive test that uses computerized algorithms for selecting and administering items in... the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1830-0027) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 9212)...

  18. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-tests with an adaptive test that uses computerized algorithms for selecting and administering items in... the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1830-0027) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 9212)...

  19. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-tests with an adaptive test that uses computerized algorithms for selecting and administering items in... the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1830-0027) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 9212)...

  20. Otoacoustic emissions as a screening test for hearing impairment in children.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, M P; Williamson, T J; Lenton, S W; Tarlow, M J; Rudd, P T

    1995-01-01

    Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) are low amplitude sound waves produced by the healthy cochlea. They can be recorded with a microphone in the external ear. TEOAEs are abolished by hearing losses of 30 dB or more. The feasibility of using TEOAEs as a screening test for hearing loss in children was studied. TEOAE recordings were attempted in 56 children attending an audiology clinic. Recordings were possible from both ears in 52 children; of these 104 ears, 32 had hearing deficits of 30 dB or more. Hearing status was compared with the results of six TEOAE screening criteria. All criteria had a sensitivity of 1.00. Four standard TEOAE criteria yielded specificities of 0.46-0.58. Two new criteria derived from analysis of limited frequencies from the TEOAE waveform gave specificities of 0.76 and 0.82. It can be concluded that, when appropriate pass/fail criteria are employed, TEOAEs are a feasible screening test in children. PMID:7763058

  1. This is not only a test. The hidden risks of antibody screening.

    PubMed

    Byron, P

    1986-05-27

    Interviews with several gay rights activists and public health workers raise serious questions about the blood test to detect antibodies to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A New York gay activist has described the test as "the 80's equivalent of the yellow star," which stigmatizes people and singles them out for discrimination. Public opinion tends not to make any distinction between a positive test result and full-blown AIDS, and government promotion of the test has not added clarity. Several states require the names and addresses of antibody carriers, while others keep lists of the sexual partners of those who test positive. Concern has been expressed that this trend will have 2 practical effects: people will be reluctant to take the test, and record keeping will lead to other uses. Since identification requirements were instituted in Colorado, voluntary testing at gay health clinics dropped from 600 to 100/month. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has allocated US$20 million for special AIDS antibody screening sites, and the states are spending thousands of dollars to collect statistics on individuals at risk. There is increasing concern, however, that funds that could be used for AIDS education are being diverted to antibody screening programs. In states where AIDS is still relatively new, refusal to fund community-based education efforts is considered especially destructive, since there may be time to stop the virus from infecting large numbers of people. A former government official, who disagrees with the CDC approach, has noted that there are no data to support the contention that testing people makes them change their behavior, while AIDS education has been proven to be an effective means to reduce high risk activities. Finally, there is evidence that a positive antibody test has a profound psychological impact, including anxiety, depression, and withdrawal from social relations.

  2. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as soon as possible thereafter; (2) Administer the pre-test to students at a uniform time, according to its State's assessment policy; and (3) Administer pre-tests to students in the skill areas... post-test to measure a student's educational functioning level after a set time period or number...

  3. Cervical cancer screening with clinic-based Pap test versus home HPV test among Somali immigrant women in Minnesota: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sewali, Barrett; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Askhir, Asli; Belinson, Jerome; Vogel, Rachel I; Joseph, Anne; Ghebre, Rahel G

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is more common in the Somali immigrant population than the general population in the United States (US). There are low rates of cervical cancer screening among Somali women. This study compares cervical cancer screening test completion rates for a home human papilloma virus (HPV) test and standard clinic Pap test. Sixty-three Somali immigrant women aged 30–70 years who had not undergone cervical cancer screening within the past 3 years were randomly assigned to a home HPV test group (intervention) or a clinic Pap test group (control). Test completion rates were measured at 3 months. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to explore factors associated with test completion (intention-to-treat analysis). Participants in the HPV test group were 14 times more likely to complete the test compared to those in the Pap test group (P = 0.0002). Women who reported having friends/family members to talk about cancer screening were approximately three times more likely to complete any screening test than those who did not (P = 0.127) and participants who reported residing in the US longer were more likely to complete a screening test (P = 0.011). Future research should explore the potential of using the home-based HPV test kits as an initial approach to cervical cancer screening. Impact: The use of a self-sampling HPV kit has the potential to increase cervical cancer screening in under-served communities in the US. PMID:25653188

  4. Evaluation of some candidate materials for automobile thermal reactors in engine-dynamometer screening tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldrieve, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Fourteen materials were evaluated in engine screening tests on full-size thermal reactors for automobile engine pollution control systems. Cyclic test-stand engine operation provided 2 hours at 1040 C and a 20-minute air-cool to 70 C each test cycle. Each reactor material was exposed to 83 cycles in 200 hours of engine testing. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and distortion, the best materials included two ferritic iron alloys (Ge 1541 and Armco 18S/R), several commercial oxidation-resistant coatings on AlSl 651 (19-9 DL), and possibly uncoated AISI 310. The best commercial coatings were Cr-Al, Ni-Cr, and a glass ceramic.

  5. Economic Evaluations of Pharmacogenetic and Pharmacogenomic Screening Tests: A Systematic Review. Second Update of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wilffert, Bob; Boersma, Cornelis; Annemans, Lieven; Vegter, Stefan; van Boven, Job F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Due to extended application of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic screening (PGx) tests it is important to assess whether they provide good value for money. This review provides an update of the literature. Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed and papers published between August 2010 and September 2014, investigating the cost-effectiveness of PGx screening tests, were included. Papers from 2000 until July 2010 were included via two previous systematic reviews. Studies’ overall quality was assessed with the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument. Results We found 38 studies, which combined with the previous 42 studies resulted in a total of 80 included studies. An average QHES score of 76 was found. Since 2010, more studies were funded by pharmaceutical companies. Most recent studies performed cost-utility analysis, univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and discussed limitations of their economic evaluations. Most studies indicated favorable cost-effectiveness. Majority of evaluations did not provide information regarding the intrinsic value of the PGx test. There were considerable differences in the costs for PGx testing. Reporting of the direction and magnitude of bias on the cost-effectiveness estimates as well as motivation for the chosen economic model and perspective were frequently missing. Conclusions Application of PGx tests was mostly found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy. We found that only the minority of recent pharmacoeconomic evaluations assessed the intrinsic value of the PGx tests. There was an increase in the number of studies and in the reporting of quality associated characteristics. To improve future evaluations, scenario analysis including a broad range of PGx tests costs and equal costs of comparator drugs to assess the intrinsic value of the PGx tests, are recommended. In addition, robust clinical evidence regarding PGx tests’ efficacy remains of utmost importance. PMID

  6. Testing the ability of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to accurately report the effects of medication on their behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Ardoin, S P; Martens, B K

    2000-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often treated with central nervous system stimulants, making the evaluation of medication effects an important topic for applied behavior analysts. Because assessment protocols emphasize informant reports and direct observations of child behavior, little is known about the extent to which children themselves can accurately report medication effects. Double-blind placebo-controlled procedures were used to examine whether 6 children with ADHD could recognize the effects of their medication. The children were given math worksheets to complete for 15 min during each of 14 sessions while on medication and placebo. Children completed a self-evaluation form at the end of each session, and ratings were compared to observed behavior and academic performance. Results indicated that 3 children were able to accurately report their medication status at levels greater than chance, whereas the accuracy of reports by all children was related to dosage level, differences in behavior, and the presence of adverse effects. The implications of these results for placebo-controlled research, self-monitoring of dosage levels, and accuracy training are discussed. PMID:11214033

  7. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  8. Proposal for a screening test to evaluate the fate of organic micropollutants in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Roberta; Vismara, Renato; Dal Ben, Ilaria; Gorla, Elena; Romele, Laura

    2011-04-01

    The concentrations of organic micropollutants are usually low in wastewaters (order of magnitude of mg L(-1)). However, their emission standards, especially in the case of carcinogenic and bioaccumulating substances, are often much lower (order of magnitude of microg L(-1)). Since these substances, in some cases, can be adsorbable or volatile, their removal via volatilization, biodegradation or sludge adsorption in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) becomes a significant feature to include in the usual design process, in order to verify the emission standards in gas and sludge too. In this study a simple screening batch test for the evaluation of the fate of organic micropollutants in water, air and sludge is presented. The test is set up by means of simple laboratory instruments and simulates an activated sludge tank process. In this study the results obtained for four substances with different chemical properties (i.e. toluene, benz(a)anthracene, phenol and benzene) are presented. The screening test proposed can be a useful tool to assess in about one month the fate of organic micropollutants in an activated sludge tank of a WWTP. Moreover, the test can constitute a useful support in the use of mathematical models, since it allows the verification of model results and the calibration of the reactions involved in the removal process. PMID:21877546

  9. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population. PMID:26990386

  10. A parallel study of careHPV and Hybrid Capture 2 human papillomavirus DNA testing for cervical cancer screening in rural China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Qing; Chen, Feng; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Cui, Xiao-Li; Li, Ai-Mei; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Wen; Chang, Irene; Sivasubramaniam, Priya; Zhu, Julie; Qiao, You-Lin

    2014-06-01

    Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) has been demonstrated to be a feasible screening method for cervical cancer. Based upon HC2 technology, careHPV is a simple, rapid, accurate, and inexpensive screening test for women in low-resource settings. This study aims to characterize both the careHPV test and HC2 test, and to compare careHPV results of specimens stored in careHPV test collection medium (TCM) to HC2 results from partner specimens stored in Qiagen specimen transport medium and TCM. The positive rates of high-risk HPV in careHPV, HC2, and HC2 (TCM) were 13.2% (108/818), 13.2% (108/818), and 13.6% (111/818), respectively. The agreement rates of pairwise tests were 95.8% (95% CI: 94.5-97.2%), 96.7% (95% CI: 95.5-97.9%), and 97.2% (95% CI: 96.1-98.3%), respectively. The Kappa values of the pairwise tests were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76-0.88), 0.86 (95% CI: 0.81-0.91), and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.83-0.93), respectively. Based on these findings, although careHPV is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to the HC2 test, improvements on the careHPV test are still required prior to its implementation as a suitable screening method for women in low-resource settings. Further studies on the significance and applicability of the careHPV test must be performed.

  11. Using pretest data to screen low-reactivity individuals in the autonomic-based concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Ogawa, Tokihiro; Tsuneoka, Michiko; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    The concealed information test (CIT) can be used to assess whether an individual possesses crime-related information. However, its discrimination performance has room for improvement. We examined whether screening out participants who do not respond distinctively on a pretest improves the diagnosticity of a mock-crime CIT. Before conducting the CIT, we gave a pretest to 152 participants, 80 of whom were assigned as guilty. Pretest screening significantly improved the diagnostic value of the mock-crime CIT; however, it also led to a substantial number of undiagnosed participants (33.6%). Pretest screening holds promise, but its application would benefit from dedicated measures for screening out participants. PMID:25208848

  12. Human papillomavirus testing versus cytology in primary cervical cancer screening: End-of-study and extended follow-up results from the Canadian cervical cancer screening trial.

    PubMed

    Isidean, Sandra D; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Gilbert, Laura; Reid, Stephanie L; Rodrigues, Isabel; Ferenczy, Alex; Ratnam, Sam; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-12-01

    The Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial was a randomized controlled trial comparing the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and Papanicolaou cytology to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grades 2 or worse (CIN2+) among women aged 30-69 years attending routine cervical cancer screening in Montreal and St. John's, Canada (n = 10,154). We examined screening and prognostic values of enrollment cytologic and HPV testing results. Extended follow-up data were available for St. John's participants (n = 5,754; 501,682.6 person-months). HPV testing detected more CIN2+ than cytology during protocol-defined (82.9 vs. 44.4%) and extended (54.2 vs. 19.3%) follow-up periods, respectively. Three-year risks ranged from 0.87% (95% CI: 0.37-2.05) for HPV-/Pap- women to 35.77% (95% CI: 25.88-48.04) for HPV+/Pap+ women. Genotype-specific risks ranged from 0.90% (95% CI: 0.40-2.01) to 43.84% (95% CI: 32.42-57.24) among HPV- and HPV16+ women, respectively, exceeding those associated with Pap+ or HPV+ results taken individually or jointly. Ten-year risks ranged from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.60-2.19) for HPV-/Pap- women to 26.05% (95% CI: 15.34-42.13) for HPV+/Pap+ women and genotype-specific risks ranged from 1.13% (95% CI: 0.59-2.14) to 32.78% (95% CI: 21.15-48.51) among women testing HPV- and HPV16+, respectively. Abnormal cytology stratified risks most meaningfully for HPV+ women. Primary HPV testing every 3 years provided a similar or greater level of reassurance against disease risks as currently recommended screening strategies. HPV-based cervical screening may allow for greater disease detection than cytology-based screening and permit safe extensions of screening intervals; genotype-specific testing could provide further improvement in the positive predictive value of such screening. PMID:27538188

  13. Disentangling screening and diagnostic Chlamydia test positivity among females testing at title x-funded and adolescent health clinics, san francisco 2009.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Sally C; Snell, Ameera; Liska, Sally; Rauch, Leah; Philip, Susan S; Bernstein, Kyle T

    2011-07-01

    By using a reason-for-test code, we compared positivity for female chlamydia and gonorrhea. At family planning clinics, there were no statistically significant differences in screening versus diagnostic positivity for either chlamydia or gonorrhea among women. However, at adolescent health clinics, diagnostic positivity was higher than screening positivity for chlamydia and gonorrhea.

  14. Neither Fair nor Accurate: Research-Based Reasons Why High-Stakes Tests Should Not Be Used to Evaluate Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Current and former leaders of many major urban school districts, including Washington, D.C.'s Michelle Rhee and New Orleans' Paul Vallas, have sought to use tests to evaluate teachers. In fact, the use of high-stakes standardized tests to evaluate teacher performance in the manner of value-added measurement (VAM) has become one of the cornerstones…

  15. Test and evaluation of the 2.4-micron photorefractor ocular screening system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    An improved 2.4-m photorefractor ocular screening system was tested and evaluated. The photorefractor system works on the principal of obtaining a colored photograph of both human eyes; and, by analysis of the retinal reflex images, certain ocular defects can be detected such a refractive error, strabismus, and lens obstructions. The 2.4-m photorefractory system uses a 35-mm camera with a telephoto lens and an electronic flash attachment. Retinal reflex images obtained from the new 2.4-m system are significantly improved over earlier systems in image quality. Other features were also improved, notably portability and reduction in mass. A total of 706 school age children were photorefracted, 211 learning disabled and 495 middle school students. The total students having abnormal retinal reflexes were 156 or 22 percent, and 133 or 85 percent of the abnormal had refractive error indicated. Ophthalmological examination was performed on 60 of these students and refractive error was verified in 57 or 95 percent of those examined. The new 2.4-m system has a NASA patent pending and is authorized by the FDA. It provides a reliable means of rapidly screening the eyes of children and young adults for vision problems. It is especially useful for infants and other non-communicative children who cannot be screened by the more conventional methods such as the familiar E chart.

  16. Bacteriuria screening and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of aerobic bacteria by an electrochemical method.

    PubMed

    Strassburger, J; Tiller, F W

    1984-04-01

    A method is described for detecting significant bacteriuria and determination of minimal inhibition concentrations (MIC's) of aerobically growing bacteria by using electrochemical electrodes to measure changes of oxygen tensions in liquid nutrient media resulting from bacterial growth. Urine specimens (n = 577) were screened electrochemically, parallel investigations were performed by standard culture methods and by photometrical measurements. All the specimens showing significant bacteriuria in standard culture were selected within 3.5 h by the electrochemical technique. An oxygen index OI was introduced which quantitatively reflects changes in oxygen tension of nutrient media during growth. OI shows good agreement with extinction and light scattering indices, respectively. On the basis of OI as a parameter of inhibited and uninhibited growth a correlation between OI and MIC's of aerobically growing bacteria was found. The electrochemical method provides an useful aid for rapid, preliminary antimicrobial susceptibility testing and definite bacteriuria screening. The application of this method in bacteriological urine diagnostics significantly reduces laboratory work and costs, and can be recommended for the screening of urine specimens to exclude negative specimens from further processing.

  17. Properties of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) in the general population.

    PubMed

    Legleye, Stéphane; Guignard, Romain; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Ludwig, Kraus; Pabst, Alexander; Beck, François

    2015-06-01

    This paper explores the DSM-IV latent structure of cannabis users (especially its invariance towards gender and age) and assesses the psychometric properties of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) by confrontation with the theoretical diagnoses [dependence and cannabis use disorders (CUD)] and the latent class structure of the DSM-IV. The random sample comprised 550 French cannabis smokers aged 15-62 years interviewed by telephone. DSM-IV diagnoses were assessed with the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Internal structures of both instruments were assessed using factor analysis and latent class analysis. Optimal CAST cutoffs were determined by sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). CAST and DSM-IV were unidimensional (Cronbach's α = 0.742 and 0.752, respectively), although a two-factor solution showed a better fit for the CAST. CAST cutoffs for screening CUD and dependence were three (AUC = 0.851) and five (AUC = 0.868), respectively. DSM-IV latent class structure varied only marginally in age and gender. Three classes of cannabis smokers were determined, ordered along a continuum of symptoms: non-symptomatic (61.1%), moderate (32.9%) and severe (6.0%). CAST cutoff scores for screening moderate/severe and severe were, respectively, three (AUC = 0.869) and eight (AUC = 0.952). Results are compared to those obtained in previous CAST studies and discussed in line with the DSM-5.

  18. Xenoendocrine disrupters-tiered screening and testing: filling key data gaps.

    PubMed

    Gray, L E; Ostby, J; Wilson, V; Lambright, C; Bobseine, K; Hartig, P; Hotchkiss, A; Wolf, C; Furr, J; Price, M; Parks, L; Cooper, R L; Stoker, T E; Laws, S C; Degitz, S J; Jensen, K M; Kahl, M D; Korte, J J; Makynen, E A; Tietge, J E; Ankley, G T

    2002-12-27

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to detect alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function, estrogen (ER), androgen (AR) and thyroid hormone synthesis and AR and ER receptor-mediated effects in mammals and other animals. High priority chemicals would be evaluated in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery and chemicals positive in T1S would then be tested (Tier 2). T1S includes in vitro ER and AR receptor binding and/or gene expression, an assessment of steroidogenesis and mammalian (rat) and nonmammalian in vivo assays (Table 1). In vivo, the uterotropic assay detects estrogens and antiestrogens, while steroidogenesis, antithyroid activity, (anti)estrogenicity and HPG function are assessed in a 'Pubertal Female Assay'. (Anti-) androgens are detected in the Hershberger Assay (weight of AR-dependent tissues in castrate-immature-male rats). Fish and amphibian assays also are being developed. The fathead minnow assay can identify EDCs displaying several mechanisms of concern, including AR and ER receptor agonists and antagonists and inhibitors of steroid hormone synthesis. An amphibian metamorphosis assay is being developed to detect thyroid-active substances. Several alternative mammalian in vivo assays have been proposed. Of these, a short-term pubertal male rat assay appears most promising. An in utero-lactational screening protocol also is being evaluated. For Tier 2, the numbers of endocrine sensitive endpoints and offspring (F1) examined in multigenerational tests need to be expanded for EDCs. Consideration should be given to tailoring T2, based on the results of T1S. Tier 1 and 2 also should examine relevant mixtures of EDCs. Toxicants that induce malformations in AR-dependent tissues produce cumulative effects even when two chemicals act via different mechanisms of action.

  19. Maximising the efficiency of clinical screening programmes: balancing predictive genetic testing with a right not to know

    PubMed Central

    Schuurman, Agnes G; van der Kolk, Dorina M; Verkerk, Marian A; Birnie, Erwin; Ranchor, Adelita V; Plantinga, Mirjam; van Langen, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    We explored the dilemma between patients' right not to know their genetic status and the efficient use of health-care resources in the form of clinical cancer screening programmes. Currently, in the Netherlands, 50% risk carriers of heritable cancer syndromes who choose not to know their genetic status have access to the same screening programmes as proven mutation carriers. This implies an inefficient use of health-care resources, because half of this group will not carry the familial mutation. At the moment, only a small number of patients are involved; however, the expanding possibilities for genetic risk profiling means this issue must be addressed because of potentially adverse societal and financial impact. The trade-off between patients' right not to know their genetic status and efficient use of health-care resources was discussed in six focus groups with health-care professionals and patients from three Dutch university hospitals. Professionals prefer patients to undergo a predictive DNA test as a prerequisite for entering cancer screening programmes. Professionals prioritise treating sick patients or proven mutation carriers over screening untested individuals. Participation in cancer screening programmes without prior DNA testing is, however, supported by most professionals, as testing is usually delayed and relatively few patients are involved at present. Reducing the number of 50% risk carriers undergoing screening is expected to be achieved by: offering more psychosocial support, explaining the iatrogenic risks of cancer screening, increasing out-of-pocket costs, and offering a less stringent screening programme for 50% risk carriers. PMID:25564039

  20. Exploratory screening tests of several alloys and coatings for automobile thermal reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldrieve, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A total of 23 materials (including uncoated ferritic and austenitic iron-base alloys, uncoated nickel and cobalt-base superalloys, and several different coatings on AISI 304 stainless steel) were screened as test coupons on a rack in an automobile thermal reactor. Test exposures were generally 51 hours including 142 thermal cycles of 10 minutes at 1010 + or - 30 C test coupon temperature and 7-minutes cool-down to about 510 C. Materials that exhibited corrosion resistance better than that of Hastelloy X include: a ferritic iron alloy with 6 weight percent aluminum; three nickel-base superalloys; two diffused-aluminum coatings on AISI 304; and a Ni-Cr slurry-sprayed coating on AISI 304. Preliminary comparison is made on the performance of the directly impinged coupons and a reactor core of the same material.

  1. Are MMSE and HDS-R neuropsychological tests adequate for screening HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders?

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Ai; Tominaga, Daisuke; Tasato, Daisuke; Miyagi, Kyoko; Nakamura, Hideta; Haranaga, Shusaku; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro

    2014-03-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are one of major comorbidities in patients with HIV-1 infection. There are currently no standardized tests for screening HAND in such patients. The sensitivity of the cognitive function tests routinely used in clinical practice, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Revised Hasegawa's Dementia Scale, is inadequate to rule out HAND, even in patients with clear abnormal behavior. We report a 41-year-old man with HIV-associated dementia, the most severe form of HAND, in whom the simplified methods did not show abnormal results, and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests which covering several cognitive domains was needed to detect cognitive impairment.

  2. Asbestos screening process

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The paper discusses and demonstrates a simple asbestos screening test developed by Kupel and Kim. Standard tests to determine asbestos content in building materials cost up to $500.00 to perform. With 2 simple tests and kit devised by two men, anyone can perform these tests that now cost 25 cents each. And they are accurate. If positive results are obtained, the materials are sent to the lab for analysis. The two tests consist of use of acids, bases and reagents to test for iron and manganese content.

  3. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis.

    PubMed

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-07-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive samples, 704 fresh syphilis-negative samples, 48 preselected potentially interfering samples, and 30 "borderline" samples and was compared head to head with the commercially available Lumipulse G TP-N. In this study, the HISCL anti-TP assay was in perfect agreement with the applied testing algorithms with an overall agreement of 100%, comparable to that of Lumipulse G TP-N (99.63%). The sensitivity and specificity of the HISCL anti-TP assay were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.42% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.37% to 100%), respectively. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its favorable sensitivity and specificity, the HISCL anti-TP assay may represent a new choice for syphilis screening in high-volume laboratories.

  4. A screening test for subtle cognitive impairment early in the course of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Mcmanis, S E; Brown, G R; Zachary, R; Rundell, J R

    1993-01-01

    The authors report on the use of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Copy (ROC) and Memory (ROM) test as a bedside screening measure of cognitive impairment in 67 HIV-seropositive persons (43 men, 24 women). HIV-seropositive individuals scored significantly worse than 49 HIV-seronegative matched individuals (33 men, 16 women) in the control group on the ROC (P = 0.045, effect size = 0.39), but not on the ROM test. The scores did not correlate with stage of HIV infection, CD4a cell counts, cerebrospinal fluid parameters, or measures of affective state. No gender effects on performance were noted. It is concluded that while cognitive deficits may occur early in asymptomatic HIV disease, the ROC/ROM test as the authors used it is not a useful screening tool for clinicians. The study also suggests that the growing number of HIV-positive women should be included in neuropsychological studies of early HIV disease. PMID:8140192

  5. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting

    2015-01-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive samples, 704 fresh syphilis-negative samples, 48 preselected potentially interfering samples, and 30 “borderline” samples and was compared head to head with the commercially available Lumipulse G TP-N. In this study, the HISCL anti-TP assay was in perfect agreement with the applied testing algorithms with an overall agreement of 100%, comparable to that of Lumipulse G TP-N (99.63%). The sensitivity and specificity of the HISCL anti-TP assay were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.42% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.37% to 100%), respectively. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its favorable sensitivity and specificity, the HISCL anti-TP assay may represent a new choice for syphilis screening in high-volume laboratories. PMID:25972403

  6. Sensitive screening tests for suspected class A carbapenemase production in species of Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Pasteran, Fernando; Mendez, Tania; Guerriero, Leonor; Rapoport, Melina; Corso, Alejandra

    2009-06-01

    The detection of class A serine-carbapenemases among species of Enterobacteriaceae remains a challenging issue. Methods of identification for routine use in clinical microbiology laboratories have not been standardized to date. We developed a novel screening methodology suitable for countries with high basal levels of carbapenem resistance due to non-carbapenemase-mediated mechanisms and standardized several simple confirmatory methods that allow the recognition of bacteria producing class A carbapenemases, including KPC, Sme, IMI, NMC-A, and GES, by using boronic acid (BA) derivatives. A total of 28 genetically unrelated Enterobacteriaceae strains producing several class A carbapenemases were tested. Thirty-eight genetically unrelated negative controls were included. The isolates were tested against imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM), and ertapenem (ETP) by MIC and disk diffusion assays in order to select appropriate tools to screen for suspected carbapenemase production. It was possible to differentiate class A carbapenemase-producing bacteria from non-carbapenemase-producing bacteria by using solely the routine IPM susceptibility tests. The modified Hodge test was evaluated and found to be highly sensitive, although false-positive results were documented. Novel BA-based methods (a double-disk synergy test and combined-disk and MIC tests) using IPM, MEM, and ETP, in combination with 3-aminophenylboronic acid as an inhibitor, were designed as confirmatory tools. On the basis of the performance of these methods, a sensitive flow chart for suspicion and confirmation of class A carbapenemase production in species of Enterobacteriaceae was designed. By using this methodology, isolates producing KPC, GES, Sme, IMI, and NMC-A carbapenemases were successfully distinguished from those producing other classes of beta-lactamases (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, AmpCs, and metallo-beta-lactamases, etc). These methods will rapidly provide useful information needed for

  7. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—Cast Stone and Alkali Alumino-Silicate Geopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Parker, Kent E.; Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2010-06-28

    PNNL is conducting screening tests on the candidate waste forms to provide a basis for comparison and to resolve the formulation and data needs identified in the literature review. This report documents the screening test results on the Cast Stone cementitious waste form and the Geopolymer waste form. Test results suggest that both the Cast Stone and Geopolymer appear to be viable waste forms for the solidification of the secondary liquid wastes to be treated in the ETF. The diffusivity for technetium from the Cast Stone monoliths was in the range of 1.2 × 10-11 to 2.3 × 10-13 cm2/s during the 63 days of testing. The diffusivity for technetium from the Geopolymer was in the range of 1.7 × 10-10 to 3.8 × 10-12 cm2/s through the 63 days of the test. These values compare with a target of 1 × 10-9 cm2/s or less. The Geopolymer continues to show some fabrication issues with the diffusivities ranging from 1.7 × 10-10 to 3.8 × 10-12 cm2/s for the better-performing batch to from 1.2 × 10-9 to 1.8 × 10-11 cm2/s for the poorer-performing batch. In the future more comprehensive and longer term performance testing will be conducted, to further evaluate whether or not these waste forms will meet the regulation and performance criteria needed to cost-effectively dispose of secondary wastes.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of VIA and HPV detection as primary and sequential screening tests in a cervical cancer screening demonstration project in India.

    PubMed

    Basu, Partha; Mittal, Srabani; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Singh, Priyanka; Panda, Chinmay; Dutta, Sankhadeep; Mandal, Ranajit; Das, Pradip; Biswas, Jaydip; Muwonge, Richard; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-08-15

    Visual inspection after acetic acid application (VIA) and human papillomavirus (HPV) detection tests have been recommended to screen women for cervical cancer in low and middle income countries. A demonstration project in rural India screened 39,740 women with both the tests to compare their accuracies in real population setting. The project also evaluated the model of screening women in the existing primary health care facilities, evaluating the screen positive women with colposcopy (and biopsy) in the same setup and recalling the women diagnosed to have disease for treatment at tertiary center. Accuracy of VIA and HPV test used sequentially was also studied. VIA was performed by trained health workers and Hybrid Capture II (HC II) assay was used for oncogenic HPV detection. Test positivity was 7.1% for VIA and 4.7% for HC II. Detection rate of CIN 3+ disease was significantly higher with HC II than VIA. Sensitivities of VIA and HC II to detect 162 histology proved CIN 3+ lesions were 67.9 and 91.2%, respectively after adjusting for verification bias. Specificity for the same disease outcome and verification bias correction was 93.2% for VIA and 96.9% for HC II. Triaging of VIA positive women with HPV test would have considerably improved the positive predictive value (4.0 to 37.5% to detect CIN 3+) without significant drop in sensitivity. All VIA positive women and 74.0% of HC II positive women had colposcopy. There was high compliance to treatment and significant stage-shift of the screen-detected cancers towards more early stage.

  9. APPRAISAL OF PRENATAL ANTI-TOXOPLASMA GONDII (IGG+IGM)- IHA/IGM-ELISA SCREENING IN SINGLE SAMPLES VIA IGG AVIDITY TEST.

    PubMed

    El-Bali, Mohammed; Zaglool, Dina A M; Khodari, Yousif A W; Al-Harthi, Saeed A

    2016-04-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is associated with important morbidity and mortality. Since vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii can occur in acute cases, antenatal screening for recent infections is vital. Accurate determination of acute toxoplasmosis requires a combination of immunoassays, usually not routinely applied for screening purposes. This study evaluated the anti-T. gondii (IgG+IgM)/IgM prenatal screening procedure by IgG avidity assay. The routine prenatal screening for (IgG+IgM) anti-T. gondii by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) in serum samples was done of 2247 pregnant women who attended two hospitals between 2011 and 2013 revealed 487 (21.7%) positive samples. Examination of IHA-positive sera by IgM and IgG/IgG-avidity concurrent ELISA tests revealed 7 positive and 3 border-line IgM-ELISA titers during the initial check-up of 10 women, who were then followed up at 3-4 week-intervals. Among these, 4 (40%) showed simultaneous high avidity IgG antibodies, indicating distant infection by the parasite, and no anti-T. gondii specific IgG could be detected in follow-up sera of two cases (20%), indicating false IgM initial positive results. Only 4 (40%) women showed simultaneous IgM and low avidity IgG antibodies indicating active infections. Avoidance of an over-diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis Anti-T. gondii (IgG+IgM)/IgM prenatal screening must be supplemented by a discriminative test like IgG avidity ELISA. PMID:27363056

  10. An evaluation of chemical screening test kits for lead in paint

    SciTech Connect

    Oglesby, L.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act (Title X) requires abatement and management of lead-based paint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three chemical screening test kits using materials and methods from one study and subjecting the results to the statistical analysis of another. The three kits were used to predict the presence of lead in paint at ten weight concentrations from 0.04 to 3.97%. Paint was applied to four wood boards yielding a sample size of 40. Four boards were painted with lead-free paint and used as blanks. All of the boards were tested with the three test kits by an untrained individual having no knowledge of the actual lead content. Sensitivity, specificity, and false positive and negative rates were calculated for the test kit results. The manufactures` detection limits, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.80, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.42, false positive ranged from 0 to 58%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. At the 0.5% Federal threshold level, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.94, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.5, false positives ranged from 0 to 11.1%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. The observed false positive and false negative rates for all three kits were found to be significantly lower than those reported in a previous study. These results indicate that the kits perform very well at the Federal threshold, with two of the kits having false negative rates below 12.5% and false positive rates of 3.13%. These results indicate that these two kits would probably be acceptable screening tests for lead in paint.

  11. The submitochondrial particle assay as a screening test for acute aquatic toxicity of surfactant molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bookland, E.A.; Bettermann, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    Two complementary protocols of the submitochondrial particle assay (SMP) were evaluated as screening tools for predicting the acute aquatic toxicity of various classes and chain lengths of surfactant molecules. SMP contain the functionally intact mitochondrial enzyme systems responsible for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Both the Electron Transfer Assay (ETR) and the Reverse Electron Transfer Assay (RET) have been shown in prior work to generally be sensitive to agents capable of membrane and protein interactions, both suspected mechanisms of action for surfactants. The toxicity of ten compounds; four anionic surfactants, C{sub 12} alkyl sulfate (C{sub 12}AS), C{sub 12} and C{sub 15} alkyl ethoxy sulfate (C{sub 12}E{sub 4}S, C{sub 15}E{sub 4}S), linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C{sub 12.3}LAS); one nonionic surfactant, alkyl ethoxylate (C{sub 12}E{sub 3}); three cationic surfactants, C{sub 8}, C{sub 12}, and C{sub 16} alkyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (C{sub 8}TMAC, C{sub 12}TMAC, C{sub 16}TMAC); an alcohol (C{sub 12}OH); and an amine, alkyl dimethylamine (C{sub 12}DMA); was determined. In all cases, both the ETR and the RET gave results showing equal or greater sensitivity than previously reported acute fish and invertebrate LC{sub 50}`s. In addition, increasing toxicity with increasing alkyl chain length was observed. As a rapid screening tool, the SMP bioassay avoids exposure concerns such as degradation of test material, a common concern for acute in vivo toxicity testing with rapidly degradable materials. Results indicate that the SMP bioassay can be useful as a predictive screening tool for the aquatic toxicity of surfactants.

  12. A Maximal Graded Exercise Test to Accurately Predict VO2max in 18-65-Year-Old Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, James D.; Bradshaw, Danielle I.; Hyde, Annette; Vehrs, Pat R.; Hager, Ronald L.; Yanowitz, Frank G.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an age-generalized regression model to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO sub 2 max) based on a maximal treadmill graded exercise test (GXT; George, 1996). Participants (N = 100), ages 18-65 years, reached a maximal level of exertion (mean plus or minus standard deviation [SD]; maximal heart rate [HR sub…

  13. Are the Original and Second Edition of the California Verbal Learning Test Equally Accurate in Detecting Malingering?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greve, Kevin W.; Curtis, Kelly L.; Bianchini, Kevin J.; Ord, Jonathan S.

    2009-01-01

    This two-part study sought to determine the equivalence of the California Verbal Learning Tests (CVLT-1 and CVLT-2) in the detection of malingering in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and chronic pain. Part 1 compared a variety of scores from the two versions in carefully matched patient groups. Part 2 used criterion groups (known-groups) methodology…

  14. An Optimized Method for Accurate Fetal Sex Prediction and Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy Detection in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; He, Quanze; Li, Haibo; Ding, Jie; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Qin; Xiang, Jingjing; Li, Qiong; Xuan, Liming; Kong, Lingyin; Mao, Yan; Zhu, Yijun; Shen, Jingjing; Liang, Bo; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) combined with bioinformatic analysis has been widely applied to detect fetal chromosomal aneuploidies such as trisomy 21, 18, 13 and sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) by sequencing cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) from maternal plasma, so-called non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, many technical challenges, such as dependency on correct fetal sex prediction, large variations of chromosome Y measurement and high sensitivity to random reads mapping, may result in higher false negative rate (FNR) and false positive rate (FPR) in fetal sex prediction as well as in SCAs detection. Here, we developed an optimized method to improve the accuracy of the current method by filtering out randomly mapped reads in six specific regions of the Y chromosome. The method reduces the FNR and FPR of fetal sex prediction from nearly 1% to 0.01% and 0.06%, respectively and works robustly under conditions of low fetal DNA concentration (1%) in testing and simulation of 92 samples. The optimized method was further confirmed by large scale testing (1590 samples), suggesting that it is reliable and robust enough for clinical testing.

  15. An Optimized Method for Accurate Fetal Sex Prediction and Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy Detection in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; He, Quanze; Li, Haibo; Ding, Jie; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Qin; Xiang, Jingjing; Li, Qiong; Xuan, Liming; Kong, Lingyin; Mao, Yan; Zhu, Yijun; Shen, Jingjing; Liang, Bo; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) combined with bioinformatic analysis has been widely applied to detect fetal chromosomal aneuploidies such as trisomy 21, 18, 13 and sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) by sequencing cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) from maternal plasma, so-called non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, many technical challenges, such as dependency on correct fetal sex prediction, large variations of chromosome Y measurement and high sensitivity to random reads mapping, may result in higher false negative rate (FNR) and false positive rate (FPR) in fetal sex prediction as well as in SCAs detection. Here, we developed an optimized method to improve the accuracy of the current method by filtering out randomly mapped reads in six specific regions of the Y chromosome. The method reduces the FNR and FPR of fetal sex prediction from nearly 1% to 0.01% and 0.06%, respectively and works robustly under conditions of low fetal DNA concentration (1%) in testing and simulation of 92 samples. The optimized method was further confirmed by large scale testing (1590 samples), suggesting that it is reliable and robust enough for clinical testing. PMID:27441628

  16. An Optimized Method for Accurate Fetal Sex Prediction and Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy Detection in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibo; Ding, Jie; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Qin; Xiang, Jingjing; Li, Qiong; Xuan, Liming; Kong, Lingyin; Mao, Yan; Zhu, Yijun; Shen, Jingjing; Liang, Bo; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) combined with bioinformatic analysis has been widely applied to detect fetal chromosomal aneuploidies such as trisomy 21, 18, 13 and sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) by sequencing cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) from maternal plasma, so-called non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, many technical challenges, such as dependency on correct fetal sex prediction, large variations of chromosome Y measurement and high sensitivity to random reads mapping, may result in higher false negative rate (FNR) and false positive rate (FPR) in fetal sex prediction as well as in SCAs detection. Here, we developed an optimized method to improve the accuracy of the current method by filtering out randomly mapped reads in six specific regions of the Y chromosome. The method reduces the FNR and FPR of fetal sex prediction from nearly 1% to 0.01% and 0.06%, respectively and works robustly under conditions of low fetal DNA concentration (1%) in testing and simulation of 92 samples. The optimized method was further confirmed by large scale testing (1590 samples), suggesting that it is reliable and robust enough for clinical testing. PMID:27441628

  17. Different screening tests and milk somatic cell count for the prevalence of subclinical bovine mastitis in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Md Nazmul; Das, Ziban Chandra; Talukder, Anup Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Shah; Rahman, Abu Nasar Md Aminoor

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cows with subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an important tool for sustainable dairying and implementing effective mastitis control strategies. A total of 892 quarters milk samples from 228 lactating cows were screened by California mastitis test (CMT), White side test (WST), Surf field mastitis test (SFMT), and somatic cell count (SCC) to study the prevalence of bovine SCM in some selected areas of Bangladesh. Out of 228 cows, 148 (64.9%), 138 (60.5%), 132 (57.9%), and 164 (71.9%) were found positive for SCM by CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC, respectively. The prevalence of bovine SCM was diagnosed 45.7, 40.2, 36.6, and 29.6% in Chittagong, Sirajgonj, Mymensingh, and Gazipur districts, respectively, based on a combination of all tests. The overall quarter-wise prevalence of SCM was 45.7, 43.5, 41.2, and 55.0% for CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC. Single quarters and left front quarters were more prone to SCM (P < 0.05). Friesian crossbred cows (56.4%), BCS 2.0-2.5 (55.4%), and parity 4-6 (52.4%), the late lactation stage (5-8 months; 64.7%) and high yielding cows (16-20 L/day; 65.3%) were more susceptible to SCM (P < 0.05). The sensitivity of the CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC was 65.8, 57.9, 51.0, and 82.5%; specificity 76.2, 72.4, 69.5, and 89.4%; percentage accuracy 70.0, 64.8, 59.9, and 85.2%; positive predictive value 75.2, 69.8, 64.9, and 92.7%, respectively. The categories of CMT reactions were strongly correlated with SCC (P < 0.05). Kappa value of SCC was higher than that of other tests (SCC>CMT>WST>SFMT). Thus, CMT was concluded to be the most accurate (r = 0.782) field diagnostic test after laboratory test like SCC (r = 0.924). However, the use of any single test may not be reliable in diagnosing SCM, while the result of CMT supported by SCC might be used effectively to pinpoint diagnosis of SCM in dairy animals than alone.

  18. Screening, testing, and reporting for drug and alcohol use on labor and delivery: a survey of Maryland birthing hospitals.

    PubMed

    Miller, Catherine; Lanham, Amy; Welsh, Christopher; Ramanadhan, Shaalini; Terplan, Mishka

    2014-01-01

    Recent amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act tie the receipt of federal block grants to mandatory reporting of substance-exposed newborns. To determine rates of screening, testing, and reporting of drug and alcohol use at the time of delivery, we administered a telephone survey of nursing managers and perinatal social workers at Maryland birthing hospitals. Of the 34 hospitals, 31 responded (response rate 91%). Although 97% of hospitals reported universal screening, only 6% used a validated instrument. Testing was reported by 94% with 45% reporting universal maternal testing and 7% universal newborn testing. Only 32% reported obtaining maternal consent prior to testing. There is significant heterogeneity in screening and testing for substance use in birthing hospitals. Given federal reporting mandates, state-level practices need to be standardized.

  19. Screening Test. Battery for Dental Laboratory Specialist Course: Development and Validation. Final Report for Period July 1974-June 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, John J.; Jensen, Harald E.

    In order to develop a valid replacement for the difficult to administer and costly Chalk Carving Test presently used in screening Dental Laboratory Specialist (DLS) candidates, an experimental battery of perceptual tests was given to 172 prospective DLS students. Dexterity tests were also given to a subsample. Experimental laboratory ratings and…

  20. Improving the quantitative testing of fast aspherics surfaces with null screen using Dijkstra algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Oliva, Víctor Iván; Castañeda Mendoza, Álvaro; Campos García, Manuel; Díaz Uribe, Rufino

    2011-09-01

    The null screen is a geometric method that allows the testing of fast aspherical surfaces, this method measured the local slope at the surface and by numerical integration the shape of the surface is measured. The usual technique for the numerical evaluation of the surface is the trapezoidal rule, is well-known fact that the truncation error increases with the second power of the spacing between spots of the integration path. Those paths are constructed following spots reflected on the surface and starting in an initial select spot. To reduce the numerical errors in this work we propose the use of the Dijkstra algorithm.1 This algorithm can find the shortest path from one spot (or vertex) to another spot in a weighted connex graph. Using a modification of the algorithm it is possible to find the minimal path from one select spot to all others ones. This automates and simplifies the integration process in the test with null screens. In this work is shown the efficient proposed evaluating a previously surface with a traditional process.

  1. Neighborhood factors associated with time to resolution following an abnormal breast or cervical cancer screening test

    PubMed Central

    Plascak, Jesse J.; Llanos, Adana A.; Pennell, Michael L.; Weier, Rory C.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of neighborhood and healthcare access factors on cancer outcomes among patients enrolled in navigator programs is not clearly understood. This study assessed associations between: 1) neighborhood factors and diagnostic time to resolution (TTR) and, 2) geographic access and TTR following an abnormal breast or cervical cancer screening test among women participating in the Ohio Patient Navigator Research Program (OPNRP). Methods Patient (demographic, socioeconomic status [SES], home-to-clinic distance) and neighborhood (deprivation, racial segregation) characteristics of 801 women living in one of 285 census tracts (CTs) in greater Columbus, Ohio were examined. Randomization to receive navigation occurred at the clinic level. Multilevel Cox regression and spatial analysis were used to estimate effects of various factors on TTR and assess model assumptions, respectively. Results TTR increased as neighborhood deprivation increased. After adjustment for age, friend social support, education and healthcare status, the TTR among women living in a neighborhood with a moderate median household income (between $36,147 and $53,099) was shorter compared to women living in low median household income neighborhoods (< $36,147) (p < 0.05). There is little evidence that unmeasured confounders are geographically patterned. Conclusions Increased neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with longer TTR following an abnormal breast or cervical cancer screening test. Impact These results highlight the need for addressing patient- and neighborhood-level factors to reduce cancer disparities among underserved populations. PMID:25205516

  2. How well do people recall risk factor test results? Accuracy and bias among cholesterol screening participants.

    PubMed

    Croyle, Robert T; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Barger, Steven D; Sun, Yi-Chun; Hart, Marybeth; Gettig, JoAnn

    2006-05-01

    The authors conducted a community-based cholesterol screening study to examine accuracy of recall for self-relevant health information in long-term autobiographical memory. Adult community residents (N = 496) were recruited to participate in a laboratory-based cholesterol screening and were also provided cholesterol counseling in accordance with national guidelines. Participants were subsequently interviewed 1, 3, or 6 months later to assess their memory for their test results. Participants recalled their exact cholesterol levels inaccurately (38.0% correct) but their cardiovascular risk category comparatively well (88.7% correct). Recall errors showed a systematic bias: Individuals who received the most undesirable test results were most likely to remember their cholesterol scores and cardiovascular risk categories as lower (i.e., healthier) than those actually received. Recall bias was unrelated to age, education, knowledge, self-rated health status, and self-reported efforts to reduce cholesterol. The findings provide evidence that recall of self-relevant health information is susceptible to self-enhancement bias.

  3. Implicit Association Test: a possible tool for screening patients for orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dedong; Fang, Bing; Wang, Fang; Wang, Xudong; Zhang, Wenbin; Dai, Jiewen; Shen, Steve G F

    2013-08-01

    In orthognathic surgery, many serious medical disputes and postsurgical dissatisfactions are not caused by the doctors' reasons, but due to the patients' psychological problems. These adverse events obsess not only surgeons, but also patients to a great extent. An effective method is expected to screen patients for orthognathic surgery. So far, most selecting approaches in orthognathic surgery are based on explicit cognition, which inevitably include the following faults: patients' intentional concealment, uncertain errors, and imprecise subjective judgment from the doctors. However, these errors can be avoided by the tests based on implicit cognition, i.e., Implicit Association Test (IAT). Avoiding the faults of explicit cognition, IAT is an objective, quantitative, and easily applicable mental measurement method. We hypothesized that all the patients for orthognathic purpose should have an IAT screening before treatment. By IAT method, the right patients for orthognathic surgery can be picked out. As a result, postoperative dissatisfaction, medical dispute, and even violent conflict can be avoided to a great extent. To the best of our knowledge, there is no relevant report on the use of IAT as a tool to select the right orthognathic patients to avoid postsurgical dissatisfaction, medical disputes and violent conflict events.

  4. Physical examination tests for screening and diagnosis of cervicogenic headache: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Ochoa, J; Benítez-Martínez, J; Lluch, E; Santacruz-Zaragozá, S; Gómez-Contreras, P; Cook, C E

    2016-02-01

    It has been suggested that differential diagnosis of headaches should consist of a robust subjective examination and a detailed physical examination of the cervical spine. Cervicogenic headache (CGH) is a form of headache that involves referred pain from the neck. To our knowledge, no studies have summarized the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests for CGH. The aim of this study was to summarize the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests used to diagnose CGH. A systematic review following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines was performed in four electronic databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase and Scopus). Full text reports concerning physical tests for the diagnosis of CGH which reported the clinometric properties for assessment of CGH, were included and screened for methodological quality. Quality Appraisal for Reliability Studies (QAREL) and Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy (QUADAS-2) scores were completed to assess article quality. Eight articles were retrieved for quality assessment and data extraction. Studies investigating diagnostic reliability of physical examination tests for CGH scored poorer on methodological quality (higher risk of bias) than those of diagnostic accuracy. There is sufficient evidence showing high levels of reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the selected physical examination tests for the diagnosis of CGH. The cervical flexion-rotation test (CFRT) exhibited both the highest reliability and the strongest diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of CGH.

  5. American Society of Cytopathology workload recommendations for automated Pap test screening: developed by the productivity and quality assurance in the era of automated screening task force.

    PubMed

    Elsheikh, Tarik M; Austin, R Marshall; Chhieng, David F; Miller, Fern S; Moriarty, Ann T; Renshaw, Andrew A

    2013-02-01

    Based on current literature and the best available research to date, the current FDA workload limits for automated image-assisted screening, including the ThinPrep Imaging System and the FocalPoint GS, of 100 slides/day (imaged only slides counted as 0.5) are extremely high and may be associated with significant reduction in sensitivity. This task force has proposed six recommendations relating to cytotechnologist (CT) workload in automated image-guided Pap test screening, which have already been endorsed by major pathology professional societies. These evidence-based recommendations, however, pertain only to gynecologic specimens with image-assisted screening, as there is no current available data to justify modifying screening practices regarding non-gynecologic specimens. The proposed recommendations are as follow: 1) CT workday should not include more than 7 hours of Pap test screening in a 24-hr period, and an 8-hr shift day must include at least 2 paid mini-breaks of 15 minutes each and a 30-minute lunch break. 2) Future Studies examining CT workload should use actual hours of screening rather than lesser number of hours extrapolated to 8-hour days. 3) Average laboratory CT workload should NOT exceed 70 slides/day (slides counted per 2010 FDA bulletin). 4) Proportion of imaged slides that undergo full manual review should be at least either 15%, or twice (2×) the epithelial cell abnormality (ECA) rate, whichever is greater. 5) ECA-adjusted workload measure is a promising method for calculating and monitoring CT workload, but further studies of this method are necessary before full endorsement. 6) CT productivity and workload limits are just one aspect of a good quality assurance program in a cytology laboratory, so other quality indicators to assess CT performance are essential. PMID:22351120

  6. Time interval since last test in a breast cancer screening programme: a case-control study in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Palli, D; Rosselli del Turco, M; Buiatti, E; Ciatto, S; Crocetti, E; Paci, E

    1989-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a population based screening programme for breast cancer. DESIGN: This was a case-control study of women dying of breast cancer between 1977 and 1987 who had been invited to take part in a screening programme. SETTING: Community based study of women aged between 40 and 70 years (total population about 35,000 at 1981 census), living in 23 small towns near Florence, Italy. PARTICIPANTS: 103 cases were identified from death certification, and 515 living controls (five per case) selected for year of birth and town of residence. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Screening history was obtained from computer archive. Sociodemographic information was obtained from town registry offices and directly from relatives of the deceased and from the controls by postal questionnaire, and if necessary telephone or personal interview. Analysis was carried out on two age groups--40-49 years and 50+ years at diagnosis--and considered the number of screening tests and the time interval since the last test, separately and together. In the older age group, women with at least one screening test in the previous 2 1/2 years showed a 50% reduction in risk (odds ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.95). If they had also had another previous negative screen the risk was reduced to one third (odds ratio 0.35, 95% CI 0.14-0.85). There was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing number of screens in older women. No clear evidence of a similar protective effect was shown for women in the 40-49 year age group. CONCLUSIONS: A significant protective effect of the screening programme is evident in older women but not in younger ones. The data do not allow an assessment of optimal screening interval because of the small number of previously screened cases. PMID:2607303

  7. Usability Testing of a National Substance Use Screening Tool Embedded in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    DeStio, Catherine; McCullagh, Lauren; Kapoor, Sandeep; Morley, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is currently being implemented into health systems nationally via paper and electronic methods. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the integration of an electronic SBIRT tool into an existing paper-based SBIRT clinical workflow in a patient-centered medical home. Methods Usability testing was conducted in an academic ambulatory clinic. Two rounds of usability testing were done with medical office assistants (MOAs) using a paper and electronic version of the SBIRT tool, with two and four participants, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed to determine the impact of both tools on clinical workflow. A second round of usability testing was done with the revised electronic version and compared with the first version. Results Personal workflow barriers cited in the first round of testing were that the electronic health record (EHR) tool was disruptive to patient’s visits. In Round 2 of testing, MOAs reported favoring the electronic version due to improved layout and the inclusion of an alert system embedded in the EHR. For example, using the system usability scale (SUS), MOAs reported a grade “1” for the statement, “I would like to use this system frequently” during the first round of testing but a “5” during the second round of analysis. Conclusions The importance of testing usability of various mediums of tools used in health care screening is highlighted by the findings of this study. In the first round of testing, the electronic tool was reported as less user friendly, being difficult to navigate, and time consuming. Many issues faced in the first generation of the tool were improved in the second generation after usability was evaluated. This study demonstrates how usability testing of an electronic SBRIT tool can help to identify challenges that can impact clinical workflow. However, a limitation of this study was the small sample size

  8. Screen Cage Ion Plating (SCIP) and scratch testing of polycrystalline aluminum oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    A screen cage ion plating (SCIP) technique was developed to apply silver films on electrically nonconducting aluminum oxide. It is shown that SCIP has remarkable throwing power; surfaces to be coated need not be in direct line of sight with the evaporation source. Scratch tests, employing a diamond stylus with a 200 micro m radius tip, were performed on uncoated and on silver coated alumina. Subsequent surface analysis show that a significant amount of silver remains on the scratched surfaces, even in areas where high stylus load produced severe crack patterns in the ceramic. Friction coefficients were lowered during the scratch tests on the coated alumina indicating that this modification of the ion planting process should be useful for applying lubricating films of soft metals to electrical insulating materials. The very good throwing power of SCIP also strongly suggests general applicability of this process in other areas of technology, e.g., electronics, in addition to tribology.

  9. The Development of a Screening Test to Determine the Impact Sound Insulation of Floors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKell (McGregor), Bernadette

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The present situation with regard to the field testing of the impact sound insulation of floors is not satisfactory. Routine testing requires a specialised knowledge of acoustics and is very time consuming in its execution. A simple screening test has been developed which can be used on site by non-specialised personnel with a minimum of training. The ability of the reference curve in ISO 717 -2 to objectively rank order in a manner similar to subjective ratings when the floors are subjected to footstep impacts has been investigated and an alternative shape of reference curve suggested. The choice of the subjective parameter for evaluation has been given consideration and it has been found that although the loudness and annoyance evaluations are interdependent it has not been possible to clearly define the relationship. In developing a measurement technique the effects of measurement parameter, different operators and the position of tapping machine have been quantified. The effect of introducing absorption into the receiving room has also been examined and this has resulted in the standardisation of the correction values for the effect of receiving room conditions. The prediction of the Ln_{ rm T,w} and L_{rm nT,w}^' values is based on regression equations and the limitations of the accuracy of these predictions has been examined for different floor construction. The screening test procedure and method of evaluation for overall denormalised linear and A-weighted levels is given. The evaluation of the corrected level permits the prediction of L_{rm nT,w} and L_{rm nT,w} ^' ratings.

  10. Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.

    1993-06-01

    Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW{sub t} reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz-lamp-heated boilers to screen candidate boiling-stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750{degree}C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot-press-sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric-discharge-machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

  11. Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J. B.; Moss, T. A.

    1993-06-01

    Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW(sub t) reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz lamp heated boilers to screen candidate boiling stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750 degree C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot press sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric discharge machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical, dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

  12. Cumulative risk of false positive test in relation to breast symptoms in mammography screening: a historical prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deependra; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Malila, Nea; Anttila, Ahti

    2016-09-01

    Mammography has been found effective as the primary screening test for breast cancer. We estimated the cumulative probability of false positive screening test results with respect to symptom history reported at screen. A historical prospective cohort study was done using individual screening data from 413,611 women aged 50-69 years with 2,627,256 invitations for mammography screening between 1992 and 2012 in Finland. Symptoms (lump, retraction, and secretion) were reported at 56,805 visits, and 48,873 visits resulted in a false positive mammography result. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of at least one false positive test and true positive at screening visits. The estimates were compared among women with and without symptoms history. The estimated cumulative probabilities were 18 and 6 % for false positive and true positive results, respectively. In women with a history of a lump, the cumulative probabilities of false positive test and true positive were 45 and 16 %, respectively, compared to 17 and 5 % with no reported lump. In women with a history of any given symptom, the cumulative probabilities of false positive test and true positive were 38 and 13 %, respectively. Likewise, women with a history of a 'lump and retraction' had the cumulative false positive probability of 56 %. The study showed higher cumulative risk of false positive tests and more cancers detected in women who reported symptoms compared to women who did not report symptoms at screen. The risk varies substantially, depending on symptom types and characteristics. Information on breast symptoms influences the balance of absolute benefits and harms of screening. PMID:27496148

  13. Cumulative risk of false positive test in relation to breast symptoms in mammography screening: a historical prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deependra; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Malila, Nea; Anttila, Ahti

    2016-09-01

    Mammography has been found effective as the primary screening test for breast cancer. We estimated the cumulative probability of false positive screening test results with respect to symptom history reported at screen. A historical prospective cohort study was done using individual screening data from 413,611 women aged 50-69 years with 2,627,256 invitations for mammography screening between 1992 and 2012 in Finland. Symptoms (lump, retraction, and secretion) were reported at 56,805 visits, and 48,873 visits resulted in a false positive mammography result. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of at least one false positive test and true positive at screening visits. The estimates were compared among women with and without symptoms history. The estimated cumulative probabilities were 18 and 6 % for false positive and true positive results, respectively. In women with a history of a lump, the cumulative probabilities of false positive test and true positive were 45 and 16 %, respectively, compared to 17 and 5 % with no reported lump. In women with a history of any given symptom, the cumulative probabilities of false positive test and true positive were 38 and 13 %, respectively. Likewise, women with a history of a 'lump and retraction' had the cumulative false positive probability of 56 %. The study showed higher cumulative risk of false positive tests and more cancers detected in women who reported symptoms compared to women who did not report symptoms at screen. The risk varies substantially, depending on symptom types and characteristics. Information on breast symptoms influences the balance of absolute benefits and harms of screening.

  14. MRSA Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? MRSA Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture At a Glance ...

  15. Rapid screening for soil ecotoxicity with a battery of luminescent bacteria tests.

    PubMed

    Heinlaan, Margit; Kahru, Anne; Kasemets, Kaja; Kurvet, Imbi; Waterlot, Cristophe; Sepp, Kalev; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Douay, Francis

    2007-03-01

    A bacterial test battery, involving i) Microtox, an aquatic test, ii) the Flash assay, a soil-suspension test (with Vibrio fischeri as the test organism), and iii) the Metal Detector assay, a semi-specific aquatic test for heavy metals (with recombinant luminescent Escherichia coli), was used in a combined toxicological and chemical hazard assessment of Estonian soils sampled from a former Soviet military airfield (13 samples) and from traffic-influenced roadsides (5 samples). The soils showed slightly elevated levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), but not of heavy metals. In most of the samples, the levels of TPH did not exceed the Estonian permitted limit values set for residential areas. Toxicity testing was performed on both fresh and dried soils, after aqueous extraction for 1 hour and 24 hours. The toxicity results obtained with the Microtox test did not significantly differ in all of the sample treatment schemes; however, it appeared that the drying and sieving of the soils increased the bioavailability of toxicants, probably due to an enlarged reactive soil surface area. According to chemical analysis of the soils and the data from the Microtox test and the Metal Detector assay (performed on aqueous elutriates of the soils), these soils would not be considered to be hazardous. In contrast, the Flash assay performed on soil-water suspensions of dried soils, showed that most of the soils were toxic and thus probably contained undetermined particle-bound bioavailable toxicants. The photobacterial toxicity test (the Flash assay) can be recommended for the rapid screening of soils, as it is sensitive, cheap and inexpensive, and provides valuable information on particle-bound bioavailable toxicants, useful for complementing a chemical analysis and for assessing the risks originating from polluted soils. PMID:17411358

  16. Faecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening programme SVIT in Slovenia: pilot phase.

    PubMed

    Tepeš, Bojan; Stabuc, Borut; Stefanovič, Milan; Bračko, Matej; Frkovič Grazio, Snežana; Novak Mlakar, Dominika; Maučec Zakotnik, Jožica

    2014-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in Slovenia. The 5-year survival of patients depends on the clinical stage at presentation. More than 70% of patients with CRC are diagnosed as being in stage III or IV, with a 5-year survival rate of 52.7%. To improve the detection rate of CRC and to detect CRC in its early and more curable stage, a national screening programme is needed. In the year 2008, we started a pilot phase of the National CRC screening programme. We invited 9091 Slovene residents aged 64-68 years from Ljubljana, Kranj, and Celje regions, of whom 3807 responded to our invitation (41.9%). Two kits of the faecal immune test were sent to 3117 participants who met the inclusion criteria, and 2829 (90.7%) tests were returned. The compliance rate in our pilot programme was 32.9%. Among the patients who responded positively, 7.5% were positive. Until February 2009, 193 colonoscopies had been performed at DC Bled, DC Lipa and AM DC Rogaška. Intubation to the caecum was carried out in 99.4% of colonoscopies. Histology specimens were taken from 135 patients (70%). The adenoma detection rate was 53.8% (59.8% for men and 47.9% for women; P<0.05). We detected 1-17 adenomas per patient (2.4 on average). Advanced adenomas were detected in 60 patients (31%; 35.1% of men and 27.1% of women; P<0.05). Invasive carcinoma was detected in 15 patients (7.7%; 12.4% of men and 3.1% of women; P<0.05). Ten of them (73.3%) were in clinical stage I or II. In the pilot phase of the CRC screening programme the majority of CRCs were detected at early clinical stages. Invasive cancers were detected in 7.7% of patients. In almost all patients adenomas were resected at screening colonoscopy, thus reducing the possibility of later development of CRC in those patients.

  17. Panel-based Genetic Diagnostic Testing for Inherited Eye Diseases is Highly Accurate and Reproducible and More Sensitive for Variant Detection Than Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bujakowska, Kinga M.; Sousa, Maria E.; Fonseca-Kelly, Zoë D.; Taub, Daniel G.; Janessian, Maria; Wang, Dan Yi; Au, Elizabeth D.; Sims, Katherine B.; Sweetser, David A.; Fulton, Anne B.; Liu, Qin; Wiggs, Janey L.; Gai, Xiaowu; Pierce, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Next-generation sequencing (NGS) based methods are being adopted broadly for genetic diagnostic testing, but the performance characteristics of these techniques have not been fully defined with regard to test accuracy and reproducibility. Methods We developed a targeted enrichment and NGS approach for genetic diagnostic testing of patients with inherited eye disorders, including inherited retinal degenerations, optic atrophy and glaucoma. In preparation for providing this Genetic Eye Disease (GEDi) test on a CLIA-certified basis, we performed experiments to measure the sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility as well as the clinical sensitivity of the test. Results The GEDi test is highly reproducible and accurate, with sensitivity and specificity for single nucleotide variant detection of 97.9% and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity for variant detection was notably better than the 88.3% achieved by whole exome sequencing (WES) using the same metrics, due to better coverage of targeted genes in the GEDi test compared to commercially available exome capture sets. Prospective testing of 192 patients with IRDs indicated that the clinical sensitivity of the GEDi test is high, with a diagnostic rate of 51%. Conclusion The data suggest that based on quantified performance metrics, selective targeted enrichment is preferable to WES for genetic diagnostic testing. PMID:25412400

  18. Implementation of a Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing and Modification

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andrew Christopher; Haskins, Brianna Lyn; Saeed Zafar, Zubair; Chen, Guanling; Chinai, Sneha A

    2016-01-01

    Background The administration of health screeners in a hospital setting has traditionally required (1) clinicians to ask questions and log answers, which can be time consuming and susceptible to error, or (2) patients to complete paper-and-pencil surveys, which require third-party entry of information into the electronic health record and can be vulnerable to error and misinterpretation. A highly promising method that avoids these limitations and bypasses third-party interpretation is direct entry via a computerized inventory. Objective To (1) computerize medical and behavioral health screening for use in general medical settings, (2) optimize patient acceptability and feasibility through iterative usability testing and modification cycles, and (3) examine how age relates to usability. Methods A computerized version of 15 screeners, including behavioral health screeners recommended by a National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research collaborative workgroup, was subjected to systematic usability testing and iterative modification. Consecutive adult, English-speaking patients seeking treatment in an urban emergency department were enrolled. Acceptability was defined as (1) the percentage of eligible patients who agreed to take the assessment (initiation rate) and (2) average satisfaction with the assessment (satisfaction rate). Feasibility was defined as the percentage of the screening items completed by those who initiated the assessment (completion rate). Chi-square tests, analyses of variance, and Pearson correlations were used to detect whether improvements in initiation, satisfaction, and completion rates were seen over time and to examine the relation between age and outcomes. Results Of 2157 eligible patients approached, 1280 agreed to complete the screening (initiation rate=59.34%). Statistically significant increases were observed over time in satisfaction (F 3,1061=3.35, P=.019) and completion rates (F 3,1276=25.44, P<.001

  19. How Accurate Are Blood (or Breath) Tests for Identifying Self-Reported Heavy Drinking Among People with Alcohol Dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Bertholet, Nicolas; Winter, Michael R.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Saitz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Aims Managing patients with alcohol dependence includes assessment for heavy drinking, typically by asking patients. Some recommend biomarkers to detect heavy drinking but evidence of accuracy is limited. Methods Among people with dependence, we assessed the performance of disialo-carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%dCDT, ≥1.7%), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, ≥66 U/l), either %dCDT or GGT positive, and breath alcohol (> 0) for identifying 3 self-reported heavy drinking levels: any heavy drinking (≥4 drinks/day or >7 drinks/week for women, ≥5 drinks/day or >14 drinks/week for men), recurrent (≥5 drinks/day on ≥5 days) and persistent heavy drinking (≥5 drinks/day on ≥7 consecutive days). Subjects (n = 402) with dependence and current heavy drinking were referred to primary care and assessed 6 months later with biomarkers and validated self-reported calendar method assessment of past 30-day alcohol use. Results The self-reported prevalence of any, recurrent and persistent heavy drinking was 54, 34 and 17%. Sensitivity of %dCDT for detecting any, recurrent and persistent self-reported heavy drinking was 41, 53 and 66%. Specificity was 96, 90 and 84%, respectively. %dCDT had higher sensitivity than GGT and breath test for each alcohol use level but was not adequately sensitive to detect heavy drinking (missing 34–59% of the cases). Either %dCDT or GGT positive improved sensitivity but not to satisfactory levels, and specificity decreased. Neither a breath test nor GGT was sufficiently sensitive (both tests missed 70–80% of cases). Conclusions Although biomarkers may provide some useful information, their sensitivity is low the incremental value over self-report in clinical settings is questionable. PMID:24740846

  20. Short communication: Rapid antibiotic screening tests detect antibiotic residues in powdered milk products.

    PubMed

    Kneebone, J; Tsang, P C W; Townson, D H

    2010-09-01

    Rapid antibiotic screening tests are widely used in the dairy industry to monitor milk for the presence of antibiotic residues above regulated levels. Given the persistent concern over contamination of milk products with antibiotic residues, we investigated the utility of IDEXX Snap test devices (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, ME) as tools for detecting antibiotic residues in powdered milk products. Five powdered milk products were reconstituted according to manufacturer specification with distilled water: Carnation (Nestlé USA Inc., Solon, OH), Nido youth and Nido adult (Nestlé Mexico Inc., Mexico City, Mexico), ELK (Campina, Eindhoven, the Netherlands), and Regilait (Saint-Martin-Belle-Roche, France). Positive samples were generated by spiking reconstituted milk with penicillin G, cephapirin, or tetracycline to either the European Union-regulated maximum residue limit or the FDA-regulated safe/tolerance level, whichever was lower. Control, unspiked negative milk samples and positive samples were tested with appropriate IDEXX Snap test kits (penicillin G and cephapirin with New Beta-Lactam, tetracycline with New Tetracycline). All samples yielded definitive results consistent with expectations, and there were no instances of false-positive or false-negative readings. These results suggest that both the New Beta-Lactam and New Tetracycline IDEXX Snap test kits effectively detect antibiotic residues in commercially available powdered milk samples and are useful tools for monitoring antibiotic residues in reconstituted powdered milk products. PMID:20723670

  1. Application of an integrated testing strategy to the U.S. EPA endocrine disruptor screening program.

    PubMed

    Willett, Catherine E; Bishop, Patricia L; Sullivan, Kristie M

    2011-09-01

    New approaches to generating and evaluating toxicity data for chemicals are needed to cope with the ever-increasing demands of new programs. One such approach involves the use of an integrated testing and evaluation strategy based on the specific properties and activities of a chemical. Such an integrated strategy, whether applied to existing or future programs, can promote efficient use of resources and save animals. We demonstrate the utility of such a strategy by applying it to the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). Launched in October 2009, the EDSP utilizes a two-tiered approach, whereby each tier requires a battery of animal-intensive and expensive tests. Tier 1 consists of five in vitro and six in vivo assays that are intended to determine a chemical's potential to interact with the estrogen (E), androgen (A), or thyroid (T) hormone pathways. Tier 2 is proposed to consist of multigenerational reproductive and developmental toxicity tests in several species and is intended to determine whether a chemical can cause adverse effects resulting from E, A, or T modulation. In contrast to the existing EDSP structure, we show, using the pesticide atrazine as an example, that a multilevel testing framework combined with an integrated evaluation process would significantly increase efficiency by minimizing testing.

  2. Synthetic crude oils carcinogenicity screening tests. Final report, October 16, 1978-August 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, W.H.; Deye, J.F.; Hartgrove, R.W.; King, C.F.; Krahn, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Eight crude oils (Southern Louisiana Petroleum, H Coal Syncrude, H Coal Fuel Oil, SRC II, Exxon Donor Solvent Liquid, Occidental in situ Shale Oil, Paraho Shale Oil and Geokinetics in situ Shale Oil) were distilled into, or have been received, as four fractions for analysis and screening for biological (mutagenicity and tumor initiating) activity. Results of selected analytical tests have been obtained on the undistilled crude oils and the fractions. Salmonella typhimurium mutation assay and an accelerated tumor initiation-promotion test have been run on the undistilled crude oils and the fractions. Low boiling (naphtha) fractions of all eight materials showed little or no mutagenicity or skin tumor initiating activity by the two tests used. The higher boiling fractions (gas oils and residues) and the crude oils themselves were mutagenic and exhibited tumor initiation activity. The coal derived fractions were more active by both tests than the shale oil samples, the latter were similar to the petroleum controls. Few differences were apparent in biological activity between coal derived samples of equivalent boiling range among the various coal liquefaction processes, except that the SRC II naphtha sample showed a degree of acute toxicity through skin absorption not exhibited by the other samples. Generally the results agreed closely for the various samples between the salmonella mutation assay with activation and the skin tumor initiation test.

  3. Scaled Composites' Doug Shane examines the screen of his ground control station during tests in New

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Scaled Composites' Doug Shane examines the screen of his ground control station during tests in New Mexico. Shane used this configuration as the ground control station to remotely pilot the Proteus aircraft during a NASA sponsored series of test flights. The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  4. Guidelines for human papillomavirus DNA test requirements for primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Chris J L M; Berkhof, Johannes; Castle, Philip E; Hesselink, Albertus T; Franco, Eduardo L; Ronco, Guglielmo; Arbyn, Marc; Bosch, F Xavier; Cuzick, Jack; Dillner, Joakim; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Snijders, Peter J F

    2009-02-01

    Given the strong etiologic link between high-risk HPV infection and cervical cancer high-risk HPV testing is now being considered as an alternative for cytology-based cervical cancer screening. Many test systems have been developed that can detect the broad spectrum of hrHPV types in one assay. However, for screening purposes the detection of high-risk HPV is not inherently useful unless it is informative for the presence of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2/3) or cancer. Candidate high-risk HPV tests to be used for screening should reach an optimal balance between clinical sensitivity and specificity for detection of high-grade CIN and cervical cancer to minimize redundant or excessive follow-up procedures for high-risk HPV positive women without cervical lesions. Data from various large screening studies have shown that high-risk HPV testing by hybrid capture 2 and GP5+/6+-PCR yields considerably better results in the detection of CIN 2/3 than cytology. The data from these studies can be used to guide the translation of high-risk HPV testing into clinical practice by setting standards of test performance and characteristics. On the basis of these data we have developed guidelines for high-risk HPV test requirements for primary cervical screening and validation guidelines for candidate HPV assays.

  5. Comparison of different in vitro tests for biocompatibility screening of Mg alloys.

    PubMed

    Scheideler, L; Füger, C; Schille, C; Rupp, F; Wendel, H-P; Hort, N; Reichel, H P; Geis-Gerstorfer, J

    2013-11-01

    Standard cell culture tests according to ISO 10993 have only limited value for the biocompatibility screening of degradable biomaterials such as Mg alloys. The correlation between in vitro and in vivo results is poor. Standard cytotoxicity tests mimic the clinical situation to only a limited extent, since in vivo proteins and macromolecules in the blood and interstitial liquid will influence the corrosion behaviour and, hence, biocompatibility of Mg alloys to a significant extent. We therefore developed a modified cytotoxicity test simulating the in vivo conditions by use of bovine serum as the extraction vehicle instead of the cell culture medium routinely used in standard cytotoxicity testing according to ISO 10993-5. The modified extraction test was applied to eight experimental Mg alloys. Cytotoxicity was assayed by inhibition of cell metabolic activity (XTT test). When extraction of the alloy samples was performed in serum instead of cell culture medium the metabolic activity was significantly less inhibited for six of the eight alloys. The reduction in apparent cytotoxicity under serum extraction conditions was most pronounced for MgZn1 (109% relative metabolic activity with serum extracts vs. 26% in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)), for MgY4 (103% in serum vs. 32% in DMEM) and for MgAl3Zn1 (84% vs. 17%), resulting in a completely different cytotoxicity ranking of the tested materials when serum extraction was used. We suppose that this test system has the potential to enhance the predictability of in vivo corrosion behaviour and biocompatibility of Mg-based materials for biodegradable medical devices.

  6. Novel real-time simultaneous amplification and testing method to accurately and rapidly detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhenling; Wang, Yongzhong; Fang, Liang; Zheng, Ruijuan; Huang, Xiaochen; Liu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Gang; Rui, Dongmei; Ju, Jinliang; Hu, Zhongyi

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate a simultaneous amplification and testing method for detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (SAT-TB assay) in clinical specimens by using isothermal RNA amplification and real-time fluorescence detection. In the SAT-TB assay, a 170-bp M. tuberculosis 16S rRNA fragment is reverse transcribed to DNA by use of Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MLV) reverse transcriptase, using specific primers incorporating the T7 promoter sequence, and undergoes successive cycles of amplification using T7 RNA polymerase. Using a real-time PCR instrument, hybridization of an internal 6-carboxyfluorescein-4-[4-(dimethylamino)phenylazo] benzoic acid N-succinimidyl ester (FAM-DABCYL)-labeled fluorescent probe can be used to detect RNA amplification. The SAT-TB assay takes less than 1.5 h to perform, and the sensitivity of the assay for detection of M. tuberculosis H37Rv is 100 CFU/ml. The TB probe has no cross-reactivity with nontuberculous mycobacteria or other common respiratory tract pathogens. For 253 pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) specimens and 134 non-TB specimens, the SAT-TB results correlated with 95.6% (370/387 specimens) of the Bactec MGIT 960 culture assay results. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the SAT-TB test for the diagnosis of PTB were 67.6%, 100%, 100%, and 62.0%, respectively, compared to 61.7%, 100%, 100%, and 58.0% for Bactec MGIT 960 culture. For PTB diagnosis, the sensitivities of the SAT-TB and Bactec MGIT 960 culture methods were 97.6% and 95.9%, respectively, for smear-positive specimens and 39.2% and 30.2%, respectively, for smear-negative specimens. In conclusion, the SAT-TB assay is a novel, simple test with a high specificity which may enhance the detection rate of TB. It is therefore a promising tool for rapid diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  7. Reliability of SleepStrip as a screening test in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    PubMed

    Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Yılmaz, Metin; Tutar, Hakan; Aydil, Utku; Kızıl, Yusuf; Damar, Murat; Kemaloğlu, Yusuf K

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common sleep disorder and related to multiple conditions that cause mortality in adults. In the present study, reliability of SleepStrip, a disposable screening device for detection of OSAS, is tested. In this prospective, nonrandomized double-blinded single cohort study at an academic health center, the performance of the SleepStrip in detecting respiratory events and establishing an SleepStrip score (Sscore) in domestic use were compared to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) obtained by the standard polysomnography (PSG) recordings in the sleep laboratory. Forty-one patients who have the PSG results participated the study and wore the SleepStrips at home. Test efficiency rate was 75% and there was a positive correlation between PSG-AHI scores and Sscores (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). However, diagnostic accuracy analysis showed that the correlation between Sscores and PSG-AHI scores were significant only at AHI > 30 levels. The SleepStrip has 100% specificity and positive predictive values, but it also has low negative predictive and sensitivity values. The SleepStrip is not a reliable screening test in differential diagnosis among simple snorers, mild, moderate and severe OSAS patients. However, high Sscores highly indicate the presence of moderate-severe OSAS. We can safely send these patients to split-night PSG and continuous, automatic, bi-level positive airway pressure (CPAP/BPAP/APAP) titration at the same night. The SleepStrip may increase the effective use of the sleep laboratories. PMID:24861563

  8. Infectious titres of sheep scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents cannot be accurately predicted from quantitative laboratory test results.

    PubMed

    González, Lorenzo; Thorne, Leigh; Jeffrey, Martin; Martin, Stuart; Spiropoulos, John; Beck, Katy E; Lockey, Richard W; Vickery, Christopher M; Holder, Thomas; Terry, Linda

    2012-11-01

    It is widely accepted that abnormal forms of the prion protein (PrP) are the best surrogate marker for the infectious agent of prion diseases and, in practice, the detection of such disease-associated (PrP(d)) and/or protease-resistant (PrP(res)) forms of PrP is the cornerstone of diagnosis and surveillance of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Nevertheless, some studies question the consistent association between infectivity and abnormal PrP detection. To address this discrepancy, 11 brain samples of sheep affected with natural scrapie or experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy were selected on the basis of the magnitude and predominant types of PrP(d) accumulation, as shown by immunohistochemical (IHC) examination; contra-lateral hemi-brain samples were inoculated at three different dilutions into transgenic mice overexpressing ovine PrP and were also subjected to quantitative analysis by three biochemical tests (BCTs). Six samples gave 'low' infectious titres (10⁶·⁵ to 10⁶·⁷ LD₅₀ g⁻¹) and five gave 'high titres' (10⁸·¹ to ≥ 10⁸·⁷ LD₅₀ g⁻¹) and, with the exception of the Western blot analysis, those two groups tended to correspond with samples with lower PrP(d)/PrP(res) results by IHC/BCTs. However, no statistical association could be confirmed due to high individual sample variability. It is concluded that although detection of abnormal forms of PrP by laboratory methods remains useful to confirm TSE infection, infectivity titres cannot be predicted from quantitative test results, at least for the TSE sources and host PRNP genotypes used in this study. Furthermore, the near inverse correlation between infectious titres and Western blot results (high protease pre-treatment) argues for a dissociation between infectivity and PrP(res).

  9. Screening for Nephropathy in Diabetes Mellitus: Is Micral-Test Valid among All Diabetics?

    PubMed Central

    Afifa, Koubaa; Belguith Asma, Sriha; Nabil, Harzallah; Ahlem, Bellaleh; Mounira, Sahtout; Kawthar, Younes; Sonia, Triki; Ilhem, Hellara; Fadoua, Neffati; Fadhel, Najjar; Mohamed, Soltani

    2016-01-01

    Background. Using Micral-test (MT) for screening microalbuminuria (MA) among type 2 diabetics (T2D) is helpful. We aimed at determining prevalence of MA and at describing the MT validity. Methods. We studied 182 T2D followed up in family medicine. Two 24-hour urinary quantitative assays of MA had been used as a gold standard. Results. Prevalence of MA was 23%, CI 95%: 16.9–29.1. MT validity was 77% for sensitivity, 88% for negative predictive value, and 0.2 for Kappa coefficient (p = 0.001). Among subjects having a blood pressure ≥130/80 mmHg, having a CHT/HDL ratio ≥ 3, being a T2D for more than 5 years, and being women, negative predictive values were, respectively, 91%, 89%, 95%, and 91%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.81 in men (p = 0.008) and 0.80 when diabetes duration exceeds 5 years (p = 0.001). The MA value at 100% Sp for MT was 35 mg/L. Conclusion. The use of MT in primary healthcare for yearly screening for MA in T2D must be accentuated especially when diabetes duration exceeds 5 years or when associated with other cardiovascular risks. PMID:27294192

  10. The 'BlueScreen HC' assay as a decision making test in the genotoxicity assessment of flavour and fragrance materials.

    PubMed

    Etter, Sylvain; Birrell, Louise; Cahill, Paul; Scott, Heather; Billinton, Nick; Walmsley, Richard M; Smith, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    The genotoxicity of a library of 70 flavour and fragrance substances having a high proportion of in vivo and/or carcinogenicity test data has been assessed using the GADD45a-GLuc 'BlueScreen HC' genotoxicity assay, with and without exogenous metabolic activation. There are only limited genotoxicity and carcinogenicity study data for compounds in this applicability domain, but this study allowed the following conclusions: (i) The BlueScreen HC results are highly predictive of positive results from regulator-required in vitro genotoxicity assays for the test set of materials; the moderate negative predictivity of BlueScreen HC from the in vitro test set of material is mainly due to the high rate of false positive in regulatory in vitro mammalian tests. (ii) BlueScreen HC negative results are predictive of negative in vivo results and provide a specific prediction of in vivo genotoxicity assay results. (iii) In this applicability domain, which comprises a large proportion of relatively low molecular weight molecules, a 1mM testing limit maintains the sensitivity of the assay, and increases specificity. (iv) The predictive capacity and specificity to in vivo genotoxins and carcinogens, coupled to a microplate format with low compound requirement supports further investigation of the BlueScreen HC assay as a useful tool in prioritizing the assessment of new F&F materials and in filling data gaps on materials with no or limited regulatory test data for genotoxicity. PMID:26003925

  11. The 'BlueScreen HC' assay as a decision making test in the genotoxicity assessment of flavour and fragrance materials.

    PubMed

    Etter, Sylvain; Birrell, Louise; Cahill, Paul; Scott, Heather; Billinton, Nick; Walmsley, Richard M; Smith, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    The genotoxicity of a library of 70 flavour and fragrance substances having a high proportion of in vivo and/or carcinogenicity test data has been assessed using the GADD45a-GLuc 'BlueScreen HC' genotoxicity assay, with and without exogenous metabolic activation. There are only limited genotoxicity and carcinogenicity study data for compounds in this applicability domain, but this study allowed the following conclusions: (i) The BlueScreen HC results are highly predictive of positive results from regulator-required in vitro genotoxicity assays for the test set of materials; the moderate negative predictivity of BlueScreen HC from the in vitro test set of material is mainly due to the high rate of false positive in regulatory in vitro mammalian tests. (ii) BlueScreen HC negative results are predictive of negative in vivo results and provide a specific prediction of in vivo genotoxicity assay results. (iii) In this applicability domain, which comprises a large proportion of relatively low molecular weight molecules, a 1mM testing limit maintains the sensitivity of the assay, and increases specificity. (iv) The predictive capacity and specificity to in vivo genotoxins and carcinogens, coupled to a microplate format with low compound requirement supports further investigation of the BlueScreen HC assay as a useful tool in prioritizing the assessment of new F&F materials and in filling data gaps on materials with no or limited regulatory test data for genotoxicity.

  12. New Advances of Preimplantation and Prenatal Genetic Screening and Noninvasive Testing as a Potential Predictor of Health Status of Babies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The current morphologically based selection of human embryos for transfer cannot detect chromosome aneuploidies. So far, only biopsy techniques have been able to screen for chromosomal aneuploidies in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) or screening (PGS) involves the biopsy of oocyte polar bodies or embryonic cells and has become a routine clinical procedure in many IVF clinics worldwide, including recent development of comprehensive chromosome screening of all 23 pairs of chromosomes by microarrays for aneuploidy screening. The routine preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnosis (PND) require testing in an aggressive manner. These procedures may be invasive to the growing embryo and fetus and potentially could compromise the clinical outcome. Therefore the aim of this review is to summarize not only the new knowledge on preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnosis in humans, but also on the development of potential noninvasive embryo and fetal testing that might play an important role in the future. PMID:24783200

  13. Statistical tests for detection of misspecified relationships by use of genome-screen data.

    PubMed

    McPeek, M S; Sun, L

    2000-03-01

    Misspecified relationships can have serious consequences for linkage studies, resulting in either reduced power or false-positive evidence for linkage. If some individuals in the pedigree are untyped, then Mendelian errors may not be observed. Previous approaches to detection of misspecified relationships by use of genotype data were developed for sib and half-sib pairs. We extend the likelihood calculations of Göring and Ott and Boehnke and Cox to more-general relative pairs, for which identity-by-descent (IBD) status is no longer a Markov chain, and we propose a likelihood-ratio test. We also extend the identity-by-state (IBS)-based test of Ehm and Wagner to nonsib relative pairs. The likelihood-ratio test has high power, but its drawbacks include the need to construct and apply a separate Markov chain for each possible alternative relationship and the need for simulation to assess significance. The IBS-based test is simpler but has lower power. We propose two new test statistics-conditional expected IBD (EIBD) and adjusted IBS (AIBS)-designed to retain the simplicity of IBS while increasing power by taking into account chance sharing. In simulations, the power of EIBD is generally close to that of the likelihood-ratio test. The power of AIBS is higher than that of IBS, in all cases considered. We suggest a strategy of initial screening by use of EIBD and AIBS, followed by application of the likelihood-ratio test to only a subset of relative pairs, identified by use of EIBD and AIBS. We apply the methods to a Genetic Analysis Workshop 11 data set from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism.

  14. Tuberculin Skin Tests versus Interferon-Gamma Release Assays in Tuberculosis Screening among Immigrant Visa Applicants.

    PubMed

    Chuke, Stella O; Yen, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Laserson, Kayla F; Phuoc, Nguyen Huu; Trinh, Nguyen An; Nhung, Duong Thi Cam; Mai, Vo Thi Chi; Qui, An Dang; Hai, Hoang Hoa; Loan, Le Thien Huong; Jones, Warren G; Whitworth, William C; Shah, J Jina; Painter, John A; Mazurek, Gerald H; Maloney, Susan A

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Use of tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) and interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) as part of tuberculosis (TB) screening among immigrants from high TB-burden countries has not been fully evaluated. Methods. Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTBI) based on TST, or the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-G), was determined among immigrant applicants in Vietnam bound for the United States (US); factors associated with test results and discordance were assessed; predictive values of TST and QFT-G for identifying chest radiographs (CXRs) consistent with TB were calculated. Results. Of 1,246 immigrant visa applicants studied, 57.9% were TST positive, 28.3% were QFT-G positive, and test agreement was 59.4%. Increasing age was associated with positive TST results, positive QFT-G results, TST-positive but QFT-G-negative discordance, and abnormal CXRs consistent with TB. Positive predictive values of TST and QFT-G for an abnormal CXR were 25.9% and 25.6%, respectively. Conclusion. The estimated prevalence of MTBI among US-bound visa applicants in Vietnam based on TST was twice that based on QFT-G, and 14 times higher than a TST-based estimate of MTBI prevalence reported for the general US population in 2000. QFT-G was not better than TST at predicting abnormal CXRs consistent with TB.

  15. Development of an electrical conductivity screening test for mine waste assessments.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Warner, Richard C; Honaker, Rick Q

    2016-10-01

    An environmental concern at mining operations is the potential leaching of trace elements from overburden and byproduct streams of processing plants. To provide a timely assessment of this concern, electrical conductivity of the leachate emanating from the plant waste streams can be measured as an indicator of the trace element content levels using the USGS Field Leach Test (FLT). However, the research reported in this publication revealed the need to modify the FLT procedure to improve the precision of the test results. The primary issue involved the importance of leachant volume-to-particle surface area ratio in the assessment of the leaching potential for a given source. To determine the key factors impacting leachability of a given material, a statistically-designed parametric study was performed. The experimental program evaluated the effects of particle surface area, the leachant volume-to-surface area ratio, and the amount of oxidant used to expedite the leaching rate during the test. The results revealed that the significant parameters are leachant volume-to-solid surface area ratio and the amount of oxidant. The findings were used to recommend a modification to the conductivity screening test.

  16. Elicited imitation and the Oral Language Sentence Imitation Screening Test (OLSIST): content or context?

    PubMed

    Weber-Olsen, M; Putnam-Sims, P; Gannon, J D

    1983-11-01

    Ten language-normal children, aged 2:1-3:3 (yrs:mos), and eight language-impaired children, 3:7-4:1, in Brown's (1973) Stages II or III received two subtests of the Oral Language Sentence Imitation Screening Test (OLSIST: Zachman, Huisingh, Jorgenson, & Barrett, 1978) in a contextually supported condition and in a standardized test condition. Also, children's generation of eight grammatical morphemes in a spontaneous language sample condition was compared to their imitative control of the same structures on the OLSIST. Results indicated significantly enhanced imitative performance for the language-impaired children but not for the language-normal children in the contextually cued condition. Stage III language-normal children earned significantly better imitative scores than language-impaired subjects and Stage II language-normal children, regardless of test condition, although OLSIST subtests did not differentiate performance of any group. With only one exception, morpheme difficulty orders on the OLSIST did not predict morpheme orders in spontaneous language samples. Presence of cues, moreover, did not significantly increase the OLSIST's predictive ability. With the exception of Stage III language-normal subjects, all children displayed greater productive control of most morphemes in their spontaneous speech. Conclusions were drawn relative to the clinical significance of contextual reliance as well as alternatives to imitation testing for estimating the grammatical skills of the language-impaired child. PMID:6645431

  17. Hydramite II screening tests of potential bremsstrahlung converter debris shield materials

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Hedemann, M.A.; Stark, M.A.

    1986-03-01

    Results of a brief test series aimed at screening a number of potential bremsstrahlung converter debris shield materials are reported. These tests were run on Sandia National Laboratories' Hydramite II accelerator using a diode configuration which produces a pinched electron beam. The materials tested include: (1) laminated Kevlar 49/polyester and E-glass/polyester composites, (2) a low density laminated Kevlar 49 composite, and (3) two types of through-the-thickness reinforced Kevlar 49 composites. As expected, tests using laminated Kevlar 49/polyester shields showed that shield permanent set (i.e., permanent deflection) increased with increasing tantalum conversion foil thickness and decreased with increasing shield thickness. The through-the-thickness reinforced composites developed localized, but severe, back surface damage. The laminated composites displayed little back surface damage, although extensive internal matrix cracking and ply delaminations were generated. Roughly the same degree of permanent set was produced in shields made from the low density Kevlar 49 composite and the Kevlar 49/polyester. The E-glass reinforced shields exhibited relatively low levels of permanent set.

  18. Development of an electrical conductivity screening test for mine waste assessments.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Warner, Richard C; Honaker, Rick Q

    2016-10-01

    An environmental concern at mining operations is the potential leaching of trace elements from overburden and byproduct streams of processing plants. To provide a timely assessment of this concern, electrical conductivity of the leachate emanating from the plant waste streams can be measured as an indicator of the trace element content levels using the USGS Field Leach Test (FLT). However, the research reported in this publication revealed the need to modify the FLT procedure to improve the precision of the test results. The primary issue involved the importance of leachant volume-to-particle surface area ratio in the assessment of the leaching potential for a given source. To determine the key factors impacting leachability of a given material, a statistically-designed parametric study was performed. The experimental program evaluated the effects of particle surface area, the leachant volume-to-surface area ratio, and the amount of oxidant used to expedite the leaching rate during the test. The results revealed that the significant parameters are leachant volume-to-solid surface area ratio and the amount of oxidant. The findings were used to recommend a modification to the conductivity screening test. PMID:27351901

  19. Tuberculin Skin Tests versus Interferon-Gamma Release Assays in Tuberculosis Screening among Immigrant Visa Applicants

    PubMed Central

    Chuke, Stella O.; Yen, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Laserson, Kayla F.; Phuoc, Nguyen Huu; Trinh, Nguyen An; Nhung, Duong Thi Cam; Mai, Vo Thi Chi; Qui, An Dang; Hai, Hoang Hoa; Loan, Le Thien Huong; Jones, Warren G.; Whitworth, William C.; Shah, J. Jina; Painter, John A.; Mazurek, Gerald H.; Maloney, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Use of tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) and interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) as part of tuberculosis (TB) screening among immigrants from high TB-burden countries has not been fully evaluated. Methods. Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTBI) based on TST, or the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-G), was determined among immigrant applicants in Vietnam bound for the United States (US); factors associated with test results and discordance were assessed; predictive values of TST and QFT-G for identifying chest radiographs (CXRs) consistent with TB were calculated. Results. Of 1,246 immigrant visa applicants studied, 57.9% were TST positive, 28.3% were QFT-G positive, and test agreement was 59.4%. Increasing age was associated with positive TST results, positive QFT-G results, TST-positive but QFT-G-negative discordance, and abnormal CXRs consistent with TB. Positive predictive values of TST and QFT-G for an abnormal CXR were 25.9% and 25.6%, respectively. Conclusion. The estimated prevalence of MTBI among US-bound visa applicants in Vietnam based on TST was twice that based on QFT-G, and 14 times higher than a TST-based estimate of MTBI prevalence reported for the general US population in 2000. QFT-G was not better than TST at predicting abnormal CXRs consistent with TB. PMID:24738031

  20. Point-of-care testing for HCV infection: recent advances and implications for alternative screening.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Vidoni, Gianmarino; Mabellini, Chiara; Belloni, Teresa; Brignolo, Livia; Negri, Silvia; Schlusnus, Karin; Dorigatti, Fernanda; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2014-10-01

    Over the last few years, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has emerged as one of the most significant causes of chronic liver disease worldwide, with an estimated prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 3.0%. In Italy, approximately 2% of subjects are infected with HCV. Considering that acute HCV infection is usually asymptomatic, early diagnosis is rare. Those people who develop chronic infection, even though undiagnosed, may suffer serious liver damage, making chronic HCV infection a major health problem. New initiatives are needed to identify a submerged portion of patients with chronic viral hepatitis and to propose controls and antiviral treatments to avoid the progression to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Since January 2011, the Infectious Diseases Department of San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Milan has been carrying out a prevention program called "EASY test project", using a new oral test, the OraQuick® HCV rapid antibody test (OraSure technologies, Inc.). The main objective of the project is to evaluate the acceptability of an alternative, free and anonymous HCV test offer, available in different settings (Points of Care, STDs Prevention clinics and General Practitioner clinics). From January 2011 to April 2014, 29,600 subjects were approached to inform them about HCV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases; 4,507 (15.2% of the contacted subjects) of them, total eligible volunteers, performed HCV tests on saliva and completed the interview in the alternative POCTs. Twenty-seven subjects (0.6% of the total) turned HCV oral test reactive (27/4.507) during the evaluation period; all of them were confirmed by conventional test. All 27 patients were asymptomatic and without a history of HCV-re- lated symptoms. The results from this analysis suggest that the promotion of alternative HCV test screening has not yet been fully developed as a strategy to increase levels of HCV testing among people at risk for HCV infection. Increasing