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Sample records for accurate screening tools

  1. BioBloom tools: fast, accurate and memory-efficient host species sequence screening using bloom filters

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Justin; Sadeghi, Sara; Raymond, Anthony; Jackman, Shaun D.; Nip, Ka Ming; Mar, Richard; Mohamadi, Hamid; Butterfield, Yaron S.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Birol, Inanç

    2014-01-01

    Large datasets can be screened for sequences from a specific organism, quickly and with low memory requirements, by a data structure that supports time- and memory-efficient set membership queries. Bloom filters offer such queries but require that false positives be controlled. We present BioBloom Tools, a Bloom filter-based sequence-screening tool that is faster than BWA, Bowtie 2 (popular alignment algorithms) and FACS (a membership query algorithm). It delivers accuracies comparable with these tools, controls false positives and has low memory requirements. Availability and implementaion: www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/biobloomtools Contact: cjustin@bcgsc.ca or ibirol@bcgsc.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25143290

  2. Magnetic ranging tool accurately guides replacement well

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.B.; Wesson, J.P. )

    1992-12-21

    This paper reports on magnetic ranging surveys and directional drilling technology which accurately guided a replacement well bore to intersect a leaking gas storage well with casing damage. The second well bore was then used to pump cement into the original leaking casing shoe. The repair well bore kicked off from the surface hole, bypassed casing damage in the middle of the well, and intersected the damaged well near the casing shoe. The repair well was subsequently completed in the gas storage zone near the original well bore, salvaging the valuable bottom hole location in the reservoir. This method would prevent the loss of storage gas, and it would prevent a potential underground blowout that could permanently damage the integrity of the storage field.

  3. Tube dimpling tool assures accurate dip-brazed joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Heisman, R. M.

    1968-01-01

    Portable, hand-held dimpling tool assures accurate brazed joints between tubes of different diameters. Prior to brazing, the tool performs precise dimpling and nipple forming and also provides control and accurate measuring of the height of nipples and depth of dimples so formed.

  4. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence in Orthopedic Patients: A Comparison of Three Screening Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Dosanjh, Sonia; Petrisor, Brad; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    Accurately identifying victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be a challenge for clinicians and clinical researchers. Multiple instruments have been developed and validated to identify IPV in patients presenting to health care practitioners, including the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). The purpose…

  5. EJSCREEN: Environmental Justice Screening and Mapping Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EJSCREEN is an environmental justice screening and mapping tool that provides EPA and the public with a nationally consistent approach to characterizing potential areas may warrant further consideration, analysis, or outreach.

  6. Screening with MRI for Accurate and Rapid Stroke Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shreyansh; Luby, Marie; Poole, Karen; Morella, Teresa; Keller, Elizabeth; Benson, Richard T.; Lynch, John K.; Nadareishvili, Zurab

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of timely multimodal MRI screening before thrombolysis in acute stroke patients. Methods: Quality improvement processes were initiated in 2013 to reduce door-to-needle (DTN) time at the 2 hospitals where the NIH stroke team provides clinical care. Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients who received IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) ≤4.5 hours from last known normal were identified. Demographic and clinical characteristics and timing metrics were analyzed comparing the time periods before, during, and after the quality improvement processes. Results: There were 157 patients treated with IV tPA for AIS during 2012–2013, of whom 135 (86%) were screened with MRI. DTN time was significantly reduced by 40% during this period from a median of 93 minutes in the first half of 2012 to 55 minutes in the last half of 2013 (p < 0.0001) with a significant 4-fold increase in the proportion of treated patients with DTN time ≤60 minutes from 13.0% to 61.5%, respectively (p < 0.00001). Improvement in DTN time was associated with reduced door-to-MRI time, and there were no differences in demographic or clinical characteristics (p = 0.21–0.76). Conclusions: It is feasible and practical to consistently and rapidly deliver IV tPA to AIS patients within national benchmark times using MRI as the routine screening modality. The processes used in the SMART (Screening with MRI for Accurate and Rapid Stroke Treatment) Study to reduce DTN time have the potential to be widely applicable to other hospitals. PMID:25972494

  7. Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET) Users Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pincock, Layne

    2014-10-01

    This document is the users guide to using the Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET). SET is a tool for comparing multiple fuel cycle options against a common set of criteria and metrics. It does this using standard multi-attribute utility decision analysis methods.

  8. Longitudinal validation of psychosis risk screening tools.

    PubMed

    Kline, Emily; Thompson, Elizabeth; Demro, Caroline; Bussell, Kristin; Reeves, Gloria; Schiffman, Jason

    2015-07-01

    The development of widely used interview tools has helped to standardize the criteria for a "clinical high risk" syndrome, thus enabling advances in efforts to develop interventions for this phase of illness. These assessments, however, are burdensome to administer and not likely to be adopted for widespread use. Scalable early intervention depends on the availability of brief, low-cost assessment tools that can serve to screen populations of interest or triage treatment-seekers toward specialized care. The current study examines the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive strength of three self-report measures (Prime Screen-Revised, Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief, and Youth Psychosis at Risk Questionnaire-Brief) with regard to psychosis onset and symptom persistence over six months of follow-up within an indicated sample of 54 adolescents and young adults ages 12-22. Within this sample, all three measures demonstrated excellent sensitivity to emerging psychosis and strong agreement with clinician evaluations of attenuated psychosis symptoms. Additionally, all screeners obtained negative predictive values of 1.00 with regard to psychosis onset, indicating that an individual scoring below the recommended threshold score would be extremely unlikely to develop psychosis over the following six months. The longitudinal validation of psychosis risk screening tools constitutes an important step toward establishing a standard of care for early identification and monitoring in this vulnerable population.

  9. Fast, accurate, robust and Open Source Brain Extraction Tool (OSBET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namias, R.; Donnelly Kehoe, P.; D'Amato, J. P.; Nagel, J.

    2015-12-01

    The removal of non-brain regions in neuroimaging is a critical task to perform a favorable preprocessing. The skull-stripping depends on different factors including the noise level in the image, the anatomy of the subject being scanned and the acquisition sequence. For these and other reasons, an ideal brain extraction method should be fast, accurate, user friendly, open-source and knowledge based (to allow for the interaction with the algorithm in case the expected outcome is not being obtained), producing stable results and making it possible to automate the process for large datasets. There are already a large number of validated tools to perform this task but none of them meets the desired characteristics. In this paper we introduced an open source brain extraction tool (OSBET), composed of four steps using simple well-known operations such as: optimal thresholding, binary morphology, labeling and geometrical analysis that aims to assemble all the desired features. We present an experiment comparing OSBET with other six state-of-the-art techniques against a publicly available dataset consisting of 40 T1-weighted 3D scans and their corresponding manually segmented images. OSBET gave both: a short duration with an excellent accuracy, getting the best Dice Coefficient metric. Further validation should be performed, for instance, in unhealthy population, to generalize its usage for clinical purposes.

  10. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Screening Tools to Detect Eating Disorders in Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Alyssa J; Erickson, Casey D; Tierney, Dayna K; Houston, Megan N; Bacon, Cailee E Welch

    2016-12-01

    Clinical Scenario: Eating disorders in female athletes are a commonly underdiagnosed condition. Better screening tools for eating disorders in athletic females could help increase diagnosis and help athletes get the treatment they need. Focused Clinical Question: Should screening tools be used to detect eating disorders in female athletes? Summary of Key Findings: The literature was searched for studies that included information regarding the sensitivity and specificity of screening tools for eating disorders in female athletes. The search returned 5 possible articles related to the clinical question; 3 studies met the inclusion criteria (2 cross-sectional studies, 1 cohort study) and were included. All 3 studies reported sensitivity and specificity for the Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire version 2, the Brief Eating Disorder in Athletes Questionnaire version 2, and the Physiologic Screening Test to Detect Eating Disorders Among Female Athletes. All 3 studies found that the respective screening tool was able to accurately identify female athletes with eating disorders; however, the screening tools varied in sensitivity and specificity values. Clinical Bottom Line: There is strong evidence to support the use of screening tools to detect eating disorders in female athletes. Screening tools with higher sensitivity and specificity have demonstrated a successful outcome of determining athletes with eating disorders or at risk for developing an eating disorder. Strength of Recommendation: There is grade A evidence available to demonstrate that screening tools accurately detect female athletes at risk for eating disorders.

  11. Circulating microRNA-based screening tool for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Frères, Pierre; Wenric, Stéphane; Boukerroucha, Meriem; Fasquelle, Corinne; Thiry, Jérôme; Bovy, Nicolas; Struman, Ingrid; Geurts, Pierre; Collignon, Joëlle; Schroeder, Hélène; Kridelka, Frédéric; Lifrange, Eric; Jossa, Véronique; Bours, Vincent; Josse, Claire; Jerusalem, Guy

    2016-02-02

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly recognized as powerful biomarkers in several pathologies, including breast cancer. Here, their plasmatic levels were measured to be used as an alternative screening procedure to mammography for breast cancer diagnosis.A plasma miRNA profile was determined by RT-qPCR in a cohort of 378 women. A diagnostic model was designed based on the expression of 8 miRNAs measured first in a profiling cohort composed of 41 primary breast cancers and 45 controls, and further validated in diverse cohorts composed of 108 primary breast cancers, 88 controls, 35 breast cancers in remission, 31 metastatic breast cancers and 30 gynecologic tumors.A receiver operating characteristic curve derived from the 8-miRNA random forest based diagnostic tool exhibited an area under the curve of 0.81. The accuracy of the diagnostic tool remained unchanged considering age and tumor stage. The miRNA signature correctly identified patients with metastatic breast cancer. The use of the classification model on cohorts of patients with breast cancers in remission and with gynecologic cancers yielded prediction distributions similar to that of the control group.Using a multivariate supervised learning method and a set of 8 circulating miRNAs, we designed an accurate, minimally invasive screening tool for breast cancer.

  12. Validity of Nutritional Screening Tools for Hospitalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Djais, Julistio T. B.; Rosalina, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malnutrition in hospitalized children can be prevented if children with risk of malnutrition are identified. Every hospital is recommended to have a standard nutritional screening tool. Numerous simple screening tools have been developed, namely Paediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS), Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Paediatrics (STAMP), and Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONG-kids). None has been accepted as a universal tool. Our study aims to determine the best screening tools compared to Subjective Global Nutrition Assessment (SGNA), an assessment tool which is more complex as our gold standard. Methods. This diagnostic study involved 116 patients aged 1–15 years. Three screening tools and SGNA were examined to each subject. Statistical analysis was used to determine sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio (LR) by results from screening tools divided into low and moderate-high risk of malnutrition compared to results from SGNA divided into no and moderate-severe malnutrition. Results. PYMS showed superior agreement to SGNA resulting in sensitivity 95.32%, specificity 76.92%, positive LR 4.13, and negative LR 0.061. STAMP resulted in sensitivity, specificity, positive LR, and negative LR, respectively, as 100%, 11.54%, 1.13, and 0 and STRONG-kids resulted in 100%, 7.7%, 1.083, and 0. Conclusion. PYMS was the most reliable screening tool. PMID:25298890

  13. Eating disorders in female athletes: use of screening tools.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jessica; Aerni, Giselle; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Screening female athletes for eating disorders is not performed commonly even though the American College of Sports Medicine, National Athletic Trainer Association, and International Olympic Committee have guidelines recommending screening. Eating disorders are more prevalent in the female athlete population than in the general population and carry short-term and long-term consequences that can affect sport performance. There are several screening tools available that have been studied in the general population and fewer tools that were validated specifically in female athletes. Female athletes with eating disorder pathology often have different factors and environmental pressures contributing to their pathology that can be identified best with an athlete-specific screening tool. We will discuss various screening tools available and the evidence for each one. Screening for eating disorders in all female athletes is an important part of the preparticipation examination and should be done using a tool specifically validated for the female athlete.

  14. The FLUKA Code: An Accurate Simulation Tool for Particle Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Julia; Boehlen, Till T.; Cerutti, Francesco; Chin, Mary P. W.; Dos Santos Augusto, Ricardo; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ortega, Pablo G.; Kozłowska, Wioletta; Magro, Giuseppe; Mairani, Andrea; Parodi, Katia; Sala, Paola R.; Schoofs, Philippe; Tessonnier, Thomas; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) codes are increasingly spreading in the hadrontherapy community due to their detailed description of radiation transport and interaction with matter. The suitability of a MC code for application to hadrontherapy demands accurate and reliable physical models capable of handling all components of the expected radiation field. This becomes extremely important for correctly performing not only physical but also biologically based dose calculations, especially in cases where ions heavier than protons are involved. In addition, accurate prediction of emerging secondary radiation is of utmost importance in innovative areas of research aiming at in vivo treatment verification. This contribution will address the recent developments of the FLUKA MC code and its practical applications in this field. Refinements of the FLUKA nuclear models in the therapeutic energy interval lead to an improved description of the mixed radiation field as shown in the presented benchmarks against experimental data with both 4He and 12C ion beams. Accurate description of ionization energy losses and of particle scattering and interactions lead to the excellent agreement of calculated depth–dose profiles with those measured at leading European hadron therapy centers, both with proton and ion beams. In order to support the application of FLUKA in hospital-based environments, Flair, the FLUKA graphical interface, has been enhanced with the capability of translating CT DICOM images into voxel-based computational phantoms in a fast and well-structured way. The interface is capable of importing also radiotherapy treatment data described in DICOM RT standard. In addition, the interface is equipped with an intuitive PET scanner geometry generator and automatic recording of coincidence events. Clinically, similar cases will be presented both in terms of absorbed dose and biological dose calculations describing the various available features. PMID:27242956

  15. The FLUKA Code: An Accurate Simulation Tool for Particle Therapy.

    PubMed

    Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Julia; Boehlen, Till T; Cerutti, Francesco; Chin, Mary P W; Dos Santos Augusto, Ricardo; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ortega, Pablo G; Kozłowska, Wioletta; Magro, Giuseppe; Mairani, Andrea; Parodi, Katia; Sala, Paola R; Schoofs, Philippe; Tessonnier, Thomas; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) codes are increasingly spreading in the hadrontherapy community due to their detailed description of radiation transport and interaction with matter. The suitability of a MC code for application to hadrontherapy demands accurate and reliable physical models capable of handling all components of the expected radiation field. This becomes extremely important for correctly performing not only physical but also biologically based dose calculations, especially in cases where ions heavier than protons are involved. In addition, accurate prediction of emerging secondary radiation is of utmost importance in innovative areas of research aiming at in vivo treatment verification. This contribution will address the recent developments of the FLUKA MC code and its practical applications in this field. Refinements of the FLUKA nuclear models in the therapeutic energy interval lead to an improved description of the mixed radiation field as shown in the presented benchmarks against experimental data with both (4)He and (12)C ion beams. Accurate description of ionization energy losses and of particle scattering and interactions lead to the excellent agreement of calculated depth-dose profiles with those measured at leading European hadron therapy centers, both with proton and ion beams. In order to support the application of FLUKA in hospital-based environments, Flair, the FLUKA graphical interface, has been enhanced with the capability of translating CT DICOM images into voxel-based computational phantoms in a fast and well-structured way. The interface is capable of importing also radiotherapy treatment data described in DICOM RT standard. In addition, the interface is equipped with an intuitive PET scanner geometry generator and automatic recording of coincidence events. Clinically, similar cases will be presented both in terms of absorbed dose and biological dose calculations describing the various available features.

  16. High accurate interpolation of NURBS tool path for CNC machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang; Liu, Huan; Yuan, Songmei

    2016-09-01

    Feedrate fluctuation caused by approximation errors of interpolation methods has great effects on machining quality in NURBS interpolation, but few methods can efficiently eliminate or reduce it to a satisfying level without sacrificing the computing efficiency at present. In order to solve this problem, a high accurate interpolation method for NURBS tool path is proposed. The proposed method can efficiently reduce the feedrate fluctuation by forming a quartic equation with respect to the curve parameter increment, which can be efficiently solved by analytic methods in real-time. Theoretically, the proposed method can totally eliminate the feedrate fluctuation for any 2nd degree NURBS curves and can interpolate 3rd degree NURBS curves with minimal feedrate fluctuation. Moreover, a smooth feedrate planning algorithm is also proposed to generate smooth tool motion with considering multiple constraints and scheduling errors by an efficient planning strategy. Experiments are conducted to verify the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method. This research presents a novel NURBS interpolation method with not only high accuracy but also satisfying computing efficiency.

  17. EPA Releases EJSCREEN, An Environmental Justice Screening and Mapping Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released EJSCREEN, an environmental justice screening and mapping tool that uses high resolution maps combined with demographic and environmental data to identify places with potenti

  18. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: RAPID OPTICAL SCREEN TOOL (ROST™) - LORAL CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Loral Rapid Optical Screen Tool (ROST™) is a tunable dye laser system used for the detection of petroleum, semi-volatile, and some volatile organic compounds in soils. The technology is used in conjunction with a cone penetrometer (CP).

  19. Accurate compensation of the low-frequency components for the FFT-based turbulent phase screen.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jingsong

    2012-01-02

    Standard FFT-based turbulent phase screen generation method has very large errors due to the undersampling of the low frequency components. Subharmonic methods are the main low frequency components compensating methods to improve the accuracy, but the residual errors are still large. In this paper I propose a new low frequency components compensating method, which is based on the correlation matrix phase screen generation methods. Using this method, the low frequency components can be compensated accurately, both of the accuracy and speed are superior to those of the subharmonic methods.

  20. Accurate and noninvasive embryos screening during in vitro fertilization (IVF) assisted by Raman analysis of embryos culture medium Accurate and noninvasive embryos screening during IVF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, A. G.; Peng, J.; Zhao, Q. H.; Su, L.; Wang, X. H.; Hu, J. M.; Yang, J.

    2012-04-01

    In combination with morphological evaluation tests, we employ Raman spectroscopy to select higher potential reproductive embryos during in vitro fertilization (IVF) based on chemical composition of embryos culture medium. In this study, 57 Raman spectra are acquired from both higher and lower quality embryos culture medium (ECM) from 10 patients which have been preliminarily confirmed by clinical assay. Data are fit by using a linear combination model of least squares method in which 12 basis spectra represent the chemical features of ECM. The final fitting coefficients provide insight into the chemical compositions of culture medium samples and are subsequently used as criterion to evaluate the quality of embryos. The relative fitting coefficients ratios of sodium pyruvate/albumin and phenylalanine/albumin seem act as key roles in the embryo screening, attaining 85.7% accuracy in comparison with clinical pregnancy. The good results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy therefore is an important candidate for an accurate and noninvasive screening of higher quality embryos, which potentially decrease the time-consuming clinical trials during IVF.

  1. Screen Recording: An Essential Classroom Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, April; Christianson, Jenn; Schafer, Raye; Whitney, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Technology has opened up avenues for deaf and hard of hearing students that were previously inaccessible. No longer dependent on such equipment as chalkboards and filmstrip projectors, tools such as Smart Boards, computers, and even iPads have become part of the standard educational experience for many children. For teachers at the Washington…

  2. Participatory design and an eligibility screening tool.

    PubMed Central

    Gennari, J. H.; Reddy, M.

    2000-01-01

    For most medical informatics software products, insufficient effort is spent on the design phase of production. However, poor design often leads to systems that are either not well accepted, or far less effective than they could be. In this paper, we describe the ideas of participatory design and discuss why these ideas are especially applicable to medical informatics systems. In particular, we present a case study in the area of clinical trial protocol management. We designed and developed a tool aimed at increasing accrual to clinical trial protocols at an oncology center. However, the design evolved over time, and features of this design were only discovered through iterative development and interaction with the users within the context of the workplace. PMID:11079891

  3. iScreen: Image-Based High-Content RNAi Screening Analysis Tools.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Rui; Dong, Xiaonan; Levine, Beth; Xie, Yang; Xiao, Guanghua

    2015-09-01

    High-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) screening has opened up a path to investigating functional genomics in a genome-wide pattern. However, such studies are often restricted to assays that have a single readout format. Recently, advanced image technologies have been coupled with high-throughput RNAi screening to develop high-content screening, in which one or more cell image(s), instead of a single readout, were generated from each well. This image-based high-content screening technology has led to genome-wide functional annotation in a wider spectrum of biological research studies, as well as in drug and target discovery, so that complex cellular phenotypes can be measured in a multiparametric format. Despite these advances, data analysis and visualization tools are still largely lacking for these types of experiments. Therefore, we developed iScreen (image-Based High-content RNAi Screening Analysis Tool), an R package for the statistical modeling and visualization of image-based high-content RNAi screening. Two case studies were used to demonstrate the capability and efficiency of the iScreen package. iScreen is available for download on CRAN (http://cran.cnr.berkeley.edu/web/packages/iScreen/index.html). The user manual is also available as a supplementary document.

  4. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Using Telemedicine Tools: Pilot Study in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Eszes, Dóra J.; Szabó, Dóra J.; Russell, Greg; Kirby, Phil; Paulik, Edit; Nagymajtényi, László

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes. Telemedicine tools can prevent blindness. We aimed to investigate the patients' satisfaction when using such tools (fundus camera examination) and the effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on participation in screening. Methods. Pilot study involving fundus camera screening and self-administered questionnaire on participants' experience during fundus examination (comfort, reliability, and future interest in participation), as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors was performed on 89 patients with known diabetes in Csongrád County, a southeastern region of Hungary. Results. Thirty percent of the patients had never participated in any ophthalmological screening, while 25.7% had DR of some grade based upon a standard fundus camera examination and UK-based DR grading protocol (Spectra™ software). Large majority of the patients were satisfied with the screening and found it reliable and acceptable to undertake examination under pupil dilation; 67.3% were willing to undergo nonmydriatic fundus camera examination again. There was a statistically significant relationship between economic activity, education and marital status, and future interest in participation. Discussion. Participants found digital retinal screening to be reliable and satisfactory. Telemedicine can be a strong tool, supporting eye care professionals and allowing for faster and more comfortable DR screening. PMID:28078306

  5. A Screening Tool for Assessing Alcohol Use Risk among Medically Vulnerable Youth

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Sharon; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Garvey, Katharine C.; Harstad, Elizabeth; MacGinnitie, Andrew; Rufo, Paul A.; Huang, Qian; Ziemnik, Rosemary E.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Weitzman, Elissa R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC). This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks. Method To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9–18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children’s hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD. Results Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4%) reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106) of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8) of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively. Conclusions The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management. PMID:27227975

  6. Graphical arterial blood gas visualization tool supports rapid and accurate data interpretation.

    PubMed

    Doig, Alexa K; Albert, Robert W; Syroid, Noah D; Moon, Shaun; Agutter, Jim A

    2011-04-01

    A visualization tool that integrates numeric information from an arterial blood gas report with novel graphics was designed for the purpose of promoting rapid and accurate interpretation of acid-base data. A study compared data interpretation performance when arterial blood gas results were presented in a traditional numerical list versus the graphical visualization tool. Critical-care nurses (n = 15) and nursing students (n = 15) were significantly more accurate identifying acid-base states and assessing trends in acid-base data when using the graphical visualization tool. Critical-care nurses and nursing students using traditional numerical data had an average accuracy of 69% and 74%, respectively. Using the visualization tool, average accuracy improved to 83% for critical-care nurses and 93% for nursing students. Analysis of response times demonstrated that the visualization tool might help nurses overcome the "speed/accuracy trade-off" during high-stress situations when rapid decisions must be rendered. Perceived mental workload was significantly reduced for nursing students when they used the graphical visualization tool. In this study, the effects of implementing the graphical visualization were greater for nursing students than for critical-care nurses, which may indicate that the experienced nurses needed more training and use of the new technology prior to testing to show similar gains. Results of the objective and subjective evaluations support the integration of this graphical visualization tool into clinical environments that require accurate and timely interpretation of arterial blood gas data.

  7. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Olga V. C. A.; Andrade, Paulo E.; Capellini, Simone A.

    2015-01-01

    Current response to intervention models (RTIs) favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Non-responders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Non-responders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI’s implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 7 years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words [alternative tools for educators (ATE)] and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile) showed good sensitivity (true positives) and specificity (true negatives) to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a classroom setting

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF THE METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enhancement of the US Environmental Protection Agency's
    Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool (MFFRST)

    William M. Barrett Jr, Ph.D., P.E. , P.E.; Paul Harten, Ph.D.1, Matt Lorber , Charles Peck , and Steve Schwartz, P.E., Q.E.P.3

    Recently, the US Environ...

  9. THE USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL (MFFRST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmetal ProtectionAgenccy's Metal Finishing
    Facility Risk Screening Tool (MFFRST)

    William M. Barrett Jr, Ph.D. , P.E. ; Paul Harten, Ph.D.1, and Matthew Lorber

    The US Environmental Protection Agency completed the development of the first version of...

  10. Screening Tools to Estimate Mold Burdens in Homes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop screening tools that could be used to estimate the mold burden in a home which would indicate whether more detailed testing might be useful. Methods: Previously, in the American Healthy Home Survey, a DNA-based method of an...

  11. THE USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL (MFFRST) AND POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide an overview of the USEPA's Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool, including a discussion of the models used and outputs. The tool is currently being expanded to include pollution prevention considerations as part of the model. The current st...

  12. Screening Tools for Anxiety in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Litster, Brittany; Fiest, Kirsten M.; Patten, Scott B.; Fisk, John D.; Walker, John R.; Graff, Lesley A.; Bolton, James M.; Sareen, Jitender; Marriott, James J.; Berrigan, Lindsay I.; Bernstein, Charles N.; Zarychanski, Ryan; Singer, Alexander; Hitchon, Carol A.; Peschken, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is prevalent in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Screening measures are used to identify symptoms of anxiety, but the optimal measure to screen for anxiety disorders in MS has not been established. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES Full Text, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from database inception until August 7, 2015. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full-text reports for study inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We included studies that evaluated the criterion validity of anxiety screening tools when measuring anxiety in individuals with well-documented MS, as measured by sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. Results: Of the 3181 abstracts screened, 18 articles were reviewed in full text, of which 4 met the inclusion criteria. The criterion validity of three screening tools was assessed: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale–Anxiety (HADS-A), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). The HADS-A was validated against the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) interview, and the BAI. The BAI was validated against the SCAN, and the GAD-7 was validated against the HADS-A. The HADS-A had higher measures of sensitivity and specificity than did the BAI and the GAD-7. Conclusions: Based on this small sample, the HADS-A shows promise as an applicable measure for people with MS. Screening scales used to identify anxiety in MS must be validated against appropriate reference standards. PMID:27999521

  13. Screened exchange hybrid density functional for accurate and efficient structures and interaction energies.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Caldeweyher, Eike; Grimme, Stefan

    2016-06-21

    We extend the recently introduced PBEh-3c global hybrid density functional [S. Grimme et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2015, 143, 054107] by a screened Fock exchange variant based on the Henderson-Janesko-Scuseria exchange hole model. While the excellent performance of the global hybrid is maintained for small covalently bound molecules, its performance for computed condensed phase mass densities is further improved. Most importantly, a speed up of 30 to 50% can be achieved and especially for small orbital energy gap cases, the method is numerically much more robust. The latter point is important for many applications, e.g., for metal-organic frameworks, organic semiconductors, or protein structures. This enables an accurate density functional based electronic structure calculation of a full DNA helix structure on a single core desktop computer which is presented as an example in addition to comprehensive benchmark results.

  14. CgWind: A high-order accurate simulation tool for wind turbines and wind farms

    SciTech Connect

    Chand, K K; Henshaw, W D; Lundquist, K A; Singer, M A

    2010-02-22

    CgWind is a high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) tool designed to meet the modeling needs of wind turbine and wind park engineers. This tool combines several advanced computational technologies in order to model accurately the complex and dynamic nature of wind energy applications. The composite grid approach provides high-quality structured grids for the efficient implementation of high-order accurate discretizations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Composite grids also provide a natural mechanism for modeling bodies in relative motion and complex geometry. Advanced algorithms such as matrix-free multigrid, compact discretizations and approximate factorization will allow CgWind to perform highly resolved calculations efficiently on a wide class of computing resources. Also in development are nonlinear LES subgrid-scale models required to simulate the many interacting scales present in large wind turbine applications. This paper outlines our approach, the current status of CgWind and future development plans.

  15. Tools for Accurate and Efficient Analysis of Complex Evolutionary Mechanisms in Microbial Genomes. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nakhleh, Luay

    2014-03-12

    I proposed to develop computationally efficient tools for accurate detection and reconstruction of microbes' complex evolutionary mechanisms, thus enabling rapid and accurate annotation, analysis and understanding of their genomes. To achieve this goal, I proposed to address three aspects. (1) Mathematical modeling. A major challenge facing the accurate detection of HGT is that of distinguishing between these two events on the one hand and other events that have similar "effects." I proposed to develop a novel mathematical approach for distinguishing among these events. Further, I proposed to develop a set of novel optimization criteria for the evolutionary analysis of microbial genomes in the presence of these complex evolutionary events. (2) Algorithm design. In this aspect of the project, I proposed to develop an array of e cient and accurate algorithms for analyzing microbial genomes based on the formulated optimization criteria. Further, I proposed to test the viability of the criteria and the accuracy of the algorithms in an experimental setting using both synthetic as well as biological data. (3) Software development. I proposed the nal outcome to be a suite of software tools which implements the mathematical models as well as the algorithms developed.

  16. Use of Monocrystalline Silicon as Tool Material for Highly Accurate Blanking of Thin Metal Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Hildering, Sven; Engel, Ulf; Merklein, Marion

    2011-05-04

    The trend towards miniaturisation of metallic mass production components combined with increased component functionality is still unbroken. Manufacturing these components by forming and blanking offers economical and ecological advantages combined with the needed accuracy. The complexity of producing tools with geometries below 50 {mu}m by conventional manufacturing methods becomes disproportional higher. Expensive serial finishing operations are required to achieve an adequate surface roughness combined with accurate geometry details. A novel approach for producing such tools is the use of advanced etching technologies for monocrystalline silicon that are well-established in the microsystems technology. High-precision vertical geometries with a width down to 5 {mu}m are possible. The present study shows a novel concept using this potential for the blanking of thin copper foils with monocrystallline silicon as a tool material. A self-contained machine-tool with compact outer dimensions was designed to avoid tensile stresses in the brittle silicon punch by an accurate, careful alignment of the punch, die and metal foil. A microscopic analysis of the monocrystalline silicon punch shows appropriate properties regarding flank angle, edge geometry and surface quality for the blanking process. Using a monocrystalline silicon punch with a width of 70 {mu}m blanking experiments on as-rolled copper foils with a thickness of 20 {mu}m demonstrate the general applicability of this material for micro production processes.

  17. Screening Tools to Estimate Mold Burdens in Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Vesper, Sephen J.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Bradham, Karen; Ashley, Peter; Cox, David F.; DeWalt, Gary; Lin, King-teh N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop screening tools that could be used to estimate the mold burden in a home which would indicate whether more detailed testing might be useful. Methods: Previously, in the American Healthy Home Survey, a DNA-based method of analysis called mold specific quantitative PCR was used to measure 36 molds in standard protocol dust samples. This resulted in a national index called the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index. In this current study, two possible screening methods were considered: use of the vacuum cleaner bag dust rather than the standard protocol dust samples and reducing the number of molds needed to be quantified resulting in the creation of a simpler mold burden scale. Results: Comparison of vacuum bag and standard dust samples from 157 of the same homes demonstrated that most molds had higher detection rates in vacuum bag dust compared to the standard dust samples but the ERMI values were still related to each other. The second approach to simplifying the screening for mold burdens produced a correlated (ρ=0.80) index to the ERMI called the American Relative Moldiness Index (ARMI) which requires the analysis of only 12 species. Conclusions: Vacuum bag dust sample ERMI values were predictive in placing a home into the lower or upper 50% of homes on the ERMI scale. If it is not possible to obtain the standard dust sample, the vacuum cleaner bag dust may be a useful screening tool for estimating mold burdens in homes. If the standard sample is available and a simpler screening test is sought to estimate the mold burden in homes, the ARMI scale might be useful.

  18. Screening and Assessment Tools: A Manual Discussing Appropriate Tools for Use in the Home Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Herschel W. Nisonger Center.

    The manual describes seven tools for use in screening and assessing the developmentally disabled infant and young child in the home. Instruments are said to have met four criteria (easy adaptation to the home setting, minimum training required to administer, speed of administration, and minimum equipment needed). Five categories of information are…

  19. Screening and Evaluation Tools for Sleep Disorders in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Luyster, Faith S.; Choi, JiYeon; Yeh, Chao-Hsing; Imes, Christopher C.; Johansson, Ann E. E.; Chasens, Eileen R.

    2015-01-01

    The negative effects of impaired sleep on physical and mental well-being in older adults have recently been recognized by health care professionals. However, researchers and clinicians may be unaware of reliable and valid screening and evaluation tools for evaluating sleep disorders in older adults. The purpose of this article is to present subjective and objective instruments that measure sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia and restless leg syndrome that are appropriate for use in adult and older adult patients. PMID:26608435

  20. IVUSAngio tool: a publicly available software for fast and accurate 3D reconstruction of coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Doulaverakis, Charalampos; Tsampoulatidis, Ioannis; Antoniadis, Antonios P; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Giannoglou, George D

    2013-11-01

    There is an ongoing research and clinical interest in the development of reliable and easily accessible software for the 3D reconstruction of coronary arteries. In this work, we present the architecture and validation of IVUSAngio Tool, an application which performs fast and accurate 3D reconstruction of the coronary arteries by using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and biplane angiography data. The 3D reconstruction is based on the fusion of the detected arterial boundaries in IVUS images with the 3D IVUS catheter path derived from the biplane angiography. The IVUSAngio Tool suite integrates all the intermediate processing and computational steps and provides a user-friendly interface. It also offers additional functionality, such as automatic selection of the end-diastolic IVUS images, semi-automatic and automatic IVUS segmentation, vascular morphometric measurements, graphical visualization of the 3D model and export in a format compatible with other computer-aided design applications. Our software was applied and validated in 31 human coronary arteries yielding quite promising results. Collectively, the use of IVUSAngio Tool significantly reduces the total processing time for 3D coronary reconstruction. IVUSAngio Tool is distributed as free software, publicly available to download and use.

  1. Automated cell analysis tool for a genome-wide RNAi screen with support vector machine based supervised learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmele, Steffen; Ritzerfeld, Julia; Nickel, Walter; Hesser, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    RNAi-based high-throughput microscopy screens have become an important tool in biological sciences in order to decrypt mostly unknown biological functions of human genes. However, manual analysis is impossible for such screens since the amount of image data sets can often be in the hundred thousands. Reliable automated tools are thus required to analyse the fluorescence microscopy image data sets usually containing two or more reaction channels. The herein presented image analysis tool is designed to analyse an RNAi screen investigating the intracellular trafficking and targeting of acylated Src kinases. In this specific screen, a data set consists of three reaction channels and the investigated cells can appear in different phenotypes. The main issue of the image processing task is an automatic cell segmentation which has to be robust and accurate for all different phenotypes and a successive phenotype classification. The cell segmentation is done in two steps by segmenting the cell nuclei first and then using a classifier-enhanced region growing on basis of the cell nuclei to segment the cells. The classification of the cells is realized by a support vector machine which has to be trained manually using supervised learning. Furthermore, the tool is brightness invariant allowing different staining quality and it provides a quality control that copes with typical defects during preparation and acquisition. A first version of the tool has already been successfully applied for an RNAi-screen containing three hundred thousand image data sets and the SVM extended version is designed for additional screens.

  2. IRon Overload screeNing tool (IRON): development of a tool to guide screening in primary care.

    PubMed

    Mainous, Arch G; Diaz, Vanessa A; Everett, Charles J; Knoll, Michele E; Hulihan, Mary M; Grant, Althea M; McLaren, Christine E; McLaren, Gordon D

    2011-09-01

    Iron overload is associated with significant morbidity and mortality yet is easily treated. The objective of this study was to create a tool that could be easily adapted to clinical practice that indicates the likelihood of a patient having undetected iron overload. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002 for US adults aged 20 years and older to build a model (unweighted n=8,779). We chose potential variables for inclusion that could be gathered by self-report or measured without laboratory data and were suggested by past literature on hemochromatosis and iron overload. We computed logistic regressions to create the scores by initially evaluating the variables' relationship with elevated ferritin and elevated transferrin saturation and then using odds ratios to correspond to scores. The resulting score on the IRon Overload ScreeNing Tool (IRON) was then validated with data on 13,844 adults in the NHANES III, 1988-94. Predictors in the final tool were age, gender, previous diagnoses of liver condition, osteoporosis or thyroid disease. The IRON score yielded an area under the curve (AUC) in the NHANES 1999-02 of 0.720 and an AUC of 0.685 in the NHANES III validation sample. The IRON score is a tool to assist in identification of patients with iron overload that has several qualities that make it attractive for use in clinical practice with an undifferentiated patient population including brevity, easily collected information and predictive ability comparable to other tools that help in directing screening.

  3. The Bristol Online Obesity Screening Tool: experience of using a screening tool for assessing obese children in primary care.

    PubMed

    Owen, Sarah E; Sharp, Deborah J; Shield, Julian P H

    2011-10-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity is rising in the United Kingdom and this has far-reaching and serious consequences both for the physical and psychological well-being of the child, as well as significant financial implications for the health service. General practitioners (GPs) play a central role in identifying and assessing such children and directing them to the best services. While most cases of obesity are simply due to an imbalance in calorie intake and expenditure, children do need to be formally assessed to ensure that red flags are not missed, which might signify an important underlying aetiology, co-morbidity or complication. To date, there have not been tools available to guide a GP through this assessment. In this paper, we present and explain the thinking behind a tool, which was developed for use by GPs from Bristolas part of a trial to assess the transferability of a childhood obesity clinic into primary care. We look at the evidence base behind the guidelines and then assess the appropriateness and safety of the 152 referrals made using this tool. We believe that this screening tool would enable over 85% of obese children to seek their initial weight management in primary care. Additional evaluation is needed in different regions to ensure effectiveness, sensitivity and specificity of this new tool.

  4. Identifying preschool children at risk of later reading difficulties: evaluation of two emergent literacy screening tools.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Shauna B; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Emergent literacy skills are predictive of children's early reading success, and literacy achievement in early schooling declines more rapidly for children who are below-average readers. It is therefore important for teachers to identify accurately children at risk for later reading difficulty so children can be exposed to effective emergent literacy interventions. In this study, 176 preschoolers were administered two screening tools, the Revised Get Ready to Read! (GRTR-R) and the Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs), and a diagnostic measure at two time points. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that, at optimal cut scores, GRTR-R provided more accurate classification of children's overall emergent literacy skills than did IGDIs. However, neither measure was particularly good at classifying specific emergent literacy skills.

  5. Development and Validation of a Multidisciplinary Tool for Accurate and Efficient Rotorcraft Noise Prediction (MUTE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yi; Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat; Diskin, Boris

    2011-01-01

    A physics-based, systematically coupled, multidisciplinary prediction tool (MUTE) for rotorcraft noise was developed and validated with a wide range of flight configurations and conditions. MUTE is an aggregation of multidisciplinary computational tools that accurately and efficiently model the physics of the source of rotorcraft noise, and predict the noise at far-field observer locations. It uses systematic coupling approaches among multiple disciplines including Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD), and high fidelity acoustics. Within MUTE, advanced high-order CFD tools are used around the rotor blade to predict the transonic flow (shock wave) effects, which generate the high-speed impulsive noise. Predictions of the blade-vortex interaction noise in low speed flight are also improved by using the Particle Vortex Transport Method (PVTM), which preserves the wake flow details required for blade/wake and fuselage/wake interactions. The accuracy of the source noise prediction is further improved by utilizing a coupling approach between CFD and CSD, so that the effects of key structural dynamics, elastic blade deformations, and trim solutions are correctly represented in the analysis. The blade loading information and/or the flow field parameters around the rotor blade predicted by the CFD/CSD coupling approach are used to predict the acoustic signatures at far-field observer locations with a high-fidelity noise propagation code (WOPWOP3). The predicted results from the MUTE tool for rotor blade aerodynamic loading and far-field acoustic signatures are compared and validated with a variation of experimental data sets, such as UH60-A data, DNW test data and HART II test data.

  6. Accuracy of quick and easy undernutrition screening tools--Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and modified Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool--in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    van Venrooij, Lenny M W; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Hopmans, Wendy; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M M J; de Vos, Rien; De Mol, Bas A J M

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quick-and-easy undernutrition screening tools, ie, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with respect to their accuracy in detecting undernutrition measured by a low-fat free mass index (FFMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), and secondly, to assess their association with postoperative adverse outcomes. Between February 2008 and December 2009, a single-center observational cohort study was performed (n=325). A low FFMI was set at ≤14.6 in women and ≤16.7 in men measured using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. To compare the accuracy of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire in detecting low FFMI sensitivity, specificity, and other accuracy test characteristics were calculated. The associations between the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and adverse outcomes were analyzed using logistic regression analyses with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) presented. Sensitivity and receiver operator characteristic-based area under the curve to detect low FFMI were 59% and 19%, and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60 to 0.82) and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.68) for the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, respectively. Accuracy of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool improved when age and sex were added to the nutritional screening process (sensitivity 74%, area under the curve: 0.72 [95% CI: 0.62 to 0.82]). This modified version of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, but not the original Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool or Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, was associated with prolonged intensive care unit and hospital stay (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.4; odds ratio: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.7). The accuracy to detect a low FFMI was considerably higher for the Malnutrition

  7. MetaBAT, an efficient tool for accurately reconstructing single genomes from complex microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Dongwan D.; Froula, Jeff; Egan, Rob; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Grouping large genomic fragments assembled from shotgun metagenomic sequences to deconvolute complex microbial communities, or metagenome binning, enables the study of individual organisms and their interactions. Because of the complex nature of these communities, existing metagenome binning methods often miss a large number of microbial species. In addition, most of the tools are not scalable to large datasets. Here we introduce automated software called MetaBAT that integrates empirical probabilistic distances of genome abundance and tetranucleotide frequency for accurate metagenome binning. MetaBAT outperforms alternative methods in accuracy and computational efficiency on both synthetic and real metagenome datasets. Lastly, it automatically forms hundreds of high quality genome bins on a very large assembly consisting millions of contigs in a matter of hours on a single node. MetaBAT is open source software and available at https://bitbucket.org/berkeleylab/metabat.

  8. MetaBAT, an efficient tool for accurately reconstructing single genomes from complex microbial communities

    DOE PAGES

    Kang, Dongwan D.; Froula, Jeff; Egan, Rob; ...

    2015-01-01

    Grouping large genomic fragments assembled from shotgun metagenomic sequences to deconvolute complex microbial communities, or metagenome binning, enables the study of individual organisms and their interactions. Because of the complex nature of these communities, existing metagenome binning methods often miss a large number of microbial species. In addition, most of the tools are not scalable to large datasets. Here we introduce automated software called MetaBAT that integrates empirical probabilistic distances of genome abundance and tetranucleotide frequency for accurate metagenome binning. MetaBAT outperforms alternative methods in accuracy and computational efficiency on both synthetic and real metagenome datasets. Lastly, it automatically formsmore » hundreds of high quality genome bins on a very large assembly consisting millions of contigs in a matter of hours on a single node. MetaBAT is open source software and available at https://bitbucket.org/berkeleylab/metabat.« less

  9. The Graz Malnutrition Screening (GMS): a new hospital screening tool for malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Roller, Regina E; Eglseer, Doris; Eisenberger, Anna; Wirnsberger, Gerhard H

    2016-02-28

    Despite the significant impact of malnutrition in hospitalised patients, it is often not identified by clinical staff in daily practice. To improve nutritional support in hospitals, standardised routine nutritional screening is essential. The Graz Malnutrition Screening (GMS) tool was developed for the purpose of malnutrition risk screening in a large hospital setting involving different departments. It was the aim of the present study to validate the GMS against Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) and Mini Nutritional Assessment-short form (MNA-sf) in a randomised blinded manner. A total of 404 randomly selected patients admitted to the internal, surgical and orthopaedic wards of the University Hospital Graz were screened in a blinded manner by different raters. Concurrent validity was determined by comparing the GMS with the NRS and in older patients (70+ years) with the MNA-sf additionally. According to GMS, 31·9 or 28·5% of the admitted patients were categorised as at 'risk of malnutrition' (depending on the rater). According to the reference standard of NRS, 24·5% of the patients suffered from malnutrition. Pearson's r values of 0·78 compared with the NRS and 0·84 compared with the MNA showed strong positive correlations. Results of accuracy (0·85), sensitivity (0·94), specificity (0·77), positive predictive value (0·76) and negative predictive value (0·95) of GMS were also very high. Cohen's κ for internal consistency of the GMS was 0·82. GMS proves to be a valid and reliable instrument for the detection of malnutrition in adult patients in acute-care hospitals.

  10. Accurate real-time depth control for CP-SSOCT distal sensor based handheld microsurgery tools

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Huang, Yong; Cha, Jaepyeng; Gehlbach, Peter L.; Kang, Jin U.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel intuitive targeting and tracking scheme that utilizes a common-path swept source optical coherence tomography (CP-SSOCT) distal sensor integrated handheld microsurgical tool. To achieve micron-order precision control, a reliable and accurate OCT distal sensing method is required; simultaneously, a prediction algorithm is necessary to compensate for the system delay associated with the computational, mechanical and electronic latencies. Due to the multi-layered structure of retina, it is necessary to develop effective surface detection methods rather than simple peak detection. To achieve this, a shifted cross-correlation method is applied for surface detection in order to increase robustness and accuracy in distal sensing. A predictor based on Kalman filter was implemented for more precise motion compensation. The performance was first evaluated using an established dry phantom consisting of stacked cellophane tape. This was followed by evaluation in an ex-vivo bovine retina model to assess system accuracy and precision. The results demonstrate highly accurate depth targeting with less than 5 μm RMSE depth locking. PMID:26137393

  11. A screening tool for delineating subregions of steady recharge within groundwater models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Ferré, T. P. A.; Bakker, Mark; Crompton, Becky

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a screening method for simplifying groundwater models by delineating areas within the domain that can be represented using steady-state groundwater recharge. The screening method is based on an analytical solution for the damping of sinusoidal infiltration variations in homogeneous soils in the vadose zone. The damping depth is defined as the depth at which the flux variation damps to 5% of the variation at the land surface. Groundwater recharge may be considered steady where the damping depth is above the depth of the water table. The analytical solution approximates the vadose zone diffusivity as constant, and we evaluated when this approximation is reasonable. We evaluated the analytical solution through comparison of the damping depth computed by the analytic solution with the damping depth simulated by a numerical model that allows variable diffusivity. This comparison showed that the screening method conservatively identifies areas of steady recharge and is more accurate when water content and diffusivity are nearly constant. Nomograms of the damping factor (the ratio of the flux amplitude at any depth to the amplitude at the land surface) and the damping depth were constructed for clay and sand for periodic variations between 1 and 365 d and flux means and amplitudes from nearly 0 to 1 × 10−3 m d−1. We applied the screening tool to Central Valley, California, to identify areas of steady recharge. A MATLAB script was developed to compute the damping factor for any soil and any sinusoidal flux variation.

  12. CombiROC: an interactive web tool for selecting accurate marker combinations of omics data.

    PubMed

    Mazzara, Saveria; Rossi, Riccardo L; Grifantini, Renata; Donizetti, Simone; Abrignani, Sergio; Bombaci, Mauro

    2017-03-30

    Diagnostic accuracy can be improved considerably by combining multiple markers, whose performance in identifying diseased subjects is usually assessed via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The selection of multimarker signatures is a complicated process that requires integration of data signatures with sophisticated statistical methods. We developed a user-friendly tool, called CombiROC, to help researchers accurately determine optimal markers combinations from diverse omics methods. With CombiROC data from different domains, such as proteomics and transcriptomics, can be analyzed using sensitivity/specificity filters: the number of candidate marker panels rising from combinatorial analysis is easily optimized bypassing limitations imposed by the nature of different experimental approaches. Leaving to the user full control on initial selection stringency, CombiROC computes sensitivity and specificity for all markers combinations, performances of best combinations and ROC curves for automatic comparisons, all visualized in a graphic interface. CombiROC was designed without hard-coded thresholds, allowing a custom fit to each specific data: this dramatically reduces the computational burden and lowers the false negative rates given by fixed thresholds. The application was validated with published data, confirming the marker combination already originally described or even finding new ones. CombiROC is a novel tool for the scientific community freely available at http://CombiROC.eu.

  13. CombiROC: an interactive web tool for selecting accurate marker combinations of omics data

    PubMed Central

    Mazzara, Saveria; Rossi, Riccardo L.; Grifantini, Renata; Donizetti, Simone; Abrignani, Sergio; Bombaci, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic accuracy can be improved considerably by combining multiple markers, whose performance in identifying diseased subjects is usually assessed via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The selection of multimarker signatures is a complicated process that requires integration of data signatures with sophisticated statistical methods. We developed a user-friendly tool, called CombiROC, to help researchers accurately determine optimal markers combinations from diverse omics methods. With CombiROC data from different domains, such as proteomics and transcriptomics, can be analyzed using sensitivity/specificity filters: the number of candidate marker panels rising from combinatorial analysis is easily optimized bypassing limitations imposed by the nature of different experimental approaches. Leaving to the user full control on initial selection stringency, CombiROC computes sensitivity and specificity for all markers combinations, performances of best combinations and ROC curves for automatic comparisons, all visualized in a graphic interface. CombiROC was designed without hard-coded thresholds, allowing a custom fit to each specific data: this dramatically reduces the computational burden and lowers the false negative rates given by fixed thresholds. The application was validated with published data, confirming the marker combination already originally described or even finding new ones. CombiROC is a novel tool for the scientific community freely available at http://CombiROC.eu. PMID:28358118

  14. Electroantennographic Bioassay as a Screening Tool for Host Plant Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Beck, John J.; Light, Douglas M.; Gee, Wai S.

    2012-01-01

    Plant volatiles play an important role in plant-insect interactions. Herbivorous insects use plant volatiles, known as kairomones, to locate their host plant.1,2 When a host plant is an important agronomic commodity feeding damage by insect pests can inflict serious economic losses to growers. Accordingly, kairomones can be used as attractants to lure or confuse these insects and, thus, offer an environmentally friendly alternative to pesticides for insect control.3 Unfortunately, plants can emit a vast number volatiles with varying compositions and ratios of emissions dependent upon the phenology of the commodity or the time of day. This makes identification of biologically active components or blends of volatile components an arduous process. To help identify the bioactive components of host plant volatile emissions we employ the laboratory-based screening bioassay electroantennography (EAG). EAG is an effective tool to evaluate and record electrophysiologically the olfactory responses of an insect via their antennal receptors. The EAG screening process can help reduce the number of volatiles tested to identify promising bioactive components. However, EAG bioassays only provide information about activation of receptors. It does not provide information about the type of insect behavior the compound elicits; which could be as an attractant, repellent or other type of behavioral response. Volatiles eliciting a significant response by EAG, relative to an appropriate positive control, are typically taken on to further testing of behavioral responses of the insect pest. The experimental design presented will detail the methodology employed to screen almond-based host plant volatiles4,5 by measurement of the electrophysiological antennal responses of an adult insect pest navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) to single components and simple blends of components via EAG bioassay. The method utilizes two excised antennae placed across a "fork" electrode holder. The

  15. A GPU tool for efficient, accurate, and realistic simulation of cone beam CT projections

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xun; Yan, Hao; Cerviño, Laura; Folkerts, Michael; Jiang, Steve B.

    2012-01-01

    conducted to calibrate gDRR against a real CBCT scanner. The calculated projections are accurate and realistic, such that beam-hardening artifacts and scatter artifacts can be reproduced using the simulated projections. The noise amplitudes in the CBCT images reconstructed from the simulated projections also agree with those in the measured images at corresponding mAs levels. Conclusions: A GPU computational tool, gDRR, has been developed for the accurate and efficient simulations of x-ray projections of CBCT with realistic configurations. PMID:23231286

  16. Acoustic emission as a screening tool for ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojard, Greg; Goberman, Dan; Holowczak, John

    2017-02-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are composite materials with ceramic fibers in a high temperature matrix of ceramic or glass-ceramic. This emerging class of materials is viewed as enabling for efficiency improvements in many energy conversion systems. The key controlling property of ceramic matrix composites is a relatively weak interface between the matrix and the fiber that aids crack deflection and fiber pullout resulting in greatly increased toughness over monolithic ceramics. United Technologies Research Center has been investigating glass-ceramic composite systems as a tool to understand processing effects on material performance related to the performance of the weak interface. Changes in the interface have been shown to affect the mechanical performance observed in flexural testing and subsequent microstructural investigations have confirmed the performance (or lack thereof) of the interface coating. Recently, the addition of acoustic emission testing during flexural testing has aided the understanding of the characteristics of the interface and its performance. The acoustic emission onset stress changes with strength and toughness and this could be a quality tool in screening the material before further development and use. The results of testing and analysis will be shown and additional material from other ceramic matrix composite systems may be included to show trends.

  17. Ground-water-withdrawal component of the Michigan water-withdrawal screening tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Howard W.; Hamilton, David A.; Seelbach, Paul W.; Asher, A. Jeremiah

    2009-01-01

    A water-withdrawal assessment process and Internet-based screening tool have been developed to evaluate proposed new or increased high-capacity water withdrawals in Michigan. Michigan legislation defines high capacity withdrawals as those capable of removing an average of 100,000 gallons per day for a consecutive 30-day period. This report describes the ground-water component of the screening tool, provides background information used to develop the screening tool, and documents how this component of the screening tool is implemented. The screening tool is based on application of an analytical model to estimate streamflow depletion by a proposed pumping well. The screening tool is designed to evaluate intermittent pumping, to account for the dynamics of stream-aquifer interaction, and to apportion streamflow depletion among neighboring streams. The tool is to be used for an initial screening of a proposed new or increased high-capacity withdrawal in order to identify withdrawals that may cause adverse resource impacts. The screening tool is not intended to be a site-specific design tool. Results of an example application of the screening tool in Kalamazoo County, Mich., are compared to streamflow depletion estimated by use of a regional ground-water-flow model to demonstrate its performance.

  18. Response to “Accurate Risk-Based Chemical Screening Relies on Robust Exposure Estimates”

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a correspondence (letter to the editor) with reference to comments by Rudel and Perovich on the article "Integration of Dosimetry, Exposure, and High-Throughput Screening Data in Chemical Toxicity Assessment". Article Reference: SI # 238882

  19. Development of TUA-WELLNESS screening tool for screening risk of mild cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Vanoh, Divya; Shahar, Suzana; Rosdinom, Razali; Din, Normah Che; Yahya, Hanis Mastura; Omar, Azahadi

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Focus on screening for cognitive impairment has to be given particular importance because of the rising older adult population. Thus, this study aimed to develop and assess a brief screening tool consisting of ten items that can be self-administered by community dwelling older adults (TUA-WELLNESS). Methodology A total of 1,993 noninstitutionalized respondents aged 60 years and above were selected for this study. The dependent variable was mild cognitive impairment (MCI) assessed using neuropsychological test batteries. The items for the screening tool comprised a wide range of factors that were chosen mainly from the analysis of ordinal logistic regression (OLR) and based on past literature. A suitable cut-off point was developed using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results A total of ten items were included in the screening tool. From the ten items, eight were found to be significant by ordinal logistic regression and the remaining two items were part of the tool because they showed strong association with cognitive impairment in previous studies. The area under curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity for cut-off 11 were 0.84%, 83.3%, and 73.4%, respectively. Conclusion TUA-WELLNESS screening tool has been used to screen for major risk factors of MCI among Malaysian older adults. This tool is only suitable for basic MCI risk screening purpose and should not be used for diagnostic purpose. PMID:27274208

  20. Addiction screening and diagnostic tools: 'Refuting' and 'unmasking' claims to legitimacy.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Robyn; Fraser, Suzanne

    2015-12-01

    Human practices of all kinds - substance use, gambling, sex, even eating - are increasingly being reframed through the language of addiction. This 'addicting' of contemporary society is achieved, in part, through the screening and diagnostic tools intended to identify and measure addiction. These tools are a key element in the expert knowledge-making through which realities of addiction emerge. Promoted as objective and accurate, the tools are given legitimacy through application of scientific validation techniques. In this article, we critically examine the operations of these validation techniques as applied to substance addiction tools. Framed by feminist and other scholarship that decentres the epistemological guarantees of objectivity and validity, we structure our analysis using Ian Hacking's (1999) concepts of 'refuting' (showing a thesis to be false) and 'unmasking' (undermining a thesis). Under 'refuting', we consider the methodological validation processes on their own terms, identifying contradictory claims, weak findings and inconsistent application of methodological standards. Under 'unmasking', we critically analyse validation as a concept in itself. Here we identify two fundamental problems: symptom learning and feedback effects; and circularity and assumptions of independence and objectivity. Our analysis also highlights the extra-theoretical functions and effects of the tools. Both on their own terms and when subjected to more searching analysis, then, the validity claims the tools make fail to hold up to scrutiny. In concluding, we consider some of the effects of the processes we identify. Not only do these tools make certainty where there is none, we contend, they actively participate in the creation of social objects and social groups, and in shaping affected individuals and their opportunities. In unpacking in detail the legitimacy of the tools, our aim is to open up for further scrutiny the processes by which they go about making (rather than

  1. Poisonous or non-poisonous plants? DNA-based tools and applications for accurate identification.

    PubMed

    Mezzasalma, Valerio; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Galimberti, Andrea; Cornara, Laura; Ferri, Emanuele; Labra, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Plant exposures are among the most frequently reported cases to poison control centres worldwide. This is a growing condition due to recent societal trends oriented towards the consumption of wild plants as food, cosmetics, or medicine. At least three general causes of plant poisoning can be identified: plant misidentification, introduction of new plant-based supplements and medicines with no controls about their safety, and the lack of regulation for the trading of herbal and phytochemical products. Moreover, an efficient screening for the occurrence of plants poisonous to humans is also desirable at the different stages of the food supply chain: from the raw material to the final transformed product. A rapid diagnosis of intoxication cases is necessary in order to provide the most reliable treatment. However, a precise taxonomic characterization of the ingested species is often challenging. In this review, we provide an overview of the emerging DNA-based tools and technologies to address the issue of poisonous plant identification. Specifically, classic DNA barcoding and its applications using High Resolution Melting (Bar-HRM) ensure high universality and rapid response respectively, whereas High Throughput Sequencing techniques (HTS) provide a complete characterization of plant residues in complex matrices. The pros and cons of each approach have been evaluated with the final aim of proposing a general user's guide to molecular identification directed to different stakeholder categories interested in the diagnostics of poisonous plants.

  2. UP-TORR: online tool for accurate and Up-to-Date annotation of RNAi Reagents.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanhui; Roesel, Charles; Flockhart, Ian; Perkins, Lizabeth; Perrimon, Norbert; Mohr, Stephanie E

    2013-09-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely adopted tool for loss-of-function studies but RNAi results only have biological relevance if the reagents are appropriately mapped to genes. Several groups have designed and generated RNAi reagent libraries for studies in cells or in vivo for Drosophila and other species. At first glance, matching RNAi reagents to genes appears to be a simple problem, as each reagent is typically designed to target a single gene. In practice, however, the reagent-gene relationship is complex. Although the sequences of oligonucleotides used to generate most types of RNAi reagents are static, the reference genome and gene annotations are regularly updated. Thus, at the time a researcher chooses an RNAi reagent or analyzes RNAi data, the most current interpretation of the RNAi reagent-gene relationship, as well as related information regarding specificity (e.g., predicted off-target effects), can be different from the original interpretation. Here, we describe a set of strategies and an accompanying online tool, UP-TORR (for Updated Targets of RNAi Reagents; www.flyrnai.org/up-torr), useful for accurate and up-to-date annotation of cell-based and in vivo RNAi reagents. Importantly, UP-TORR automatically synchronizes with gene annotations daily, retrieving the most current information available, and for Drosophila, also synchronizes with the major reagent collections. Thus, UP-TORR allows users to choose the most appropriate RNAi reagents at the onset of a study, as well as to perform the most appropriate analyses of results of RNAi-based studies.

  3. Introduction to the Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientists are working partners to design and test the Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST), a community mapping, information access, and assessment tool to help assess risk and assist in decision making with communities

  4. Reliability and validity of the functional analysis screening tool.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Brian A; Deleon, Iser G; Roscoe, Eileen M

    2013-01-01

    The Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST) is a 16-item questionnaire about antecedent and consequent events that might be correlated with the occurrence of problem behavior. Items are organized into 4 functional categories based on contingencies that maintain problem behavior. We assessed interrater reliability of the FAST with 196 problem behaviors through independent administration to pairs of raters (Study 1). Mean item-by-item agreement between pairs of raters was 71.5%. Agreement for individual items ranged from 53.3% to 84.5%. Agreement on FAST outcomes, based on comparison of informants' highest totals, was 64.8%. We assessed the validity of the FAST by comparing its outcomes with results of 69 functional analyses (Study 2). The FAST score predicted the condition of the functional analysis in which the highest rate of problem behavior occurred in 44 cases (63.8%). Potential uses of the FAST in the context of a clinical interview, as well as limitations, are discussed.

  5. MicroRNA-200 Family Profile: A Promising Ancillary Tool for Accurate Cancer Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jianhua; Xie, Botao; Li, Hao; Shen, Jihong; Chen, Jianheng

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most threatening diseases in the world and great interests have been paid to discover accurate and noninvasive methods for cancer diagnosis. The value of microRNA-200 (miRNA-200, miR-200) family has been revealed in many studies. However, the results from various studies were inconsistent, and thus a meta-analysis was designed and performed to assess the overall value of miRNA200 in cancer diagnosis. Relevant studies were searched electronically from the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Keyword combined with "miR-200," "cancer," and "diagnosis" in any fields was used for searching relevant studies. Then, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and partial AUC were calculated using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity among individual studies was also explored by subgroup analyses. A total of 28 studies from 18 articles with an overall sample size of 3676 subjects (2097 patients and 1579 controls) were included in this meta-analysis. The overall sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) are 0.709 (95% CI: 0.657-0.755) and 0.667 (95% CI: 0.617-0.713), respectively. Additionally, AUC and partial AUC for the pooled data is 0.735 and 0.627, respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that using miRNA-200 family for cancer diagnosis is more effective in white than in Asian ethnic groups. In addition, cancer diagnosis by miRNA using circulating specimen is more effective than that using noncirculating specimen. Finally, miRNA is more accurate in diagnosing endometrial cancer than other types of cancer, and some miRNA family members (miR-200b and miR-429) have superior diagnostic accuracy than other miR-200 family members. In conclusion, the profiling of miRNA-200 family is likely to be a valuable tool in cancer detection and diagnosis.

  6. Brief Report: Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT): Development and Preliminary Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; Coonrod, Elaine E.; Ousley, Opal Y.

    2000-01-01

    A study examined the validity of the Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT) as a stage 2 screening instrument in a clinic-based sample of two-year-olds with autism (n=12) and with nonautistic developmental disorders (n=21). Results provide preliminary support for the utility of the STAT as an early screening of autism. (Contains…

  7. Glide: a new approach for rapid, accurate docking and scoring. 2. Enrichment factors in database screening.

    PubMed

    Halgren, Thomas A; Murphy, Robert B; Friesner, Richard A; Beard, Hege S; Frye, Leah L; Pollard, W Thomas; Banks, Jay L

    2004-03-25

    Glide's ability to identify active compounds in a database screen is characterized by applying Glide to a diverse set of nine protein receptors. In many cases, two, or even three, protein sites are employed to probe the sensitivity of the results to the site geometry. To make the database screens as realistic as possible, the screens use sets of "druglike" decoy ligands that have been selected to be representative of what we believe is likely to be found in the compound collection of a pharmaceutical or biotechnology company. Results are presented for releases 1.8, 2.0, and 2.5 of Glide. The comparisons show that average measures for both "early" and "global" enrichment for Glide 2.5 are 3 times higher than for Glide 1.8 and more than 2 times higher than for Glide 2.0 because of better results for the least well-handled screens. This improvement in enrichment stems largely from the better balance of the more widely parametrized GlideScore 2.5 function and the inclusion of terms that penalize ligand-protein interactions that violate established principles of physical chemistry, particularly as it concerns the exposure to solvent of charged protein and ligand groups. Comparisons to results for the thymidine kinase and estrogen receptors published by Rognan and co-workers (J. Med. Chem. 2000, 43, 4759-4767) show that Glide 2.5 performs better than GOLD 1.1, FlexX 1.8, or DOCK 4.01.

  8. An accurate tool for the fast generation of dark matter halo catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, P.; Sefusatti, E.; Borgani, S.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.; Sheth, R. K.; Theuns, T.

    2013-08-01

    We present a new parallel implementation of the PINpointing Orbit Crossing-Collapsed HIerarchical Objects (PINOCCHIO) algorithm, a quick tool, based on Lagrangian Perturbation Theory, for the hierarchical build-up of dark matter (DM) haloes in cosmological volumes. To assess its ability to predict halo correlations on large scales, we compare its results with those of an N-body simulation of a 3 h-1 Gpc box sampled with 20483 particles taken from the MICE suite, matching the same seeds for the initial conditions. Thanks to the Fastest Fourier Transforms in the West (FFTW) libraries and to the relatively simple design, the code shows very good scaling properties. The CPU time required by PINOCCHIO is a tiny fraction (˜1/2000) of that required by the MICE simulation. Varying some of PINOCCHIO numerical parameters allows one to produce a universal mass function that lies in the range allowed by published fits, although it underestimates the MICE mass function of Friends-of-Friends (FoF) haloes in the high-mass tail. We compare the matter-halo and the halo-halo power spectra with those of the MICE simulation and find that these two-point statistics are well recovered on large scales. In particular, when catalogues are matched in number density, agreement within 10 per cent is achieved for the halo power spectrum. At scales k > 0.1 h Mpc-1, the inaccuracy of the Zel'dovich approximation in locating halo positions causes an underestimate of the power spectrum that can be modelled as a Gaussian factor with a damping scale of d = 3 h-1 Mpc at z = 0, decreasing at higher redshift. Finally, a remarkable match is obtained for the reduced halo bispectrum, showing a good description of non-linear halo bias. Our results demonstrate the potential of PINOCCHIO as an accurate and flexible tool for generating large ensembles of mock galaxy surveys, with interesting applications for the analysis of large galaxy redshift surveys.

  9. Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the fibromyalgia rapid screening tool (FiRST)

    PubMed Central

    Celiker, Reyhan; Altan, Lale; Rezvani, Aylin; Aktas, Ilknur; Tastekin, Nurettin; Dursun, Erbil; Dursun, Nigar; Sarıkaya, Selda; Ozdolap, Senay; Akgun, Kenan; Zateri, Coskun; Birtane, Murat

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] An easy-to-use, psychometrically validated screening tool for fibromyalgia is needed. This study aims to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool by correlating it with 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 269 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation clinic outpatients. Patients completed a questionnaire including the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (twice), 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Scale reliability was examined by test-retest. The 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria was used for comparison to determine criterion validity. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated according to 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to find the confounding effect of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale on Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool to distinguish patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. [Results] The Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool was similar to the 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria in defining patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool score was correlated with 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria subscores. Each point increase in Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool global score meant 10 times greater odds of experiencing fibromyalgia syndrome. [Conclusion] The Turkish version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool is reliable for identifying patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:28265170

  10. Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the fibromyalgia rapid screening tool (FiRST).

    PubMed

    Celiker, Reyhan; Altan, Lale; Rezvani, Aylin; Aktas, Ilknur; Tastekin, Nurettin; Dursun, Erbil; Dursun, Nigar; Sarıkaya, Selda; Ozdolap, Senay; Akgun, Kenan; Zateri, Coskun; Birtane, Murat

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] An easy-to-use, psychometrically validated screening tool for fibromyalgia is needed. This study aims to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool by correlating it with 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 269 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation clinic outpatients. Patients completed a questionnaire including the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (twice), 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Scale reliability was examined by test-retest. The 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria was used for comparison to determine criterion validity. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated according to 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to find the confounding effect of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale on Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool to distinguish patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. [Results] The Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool was similar to the 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria in defining patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool score was correlated with 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria subscores. Each point increase in Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool global score meant 10 times greater odds of experiencing fibromyalgia syndrome. [Conclusion] The Turkish version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool is reliable for identifying patients with fibromyalgia.

  11. High resolution DEM from Tandem-X interferometry: an accurate tool to characterize volcanic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albino, Fabien; Kervyn, Francois

    2013-04-01

    Tandem-X mission was launched by the German agency (DLR) in June 2010. It is a new generation high resolution SAR sensor mainly dedicated to topographic applications. For the purpose of our researches focused on the study of the volcano-tectonic activity in the Kivu Rift area, a set of Tandem-X bistatic radar images were used to produce a high resolution InSAR DEM of the Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP). The VVP is part of the Western branch of the African rift, situated at the boundary between D.R. Congo, Rwanda and Uganda. It has two highly active volcanoes, Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira. A first task concerns the quantitative assessment of the vertical accuracy that can be achieved with these new data. The new DEMs are compared to other space borne datasets (SRTM, ASTER) but also to field measurements given by differential GPS. Multi-temporal radar acquisitions allow us to produce several DEM of the same area. This appeared to be very useful in the context of an active volcanic context where new geomorphological features (faults, fissures, volcanic cones and lava flows) appear continuously through time. For example, since the year 2000, time of the SRTM acquisition, we had one eruption at Nyiragongo (2002) and six eruptions at Nyamulagira (2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2010 and 2011) which all induce large changes in the landscape with the emplacement of new lava fields and scoria cones. From our repetitive Tandem-X DEM production, we have a tool to identify and also quantify in term of size and volume all the topographic changes relative to this past volcanic activity. These parameters are high value information to improve the understanding of the Virunga volcanoes; the accurate estimation of erupted volume and knowledge of structural features associated to past eruptions are key parameters to understand the volcanic system, to ameliorate the hazard assessment, and finally contribute to risk mitigation in a densely populated area.

  12. Frontal assessment battery: A tool for screening minimal hepatic encephalopathy?

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Karina Zamprogno; Zago-Gomes, Maria Penha

    2016-01-01

    AIM To apply the Frontal Assessment Battery to cirrhotic patients with or without overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) and controls. METHODS The frontal assessment battery (FAB) was applied to 87 patients with liver cirrhosis (16 with and 71 without OHE) and 40 control subjects without cirrhosis treated at the alcohol and liver outpatient clinics and the gastroenterology ward of the Cassiano Antônio de Moraes University Hospital (Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio de Moraes - HUCAM), Espírito Santo, Brazil. RESULTS The average FAB score was lower for the cirrhotic than for the non-cirrhotic patients (10.6 ± 3.67 vs 12.25 ± 2.72, P = 0.015). The FAB score was lower for the cirrhotic patients with OHE than for the patients without OHE (8.25 ± 4.55 vs 11.14 ± 3.25, P = 0.027). The total FAB score was lower for the cirrhotic patients without OHE than for the non-cirrhotic patients, although this difference was not significant (11.14 ± 3.25 vs 12.25 ± 2.72, P = 0.067). Nevertheless, the difference in the scores on the subtest that assessed the ability to inhibit a response previously conditioned to a stimulus was significant (1.72 ± 0.93 vs 2.2 ± 0.85, P = 0.011). CONCLUSION The present study indicates that the FAB is a promising tool for outpatient minimal HE screening and the assessment of HE severity. PMID:27843536

  13. The Influence Relevance Voter: An Accurate And Interpretable Virtual High Throughput Screening Method

    PubMed Central

    Swamidass, S. Joshua; Azencott, Chloé-Agathe; Lin, Ting-Wan; Gramajo, Hugo; Tsai, Sheryl; Baldi, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Given activity training data from Hight-Throughput Screening (HTS) experiments, virtual High-Throughput Screening (vHTS) methods aim to predict in silico the activity of untested chemicals. We present a novel method, the Influence Relevance Voter (IRV), specifically tailored for the vHTS task. The IRV is a low-parameter neural network which refines a k-nearest neighbor classifier by non-linearly combining the influences of a chemical's neighbors in the training set. Influences are decomposed, also non-linearly, into a relevance component and a vote component. The IRV is benchmarked using the data and rules of two large, open, competitions, and its performance compared to the performance of other participating methods, as well as of an in-house Support Vector Machine (SVM) method. On these benchmark datasets, IRV achieves state-of-the-art results, comparable to the SVM in one case, and significantly better than the SVM in the other, retrieving three times as many actives in the top 1% of its prediction-sorted list. The IRV presents several other important advantages over SVMs and other methods: (1) the output predictions have a probabilistic semantic; (2) the underlying inferences are interpretable; (3) the training time is very short, on the order of minutes even for very large data sets; (4) the risk of overfitting is minimal, due to the small number of free parameters; and (5) additional information can easily be incorporated into the IRV architecture. Combined with its performance, these qualities make the IRV particularly well suited for vHTS. PMID:19391629

  14. Validated Screening Tools for Common Mental Disorders in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Grace; De Silva, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A wide range of screening tools are available to detect common mental disorders (CMDs), but few have been specifically developed for populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Cross-cultural application of a screening tool requires that its validity be assessed against a gold standard diagnostic interview. Validation studies of brief CMD screening tools have been conducted in several LMIC, but until now there has been no review of screening tools for all CMDs across all LMIC populations. Methods A systematic review with broad inclusion criteria was conducted, producing a comprehensive summary of brief CMD screening tools validated for use in LMIC populations. For each validation, the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was calculated as an easily comparable measure of screening tool validity. Average DOR results weighted by sample size were calculated for each screening tool, enabling us to make broad recommendations about best performing screening tools. Results 153 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Because many studies validated two or more screening tools, this corresponded to 273 separate validations against gold standard diagnostic criteria. We found that the validity of every screening tool tested in multiple settings and populations varied between studies, highlighting the importance of local validation. Many of the best performing tools were purposely developed for a specific population; however, as these tools have only been validated in one study, it is not possible to draw broader conclusions about their applicability in other contexts. Conclusions Of the tools that have been validated in multiple settings, the authors broadly recommend using the SRQ-20 to screen for general CMDs, the GHQ-12 for CMDs in populations with physical illness, the HADS-D for depressive disorders, the PHQ-9 for depressive disorders in populations with good literacy levels, the EPDS for perinatal depressive disorders, and the HADS-A for anxiety disorders

  15. Retrospective screening of relevant pesticide metabolites in food using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry and accurate-mass databases of parent molecules and diagnostic fragment ions.

    PubMed

    Polgár, László; García-Reyes, Juan F; Fodor, Péter; Gyepes, Attila; Dernovics, Mihály; Abrankó, László; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2012-08-03

    In recent years, the detection and characterization of relevant pesticide metabolites in food is an important task in order to evaluate their formation, kinetics, stability, and toxicity. In this article, a methodology for the systematic screening of pesticides and their main metabolites in fruit and vegetable samples is described, using LC-HRMS and accurate-mass database search of parent compounds and their diagnostic fragment ions. The approach is based on (i) search for parent pesticide molecules; (ii) search for their metabolites in the positive samples, assuming common fragmentation pathways between the metabolites and parent pesticide molecules; and (iii) search for pesticide conjugates using the data from both parent species and diagnostic fragment ions. An accurate-mass database was constructed consisting of 1396 compounds (850 parent compounds, 447 fragment ions and 99 metabolites). The screening process was performed by the software in an automated fashion. The proposed methodology was evaluated with 29 incurred samples and the output obtained was compared to standard pesticide testing methods (targeted LC-MS/MS). Examples on the application of the proposed approach are shown, including the detection of several pesticide glycosides derivatives, which were found with significantly relevant intensities. Glucose-conjugated forms of parent compounds (e.g., fenhexamid-O-glucoside) and those of metabolites (e.g., despropyl-iprodione-N-glycoside) were detected. Facing the lack of standards for glycosylated pesticides, the study was completed with the synthesis of fenhexamid-O-glucoside for quantification purposes. In some cases the pesticide derivatives were found in a relatively high ratio, drawing the attention to these kinds of metabolites and showing that they should not be neglected in multi-residue methods. The global coverage obtained on the 29 analyzed samples showed the usefulness and benefits of the proposed approach and highlights the practical

  16. Intracellular calcium levels as screening tool for nanoparticle toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Meindl, Claudia; Kueznik, Tatjana; Bösch, Martina; Roblegg, Eva; Fröhlich, Eleonore

    2015-01-01

    disruption, apoptosis, lysosome function, intracellular [Ca2+] levels and generation of oxidative stress. Small polystyrene particles and silica particles caused membrane damage and apoptosis with no preference of the surface charge. Increases in intracellular [Ca2+] levels could be used as a screening tool for cytotoxicity. PMID:25976553

  17. Accurate identification and compensation of geometric errors of 5-axis CNC machine tools using double ball bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasemi, Ali; Xue, Deyi; Gu, Peihua

    2016-05-01

    Five-axis CNC machine tools are widely used in manufacturing of parts with free-form surfaces. Geometric errors of machine tools have significant effects on the quality of manufactured parts. This research focuses on development of a new method to accurately identify geometric errors of 5-axis CNC machines, especially the errors due to rotary axes, using the magnetic double ball bar. A theoretical model for identification of geometric errors is provided. In this model, both position-independent errors and position-dependent errors are considered as the error sources. This model is simplified by identification and removal of the correlated and insignificant error sources of the machine. Insignificant error sources are identified using the sensitivity analysis technique. Simulation results reveal that the simplified error identification model can result in more accurate estimations of the error parameters. Experiments on a 5-axis CNC machine tool also demonstrate significant reduction in the volumetric error after error compensation.

  18. Highly sensitive and accurate screening of 40 dyes in soft drinks by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feng; Zhao, Yansheng; Yong, Wei; Sun, Li; Jiang, Guibin; Chu, Xiaogang

    2011-06-15

    A method combining solid phase extraction with high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the highly sensitive and accurate screening of 40 dyes, most of which are banned in foods. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify a large number of dyes for the first time, and demonstrated greater accuracy and sensitivity than the conventional liquid chromatography-ultraviolet/visible methods. The limits of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for the dyes are 0.0001-0.01 mg/L except for Tartrazine, Amaranth, New Red and Ponceau 4R, with detection limits of 0.5, 0.25, 0.125 and 0.125 mg/L, respectively. When this method was applied to screening of dyes in soft drinks, the recoveries ranged from 91.1 to 105%. This method has been successfully applied to screening of illegal dyes in commercial soft drink samples, and it is valuable to ensure the safety of food.

  19. Highly sensitive capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for rapid screening and accurate quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Isabelle; Schappler, Julie; Rudaz, Serge

    2013-05-30

    The combination of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and mass spectrometry (MS) is particularly well adapted to bioanalysis due to its high separation efficiency, selectivity, and sensitivity; its short analytical time; and its low solvent and sample consumption. For clinical and forensic toxicology, a two-step analysis is usually performed: first, a screening step for compound identification, and second, confirmation and/or accurate quantitation in cases of presumed positive results. In this study, a fast and sensitive CE-MS workflow was developed for the screening and quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine samples. A CE with a time-of-flight MS (CE-TOF/MS) screening method was developed using a simple urine dilution and on-line sample preconcentration with pH-mediated stacking. The sample stacking allowed for a high loading capacity (20.5% of the capillary length), leading to limits of detection as low as 2 ng mL(-1) for drugs of abuse. Compound quantitation of positive samples was performed by CE-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole MS equipped with an adapted triple-tube sprayer and an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The CE-ESI-MS/MS method was validated for two model compounds, cocaine (COC) and methadone (MTD), according to the Guidance of the Food and Drug Administration. The quantitative performance was evaluated for selectivity, response function, the lower limit of quantitation, trueness, precision, and accuracy. COC and MTD detection in urine samples was determined to be accurate over the range of 10-1000 ng mL(-1) and 21-1000 ng mL(-1), respectively.

  20. An Optimized Fluorescence-Based Bidimensional Immunoproteomic Approach for Accurate Screening of Autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Launay, David; Sobanski, Vincent; Dussart, Patricia; Chafey, Philippe; Broussard, Cédric; Duban-Deweer, Sophie; Vermersch, Patrick; Prin, Lionel; Lefranc, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Serological proteome analysis (SERPA) combines classical proteomic technology with effective separation of cellular protein extracts on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and identification of the antigenic spot of interest by mass spectrometry. A critical point is related to the antigenic target characterization by mass spectrometry, which depends on the accuracy of the matching of antigenic reactivities on the protein spots during the 2D immunoproteomic procedures. The superimposition, based essentially on visual criteria of antigenic and protein spots, remains the major limitation of SERPA. The introduction of fluorescent dyes in proteomic strategies, commonly known as 2D-DIGE (differential in-gel electrophoresis), has boosted the qualitative capabilities of 2D electrophoresis. Based on this 2D-DIGE strategy, we have improved the conventional SERPA by developing a new and entirely fluorescence-based bi-dimensional immunoproteomic (FBIP) analysis, performed with three fluorescent dyes. To optimize the alignment of the different antigenic maps, we introduced a landmark map composed of a combination of specific antibodies. This methodological development allows simultaneous revelation of the antigenic, landmark and proteomic maps on each immunoblot. A computer-assisted process using commercially available software automatically leads to the superimposition of the different maps, ensuring accurate localization of antigenic spots of interest. PMID:26132557

  1. The development of rapid and accurate screening test for RET hotspot somatic and germline mutations in MEN2 syndromes.

    PubMed

    Zupan, Andrej; Glavač, Damjan

    2015-12-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare endocrine malignancy with distinctive features separating it from other thyroid cancers. Cancer may be sporadic or occur as a consequence of the hereditary syndrome called multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) with three distinct phenotypes in MEN2A, MEN2B and FMTC. Each variant of MEN2 results from different RET gene mutations, with a good genotype-phenotype correlation. The goal of the study was to develop a fast and accurate screening method for a reliable detection of hot-spot RET germline and sporadic tumor mutations. From a cohort of 191 patients with MTC and their relatives, 38 tested positive and 31 tested negative for a germline or somatic tumor RET mutation were selected. A positive HRM mutation pattern was detected in all mutation-positive patients and altogether the method was able to clearly differentiate between twenty different genotypes. A novel germline variant p.Ala639Thr was detected in MTC patient, which was determined to be likely benign. Analytical specificity was determined to be 98.6% and a sensitivity threshold was determined to be 30%. The fast and accurate HRM method reduces the turnaround time providing fast and important information, especially when targeted anti-tyrosine kinase therapy on tumor samples is considered. Overall, we developed a high-throughput, accurate and cost-effective approach for the detection of RET germline and sporadic tumor mutations.

  2. Calibration of FI-ISK, an invasiveness screening tool for nonnative freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Tricarico, Elena; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Gherardi, Francesca; Copp, Gordon H

    2010-02-01

    The Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FI-ISK) is proposed as a screening tool for identifying potentially invasive freshwater invertebrates. FI-ISK was adapted from the Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) of Copp, Garthwaite, and Gozlan, which is an adapted form of the Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) of Pheloung, Williams, and Halloy. Initial assessments using FI-ISK, which include confidence (certainty/uncertainty) rankings by the assessor to each response, were calibrated to determine the most appropriate score thresholds for classifying nonnative species into low-, medium-, and high-risk categories, using both the original medium-to-high risk threshold scores for the WRA (i.e., > or = 6) and for FISK (i.e., > or = 19). Patterns of the assessor's confidence, when making the responses during the FI-ISK assessments, were also examined. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, FI-ISK was shown to distinguish accurately (and with statistical confidence) between potentially invasive and noninvasive species of nonnative crayfish (Decapoda: Astacidae, Cambaridae, Parastacidae), with the statistically appropriate threshold score for high-risk species scores being > or = 16. FI-ISK represents a useful and viable tool to aid decision- and policymakers in assessing and classifying freshwater invertebrates according to their potential invasiveness.

  3. Accuracy of Depression Screening Tools for Identifying Postpartum Depression Among Urban Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Chaudron, Linda H.; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Tang, Wan; Anson, Elizabeth; Talbot, Nancy L.; Wadkins, Holly I.M.; Tu, Xin; Wisner, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal was to describe the accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), and Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) in identifying major depressive disorder (MDD) or minor depressive disorder (MnDD) in low-income, urban mothers attending well childcare (WCC) visits during the postpartum year. Design/Methods Mothers (N=198) attending WCC visits with their infants 0 to 14 months of age completed a psychiatric diagnostic interview (standard method) and 3 screening tools. The sensitivity and specificity of each screening tool were calculated in comparison with diagnoses of MDD or MDD/MnDD. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated and the areas under the curves for each tool were compared to assess accuracy for the entire sample (representing the postpartum year) and sub-samples (representing early, middle and late postpartum time frames). Optimal cut-points were calculated. Results At some point between 2 weeks and 14 months postpartum, 56% of mothers met criteria for either MDD (37%) or MnDD (19%). When used as a continuous measures, all scales performed equally well (areas under the curves of ≥ 0.8). With traditional cut-points, the measures did not perform at the expected levels of sensitivity and specificity. Optimal cut-points for the BDI-II (≥14 for MDD, ≥11 for MDD/MnDD) and EPDS (≥9 for MDD, ≥7 for MDD/MnDD) were lower than currently recommended. For the PDSS, the optimal cut-point was consistent with current guidelines for MDD (≥80) but higher than recommended for MDD/MnDD (≥ 77). Conclusions Large proportions of low-income, urban mothers attending WCC visits experience MDD or MnDD during the postpartum year. The EPDS, BDI-II and PDSS have high accuracy in identifying depression but cutoff points may need to be altered to more accurately identify depression in urban, low-income mothers. PMID:20156899

  4. Disposable Screen Printed Electrochemical Sensors: Tools for Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    Screen printing technology is a widely used technique for the fabrication of electrochemical sensors. This methodology is likely to underpin the progressive drive towards miniaturized, sensitive and portable devices, and has already established its route from “lab-to-market” for a plethora of sensors. The application of these sensors for analysis of environmental samples has been the major focus of research in this field. As a consequence, this work will focus on recent important advances in the design and fabrication of disposable screen printed sensors for the electrochemical detection of environmental contaminants. Special emphasis is given on sensor fabrication methodology, operating details and performance characteristics for environmental applications. PMID:24932865

  5. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  6. Virtual screening methods as tools for drug lead discovery from large chemical libraries.

    PubMed

    Ma, X H; Zhu, F; Liu, X; Shi, Z; Zhang, J X; Yang, S Y; Wei, Y Q; Chen, Y Z

    2012-01-01

    Virtual screening methods have been developed and explored as useful tools for searching drug lead compounds from chemical libraries, including large libraries that have become publically available. In this review, we discussed the new developments in exploring virtual screening methods for enhanced performance in searching large chemical libraries, their applications in screening libraries of ~ 1 million or more compounds in the last five years, the difficulties in their applications, and the strategies for further improving these methods.

  7. AOD Screening Tools for College Students. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the goal of screening in student health or other college settings is to reduce alcohol-related harm. NIAAA points out that identifying those students at greatest risk for alcohol problems is the first step in prevention. Colleges and universities have used a number of…

  8. A Review of Cultural Adaptations of Screening Tools for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Sandra; Linas, Keri; Jacobstein, Diane; Biel, Matthew; Migdal, Talia; Anthony, Bruno J.

    2015-01-01

    Screening children to determine risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders has become more common, although some question the advisability of such a strategy. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify autism screening tools that have been adapted for use in cultures different from that in which they were developed, evaluate the cultural…

  9. e-Health Tools for Targeting and Improving Melanoma Screening: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Abhilasha; Miller, Kimberly; Cockburn, Myles

    2012-01-01

    The key to improved prognosis for melanoma is early detection and diagnosis, achieved by skin surveillance and secondary prevention (screening). However, adherence to screening guidelines is low, with population-based estimates of approximately 26% for physician-based skin cancer screening and 20–25% for skin self-examination. The recent proliferation of melanoma detection “e-Health” tools, digital resources that facilitate screening in patients often outside of the clinical setting, may offer new strategies to promote adherence and expand the proportion and range of individuals performing skin self-examination. The purpose of this paper is to catalog and categorize melanoma screening e-Health tools to aid in the determination of their efficacy and potential for adoption. The availability and accessibility of such tools, their costs, target audience, and, where possible, information on their efficacy, will be discussed with potential benefits and limitations considered. While e-Health tools targeting melanoma screening are widely available, little has been done to formally evaluate their efficacy and ability to aid in overcoming screening barriers. Future research needs to formally evaluate the potential role of e-Health tools in melanoma prevention. PMID:23304515

  10. e-Health Tools for Targeting and Improving Melanoma Screening: A Review.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Abhilasha; Miller, Kimberly; Cockburn, Myles

    2012-01-01

    The key to improved prognosis for melanoma is early detection and diagnosis, achieved by skin surveillance and secondary prevention (screening). However, adherence to screening guidelines is low, with population-based estimates of approximately 26% for physician-based skin cancer screening and 20-25% for skin self-examination. The recent proliferation of melanoma detection "e-Health" tools, digital resources that facilitate screening in patients often outside of the clinical setting, may offer new strategies to promote adherence and expand the proportion and range of individuals performing skin self-examination. The purpose of this paper is to catalog and categorize melanoma screening e-Health tools to aid in the determination of their efficacy and potential for adoption. The availability and accessibility of such tools, their costs, target audience, and, where possible, information on their efficacy, will be discussed with potential benefits and limitations considered. While e-Health tools targeting melanoma screening are widely available, little has been done to formally evaluate their efficacy and ability to aid in overcoming screening barriers. Future research needs to formally evaluate the potential role of e-Health tools in melanoma prevention.

  11. Developing the Thai Siriraj Psoriatic Arthritis Screening Tool and validating the Thai Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool and the Early Arthritis for Psoriatic Patients questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Chiowchanwisawakit, Praveena; Wattanamongkolsil, Luksame; Srinonprasert, Varalak; Petcharat, Chonachan; Siriwanarangsun, Palanan; Katchamart, Wanruchada

    2016-10-01

    To validate the Thai language version of the Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST) and the Early Arthritis for Psoriatic Patients Questionnaire (EARP), as well as also to develop a new tool for screening psoriatic arthritis (PsA) among psoriasis (Ps) patients. This was a cross-sectional study. Ps patients visiting the psoriasis clinic at Siriraj Hospital were recruited. They completed the EARP and PEST. Full musculoskeletal history, examination, and radiography were evaluated. PsA was diagnosed by a rheumatologist's evaluation and fulfillment of the classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate the performances of the tools. The Siriraj Psoriatic Arthritis Screening Tool (SiPAT) contained questions most relevant to peripheral arthritis, axial inflammation, and enthesitis, selected from multivariate analysis. Of a total of 159 patients, the prevalence of PsA was 78.6 %. The ROC curve analyses of Thai EARP, PEST, and SiPAT were 0.90 (95 % CI 0.84, 0.96), 0.85 (0.78, 0.92), and 0.89 (0.83, 0.95), respectively. The sensitivities of SiPAT, Thai EARP, and PEST were 91.0, 83.0, and 72.0 %, respectively, while the specificities were 69.0, 79.3, and 89.7 %, respectively. All screening questionnaires showed good diagnostic performances. SiPAT could be considered as a screening tool with its desirable properties: higher sensitivity and taking less time. Thai PEST and EARP could possibly be sequentially administered for people with a positive test from SiPAT to reduce the number of false positives.

  12. Similarity based virtual screening: a tool for targeted library design.

    PubMed

    Alvesalo, Joni K O; Siiskonen, Antti; Vainio, Mikko J; Tammela, Päivi S M; Vuorela, Pia M

    2006-04-06

    High throughput screening drug discovery utilizes large and expensive compound libraries. As an alternative, a smaller targeted library can be constructed with the aid of the 3D structure of the target molecule. We used the X-ray crystal structure of a protein homologous to the selected target in creation of a small focused library and evaluated inhibition potential of this library against Chlamydia pneumoniae, a common pathogen recently linked to atherosclerosis and risk of myocardial infarction.

  13. Laser-induced accurate frontal cortex damage: a new tool for brain study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Gonzalo; Khotiaintsev, Sergei N.; Sanchez-Huerta, Maria L.; Ibanes, Osvaldo; Hernandez, Adan; Silva, Adriana B.; Calderon, Rafael; Ayala, Griselda; Marroquin, Javier; Svirid, Vladimir; Khotiaintsev, Yuri V.

    1999-01-01

    New laser-based technique for anatomical-functional study of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) of the brain of experimental animals (rats) is presented. The technique is based on making accurate well-controlled lesions to small MPFC and subsequent observing behavioral alterations in the lesioned animals relative to control ones. Laser produces smaller and more accurate lesions in comparison to those obtained by traditional methods, such as: mechanical action, chemical means, and electrical currents. For producing the brain lesions, a 10 W CO2 CW laser is employed for reasons of its sufficiently high power, which is combined with relatively low cost-per-Watt ratio. In our experience, such power rating is sufficient for making MPFC lesions. The laser radiation is applied in a form of pulse series via hollow circular metallic waveguide made of stainless steel. The waveguide is of inner diameter 1.3 mm and 95 mm long. The anesthetized animals are placed in stereotaxic instrument. Via perforations made in the skull bone, the MPFC is exposed to the laser radiation. Several weeks later (after animal recuperation), standard behavioral tests are performed. They reveal behavioral changes, which point to a damage of some small regions of the MPFC. These results correlate with the histological data, which reveal the existence of small and accurate MPFC lesions. The present technique has good prospects for use in anatomical- functional studies of brain by areas. In addition, this technique appears to have considerable promise as a treatment method for some pathologies, e.g. the Parkinson's disease.

  14. Application of LC-high-resolution MS with 'intelligent' data mining tools for screening reactive drug metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuguang; Chowdhury, Swapan K

    2012-03-01

    Biotransformation of chemically stable compounds to reactive metabolites that can bind covalently to macromolecules (such as proteins and DNA) is considered an undesirable property of drug candidates. Due to the possible link, which has not yet been conclusively demonstrated, between reactive metabolites and adverse drug reactions, screening for metabolic activation of lead compounds through in vitro chemical trapping experiments has become an integral part of the drug discovery process in many laboratories. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advances in the application of high-resolution MS. These advances facilitated the development of accurate-mass-based data mining tools for high-throughput screening of reactive drug metabolites in drug discovery.

  15. High-performance computing and networking as tools for accurate emission computed tomography reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Passeri, A; Formiconi, A R; De Cristofaro, M T; Pupi, A; Meldolesi, U

    1997-04-01

    It is well known that the quantitative potential of emission computed tomography (ECT) relies on the ability to compensate for resolution, attenuation and scatter effects. Reconstruction algorithms which are able to take these effects into account are highly demanding in terms of computing resources. The reported work aimed to investigate the use of a parallel high-performance computing platform for ECT reconstruction taking into account an accurate model of the acquisition of single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) data. An iterative algorithm with an accurate model of the variable system response was ported on the MIMD (Multiple Instruction Multiple Data) parallel architecture of a 64-node Cray T3D massively parallel computer. The system was organized to make it easily accessible even from low-cost PC-based workstations through standard TCP/IP networking. A complete brain study of 30 (64x64) slices could be reconstructed from a set of 90 (64x64) projections with ten iterations of the conjugate gradients algorithm in 9 s, corresponding to an actual speed-up factor of 135. This work demonstrated the possibility of exploiting remote high-performance computing and networking resources from hospital sites by means of low-cost workstations using standard communication protocols without particular problems for routine use. The achievable speed-up factors allow the assessment of the clinical benefit of advanced reconstruction techniques which require a heavy computational burden for the compensation effects such as variable spatial resolution, scatter and attenuation. The possibility of using the same software on the same hardware platform with data acquired in different laboratories with various kinds of SPET instrumentation is appealing for software quality control and for the evaluation of the clinical impact of the reconstruction methods.

  16. Optimization of electrically active magnetic nanoparticles as accurate and efficient microbial extraction tools.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Barbara C; Cloutier, Ashley K; Alocilja, Evangelyn C

    2015-02-05

    Food defense requires the means to efficiently screen large volumes of food for microbial pathogens. Even rapid detection methods often require lengthy enrichment steps, making them impractical for this application. There is a great need for rapid, sensitive, specific, and inexpensive methods for extracting and concentrating microbial pathogens from food. In this study, an immuno-magnetic separation (IMS) methodology was developed for Escherichia coli O157:H7, using electrically active magnetic nanoparticles (EAMNPs). The analytical specificity of the IMS method was evaluated against Escherichia coli O55:H7 and Shigella boydii, and was improved over previous protocols by the addition of sodium chloride during the conjugation of antibodies onto MNPs. The analytical sensitivity of the IMS method was greatest when a high concentration of antibodies (1.0 mg/mL) was present during conjugation. EAMNP concentrations of 1.0 and 0.5 mg/mL provided optimal analytical sensitivity and analytical specificity. The entire IMS procedure requires only 35 min, and antibody-conjugated MNPs show no decline in performance up to 149 days after conjugation. This analytically sensitive and specific extraction protocol has excellent longevity and shows promise as an effective extraction for multiple electrochemical biosensor applications.

  17. Evaluation of an Automated Information Extraction Tool for Imaging Data Elements to Populate a Breast Cancer Screening Registry.

    PubMed

    Lacson, Ronilda; Harris, Kimberly; Brawarsky, Phyllis; Tosteson, Tor D; Onega, Tracy; Tosteson, Anna N A; Kaye, Abby; Gonzalez, Irina; Birdwell, Robyn; Haas, Jennifer S

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer screening is central to early breast cancer detection. Identifying and monitoring process measures for screening is a focus of the National Cancer Institute's Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) initiative, which requires participating centers to report structured data across the cancer screening continuum. We evaluate the accuracy of automated information extraction of imaging findings from radiology reports, which are available as unstructured text. We present prevalence estimates of imaging findings for breast imaging received by women who obtained care in a primary care network participating in PROSPR (n = 139,953 radiology reports) and compared automatically extracted data elements to a "gold standard" based on manual review for a validation sample of 941 randomly selected radiology reports, including mammograms, digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The prevalence of imaging findings vary by data element and modality (e.g., suspicious calcification noted in 2.6% of screening mammograms, 12.1% of diagnostic mammograms, and 9.4% of tomosynthesis exams). In the validation sample, the accuracy of identifying imaging findings, including suspicious calcifications, masses, and architectural distortion (on mammogram and tomosynthesis); masses, cysts, non-mass enhancement, and enhancing foci (on MRI); and masses and cysts (on ultrasound), range from 0.8 to1.0 for recall, precision, and F-measure. Information extraction tools can be used for accurate documentation of imaging findings as structured data elements from text reports for a variety of breast imaging modalities. These data can be used to populate screening registries to help elucidate more effective breast cancer screening processes.

  18. Optimizing odor identification testing as quick and accurate diagnostic tool for Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahlknecht, Philipp; Pechlaner, Raimund; Boesveldt, Sanne; Volc, Dieter; Pinter, Bernardette; Reiter, Eva; Müller, Christoph; Krismer, Florian; Berendse, Henk W.; van Hilten, Jacobus J.; Wuschitz, Albert; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Högl, Birgit; Djamshidian, Atbin; Nocker, Michael; Göbel, Georg; Gasperi, Arno; Kiechl, Stefan; Willeit, Johann; Poewe, Werner

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate odor identification testing as a quick, cheap, and reliable tool to identify PD. Methods Odor identification with the 16‐item Sniffin' Sticks test (SS‐16) was assessed in a total of 646 PD patients and 606 controls from three European centers (A, B, and C), as well as 75 patients with atypical parkinsonism or essential tremor and in a prospective cohort of 24 patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (center A). Reduced odor sets most discriminative for PD were determined in a discovery cohort derived from a random split of PD patients and controls from center A using L1‐regularized logistic regression. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed in the rest of the patients/controls as validation cohorts. Results Olfactory performance was lower in PD patients compared with controls and non‐PD patients in all cohorts (each P < 0.001). Both the full SS‐16 and a subscore of the top eight discriminating odors (SS‐8) were associated with an excellent discrimination of PD from controls (areas under the curve ≥0.90; sensitivities ≥83.3%; specificities ≥82.0%) and from non‐PD patients (areas under the curve ≥0.91; sensitivities ≥84.1%; specificities ≥84.0%) in all cohorts. This remained unchanged when patients with >3 years of disease duration were excluded from analysis. All 8 incident PD cases among patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder were predicted with the SS‐16 and the SS‐8 (sensitivity, 100%; positive predictive value, 61.5%). Conclusions Odor identification testing provides excellent diagnostic accuracy in the distinction of PD patients from controls and diagnostic mimics. A reduced set of eight odors could be used as a quick tool in the workup of patients presenting with parkinsonism and for PD risk indication. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and

  19. Assessing nutrition in the critically ill elderly patient: A comparison of two screening tools

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Swagata; Mishra, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Few malnutrition screening tests are validated in the elderly Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patient. Aim: Having previously established malnutrition as a cause of higher mortality in this population, we compared two screening tools in elderly patients. Subjects and Methods: For this prospective study, 111 consecutive patients admitted to the ICU and > 65 years underwent the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), and the Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI) screening tests. Statistical Analysis: Standard definition of malnutrition risk was taken as the gold standard to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the tools. The k statistic was calculated to measure the agreement between the tools. The Shrout classification was used to interpret its values. Results: The mean age of the patients screened was 74.7 ± 8.4 (65–97 years). The standard definition, MUST and GNRI identified 52.2%, 65.4%, and 64.9% to be malnourished, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the tests were 96.5% computed tomography (CI) (87.9–99.5%) and 72.3% CI (57.5–84.5%) for MUST and 89.5% CI (75.2–96.7%) and 55.0% CI (75.2–96.9%) for GNRI, respectively. Screening was not possible by GNRI and MUST tool in 31% versus 4% of patients, respectively. The agreement between the tools was moderate for Standard-MUST k = 0.65 and MUST-GNRI k = 0.60 and fair for Standard-GNRI k = 0.43. Conclusions: The risk of malnutrition is high among our patients as identified by all the tools. Both GNRI and MUST showed a high sensitivity with MUST showing a higher specificity and greater applicability. PMID:26430337

  20. Facilitating the selection and creation of accurate interatomic potentials with robust tools and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautt, Zachary T.; Tavazza, Francesca; Becker, Chandler A.

    2015-10-01

    The Materials Genome Initiative seeks to significantly decrease the cost and time of development and integration of new materials. Within the domain of atomistic simulations, several roadblocks stand in the way of reaching this goal. While the NIST Interatomic Potentials Repository hosts numerous interatomic potentials (force fields), researchers cannot immediately determine the best choice(s) for their use case. Researchers developing new potentials, specifically those in restricted environments, lack a comprehensive portfolio of efficient tools capable of calculating and archiving the properties of their potentials. This paper elucidates one solution to these problems, which uses Python-based scripts that are suitable for rapid property evaluation and human knowledge transfer. Calculation results are visible on the repository website, which reduces the time required to select an interatomic potential for a specific use case. Furthermore, property evaluation scripts are being integrated with modern platforms to improve discoverability and access of materials property data. To demonstrate these scripts and features, we will discuss the automation of stacking fault energy calculations and their application to additional elements. While the calculation methodology was developed previously, we are using it here as a case study in simulation automation and property calculations. We demonstrate how the use of Python scripts allows for rapid calculation in a more easily managed way where the calculations can be modified, and the results presented in user-friendly and concise ways. Additionally, the methods can be incorporated into other efforts, such as openKIM.

  1. Satellite identification: object oriented tools for accurate maintenance of the catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamensky, S.

    2001-10-01

    Satellite identification procedures are based on joint analysis of orbital and non-coordinate data available in the Data Processing Center. The work presents the system of software tools used for this analysis. The first section of the paper presents general composition of the model of the space situation used by the Data Processing Center, indicating and describing the basic entities, objects, classes, attributes and techniques (with the required databases and archives) used for statistical and logical inference. The place of satellite identification tasks in this system is outlined. Then a set of classifiers, used for statistical inference on satellite type (spacecraft, rocket-body, fragment; specific type (series) of a spacecraft or rocket-body) is described. These classifiers use orbital and non-orbital (estimations of sizes, rotation, ballistic characteristics) data and evaluation of the evolution of these parameters if needed. However, the actual satellite identification techniques normally involve the data on all the objects of the launch (for analysis of new satellites) and consider the structure of satellite groups and constellations - regarding the place of the analyzed satellites in them and their evolution. The examples of enhanced efficiency of the system compared to the simple cluster-based analysis are presented as well as the illustrations of the structural advantages and "richer" inference capabilities.

  2. Streptomyces: a screening tool for bacterial cell division inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jani, Charul; Tocheva, Elitza I; McAuley, Scott; Craney, Arryn; Jensen, Grant J; Nodwell, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Cell division is essential for spore formation but not for viability in the filamentous streptomycetes bacteria. Failure to complete cell division instead blocks spore formation, a phenotype that can be visualized by the absence of gray (in Streptomyces coelicolor) and green (in Streptomyces venezuelae) spore-associated pigmentation. Despite the lack of essentiality, the streptomycetes divisome is similar to that of other prokaryotes. Therefore, the chemical inhibitors of sporulation in model streptomycetes may interfere with the cell division in rod-shaped bacteria as well. To test this, we investigated 196 compounds that inhibit sporulation in S. coelicolor. We show that 19 of these compounds cause filamentous growth in Bacillus subtilis, consistent with impaired cell division. One of the compounds is a DNA-damaging agent and inhibits cell division by activating the SOS response. The remaining 18 act independently of known stress responses and may therefore act on the divisome or on divisome positioning and stability. Three of the compounds (Fil-1, Fil-2, and Fil-3) confer distinct cell division defects on B. subtilis. They also block B. subtilis sporulation, which is mechanistically unrelated to the sporulation pathway of streptomycetes but is also dependent on the divisome. We discuss ways in which these differing phenotypes can be used in screens for cell division inhibitors.

  3. Comparison of shape-matching and docking as virtual screening tools.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Paul C D; Skillman, A Geoffrey; Nicholls, Anthony

    2007-01-11

    Ligand docking is a widely used approach in virtual screening. In recent years a large number of publications have appeared in which docking tools are compared and evaluated for their effectiveness in virtual screening against a wide variety of protein targets. These studies have shown that the effectiveness of docking in virtual screening is highly variable due to a large number of possible confounding factors. Another class of method that has shown promise in virtual screening is the shape-based, ligand-centric approach. Several direct comparisons of docking with the shape-based tool ROCS have been conducted using data sets from some of these recent docking publications. The results show that a shape-based, ligand-centric approach is more consistent than, and often superior to, the protein-centric approach taken by docking.

  4. Raman Spectroscopy Provides a Powerful Diagnostic Tool for Accurate Determination of Albumin Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Dingari, Narahara Chari; Horowitz, Gary L.; Kang, Jeon Woong; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Barman, Ishan

    2012-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of glycated albumin detection and quantification using Raman spectroscopy without the addition of reagents. Glycated albumin is an important marker for monitoring the long-term glycemic history of diabetics, especially as its concentrations, in contrast to glycated hemoglobin levels, are unaffected by changes in erythrocyte life times. Clinically, glycated albumin concentrations show a strong correlation with the development of serious diabetes complications including nephropathy and retinopathy. In this article, we propose and evaluate the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy for determination of this important analyte. By utilizing the pre-concentration obtained through drop-coating deposition, we show that glycation of albumin leads to subtle, but consistent, changes in vibrational features, which with the help of multivariate classification techniques can be used to discriminate glycated albumin from the unglycated variant with 100% accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the calibration model developed on the glycated albumin spectral dataset shows high predictive power, even at substantially lower concentrations than those typically encountered in clinical practice. In fact, the limit of detection for glycated albumin measurements is calculated to be approximately four times lower than its minimum physiological concentration. Importantly, in relation to the existing detection methods for glycated albumin, the proposed method is also completely reagent-free, requires barely any sample preparation and has the potential for simultaneous determination of glycated hemoglobin levels as well. Given these key advantages, we believe that the proposed approach can provide a uniquely powerful tool for quantification of glycation status of proteins in biopharmaceutical development as well as for glycemic marker determination in routine clinical diagnostics in the future. PMID:22393405

  5. Italian normative data for a stroke specific cognitive screening tool: the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS).

    PubMed

    Mancuso, M; Varalta, V; Sardella, L; Capitani, D; Zoccolotti, P; Antonucci, G

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive deficits occur in most stroke patients and cognitive impairment is an important predictor of adverse long term outcome. However, current screening measures, such as the Mini Mental State Examination or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, do not provide information tuned for evaluating the impact of cognitive impairment in the early phase after stroke. The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) represents an important new development in this regard. The OCS is now available for assessment of Italian individuals and the aim of this study is to standardize the OCS on a large sample of healthy Italian participants stratified for age, gender and education level. Results confirmed the influence of these factors in several of the OCS tasks. Age-, education- and gender-adjusted norms are provided for the ten sub-tests of the test. The availability of normative data represents an important prerequite for the reliable use of OCS with stroke patients.

  6. A participatory approach to develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool and the Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Deepan C; Dicianno, Brad E; Cooper, Rory A

    2014-01-01

    The electric powered wheelchair (EPW) is an indispensable assistive device that increases participation among individuals with disabilities. However, due to lack of standardized assessment tools, developing evidence based training protocols for EPW users to improve driving skills has been a challenge. In this study, we adopt the principles of participatory research and employ qualitative methods to develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool (PMST) and Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment (PMCDA). Qualitative data from professional experts and expert EPW users who participated in a focus group and a discussion forum were used to establish content validity of the PMCDA and the PMST. These tools collectively could assess a user's current level of bodily function and their current EPW driving capacity. Further multicenter studies are necessary to evaluate the psychometric properties of these tests and develop EPW driving training protocols based on these assessment tools.

  7. A Participatory Approach to Develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool and the Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraj, Deepan C.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Cooper, Rory A.

    2014-01-01

    The electric powered wheelchair (EPW) is an indispensable assistive device that increases participation among individuals with disabilities. However, due to lack of standardized assessment tools, developing evidence based training protocols for EPW users to improve driving skills has been a challenge. In this study, we adopt the principles of participatory research and employ qualitative methods to develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool (PMST) and Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment (PMCDA). Qualitative data from professional experts and expert EPW users who participated in a focus group and a discussion forum were used to establish content validity of the PMCDA and the PMST. These tools collectively could assess a user's current level of bodily function and their current EPW driving capacity. Further multicenter studies are necessary to evaluate the psychometric properties of these tests and develop EPW driving training protocols based on these assessment tools. PMID:25276796

  8. Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST): a report from the GRAPPA 2009 annual meeting.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, Philip S

    2011-03-01

    Patients with psoriasis attending general practitioner and dermatology clinics may complain about their joints, but it may be difficult for the nonrheumatologist to distinguish psoriatic arthritis (PsA) from other forms of arthritis. A screening tool for PsA would therefore be useful to both general practitioners and dermatologists and help identify patients for further evaluation by a rheumatologist. Although several screening tools have been developed, the Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST) has the advantage of simplicity and ease of use. This new instrument consists of 5 simple questions supported by the addition of a manikin for patient markup. During development, the questionnaire has shown a sensitivity of 0.94 and a specificity of 0.78. Further validation of this and the other questionnaires is now required. A "head to head" study of the PEST, ToPAS (Toronto Psoriatic Arthritis Screening questionnaire), and PASE (Psoriatic Arthritis Screening and Evaluation) tools is planned in a secondary-care population with psoriasis. This study is important not only to confirm the comparative performance of the instruments, but also to confirm the high figures for sensitivity in a secondary-care population.

  9. VSViewer3D: a tool for interactive data mining of three-dimensional virtual screening data.

    PubMed

    Diller, Kyle I; Diller, David J

    2014-12-22

    The VSviewer3D is a simple Java tool for visual exploration of three-dimensional (3D) virtual screening data. The VSviewer3D brings together the ability to explore numerical data, such as calculated properties and virtual screening scores, structure depiction, interactive topological and 3D similarity searching, and 3D visualization. By doing so the user is better able to quickly identify outliers, assess tractability of large numbers of compounds, visualize hits of interest, annotate hits, and mix and match interesting scaffolds. We demonstrate the utility of the VSviewer3D by describing a use case in a docking based virtual screen.

  10. Chemical microarray: a new tool for drug screening and discovery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haiching; Horiuchi, Kurumi Y

    2006-07-01

    HTS with microtiter plates has been the major tool used in the pharmaceutical industry to explore chemical diversity space and to identify active compounds and pharmacophores for specific biological targets. However, HTS faces a daunting challenge regarding the fast-growing numbers of drug targets arising from genomic and proteomic research, and large chemical libraries generated from high-throughput synthesis. There is an urgent need to find new ways to profile the activity of large numbers of chemicals against hundreds of biological targets in a fast, low-cost fashion. Chemical microarray can rise to this challenge because it has the capability of identifying and evaluating small molecules as potential therapeutic reagents. During the past few years, chemical microarray technology, with different surface chemistries and activation strategies, has generated many successes in the evaluation of chemical-protein interactions, enzyme activity inhibition, target identification, signal pathway elucidation and cell-based functional analysis. The success of chemical microarray technology will provide unprecedented possibilities and capabilities for parallel functional analysis of tremendous amounts of chemical compounds.

  11. Rapid Screening of Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides in a Whey Permeate Product and Domestic Animal Milks by Accurate Mass Database and Tandem Mass Spectral Library.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Otter, Don E; Barile, Daniela

    2016-08-17

    A bovine milk oligosaccharide (BMO) library, prepared from cow colostrum, with 34 structures was generated and used to rapidly screen oligosaccharides in domestic animal milks and a whey permeate powder. The novel library was entered into a custom Personal Compound Database and Library (PCDL) and included accurate mass, retention time, and tandem mass spectra. Oligosaccharides in minute-sized samples were separated using nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled to a high resolution and sensitive quadrupole-Time of Flight (Q-ToF) MS system. Using the PCDL, 18 oligosaccharides were found in a BMO-enriched product obtained from whey permeate processing. The usefulness of the analytical system and BMO library was further validated using milks from domestic sheep and buffaloes. Through BMO PCDL searching, 15 and 13 oligosaccharides in the BMO library were assigned in sheep and buffalo milks, respectively, thus demonstrating significant overlap between oligosaccharides in bovine (cow and buffalo) and ovine (sheep) milks. This method was shown to be an efficient, reliable, and rapid tool to identify oligosaccharide structures using automated spectral matching.

  12. Evaluation of Malnutrition Risk after Liver Transplantation Using the Nutritional Screening Tools.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Park, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, Soon-Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in patients with end-stage liver disease requiring liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional status by using nutritional screening tools [Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA)] in patients before and after liver transplantation. We analyzed medical record, blood test, nutrient intake and malnutrition rate just before transplantation and at discharge, and at 3, 6, 12 months after transplantation respectively. Initially 33 patients enrolled as study subjects and finally 28 patients completed the study. Nutrients intake such as energy, fiber, calcium, potassium, vitamin C, and folate were insufficient at 12 months after transplantation. The rates of malnutrition before transplantation were very high, reported at 81.8% for the NRS 2002, 87.9% for the MUST, and 84.8% for the SGA. By 12 months after operation, malnutrition rates reported at NRS, MUST and SGA had decreased to 6.1%, 10.7%, and 10.7%, respectively. Sensitivity was 87.1% for the NRS 2002, 82.0% for the MUST, and 92.0% for the SGA. Of these screening tools the SGA was the highest sensitive tool that predict the risk of mortality in malnutrition patients who received transplantation. Further studies on nutritional status of patients and proper tools for nutrition intervention are needed to provide adequate nutritional care for patients.

  13. Evaluation of Malnutrition Risk after Liver Transplantation Using the Nutritional Screening Tools

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Park, Yoon-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in patients with end-stage liver disease requiring liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional status by using nutritional screening tools [Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA)] in patients before and after liver transplantation. We analyzed medical record, blood test, nutrient intake and malnutrition rate just before transplantation and at discharge, and at 3, 6, 12 months after transplantation respectively. Initially 33 patients enrolled as study subjects and finally 28 patients completed the study. Nutrients intake such as energy, fiber, calcium, potassium, vitamin C, and folate were insufficient at 12 months after transplantation. The rates of malnutrition before transplantation were very high, reported at 81.8% for the NRS 2002, 87.9% for the MUST, and 84.8% for the SGA. By 12 months after operation, malnutrition rates reported at NRS, MUST and SGA had decreased to 6.1%, 10.7%, and 10.7%, respectively. Sensitivity was 87.1% for the NRS 2002, 82.0% for the MUST, and 92.0% for the SGA. Of these screening tools the SGA was the highest sensitive tool that predict the risk of mortality in malnutrition patients who received transplantation. Further studies on nutritional status of patients and proper tools for nutrition intervention are needed to provide adequate nutritional care for patients. PMID:26566519

  14. Development of the Japanese version of the Woman Abuse Screening Tool-Short.

    PubMed

    Kita, Sachiko; Haruna, Megumi; Hikita, Naoko; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2017-03-01

    This study develops a Japanese version of the Woman Abuse Screening Tool, comprising two simple questions, to examine its accuracy and validity. A cohort study involving women in the third trimester of pregnancy and one month after childbirth was conducted in an antenatal clinic in a Tokyo suburb. The Japanese versions of the Index of Spouse Abuse and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used to examine the cut-off point, accuracy, and validity of the Woman Abuse Screening Tool. Results showed that the tool demonstrated good accuracy (sensitivity 66.7-71.4%, specificity 89.7%), using an alternative cut-off point (i.e. responses of "some tension" or "some difficulty" [2 points] for one item and "a lot of tension" or "great difficulty" [1 point] for the other), and good concurrent, convergent, and predictive validity. The results indicated that the Woman Abuse Screening Tool could be useful in Japanese perinatal health settings, as an initial screening tool to detect intimate partner violence efficiently and effectively during pregnancy.

  15. Kinase-kernel models: accurate in silico screening of 4 million compounds across the entire human kinome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Eric; Mukherjee, Prasenjit

    2012-01-23

    Reliable in silico prediction methods promise many advantages over experimental high-throughput screening (HTS): vastly lower time and cost, affinity magnitude estimates, no requirement for a physical sample, and a knowledge-driven exploration of chemical space. For the specific case of kinases, given several hundred experimental IC(50) training measurements, the empirically parametrized profile-quantitative structure-activity relationship (profile-QSAR) and surrogate AutoShim methods developed at Novartis can predict IC(50) with a reliability approaching experimental HTS. However, in the absence of training data, prediction is much harder. The most common a priori prediction method is docking, which suffers from many limitations: It requires a protein structure, is slow, and cannot predict affinity. (1) Highly accurate profile-QSAR (2) models have now been built for roughly 100 kinases covering most of the kinome. Analyzing correlations among neighboring kinases shows that near neighbors share a high degree of SAR similarity. The novel chemogenomic kinase-kernel method reported here predicts activity for new kinases as a weighted average of predicted activities from profile-QSAR models for nearby neighbor kinases. Three different factors for weighting the neighbors were evaluated: binding site sequence identity to the kinase neighbors, similarity of the training set for each neighbor model to the compound being predicted, and accuracy of each neighbor model. Binding site sequence identity was by far most important, followed by chemical similarity. Model quality had almost no relevance. The median R(2) = 0.55 for kinase-kernel interpolations on 25% of the data of each set held out from method optimization for 51 kinase assays, approached the accuracy of median R(2) = 0.61 for the trained profile-QSAR predictions on the same held out 25% data of each set, far faster and far more accurate than docking. Validation on the full data sets from 18 additional kinase assays

  16. Validation of Synthetic CRISPR Reagents as a Tool for Arrayed Functional Genomic Screening

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jenille; Martin, Scott E.

    2016-01-01

    To date, lentiviral-based CRISPR-Cas9 screens have largely been conducted in pooled format. However, numerous assays are not amenable to pooled approaches, and lentiviral screening in arrayed format presents many challenges. We sought to examine synthetic CRISPR reagents in the context of arrayed screening. Experiments were performed using aberrant DNA replication as an assay. Using synthetic CRISPR RNAs targeting the known control gene GMNN in HCT-116 cells stably expressing Cas9, we observed statistically significant phenotype among the majority of transfected cells within 72 hours. Additional studies revealed near complete loss of GMNN protein and editing of GMNN DNA. We next conducted a screen of synthetic CRISPR RNAs directed against 640 ubiquitin-related genes. Screening identified known and novel DNA replication regulators that were also supported by siRNA gene knockdown. Notably, CRISPR screening identified more statistically significant hits than corresponding siRNA screens run in parallel. These results highlight the possibility of using synthetic CRISPR reagents as an arrayed screening tool. PMID:28030641

  17. PLASMA PROTEIN PROFILING AS A HIGH THROUGHPUT TOOL FOR CHEMICAL SCREENING USING A SMALL FISH MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hudson, R. Tod, Michael J. Hemmer, Kimberly A. Salinas, Sherry S. Wilkinson, James Watts, James T. Winstead, Peggy S. Harris, Amy Kirkpatrick and Calvin C. Walker. In press. Plasma Protein Profiling as a High Throughput Tool for Chemical Screening Using a Small Fish Model (Abstra...

  18. Preliminary Validation of a Screening Tool for Adolescent Panic Disorder in Pediatric Primary Care Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, Alexander H.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Hershorin, Eugene R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the validity of a brief screening tool for adolescent panic disorder (PD) in a primary care setting. A total of 165 participants (ages 12-17 years) seen in two pediatric primary care clinics completed the Autonomic Nervous System Questionnaire (ANS; Stein et al. in Psychosomatic Med 61:359-364, 40). A subset of those screening…

  19. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Depression Screening Tools among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailey, Sarah H.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the validity and the sensitivity and specificity of depression screening tools among adults with intellectual and disabilities (ID). Subjects (N = 75) were interviewed with the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Glasgow Depression Scale for People with a Learning Disability (GDS-LD) and also completed a clinical…

  20. Comparing Two CBM Maze Selection Tools: Considering Scoring and Interpretive Metrics for Universal Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jeremy W.; Missall, Kristen N.; Hosp, John L.; Kuhle, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in maze selection curriculum-based measurement have led to several published tools with technical information for interpretation (e.g., norms, benchmarks, cut-scores, classification accuracy) that have increased their usefulness for universal screening. A range of scoring practices have emerged for evaluating student performance on maze…

  1. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  2. Specificity and Sensitivity Ratios of the Pediatric Language Acquisition Screening Tool for Early Referral-Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Tracy; Shulman, Brian B.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined test characteristics of the Pediatric Language Acquisition Screening Tool for Early Referral-Revised (PLASTER-R), a set of developmental questionnaires for children 3 to 60 months of age. The PLASTER-R was moderately to highly successful in identifying children within normal limits for language development. Test-retest…

  3. Using SWPBS Expectations as a Screening Tool to Predict Behavioral Risk in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mack D.; Davis, John L.; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; Fogarty, Melissa Shea

    2014-01-01

    School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) focuses on promoting social competence through the establishment of behavior expectations that are explicitly taught and reinforced by all teachers across all settings. This study investigated the validity of using adherence to SWPBS behavior expectations as a screening tool for predicting behavior…

  4. Capacity-to-Consent in Psychiatric Research: Development and Preliminary Testing of a Screening Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayas, Luis H.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Perez, M. Carmela

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Assuring research participants' capacity to provide informed consent has become increasingly important in health and mental health research, and each study faces unique capacity-assessment challenges, possibly requiring its own screening tool. This article describes the development and preliminary testing of a capacity-to-consent tool…

  5. Hearing and vision screening tools for long-term care residents with dementia: protocol for a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    McGilton, Katherine S; Höbler, Fiona; Campos, Jennifer; Dupuis, Kate; Labreche, Tammy; Guthrie, Dawn M; Jarry, Jonathan; Singh, Gurjit; Wittich, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hearing and vision loss among long-term care (LTC) residents with dementia frequently goes unnoticed and untreated. Despite negative consequences for these residents, there is little information available about their sensory abilities and care assessments and practices seldom take these abilities or accessibility needs into account. Without adequate knowledge regarding such sensory loss, it is difficult for LTC staff to determine the level of an individual's residual basic competence for communication and independent functioning. We will conduct a scoping review to identify the screening measures used in research and clinical contexts that test hearing and vision in adults aged over 65 years with dementia, aiming to: (1) provide an overview of hearing and vision screening in older adults with dementia; and (2) evaluate the sensibility of the screening tools. Methods and analysis This scoping review will be conducted using the framework by Arksey and O'Malley and furthered by methodological enhancements from cited researchers. We will conduct electronic database searches in CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We will also carry out a ‘grey literature’ search for studies or materials not formally published, both online and through interview discussions with healthcare professionals and research clinicians working in the field. Our aim is to find new and existing hearing and vision screening measures used in research and by clinical professionals of optometry and audiology. Abstracts will be independently reviewed twice for acceptance by a multidisciplinary team of researchers and research clinicians. Ethics and dissemination This review will inform health professionals working with this growing population. With the review findings, we aim to develop a toolkit and an algorithmic process to select the most appropriate hearing and vision screening assessments for LTC residents with dementia that will facilitate accurate testing and can

  6. The m/r SEBT: development of a functional screening tool for dance educators.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Margaret; Batson, Glenna

    2014-12-01

    Dance screenings provide direct and indirect data bearing on a dancer's readiness to undertake rigorous physical training. Rarely, however, are dance teachers able to translate results from these screenings into practical technical knowledge. In this article, an example of a preseason assessment tool is presented that translates scientific findings into useful information for dance teachers conducting auditions. Designed as a baseline assessment of the dancer during auditioning, the m/r SEBT tool helps teachers stratify technical levels, identify injury risk, and consequently assist with immediate and appropriate recommendations for supplemental training and//or follow-up with a medical professional. The tool evolved out of more than 3 years of collaborative, multisite research utilizing the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) as a dynamic test of balance. Modifications were made to render the test more dance-specific and to increase balance challenges. Within the 3-year period, more than 100 dancers were tested in four sites, two in the United States and two in the United Kingdom. Despite the relatively large collective sample size, neither the original SEBT nor its modifications (m/r SEBT) held robust face or content validity as balance screens. What did emerge, however, were qualitative criteria that the authors organized into a feasible assessment tool for preseason auditions. While this tool awaits further validation, its current evolution helps serve as a bridge between dance teachers' clinical and practical knowledge.

  7. Initial Validation of a Brief Pictorial Measure of Caregiver Aggression: The Family Aggression Screening Tool.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Charlotte A M; McCrory, Eamon J; Viding, Essi; Holden, George W; Barker, Edward D

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we report on the development and initial psychometric properties of the Family Aggression Screening Tool (FAST). The FAST is a brief, self-report tool that makes use of pictorial representations to assess experiences of caregiver aggression, including direct victimization and exposure to intimate partner violence. It is freely available on request and takes under 5 minutes to complete. Psychometric properties of the FAST were investigated in a sample of 168 high-risk youth aged 16 to 24 years. For validation purposes, maltreatment history was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire; levels of current psychiatric symptoms were also assessed. Internal consistency of the FAST was good. Convergent validity was supported by strong and discriminative associations with corresponding Childhood Trauma Questionnaire subscales. The FAST also correlated significantly with multi-informant reports of psychiatric symptomatology. Initial findings provide support for the reliability and validity of the FAST as a brief, pictorial screening tool of caregiver aggression.

  8. Adolescent reactions to icon-driven response modes in a tablet-based health screening tool.

    PubMed

    Blander, Eitan; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2015-05-01

    Increasingly popular touch-screen electronic tablets offer clinics a new medium for collecting adolescent health screening data in the waiting area before visits, but there has been limited evaluation of interactive response modes. This study investigated the clarity, comprehensibility, and utility of icon-driven and gestural response functions employed in one such screening tool, TickiT. We conducted cognitive processing interviews with 30 adolescents from Vancouver (aged 14-20 years, 60% female, 30% English as a second language) as they completed the TickiT survey. Participants used seven different interactive functions to respond to questions across 30 slides, while being prompted to articulate their thoughts and reactions. The audio-recorded, transcribed interviews were analyzed for evidence of comprehension, nuances in response choices, and youth interest in the modes. Participants were quite receptive to the icon response modes. Across demographics and cultural backgrounds, they indicated question prompts were clear, response choices appropriate, and response modes intuitive. Most said they found the format engaging and would be more inclined to fill out such a screening tool than a paper-and-pencil form in a clinical setting. Given the positive responses and ready understanding of these modes among youth, clinicians may want to consider interactive icon-driven approaches for screening.

  9. Stroke vision, aphasia, neglect (VAN) assessment—a novel emergent large vessel occlusion screening tool: pilot study and comparison with current clinical severity indices

    PubMed Central

    Teleb, Mohamed S; Ver Hage, Anna; Carter, Jaqueline; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; McTaggart, Ryan A

    2017-01-01

    Background Identification of emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) stroke has become increasingly important with the recent publications of favorable acute stroke thrombectomy trials. Multiple screening tools exist but the length of the examination and the false positive rate range from good to adequate. A screening tool was designed and tested in the emergency department using nurse responders without a scoring system. Methods The vision, aphasia, and neglect (VAN) screening tool was designed to quickly assess functional neurovascular anatomy. While objective, there is no need to calculate or score with VAN. After training participating nurses to use it, VAN was used as an ELVO screen for all stroke patients on arrival to our emergency room before physician evaluation and CT scan. Results There were 62 consecutive code stroke activations during the pilot study. 19 (31%) of the patients were VAN positive and 24 (39%) had a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of ≥6. All 14 patients with ELVO were either VAN positive or assigned a NIHSS score ≥6. While both clinical severity thresholds had 100% sensitivity, VAN was more specific (90% vs 74% for NIHSS ≥6). Similarly, while VAN and NIHSS ≥6 had 100% negative predictive value, VAN had a 74% positive predictive value while NIHSS ≥6 had only a 58% positive predictive value. Conclusions The VAN screening tool accurately identified ELVO patients and outperformed a NIHSS ≥6 severity threshold and may best allow clinical teams to expedite care and mobilize resources for ELVO patients. A larger study to both validate this screening tool and compare with others is warranted. PMID:26891627

  10. 'Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool' predicts mortality and length of hospital stay in acutely ill elderly.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Rebecca J; King, Claire L; Stroud, Mike A; Jackson, Alan A; Elia, Marinos

    2006-02-01

    Malnutrition and its impact on clinical outcome may be underestimated in hospitalised elderly as many screening procedures require measurements of weight and height that cannot often be undertaken in sick elderly patients. The 'Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool' ('MUST') has been developed to screen all adults, even if weight and/or height cannot be measured, enabling more complete information on malnutrition prevalence and its impact on clinical outcome to be obtained. In the present study, 150 consecutively admitted elderly patients (age 85 (sd 5.5) years) were recruited prospectively, screened with 'MUST' and clinical outcome recorded. Although only 56 % of patients could be weighed, all (n 150) could be screened with 'MUST'; 58 % were at malnutrition risk and these individuals had greater mortality (in-hospital and post-discharge, P<0.01) and longer hospital stays (P=0.02) than those at low risk. Both 'MUST' categorisation and component scores (BMI, weight loss, acute disease) were significantly related to mortality (P<0.03). Those patients with no measured or recalled weight ('MUST' subjective criteria used) had a greater risk of malnutrition (P=0.01) and a poorer clinical outcome (P<0.002) than those who could be weighed and, within both groups, clinical outcome was worse in those at risk of malnutrition. The present study suggests that 'MUST' predicts clinical outcome in hospitalised elderly, in whom malnutrition is common (58 %). In those who cannot be weighed, a higher prevalence of malnutrition and associated poorer clinical outcome supports the importance of routine screening with a tool, like 'MUST', that can be used to screen all patients.

  11. An Efficient Multiplex PCR-Based Assay as a Novel Tool for Accurate Inter-Serovar Discrimination of Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Pullorum/Gallinarum and S. Dublin

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Dan; Song, Li; Tao, Jing; Zheng, Huijuan; Zhou, Zihao; Geng, Shizhong; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Pullorum/Gallinarum, and Dublin are infectious pathogens causing serious problems for pig, chicken, and cattle production, respectively. Traditional serotyping for Salmonella is costly and labor-intensive. Here, we established a rapid multiplex PCR method to simultaneously identify three prevalent Salmonella serovars Enteritidis, Pullorum/Gallinarum, and Dublin individually for the first time. The multiplex PCR-based assay focuses on three genes tcpS, lygD, and flhB. Gene tcpS exists only in the three Salmonella serovars, and lygD exists only in S. Enteritidis, while a truncated region of flhB gene is only found in S. Pullorum/Gallinarum. The sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex PCR assay using three pairs of specific primers for these genes were evaluated. The results showed that this multiplex PCR method could accurately identify Salmonella Enteritidis, Pullorum/Gallinarum, and Dublin from eight non-Salmonella species and 27 Salmonella serovars. The least concentration of genomic DNA that could be detected was 58.5 pg/μL and the least number of cells was 100 CFU. Subsequently, this developed method was used to analyze clinical Salmonella isolates from one pig farm, one chicken farm, and one cattle farm. The results showed that blinded PCR testing of Salmonella isolates from the three farms were in concordance with the traditional serotyping tests, indicating the newly developed multiplex PCR system could be used as a novel tool to accurately distinguish the three specific Salmonella serovars individually, which is useful, especially in high-throughput screening. PMID:28360901

  12. Generation of orientation tools for automated zebrafish screening assays using desktop 3D printing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The zebrafish has been established as the main vertebrate model system for whole organism screening applications. However, the lack of consistent positioning of zebrafish embryos within wells of microtiter plates remains an obstacle for the comparative analysis of images acquired in automated screening assays. While technical solutions to the orientation problem exist, dissemination is often hindered by the lack of simple and inexpensive ways of distributing and duplicating tools. Results Here, we provide a cost effective method for the production of 96-well plate compatible zebrafish orientation tools using a desktop 3D printer. The printed tools enable the positioning and orientation of zebrafish embryos within cavities formed in agarose. Their applicability is demonstrated by acquiring lateral and dorsal views of zebrafish embryos arrayed within microtiter plates using an automated screening microscope. This enables the consistent visualization of morphological phenotypes and reporter gene expression patterns. Conclusions The designs are refined versions of previously demonstrated devices with added functionality and strongly reduced production costs. All corresponding 3D models are freely available and digital design can be easily shared electronically. In combination with the increasingly widespread usage of 3D printers, this provides access to the developed tools to a wide range of zebrafish users. Finally, the design files can serve as templates for other additive and subtractive fabrication methods. PMID:24886511

  13. Accurate prediction of the electronic properties of low-dimensional graphene derivatives using a screened hybrid density functional.

    PubMed

    Barone, Veronica; Hod, Oded; Peralta, Juan E; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2011-04-19

    Over the last several years, low-dimensional graphene derivatives, such as carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons, have played a central role in the pursuit of a plausible carbon-based nanotechnology. Their electronic properties can be either metallic or semiconducting depending purely on morphology, but predicting their electronic behavior has proven challenging. The combination of experimental efforts with modeling of these nanometer-scale structures has been instrumental in gaining insight into their physical and chemical properties and the processes involved at these scales. Particularly, approximations based on density functional theory have emerged as a successful computational tool for predicting the electronic structure of these materials. In this Account, we review our efforts in modeling graphitic nanostructures from first principles with hybrid density functionals, namely the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) screened exchange hybrid and the hybrid meta-generalized functional of Tao, Perdew, Staroverov, and Scuseria (TPSSh). These functionals provide a powerful tool for quantitatively studying structure-property relations and the effects of external perturbations such as chemical substitutions, electric and magnetic fields, and mechanical deformations on the electronic and magnetic properties of these low-dimensional carbon materials. We show how HSE and TPSSh successfully predict the electronic properties of these materials, providing a good description of their band structure and density of states, their work function, and their magnetic ordering in the cases in which magnetism arises. Moreover, these approximations are capable of successfully predicting optical transitions (first and higher order) in both metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes of various chiralities and diameters with impressive accuracy. This versatility includes the correct prediction of the trigonal warping splitting in metallic nanotubes. The results predicted

  14. A Novel Screening and Diagnostic Tool for Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders for Telepsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita; Mehta, Anurati; Gupta, Aarzoo; Sharma, Minali

    2015-01-01

    Background: A diagnostic tool designed as part of a telepsychiatry application for diagnosis and management of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India was developed considering the paucity of trained child psychiatrists and mental health professionals in India. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic tool consisted of screening and 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) criteria-based diagnostic algorithms for 18 psychiatric disorders seen in childhood and adolescence. Accuracy of diagnoses and feasibility of use of the tool was examined by comparing it with detailed semi-structured clinical evaluations by a qualified psychiatrist with 50 psychiatric patients (children and adolescents). Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analyses and paired t-tests were conducted to compare the mean number of diagnosis generated by the two interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were computed for the screening and the diagnostic sub-modules of the tool, compared to the clinical diagnoses. Kappa coefficients were computed to assess agreement between the diagnoses generated by the diagnostic sub-module and the clinical diagnoses. Results: The screening sub-module had high sensitivity, high specificity and negative predictive values for all disorders. For the diagnostic sub-module, there was moderate (kappa-0.4–0.6) to substantial agreement (kappa > 0.6) for all the disorders, (except psychosis) and high sensitivity (barring a few disorders) and specificity for almost all the disorders. Positive predictive values were found to be acceptable to high for most disorders, with consistently high negative predictive values. Conclusion: The new tool was found to be comprehensive, reasonably short and feasible. Results showed acceptable level of accuracy in diagnosis generated by the tool. PMID:26424901

  15. Transfected cell lines as tools for high throughput screening: a call for standards.

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, L; Praestegaard, M

    2001-06-01

    During 1999, Journal of Biomolecular Screening presented a series of Point-Counterpoint articles that addressed a question posed by editor Bill Janzen: "What is the future of HTS?" These articles discussed many of the global issues involved in HTS, such as target identification and library size, as well as the scientific and technical challenges facing the field. In this perspective we address a related, but very focused, issue that is increasingly important for many of us in the HTS community: the use of stably transfected cell lines as an integral part of screening strategies. Transfected cell lines provide powerful tools for assay design, but at the same time they introduce complex variables into the screening system. Although it is difficult to develop precise definitions and standards for biologicals such as cell lines, we propose that the development of guidelines for the nomenclature and use of transfected cell lines is essential for their use in HTS.

  16. Development and application of screening tools for biodegradation in water-sediment systems and soil.

    PubMed

    Junker, Thomas; Coors, Anja; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-02-15

    Two new screening-test systems for biodegradation in water-sediment systems (WSST; Water-Sediment Screening Tool) and soil (SST; Soil Screening Tool) were developed in analogy with the water-only test system OECD 301C (MITI-test). The test systems could be applied successfully to determine reproducible experimental mineralization rates and kinetics on the screening-test level for fifteen organic chemicals in water (MITI), water-sediment (WSST) and soil (SST). Substance-specific differences were observed for mineralization compared among the three test systems. Based on mineralization rate and mineralization half-life, the fifteen compounds could be grouped into four biodegradation categories: substances with high mineralization and a half-life <28 days in (1) all three test systems, (2) only in the MITI test and in the WSST, (3) only in the SST, and (4) none of the test systems. The observed differences between the MITI results and the WSST and SST biodegradation rates of the compounds do not reflect their (reversible) sorption into organic matter in terms of experimental K(oc) values and log D values for the relevant pH range. Regarding mineralization kinetics we recommend to determine the lag-phase, mineralization half-life and mineralization rate using a 5-parameter logistic regression for degradation curves with and without lag-phase. Experimental data obtained with the WSST and the SST could be verified by showing good agreement with biodegradation data from databases and literature for the majority of compounds tested. Thus, these new screening-tools for water-sediment and soil are considered suitable to determine sound and reliable quantitative mineralization data including mineralization kinetics in addition to the water-only ready biodegradability tests according to OECD 301.

  17. Development of a screening tool for children prior to school entrance.

    PubMed

    Thomaidis, Loretta; Mantoudis, Stelios; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Janikian, Mari; Konstantopoulos, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the development, application and validation of the Α' TEST, a screening tool administered individually to kindergarten children to determine their school preparedness. The A' TEST evaluates six cognitive domains (abstract thinking, critical reasoning, language skills, visual perception, visual motor skills and organizational skills). It was administered to 2002 preschool children, and validated through comparison with well-established classification systems. Also, in order to examine the predictive value of the A' TEST, 201 of the examined children were reevaluated by their teachers two years after initial assessment. Analysis provided evidence of structure, convergent, concurrent and discriminant validity and reliability, as well as predictive validity. Overall, the Α' TEST predicted that 9.1% of the children were not school-ready, giving a 98.5% correct prediction when compared with the teachers' evaluations two years later. In conclusion, the Α' TEST is a valid and appropriate screening tool for school readiness.

  18. The Musculoskeletal Readiness Screening Tool-Injury Predictor for United States Military Academy Preparatory Cadets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-30

    predict injury and tasks unique to 86 military personnel. Tests include the weight bearing forward lunge, modified deep 87 squat, closed kinetic chain...weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion was associated with 176 lower extremity injury.10,11,13,17 Lack of weight- bearing dorsiflexion may impair, 177...Readiness Screening Tool (MRST). The components of the MRST 256 include the weight bearing forward lunge, the modified deep squat, the Closed 257

  19. Prospective performance evaluation of selected common virtual screening tools. Case study: Cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Kaserer, Teresa; Temml, Veronika; Kutil, Zsofia; Vanek, Tomas; Landa, Premysl; Schuster, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods can be applied in drug development for the identification of novel lead candidates, but also for the prediction of pharmacokinetic properties and potential adverse effects, thereby aiding to prioritize and identify the most promising compounds. In principle, several techniques are available for this purpose, however, which one is the most suitable for a specific research objective still requires further investigation. Within this study, the performance of several programs, representing common virtual screening methods, was compared in a prospective manner. First, we selected top-ranked virtual screening hits from the three methods pharmacophore modeling, shape-based modeling, and docking. For comparison, these hits were then additionally predicted by external pharmacophore- and 2D similarity-based bioactivity profiling tools. Subsequently, the biological activities of the selected hits were assessed in vitro, which allowed for evaluating and comparing the prospective performance of the applied tools. Although all methods performed well, considerable differences were observed concerning hit rates, true positive and true negative hits, and hitlist composition. Our results suggest that a rational selection of the applied method represents a powerful strategy to maximize the success of a research project, tightly linked to its aims. We employed cyclooxygenase as application example, however, the focus of this study lied on highlighting the differences in the virtual screening tool performances and not in the identification of novel COX-inhibitors. PMID:25916906

  20. Hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis with accurate-mass database and parallel reaction monitoring for high-throughput screening and quantification of multi-xenobiotics in honey.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Jinzhen; Jin, Yue; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Wen; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhai, Lifei; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhou, Jinhui

    2016-01-15

    This study reports a rapid, automated screening and quantification method for the determination of multi-xenobiotic residues in honey using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap) with a user-built accurate-mass database plus parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). The database contains multi-xenobiotic information including formulas, adduct types, theoretical exact mass and retention time, characteristic fragment ions, ion ratios, and mass accuracies. A simple sample preparation method was developed to reduce xenobiotic loss in the honey samples. The screening method was validated based on retention time deviation, mass accuracy via full scan-data-dependent MS/MS (full scan-ddMS2), multi-isotope ratio, characteristic ion ratio, sensitivity, and positive/negative switching performance between the spiked sample and corresponding standard solution. The quantification method based on the PRM mode is a promising new quantitative tool which we validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, recovery (accuracy), repeatability (precision), decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), matrix effects, and carry-over. The optimized methods proposed in this study enable the automated screening and quantification of 157 compounds in less than 15 min in honey. The results of this study, as they represent a convenient protocol for large-scale screening and quantification, also provide a research approach for analysis of various contaminants in other matrices.

  1. Primary cells and stem cells in drug discovery: emerging tools for high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Eglen, Richard; Reisine, Terry

    2011-04-01

    Many drug discovery screening programs employ immortalized cells, recombinantly engineered to express a defined molecular target. Several technologies are now emerging that render it feasible to employ more physiologically, and clinically relevant, cell phenotypes. Consequently, numerous approaches use primary cells, which retain many functions seen in vivo, as well as endogenously expressing the target of interest. Furthermore, stem cells, of either embryonic or adult origin, as well as those derived from differentiated cells, are now finding a place in drug discovery. Collectively, these cells are expanding the utility of authentic human cells, either as screening tools or as therapeutics, as well as providing cells derived directly from patients. Nonetheless, the growing use of phenotypically relevant cells (including primary cells or stem cells) is not without technical difficulties, particularly when their envisioned use lies in high-throughput screening (HTS) protocols. In particular, the limited availability of homogeneous primary or stem cell populations for HTS mandates that novel technologies be developed to accelerate their adoption. These technologies include detection of responses with very few cells as well as protocols to generate cell lines in abundant, homogeneous populations. In parallel, the growing use of changes in cell phenotype as the assay readout is driving greater use of high-throughput imaging techniques in screening. Taken together, the greater availability of novel primary and stem cell phenotypes as well as new detection technologies is heralding a new era of cellular screening. This convergence offers unique opportunities to identify drug candidates for disorders at which few therapeutics are presently available.

  2. Development of a liquefaction hazard screening tool for caltrans bridge sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, K.-L.; Bott, J.D.J.; Woods, M.O.; McGuire, T.L.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a liquefaction hazard screening tool for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) that is being used to evaluate the liquefaction hazard to approximately 13,000 bridge sites in California. Because of the large number of bridge sites to be evaluated, we developed a tool that makes use of parameters not typically considered in site-specific liquefaction investigations. We assessed geologic, topographic, seismic hazard, and subsurface conditions at about 100 sites of past liquefaction in California. Among the parameters we found common to many of these sites are: (a) low elevations, (b) proximity to a water body, and (c) presence of geologically youthful deposits or artificial fill materials. The nature of the study necessitated the use of readily available data, preferably datasets that are consistent across the state. The screening tool we provided to Caltrans makes use of the following parameters: (1) proximity to a water body, (2) whether the bridge crosses a water body, (3) the age of site geologic materials and the environment in which the materials were deposited, as discerned from available digital geologic maps, (4) probabilistic shaking estimates, (5) the site elevation, (6) information from available liquefaction hazard maps [covering the 9-county San Francisco Bay Area and Ventura County] and California Geological Survey (CGS) Zones of Required Investigation. For bridge sites at which subsurface boring data were available (from CGS' existing database), we calculated Displacement Potential Index values using a methodology developed by Allison Faris and Jiaer Wu. Caltrans' staff will use this hazard-screening tool, along with other tools focused on bridges and foundations, to prioritize site-specific investigations. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  3. Nutrition Screening Tools and the Prediction of Clinical Outcomes among Chinese Hospitalized Gastrointestinal Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Wei; Bruening, Kay Stearns; Raj, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) are widely used screening tools but have not been compared in a Chinese population. We conducted secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study which included 332 hospitalized gastrointestinal disease patients, collected by the Gastrointestinal department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) in 2008. Results of NRS-2002 and SGA screening tools, complications, length of stay (LOS), cost, and death were measured. The agreement between the tools was assessed via Kappa (κ) statistics. The performance of NRS-2002 and SGA in predicting LOS and cost was assessed via linear regression. The complications and death prediction of tools was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. NRS-2002 and SGA identified nutrition risk at 59.0% and 45.2% respectively. Moderate agreement (κ >0.50) between the two tools was found among all age groups except individuals aged ≤ 20, which only slight agreement was found (κ = 0.087). NRS-2002 (R square 0.130) and SGA (R square 0.140) did not perform differently in LOS prediction. The cost prediction of NRS-2002 (R square 0.198) and SGA (R square 0.190) were not significantly different. There was no difference between NRS-2002 (infectious complications: area under ROC (AUROC) = 0.615, death: AUROC = 0.810) and SGA (infectious complications: AUROC = 0.600, death: AUROC = 0.846) in predicting infectious complication and death, but NRS-2002 (0.738) seemed to perform better than SGA (0.552) in predicting non-infectious complications. The risk of malnutrition among patients was high. NRS-2002 and SGA have similar capacity to predict LOS, cost, infectious complications and death, but NRS-2002 performed better in predicting non-infectious complications. PMID:27490480

  4. Prognostic value of nutritional screening tools for patients scheduled for cardiac surgery†

    PubMed Central

    Lomivorotov, Vladimir V.; Efremov, Sergey M.; Boboshko, Vladimir A.; Nikolaev, Dmitry A.; Vedernikov, Pavel E.; Deryagin, Mihail N.; Lomivorotov, Vladimir N.; Karaskov, Alexander M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of different nutritional screening tools in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, with regard to adverse clinical outcome. METHODS This prospective cohort study analysed 1193 adult patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were screened using five nutritional screening tools: Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ). In-hospital mortality, postoperative complications, length of stay in intensive care unit and length of hospitalization were analysed. Multivariate backward logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent predictive value of the studied screening tools. RESULTS In accordance with univariate analysis, malnutrition detected by SNAQ, MUST, NRS-2002 and MNA was associated with postoperative complications (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.3–2.4; OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4–2.6; OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.9 and OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4–2.6). Malnutrition detected by MUST, NRS-2002, MNA and SGA was associated with intensive care unit stay >2 days (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.1; OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5–3.7; OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.2 and OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6–4.6). Prolonged hospitalization (>20 days) was predicted by SNAQ, MUST and MNA (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1–1.9; OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.2 and OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.2). In accordance with multivariate analysis, only MUST and MNA independently predicted postoperative complications (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3 and OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.2). Other independent factors influencing postoperative complications were well-known logistic EuroSCORE (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1–1.1) and the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass in minutes (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1–1.01). CONCLUSIONS MUST and MNA both have independent predictive values with regard to postoperative

  5. MNA® Mini Nutritional Assessment as a nutritional screening tool for hospitalized older adults; rationales and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Calvo, I; Olivar, J; Martínez, E; Rico, A; Díaz, J; Gimena, M

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of malnutrition in the growing population of older adults makes malnutrition screening critical, especially in hospitalized elderly patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of the MNA® Mini Nutritional Assessment in hospitalized older adults for rapid evaluation of nutritional risk. A prospective cohort study was made of 106 patients 65 years old or older admitted to an internal medicine ward of a tertiary-care teaching hospital to evaluate the use of the short form, or screening phase, of the MNA-SF. In the first 48 hours of admission, the full MNA questionnaire was administered and laboratory tests and a dermatologic evaluation were made. The MNA score showed that 77% of the patients were at risk of malnutrition or were frankly malnourished. Low blood levels of albumin, cholesterol and vitamins A and D showed a statistically significant association with malnutrition or risk of malnutrition. Separate evaluation of the MNA-SF showed that it was accurate, sensitive and had predictive value for the screening process. Routine use of the MNA-SF questionnaire by admission nurses to screen patients is recommended. Patients with MNA-SF scores of 11 or lower should be specifically assessed by the nutritional intervention team.

  6. Testing the woman abuse screening tool to identify intimate partner violence in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L; Katz, Alan R

    2015-04-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance.

  7. Testing the Woman Abuse Screening Tool to Identify Intimate Partner Violence in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L.; Katz, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance. PMID:25012952

  8. A high-throughput thermoelectric power-factor screening tool for rapid construction of thermoelectric property diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, M.; Lowhorn, N. D.; Schenck, P. K.; Wong-Ng, W.; Green, M. L.; Itaka, K.; Koinuma, H.

    2007-09-01

    The authors have developed a high-throughput screening tool that maps out thermoelectric power factors of combinatorial composition-spread film libraries. The screening tool allows one to measure the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of over 1000 sample points within 6h. Seebeck coefficients of standard films measured with the screening tool are in good agreement with those measured by traditional thermoelectric measurement apparatus. The rapid construction of thermoelectric property diagrams is illustrated for two systems: (Zn, Al)-O binary composition-spread film on Al2O3 (0001) and (Ca,Sr,La)3Co4O9 ternary composition-spread film on Si (100).

  9. A Nurse-Driven Screening Tool for the Early Identification of Sepsis in an Intermediate Care Unit Setting

    PubMed Central

    Gyang, Elsie; Shieh, Lisa; Forsey, Lynn; Maggio, Paul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Use of a screening tool as a decision support mechanism for early detection of sepsis has been widely advocated, yet studies validating tool performance are scarce, especially in non–intensive care unit settings. METHODS For this pilot study we prospectively screened consecutive patients admitted to a medical/surgical intermediate care unit at an academic medical center over a 1-month period and retrospectively analyzed their clinical data. Patients were screened with a 3-tiered, paper-based, nurse-driven sepsis assessment tool every 8 hours. For patients screening positive for sepsis or severe sepsis, the primary treatment team was notified and the team’s clinical actions were recorded. Results of the screening test were then compared to patient International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock identified during the study time period, and performance of the screening test was assessed. RESULTS A total of 2143 screening tests were completed in 245 patients (169 surgical, 76 medical). ICD-9 codes confirmed sepsis incidence was 9%. Of the 39 patients who screened positive, 51% were positive for sepsis, and 49% screened positive for severe sepsis. Screening tool sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 92%, respectively. Negative predictive value was 99% and positive predictive value was 54%. Overall test accuracy was 92%. There was no statistically significant difference in tool performance between medical and surgical patients. CONCLUSIONS A simple screening tool for sepsis utilized as part of nursing assessment may be a useful way of identifying early sepsis in both medical and surgical patients in an intermediate care unit setting. PMID:25425449

  10. Comparing the predictive utility of two screening tools for mental disorder among probationers.

    PubMed

    Eno Louden, Jennifer; Skeem, Jennifer L; Blevins, Alishia

    2013-06-01

    To increase the likelihood that probationers with serious mental disorder can be identified by probation agencies, we tested the utility of two promising mental health screening tools, the K6 and the Brief Jail Mental Health Screen (BJMHS), in identifying probationers with DSM-IV Axis I mental disorders. In this study, 4,670 probationers completed the screening tools as part of routine intake procedures at a probation agency. We interviewed a subset of 149 probationers using a structured clinical interview to determine whether they met criteria for an Axis I anxiety, mood, or psychotic disorder at any point during their lifetimes. The BJMHS correctly identified 77% of probationers with mental disorder overall, and contrary to our hypotheses, the measure was as sensitive with women as it was with men. Adding items assessing posttraumatic stress disorder provided some incremental utility to the measure. The K6 demonstrated similar levels of sensitivity to the BJMHS when using a lower cutoff score informed by prior research with offenders. Contrary to prior research, we found that the BJMHS was sensitive to mental disorder among female probationers. We suggest that probation agencies implement either the BJMHS or the K6 as part of their intake procedures to identify probationers with serious mental disorder so the complex needs of this group can be better addressed.

  11. A composite screening tool for medication reviews of outpatients: general issues with specific examples.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Peter A G M; Denneboom, Wilma; Kramers, Cees; Grol, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Regular performance of medication reviews is prominent among methods that have been advocated to reduce the extent and seriousness of drug-related problems, such as adverse drug reactions, drug-disease interactions, drug-drug interactions, drug ineffectiveness and cost ineffectiveness. Several screening tools have been developed to guide practising healthcare professionals and researchers in reviewing the medication patterns of elderly patients; however, each of these tools has its own limitations. This review discusses a wide range of general prescription-, treatment- and patient-related issues that should be taken into account when reviewing medication patterns by implicit screening. These include generic and therapeutic substitution; potentially superfluous or inappropriate medications; potentially inappropriate dosages or duration of treatment; drug-disease and drug-drug interactions; under-treatment; making use of laboratory test results; patient adherence, experiences and habits; appropriate dosage forms and packaging. A broad selection of specific examples and references that can be used as a basis for explicit screening of medication patterns in outpatients is also offered.

  12. Screening for Atrial Fibrillation using Economical and accurate TechnologY (SAFETY)—a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Lown, Mark; Yue, Arthur; Lewith, George; Little, Paul; Moore, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a cause of stroke and a marker of atherosclerosis and of all patients with stroke, around 17% have AF. The screening and treatment of AF could prevent about 12% of all strokes. Several relatively low-cost devices with good accuracy now exist which can detect AF including WatchBP and AliveCor. However, they can only measure the ECG or pulse over short time periods. Inexpensive devices such as heart rate monitors, which are widely available, can measure heart rate for prolonged periods and may have potential in screening for AF. This study aims to determine the accuracy of AliveCor and WatchBP along with a bespoke algorithm using a heart rate monitor belt (Polar H7) and a wearable RR interval recorder (Firstbeat Bodyguard 2) for detecting AF during a single screening visit in primary care patients. Methods/analysis A multicentre case–control diagnostic study comparing the four different devices for the detection of AF with a reference standard consisting of a 12-lead ECG in GP surgeries across Hampshire, UK. We aim to recruit 92 participants with AF and 329 without AF aged 65 years and over. We will ask participants to rate comfort and overall impression for each device. We will collect qualitative data from participants capturing their experience of using wearable devices in order to evaluate acceptability. We will collect data from GPs to determine their views on AF screening. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the London—City & East Research Ethics Committee in June 2016. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and the Atrial Fibrillation Association, UK. Trial registration number ISRCTN17495003, Pre-results. PMID:28087552

  13. Telephone-based screening tools for mild cognitive impairment and dementia in aging studies: a review of validated instruments

    PubMed Central

    Castanho, Teresa C.; Amorim, Liliana; Zihl, Joseph; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, Nuno; Santos, Nadine C.

    2013-01-01

    The decline of cognitive function in old age is a great challenge for modern society. The simultaneous increase in dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases justifies a growing need for accurate and valid cognitive assessment instruments. Although in-person testing is considered the most effective and preferred administration mode of assessment, it can pose not only a research difficulty in reaching large and diverse population samples, but it may also limit the assessment and follow-up of individuals with either physical or health limitations or reduced motivation. Therefore, telephone-based cognitive screening instruments can be an alternative and attractive strategy to in-person assessments. In order to give a current view of the state of the art of telephone-based tools for cognitive assessment in aging, this review highlights some of the existing instruments with particular focus on data validation, cognitive domains assessed, administration time and instrument limitations and advantages. From the review of the literature, performed using the databases EBSCO, Science Direct and PubMed, it was possible to verify that while telephone-based tools are useful in research and clinical practice, providing a promising approach, the methodologies still need refinement in the validation steps, including comparison with either single instruments or neurocognitive test batteries, to improve specificity and sensitivity to validly detect subtle changes in cognition that may precede cognitive impairment. PMID:24611046

  14. Telephone-based screening tools for mild cognitive impairment and dementia in aging studies: a review of validated instruments.

    PubMed

    Castanho, Teresa C; Amorim, Liliana; Zihl, Joseph; Palha, Joana A; Sousa, Nuno; Santos, Nadine C

    2014-01-01

    The decline of cognitive function in old age is a great challenge for modern society. The simultaneous increase in dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases justifies a growing need for accurate and valid cognitive assessment instruments. Although in-person testing is considered the most effective and preferred administration mode of assessment, it can pose not only a research difficulty in reaching large and diverse population samples, but it may also limit the assessment and follow-up of individuals with either physical or health limitations or reduced motivation. Therefore, telephone-based cognitive screening instruments can be an alternative and attractive strategy to in-person assessments. In order to give a current view of the state of the art of telephone-based tools for cognitive assessment in aging, this review highlights some of the existing instruments with particular focus on data validation, cognitive domains assessed, administration time and instrument limitations and advantages. From the review of the literature, performed using the databases EBSCO, Science Direct and PubMed, it was possible to verify that while telephone-based tools are useful in research and clinical practice, providing a promising approach, the methodologies still need refinement in the validation steps, including comparison with either single instruments or neurocognitive test batteries, to improve specificity and sensitivity to validly detect subtle changes in cognition that may precede cognitive impairment.

  15. Developing a Web-based dietary sodium screening tool for personalized assessment and feedback.

    PubMed

    Arcand, Joanne; Abdulaziz, Kasim; Bennett, Carol; L'abbé, Mary R; Manuel, Douglas G

    2014-03-01

    Dietary sodium reduction is commonly used in the treatment of hypertension, heart and liver failure, and chronic kidney disease. Sodium reduction is also an important public health problem since most of the Canadian population consumes sodium in excess of their daily requirements. Lack of awareness about the amount of sodium consumed and the sources of sodium in diet is common, and undoubtedly a major contributor to excess sodium consumption. There are few known tools available to screen and provide personalized information about sodium in the diet. Therefore, we developed a Web-based sodium intake screening tool called the Salt Calculator ( www.projectbiglife.ca ), which is publicly available for individuals to assess the amount and sources of sodium in their diet. The Calculator contains 23 questions focusing on restaurant foods, packaged foods, and added salt. Questions were developed using sodium consumption data from the Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 2.2 and up-to-date information on sodium levels in packaged and restaurant food databases from the University of Toronto. The Calculator translates existing knowledge about dietary sodium into a tool that can be accessed by the public as well as integrated into clinical practice to address the high levels of sodium presently in the Canadian diet.

  16. Bacillus subtilis as a tool for screening soil metagenomic libraries for antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Biver, Sophie; Steels, Sébastien; Portetelle, Daniel; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2013-06-28

    Finding new antimicrobial activities by functional metagenomics has been shown to depend on the heterologous host used to express the foreign DNA. Therefore, efforts are devoted to developing new tools for constructing metagenomic libraries in shuttle vectors replicatable in phylogenetically distinct hosts. Here we evaluated the use of the Escherichia coli-Bacillus subtilis shuttle vector pHT01 to construct a forest-soil metagenomic library. This library was screened in both hosts for antimicrobial activities against four opportunistic bacteria: Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Micrococcus luteus. A new antibacterial activity against B. cereus was found upon screening in B. subtilis. The new antimicrobial agent, sensitive to proteinase K, was not active when the corresponding DNA fragment was expressed in E. coli. Our results validate the use of pHT01 as a shuttle vector and B. subtilis as a host to isolate new activities by functional metagenomics.

  17. Broad target chemical screening approach used as tool for rapid assessment of groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    ter Laak, Thomas L; Puijker, Leo M; van Leerdam, Jan A; Raat, Klaasjan J; Kolkman, Annemieke; de Voogt, Pim; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2012-06-15

    The chemical water quality is often assessed by screening for a limited set of target chemicals. This 'conventional' target analysis approach inevitably misses chemicals present in the samples. In this study a 'broad' target screening approach for water quality assessment using high resolution and accurate mass spectrometry (HR MS) was applied to detect a wide variety of organic chemicals in 42 groundwater samples. In this approach, both known and unidentified chemicals observed in previous samples define the training set for the analysis of future samples and, additionally, new samples can be used to extend the training set. Nearly 400 chemicals were observed in the samples, of which 82 were known and more than 313 are of unknown identity. The obtained results were interpreted in relation to the source characteristics and land use. Groundwater that was affected by landfills showed the highest total MS response (ion counts) and most individual chemicals and was therefore considered most contaminated. Furthermore, river bank filtrated water was generally more contaminated than phreatic groundwater and groundwater from (semi)confined aquifers was most pristine. Additionally, industrial chemicals were more frequently observed in river bank filtrated water and pesticides were more frequently observed in water originating from rural areas. The 'broad' target screening approach for both known and unidentified chemicals does provide more information on the over-all water quality than 'conventional' target analysis.

  18. Appraisal of Artificial Screening Techniques of Tomato to Accurately Reflect Field Performance of the Late Blight Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska, Marzena; Nowicki, Marcin; Kłosińska, Urszula; Maciorowski, Robert; Kozik, Elżbieta U.

    2014-01-01

    Late blight (LB) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans continues to thwart global tomato production, while only few resistant cultivars have been introduced locally. In order to gain from the released tomato germplasm with LB resistance, we compared the 5-year field performance of LB resistance in several tomato cultigens, with the results of controlled conditions testing (i.e., detached leaflet/leaf, whole plant). In case of these artificial screening techniques, the effects of plant age and inoculum concentration were additionally considered. In the field trials, LA 1033, L 3707, L 3708 displayed the highest LB resistance, and could be used for cultivar development under Polish conditions. Of the three methods using controlled conditions, the detached leaf and the whole plant tests had the highest correlation with thefield experiments. The plant age effect on LB resistance in tomato reported here, irrespective of the cultigen tested or inoculum concentration used, makes it important to standardize the test parameters when screening for resistance. Our results help show why other reports disagree on LB resistance in tomato. PMID:25279467

  19. Evaluation of brief screening tools for neurocognitive impairment in HIV/AIDS: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zipursky, Amy R.; Gogolishvili, David; Rueda, Sergio; Brunetta, Jason; Carvalhal, Adriana; McCombe, Jennifer A.; Gill, M. John; Rachlis, Anita; Rosenes, Ron; Arbess, Gordon; Marcotte, Thomas; Rourke, Sean B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): To systematically review literature on brief screening tools used to detect and differentiate between normal cognition and neurocognitive impairment and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) in adult populations of persons with HIV. Design: A formal systematic review. Methods: We searched six electronic databases in 2011 and contacted experts to identify relevant studies published through May 2012. We selected empirical studies that focused on evaluating brief screening tools (<20 min) for neurocognitive impairment in persons with HIV. Two reviewers independently reviewed retrieved literature for potential relevance and methodological quality. Meta-analyses were completed on screening tools that had sufficient data. Results: Fifty-one studies met inclusion criteria; we focused on 31 studies that compared brief screening tools with reference tests. Within these 31 studies, 39 tools were evaluated and 67% used a comprehensive neuropsychological battery as a reference. The majority of these studies evaluated HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Meta-analyses demonstrated that the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS) has poor pooled sensitivity (0.48) and the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) has moderate pooled sensitivity (0.62) in detecting a range of cognitive impairment. Five newer screening tools had relatively good sensitivities (>0.70); however, none of the tools differentiated HAND conditions well enough to suggest broader use. There were significant methodological shortcomings noted in most studies. Conclusion: HDS and IHDS perform well to screen for HAD but poorly for milder HAND conditions. Further investigation, with improved methodology, is required to understand the utility of newer screening tools for HAND; further tools may need to be developed for milder HAND conditions. PMID:23751261

  20. A fully automatic tool to perform accurate flood mapping by merging remote sensing imagery and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addabbo, Annarita; Refice, Alberto; Lovergine, Francesco; Pasquariello, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is one of the most frequent and expansive natural hazard. High-resolution flood mapping is an essential step in the monitoring and prevention of inundation hazard, both to gain insight into the processes involved in the generation of flooding events, and from the practical point of view of the precise assessment of inundated areas. Remote sensing data are recognized to be useful in this respect, thanks to the high resolution and regular revisit schedules of state-of-the-art satellites, moreover offering a synoptic overview of the extent of flooding. In particular, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data present several favorable characteristics for flood mapping, such as their relative insensitivity to the meteorological conditions during acquisitions, as well as the possibility of acquiring independently of solar illumination, thanks to the active nature of the radar sensors [1]. However, flood scenarios are typical examples of complex situations in which different factors have to be considered to provide accurate and robust interpretation of the situation on the ground: the presence of many land cover types, each one with a particular signature in presence of flood, requires modelling the behavior of different objects in the scene in order to associate them to flood or no flood conditions [2]. Generally, the fusion of multi-temporal, multi-sensor, multi-resolution and/or multi-platform Earth observation image data, together with other ancillary information, seems to have a key role in the pursuit of a consistent interpretation of complex scenes. In the case of flooding, distance from the river, terrain elevation, hydrologic information or some combination thereof can add useful information to remote sensing data. Suitable methods, able to manage and merge different kind of data, are so particularly needed. In this work, a fully automatic tool, based on Bayesian Networks (BNs) [3] and able to perform data fusion, is presented. It supplies flood maps

  1. Development of an accurate EPID-based output measurement and dosimetric verification tool for electron beam therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Aiping; Xing, Lei; Han, Bin

    2015-01-01

    chamber measurements. The average discrepancy between EPID and ion chamber/film measurements was 0.81% ± 0.60% (SD) and 1.34% ± 0.75%, respectively. For the three clinical cases, the difference in output between the EPID- and ion chamber array measured values was found to be 1.13% ± 0.11%, 0.54% ± 0.10%, and 0.74% ± 0.11%, respectively. Furthermore, the γ-index analysis showed an excellent agreement between the EPID- and ion chamber array measured dose distributions: 100% of the pixels passed the criteria of 3%/3 mm. When the γ-index was set to be 2%/2 mm, the pass rate was found to be 99.0% ± 0.07%, 98.2% ± 0.14%, and 100% for the three cases. Conclusions: The EPID dosimetry system developed in this work provides an accurate and reliable tool for routine output measurement and dosimetric verification of electron beam therapy. Coupled with its portability and ease of use, the proposed system promises to replace the current film-based approach for fast and reliable assessment of small and irregular electron field dosimetry. PMID:26133618

  2. User's Guide to the Water-Analysis Screening Tool (WAST): A Tool for Assessing Available Water Resources in Relation to Aquatic-Resource Uses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckey, Marla H.; Kiesler, James L.

    2008-01-01

    A water-analysis screening tool (WAST) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, to provide an initial screening of areas in the state where potential problems may exist related to the availability of water resources to meet current and future water-use demands. The tool compares water-use information to an initial screening criteria of the 7-day, 10-year low-flow statistic (7Q10) resulting in a screening indicator for influences of net withdrawals (withdrawals minus discharges) on aquatic-resource uses. This report is intended to serve as a guide for using the screening tool. The WAST can display general basin characteristics, water-use information, and screening-indicator information for over 10,000 watersheds in the state. The tool includes 12 primary functions that allow the user to display watershed information, edit water-use and water-supply information, observe effects downstream from edited water-use information, reset edited values to baseline, load new water-use information, save and retrieve scenarios, and save output as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.

  3. Developing a postal screening tool for frailty in primary care: a secondary data analysis.

    PubMed

    Kydd, Lauren

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this secondary data analysis (SDA) was to review a subset of quantitative and qualitative paired data sets from a returned postal screening tool (PST) completed by patients and compare them to the clinical letters composed by elderly care community nurses (ECCN) following patient assessment to ascertain the tool's reliability and validity. The aim was to understand to what extent the problems identified by patients in PSTs aligned with actual or potential problems identified by the ECCNs. The researcher examined this connection to establish whether the PST was a valid, reliable approach to proactive care. The findings of this SDA indicated that patients did understand the PST. Many appropriate referrals were made as a result of the ECCN visit that would not have occurred if the PST had not been sent. This article focuses specifically upon the physiotherapy section as this was the area where the most red flags were identified.

  4. Using assessment tools to screen for, diagnose, and treat major depressive disorder in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gelenberg, Alan J

    2010-01-01

    Depression remains underrecognized and undertreated worldwide, although it is a leading cause of disease burden. Many instruments are available to enhance the assessment of major depressive disorder (MDD) at 3 levels: screening, diagnosing, and monitoring treatment. This article reviews a variety of tools that can be used at each level of assessment as part of a measurement-based care approach to MDD. Measurement-based care for MDD is feasible in clinical practice. Patient self-reports can be used instead of clinician-rated scales to save time, whether in paper, computerized, or interactive voice response formats. Assessment tools are available in many languages. Treatment algorithms can rationalize decision making, and collaborative care can speed and enhance treatment results.

  5. BFH-OST, a new predictive screening tool for identifying osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhao; Yang, Yong; Lin, JiSheng; Zhang, XiaoDong; Meng, Qian; Wang, BingQiang; Fei, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a simple new clinical screening tool to identify primary osteoporosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in postmenopausal women and to compare its validity with the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) in a Han Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, enrolling 1,721 community-dwelling postmenopausal Han Chinese women. All the subjects completed a structured questionnaire and had their bone mineral density measured using DXA. Using logistic regression analysis, we assessed the ability of numerous potential risk factors examined in the questionnaire to identify women with osteoporosis. Based on this analysis, we build a new predictive model, the Beijing Friendship Hospital Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (BFH-OST). Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to compare the validity of the new model and OSTA in identifying postmenopausal women at increased risk of primary osteoporosis as defined according to the World Health Organization criteria. Results At screening, it was found that of the 1,721 subjects with DXA, 22.66% had osteoporosis and a further 47.36% had osteopenia. Of the items screened in the questionnaire, it was found that age, weight, height, body mass index, personal history of fracture after the age of 45 years, history of fragility fracture in either parent, current smoking, and consumption of three of more alcoholic drinks per day were all predictive of osteoporosis. However, age at menarche and menopause, years since menopause, and number of pregnancies and live births were irrelevant in this study. The logistic regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final tool (BFH-OST) based on age, body weight, height, and history of fracture after the age of 45 years. The BFH-OST index (cutoff =9.1), which performed better than OSTA, had a sensitivity of 73.6% and a specificity of 72.7% for identifying osteoporosis, with an area under the receiver operating

  6. Screening for use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis in pregnancy using self-report tools.

    PubMed

    Hotham, E; White, J; Ali, R; Robinson, J

    2012-08-01

    The World Health Organization has identified substance use in the top 20 risk factors for ill health. Risks in pregnancy are compounded, with risk to the woman's health, to pregnancy progression and on both the foetus and the newborn. Intrauterine exposure can result in negative influences on offspring development, sometimes into adulthood. With effectively two patients, there is a clear need for antenatal screening. Biomarker reliability is limited and research efforts have been directed to self-report tools, often attempting to address potential lack of veracity if women feel guilty about substance use and worried about possible stigmatization. Tools, which assume the behaviour, are likely to elicit more honest responses; querying pre-pregnancy use would likely have the same effect. Although veracity is heightened if substance use questions are embedded within health and social functioning questionnaires, such tools may be too lengthy clinically. It has been proposed that screening only for alcohol and tobacco, with focus on the month pre-pregnancy, could enable identification of all other substances. Alternatively, the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire could be used initially, tobacco being highly indicative of substance use generally. The ASSIST V.3.0 is readily administered and covers all substances, although the pregnancy 'risk level' cut-off for tobacco is not established. Alcohol tools - the 4Ps, TLFB and 'drug' CAGE (with E: query of use to avoid withdrawal) - have been studied with other substances and could be used. General psychosocial distress and mental ill-health often co-exist with substance use and identification of substance use needs to become legitimate practice for obstetric clinicians.

  7. Evaluation of the effect of an audit and feedback reporting tool on screening participation: The Primary Care Screening Activity Report (PCSAR).

    PubMed

    Jonah, Leigh; Pefoyo, Anna Kone; Lee, Alex; Hader, Joanne; Strasberg, Suzanne; Kupets, Rachel; Chiarelli, Anna M; Tinmouth, Jill

    2017-03-01

    Participation in cancer screening is critical to its effectiveness in reducing the burden of cancer. The Primary Care Screening Activity Report (PCSAR), an electronic report, was developed as an innovative audit and feedback tool to increase screening participation in Ontario's cancer screening programs. This study aims to assess its impact on patient screening participation. This study used a retrospective cohort design to evaluate the effectiveness of the 2014 PCSAR on screening participation in Ontario's three screening programs (breast, cervix and colorectal). The 3 cohorts comprised all participants eligible for each of the programs enrolled with a primary care physician in Ontario. Two exposures were evaluated for each cohort: enrollment with a physician who was registered to receive the PCSAR and enrollment with a registered physician who also logged into the PCSAR. Logistic regression modelling was used to assess the magnitude of the effect of PCSAR on participation, adjusting for participant and physician characteristics. Across all three screening programs, 63% of eligible physicians registered to receive the PCSAR and 38% of those registered logged-in to view it. Patients of physicians who registered were significantly more likely to participate in screening, with odds ratios ranging from 1.06 [1.04;1.09] to 1.15 [1.12;1.19]. The adjusted odds ratios associated with PCSAR log-in were 1.07 [1.03;1.12] to 1.18 [1.14;1.22] across all screening programs. Implementation of the PCSAR was associated with a small increase in screening participation. The PCSAR appears to be modestly effective in assisting primary care physicians in optimizing cancer screening participation among their patients.

  8. Noise Reduction in High-Throughput Gene Perturbation Screens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Motivation: Accurate interpretation of perturbation screens is essential for a successful functional investigation. However, the screened phenotypes are often distorted by noise, and their analysis requires specialized statistical analysis tools. The number and scope of statistical methods available...

  9. Differentially pumped spray deposition as a rapid screening tool for organic and perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Scholes, Fiona H; Watkins, Scott E; Kim, Dong-Yu; Vak, Doojin

    2016-02-08

    We report a spray deposition technique as a screening tool for solution processed solar cells. A dual-feed spray nozzle is introduced to deposit donor and acceptor materials separately and to form blended films on substrates in situ. Using a differential pump system with a motorised spray nozzle, the effect of film thickness, solution flow rates and the blend ratio of donor and acceptor materials on device performance can be found in a single experiment. Using this method, polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) are fabricated with numerous combinations of thicknesses and blend ratios. Results obtained from this technique show that the optimum ratio of materials is consistent with previously reported values confirming this technique is a very useful and effective screening method. This high throughput screening method is also used in a single-feed configuration. In the single-feed mode, methylammonium iodide solution is deposited on lead iodide films to create a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Devices featuring a perovskite layer fabricated by this spray process demonstrated a power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9%.

  10. Differentially pumped spray deposition as a rapid screening tool for organic and perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Scholes, Fiona H.; Watkins, Scott E.; Kim, Dong-Yu; Vak, Doojin

    2016-02-01

    We report a spray deposition technique as a screening tool for solution processed solar cells. A dual-feed spray nozzle is introduced to deposit donor and acceptor materials separately and to form blended films on substrates in situ. Using a differential pump system with a motorised spray nozzle, the effect of film thickness, solution flow rates and the blend ratio of donor and acceptor materials on device performance can be found in a single experiment. Using this method, polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) are fabricated with numerous combinations of thicknesses and blend ratios. Results obtained from this technique show that the optimum ratio of materials is consistent with previously reported values confirming this technique is a very useful and effective screening method. This high throughput screening method is also used in a single-feed configuration. In the single-feed mode, methylammonium iodide solution is deposited on lead iodide films to create a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Devices featuring a perovskite layer fabricated by this spray process demonstrated a power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9%.

  11. Differentially pumped spray deposition as a rapid screening tool for organic and perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Scholes, Fiona H.; Watkins, Scott E.; Kim, Dong-Yu; Vak, Doojin

    2016-01-01

    We report a spray deposition technique as a screening tool for solution processed solar cells. A dual-feed spray nozzle is introduced to deposit donor and acceptor materials separately and to form blended films on substrates in situ. Using a differential pump system with a motorised spray nozzle, the effect of film thickness, solution flow rates and the blend ratio of donor and acceptor materials on device performance can be found in a single experiment. Using this method, polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) are fabricated with numerous combinations of thicknesses and blend ratios. Results obtained from this technique show that the optimum ratio of materials is consistent with previously reported values confirming this technique is a very useful and effective screening method. This high throughput screening method is also used in a single-feed configuration. In the single-feed mode, methylammonium iodide solution is deposited on lead iodide films to create a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Devices featuring a perovskite layer fabricated by this spray process demonstrated a power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9%. PMID:26853266

  12. MED-SuMoLig: a new ligand-based screening tool for efficient scaffold hopping.

    PubMed

    Sperandio, Olivier; Andrieu, Olivier; Miteva, Maria A; Vo, Minh-Quang; Souaille, Marc; Delfaud, François; Villoutreix, Bruno O

    2007-01-01

    The identification of small molecules with selective bioactivity, whether intended as potential therapeutics or as tools for experimental research, is central to progress in medicine and in the life sciences. To facilitate such study, we have developed a ligand-based program well-suited for effective screening of large compound collections. This package, MED-SuMoLig, combines a SMARTS-driven substructure search aiming at 3D pharmacophore profiling and computation of the local atomic density of the compared molecules. The screening utility was then investigated using 52 diverse active molecules (against CDK2, Factor Xa, HIV-1 protease, neuraminidase, ribonuclease A, and thymidine kinase) merged to a library of about 40,000 putative inactive (druglike) compounds. In all cases, the program recovered more than half of the actives in the top 3% of the screened library. We also compared the performance of MED-SuMoLig with that of ChemMine or of ROCS and found that MED-SuMoLig outperformed both methods for CDK2 and Factor Xa in terms of enrichment rates or performed equally well for the other targets.

  13. High-content screening as a universal tool for fingerprinting of cytotoxicity of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jan, Edward; Byrne, Stephen J; Cuddihy, Meghan; Davies, Anthony M; Volkov, Yuri; Gun'ko, Yurii K; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2008-05-01

    Recent advances and progress in nanobiotechnology have demonstrated many nanoparticles (NPs) as potential and novel drug delivery vehicles, therapeutic agents, and contrast agents and luminescent biological labels for bioimaging. The emergence of new biomedical applications based on NPs signifies the need to understand, compare, and manage their cytotoxicity. In this study, we demonstrated the use of high-content screening assay (HCA) as a universal tool to probe the cytotoxicity of NPs and specifically cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) and gold NPs (Au NPs) in NG108-15 murine neuroblastoma cells and HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Neural cells represent special interest for NP-induced cytotoxicity because the optical and electrical functionalities of materials necessary for neural imaging and interfacing are matched well with the properties of many NPs. In addition, the cellular morphology of neurons is particularly suitable for automated high content screening. HepG2 cells represent a good model for high content screening studies since they are commonly used as a surrogate for human hepatocytes in pharmaceutical studies. We found the CdTe QDs to induce primarily apoptotic response in a time- and dosage-dependent manner and produce different toxicological profiles and responses in undifferentiated and differentiated neural cells. Au NPs were found to inhibit the proliferation and intracellular calcium release of HepG2 cells.

  14. Culturally adapted pictorial screening tool for autism spectrum disorder: A new approach

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Hemamali; Jeewandara, Kamal Chandima; Seneviratne, Sudarshi; Guruge, Chandima

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the performance of a newly designed, culturally adapted screening tool for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS Items for the screening tool were modeled from already documented checklists and diagnostic criteria for ASD. Each item in text was paired with a photograph that illustrated the written content, which was in the 2 main local languages. The final product had 21 items and was named the pictorial autism assessment schedule (PAAS). Performance of PAAS was tested on a clinical sample of 18-48 mo old children, diagnosis naïve, presenting with developmental deficits. Mothers completed PAAS checklist. Based on clinical diagnosis, which was taken as the gold standard, children were later grouped into ASD (Group 1) and non-ASD developmental disorders (Group 2). Mothers of a control sample of typically developing children also completed PAAS (Group 3). RESULTS A total of 105 children (Group 1-45, Group 2-30, Group 3-30) participated in the study. Mean age of Group 1 and Group 2 were 36 and 40 mo respectively. Majority were male in all 3 groups. Performance of PAAS in discriminating between ASD and non-ASD developmental disorders was sensitivity 88.8%, specificity 60.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) 78.4%, negative predictive value (NPV) 77.2%, likelihood ratio (LR+) 2.26, and LR- 0.18. Performance of PAAS in discriminating between ASD and typical development was sensitivity 88.0%, specificity 93.3%, PPV 95.2%, NPV 84.0%, LR+ 13.3 and LR- 0.12. The results indicated that that a positive result from PAAS was 2.26 times more likely to be found in a child with ASD than in a child with non-ASD developmental disorder. A positive result from PAAS was 13.3 times more likely to be found in a child with ASD than in a child with typical development. CONCLUSION PAAS is an effective tool in screening for ASD. Further study is indicated to evaluate the feasibility of using this instrument for community screening for ASD. PMID:28224095

  15. A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

  16. Thermographic image analysis as a pre-screening tool for the detection of canine bone cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Samrat; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Fu, Jiyuan; Marino, Dominic J.; Loughin, Catherine A.; Sackman, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Canine bone cancer is a common type of cancer that grows fast and may be fatal. It usually appears in the limbs which is called "appendicular bone cancer." Diagnostic imaging methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more common methods in bone cancer detection than invasive physical examination such as biopsy. These imaging methods have some disadvantages; including high expense, high dose of radiation, and keeping the patient (canine) motionless during the imaging procedures. This project study identifies the possibility of using thermographic images as a pre-screening tool for diagnosis of bone cancer in dogs. Experiments were performed with thermographic images from 40 dogs exhibiting the disease bone cancer. Experiments were performed with color normalization using temperature data provided by the Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The images were first divided into four groups according to body parts (Elbow/Knee, Full Limb, Shoulder/Hip and Wrist). Each of the groups was then further divided into three sub-groups according to views (Anterior, Lateral and Posterior). Thermographic pattern of normal and abnormal dogs were analyzed using feature extraction and pattern classification tools. Texture features, spectral feature and histogram features were extracted from the thermograms and were used for pattern classification. The best classification success rate in canine bone cancer detection is 90% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80% produced by anterior view of full-limb region with nearest neighbor classification method and normRGB-lum color normalization method. Our results show that it is possible to use thermographic imaging as a pre-screening tool for detection of canine bone cancer.

  17. Prehospital recognition of severe sepsis: development and validation of a novel EMS screening tool

    PubMed Central

    Polito, Carmen C.; Isakov, Alex; Yancey, Arthur H.; Wilson, Duncan K.; Anderson, Blake A.; Bloom, Ingrid; Martin, Greg S.; Sevransky, Jonathan E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To derive and validate a predictive model and novel Emergency Medical Services (EMS) screening tool for severe sepsis (SS). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting A single EMS system and an urban, public hospital. Patients Sequential adult, non-trauma, non-arrest, at-risk, EMS-transported patients between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012. At-risk patients were defined as having all 3 of the following criteria present in the EMS setting: heart rate >90bpm, 2) respiratory rate >20bpm, and 3) systolic blood pressure <110mmHg. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Among 66,439 EMS encounters, 555 met criteria for analysis. Fourteen percent (n=75) of patients had SS, of which 19% (n=14) were identified by EMS clinical judgment. In-hospital mortality for patients with SS was 31% (n=23). Six EMS characteristics were found to be predictors of SS: older age, transport from nursing home, Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) 9-1-1 chief complaint category of “Sick Person”, hot tactile temperature assessment, low systolic blood pressure, and low oxygen saturation. The final predictive model showed good discrimination in derivation and validation subgroups (AUC 0.843 and 0.820, respectively). Sensitivity of the final model was 91% in the derivation group and 78% in the validation group. At a pre-defined threshold of 2 or more points, prehospital severe sepsis (PRESS) score sensitivity was 86%. Conclusions The PRESS score is a novel EMS screening tool for SS that demonstrates a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 47%. Additional validation is needed before this tool can be recommended for widespread clinical use. PMID:26070235

  18. Screening and characterization of reactive compounds with in vitro peptide-trapping and liquid chromatography/high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cong; Chupak, Louis S; Philip, Thomas; Johnson, Benjamin M; Gentles, Robert; Drexler, Dieter M

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes a novel methodology for the detection of reactive compounds using in vitro peptide-trapping and liquid chromatography-high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Compounds that contain electrophilic groups can covalently bind to nucleophilic moieties in proteins and form adducts. Such adducts are thought to be associated with drug-mediated toxicity and therefore represent potential liabilities in drug discovery programs. In addition, reactive compounds identified in biological screening can be associated with data that can be misinterpreted if the reactive nature of the compound is not appreciated. In this work, to facilitate the triage of hits from high-throughput screening (HTS), a novel assay was developed to monitor the formation of covalent peptide adducts by compounds suspected to be chemically reactive. The assay consists of in vitro incubations of test compounds (under conditions of physiological pH) with synthetically prepared peptides presenting a variety of nucleophilic moieties such as cysteine, lysine, histidine, arginine, serine, and tyrosine. Reaction mixtures were analyzed using full-scan LC-HRMS, the data were interrogated using postacquisition data mining, and modified amino acids were identified by subsequent LC-HRMS/mass spectrometry. The study demonstrated that in vitro nucleophilic peptide trapping followed by LC-HRMS analysis is a useful approach for screening of intrinsically reactive compounds identified from HTS exercises, which are then removed from follow-up processes, thus obviating the generation of data from biochemical activity assays.

  19. High-Throughput Accurate Single-Cell Screening of Euglena gracilis with Fluorescence-Assisted Optofluidic Time-Stretch Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Ito, Takuro; Jiang, Yiyue; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels is an important, but challenging goal for the world. As an alternative to liquid fossil fuels, algal biofuel is expected to play a key role in alleviating global warming since algae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Among various algae for fuel production, Euglena gracilis is an attractive microalgal species as it is known to produce wax ester (good for biodiesel and aviation fuel) within lipid droplets. To date, while there exist many techniques for inducing microalgal cells to produce and accumulate lipid with high efficiency, few analytical methods are available for characterizing a population of such lipid-accumulated microalgae including E. gracilis with high throughout, high accuracy, and single-cell resolution simultaneously. Here we demonstrate high-throughput, high-accuracy, single-cell screening of E. gracilis with fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscopy-a method that combines the strengths of microfluidic cell focusing, optical time-stretch microscopy, and fluorescence detection used in conventional flow cytometry. Specifically, our fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscope consists of an optical time-stretch microscope and a fluorescence analyzer on top of a hydrodynamically focusing microfluidic device and can detect fluorescence from every E. gracilis cell in a population and simultaneously obtain its image with a high throughput of 10,000 cells/s. With the multi-dimensional information acquired by the system, we classify nitrogen-sufficient (ordinary) and nitrogen-deficient (lipid-accumulated) E. gracilis cells with a low false positive rate of 1.0%. This method holds promise for evaluating cultivation techniques and selective breeding for microalgae-based biofuel production.

  20. High-Throughput Accurate Single-Cell Screening of Euglena gracilis with Fluorescence-Assisted Optofluidic Time-Stretch Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Ito, Takuro; Jiang, Yiyue; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels is an important, but challenging goal for the world. As an alternative to liquid fossil fuels, algal biofuel is expected to play a key role in alleviating global warming since algae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Among various algae for fuel production, Euglena gracilis is an attractive microalgal species as it is known to produce wax ester (good for biodiesel and aviation fuel) within lipid droplets. To date, while there exist many techniques for inducing microalgal cells to produce and accumulate lipid with high efficiency, few analytical methods are available for characterizing a population of such lipid-accumulated microalgae including E. gracilis with high throughout, high accuracy, and single-cell resolution simultaneously. Here we demonstrate high-throughput, high-accuracy, single-cell screening of E. gracilis with fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscopy–a method that combines the strengths of microfluidic cell focusing, optical time-stretch microscopy, and fluorescence detection used in conventional flow cytometry. Specifically, our fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscope consists of an optical time-stretch microscope and a fluorescence analyzer on top of a hydrodynamically focusing microfluidic device and can detect fluorescence from every E. gracilis cell in a population and simultaneously obtain its image with a high throughput of 10,000 cells/s. With the multi-dimensional information acquired by the system, we classify nitrogen-sufficient (ordinary) and nitrogen-deficient (lipid-accumulated) E. gracilis cells with a low false positive rate of 1.0%. This method holds promise for evaluating cultivation techniques and selective breeding for microalgae-based biofuel production. PMID:27846239

  1. Label free fragment screening using surface plasmon resonance as a tool for fragment finding - analyzing parkin, a difficult CNS target.

    PubMed

    Regnström, Karin; Yan, Jiangli; Nguyen, Lan; Callaway, Kari; Yang, Yanli; Diep, Linnea; Xing, Weimei; Adhikari, Anirban; Beroza, Paul; Hom, Roy K; Riley, Brigit; Rudolph, Don; Jobling, Michael F; Baker, Jeanne; Johnston, Jennifer; Konradi, Andrei; Bova, Michael P; Artis, Dean R; Artis, Rick D

    2013-01-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is rarely used as a primary High-throughput Screening (HTS) tool in fragment-based approaches. With SPR instruments becoming increasingly high-throughput it is now possible to use SPR as a primary tool for fragment finding. SPR becomes, therefore, a valuable tool in the screening of difficult targets such as the ubiquitin E3 ligase Parkin. As a prerequisite for the screen, a large number of SPR tests were performed to characterize and validate the active form of Parkin. A set of compounds was designed and used to define optimal SPR assay conditions for this fragment screen. Using these conditions, more than 5000 pre-selected fragments from our in-house library were screened for binding to Parkin. Additionally, all fragments were simultaneously screened for binding to two off target proteins to exclude promiscuous binding compounds. A low hit rate was observed that is in line with hit rates usually obtained by other HTS screening assays. All hits were further tested in dose responses on the target protein by SPR for confirmation before channeling the hits into Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and other hit-confirmation assays.

  2. Validation of Microtox as a first screening tool for waste classification.

    PubMed

    Weltens, R; Deprez, K; Michiels, L

    2014-12-01

    The Waste Framework Directive (WFD; 2008/98/EG) describes how waste materials are to be classified as hazardous or not. For complex waste materials chemical analyses are often not conclusive and the WFD provides the possibility to assess the hazardous properties by testing on the waste materials directly. As a methodology WFD refers to the protocols described in the CLP regulation (regulation on Classification, Labeling and Packaging of chemicals) but the toxicity tests on mammals are not acceptable for waste materials. The DISCRISET project was initiated to investigate the suitability of alternative toxicity tests that are already in use in pharmaceutical applications, for the toxicological hazard assessment of complex waste materials. Results indicated that Microtox was a good candidate as a first screening test in a tiered approached hazard assessment. This is now further validated in the present study. The toxic responses measured in Microtox were compared to biological responses in other bioassays for both organic and inorganic fractions of the wastes. Both fractions contribute to the toxic load of waste samples. Results show that the Microtox test is indeed a good and practical screening tool for the organic fraction. A screening threshold (ST) of 5 geq/l as the EC50 value in Microtox is proposed as this ST allows to recognize highly toxic samples in the screening test. The data presented here show that the Microtox toxicity response at this ST is not only predictive for acute toxicity in other organisms but also for sub lethal toxic effects of the organic fraction. This limit value has to be further validated. For the inorganic fraction no specific biotest can be recommended as a screening test, but the use of direct toxicity assessment is also preferable for this fraction as metal speciation is an important issue to define the toxic load of elutriate fractions. A battery of 3 tests (Microtox, Daphnia and Algae) for direct toxicity assessment of this

  3. Validation of Three Early Ejaculation Diagnostic Tools: A Composite Measure Is Accurate and More Adequate for Diagnosis by Updated Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Jern, Patrick; Piha, Juhana; Santtila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To validate three early ejaculation diagnostic tools, and propose a new tool for diagnosis in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Significant changes to diagnostic criteria are expected in the near future. Available screening tools do not necessarily reflect proposed changes. Materials and Methods Data from 148 diagnosed early ejaculation patients (Mage = 42.8) and 892 controls (Mage = 33.1 years) from a population-based sample were used. Participants responded to three different questionnaires (Premature Ejaculation Profile; Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool; Multiple Indicators of Premature Ejaculation). Stopwatch measured ejaculation latency times were collected from a subsample of early ejaculation patients. We used two types of responses to the questionnaires depending on the treatment status of the patients 1) responses regarding the situation before starting pharmacological treatment and 2) responses regarding current situation. Logistic regressions and Receiver Operating Characteristics were used to assess ability of both the instruments and individual items to differentiate between patients and controls. Results All instruments had very good precision (Areas under the Curve ranging from .93-.98). A new five-item instrument (named CHecklist for Early Ejaculation Symptoms – CHEES) consisting of high-performance variables selected from the three instruments had validity (Nagelkerke R2 range .51-.79 for backwards/forwards logistic regression) equal to or slightly better than any individual instrument (i.e., had slightly higher validity statistics, but these differences did not achieve statistical significance). Importantly, however, this instrument was more in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Conclusions All three screening tools had good validity. A new 5-item diagnostic tool (CHEES) based on the three instruments had equal or somewhat more favorable validity statistics compared to the other three tools, but is

  4. Anthropometric indicators of obesity as screening tools for high blood pressure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Leal Neto, João de Souza; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Freitas, Roberta Souza; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Oliveira, Daniela Sousa; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    The study objectives were to investigate the indicators of obesity most associated with high blood pressure in community-dwelling elderly and identify among these which one best discriminates high blood pressure. This is an epidemiological, population, cross-sectional and home-based study of elderly people (≥ 60 years, n = 316) residing in northeastern Brazil. The results showed that the body mass index and the body adiposity index were the indicators more closely associated with high blood pressure in both sexes. Both in female and male genders, body mass index showed high values of specificity and low sensitivity values for discriminating high blood pressure, whereas the body adiposity index showed high sensitivity and moderate specificity values. In clinical practice and health surveillance, it is suggested that both indicators be used as screening tools for hypertension in the elderly.

  5. Teaching child psychiatric assessment skills: Using pediatric mental health screening tools.

    PubMed

    Hargrave, T M; Arthur, M E

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the workshop "Teaching Child Psychiatric Assessment Skills: Using Mental Health Screening Instruments," presented at the 35th Forum for Behavioral Sciences in Family Medicine on 20 September 2014. The goals of the presentation were (1) to teach family medicine behavioral health educators to use both general and problem-specific mental health screening tools (MHSTs) in their work with trainees to help satisfy the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandate for behavioral and mental health experience during family medicine residency, (2) to reflect on how MHSTs might be integrated into the flow of family medicine teaching practices, and (3) to exemplify how evidence-based methods of adult education might be used in teaching such content. One general MHST, the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 and one problem-specific MHST for each of the four commonest pediatric mental health issues: for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the Vanderbilt; for Anxiety, the Screen for Childhood Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders; for Depression, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for teens; and for Aggression, the Retrospective-Modified Overt Aggression Scale, were practiced at least twice in the context of a clinical vignette. All of the selected MHSTs are free in the public domain and available for download from the website: www.CAPPCNY.org. Participants were asked to reflect on their own office practice characteristics and consider how MHSTs might be integrated into their systems of care. This workshop could be replicated by others wishing to teach the use of MHSTs in primary care settings or teaching programs.

  6. Dynamic balance control in elders: gait initiation assessment as a screening tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H.; Krebs, D. E.; Wall, C. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether measurements of center of gravity-center of pressure separation (CG-CP moment arm) during gait initiation can differentiate healthy from disabled subjects with sufficient specificity and sensitivity to be useful as a screening test for dynamic balance in elderly patients. SUBJECTS: Three groups of elderly subjects (age, 74.97+/-6.56 yrs): healthy elders (HE, n = 21), disabled elders (DE, n = 20), and elders with vestibular hypofunction (VH, n = 18). DESIGN: Cross-sectional, intact-groups research design. Peak CG-CP moment arm measures how far the subject will tolerate the whole-body CG to deviate from the ground reaction force's CP; it represents dynamic balance control. Screening test cutoff points at 16 to 18 cm peak CG-CP moment arm predicted group membership. RESULTS: The magnitude of peak CG-CP moment arm was significantly greater in HE than in DE and VH subjects (p<.01) and was not different between the DE and VH groups. The peak CG-CP moment arm occurred at the end of single stance phase in all groups. As a screening test, the peak moment arm has greater than 50% sensitivity and specificity to discriminate the HE group from the DE and VH groups with peak CG-CP moment arm cutoff points between 16 and 18 cm. CONCLUSIONS: Examining dynamic balance through the use of the CG-CP moment arm during single stance in gait initiation discriminates between nondisabled and disabled older persons and warrants further investigation as a potential tool to identify people with balance dysfunction.

  7. Ultrasound as a primary screening tool for detecting low birthweight newborns

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Eita

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: As low birthweight (i.e., birthweight < 2500 g) is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity, the pre-delivery detection of low birthweight is clinically advantageous. This study was performed to determine whether ultrasound is suitable for use in primary screening to detect low birthweight newborns. Methods: The primary outcomes included sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of ultrasound detection of low birthweight newborns. Ten databases, including PubMed, were searched. All English language studies that provided true- and false-positive and true- and false-negative results regarding the pre-delivery ultrasound detection of low birthweight newborns were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. Bivariate diagnostic meta-analysis was performed and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed. Results: Studies of relatively good quality were included in the analysis to evaluate crown–rump length (n = 12); femur length (n = 5); formulas of Campbell, Hadlock, and Shepard (n = 9); and uterine artery blood flow (n = 7). All showed low sensitivity (=0.24–0.58) regardless of specificity (=0.60–0.96). The formulas of Campbell, Hadlock, and Shepard were usable for a confirmation strategy only (positive and negative likelihood ratios = 14.8 and 0.44, respectively), but crown–rump or femur length, and uterine artery blood flow were not usable for an exclusion or confirmation strategy (positive and negative likelihood ratios = 1.4–2.8 and 0.71–0.85, respectively). Conclusions: Primary screening does not have to confirm low birthweight, but should almost always categorize low birthweight as a positive result and exclude normal birthweight. Therefore, ultrasound is not suitable as a primary screening tool to detect low birthweight newborns. PMID

  8. Screen and clean: a tool for identifying interactions in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Devlin, Bernie; Ringquist, Steven; Trucco, Massimo; Roeder, Kathryn

    2010-04-01

    Epistasis could be an important source of risk for disease. How interacting loci might be discovered is an open question for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most researchers limit their statistical analyses to testing individual pairwise interactions (i.e., marginal tests for association). A more effective means of identifying important predictors is to fit models that include many predictors simultaneously (i.e., higher-dimensional models). We explore a procedure called screen and clean (SC) for identifying liability loci, including interactions, by using the lasso procedure, which is a model selection tool for high-dimensional regression. We approach the problem by using a varying dictionary consisting of terms to include in the model. In the first step the lasso dictionary includes only main effects. The most promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are identified using a screening procedure. Next the lasso dictionary is adjusted to include these main effects and the corresponding interaction terms. Again, promising terms are identified using lasso screening. Then significant terms are identified through the cleaning process. Implementation of SC for GWAS requires algorithms to explore the complex model space induced by the many SNPs genotyped and their interactions. We propose and explore a set of algorithms and find that SC successfully controls Type I error while yielding good power to identify risk loci and their interactions. When the method is applied to data obtained from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium study of Type 1 Diabetes it uncovers evidence supporting interaction within the HLA class II region as well as within Chromosome 12q24.

  9. Screen and Clean: a tool for identifying interactions in genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Devlin, Bernie; Ringquist, Steven; Trucco, Massimo; Roeder, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Epistasis could be an important source of risk for disease. How interacting loci might be discovered is an open question for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most researchers limit their statistical analyses to testing individual pairwise interactions (i.e., marginal tests for association). A more effective means of identifying important predictors is to fit models that include many predictors simultaneously (i.e., higher dimensional models). We explore a procedure called screen and clean (SC) for identifying liability loci, including interactions, by using the lasso procedure, which is a model selection tool for high dimensional regression. We approach the problem by using a varying dictionary consisting of terms to include in the model. In the first step the lasso dictionary includes only main effects. The most promising SNPs are identified using a screening procedure. Next the lasso dictionary is adjusted to include these main effects and the corresponding interaction terms. Again, promising terms are identified using lasso screening. Then significant terms are identified through the cleaning process. Implementation of SC for GWAS requires algorithms to explore the complex model space induced by the many SNPs genotyped and their interactions. We propose and explore a set of algorithms and find that SC successfully controls Type I error while yielding good power to identify risk loci and their interactions. When the method is applied to data obtained from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium study of Type 1 Diabetes it uncovers evidence supporting interaction within the HLA class II region as well as within Chromosome 12q24. PMID:20088021

  10. ChemScreener: A Distributed Computing Tool for Scaffold based Virtual Screening.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Pandit, Deepak; Vyas, Renu

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present ChemScreener, a Java-based application to perform virtual library generation combined with virtual screening in a platform-independent distributed computing environment. ChemScreener comprises a scaffold identifier, a distinct scaffold extractor, an interactive virtual library generator as well as a virtual screening module for subsequently selecting putative bioactive molecules. The virtual libraries are annotated with chemophore-, pharmacophore- and toxicophore-based information for compound prioritization. The hits selected can then be further processed using QSAR, docking and other in silico approaches which can all be interfaced within the ChemScreener framework. As a sample application, in this work scaffold selectivity, diversity, connectivity and promiscuity towards six important therapeutic classes have been studied. In order to illustrate the computational power of the application, 55 scaffolds extracted from 161 anti-psychotic compounds were enumerated to produce a virtual library comprising 118 million compounds (17 GB) and annotated with chemophore, pharmacophore and toxicophore based features in a single step which would be non-trivial to perform with many standard software tools today on libraries of this size.

  11. CRIER, a relative analysis tool for preliminary screening of complex industrial waste and effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.D.; Brucher, S.; Melanson, P.

    1994-12-31

    CRIER (Chemrisk, a Relative Index for Evaluating Risk), a Windows{trademark}-based program for the preliminary screening of potential risk to aquatic ecosystems, has been developed at the Center of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (CECE) in Concordia. This tool, originally designed for environmental management government bodies, was designed to screen chemical compounds found in industrial aqueous effluents, for their potential to cause harm to some selected target species such as the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This revised model will be applicable in both regulatory and industrial managements as an expert system that provides an assessment based on the most up-to-date toxicological information regarding each compound. Some major characteristics include the consideration of partitioning, plume effect, bioavailability and bioconcentration capacity in producing an evaluation of potential for harm to freshwater species. When parameters are empirically unavailable from the diverse databases, QSARs are used to produce theoretical preliminary estimates of the missing values. one aspect of the model allows consideration of the combined toxicity of organic congeners. Case studies are used in demonstrating the capacities of this model.

  12. Quantitative methylene blue decolourisation assays as rapid screening tools for assessing the efficiency of catalytic reactions.

    PubMed

    Kruid, Jan; Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice Leigh

    2017-05-01

    Identifying the most efficient oxidation process to achieve maximum removal of a target pollutant compound forms the subject of much research. There exists a need to develop rapid screening tools to support research in this area. In this work we report on the development of a quantitative assay as a means for identifying catalysts capable of decolourising methylene blue through the generation of oxidising species from hydrogen peroxide. Here, a previously described methylene blue test strip method was repurposed as a quantitative, aqueous-based spectrophotometric assay. From amongst a selection of metal salts and metallophthalocyanine complexes, monitoring of the decolourisation of the cationic dye methylene blue (via Fenton-like and non-Fenton oxidation reactions) by the assay identified the following to be suitable oxidation catalysts: CuSO4 (a Fenton-like catalyst), iron(II)phthalocyanine (a non-Fenton oxidation catalyst), as well as manganese(II) phthalocyanine. The applicability of the method was examined for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA), as measured by HPLC, during parallel oxidation experiments. The order of catalytic activity was identified as FePc > MnPc > CuSO4 for both BPA and MB. The quantitative MB decolourisation assay may offer a rapid method for screening a wide range of potential catalysts for oxidation processes.

  13. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  14. Performance index: An expeditious tool to screen for improved drought resistance in the Lathyrus genus.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Susana; Araújo, Susana de Sousa; Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota; Marques da Silva, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    Some species of the Lathyrus genus are among the most promising crops for marginal lands, with high resilience to drought, flood, and fungal diseases, combined with high yields and seed nutritional value. However, lack of knowledge on the mechanisms underlying its outstanding performance and methodologies to identify elite genotypes has hampered its proper use in breeding. Chlorophyll a fast fluorescence transient (JIP test), was used to evaluate water deficit (WD) resistance in Lathyrus genus. Our results reveal unaltered photochemical values for all studied genotypes showing resistance to mild WD. Under severe WD, two Lathyrus sativus genotypes showed remarkable resilience maintaining the photochemical efficiency, contrary to other genotypes studied. Performance index (PIABS) is the best parameter to screen genotypes with improved performance and grain production under WD. Moreover, we found that JIP indices are good indicators of genotypic grain production under WD. Quantum yield of electron transport (ϕEo) and efficiency with which trapped excitons can move electrons further than QA (ψ0) revealed as important traits related to improved photosynthetic performance and should be exploited in future Lathyrus germplasm improvements. The JIP test herein described showed to be an expeditious tool to screen and to identify elite genotypes with improved drought resistance.

  15. Can Screening Tools for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Predict Postoperative Complications? A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Lilia; Macavei, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common, underdiagnosed condition that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the perioperative setting. Increasing evidence suggests that the utility of preoperative screening tools may go beyond identification of OSA, to the prediction of perioperative complications. The primary objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on all studies assessing whether high risk scores on the STOP-Bang questionnaire, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) checklist, and the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) are associated with higher rates of postoperative complications. Methods: A systematic review of English language records was performed using Medline, EMBASE, and PsychInfo with additional studies identified by manual search through reference lists. Only studies that evaluated the ability of the STOP-Bang, the BQ, and ASA checklist to predict postoperative complications in adults were included. Results: Twelve studies were included in the final review. Eight studies looked at STOP-Bang, 3 at the Berlin Questionnaire, and 2 at the ASA Checklist. Significant differences across study characteristics prevented a meta-analysis and the studies were evaluated qualitatively. Conclusions: The ASA checklist, Berlin Questionnaire, and STOP-Bang questionnaire may be able to risk stratify patients for perioperative and postoperative complications. Further research is required, with a particular focus on specific surgery types and adjustment of potentially confounding factors in the analysis. Citation: Dimitrov L, Macavei V. Can screening tools for obstructive sleep apnea predict postoperative complications? A systematic review of the literature. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(9):1293–1300. PMID:27448417

  16. Right Ventricular Apical Flattening as an Echocardiographic Screening Tool for Right Ventricular Enlargement.

    PubMed

    Buddhe, Sujatha; Ferguson, Mark; Arya, Bhawna; Soriano, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    Right ventricular dilation is a common complication after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair. Traditional echocardiographic assessments are imprecise due to the RV's location and complex geometry. We propose a novel echocardiographic measurement: RV apical flattening (RVAF) as a screening tool to help identify subjects with severe RV dilation. Patients with repaired TOF who had both echocardiograms and CMR's within 6-month interval at our institution were included in the study. The RVAF was measured in the four-chamber echocardiographic view as the minor length of RV cavity at the level of RV apical endocardium. Subjects were divided into two groups (group I: RVEDVi ≥ 150 ml/m(2) and group II; RVEDVi < 150 ml/m(2)). Echocardiogram and CMR data were compared between groups. A total of 75 subjects were included in the study. Mean age was 12.8 ± 3.6 years. Group I had 36 subjects, and group II had 39 subjects. The mean RVAF was significantly higher in group I (2.7 ± 0.5 cm) compared with group II (1.7 ± 0.4 cm; p < 0.001). There was significant correlation between RVAF and RVEDVi (r = 0.81; p < 0.001). By ROC analysis, an RVAF cutoff value of 2.0 cm had 94 % sensitivity and 77 % specificity in identifying severe RV dilation (area under the curve 0.95). RVAF is a simple and effective echocardiographic screening tool to help identify severe RV dilation. In conjunction with other 2D echocardiographic parameters, this technique would help further refine echocardiography-guided patient selection for timing of CMR and pulmonary valve replacement.

  17. Evaluation of a novel portable x-ray fluorescence screening tool for detection of arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    McIver, David J; VanLeeuwen, John A; Knafla, Anthony L; Campbell, Jillian A; Alexander, Kevin M; Gherase, Mihai R; Guernsey, Judith R; Fleming, David E B

    2015-12-01

    A new portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) screening tool was evaluated for its effectiveness in arsenic (As) quantification in human finger and toe nails ([Formula: see text]). Nail samples were measured for total As concentration by XRF and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Using concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), kappa, diagnostic sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp), and linear regression analyses, the concentration of As measured by XRF was compared to ICP-MS. The CCC peaked for scaled values of fingernail samples, at 0.424 (95% CI: 0.065-0.784). The largest kappa value, 0.400 (95% CI:  -0.282-1.000), was found at a 1.3 μg g(-1) cut-off concentration, for fingernails only, and the largest kappa at a clinically relevant cut-off concentration of 1.0 μg g(-1) was 0.237 (95% CI:  -0.068-0.543), again in fingernails. Analyses generally showed excellent XRF Sn (up to 100%, 95% CI: 48-100%), but low Sp (up to 30% for the same analysis, 95% CI: 14-50%). Portable XRF shows some potential for use as a screening tool with fingernail samples. The difference between XRF and ICP-MS measurements decreased as sample mass increased to 30 mg. While this novel method of As detection in nails has shown relatively high agreement in some scenarios, this portable XRF is not currently considered suitable as a substitute for ICP-MS.

  18. Reply: Comparison of slope instability screening tools following a large storm event and application to forest management and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Kara A.; McShane, Dan

    2013-02-01

    A large storm event in southwest Washington State triggered over 2500 landslides and provided an opportunity to assess two slope stability screening tools. The statistical analysis conducted demonstrated that both screening tools are effective at predicting where landslides were likely to take place (Whittaker and McShane, 2012). Here we reply to two discussions of this article related to the development of the slope stability screening tools and the accuracy and scale of the spatial data used. Neither of the discussions address our statistical analysis or results. We provide greater detail on our sampling criteria and also elaborate on the policy and management implications of our findings and how they complement those of a separate investigation of landslides resulting from the same storm. The conclusions made in Whittaker and McShane (2012) stand as originally published unless future analysis indicates otherwise.

  19. siMacro: A Fast and Easy Data Processing Tool for Cell-Based Genomewide siRNA Screens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Seo, Bo Yeun; Vidyasagar, Mathukumalli; White, Michael A; Kim, Hyun Seok

    2013-03-01

    Growing numbers of studies employ cell line-based systematic short interfering RNA (siRNA) screens to study gene functions and to identify drug targets. As multiple sources of variations that are unique to siRNA screens exist, there is a growing demand for a computational tool that generates normalized values and standardized scores. However, only a few tools have been available so far with limited usability. Here, we present siMacro, a fast and easy-to-use Microsoft Office Excel-based tool with a graphic user interface, designed to process single-condition or two-condition synthetic screen datasets. siMacro normalizes position and batch effects, censors outlier samples, and calculates Z-scores and robust Z-scores, with a spreadsheet output of >120,000 samples in under 1 minute.

  20. Comparison of slope instability screening tools following a large storm event and application to forest management and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Kara A.; McShane, Dan

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the ability of two slope instability screening tools developed by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) to assess landslide risks associated with forestry activities. HAZONE is based on a semi-quantitative method that incorporates the landslide frequency rate and landslide area rate for delivery of mapped landforms. SLPSTAB is a GIS-based model of inherent landform characteristics that utilizes slope geometry derived from DEMs and climatic data. Utilization of slope instability screening tools by geologists, land managers, and regulatory agencies can reduce the frequency and magnitude of landslides. Aquatic habitats are negatively impacted by elevated rates and magnitudes of landslides associated with forest management practices due to high sediment loads and alteration of stream channels and morphology. In 2007 a large storm with heavy rainfall impacted southwestern Washington State trigging over 2500 landslides. This storm event and accompanying landslides provides an opportunity to assess the slope stability screening tools developed by WDNR. Landslide density (up to 6.5 landslides per km2) from the storm was highest in the areas designated by the screening tools as high hazard areas, and both of the screening tools were equal in their ability to predict landslide locations. Landslides that initiated in low hazard areas may have resulted from a variety of site-specific factors that deviated from assumed model values, from the inadequate identification of potentially unstable landforms due to low resolution DEMs, or from the inadequate implementation of the state Forest Practices Rules. We suggest that slope instability screening tools can be better utilized by forest management planners and regulators to meet policy goals regarding minimizing landslide rates and impacts to sensitive aquatic species.

  1. Do Two Screening Tools for Chikungunya Virus Infection that were Developed among Younger Population Work Equally as Well in Patients Aged over 65 Years?

    PubMed Central

    Najioullah, Fatiha; Bousquet, Lionel; Malmontet, Thomas; Fournet, Benoît; Césaire, Raymond; Fanon, Jean-Luc; Dramé, Moustapha

    2017-01-01

    Background Chikungunya is an endemo-epidemic infection, which is still considered as an emerging public health problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate in a 65+ population, the accuracy of two chikungunya screening scores that were developed in younger people. Methods It was performed in the Martinique University Hospitals from retrospective cases. Patients were 65+, admitted to acute care units, for suspected Chikungunya virus infection (CVI) in 2014, with biological testing using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction. Mayotte tool and Reunion Island tool were also computed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and Youden’s statistic were calculated. Results In all, 687 patients were included, 68% with confirmed CVI, and 32% with laboratory-unconfirmed CVI. Fever (73.1%) and arthralgia (51.4%) were the most frequent symptoms. Sensitivity ranged from 6% (fever+headache) to 49% (fever+polyarthralgia); and Youden’s index ranged from 1% (fever + headache) to 30% (fever+polyarthralgia). PPV and NPV ranged from 70% to 95%, and from 32% to 43%, respectively. Conclusion Performances were very poor for both tools, although specificity was good to excellent. Our results suggest that screening scores developed in young population are not accurate in identifying CVI in older people. PMID:28056031

  2. Is carpal tunnel syndrome present in acute stroke patients? An investigative study using clinical and imaging screening tools.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Loochtan, Aaron I; Dresser, Brian; Chang, Jianhong; Farjat, Alfredo E; Choudhury, Kingshuk; Hobson-Webb, Lisa D

    2017-05-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is known to develop post-stroke. Median nerve ultrasound (US) is an inexpensive, effective means of screening. In this prospective feasibility study, we compared the ability of the physical exam, the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) and median nerve US to screen for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) within 72hours of stroke onset. We enrolled 24 consecutive patients. Using US, 19 (79%, p=0.0386) of the 24 patients screened positive for CTS on the paretic side and 20 (83%, p=0.0042) on the nonparetic side. With clinical examination, only 11 out of 24 (46%) screened positive for CTS on the paretic side and 8 (33%) on the nonparetic side. The BCTQ did not predict CTS. US can be an effective screening tool post-stroke. Further research is needed to determine specificity and efficacy compared to electrodiagnostic testing in this population.

  3. Accurate 3d Textured Models of Vessels for the Improvement of the Educational Tools of a Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soile, S.; Adam, K.; Ioannidis, C.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2013-02-01

    Besides the demonstration of the findings, modern museums organize educational programs which aim to experience and knowledge sharing combined with entertainment rather than to pure learning. Toward that effort, 2D and 3D digital representations are gradually replacing the traditional recording of the findings through photos or drawings. The present paper refers to a project that aims to create 3D textured models of two lekythoi that are exhibited in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens in Greece; on the surfaces of these lekythoi scenes of the adventures of Odysseus are depicted. The project is expected to support the production of an educational movie and some other relevant interactive educational programs for the museum. The creation of accurate developments of the paintings and of accurate 3D models is the basis for the visualization of the adventures of the mythical hero. The data collection was made by using a structured light scanner consisting of two machine vision cameras that are used for the determination of geometry of the object, a high resolution camera for the recording of the texture, and a DLP projector. The creation of the final accurate 3D textured model is a complicated and tiring procedure which includes the collection of geometric data, the creation of the surface, the noise filtering, the merging of individual surfaces, the creation of a c-mesh, the creation of the UV map, the provision of the texture and, finally, the general processing of the 3D textured object. For a better result a combination of commercial and in-house software made for the automation of various steps of the procedure was used. The results derived from the above procedure were especially satisfactory in terms of accuracy and quality of the model. However, the procedure was proved to be time consuming while the use of various software packages presumes the services of a specialist.

  4. Drug Literacy in Iran: the Experience of Using "The Single Item Health Literacy Screening (SILS) Tool".

    PubMed

    Peiravian, Farzad; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Jahani Hashemi, Hasan; Mohammadi, Navid; Jafari, Nahid; Fardi, Kianoosh

    2014-01-01

    Drug and health literacy is a key determinant of health outcomes. There are several tools to assess drug and health literacy. The objective of this article is to determine drug literacy level and its relationships with other factors using a single item screening tool. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1104 people in Qazvin province, Iran. Based on the proportional-to-size method, participants over 15 years old with ability to read were recruited randomly from 6 counties in Qazvin province and were interviewed directly. To determine drug literacy relationship with other variables, Chi-Square and t-test were used. Also, logistic regression model was used to adjust the relationship between drug literacy and other relevant variables. Response rate in clusters was 100%. Findings showed that inadequate drug literacy in Qazvin province is 30.3% and it was in association with (1) age (p = .000), (2) marital status (p = .000), (3) educational attainment (p = .000), (4) home county (p = .000), (5) residing area (p = .000), (6) type of basic health insurance (p = .000), (7) complementary health insurance status (p = .000), and (8) family socioeconomic status (p = .000). After adjusting for these variables using logistic regression model, the association between (1), (3), (4), (5) and (8) with drug literacy level was confirmed. The analysis also showed that this method can also be used in other health care settings in Iran for drug and health literacy rapid assessment.

  5. Validation analysis of a geriatric dehydration screening tool in community-dwelling and institutionalized elderly people.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Susana; Silva, Joana; Severo, Milton; Inácio, Cátia; Padrão, Patrícia; Lopes, Carla; Carvalho, Joana; do Carmo, Isabel; Moreira, Pedro

    2015-03-02

    Dehydration is common among elderly people. The aim of this study was to perform validation analysis of a geriatric dehydration-screening tool (DST) in the assessment of hydration status in elderly people. This tool was based on the DST proposed by Vivanti et al., which is composed by 11 items (four physical signs of dehydration and seven questions about thirst sensation, pain and mobility), with four questions extra about drinking habits. The resulting questionnaire was evaluated in a convenience sample comprising institutionalized (n=29) and community-dwelling (n=74) elderly people. Urinary parameters were assessed (24-h urine osmolality and volume) and free water reserve (FWR) was calculated. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the scale's dimensionality and Cronbach's alpha was used to measure the reliability of each subscale. Construct's validity was tested using linear regression to estimate the association between scores in each dimension and urinary parameters. Two factors emerged from factor analysis, which were named "Hydration Score" and "Pain Score", and both subscales showed acceptable reliabilities. The "Hydration Score" was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality in community-dwelling; and the "Pain Score" was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality, and positively associated with 24-h urine volume and FWR in institutionalized elderly people.

  6. Mechanism-based categorization of aromatase inhibitors: a potential discovery and screening tool.

    PubMed

    Petkov, P I; Temelkov, S; Villeneuve, D L; Ankley, G T; Mekenyan, O G

    2009-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 aromatase is a key steroidogenic enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens in vertebrates. There is much interest in aromatase inhibitors (AIs) both because of their use as pharmaceuticals in the treatment of estrogen-sensitive breast cancers, and because a number of environmental contaminants can act as AIs, thereby disrupting endocrine function in humans and wildlife through suppression of circulating estrogen levels. The goal of the current work was to develop a mechanism-based structure-activity relationship (SAR) categorization framework highlighting the most important chemical structural features responsible for inhibition of aromatase activity. Two main interaction mechanisms were discerned: steroidal and non-steroidal. The steroid scaffold is most prominent when the structure of the target chemical is similar to the natural substrates of aromatase - androstenedione and testosterone. Chemicals acting by non-steroidal mechanism(s) possess a heteroatom (N, O, S) able to coordinate the heme iron of the cytochrome P450, and thus interfere with steroid hydroxylation. The specific structural boundaries controlling AI for both analyzed mechanisms were defined, and a software tool was developed that allowed a decision tree (profile) to be built discriminating AIs by mechanism and potency. An input chemical follows a profiling path and the structure is examined at each step to decide whether it conforms with the structural boundaries implemented in the decision tree node. Such a system would aid drug discovery efforts, as well as provide a screening tool to detect environmental contaminants that could act as AIs.

  7. Revised Hazard Ranking System: An improved tool for screening Superfund sites. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The Fact Sheet discusses the revised HRS which retains the same cutoff score and basic approach as the original HRS, while incorporating SARA requirements as well as improvements identified as necessary by EPA and the public. The revised HRS retains the ground water, surface water, and air pathways, drops the direct contact and fire/explosion pathways, and adds a fourth pathway, soil exposure. Several key provisions of the revised HRS make it more comprehensive. Other provisions make the revised HRS more accurate. The complexity and scope of the issues involved in revising the HRS required EPA to get widespread input. The majority of the commenters believed that the revised HRS represented an improvement over the original HRS. The result is a revised HRS that is a practical and effective tool in identifying the nation's worst hazardous waste sites.

  8. A High Resolution/Accurate Mass (HRAM) Data-Dependent MS3 Neutral Loss Screening, Classification, and Relative Quantitation Methodology for Carbonyl Compounds in Saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dator, Romel; Carrà, Andrea; Maertens, Laura; Guidolin, Valeria; Villalta, Peter W.; Balbo, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    Reactive carbonyl compounds (RCCs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are generated endogenously as a result of various physiological and pathological processes. These compounds can react with biological molecules inducing deleterious processes believed to be at the basis of their toxic effects. Several of these compounds are implicated in neurotoxic processes, aging disorders, and cancer. Therefore, a method characterizing exposures to these chemicals will provide insights into how they may influence overall health and contribute to disease pathogenesis. Here, we have developed a high resolution accurate mass (HRAM) screening strategy allowing simultaneous identification and relative quantitation of DNPH-derivatized carbonyls in human biological fluids. The screening strategy involves the diagnostic neutral loss of hydroxyl radical triggering MS3 fragmentation, which is only observed in positive ionization mode of DNPH-derivatized carbonyls. Unique fragmentation pathways were used to develop a classification scheme for characterizing known and unanticipated/unknown carbonyl compounds present in saliva. Furthermore, a relative quantitation strategy was implemented to assess variations in the levels of carbonyl compounds before and after exposure using deuterated d 3 -DNPH. This relative quantitation method was tested on human samples before and after exposure to specific amounts of alcohol. The nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) in positive mode afforded excellent sensitivity with detection limits on-column in the high-attomole levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a method using HRAM neutral loss screening of carbonyl compounds. In addition, the method allows simultaneous characterization and relative quantitation of DNPH-derivatized compounds using nano-ESI in positive mode.

  9. Structural and functional screening in human induced-pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes accurately identifies cardiotoxicity of multiple drug types

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, Kimberly R. Talbert, Dominique R.; Trusk, Patricia B.; Moran, Diarmuid M.; Shell, Scott A.; Bacus, Sarah

    2015-05-15

    Safety pharmacology studies that evaluate new drug entities for potential cardiac liability remain a critical component of drug development. Current studies have shown that in vitro tests utilizing human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CM) may be beneficial for preclinical risk evaluation. We recently demonstrated that an in vitro multi-parameter test panel assessing overall cardiac health and function could accurately reflect the associated clinical cardiotoxicity of 4 FDA-approved targeted oncology agents using hiPS-CM. The present studies expand upon this initial observation to assess whether this in vitro screen could detect cardiotoxicity across multiple drug classes with known clinical cardiac risks. Thus, 24 drugs were examined for their effect on both structural (viability, reactive oxygen species generation, lipid formation, troponin secretion) and functional (beating activity) endpoints in hiPS-CM. Using this screen, the cardiac-safe drugs showed no effects on any of the tests in our panel. However, 16 of 18 compounds with known clinical cardiac risk showed drug-induced changes in hiPS-CM by at least one method. Moreover, when taking into account the Cmax values, these 16 compounds could be further classified depending on whether the effects were structural, functional, or both. Overall, the most sensitive test assessed cardiac beating using the xCELLigence platform (88.9%) while the structural endpoints provided additional insight into the mechanism of cardiotoxicity for several drugs. These studies show that a multi-parameter approach examining both cardiac cell health and function in hiPS-CM provides a comprehensive and robust assessment that can aid in the determination of potential cardiac liability. - Highlights: • 24 drugs were tested for cardiac liability using an in vitro multi-parameter screen. • Changes in beating activity were the most sensitive in predicting cardiac risk. • Structural effects add in

  10. Development of the Water-Analysis Screening Tool Used in the Initial Screening for the Pennsylvania State Water Plan Update of 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckey, Marla H.

    2008-01-01

    The Water Resources Planning Act, Act 220 of 2002, requires the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) to update the State Water Plan by 2008. As part of this update, a water-analysis screening tool (WAST) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the PaDEP, to provide assistance to the state in the identification of critical water-planning areas. The WAST has two primary inputs: net withdrawals and the initial screening criteria. A comprehensive water-use database that includes data from registration, estimation, discharge monitoring reports, mining data, and other sources was developed as input into the WAST. Water use in the following categories was estimated using water-use factors: residential, industrial, commercial, agriculture, and golf courses. A percentage of the 7-day, 10-year low flow is used for the initial screenings using the WAST to identify potential critical water-planning areas. This quantity, or initial screening criteria, is 50 percent of the 7-day, 10-year low flow for most streams. Using a basic water-balance equation, a screening indicator is calculated that indicates the potential influences of net withdrawals on aquatic-resource uses for watersheds generally larger than 15 square miles. Points representing outlets of these watersheds are colored-coded within the WAST to show the screening criteria for each watershed.

  11. Comparison of Nursing Records and the Catholic Medical Center Nutritional Risk Screening as a Nutrition Screening Tool for Intensive Care Unit Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Jin; Hong, Jeong Im

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to compare the results from nutritional risk screening based on nursing records with those using the Catholic Medical Center Nutritional Risk Screening (CMCNRS) tool. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 91 patients aged ≥ 18 years from an intensive care unit. We collected general characteristics of the patients and nutrition screening was conducted for each patient by using computerized hospital program for the nursing records as well as the CMCNRS conducted by clinical dietitians. The subjects were aged 64.0 ± 17.5 years, and 52 (57.1%) patients had a NPO (nothing by mouth) status. Neurological disease was the most common diagnosis (25.3%). Compared with the CMCNRS results from the clinical dietitians, the results for the nursing records had a sensitivity of 40.5% (95% CI 32.0-40.5) and a specificity of 100.0% (95% CI 92.8-100.0). The agreement was fair between the CMCNRS results obtained by clinical dietitians and the nursing records (k = 0.423). Analysis of the errors from the screening using the nursing records revealed significant differences for all subjective indicators (p < 0.001), compared with the CMCNRS by the clinical dietitians. Thus, after assessing the methods used for nutrition screening and the differences in the search results regarding malnourished status, we noted that the nursing records had a lower sensitivity than the screening by the CMCNRS. PMID:25713793

  12. A 3D assessment tool for accurate volume measurement for monitoring the evolution of cutaneous leishmaniasis wounds.

    PubMed

    Zvietcovich, Fernando; Castañeda, Benjamin; Valencia, Braulio; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Clinical assessment and outcome metrics are serious weaknesses identified on the systematic reviews of cutaneous Leishmaniasis wounds. Methods with high accuracy and low-variability are required to standarize study outcomes in clinical trials. This work presents a precise, complete and noncontact 3D assessment tool for monitoring the evolution of cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) wounds based on a 3D laser scanner and computer vision algorithms. A 3D mesh of the wound is obtained by a commercial 3D laser scanner. Then, a semi-automatic segmentation using active contours is performed to separate the ulcer from the healthy skin. Finally, metrics of volume, area, perimeter and depth are obtained from the mesh. Traditional manual 3D and 3D measurements are obtained as a gold standard. Experiments applied to phantoms and real CL wounds suggest that the proposed 3D assessment tool provides higher accuracy (error <2%) and precision rates (error <4%) than conventional manual methods (precision error < 35%). This 3D assessment tool provides high accuracy metrics which deserve more formal prospective study.

  13. Evaluation of the efficacy of nutritional screening tools to predict malnutrition in the elderly at a geriatric care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Myoung-Ha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Malnutrition in the elderly is a serious problem, prevalent in both hospitals and care homes. Due to the absence of a gold standard for malnutrition, herein we evaluate the efficacy of five nutritional screening tools developed or used for the elderly. SUBJECTS/METHODS Elected medical records of 141 elderly patients (86 men and 55 women, aged 73.5 ± 5.2 years) hospitalized at a geriatric care hospital were analyzed. Nutritional screening was performed using the following tools: Mini Nutrition Assessment (MNA), Mini Nutrition Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002). A combined index for malnutrition was also calculated as a reference tool. Each patient evaluated as malnourished to any degree or at risk of malnutrition according to at least four out of five of the aforementioned tools was categorized as malnourished in the combined index classification. RESULTS According to the combined index, 44.0% of the patients were at risk of malnutrition to some degree. While the nutritional risk and/or malnutrition varied greatly depending on the tool applied, ranging from 36.2% (MUST) to 72.3% (MNA-SF). MUST showed good validity (sensitivity 80.6%, specificity 98.7%) and almost perfect agreement (k = 0.81) with the combined index. In contrast, MNA-SF showed poor validity (sensitivity 100%, specificity 49.4%) and only moderate agreement (k = 0.46) with the combined index. CONCLUSIONS MNA-SF was found to overestimate the nutritional risk in the elderly. MUST appeared to be the most valid and useful screening tool to predict malnutrition in the elderly at a geriatric care hospital. PMID:26634053

  14. Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS): an efficient tool for depression screening in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Neitzer, Andrea; Sun, Sumi; Doss, Sheila; Moran, John; Schiller, Brigitte

    2012-04-01

    Depression is common in patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Various screening tools for depression in ESRD patients are available. This study aimed to validate the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS) with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) as depression screening tool in conventional hemodialysis (CHD) patients. One hundred sixty two CHD patients were studied with both screening questionnaires. We used the Pearson Correlation Coefficient to measure the agreement between BDI-II and BDI-FS scores from 134 patients who responded to both questionnaires. Receiver operating characteristics curve and area under the curve were constructed to determine a valid BDI-FS cutoff score to identify ESRD patients at risk for depression. BDI-II and BDI-FS scores strongly correlated (Pearson r = 0.85, p < 0.0001). At a BDI-II cutoff ≥16, receiver operating characteristics showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity for the BDI-FS cutoff value of ≥4 with a sensitivity of 97.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 85.5%, 99.9%) and a specificity of 91.8% (95% CI: 84.5%, 96.4%). When applying the above cutoff scores, prevalence of depressive symptoms in all completed questionnaires was found to be 28.7% (BDI-II) and 30.1% (BDI-FS), respectively. The BDI-FS was found to be an efficient and effective tool for depression screening in ESRD patients which can be easily implemented in routine dialysis care.

  15. A scalable and accurate targeted gene assembly tool (SAT-Assembler) for next-generation sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Yanni; Cole, James R

    2014-08-01

    Gene assembly, which recovers gene segments from short reads, is an important step in functional analysis of next-generation sequencing data. Lacking quality reference genomes, de novo assembly is commonly used for RNA-Seq data of non-model organisms and metagenomic data. However, heterogeneous sequence coverage caused by heterogeneous expression or species abundance, similarity between isoforms or homologous genes, and large data size all pose challenges to de novo assembly. As a result, existing assembly tools tend to output fragmented contigs or chimeric contigs, or have high memory footprint. In this work, we introduce a targeted gene assembly program SAT-Assembler, which aims to recover gene families of particular interest to biologists. It addresses the above challenges by conducting family-specific homology search, homology-guided overlap graph construction, and careful graph traversal. It can be applied to both RNA-Seq and metagenomic data. Our experimental results on an Arabidopsis RNA-Seq data set and two metagenomic data sets show that SAT-Assembler has smaller memory usage, comparable or better gene coverage, and lower chimera rate for assembling a set of genes from one or multiple pathways compared with other assembly tools. Moreover, the family-specific design and rapid homology search allow SAT-Assembler to be naturally compatible with parallel computing platforms. The source code of SAT-Assembler is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/sat-assembler/. The data sets and experimental settings can be found in supplementary material.

  16. Neuropathic pain in breast cancer survivors: using the ID pain as a screening tool.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gibby, Cielito; Morrow, Phuong Khanh; Bennett, Michael I; Jensen, Mark P; Shete, Sanjay

    2010-05-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP) is a debilitating symptom experienced by a number of patients with cancer. We evaluated the validity of ID Pain as a screening tool for NP in breast cancer survivors using the Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) and a reported diagnosis of NP as criterion measures. Two hundred forty breast cancer survivors with a mean age of 58 years (standard deviation=16) participated in this survey. Forty-five percent of the sample reported having pain in the past week. Of those reporting pain, 33% reported that they had been diagnosed by their health care provider with NP, 39% had a positive ID Pain (> or = 2) score, and 19% had a positive S-LANSS score. The most commonly endorsed ID Pain item was "hot/burning" (n=48) followed by feeling "numb" (n=47) and "pins and needles" (n=45). Total ID Pain score was significantly associated with a clinical diagnosis of NP (r=0.41; P<0.001) and the S-LANSS total score (r=0.54; P<0.001). Receiver operating curve analysis demonstrated that ID Pain has a predictive validity of 0.72 and 0.70 for diagnosis of NP as made by clinicians and the S-LANSS, respectively. We also found that an ID Pain score greater than or equal to 2 corresponded with the likelihood of NP in this sample, consistent with the original ID Pain development study. This study provides evidence for ID Pain as a valid screening measure for NP in breast cancer survivors.

  17. Waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for obesity and cardiometabolic risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), calculated by dividing the waist circumference (WC) by height, has recently gained attention as an anthropometric index for central adiposity. It is an easy-to-use and less age-dependent index to identify individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk. A WHtR cutoff of 0.5 can be used in different sex and ethnic groups and is generally accepted as a universal cutoff for central obesity in children (aged ≥6 years) and adults. However, the WHtR has not been validated in preschool children, and the routine use of WHtR in children under age 6 is not recommended. Prospective studies and meta-analysis in adults revealed that the WHtR is equivalent to or slightly better than WC and superior to body mass index (BMI) in predicting higher cardiometabolic risk. In children and adolescents, studies have shown that the WHtR is similar to both BMI and WC in identifying those at an increased cardiometabolic risk. Additional use of WHtR with BMI or WC may be helpful because WHtR considers both height and central obesity. WHtR may be preferred because of its simplicity and because it does not require sex- and age-dependent cutoffs; additionally, the simple message 'keep your WC to less than half your height' may be particularly useful. This review article summarizes recent publications on the usefulness of using WHtR especially when compared to BMI and WC as a screening tool for obesity and related cardiometabolic risks, and recommends the use of WHtR in clinical practice for obesity screening in children and adolescents. PMID:27895689

  18. ECG is an inefficient screening-tool for left ventricular hypertrophy in normotensive African children population

    PubMed Central

    Creta, Antonio; Campanale, Cosimo Marco; Fittipaldi, Mario; Giorgino, Riccardo; Quintarelli, Fabio; Satriano, Umberto; Cruciani, Alessandro; Antinolfi, Vincenzo; Di Berardino, Stefano; Costanzo, Davide; Bettini, Ranieri; Mangiameli, Giuseppe; Caricato, Marco; Mottini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a marker of pediatric hypertension and predicts development of cardiovascular events. Electrocardiography (ECG) screening is used in pediatrics to detect LVH thanks to major accessibility, reproducibility and easy to use compared to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), that remains the standard technique. Several diseases were previously investigated, but no data exists regarding our study population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between electrocardiographic and echocardiographic criteria of LVH in normotensive African children. Methods We studied 313 children (mean age 7,8 ± 3 yo), in north-Madagascar. They underwent ECG and TTE. Sokolow-Lyon index was calculated to identify ECG-LVH (>35 mm). Left ventricle mass (LVM) with TTE was calculated and indexed by height2.7 (LVMI2.7) and weight (LVMIw). We report the prevalence of TTE-LVH using three methods: (1) calculating percentiles age- and sex- specific with values >95th percentile identifying LVH; (2) LVMI2.7 >51 g/m2.7; (3) LVMIw >3.4 g/weight. Results 40 (13%) children showed LVMI values >95th percentile, 24 children (8%) an LVMI2.7 >51 g/m2.7 while 19 children (6%) an LVMIw >3.4 g/kg. LVH-ECG by Sokolow-Lyon index was present in five, three and three children respectively, with poor values of sensitivity (ranging from 13 to 16%), positive predictive value (from 11 to 18%) and high values of specificity (up to 92%). The effects of anthropometrics parameters on Sokolow-Lyon were analyzed and showed poor correlation. Conclusion ECG is a poor screening test for detecting LVH in children. In clinical practice, TTE remains the only tool to be used to exclude LVH. PMID:27651998

  19. Spinolaminar Line Test as a Screening Tool for C1 Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Yasushi; Kelly, Michael P.; Song, Kwang-Sup; Park, Moon Soo; Chuntarapas, Tapanut; Vo, Katie D.; Yeom, Jin S.; Takeshita, Katsushi; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Objective To clarify the sensitivity of C3–C2 spinolaminar line test as a screening tool for the stenosis of C1 space available for the cord (SAC). Methods Spine clinic records from April 2005 to August 2011 were reviewed. The C1 SAC was measured on lateral radiographs, and the relative positions between a C1 posterior arch and the C3–C2 spinolaminar line were examined and considered “positive” when the C1 ring lay ventral to the line. Computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were utilized to measure precise diameters of C1 and C2 SAC and to check the existence of spinal cord compression. Results Four hundred eighty-seven patients were included in this study. There were 246 men and 241 women, with an average age of 53 years (range: 18 to 86). The mean SAC at C1 on radiographs was 21.2 mm (range: 13.5 to 28.2). Twenty-one patients (4.3%) were positive for the spinolaminar line test; all of these patients had C1 SAC of 19.4 mm or less. Eight patients (1.6%) had C1 SAC smaller than C2 on CT examination; all of these patients had a positive spinolaminar test, with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97%). MRI analysis revealed that two of the eight patients with a smaller C1 SAC had spinal cord compression at the C1 level. Conclusion Although spinal cord compression at the level of atlas without instability is a rare condition, the spinolaminar line can be used as a screening of C1 stenosis. PMID:27190740

  20. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Four-Year-Olds: Construct Validation of a Language Screening Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klem, Marianne; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric; Hagtvet, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian government recommends a systematic language assessment of all four-year-olds as part of the general health surveillance program for the purpose of identifying children at risk of language delay. This study aimed to investigate the construct validity of the recommended language screening tool called LANGUAGE4 [SPRÅK4] by first…

  1. Discussion: Comparison of slope instability screening tools following a large storm event and application to forest management and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Susan

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this discussion paper is to identify major technical errors made by Whittaker and McShane (2012) regarding the development and use of SLPSTAB (Shaw and Vaugeois, 1999; Vaugeois, 2000). SLPSTAB is a GIS-based data layer currently utilized as a regulatory tool for preliminarily screening slope stability potential on nonfederal, commercial timberlands in Washington State.

  2. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 1.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  3. Work and Health Questionnaire (WHQ): A Screening Tool for Identifying Injured Workers at Risk for a Complicated Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Abegglen, Sandra; Hoffmann-Richter, Ulrike; Schade, Volker; Znoj, Hans-Jörg

    2016-07-08

    Purpose Unintentional injuries occur frequently and many of the accident survivors suffer from temporary or permanent disabilities. Although most accident victims recover quickly, a significant fraction of them shows a complicated recovery process and accounts for the majority of disability costs. Thus, early identification of vulnerable persons may be beneficial for compensation schemes, government bodies, as well as for the worker themselves. Here we present the Work and Health Questionnaire (WHQ), a screening tool that is already implemented in the case management process of the Swiss Accident Insurance Fund (Suva). Moreover, we demonstrate its prognostic value for identifying workers at risk of a complicated recovery process. Methods A total of 1963 injured workers answered the WHQ within the first 3 months after their accident. All of them had minor to moderate accidental injuries; severely injured workers were excluded from the analyses. The anonymized individual-level data were extracted from insurance databases. We examined construct validity by factorial analyses, and prognostic validity by hierarchical multiple regression analyses on days of work disability. Further, we evaluated well-being and job satisfaction 18 months post-injury in a subsample of 192 injured workers (9.8 %) Results Factor analyses supported five underlying factors (Job Design, Work Support, Job Strain, Somatic Condition/Pain, and Anxiety/Worries). These subscales were moderately correlated, thus indicating that different subscales measured different aspects of work and health-related risk factors of injured workers. Item analysis and reliability analysis showed accurate psychometric properties. Each subscale was predictive at least for one of the evaluated outcomes 18 months post-injury. Conclusion The WHQ shows good psychometric qualities with high clinical utility to identify injured persons with multiple psychosocial risk factors. Thus, the questionnaire appears to be suitable

  4. Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Montero, Luis G.

    2010-04-15

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

  5. A brief screening tool to assess the risk of contracting HIV infection among active injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dawn K.; Pan, Yi; Rose, Charles E.; Pals, Sherri L.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To incorporate preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and other biomedical or intensive behavioral interventions into the care of injection drug users, healthcare providers need validated, rapid, risk screening tools for identifying persons at highest risk of incident HIV infection. Methods To develop and validate a brief screening tool for assessing the risk of contracting HIV (ARCH), we included behavioral and HIV test data from 1904 initially HIV-uninfected men and women enrolled and followed in the ALIVE prospective cohort study between 1988 and 2008. Using logistic regression analyses with generalized estimating equations (GEE), we identified significant predictors of incident HIV infection, then rescaled and summed their regression coefficients to create a risk score. Results The final logistic regression model included age, engagement in a methadone maintenance program, and a composite injection risk score obtained by counting the number of the following five behaviors reported during the past six months: injection of heroin, injection of cocaine, sharing a cooker, sharing needles, or visiting a shooting gallery. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.720, possible scores on index ranged from 0 to 100 and a score ≥46 had a sensitivity of 86.2% and a specificity of 42.5%, appropriate for a screening tool. Discussion We developed an easy to administer 7-question screening tool with a cutoff that is predictive of incident HIV infection in a large prospective cohort of injection drug users in Baltimore. The ARCH-IDU screening tool can be used to prioritize persons who are injecting illicit drugs for consideration of PrEP and other intensive HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25961495

  6. Using a nutritional screening tool to evaluate the nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tu, Mei-Yu; Chien, Tsair-Wei; Chou, Ming-Ting

    2012-01-01

    We assessed which nutrition evaluation method [subjective global assessment (SGA); malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST); nutritional risk index (NRI)] provided the most efficacious combination of high validity, low cost, and ease of use to examine and improve the status of malnutrition for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The SGA, MUST, and NRI scales were used to analyze the preoperative status of malnutrition for 45 CRC patients in a medical center in Taiwan. Differences in the reliability of the 3 methods were compared using the kappa (κ) coefficient of agreement. Lengths of hospital stays were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test to examine the effect of malnutrition in CRC patients. The SGA κ coefficient was higher with the MUST than with the NRI. Preoperative and postoperative weight losses were significantly different on the NRI, and the longer the length of the hospital stay, the greater was the weight loss. Although the SGA had a higher validity and lower cost than the NRI, we recommend using the MUST method for a routine nutrition evaluation because it is easier to use and is less expensive than the SGA and the NRI.

  7. STR melting curve analysis as a genetic screening tool for crime scene samples.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quang; McKinney, Jason; Johnson, Donald J; Roberts, Katherine A; Hardy, Winters R

    2012-07-01

    In this proof-of-concept study, high-resolution melt curve (HRMC) analysis was investigated as a postquantification screening tool to discriminate human CSF1PO and THO1 genotypes amplified with mini-STR primers in the presence of SYBR Green or LCGreen Plus dyes. A total of 12 CSF1PO and 11 HUMTHO1 genotypes were analyzed on the LightScanner HR96 and LS-32 systems and were correctly differentiated based upon their respective melt profiles. Short STR amplicon melt curves were affected by repeat number, and single-source and mixed DNA samples were additionally differentiated by the formation of heteroduplexes. Melting curves were shown to be unique and reproducible from DNA quantities ranging from 20 to 0.4 ng and distinguished identical from nonidentical genotypes from DNA derived from different biological fluids and compromised samples. Thus, a method is described which can assess both the quantity and the possible probative value of samples without full genotyping.

  8. Use of electronic data and existing screening tools to identify clinically significant obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Severson, Carl A; Pendharkar, Sachin R; Ronksley, Paul E; Tsai, Willis H

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of electronic health data and existing screening tools to identify clinically significant obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), as defined by symptomatic or severe OSA. METHODS: The present retrospective cohort study of 1041 patients referred for sleep diagnostic testing was undertaken at a tertiary sleep centre in Calgary, Alberta. A diagnosis of clinically significant OSA or an alternative sleep diagnosis was assigned to each patient through blinded independent chart review by two sleep physicians. Predictive variables were identified from online questionnaire data, and diagnostic algorithms were developed. The performance of electronically derived algorithms for identifying patients with clinically significant OSA was determined. Diagnostic performance of these algorithms was compared with versions of the STOP-Bang questionnaire and adjusted neck circumference score (ANC) derived from electronic data. RESULTS: Electronic questionnaire data were highly sensitive (>95%) at identifying clinically significant OSA, but not specific. Sleep diagnostic testing-determined respiratory disturbance index was very specific (specificity ≥95%) for clinically relevant disease, but not sensitive (<35%). Derived algorithms had similar accuracy to the STOP-Bang or ANC, but required fewer questions and calculations. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that a two-step process using a small number of clinical variables (maximizing sensitivity) and objective diagnostic testing (maximizing specificity) is required to identify clinically significant OSA. When used in an online setting, simple algorithms can identify clinically relevant OSA with similar performance to existing decision rules such as the STOP-Bang or ANC. PMID:26083542

  9. Vitamin D: a poor screening tool for biochemical and radiological rickets.

    PubMed

    Foley, Giles T; Yates, Edward W; Wadia, Farokh; Paton, Robin W

    2012-10-01

    This retrospective study aims to determine if a relationship exists between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and the diagnosis of biochemical or radiological rickets in children with bone and joint pain, muscle fatigue or varus/valgus knees. A retrospective biochemistry database and case note study was undertaken on 115 new patients referred to the senior authors' elective Paediatric Orthopaedic Clinic in 2010. Their mean age was 10.95 years (95% CI 10.24-11.68). Mean serum vitamin D was 18.27 mcg/l (95% CI 16.13-20.41), while 30 mcg/l is the normal threshold. One hundred and three children (88%) had vitamin D levels below normal. Winter/springtime blood samples were more likely to be deficient and this was statistically significant. Three Asian females (2.61%) were diagnosed with radiological rickets. Vitamin D levels below normal are common in children presenting with vague limb or back pain, but this rarely presents with biochemical or radiological rickets. Serum vitamin D level is not a suitable screening tool for biochemical or radiological rickets. Vitamin D requirement in children is unclear and requires further study.

  10. MSH-6: extending the reliability of immunohistochemistry as a screening tool in Muir-Torre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chhibber, Vishes; Dresser, Karen; Mahalingam, Meera

    2008-02-01

    The subtype of Muir-Torre syndrome, allelic to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is typically associated with germline mutations in the mismatch repair proteins MSH-2 and/or MLH-1. More recently, mutation in an additional mismatch repair protein MSH-6 has been documented in a patient with Muir-Torre syndrome. Given this, the aim of the present study was to ascertain the frequency of the same in unselected sebaceous gland neoplasms. Overall, we found that 59% of sebaceous neoplasms exhibited a mutation in at least one mismatch repair protein gene -- a prevalence rate similar to that reported previously by others. Of interest, we found MSH-6 to be the mismatch repair protein most commonly lost 17/41 (41%), followed by MSH-2 14/41 (34%) and MLH-18/41 (20%) and the positive predictive value of each were as follows: MLH-1 88%, MSH-6 67% and MSH-2 55%. The frequency of a MSH-6 germline mutation in our cohort indicates that it is not a rare finding. Evidence indicating microsatellite stability in three of 17 patients with a clinical history indicative of Muir-Torre syndrome and a mutation in only MSH-6 suggests that the phenotype of a germline MSH-6 mutation differs from that of MLH-1 and MSH-2 mutations and further supports the use of immunohistochemistry as a screening tool in patients with Muir-Torre syndrome with an extended panel that includes MSH-6.

  11. An analysis and decision tool to measure cost benefit of newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and related T-cell lymphopenia.

    PubMed

    Modell, Vicki; Knaus, Megan; Modell, Fred

    2014-10-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a group of syndromes resulting from genetic defects causing absence in T-cell and B-cell function, leading to serious and life-threatening infections. SCID is often fatal in the first 2 years of life if not identified and properly treated. While additional laboratory methods are being developed, the current T-cell receptor excision circle assay has proven to have outstanding specificity and sensitivity to accurately identify infants with SCID and other T-cell lymphopenia. The Jeffrey Modell Foundation (JMF) has a long history of advocacy and continues to promote newborn screening for SCID to be implemented in the United States and worldwide. Based on reports provided by California, New York, Texas, and Wisconsin on the results of their population based newborn screening programs, the overall incidence of SCID averaged 1:33,000 and T-cell lymphopenia averaged 1:6,600. JMF has developed a working algorithm or "decision tree", validated by peer-reviewed scientific literature, to be used by Public Health Departments and Health Ministries in states, countries, and regions throughout the world. This decision tool allows for local or regional data to be applied to measure the threshold and economic impact of implementing newborn screening for SCID and T-cell lymphopenia.

  12. The Detection of the Methylated Wif-1 Gene Is More Accurate than a Fecal Occult Blood Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Baumgaertner, Isabelle; Delchier, Jean-Charles; Tournigand, Christophe; Furet, Jean-Pierre; Carrau, Jean-Pierre; Canoui-Poitrine, Florence; Sobhani, Iradj

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical benefit of guaiac fecal occult blood tests (FOBT) is now well established for colorectal cancer screening. Growing evidence has demonstrated that epigenetic modifications and fecal microbiota changes, also known as dysbiosis, are associated with CRC pathogenesis and might be used as surrogate markers of CRC. Patients and Methods We performed a cross-sectional study that included all consecutive subjects that were referred (from 2003 to 2007) for screening colonoscopies. Prior to colonoscopy, effluents (fresh stools, sera-S and urine-U) were harvested and FOBTs performed. Methylation levels were measured in stools, S and U for 3 genes (Wif1, ALX-4, and Vimentin) selected from a panel of 63 genes; Kras mutations and seven dominant and subdominant bacterial populations in stools were quantified. Calibration was assessed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square, and discrimination was determined by calculating the C-statistic (Area Under Curve) and Net Reclassification Improvement index. Results There were 247 individuals (mean age 60.8±12.4 years, 52% of males) in the study group, and 90 (36%) of these individuals were patients with advanced polyps or invasive adenocarcinomas. A multivariate model adjusted for age and FOBT led to a C-statistic of 0.83 [0.77–0.88]. After supplementary sequential (one-by-one) adjustment, Wif-1 methylation (S or U) and fecal microbiota dysbiosis led to increases of the C-statistic to 0.90 [0.84–0.94] (p = 0.02) and 0.81 [0.74–0.86] (p = 0.49), respectively. When adjusted jointly for FOBT and Wif-1 methylation or fecal microbiota dysbiosis, the increase of the C-statistic was even more significant (0.91 and 0.85, p<0.001 and p = 0.10, respectively). Conclusion The detection of methylated Wif-1 in either S or U has a higher performance accuracy compared to guaiac FOBT for advanced colorectal neoplasia screening. Conversely, fecal microbiota dysbiosis detection was not more accurate. Blood and urine

  13. Technical tips: verification of accurate placement and labeling of 10-10 scalp electrodes and intracranial grid/strip electrodes using documentation tools.

    PubMed

    Feravich, Susan M; Keller, Crystal M

    2012-06-01

    In some instances, evaluation of seizure activity may require the addition of 10-10 scalp electrodes or the placement of intracranial grids and strips. At any given time, different technologists may be responsible for placement, addition, and the care of electrodes for the same patient. The presence of extra surface electrodes or extensive coverage of brain with intracranial electrodes increases the risk of incorrect placement and labeling which can cause treatment errors based on inaccurate reading of EEG recordings. Procedures should be put into place with documentation tools to correctly place, label, and hook-up extra 10-10 scalp and intracranial electrodes without errors. By using written processes and documentation tools, staff are more capable of acquiring safe and accurate patient data which increase good patient outcomes. The processes for placement and hook up of 10-10 scalp electrodes and intracranial grid and strip electrodes are different and require separate procedures and documentation tools to ensure accuracy. For 10-10 scalp electrode placement, the use of a 10-10 map, labeled tape, and non-duplicating adjacent electrode colors reduces risk of error Documentation of intracranial grid/strip electrodes includes placement map, list of electrode locations in amplifier and a table of cables and corresponding grid/strips with colors. Accurate hook-up is verified by the technologist and the epileptologist and is documented on recording. With the use of documentation tools and verification procedures, the quality of patient outcomes increases while the potential for recording errors is reduced.

  14. Identifying Malnutrition in an Elderly Ambulatory Rehabilitation Population: Agreement between Mini Nutritional Assessment and Validated Screening Tools.

    PubMed

    Yaxley, Alison; Crotty, Maria; Miller, Michelle

    2015-09-11

    Malnutrition is common in older adults and often goes unrecognised and untreated. Australian evidence-based guidelines for the management of malnutrition indicate that only the Mini Nutritional Assessment short form (MNA-sf) and Rapid Screen are recommended for use as malnutrition screening tools in the rehabilitation setting. The aim of this secondary analysis was to assess the validity and reliability of two malnutrition screening tools, validated in other adult sub-groups, in a rehabilitation population aged ≥60 years. The Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ), were completed by 185 ambulatory rehabilitation patients (48% male; median age 78 years) and results compared to the full MNA as a reference technique. Prevalence of risk of malnutrition was 63% according to the MNA. For identification of risk of malnutrition the CNAQ had sensitivity of 54%, specificity 81%, positive predictive value 83% and negative predictive value 51%, compared to 28%, 94%, 89% and 44%, respectively, using SNAQ. Assessment of reliability indicated significant slight to fair agreement between MNA with CNAQ (κ = 0.309, p < 0.001) and SNAQ (κ = 0.176, p < 0.001). Neither the CNAQ nor the SNAQ have a high level of validity or reliability in this elderly population and are therefore not recommended for use in the ambulatory rehabilitation setting. Further work is necessary to assess the validity and reliability of other malnutrition screening tools to establish their usefulness in this population.

  15. Identifying Malnutrition in an Elderly Ambulatory Rehabilitation Population: Agreement between Mini Nutritional Assessment and Validated Screening Tools

    PubMed Central

    Yaxley, Alison; Crotty, Maria; Miller, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is common in older adults and often goes unrecognised and untreated. Australian evidence-based guidelines for the management of malnutrition indicate that only the Mini Nutritional Assessment short form (MNA-sf) and Rapid Screen are recommended for use as malnutrition screening tools in the rehabilitation setting. The aim of this secondary analysis was to assess the validity and reliability of two malnutrition screening tools, validated in other adult sub-groups, in a rehabilitation population aged ≥60 years. The Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ), were completed by 185 ambulatory rehabilitation patients (48% male; median age 78 years) and results compared to the full MNA as a reference technique. Prevalence of risk of malnutrition was 63% according to the MNA. For identification of risk of malnutrition the CNAQ had sensitivity of 54%, specificity 81%, positive predictive value 83% and negative predictive value 51%, compared to 28%, 94%, 89% and 44%, respectively, using SNAQ. Assessment of reliability indicated significant slight to fair agreement between MNA with CNAQ (κ = 0.309, p < 0.001) and SNAQ (κ = 0.176, p < 0.001). Neither the CNAQ nor the SNAQ have a high level of validity or reliability in this elderly population and are therefore not recommended for use in the ambulatory rehabilitation setting. Further work is necessary to assess the validity and reliability of other malnutrition screening tools to establish their usefulness in this population. PMID:27417799

  16. The impact of a short depression and anxiety screening tool in epilepsy care in primary health care settings in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mbewe, Edward K; Uys, Leana R; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2013-11-01

    Up to 60% of the 50 million persons with epilepsy (PWE) worldwide have depression and anxiety and 80% of PWE live in low-income regions. Common psychiatric comorbidities are often unrecognized and undertreated. We developed and validated a 10-item screening tool for the detection of depression and anxiety at primary healthcare clinics in Zambia in which the baseline detection rate among PWE was 1%. We trained primary care clinic workers in selected clinics to use this screening tool. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 120 consecutive PWE who received care one month after training. Detection improved from 1% to 49%, and treatment was frequently initiated. Of the 120 screened, 59 (49.2%) scored above cutoff point of 18. Of these persons, 43 (73.0%) were positive for depression, 16 (23.0%) were positive for anxiety, 38 (64.4%) received counseling, 18 (30.5%) received antidepressants, and 3 (5.1%) were referred to a psychiatrist. Use of this screening tool resulted in improved mental health care for PWE.

  17. Comparisons of Different Screening Tools for Identifying Fracture/Osteoporosis Risk Among Community-Dwelling Older People

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sy-Jou; Chen, Yi-Ju; Cheng, Chui-Hsuan; Hwang, Hei-Fen; Chen, Chih-Yi; Lin, Mau-Roung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A prospective study was conducted to compare criterion, predictive, and construct validities of 9 fracture/osteoporosis assessment tools, including calcaneal quantitative ultrasonography (QUS), Age Bulk One or Never Estrogens (ABONE), body weight criterion (BWC), Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), Garvan fracture risk calculator (GARVAN), Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI), Osteoporosis Index of Risk (OSIRIS), Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA), and Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE), among older men and women in Taiwan. Using the femoral neck dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) T-score as an external criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for each tool were calculated. The ability of these tools to predict injurious falls was examined. A principal component analysis was applied to understand whether these tools were measuring the same underlying construct. The FRAX, BWC, ORAI, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE had AUCs of ≥0.8 in men, while the GARVAN, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE had AUCs of ≥0.8 in women. The sensitivity, negative predictive value, and likelihood ratio of the ABONE, BWC, ORAI, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE tools in both men and women were 100%, ≥90%, and 0.0, respectively; the specificity and positive predictive value and likelihood ratio were far from satisfactory. The GARVAN displayed the best predictive ability of a fall in both men (AUCs, 0.653–0.686) and women (AUCs, 0.560–0.567), despite being smaller in women. The 9 screening tools and 2 central DXA measurements assessed 5 different factors, while the ABONE, BWC, ORAI, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE measured the same one. Simple self-assessment tools can serve as initial screening instruments to rule out persons who have osteoporosis; however, these tools may measure a different construct

  18. [Efficacy and effectiveness of different nutritional screening tools in a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Cano Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros Pomar, María D

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: La elevada prevalencia de desnutrición en el medio hospitalario y sus repercusiones hacen necesario el empleo de herramientas de cribado nutricional para su detección, diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz. Objetivo: Evaluar la herramienta de cribado nutricional más adecuada para el paciente hospitalizado en un hospital de tercer nivel, a nivel global y por servicios de hospitalización. Metodología: Estudio transversal realizado en condiciones de práctica clínica habitual. Se evaluaron 4 métodos de cribado nutricional: Valoración Subjetiva Global (VSG), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) y Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002). Los servicios de hospitalización se agruparon en: servicios médicos, Cirugía General, Traumatología, otros servicios quirúrgicos y Oncología-Hematología. Se realizó un análisis estadístico de sensibilidad (S) y especificidad (Sp) y fueron comparados mediante curva COR. Resultados: Fueron valorados 201 pacientes con mediana de edad de 71,6 (RIC 21,4) años y el 51,2% fueron mujeres. La prevalencia de riesgo nutricional (RN) y desnutrición (DN) detectada fue: VSG 62,1%, MNA 68,6%, MUST 53,7% y NRS-2002 35,8%. Con todas las herramientas de cribado nutricional, excepto el MNA, se detectó una mayor prevalencia de RN y DN en los servicios médicos y quirúrgicos. En el análisis global el MNA obtuvo una S =93,3%, una Sp = 71,6% y un área bajo la curva COR de 0,825; el MUST obtuvo una S = 82,4%, una Sp = 93,4% y un área bajo la curva COR de 0,879; el NRS-2002 obtuvo una S = 56,0%, una Sp = 97,4% y un área bajo la curva COR de 0,766. Estos resultados fueron similares en el análisis por servicios de hospitalización. Conclusión: La herramienta de cribado nutricional recomendada en un centro hospitalario de tercer nivel y población envejecida sería el MUST por los adecuados resultados de sensibilidad y especificidad y la facilidad en su realización.

  19. Decision peptide-driven: a free software tool for accurate protein quantification using gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hugo M; Reboiro-Jato, Miguel; Glez-Peña, Daniel; Nunes-Miranda, J D; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Carvallo, R; Capelo, J L

    2010-09-15

    The decision peptide-driven tool implements a software application for assisting the user in a protocol for accurate protein quantification based on the following steps: (1) protein separation through gel electrophoresis; (2) in-gel protein digestion; (3) direct and inverse (18)O-labeling and (4) matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, MALDI analysis. The DPD software compares the MALDI results of the direct and inverse (18)O-labeling experiments and quickly identifies those peptides with paralleled loses in different sets of a typical proteomic workflow. Those peptides are used for subsequent accurate protein quantification. The interpretation of the MALDI data from direct and inverse labeling experiments is time-consuming requiring a significant amount of time to do all comparisons manually. The DPD software shortens and simplifies the searching of the peptides that must be used for quantification from a week to just some minutes. To do so, it takes as input several MALDI spectra and aids the researcher in an automatic mode (i) to compare data from direct and inverse (18)O-labeling experiments, calculating the corresponding ratios to determine those peptides with paralleled losses throughout different sets of experiments; and (ii) allow to use those peptides as internal standards for subsequent accurate protein quantification using (18)O-labeling. In this work the DPD software is presented and explained with the quantification of protein carbonic anhydrase.

  20. Risk assessment of cattle handling on pasture using work environment screening tool.

    PubMed

    Geng, Qiuqing; Field, William E; Salomon, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Working with beef cattle in an open area or while on pasture has been shown to expose workers to a high risk of work-related injury. Prior research on this problem has been conducted using mail surveys, interviews, self-reporting of work practices and injury experiences, and summaries of published injury data, including media reports. Prior research on injury prevention has largely focused on worker education in a specific cultural or geographical setting. A pilot study was conducted to test the cross-cultural usability of the Working Environment Screening Tool in Agriculture (WEST-AG), a modification of the WEST, developed for Swedish industrial applications, to assess risk factors associated with farmers working with cattle being raised largely on pasture as compared with cattle raised in confined feeding operations. Swedish and English language versions of WEST-AG were developed and pilot-tested on a convenient sample of eight Swedish and eight Indiana farms that raise beef cattle primarily on pasture. On-site observations were conducted independently by Swedish and US agricultural safety professionals and documented using photography and a 15-risk-of-injury component on an 11-degree linear scale. Comparisons were made between independent observations documented from the Swedish and Indiana application of the WEST, including collective assessment of photographic record, and the results reported. Key findings included (a) a higher level of observed risks on Indiana farms studied as compared with their Swedish counterparts; (b) high levels of worker exposure to cattle, especially mature breeding bulls, on both sets of farms; (c) a higher frequency of self-reported farm-related injuries than anticipated on both Swedish and Indiana farms; (d) substantially different economic, social, cultural, and regulatory forces that influence small-operation Swedish and Indiana beef producers' decisions regarding adoption of safer work practices, including use of new and safer

  1. Development of a short form and scoring algorithm from the validated actionable bladder symptom screening tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The majority of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients develop some form of lower urinary tract dysfunction, usually as a result of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). Patients identify urinary incontinence as one of the worst aspects of this disease. Despite the high prevalence of NDO, urological evaluation and treatment are significantly under-accessed in this population. The objectives of this study were: 1) to adapt the previously validated Actionable Bladder Symptom Screening Tool (ABSST) to a short form for ease and brevity of application in a clinical setting that is clinically meaningful; and 2) to develop a scoring algorithm that would be interpretable in terms of referring/considering precise diagnosis and treatment. Methods A US-based, non-randomized, multi-center, stand-alone observational study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of the ABSST among patients who have MS with and without NDO. Mixed psychometric methods (e.g., classical statistics (Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill; 1994) and item response methods (Applying the Rasch Model: Fundamental Measurement in the Human Sciences. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates; 2001)) were used to evaluate the predictive and clinical validity of the shortened form. The latter included clinicians flagging clinically meaningful items and associated response options which would indicate the need for further evaluation or treatment. Results A total of 151 patients, all with MS and with and without NDO, were recruited by 28 clinicians in various US geographical locations. Approximately 41% of patients reported a history of or currently having urinary incontinence and/or urinary urgency. The prediction model across the entire range of classification thresholds was evaluated, plotting the true positive identification rate against the false positive rate (1-Specificity) for various cut scores. In this study, the cut-point or total score of greater than or equal to 6 had

  2. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with chemometrics as a powerful predictive tool for ß-thalassemia screening.

    PubMed

    Risoluti, Roberta; Materazzi, Stefano; Sorrentino, Francesco; Maffei, Laura; Caprari, Patrizia

    2016-10-01

    β-Thalassemia is a hemoglobin genetic disorder characterized by the absence or reduced β-globin chain synthesis, one of the constituents of the adult hemoglobin tetramer. In this study the possibility of using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) followed by chemometrics as a new approach for β-thalassemia detection is proposed. Blood samples from patients with β-thalassemia were analyzed by the TG7 thermobalance and the resulting curves were compared to those typical of healthy individuals. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the correlation between the hematological parameters and the thermogravimetric results. The thermogravimetric profiles of blood samples from β-thalassemia patients were clearly distinct from those of healthy individuals as result of the different quantities of water content and corpuscular fraction. The hematological overview showed significant decreases in the values of red blood cell indices and an increase in red cell distribution width value in thalassemia subjects when compared with those of healthy subjects. The implementation of a predictive model based on Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) for β-thalassemia diagnosis, was performed and validated. This model permitted the discrimination of anemic patients and healthy individuals and was able to detect thalassemia in clinically heterogeneous patients as in the presence of δβ-thalassemia and β-thalassemia combined with Hb Lepore. TGA and Chemometrics are capable of predicting ß-thalassemia syndromes using only a few microliters of blood without any pretreatment and with an hour of analysis time. A fast, rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tool for the β-thalassemia screening is proposed.

  3. Evaluation of a novel electronic genetic screening and clinical decision support tool in prenatal clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Emily A; Lin, Bruce K; Doksum, Teresa; Drohan, Brian; Edelson, Vaughn; Dolan, Siobhan M; Hughes, Kevin; O'Leary, James; Vasquez, Lisa; Copeland, Sara; Galvin, Shelley L; DeGroat, Nicole; Pardanani, Setul; Gregory Feero, W; Adams, Claire; Jones, Renee; Scott, Joan

    2014-07-01

    "The Pregnancy and Health Profile" (PHP) is a free prenatal genetic screening and clinical decision support (CDS) software tool for prenatal providers. PHP collects family health history (FHH) during intake and provides point-of-care risk assessment for providers and education for patients. This pilot study evaluated patient and provider responses to PHP and effects of using PHP in practice. PHP was implemented in four clinics. Surveys assessed provider confidence and knowledge and patient and provider satisfaction with PHP. Data on the implementation process were obtained through semi-structured interviews with administrators. Quantitative survey data were analyzed using Chi square test, Fisher's exact test, paired t tests, and multivariate logistic regression. Open-ended survey questions and interviews were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis. Of the 83% (513/618) of patients that provided feedback, 97% felt PHP was easy to use and 98% easy to understand. Thirty percent (21/71) of participating physicians completed both pre- and post-implementation feedback surveys [13 obstetricians (OBs) and 8 family medicine physicians (FPs)]. Confidence in managing genetic risks significantly improved for OBs on 2/6 measures (p values ≤0.001) but not for FPs. Physician knowledge did not significantly change. Providers reported value in added patient engagement and reported mixed feedback about the CDS report. We identified key steps, resources, and staff support required to implement PHP in a clinical setting. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report on the integration of patient-completed, electronically captured and CDS-enabled FHH software into primary prenatal practice. PHP is acceptable to patients and providers. Key to successful implementation in the future will be customization options and interoperability with electronic health records.

  4. Microbial water pollution: a screening tool for initial catchment-scale assessment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Kay, D; Anthony, S; Crowther, J; Chambers, B J; Nicholson, F A; Chadwick, D; Stapleton, C M; Wyer, M D

    2010-11-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive requires that Management Plans are developed for individual River Basin Districts. From the point of view of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs), there is a critical need for screening tools that can provide a rapid assessment of the likely FIO concentrations and fluxes within catchments under base- and high-flow conditions, and of the balance ('source apportionment') between agriculture- and sewage-derived sources. Accordingly, the present paper reports on: (1) the development of preliminary generic models, using water quality and land cover data from previous UK catchment studies for assessing FIO concentrations, fluxes and source apportionment within catchments during the summer bathing season; (2) the calibration of national land use data, against data previously used in the models; and (3) provisional FIO concentration and source-apportionment assessments for England and Wales. The models clearly highlighted the crucial importance of high-flow conditions for the flux of FIOs within catchments. At high flow, improved grassland (and associated livestock) was the key FIO source; FIO loadings derived from catchments with high proportions of improved grassland were shown to be as high as from urbanized catchments; and in many rural catchments, especially in NW and SW England and Wales, which are important areas of lowland livestock (especially dairy) farming, ≥ 40% of FIOs was assessed to be derived from agricultural sources. In contrast, under base-flow conditions, when there was little or no runoff from agricultural land, urban (i.e. sewerage-related) sources were assessed to dominate, and even in rural areas the majority of FIOs were attributed to urban sources. The results of the study demonstrate the potential of this type of approach, particularly in light of climate change and the likelihood of more high-flow events, in underpinning informed policy development and prioritization of investment.

  5. A New Accurate 3D Measurement Tool to Assess the Range of Motion of the Tongue in Oral Cancer Patients: A Standardized Model.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Simone; van Alphen, Maarten J A; Jacobi, Irene; Smeele, Ludwig E; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Balm, Alfons J M

    2016-02-01

    In oral cancer treatment, function loss such as speech and swallowing deterioration can be severe, mostly due to reduced lingual mobility. Until now, there is no standardized measurement tool for tongue mobility and pre-operative prediction of function loss is based on expert opinion instead of evidence based insight. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of a triple-camera setup for the measurement of tongue range of motion (ROM) in healthy adults and its feasibility in patients with partial glossectomy. A triple-camera setup was used, and 3D coordinates of the tongue in five standardized tongue positions were achieved in 15 healthy volunteers. Maximum distances between the tip of the tongue and the maxillary midline were calculated. Each participant was recorded twice, and each movie was analysed three times by two separate raters. Intrarater, interrater and test-retest reliability were the main outcome measures. Secondly, feasibility of the method was tested in ten patients treated for oral tongue carcinoma. Intrarater, interrater and test-retest reliability all showed high correlation coefficients of >0.9 in both study groups. All healthy subjects showed perfect symmetrical tongue ROM. In patients, significant differences in lateral tongue movements were found, due to restricted tongue mobility after surgery. This triple-camera setup is a reliable measurement tool to assess three-dimensional information of tongue ROM. It constitutes an accurate tool for objective grading of reduced tongue mobility after partial glossectomy.

  6. SPATIALLY-EXPLICIT BAT IMPACT SCREENING TOOL FOR WIND TURBINE SITING

    SciTech Connect

    Versar, Inc.; Exponent, Inc.

    2013-10-28

    As the U.S. seeks to increase energy production from renewable energy sources, development of wind power resources continues to grow. One of the most important ecological issues restricting wind energy development, especially the siting of wind turbines, is the potential adverse effect on bats. High levels of bat fatality have been recorded at a number of wind energy facilities, especially in the eastern United States. The U.S. Department of Energy contracted with Versar, Inc., and Exponent to develop a spatially-explicit site screening tool to evaluate the mortality of bats resulting from interactions (collisions or barotrauma) with wind turbines. The resulting Bat Vulnerability Assessment Tool (BVAT) presented in this report integrates spatial information about turbine locations, bat habitat features, and bat behavior as it relates to possible interactions with turbines. A model demonstration was conducted that focuses on two bat species, the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) and the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). The eastern red bat is a relatively common tree-roosting species that ranges broadly during migration in the Eastern U.S., whereas the Indiana bat is regional species that migrates between a summer range and cave hibernacula. Moreover, Indiana bats are listed as endangered, and so the impacts to this species are of particular interest. The model demonstration used conditions at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center (MWEC), which consists of 44 wind turbines arranged in a linear array near Thomas, West Virginia (Tucker County), to illustrate model functions and not to represent actual or potential impacts of the facility. The turbines at MWEC are erected on the ridge of Backbone Mountain with a nacelle height of 70 meters and a collision area of 72 meters (blade height) or 4,071 meters square. The habitat surrounding the turbines is an Appalachian mixed mesophytic forest. Model sensitivity runs showed that bat mortality in the model was most sensitive to

  7. A Comparison of Systematic Screening Tools for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Kalberg, Jemma Robertson; Lambert, E. Warren; Crnobori, Mary; Bruhn, Allison Leigh

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the psychometric properties of the Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS), including evaluating the concurrent validity of the SRSS to predict results from the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) when used to detect school children with externalizing or internalizing behavior concerns at three…

  8. The design of a pre-encounter clinical trial screening tool: ASAP.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing; Erdal, Selnur; Borlawsky, Tara; Liu, Jianhua; Golden-Kreutz, Deanna; Kamal, Jyoti; Payne, Philip R O

    2008-11-06

    Manually screening patients for clinical trials eligibility prior to their clinical encounters is labor-intensive and time-consuming. In order to increase the efficiency of such processes, we have developed a web-based system, called Advanced Screening for Active Protocols (ASAP).

  9. "Pepsi": A Screening and Programming Tool for Understanding the Whole Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, J'Anne

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses using "PEPSI", a screening and programming method that evaluates the physical, emotional, philosophical, social, and intellectual levels of development in children with disabilities. The steps in the PEPSI screening process are described and a case study is provided. A chart depicting indicators in teaching respect for self…

  10. Vertebrate embryos as tools for anti-angiogenic drug screening and function.

    PubMed

    Beedie, Shaunna L; Diamond, Alexandra J; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Figg, William D; Vargesson, Neil

    2016-11-22

    The development of new angiogenic inhibitors highlights a need for robust screening assays that adequately capture the complexity of vessel formation, and allow for the quantitative evaluation of the teratogenicity of new anti-angiogenic agents. This review discusses the use of screening assays in vertebrate embryos, specifically focusing upon chicken and zebrafish embryos, for the detection of anti-angiogenic agents.

  11. The Adolescent Health Review: Test of a Computerized Screening Tool in School-Based Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patricia A.; Beebe, Timothy J.; Funk, Eunkyung; Rancome, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Implemented a computerized screening instrument, the Adolescent Health Review, in urban school-based clinics to test the viability of a stand-alone screening process and its acceptance by patients and providers, examining the relationship between health risks and the stated purpose for the clinic visit. Patients and providers readily accepted the…

  12. PopulationProfiler: A Tool for Population Analysis and Visualization of Image-Based Cell Screening Data.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Damian J; Wählby, Carolina; Puigvert, Jordi Carreras; Sintorn, Ida-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Image-based screening typically produces quantitative measurements of cell appearance. Large-scale screens involving tens of thousands of images, each containing hundreds of cells described by hundreds of measurements, result in overwhelming amounts of data. Reducing per-cell measurements to the averages across the image(s) for each treatment leads to loss of potentially valuable information on population variability. We present PopulationProfiler-a new software tool that reduces per-cell measurements to population statistics. The software imports measurements from a simple text file, visualizes population distributions in a compact and comprehensive way, and can create gates for subpopulation classes based on control samples. We validate the tool by showing how PopulationProfiler can be used to analyze the effect of drugs that disturb the cell cycle, and compare the results to those obtained with flow cytometry.

  13. Nursing assessment of obstructive sleep apnea in hospitalised adults: a review of risk factors and screening tools.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Alison; Belan, Ingrid; Neill, Jane; Rowland, Sharn

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 2-4% of the general population and may be more prevalent in obese adults. However, sleep apnea remains consistently under-diagnosed in the general population as well as in hospital wards. Nurse awareness of OSA during routine monitoring could allow specific observations of hospitalised adults to identify those at high risk and ensure appropriate referral. This integrative literature review analysed major risk factors for OSA and identified screening tools that nurses could utilise in hospital wards. The most important risk factors relevant to nursing practice in hospital settings were obesity, hypertension and sleep position. The most suitable screening tool was the Berlin Questionnaire, while there was some evidence to support measuring waist circumference. A nursing assessment flow chart was developed based on the literature reviewed. This paper highlights a role for nurses in recognising patients at risk of OSA and minimising complications in hospitalised adults.

  14. Probable medications overuse headaches: validation of a brief easy-to-use screening tool in a headache centre

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To validate a rapid questionnaire as a screening tool, because application of the diagnostic revised criteria of the ICHD-II for medication overuse headache (MOH) requires experience for the physician and is time-consuming. Methods ICHD-II criteria for probable MOH (pMOH) were transformed in questions formulated in such a way that they could be self-administered, easily understood, and quickly filled out. We compared this questionnaire to the gold standard: the diagnosis made by headache specialists, based on the the ICHD-II criteria. Patients who were consulting for pMOH or migraine for the first time were consecutively included. As validity indicators, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the items. Results Seventy-nine patients were screened, 77 included, 2 female patients excluded. Forty-two patients have been considered as suffering from pMOH, 35 patients suffered from migraine without medication overuse. The association of the question “do you take a treatment for attacks more than 10 days per month” and the question “is this intake on a regular basis?” had a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 80%. Conclusion This screening tool can detect pMOH with a sensitivity that could be of interest to screen patients in clinical practice and to pre-include patients for research as epidemiological studies. PMID:24088386

  15. Discussion: Comparison of slope instability screening tools following a large storm event and application to forest management and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingley, Leslie; Slaughter, Stephen L.; Sarikhan, Isabelle Y.; Norman, David K.

    2013-02-01

    This discussion is in response to the article entitled "Comparison of slope stability screening tools following a large storm event and application to forest management and policy" by Kara Whittaker and Dan McShane (Geomorphology 145-146 (2012) 115-122). The discussion is coauthored by several geologists at the Washington Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) including those from the research and policy sections of the state agency.

  16. The BDI and the SF36: which tool to use to screen for depression?

    PubMed

    Troidle, Laura; Wuerth, Diane; Finkelstein, Susan; Kliger, Alan; Finkelstein, Fred

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested a relationship between depression--as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)--and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. A recent study from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) indicated an association between mortality in a large cohort of hemodialysis patients and the patients' responses in the preceding 4 weeks to two questions on the Kidney Disease Quality of Life, Short Form (KDQOL-SF36): "Have you felt downhearted and blue?" and "Have you felt so down in the dumps that nothing could cheer you?" A BDI score > or = 11 and a score < or = 3 for the two questions on the SF36 were considered to suggest the presence of depressive symptoms; both scores have been associated with increased mortality in hemodialysis patients. We aimed to examine the relationship of the two SF36 questions with depressive symptoms as assessed by the BDI. All patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) therapy and daily hemodialysis therapy in our units between June 2000 and January 2002 were asked to complete a BDI and an SF36. We recorded 135 tests in 80 CPD patients, and 76 tests in 17 daily hemodialysis patients. Correlation coefficients (r2 values) of the responses to the two questions on the SF36 and the BDI scores demonstrated a significant relationship between the scores. The r2 values for the CPD patients' two SF36 responses and the BDI scores were -0.622 and -0.506; the r2 values for the daily hemodialysis patients were -0.363 and -0.317. The sensitivity and specificity for each SF36 response to be < or = 3 when the BDI was > or = 11 were 82.4% and 68.6% for the "downhearted and blue" question and 65% and 67% for the "down in the dumps" question. Whether the two questions on the SF36 that suggest depression can replace the BDI as a screening tool requires further study. Furthermore, it is unclear if the two questions on the SF36 are predictive of mortality because of their association with clinical

  17. The use of cable television as a tool in health education of the elderly: screening.

    PubMed

    Salzer, J E; Marshall, C L; Glazer, E R

    1977-01-01

    A cable television channel was used to inform residents in a housing project for the elderly about a series of preventive health services. Screening and referral services for common health problems were offered to this group. The televised communications included a series of brief, informal advertising-style and direct teaching-style messages developed for each of five screening areas. An evaluation found that the televised messages had both direct and indirect effects on participation in the screening programs; overall attendance was about 8% of the estimated potential attendance. Knowledge and health attitude effects of the messages were also assessed.

  18. Testing tubewell platform color as a rapid screening tool for arsenic and manganese in drinking water wells.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ashis; Nath, Bibhash; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Halder, Dipti; Kundu, Amit K; Mandal, Ujjal; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar

    2012-01-03

    A low-cost rapid screening tool for arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in groundwater is urgently needed to formulate mitigation policies for sustainable drinking water supply. This study attempts to make statistical comparison between tubewell (TW) platform color and the level of As and Mn concentration in groundwater extracted from the respective TW (n = 423), to validate platform color as a screening tool for As and Mn in groundwater. The result shows that a black colored platform with 73% certainty indicates that well water is safe from As, while with 84% certainty a red colored platform indicates that well water is enriched with As, compared to WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 79%, 77%, and 81%, respectively. However, the certainty values become 93% and 38%, respectively, for black and red colored platforms at 50 μg/L, the drinking water standards for India and Bangladesh. The respective efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity are 65%, 85%, and 59%. Similarly for Mn, black and red colored platform with 78% and 64% certainty, respectively, indicates that well water is either enriched or free from Mn at the Indian national drinking water standard of 300 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 71%, 67%, and 76%, respectively. Thus, this study demonstrates that TW platform color can be potentially used as an initial screening tool for identifying TWs with elevated dissolved As and Mn, to make further rigorous groundwater testing more intensive and implement mitigation options for safe drinking water supplies.

  19. Rapid automated screening, identification and quantification of organic micro-contaminants and their main transformation products in wastewater and river waters using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry with an accurate-mass database.

    PubMed

    Gómez, M J; Gómez-Ramos, M M; Malato, O; Mezcua, M; Férnandez-Alba, A R

    2010-11-05

    In this study we have developed and evaluated an analytical method for a rapid automated screening and confirmation of a large number of organic micro-contaminants (almost 400) and also the quantification of the positive findings in water samples of different types (surface and wastewaters) using liquid chromatography-electrospray quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOFMS) based on the use of an accurate-mass database. The created database includes data not only on the accurate masses of the target ions but also on the characteristic in-source fragment ions, isotopic pattern and retention time data. This customized database was linked to commercially available software which extracted all the potential compounds of interest from the LC-QTOFMS raw data of each sample and matched them against the database to search for targeted compounds in the sample. The detailed fragmentation information has also been used as a powerful tool for the automatic identification of unknown compounds and/or transformation products with similar structures to those of known organic contaminants included in the database. The database can be continually enlarged. To confirm identification of compounds which have no fragment ions (or fragments with low intensity/relative abundance) from in-source CID fragmentation or isomers which are not distinguished within full single mass spectra, a "Targeted MS/MS" method is developed. Thereafter, these compounds can be further analyzed using the collision energy (CE) in QTOF-MS/MS mode. Linearity and limits of detection were studied. Method detection limits (MDLs) in effluent wastewater and river waters were, in most cases, lowers or equal to 5 and 2 ng/L, respectively. Only 15 compounds had MDLs between 5 and 50 ng/L in effluent wastewater matrix. We obtained a linearity of the calibration curves over two orders of magnitude. The method has been applied to real samples and the results obtained reveal that most of the pharmaceutically

  20. Screening tool to evaluate the vulnerability of down-gradient receptors to groundwater contaminants from uncapped landfills.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ronald J; Reilly, Timothy J; Lopez, Anthony; Romanok, Kristin; Wengrowski, Edward W

    2015-09-01

    A screening tool for quantifying levels of concern for contaminants detected in monitoring wells on or near landfills to down-gradient receptors (streams, wetlands and residential lots) was developed and evaluated. The tool uses Quick Domenico Multi-scenario (QDM), a spreadsheet implementation of Domenico-based solute transport, to estimate concentrations of contaminants reaching receptors under steady-state conditions from a constant-strength source. Unlike most other available Domenico-based model applications, QDM calculates the time for down-gradient contaminant concentrations to approach steady state and appropriate dispersivity values, and allows for up to fifty simulations on a single spreadsheet. Sensitivity of QDM solutions to critical model parameters was quantified. The screening tool uses QDM results to categorize landfills as having high, moderate and low levels of concern, based on contaminant concentrations reaching receptors relative to regulatory concentrations. The application of this tool was demonstrated by assessing levels of concern (as defined by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission) for thirty closed, uncapped landfills in the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, using historic water-quality data from monitoring wells on and near landfills and hydraulic parameters from regional flow models. Twelve of these landfills are categorized as having high levels of concern, indicating a need for further assessment. This tool is not a replacement for conventional numerically-based transport model or other available Domenico-based applications, but is suitable for quickly assessing the level of concern posed by a landfill or other contaminant point source before expensive and lengthy monitoring or remediation measures are taken. In addition to quantifying the level of concern using historic groundwater-monitoring data, the tool allows for archiving model scenarios and adding refinements as new data become available.

  1. Screening tool to evaluate the vulnerability of down-gradient receptors to groundwater contaminants from uncapped landfills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Ronald J.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Lopez, Anthony R.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Wengrowski, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    A screening tool for quantifying levels of concern for contaminants detected in monitoring wells on or near landfills to down-gradient receptors (streams, wetlands and residential lots) was developed and evaluated. The tool uses Quick Domenico Multi-scenario (QDM), a spreadsheet implementation of Domenico-based solute transport, to estimate concentrations of contaminants reaching receptors under steady-state conditions from a constant-strength source. Unlike most other available Domenico-based model applications, QDM calculates the time for down-gradient contaminant concentrations to approach steady state and appropriate dispersivity values, and allows for up to fifty simulations on a single spreadsheet. Sensitivity of QDM solutions to critical model parameters was quantified. The screening tool uses QDM results to categorize landfills as having high, moderate and low levels of concern, based on contaminant concentrations reaching receptors relative to regulatory concentrations. The application of this tool was demonstrated by assessing levels of concern (as defined by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission) for thirty closed, uncapped landfills in the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, using historic water-quality data from monitoring wells on and near landfills and hydraulic parameters from regional flow models. Twelve of these landfills are categorized as having high levels of concern, indicating a need for further assessment. This tool is not a replacement for conventional numerically-based transport model or other available Domenico-based applications, but is suitable for quickly assessing the level of concern posed by a landfill or other contaminant point source before expensive and lengthy monitoring or remediation measures are taken. In addition to quantifying the level of concern using historic groundwater-monitoring data, the tool allows for archiving model scenarios and adding refinements as new data become available.

  2. Assessing risk factors as potential screening tests: a simple assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Wald, Nicholas J; Morris, Joan K

    2011-02-28

    Many risk factors for disease are suggested as screening tests when there is little prospect that they could be useful in predicting disease. To avoid this, it is useful to know the relationship between the relative risk of a disease or disorder in people with high and low values of a risk factor, and the equivalent screening performance in terms of the detection rate (sensitivity) for a specified false-positive rate. We describe an interactive Risk-Screening Converter, accessible from the Internet (http://www.wolfson.qmul.ac.uk/rsc/), that transforms an odds ratio into the equivalent estimates of detection and false-positive rates. The converter is intended for general clinicians, for people engaged in research into risk factors and disease, and for those who give advice on applying such research findings into medical practice. It should help to distinguish effective screening methods from ineffective ones, and so improve clinical guidelines relating to screening and the prediction and prevention of disease.

  3. Non-Invasive Screening Tools for Down’s Syndrome: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sillence, Kelly A.; Madgett, Tracey E.; Roberts, Llinos A.; Overton, Timothy G.; Avent, Neil D.

    2013-01-01

    Down’s syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of developmental delay with an incidence of 1 in 800 live births, and is the predominant reason why women choose to undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis. However, as invasive tests are associated with around a 1% risk of miscarriage new non-invasive tests have been long sought after. Recently, the most promising approach for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) has been provided by the introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. The clinical application of NIPD for DS detection is not yet applicable, as large scale validation studies in low-risk pregnancies need to be completed. Currently, prenatal screening is still the first line test for the detection of fetal aneuploidy. Screening cannot diagnose DS, but developing a more advanced screening program can help to improve detection rates, and therefore reduce the number of women offered invasive tests. This article describes how the prenatal screening program has developed since the introduction of maternal age as the original “screening” test, and subsequently discusses recent advances in detecting new screening markers with reference to both proteomic and bioinformatic techniques. PMID:26835682

  4. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator trial may be used as a screening tool prior to spinal cord stimulator implantation.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Leena; Winfree, Christopher; Miller-Saultz, Debra; Sonty, Nomita

    2010-08-01

    This is a prospective pilot study looking at the utility of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulator (TENS) trial as a screening tool prior to spinal cord stimulator (SCS) implant to identify patients who may fail a SCS trial. The accepted screening test prior to a permanent SCS implant is a SCS trial. Patients may fail the SCS trial due to several causes of which one is the inability to tolerate stimulation induced paresthesias. Twenty five patients scheduled for a SCS trial for the treatment of refractory pain secondary to Failed Back surgery syndrome underwent a TENS trial and psychological evaluation by personnel uninvolved in the SCS trial. Data was collected by personnel not involved in the SCS trial or permanent placement. Twenty patients completed the study. Data collected included area of coverage, paresthesia tolerance, pain and anxiety measured on a VAS scale. Comparability between the groups were analyzed using Pearson's correlation, Fisher Exact test and simple regression analysis. We noted a significant correlation between ability to tolerate TENS and SCS induced paresthesias. Statistically significant correlation was also noted between pre SCS trial anxiety score and high pain score during SCS trial. We conclude that there is potential applicability of a TENS trial as a non invasive screening tool which may promote cost effectiveness and decrease unnecessary procedural risks to the patient by avoiding SCS trial in select patients.

  5. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools.

    PubMed

    Bade, Richard; Causanilles, Ana; Emke, Erik; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V; Hernandez, Felix; de Voogt, Pim

    2016-11-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of >200 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs or ChemSpider. This hidden target screening approach led to the detection of numerous compounds including the illicit drug cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine and the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, gemfibrozil and losartan. The compounds found using both approaches were combined, and isotopic pattern and retention time prediction were used to filter out false positives. The remaining potential positives were reanalysed in MS/MS mode and their product ions were compared with literature and/or mass spectral libraries. The inclusion of the chemical database ChemSpider led to the tentative identification of several metabolites, including paraxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and carboxylosartan, as well as the pharmaceutical phenazone. The first three of these compounds are isomers and they were subsequently distinguished based on their product ions and predicted retention times. This work has shown that the use deconvolution tools facilitates non-target screening and enables the identification of a higher number of compounds.

  6. Screening tool to evaluate the vulnerability of down-gradient receptors to groundwater contaminants from uncapped landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Ronald J.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Lopez, Anthony; Romanok, Kristin; Wengrowski, Edward W.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A spreadsheet-based risk screening tool for groundwater affected by landfills is presented. • Domenico solute transport equations are used to estimate downgradient contaminant concentrations. • Landfills are categorized as presenting high, moderate or low risks. • Analysis of parameter sensitivity and examples of the method’s application are given. • The method has value to regulators and those considering redeveloping closed landfills. - Abstract: A screening tool for quantifying levels of concern for contaminants detected in monitoring wells on or near landfills to down-gradient receptors (streams, wetlands and residential lots) was developed and evaluated. The tool uses Quick Domenico Multi-scenario (QDM), a spreadsheet implementation of Domenico-based solute transport, to estimate concentrations of contaminants reaching receptors under steady-state conditions from a constant-strength source. Unlike most other available Domenico-based model applications, QDM calculates the time for down-gradient contaminant concentrations to approach steady state and appropriate dispersivity values, and allows for up to fifty simulations on a single spreadsheet. Sensitivity of QDM solutions to critical model parameters was quantified. The screening tool uses QDM results to categorize landfills as having high, moderate and low levels of concern, based on contaminant concentrations reaching receptors relative to regulatory concentrations. The application of this tool was demonstrated by assessing levels of concern (as defined by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission) for thirty closed, uncapped landfills in the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, using historic water-quality data from monitoring wells on and near landfills and hydraulic parameters from regional flow models. Twelve of these landfills are categorized as having high levels of concern, indicating a need for further assessment. This tool is not a replacement for conventional numerically

  7. Field screening at petroleum contaminated sites: A tool to save time, money

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, G.M.; Pucel, P.G.; Allee, P.

    1998-01-01

    The most expensive part of an environmental assessment is often lab services. Control of these costs while still collecting adequate data to assess a site is sometimes the difference between solvency and bankruptcy, especially for small companies. Fortunately, the use of field screening techniques can significantly reduce the quantity of samples going to the laboratory for analysis, thus controlling overall project costs. Chemical and Environmental Consultants, Inc. (CEC) has been field evaluating a rapid, widely applicable method for field screening petroleum contaminated soils and wastes for SVOCs. The method is similar in application to US EPA Method 418.1 and allows for the field screening of soil and waste samples in about 10 minutes. The method uses fluorescence spectroscopy analysis of a solvent extract of the soil or waste sample.

  8. Virtual screening: an in silico tool for interlacing the chemical universe with the proteome.

    PubMed

    Westermaier, Yvonne; Barril, Xavier; Scapozza, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    In silico screening both in the forward (traditional virtual screening) and reverse sense (inverse virtual screening (IVS)) are helpful techniques for interlacing the chemical universe of small molecules with the proteome. The former, which is using a protein structure and a large chemical database, is well-known by the scientific community. We have chosen here to provide an overview on the latter, focusing on validation and target prioritization strategies. By comparing it to complementary or alternative wet-lab approaches, we put IVS in the broader context of chemical genomics, target discovery and drug design. By giving examples from the literature and an own example on how to validate the approach, we provide guidance on the issues related to IVS.

  9. Capillary electrophoresis as a screening tool for alpha amylase inhibitors in plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Imad I.; Afifi, Fatima U.

    2010-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for screening plant extract for potential alpha amylase (AA) inhibitory activity. The method was validated against a well established UV method. Overall, the proposed method was shown able to detect plants with significant alpha amylase inhibitory activity but not those with rather clinically insignificant activities. Fifty plant species were screened using both the proposed CE method and the UV method and seven plant species were found to possess significant AA inhibitory activities. Two plant species were proved to have alpha amylase inhibitory activity for the first time. PMID:24115900

  10. Screen Twice, Cut Once: Assessing the Predictive Validity of Teacher Selection Tools. Working Paper 120

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Huntington-Klein, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that teacher hiring in public schools is ad hoc and often fails to result in good selection among applicants. Some districts use structured selection instruments in the hiring process, but we know little about the efficacy of such tools. In this paper, we evaluate the ability of applicant selection tools used by the Spokane…

  11. Comparative study of machine-learning and chemometric tools for analysis of in-vivo high-throughput screening data.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Kirk; Kinney, John; Owens, Aaron; Kleier, Dan; Bloch, Karen; Argentar, Dave; Walsh, Alicia; Vaidyanathan, Ganesh

    2008-08-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) has become a central tool of many pharmaceutical and crop-protection discovery operations. If HTS screening is carried out at the level of the intact organism, as is commonly done in crop protection, this strategy has the potential of uncovering a completely new mechanism of actions. The challenge in running a cost-effective HTS operation is to identify ways in which to improve the overall success rate in discovering new biologically active compounds. To this end, we describe our efforts directed at making full use of the data stream arising from HTS. This paper describes a comparative study in which several machine learning and chemometric methodologies were used to develop classifiers on the same data sets derived from in vivo HTS campaigns and their predictive performances compared in terms of false negative and false positive error profiles.

  12. GlycoMinestruct: a new bioinformatics tool for highly accurate mapping of the human N-linked and O-linked glycoproteomes by incorporating structural features

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuyi; Li, Chen; Revote, Jerico; Zhang, Yang; Webb, Geoffrey I.; Li, Jian; Song, Jiangning; Lithgow, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation plays an important role in cell-cell adhesion, ligand-binding and subcellular recognition. Current approaches for predicting protein glycosylation are primarily based on sequence-derived features, while little work has been done to systematically assess the importance of structural features to glycosylation prediction. Here, we propose a novel bioinformatics method called GlycoMinestruct(http://glycomine.erc.monash.edu/Lab/GlycoMine_Struct/) for improved prediction of human N- and O-linked glycosylation sites by combining sequence and structural features in an integrated computational framework with a two-step feature-selection strategy. Experiments indicated that GlycoMinestruct outperformed NGlycPred, the only predictor that incorporated both sequence and structure features, achieving AUC values of 0.941 and 0.922 for N- and O-linked glycosylation, respectively, on an independent test dataset. We applied GlycoMinestruct to screen the human structural proteome and obtained high-confidence predictions for N- and O-linked glycosylation sites. GlycoMinestruct can be used as a powerful tool to expedite the discovery of glycosylation events and substrates to facilitate hypothesis-driven experimental studies. PMID:27708373

  13. The PHQ-PD as a Screening Tool for Panic Disorder in the Primary Care Setting in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Cristina Mae; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Paloma; Tomás-Tomás, Patricia; Gracia-Gracia, Irene; Dongil-Collado, Esperanza; Iruarrizaga, M. Iciar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Panic disorder is a common anxiety disorder and is highly prevalent in Spanish primary care centres. The use of validated tools can improve the detection of panic disorder in primary care populations, thus enabling referral for specialized treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-Panic Disorder (PHQ-PD) as a screening and diagnostic tool for panic disorder in Spanish primary care centres. Method We compared the psychometric properties of the PHQ-PD to the reference standard, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) interview. General practitioners referred 178 patients who completed the entire PHQ test, including the PHQ-PD, to undergo the SCID-I. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and positive and negative likelihood ratios of the PHQ-PD were assessed. Results The operating characteristics of the PHQ-PD are moderate. The best cut-off score was 5 (sensitivity .77, specificity .72). Modifications to the questionnaire's algorithms improved test characteristics (sensitivity .77, specificity .72) compared to the original algorithm. The screening question alone yielded the highest sensitivity score (.83). Conclusion Although the modified algorithm of the PHQ-PD only yielded moderate results as a diagnostic test for panic disorder, it was better than the original. Using only the first question of the PHQ-PD showed the best psychometric properties (sensitivity). Based on these findings, we suggest the use of the screening questions for screening purposes and the modified algorithm for diagnostic purposes. PMID:27525977

  14. Assessment of an Interactive Computer-Based Patient Prenatal Genetic Screening and Testing Education Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jennifer M.; Sorenson, James R.; Bowling, J. Michael; Jennings-Grant, Tracey

    2005-01-01

    The Enhancing Patient Prenatal Education study tested the feasibility and educational impact of an interactive program for patient prenatal genetic screening and testing education. Patients at two private practices and one public health clinic participated (N = 207). The program collected knowledge and measures of anxiety before and after use of…

  15. COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL SCREENING AND RANKING APPROACHES: THE WASTE MINIMIZATION PRIORITIZATION TOOL VERSUS TOXIC EQUIVALENCY POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical screening in the United States is often conducted using scoring and ranking methodologies. Linked models accounting for chemical fate, exposure, and toxicological effects are generally preferred in Europe and in product Life Cycle Assessment. For the first time, a compar...

  16. Molecular Markers of Diabetic Retinopathy: Potential Screening Tool of the Future?

    PubMed Central

    Pusparajah, Priyia; Lee, Learn-Han; Abdul Kadir, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is among the leading causes of new onset blindness in adults. Effective treatment may delay the onset and progression of this disease provided it is diagnosed early. At present retinopathy can only be diagnosed via formal examination of the eye by a trained specialist, which limits the population that can be effectively screened. An easily accessible, reliable screening biomarker of diabetic retinopathy would be of tremendous benefit in detecting the population in need of further assessment and treatment. This review highlights specific biomarkers that show promise as screening markers to detect early diabetic retinopathy or even to detect patients at increased risk of DR at the time of diagnosis of diabetes. The pathobiology of DR is complex and multifactorial giving rise to a wide array of potential biomarkers. This review provides an overview of these pathways and looks at older markers such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), inflammatory markers, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as other newer proteins with a role in the pathogenesis of DR including neuroprotective factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor (PEDF); SA100A12, pentraxin 3, brain natriuretic peptide, apelin 3, and chemerin as well as various metabolites such as lipoprotein A, folate, and homocysteine. We also consider the possible role of proteins identified through proteomics work whose levels are altered in the sera of patients with DR as screening markers though their role in pathophysiology remains to be characterized. The role of microRNA as a promising new screening marker is also discussed. PMID:27313539

  17. Molecular Markers of Diabetic Retinopathy: Potential Screening Tool of the Future?

    PubMed

    Pusparajah, Priyia; Lee, Learn-Han; Abdul Kadir, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is among the leading causes of new onset blindness in adults. Effective treatment may delay the onset and progression of this disease provided it is diagnosed early. At present retinopathy can only be diagnosed via formal examination of the eye by a trained specialist, which limits the population that can be effectively screened. An easily accessible, reliable screening biomarker of diabetic retinopathy would be of tremendous benefit in detecting the population in need of further assessment and treatment. This review highlights specific biomarkers that show promise as screening markers to detect early diabetic retinopathy or even to detect patients at increased risk of DR at the time of diagnosis of diabetes. The pathobiology of DR is complex and multifactorial giving rise to a wide array of potential biomarkers. This review provides an overview of these pathways and looks at older markers such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), inflammatory markers, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as other newer proteins with a role in the pathogenesis of DR including neuroprotective factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor (PEDF); SA100A12, pentraxin 3, brain natriuretic peptide, apelin 3, and chemerin as well as various metabolites such as lipoprotein A, folate, and homocysteine. We also consider the possible role of proteins identified through proteomics work whose levels are altered in the sera of patients with DR as screening markers though their role in pathophysiology remains to be characterized. The role of microRNA as a promising new screening marker is also discussed.

  18. Risk Assessment Tools for Osteoporosis Screening in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Carolyn J

    2015-10-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are common in postmenopausal women. Tools are available to estimate the risk of low bone mineral density (BMD) or fracture. This systematic review retrieved articles that evaluated osteoporosis risk assessment tools among postmenopausal women in North America. For identifying BMD T-score ≤-2.5, most studies of the Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation tool (SCORE) and Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI) reported sensitivity ≥90 %. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was usually <0.75 for SCORE and ≥0.75 for ORAI. Among women 50-64 years old, a Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) threshold ≥9.3 % had a sensitivity of 33 % for identifying BMD T-score ≤-2.5 and 26 % for predicting major osteoporotic fracture (MOF). For predicting MOF, sensitivity was higher for SCORE and Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool equation (OST), and higher in women ≥65 years old. For predicting BMD T-score ≤-2.5 in women ≥65 years old, the sensitivities of SCORE; ORAI; and Age, Body Size, No Estrogen (ABONE) were very high. No optimal osteoporosis risk assessment tool is available for identifying low BMD and MOF risk.

  19. Multidimensional Reaction Screening for Photochemical Transformations as a Tool for Discovering New Chemotypes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an automated photochemical microfluidics platform that integrates a 1 kW high-pressure Hg vapor lamp and allows for analytical pulse flow or preparative continuous flow reactions. Herein, we will discuss the use of this platform toward the discovery of new chemotypes through multidimensional reaction screening. We will highlight the ability to discretely control wavelengths with optical filters, allowing for control of reaction outcomes. PMID:24697145

  20. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M.; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients.

  1. Parental concerns based general developmental screening tool and autism risk: the Taiwan National Birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lung, For-Wey; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean

    2010-02-01

    Early detection of developmental delay and childhood disorders are important for early intervention. This study aimed to describe the distribution of responses in a large population-based survey, identify cutoff points for the parent concern checklist (PCC) suitable for the Chinese language and culture, and explore how many children were identified as having evidence of problems at age 18 mo different from those at age 6 mo. Using a national randomly selected sample, the overall development of 21,248 children was investigated using the Taiwan Birth Cohort study instrument, and the PCC, a problem-oriented screening instrument. The Newton-Raphson iteration showed that the PCC should be separated into three groups, those scoring 1-2 in the first group, 3- 6 in the second group, and 7- 8 in the third group.Structural equation models showed that 6-mo development was predictive of 18-mo development; additionally, 18-mo development and the PCC showed good concurrent validity. This study identified three groups with distinct developmental trajectories and two cutoff points of 2/3 and 6/7. Thus, the PCC can be used as a first-stage screening instrument in a two-stage window screening procedure. Further studies are needed to investigate the factors, which contribute to the differences among these groups;follow-up on the typical and atypical development of these children is necessary.

  2. Offer of rapid testing and alternative biological samples as practical tools to implement HIV screening programs.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Di Perri, Giovanni; Tiberi, Simon; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lillo, Flavia B

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of HIV testing has the objective to increase screening, identify and counsel persons with infection, link them to clinical services and reduce transmission. Rapid tests and/or alternative biological samples (like oral fluid) give the option for a better general consent in approaching screening, immediate referral of HIV positives to medical treatment and partner notification. We tested the performance characteristics of an oral fluid-based rapid HIV test (Rapidtest HIV lateral flow-Healthchem diag. LLC) in comparison with routinely utilized methods in a selected population of known positive (N = 121) or negative (N = 754) subjects. The sensitivity of the rapid test was 99.1% (one false negative sample) and the specificity 98.8%. Five negatives showed a faint reactivity, 3 of these were reactive also in the reference test, one with a p24 only reaction in Western blot. If these 3 samples were excluded from the analysis the specificity increases to 99.2%. Results from our study confirm that, although a continuous improvement of the test performance is still needed to minimize false negative and positive results, rapid test and alternative biological samples may contribute to HIV prevention strategies by reaching a larger population particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain.

  3. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-09-22

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients.

  4. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M.; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients. PMID:27653274

  5. Pilot study to investigate the feasibility of the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool (HOME FAST) to identify older Malaysian people at risk of falls

    PubMed Central

    Romli, Muhammad Hibatullah; Mackenzie, Lynette; Lovarini, Meryl; Tan, Maw Pin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The relationship between home hazards and falls in older Malaysian people is not yet fully understood. No tools to evaluate the Malaysian home environment currently exist. Therefore, this study aimed to pilot the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool (HOME FAST) to identify hazards in Malaysian homes, to evaluate the feasibility of using the HOME FAST in the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research (MELoR) study and to gather preliminary data about the experience of falls among a small sample of Malaysian older people. Design A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted. Setting An urban setting in Kuala Lumpur. Participants 26 older people aged 60 and over were recruited from the control group of a related research project in Malaysia, in addition to older people known to the researchers. Primary outcome measure The HOME FAST was applied with the baseline survey for the MELoR study via a face-to-face interview and observation of the home by research staff. Results The majority of the participants were female, of Malay or Chinese ethnicity and living with others in a double-storeyed house. Falls were reported in the previous year by 19% and 80% of falls occurred at home. Gender and fear of falling had the strongest associations with home hazards. Most hazards were detected in the bathroom area. A small number of errors were detected in the HOME FAST ratings by researchers. Conclusions The HOME FAST is feasible as a research and clinical tool for the Malaysian context and is appropriate for use in the MELoR study. Home hazards were prevalent in the homes of older people and further research with the larger MELoR sample is needed to confirm the validity of using the HOME FAST in Malaysia. Training in the use of the HOME FAST is needed to ensure accurate use by researchers. PMID:27531736

  6. Chemiluminescence analyzer of NOx as a high-throughput screening tool in selective catalytic reduction of NO

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kwang Seok; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2011-01-01

    A chemiluminescence-based analyzer of NOx gas species has been applied for high-throughput screening of a library of catalytic materials. The applicability of the commercial NOx analyzer as a rapid screening tool was evaluated using selective catalytic reduction of NO gas. A library of 60 binary alloys composed of Pt and Co, Zr, La, Ce, Fe or W on Al2O3 substrate was tested for the efficiency of NOx removal using a home-built 64-channel parallel and sequential tubular reactor. The NOx concentrations measured by the NOx analyzer agreed well with the results obtained using micro gas chromatography for a reference catalyst consisting of 1 wt% Pt on γ-Al2O3. Most alloys showed high efficiency at 275 °C, which is typical of Pt-based catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NO. The screening with NOx analyzer allowed to select Pt-Ce(X) (X=1–3) and Pt–Fe(2) as the optimal catalysts for NOx removal: 73% NOx conversion was achieved with the Pt–Fe(2) alloy, which was much better than the results for the reference catalyst and the other library alloys. This study demonstrates a sequential high-throughput method of practical evaluation of catalysts for the selective reduction of NO. PMID:27877438

  7. A Novel Geriatric Screening Tool in Older Patients with Cancer: The Korean Cancer Study Group Geriatric Score (KG)-7.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Se-Hyun; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Kwang-Il; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Geriatric assessment (GA) is resource-consuming, necessitating screening tools to select appropriate patients who need full GA. The objective of this study is to design a novel geriatric screening tool with easy-to-answer questions and high performance objectively selected from a large dataset to represent each domain of GA. A development cohort was constructed from 1284 patients who received GA from May 2004 to April 2007. Items representing each domain of functional status, cognitive function, nutritional status, and psychological status in GA were selected according to sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP). Of the selected items, the final questions were chosen by a panel of oncologists and geriatricians to encompass most domains evenly and also by feasibility and use with cancer patients. The selected screening questions were validated in a separate cohort of 98 cancer patients. The novel screening tool, the Korean Cancer Study Group Geriatric Score (KG)-7, consisted of 7 items representing each domain of GA. KG-7 had a maximal area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.95) in the prediction of abnormal GA, which was higher than that of G-8 (0.87, 95% CI 0.85-0.89) within the development cohort. The cut-off value was decided at ≤ 5 points, with a SE of 95.0%, SP of 59.2%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 85.3%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 82.6%. In the validation cohort, the AUC was 0.82 (95% CI 0.73-0.90), and the SE, SP, PPV, and NPV were 89.5%, 48.6%, 77.3%, and 75.0%, respectively. Furthermore, patients with higher KG-7 scores showed significantly longer overall survival (OS) in the development and validation cohorts. In conclusions, the KG-7 showed high SE and NPV to predict abnormal GA. The KG-7 also predicted OS. Given the results of our studies, the KG-7 could be used effectively in countries with high patient burden and low resources to select patients in need of full GA and intervention.

  8. Association between the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity screening tool and cardiovascular disease risk factors in 10-year old children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Kimbo Edward

    Purpose. To examine the association of the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) screening tool, a behaviorally based screening tool designed to assess the obesogenic family environment and behaviors, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in 10-year old children. Methods. One hundred nineteen children were assessed for body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and resting blood pressure. A continuous CVD risk score was created using total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and WC. The FNPA survey was completed by parents. The associations between the FNPA score and individual CVD risk factors and the continuous CVD risk score were examined using correlation analyses. Results. Approximately 35% of the sample were overweight (19%) or obese (16%). The mean FNPA score was 24.6 +/- 2.5 (range 18 to 29). Significant correlations were found between the FNPA score and WC (r = -.35, p<.01), BMI percentile (r = -.38, p<.01), %BF (r = -.43, p<.01), and the continuous CVD risk score (r = -.22, p = .02). No significant association was found between the FNPA score and TC:HDL (r=0.10, p=0.88) or MAP (r=-0.12, p=0.20). Conclusion. Children from a high-risk, obesogenic family environment as indicated with a lower FNPA score have a higher CVD risk factor profile than children from a low-risk family environment.

  9. Evaluation of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist as a screening tool for the identification of emotional and psychosocial problems

    PubMed Central

    Muzzolon, Sandra Regina B.; Cat, Mônica Nunes L.; dos Santos, Lúcia Helena C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the Brazilian version of Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) as a screening tool to identify psychosocial and emotional problems in schoolchildren from six to 12 years old. METHODS Diagnostic test conducted in a public school of Curitiba, Paraná (Southern Brazil), to evaluate the PSC accuracy and consistency, considering the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) as the gold standard. Among 415 parents invited for the study, 145 responded to both PSC and CBCL. The results of the two instruments were compared. PSC and CBCL were considered positive if scores ≥28 and >70 respectively. RESULTS Among the 145 cases, 49 (33.8%) were positive for both PSC and CBCL. The ROC curve showed the PSC score of 21 as the best cutoff point for screening psychosocial and emotional problems, with a sensitivity of 96.8% and a specificity of 86.7%. Regarding the reference cutoff (score ≥28 points), the sensitivity was 64.5% and the specificity, 100.0%, similar to those found in the original version of the tool. CONCLUSIONS The Portuguese version of PSC was effective for early identification of emotional and/or psychosocial problems in a schoolchildren group and may be useful for pediatricians. PMID:24142319

  10. Development of a Brief Pre-Implementation Screening Tool to Identify Teachers Who Are at Risk for Not Implementing Intervention Curriculum and High-Implementing Teachers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Lunn, Sonja; Patel, Pooja; Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette

    2017-02-01

    Few questionnaires have been developed to screen for potentially poor implementers of school-based interventions. This study combines teacher characteristics, perceptions, and teaching/training experiences to develop a short screening tool that can identify potential "low-performing" or "high-performing" teachers pre-implementation. Data were gathered from 208 teachers and 4,411 students who participated in the national implementation of an evidence-based HIV intervention in The Bahamas. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated for the detection of "low-performing" and "high-performing" teachers. The validity of the screening tool was assessed using receiver operating characteristics analysis. The School Pre-implementation Screening Tool consists of seven predictive factors: duration as teacher, working site, attendance at training workshops, training in interactive teaching, perceived importance of the intervention, comfort in teaching the curriculum, and program priority. The sensitivity and specificity were 74% and 57% in identifying "low-performing" teachers and 81% and 65% with "high-performing" teachers. The screening tool demonstrated an acceptable/good validity (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.68 for "low-performing teachers" and 0.78 for "high-performing" teachers). Our brief screening tool can facilitate teacher training and recruitment of engaged teachers in implementation of school-based interventions.

  11. Depression Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  12. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD.

  13. EVALUATING POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS (P2P) III: AN ENVIRONMENTAL TOOL FOR SCREENING IN PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    P2P is a computer-based tool that supports the comparison of process and product alternatives in terms of environmental impacts. This tool provides screening-level information for use in process design and in product LCA. Twenty one impact categories and data for approximately ...

  14. Evaluation of the annual killifish Nothobranchius guentheri as a tool for rapid acute toxicity screening

    SciTech Connect

    Shedd, T.R.; Widder, M.W.; Toussaint, M.W.; Sunkel, M.C.; Hull, E.

    1999-10-01

    This study evaluated the use of Nothobranchius guentheri as a novel organism for rapid acute toxicity screening. A major advantage of the species is that there is no need to maintain a continuous culture to have organisms immediately available for testing. Rather, the embryos are viable under long-term storage conditions and can be hatched within a few hours. The tests require only 24 h with standard laboratory equipment. Sensitivity levels for 11 representative toxicants were comparable to those reported for five of the standard US Environmental Protection Agency test species requiring continuous culture.

  15. Evaluation of conjunctival swab as a mass-screening tool for molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rodrigo Souza; Souza, Natalia Alves; Barbosa, Amanda Duarte; Ferreira, Aline Leandra Carvalho; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    The canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis is an important step of visceral leishmaniasis control program in Brazil once the dog is the main reservoir host of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the conjunctival swab (CS) as a mass-screening tool for CVL molecular diagnosis in an endemic area classified as priority for the Brazilian Ministry of Healthy for surveillance action. A total of 1350 domiciled dogs were screened. The animals were evaluated by serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as screening and immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for confirmation) and by CS associated to real-time PCR, using primers addressed to kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircles and SYBR Green. Canine β-globin gene amplification was used to evaluate the sample DNA integrity. A subgroup of 484 animals was also submitted to clinical evaluation. Among the 1350 dogs screened, 369 (27.3%) were positive by CS real-time PCR and 126 (9.3%) tested positive by ELISA. Thirty-one percent (39/126) of the ELISA-positive dogs were confirmed by IFAT. CS real-time PCR was able to detect infection in dogs independently of the symptomatology degree (p > 0.05), while ELISA was more sensitive in the group of dogs that present three or more clinical signs related to CVL. The results demonstrated that CS real-time PCR was able to detect a higher number of infected dogs than ELISA and that the prevalence of canine infections has been underestimated by the serological assays. The use of sensitive molecular diagnostic methods like CS real-time PCR, mainly in endemic areas, could greatly contribute to disease control.

  16. SWAT Check: A screening tool to assist users in the identification of potential model application problems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a basin scale hydrologic model developed by the US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. SWAT's broad applicability, user friendly model interfaces, and automatic calibration software have led to a rapid increase in the number of new u...

  17. Exposure Assessment Tools by Tiers and Types - Screening-Level and Refined

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  18. A Comprehensive Review of School-Based Body Mass Index Screening Programs and Their Implications for School Health: Do the Controversies Accurately Reflect the Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggieri, Dominique G.; Bass, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whereas legislation for body mass index (BMI) surveillance and screening programs has passed in 25 states, the programs are often subject to ethical debates about confidentiality and privacy, school-to-parent communication, and safety and self-esteem issues for students. Despite this debate, no comprehensive analysis has been completed…

  19. Summary Report on the Graded Prognostic Assessment: An Accurate and Facile Diagnosis-Specific Tool to Estimate Survival for Patients With Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sperduto, Paul W.; Kased, Norbert; Roberge, David; Xu, Zhiyuan; Shanley, Ryan; Luo, Xianghua; Sneed, Penny K.; Chao, Samuel T.; Weil, Robert J.; Suh, John; Bhatt, Amit; Jensen, Ashley W.; Brown, Paul D.; Shih, Helen A.; Kirkpatrick, John; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Fiveash, John B.; Chiang, Veronica; Knisely, Jonathan P.S.; Sperduto, Christina Maria; Lin, Nancy; Mehta, Minesh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Our group has previously published the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA), a prognostic index for patients with brain metastases. Updates have been published with refinements to create diagnosis-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment indices. The purpose of this report is to present the updated diagnosis-specific GPA indices in a single, unified, user-friendly report to allow ease of access and use by treating physicians. Methods A multi-institutional retrospective (1985 to 2007) database of 3,940 patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases underwent univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors associated with outcomes by primary site and treatment. Significant prognostic factors were used to define the diagnosis-specific GPA prognostic indices. A GPA of 4.0 correlates with the best prognosis, whereas a GPA of 0.0 corresponds with the worst prognosis. Results Significant prognostic factors varied by diagnosis. For lung cancer, prognostic factors were Karnofsky performance score, age, presence of extracranial metastases, and number of brain metastases, confirming the original Lung-GPA. For melanoma and renal cell cancer, prognostic factors were Karnofsky performance score and the number of brain metastases. For breast cancer, prognostic factors were tumor subtype, Karnofsky performance score, and age. For GI cancer, the only prognostic factor was the Karnofsky performance score. The median survival times by GPA score and diagnosis were determined. Conclusion Prognostic factors for patients with brain metastases vary by diagnosis, and for each diagnosis, a robust separation into different GPA scores was discerned, implying considerable heterogeneity in outcome, even within a single tumor type. In summary, these indices and related worksheet provide an accurate and facile diagnosis-specific tool to estimate survival, potentially select appropriate treatment, and stratify clinical trials for patients with brain metastases. PMID:22203767

  20. IrisPlex: a sensitive DNA tool for accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour in the absence of ancestry information.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Susan; Liu, Fan; Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oven, Mannis; Lao, Oscar; Kayser, Manfred

    2011-06-01

    A new era of 'DNA intelligence' is arriving in forensic biology, due to the impending ability to predict externally visible characteristics (EVCs) from biological material such as those found at crime scenes. EVC prediction from forensic samples, or from body parts, is expected to help concentrate police investigations towards finding unknown individuals, at times when conventional DNA profiling fails to provide informative leads. Here we present a robust and sensitive tool, termed IrisPlex, for the accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour from DNA in future forensic applications. We used the six currently most eye colour-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that previously revealed prevalence-adjusted prediction accuracies of over 90% for blue and brown eye colour in 6168 Dutch Europeans. The single multiplex assay, based on SNaPshot chemistry and capillary electrophoresis, both widely used in forensic laboratories, displays high levels of genotyping sensitivity with complete profiles generated from as little as 31pg of DNA, approximately six human diploid cell equivalents. We also present a prediction model to correctly classify an individual's eye colour, via probability estimation solely based on DNA data, and illustrate the accuracy of the developed prediction test on 40 individuals from various geographic origins. Moreover, we obtained insights into the worldwide allele distribution of these six SNPs using the HGDP-CEPH samples of 51 populations. Eye colour prediction analyses from HGDP-CEPH samples provide evidence that the test and model presented here perform reliably without prior ancestry information, although future worldwide genotype and phenotype data shall confirm this notion. As our IrisPlex eye colour prediction test is capable of immediate implementation in forensic casework, it represents one of the first steps forward in the creation of a fully individualised EVC prediction system for future use in forensic DNA intelligence.

  1. Evaluation of amylase testing as a tool for saliva screening of crime scene trace swabs.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Johannes; Dalin, Erik; Rasmusson, Birgitta; Ansell, Ricky

    2011-06-01

    Amylase testing has been used as a presumptive test for crime scene saliva for over three decades, mainly to locate saliva stains on surfaces. We have developed a saliva screening application for crime scene trace swabs, utilising an amylase sensitive paper (Phadebas(®) Forensic Press test). Positive results were obtained for all tested dried saliva stains (0.5-32 μL) with high or intermediate amylase activity (840 and 290 kU/L). Results were typically obtained within 5 min, and all samples that produced DNA profiles were positive. However, salivary amylase activities, as well as DNA concentrations, vary significantly between individuals. We show that there is no correlation between amylase activity and amount of DNA in fresh saliva. Even so, a positive amylase result indicates presence of saliva, and thereby presence of DNA. Amylase testing may be useful for screening in investigations where the number of DNA analyses is limited due to cost, e.g., in volume crime.

  2. Non-animal photosafety screening for complex cosmetic ingredients with photochemical and photobiochemical assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Hayato; Hirota, Morihiko; Seto, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Gen; Kato, Masashi; Kitagaki, Masato; Sugiyama, Mariko; Kouzuki, Hirokazu; Onoue, Satomi

    2015-08-01

    Previously, a non-animal screening approach was proposed for evaluating photosafety of cosmetic ingredients by means of in vitro photochemical and photobiochemical assays; however, complex cosmetic ingredients, such as plant extracts and polymers, could not be evaluated because their molecular weight is often poorly defined and so their molar concentration cannot be calculated. The aim of the present investigation was to establish a photosafety screen for complex cosmetic ingredients by using appropriately modified in vitro photosafety assays. Twenty plant extracts were selected as model materials on the basis of photosafety information, and their phototoxic potentials were assessed by means of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light (VIS) spectral analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS)/micellar ROS (mROS) assays, and 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity testing (3T3 NRU PT). The maximum UV/VIS absorption value was employed as a judgment factor for evaluating photoexcitability of samples, and the value of 1.0 was adopted as a tentative criterion for photosafety identification. The ROS/mROS assays were conducted at 50 μg/mL, and no false negative prediction was obtained. Furthermore, the ROS/mROS assays at 50 μg/mL had a similar predictive capacity to the ROS/mROS assays in the previous study. A systematic tiered approach for simple and rapid non-animal photosafety evaluation of complex cosmetic ingredients can be constructed using these modified in vitro photochemical assays.

  3. Chlorophyll Fluorescence as a Possible Tool for Salinity Tolerance Screening in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed Central

    Belkhodja, R.; Morales, F.; Abadia, A.; Gomez-Aparisi, J.; Abadia, J.

    1994-01-01

    The application of chlorophyll fluorescence measurements to screening barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes for salinity tolerance has been investigated. Excised barley leaves were cut under water and incubated with the cut end immersed in water or in a 100-mM NaCl solution, either in the dark or in high light. Changes in rapid fluorescence kinetics occurred in excised barley leaves exposed to the saline solution only when the incubation was carried out in the presence of high light. Fluorescence changes consisted of decreases in the variable to maximum fluorescence ratio and in increases in the relative proportion of variable fluorescence leading to point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve. These relative increases in fluorescence at point I appeared to arise from a delayed plastoquinone reoxidation in the dark, since they disappeared after short, far-red illumination, which is known to excite photosystem I preferentially. We show that a significant correlation existed between some fluorescence parameters, measured after a combined salt and high-light treatment, and other independent measurements of salinity tolerance. These results suggest that chlorophyll fluorescence, and especially the relative fluorescence at point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve, could be used for the screening of barley genotypes for salinity tolerance. PMID:12232117

  4. Epitope prediction based on random peptide library screening: benchmark dataset and prediction tools evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pingping; Chen, Wenhan; Huang, Yanxin; Wang, Hongyan; Ma, Zhiqiang; Lv, Yinghua

    2011-06-16

    Epitope prediction based on random peptide library screening has become a focus as a promising method in immunoinformatics research. Some novel software and web-based servers have been proposed in recent years and have succeeded in given test cases. However, since the number of available mimotopes with the relevant structure of template-target complex is limited, a systematic evaluation of these methods is still absent. In this study, a new benchmark dataset was defined. Using this benchmark dataset and a representative dataset, five examples of the most popular epitope prediction software products which are based on random peptide library screening have been evaluated. Using the benchmark dataset, in no method did performance exceed a 0.42 precision and 0.37 sensitivity, and the MCC scores suggest that the epitope prediction results of these software programs are greater than random prediction about 0.09-0.13; while using the representative dataset, most of the values of these performance measures are slightly improved, but the overall performance is still not satisfactory. Many test cases in the benchmark dataset cannot be applied to these pieces of software due to software limitations. Moreover chances are that these software products are overfitted to the small dataset and will fail in other cases. Therefore finding the correlation between mimotopes and genuine epitope residues is still far from resolved and much larger dataset for mimotope-based epitope prediction is desirable.

  5. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl as a screening tool for recombinant monoterpene biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Monoterpenes are a class of natural C10 compounds with a range of potential applications including use as fuel additives, fragrances, and chemical feedstocks. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes in heterologous systems is yet to reach commercially-viable levels, and therefore is the subject of strain engineering and fermentation optimization studies. Detection of monoterpenes typically relies on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; this represents a significant analytical bottleneck which limits the potential to analyse combinatorial sets of conditions. To address this, we developed a high-throughput method for pre-screening monoterpene biosynthesis. Results An optimised DPPH assay was developed for detecting monoterpenes from two-phase microbial cultures using dodecane as the extraction solvent. The assay was useful for reproducible qualitative ranking of monoterpene concentrations, and detected standard preparations of myrcene and γ-terpinene dissolved in dodecane at concentrations as low as 10 and 15 μM, respectively, and limonene as low as 200 μM. The assay could not be used quantitatively due to technical difficulties in capturing the initial reaction rate in a multi-well plate and the presence of minor DPPH-reactive contaminants. Initially, limonene biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was tested using two different limonene synthase enzymes and three medium compositions. The assay indicated that limonene biosynthesis was enhanced in a supplemented YP medium and that the Citrus limon limonene synthase (CLLS) was more effective than the Mentha spicata limonene synthase (MSLS). GC-MS analysis revealed that the DPPH assay had correctly identified the best limonene synthase (CLLS) and culture medium (supplemented YP medium). Because only traces of limonene were detected in SD medium, we subsequently identified medium components that improved limonene production and developed a defined medium based on these findings. The best limonene titres obtained

  6. Novel cell-free high-throughput screening method for pharmacological tools targeting K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhenwei; Brown, Emily C.; Wang, Weiwei; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2016-01-01

    K+ channels, a superfamily of ∼80 members, control cell excitability, ion homeostasis, and many forms of cell signaling. Their malfunctions cause numerous diseases including neuronal disorders, cardiac arrhythmia, diabetes, and asthma. Here we present a novel liposome flux assay (LFA) that is applicable to most K+ channels. It is robust, low cost, and high throughput. Using LFA, we performed small molecule screens on three different K+ channels and identified new activators and inhibitors for biological research on channel function and for medicinal development. We further engineered a hERG (human ether-à-go-go-related gene) channel, which, when used in LFA, provides a highly sensitive (zero false negatives on 50 hERG-sensitive drugs) and highly specific (zero false positives on 50 hERG-insensitive drugs), low-cost hERG safety assay. PMID:27091997

  7. Accuracy study of the main screening tools for temporomandibular disorder in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    de Santis, Tatiana Oliveira; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; de Godoy, Camila Haddad Leal; Alfaya, Thays Almeida; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the degree of sensitivity and specificity of the screening questionnaire recommended by the American Academy of Orofacial Pain (AAOP) and the patient-history index proposed by Helkimo (modified by Fonseca) and correlate the findings with a clinical exam. All participants answered the questionnaires and were submitted to a clinical exam by a dentist who had undergone calibration training. Both the AAOP questionnaire and Helkimo index achieved low degrees of sensitivity for the detection of temporomandibular disorder (TMD), but exhibited a high degree of specificity. With regard to concordance, the AAOP questionnaire and Helkimo index both achieved low levels of agreement with the clinical exam. The different instruments available in the literature for the assessment of TMD and examined herein exhibit low sensitivity and high specificity when administered to children and adolescents stemming from difficulties in comprehension due to the age group studied and the language used in the self-explanatory questions.

  8. Evaluation of a New Self-Reported Tool for Periodontitis Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kottmann, Tanja; Schwarzenberger, Fabian; Jentsch, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontitis is still highly prevalent in industrial population whereas at the same time appropriate screening programs are missing. Aim To evaluate, a self-reported questionnaire about periodontal risk factors in combination with the Periodontal Screening Index (PSI) to identify an existing need for periodontal treatment combined with the early recognition of high-risk patients. Materials and Methods Total 200 patients took part in the questionnaire based study and were examined using the PSI. Thereafter the participants were divided into two groups, subjects with periodontitis (Group 1; PSI 0-2) and subjects without periodontitis (Group 2; PSI 3-4). The answers were evaluated using a point system ranging from 0 to 8, based on known periodontal risk factors and their assumed degree of influence. Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were applied to examine the overall discriminatory power, sensitivity, specificity and corresponding cut-off points of the self-reported periodontal disease scale. Results There was a significant difference between Group 1 and 2 concerning the majority of the inquired items (12 of 16, p<0.05). The distribution of the individual total score exhibited a high statistical significance (p<0.001) of robustness in terms of differing definitions of periodontitis. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) was 0.912 with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 76%. Conclusion The questionnaire produced a reliable assessment of the individual risk (total score) and the need for periodontal treatment as well as the differentiation between gingivitis and periodontitis. Clinical relevance Patient-based data (clinical variables and periodontal risk factors of periodontitis) were adequate to make a preliminary assessment of a possible need for periodontal treatment. PMID:27504399

  9. Application of Short Screening Tools for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Korean Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yu Jin; Chung, Hae Gyung; Choi, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Yong; So, Hyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often missed or incorrectly diagnosed in primary care settings. Although brief screening instruments may be useful in detecting PTSD, an adequate validation study has not been conducted with older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) and single-item PTSD screener (SIPS) in elderly veterans. Methods The PC-PTSD and SIPS assessments were translated into Korean, with a back-translation to the original language to verify accuracy. Vietnamese war veterans [separated into a PTSD group (n=41) and a non-PTSD group (n=99)] participated in several psychometric assessments, including the Korean versions of the PC-PTSD (PC-PTSD-K), SIPS (SIPS-K), a structured clinical interview from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(SCID), and PTSD checklist(PCL). Results The PC-PTSD-K showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.76), and the test-retest reliability of the PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K were also high (r=0.97 and r=0.91, respectively). A total score of 3 from the PC-PTSD-K yielded the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The 'bothered a lot' response level from the SIPS-K showed the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that both PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K have good psychometric properties with high validity and reliability for detecting PTSD symptoms in elderly Korean veterans. However, further research will be necessary to increase our understanding of PTSD characteristics in diverse groups with different types of trauma. PMID:27482241

  10. Sex chromosomal abnormalities associated with equine infertility: validation of a simple molecular screening tool in the Purebred Spanish Horse.

    PubMed

    Anaya, G; Molina, A; Valera, M; Moreno-Millán, M; Azor, P; Peral-García, P; Demyda-Peyrás, S

    2017-02-22

    Chromosomal abnormalities in the sex chromosome pair (ECAX and ECAY) are widely associated with reproductive problems in horses. However, a large proportion of these abnormalities remains undiagnosed due to the lack of an affordable diagnostic tool that allows for avoiding karyotyping tests. Hereby, we developed an STR (single-tandem-repeat)-based molecular method to determine the presence of the main sex chromosomal abnormalities in horses in a fast, cheap and reliable way. The frequency of five ECAX-linked (LEX026, LEX003, TKY38, TKY270 and UCDEQ502) and two ECAY-linked (EcaYH12 and SRY) markers was characterized in 261 Purebred Spanish Horses to determine the efficiency of the methodology developed to be used as a chromosomal diagnostic tool. All the microsatellites analyzed were highly polymorphic, with a sizeable number of alleles (polymorphic information content > 0.5). Based on this variability, the methodology showed 100% sensitivity and 99.82% specificity to detect the most important sex chromosomal abnormalities reported in horses (chimerism, Turner's syndrome and sex reversal syndromes). The method was also validated with 100% efficiency in 10 individuals previously diagnosed as chromosomally aberrant. This STR screening panel is an efficient and reliable molecular-cytogenetic tool for the early detection of sex chromosomal abnormalities in equines that could be included in breeding programs to save money, effort and time of veterinary practitioners and breeders.

  11. Professional perceptions about home safety: cross-national validation of the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool (HOME FAST).

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Lynette; Byles, Julie; Higginbotham, Nick

    2002-01-01

    The Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool (HOME FAST) was developed to measure the risk of older people falling within their home environment. If this tool is to be effective, the underlying dimensions perceived by potential raters when using the HOME FAST need to be consistent with the purpose of the tool. The content validation process undertaken to evaluate the HOME FAST and a method to develop a home safety score are described. Experts in home safety assessment were recruited from the British Association of Occupational Therapy, the Chartered Society of Physiotherapists, and the Royal College of Nursing in the United Kingdom. Participants rated each HOME FAST item using a Thurstone technique format. Each item was weighted according to the level of perceived falls risk each expert attributed to the home safety item. Principal components factor analysis identified a two-factor structure interpreted as environment and function underlying the HOME FAST. Results indicated that no item should be deleted from the checklist. Weights were calculated for each item to generate an overall hazard score. Some differences in responses to the degree of risk associated with home safety items were noted between the professional groups. The HOME FAST has captured highly relevant home safety items considered by an expert panel and measures a domain applicable to home safety and falls risk.

  12. Population-based Tay-Sachs screening among Ashkenazi Jewish young adults in the 21st century: Hexosaminidase A enzyme assay is essential for accurate testing.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Adele; Nakagawa, Sachiko; Keep, Rosanne; Dorsainville, Darnelle; Charrow, Joel; Aleck, Kirk; Hoffman, Jodi; Minkoff, Sherman; Finegold, David; Sun, Wei; Spencer, Andrew; Lebow, Johannah; Zhan, Jie; Apfelroth, Stephen; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole; Gross, Susan

    2009-11-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier screening, initiated in the 1970s, has reduced the birth-rate of Ashkenazi Jews with TSD worldwide by 90%. Recently, several nationwide programs have been established that provide carrier screening for the updated panel of Jewish genetic diseases on college campuses and in Jewish community settings. The goals of this study were to determine the performance characteristics of clinical TSD testing in college- and community-based screening programs and to determine if molecular testing alone is adequate in those settings. Clinical data for TSD testing were retrospectively anonymized and subsequently analyzed for 1,036 individuals who participated in these programs. The performance characteristics of the serum and the platelet Hexosaminidase assays were compared, and also correlated with the results of targeted DNA analysis. The serum assay identified 29 carriers and the platelet assay identified 35 carriers for carrier rates of 1/36 and 1/29, respectively. One hundred sixty-nine samples (16.3%) were inconclusive by serum assay in marked contrast to four inconclusive samples (0.4%) by the platelet assay. Molecular analysis alone would have missed four of the 35 carriers detected by the platelet assay, yielding a false negative rate of 11.4% with a sensitivity of 88.6%. Based on the results of this study, platelet assay was superior to serum with a minimal inconclusive rate. Due to changing demographics of the Ashkenazi Jewish population, molecular testing alone in the setting of broad-based population screening programs is not sufficient, and biochemical analysis should be the assay of choice.

  13. Zebrafish needle EMG: a new tool for high-throughput drug screens

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Joon; Nam, Tai-Seung; Byun, Donghak; Choi, Seok-Yong; Kim, Myeong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish models have recently been highlighted as a valuable tool in studying the molecular basis of neuromuscular diseases and developing new pharmacological treatments. Needle electromyography (EMG) is needed not only for validating transgenic zebrafish models with muscular dystrophies (MD), but also for assessing the efficacy of therapeutics. However, performing needle EMG on larval zebrafish has not been feasible due to the lack of proper EMG sensors and systems for such small animals. We introduce a new type of EMG needle electrode to measure intramuscular activities of larval zebrafish, together with a method to hold the animal in position during EMG, without anesthetization. The silicon-based needle electrode was found to be sufficiently strong and sharp to penetrate the skin and muscles of zebrafish larvae, and its shape and performance did not change after multiple insertions. With the use of the proposed needle electrode and measurement system, EMG was successfully performed on zebrafish at 30 days postfertilization (dpf) and at 5 dpf. Burst patterns and spike morphology of the recorded EMG signals were analyzed. The measured single spikes were triphasic with an initial positive deflection, which is typical for motor unit action potentials, with durations of ∼10 ms, whereas the muscle activity was silent during the anesthetized condition. These findings confirmed the capability of this system of detecting EMG signals from very small animals such as 5 dpf zebrafish. The developed EMG sensor and system are expected to become a helpful tool in validating zebrafish MD models and further developing therapeutics. PMID:26180124

  14. Zebrafish needle EMG: a new tool for high-throughput drug screens.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Joon; Nam, Tai-Seung; Byun, Donghak; Choi, Seok-Yong; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Sohee

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish models have recently been highlighted as a valuable tool in studying the molecular basis of neuromuscular diseases and developing new pharmacological treatments. Needle electromyography (EMG) is needed not only for validating transgenic zebrafish models with muscular dystrophies (MD), but also for assessing the efficacy of therapeutics. However, performing needle EMG on larval zebrafish has not been feasible due to the lack of proper EMG sensors and systems for such small animals. We introduce a new type of EMG needle electrode to measure intramuscular activities of larval zebrafish, together with a method to hold the animal in position during EMG, without anesthetization. The silicon-based needle electrode was found to be sufficiently strong and sharp to penetrate the skin and muscles of zebrafish larvae, and its shape and performance did not change after multiple insertions. With the use of the proposed needle electrode and measurement system, EMG was successfully performed on zebrafish at 30 days postfertilization (dpf) and at 5 dpf. Burst patterns and spike morphology of the recorded EMG signals were analyzed. The measured single spikes were triphasic with an initial positive deflection, which is typical for motor unit action potentials, with durations of ∼10 ms, whereas the muscle activity was silent during the anesthetized condition. These findings confirmed the capability of this system of detecting EMG signals from very small animals such as 5 dpf zebrafish. The developed EMG sensor and system are expected to become a helpful tool in validating zebrafish MD models and further developing therapeutics.

  15. Evaluation of spontaneous propulsive movement as a screening tool to detect rescue of Parkinsonism phenotypes in zebrafish models.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Thomas C; Cario, Clinton L; Milanese, Chiara; Vogt, Andreas; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Burton, Edward A

    2011-10-01

    Zebrafish models of human neuropsychiatric diseases offer opportunities to identify novel therapeutic targets and treatments through phenotype-based genetic or chemical modifier screens. In order to develop an assay to detect rescue of zebrafish models of Parkinsonism, we characterized spontaneous zebrafish larval motor behavior from 3 to 9 days post fertilization in a microtiter plate format suitable for screening, and clarified the role of dopaminergic signaling in its regulation. The proportion of time that larvae spent moving increased progressively between 3 and 9 dpf, whereas their active velocity decreased between 5 and 6 dpf as sporadic burst movements gave way to a more mature beat-and-glide pattern. Spontaneous movement varied between larvae and during the course of recordings as a result of intrinsic larval factors including genetic background. Variability decreased with age, such that small differences between groups of larvae exposed to different experimental conditions could be detected robustly by 6 to 7 dpf. Suppression of endogenous dopaminergic signaling by exposure to MPP(+), haloperidol or chlorpromazine reduced mean velocity by decreasing the frequency with which spontaneous movements were initiated, but did not alter active velocity. The variability of mean velocity assays could be reduced by analyzing groups of larvae for each data point, yielding acceptable screening window coefficients; the sample size required in each group was determined by the magnitude of the motor phenotype in different models. For chlorpromazine exposure, samples of four larvae allowed robust separation of treated and untreated data points (Z=0.42), whereas the milder impairment provoked by MPP(+) necessitated groups of eight larvae in order to provide a useful discovery assay (Z=0.13). Quantification of spontaneous larval movement offers a simple method to determine functional integrity of motor systems, and may be a useful tool to isolate novel molecular modulators

  16. In Silico Screening Based on Predictive Algorithms as a Design Tool for Exon Skipping Oligonucleotides in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Echigoya, Yusuke; Mouly, Vincent; Garcia, Luis; Yokota, Toshifumi; Duddy, William

    2015-01-01

    The use of antisense ‘splice-switching’ oligonucleotides to induce exon skipping represents a potential therapeutic approach to various human genetic diseases. It has achieved greatest maturity in exon skipping of the dystrophin transcript in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), for which several clinical trials are completed or ongoing, and a large body of data exists describing tested oligonucleotides and their efficacy. The rational design of an exon skipping oligonucleotide involves the choice of an antisense sequence, usually between 15 and 32 nucleotides, targeting the exon that is to be skipped. Although parameters describing the target site can be computationally estimated and several have been identified to correlate with efficacy, methods to predict efficacy are limited. Here, an in silico pre-screening approach is proposed, based on predictive statistical modelling. Previous DMD data were compiled together and, for each oligonucleotide, some 60 descriptors were considered. Statistical modelling approaches were applied to derive algorithms that predict exon skipping for a given target site. We confirmed (1) the binding energetics of the oligonucleotide to the RNA, and (2) the distance in bases of the target site from the splice acceptor site, as the two most predictive parameters, and we included these and several other parameters (while discounting many) into an in silico screening process, based on their capacity to predict high or low efficacy in either phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (89% correctly predicted) and/or 2’O Methyl RNA oligonucleotides (76% correctly predicted). Predictions correlated strongly with in vitro testing for sixteen de novo PMO sequences targeting various positions on DMD exons 44 (R2 0.89) and 53 (R2 0.89), one of which represents a potential novel candidate for clinical trials. We provide these algorithms together with a computational tool that facilitates screening to predict exon skipping efficacy at each

  17. In silico screening based on predictive algorithms as a design tool for exon skipping oligonucleotides in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Echigoya, Yusuke; Mouly, Vincent; Garcia, Luis; Yokota, Toshifumi; Duddy, William

    2015-01-01

    The use of antisense 'splice-switching' oligonucleotides to induce exon skipping represents a potential therapeutic approach to various human genetic diseases. It has achieved greatest maturity in exon skipping of the dystrophin transcript in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), for which several clinical trials are completed or ongoing, and a large body of data exists describing tested oligonucleotides and their efficacy. The rational design of an exon skipping oligonucleotide involves the choice of an antisense sequence, usually between 15 and 32 nucleotides, targeting the exon that is to be skipped. Although parameters describing the target site can be computationally estimated and several have been identified to correlate with efficacy, methods to predict efficacy are limited. Here, an in silico pre-screening approach is proposed, based on predictive statistical modelling. Previous DMD data were compiled together and, for each oligonucleotide, some 60 descriptors were considered. Statistical modelling approaches were applied to derive algorithms that predict exon skipping for a given target site. We confirmed (1) the binding energetics of the oligonucleotide to the RNA, and (2) the distance in bases of the target site from the splice acceptor site, as the two most predictive parameters, and we included these and several other parameters (while discounting many) into an in silico screening process, based on their capacity to predict high or low efficacy in either phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (89% correctly predicted) and/or 2'O Methyl RNA oligonucleotides (76% correctly predicted). Predictions correlated strongly with in vitro testing for sixteen de novo PMO sequences targeting various positions on DMD exons 44 (R² 0.89) and 53 (R² 0.89), one of which represents a potential novel candidate for clinical trials. We provide these algorithms together with a computational tool that facilitates screening to predict exon skipping efficacy at each position of

  18. The Brazilian version of STarT Back Screening Tool - translation, cross-cultural adaptation and reliability *

    PubMed Central

    Pilz, Bruna; Vasconcelos, Rodrigo A.; Marcondes, Freddy B.; Lodovichi, Samuel S.; Mello, Wilson; Grossi, Débora B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychosocial factors are not routinely identified in physical therapy assessments, although they can influence the prognosis of patients with low back pain. The "STarT Back Screening Tool" (SBST) questionnaire aids in screening such patients for poor prognosis in the primary care setting and classifies them as high, medium, or low risk based on physical and psychosocial factors. Objectives: This study sought to translate and cross-culturally adapt the SBST to the Brazilian Portuguese language and test the reliability of the Brazilian version. Method: The first stage of the study consisted of the translation, synthesis, and back-translation of the original version of the STSB, including revision by the Translation Group, pretest of the translated version, and assessment by an expert panel. The pre-final Brazilian version was applied to 2 samples comprising 52 patients with low back pain; these patients were of both genders and older than 18 years of age. To assess the instrument's reliability, an additional sample comprising 50 patients was subjected to 2 interviews, and the results were assessed using the quadratic weighted kappa value. The instrument's internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (n=105), and the standard error of measurement was also calculated (n=50). Results: Translation and back-translation attained consensus, and only item 6 required changes; the reformulated version was applied to an additional sample comprising 52 individuals who did not report any doubts related to this item. The reliability of the SBST-Brazil was 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.63-0.95), the internal consistency was 0.74 for the total score and 0.72 for the psychosocial subscale, and the standard error of measurement was 1.9%. Conclusion: The translated and cross-culturally adapted SBST-Brazil proved to be reliable for screening patients according to their risk of poor prognosis and the presence of psychosocial factors. PMID:25372008

  19. Development of a screening tool for staging of diabetic retinopathy in fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Ashis Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Bency, Mayur Joseph; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Bansal, Reema; Gupta, Amod

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a condition of the eye of diabetic patients where the retina is damaged because of long-term diabetes. The condition deteriorates towards irreversible blindness in extreme cases of diabetic retinopathy. Hence, early detection of diabetic retinopathy is important to prevent blindness. Regular screening of fundus images of diabetic patients could be helpful in preventing blindness caused by diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we propose techniques for staging of diabetic retinopathy in fundus images using several shape and texture features computed from detected microaneurysms, exudates, and hemorrhages. The classification accuracy is reported in terms of the area (Az) under the receiver operating characteristic curve using 200 fundus images from the MESSIDOR database. The value of Az for classifying normal images versus mild, moderate, and severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is 0:9106. The value of Az for classification of mild NPDR versus moderate and severe NPDR is 0:8372. The Az value for classification of moderate NPDR and severe NPDR is 0:9750.

  20. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence as a tool for food screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola; Dalipi, Rogerta; Bontempi, Elza; Depero, Laura E.

    2015-11-01

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of the applications of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) in the field of food analysis. Elemental composition of food is of great importance, since food is the main source of essential, major and trace elements for animals and humans. Some potentially toxic elements, dangerous for human health may contaminate food, entering the food chain from the environment, processing, and storage. For this reason the elemental analysis of food is fundamental for safety assessment. Fast and sensitive analytical techniques, able to detect major and trace elements, are required as a result of the increasing demand on multi-elemental information and product screening. TXRF is suitable for elemental analysis of food, since it provides simultaneous multi-elemental identification in a wide dynamic range of concentrations. Several different matrices may be analyzed obtaining results with a good precision and accuracy. In this review, the most recent literature about the use of TXRF for the analysis of food is reported. The focus is placed on the applications within food quality monitoring of drinks, beverages, vegetables, fruits, cereals, animal derivatives and dietary supplements. Furthermore, this paper provides a critical outlook on the developments required to transfer these methods from research to the industrial and analytical laboratories contexts.

  1. Zebrafish obesogenic test: a tool for screening molecules that target adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Ouadah, Nafia; Babin, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary and xenobiotic compounds may alter endocrine signaling and lipid homeostasis, thus inducing obesity. We describe a short-term assay method, the zebrafish obesogenic (ZO) test, for examining the effects of diet, drugs, and environmental contaminants, singly or in combination, on white adipose tissue (WAT) dynamics in live larvae. The ZO test is an intermediate step in obesity research, between in vitro and rodent assays, and may be also used to study the effect of environmental toxicants on the adiposity of aquatic species. The procedure, using Nile Red (NR) fluorescent probe to reveal adipocyte lipid droplets, is suitable for pharmaceutical or toxicological screening. Larvae treated at an environmentally-relevant concentration of tributyltin chloride (TBT), an environmental obesogen, exhibited a remarkable increase in adiposity, irrespective of the lipid composition of the background diet. Exogenous compounds, e.g., rosiglitazone or TBT, known to increase adiposity in the fasting state, were classified as obesogenic. Anti-obesogenic compounds favored a decrease in adiposity in the fasting state. The ZO test, using adipocyte lipid droplet size and adiposity as its endpoints, is a whole-organism alternative testing assay for obesogenic and anti-obesogenic compounds and mixtures and provides relevant information for environmental and human risk assessments. PMID:21724975

  2. New Tools for Embryo Selection: Comprehensive Chromosome Screening by Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Cobo, Ana Cristina; Milán, Miguel; Al-Asmar, Nasser; García-Herrero, Sandra; Mir, Pere; Simón, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). The study included 1420 CCS cycles for recurrent miscarriage (n = 203); repetitive implantation failure (n = 188); severe male factor (n = 116); previous trisomic pregnancy (n = 33); and advanced maternal age (n = 880). CCS was performed in cycles with fresh oocytes and embryos (n = 774); mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified oocytes (n = 320); mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified day-2 embryos (n = 235); and mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified day-3 embryos (n = 91). Day-3 embryo biopsy was performed and analyzed by aCGH followed by day-5 embryo transfer. Consistent implantation (range: 40.5–54.2%) and pregnancy rates per transfer (range: 46.0–62.9%) were obtained for all the indications and independently of the origin of the oocytes or embryos. However, a lower delivery rate per cycle was achieved in women aged over 40 years (18.1%) due to the higher percentage of aneuploid embryos (85.3%) and lower number of cycles with at least one euploid embryo available per transfer (40.3%). We concluded that aneuploidy is one of the major factors which affect embryo implantation. PMID:24877108

  3. Development and validation of a screening tool for the identification of inappropriate transthoracic echocardiograms

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Ricardo; Pathan, Faraz; Marwick, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Objective We sought whether simple clinical markers could be used in a questionnaire for recognition of inappropriate (or rarely appropriate, RA) tests at point-of-service. Most applications of appropriateness criteria (AC) for transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) have been at the point of order, but a simple means of identifying RA tests in an audit process would be of value. Design, setting and participants The study was performed in 2 major hospitals in Tasmania. 2 reviewers created a questionnaire based on 4 questions most commonly associated with RA (suspected endocarditis with no positive blood cultures or new murmur, lack of cardiovascular symptoms or no change in clinical status or cardiac examination, routine surveillance and previous TTE within a year) in a derivation cohort of 814 patients. This was prospectively applied to 499 TTEs to calculate sensitivity and specificity for prediction of RA, and validated in the external group (n=880). Results Of 499 prospective TTEs, the questionnaire selected 18% requests as being potentially RA. As 7.4% were actually RA (κ 89%), the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 84% and 87%, respectively. In the external validation cohort, the model found 11% requests needed to be screened for appropriateness with a sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 95%. Conclusions A questionnaire based on 4 questions detects a high proportion of RA TTE, and could be used for audit. PMID:27707833

  4. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment.

    PubMed

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-08-16

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial.

  5. Is the MDS-UPDRS a Good Screening Tool for Detecting Sleep Problems and Daytime Sleepiness in Parkinson's Disease?

    PubMed

    Horváth, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Acs, Péter; Bosnyák, Edit; Deli, Gabriella; Pál, Endre; Janszky, József; Faludi, Béla; Késmárki, Ildikó; Komoly, Sámuel; Bokor, Magdolna; Rigó, Eszter; Lajtos, Júlia; Klivényi, Péter; Dibó, György; Vécsei, László; Takáts, Annamária; Tóth, Adrián; Imre, Piroska; Nagy, Ferenc; Herceg, Mihály; Kamondi, Anita; Hidasi, Eszter; Kovács, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Movement Disorder Society-sponsored Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) has separate items for measuring sleep problems (item 1.7) and daytime sleepiness (1.8). The aim of our study was to evaluate the screening sensitivity and specificity of these items to the PD Sleep Scale 2nd version (PDSS-2) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). In this nationwide, cross-sectional study 460 PD patients were enrolled. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated between the individual items, domains, and the total score of PDSS-2 and item 1.7 of MDS-UPDRS. Similarly, the items and the total score of ESS were contrasted to item 1.8 of MDS-UPDRS. After developing generalized ordinal logistic regression models, the transformed and observed scores were compared by Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient. Only item 3 difficulties staying asleep and the "disturbed sleep" domain of PDSS-2 showed high correlation with "sleep problems" item 1.7 of the MDS-UPDRS. Total score of PDSS-2 had moderate correlation with this MDS-UPRDS item. The total score of ESS showed the strongest, but still moderate, correlation with "daytime sleepiness" item 1.8 of MDS-UPDRS. As intended, the MDS-UPDRS serves as an effective screening tool for both sleep problems and daytime sleepiness and identifies subjects whose disabilities need further investigation.

  6. Tools for building a comprehensive modeling system for virtual screening under real biological conditions: The Computational Titration algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Glen E; Fornabaio, Micaela; Chen, Deliang L; Abraham, Donald J; Spyrakis, Francesca; Cozzini, Pietro; Mozzarelli, Andrea

    2006-05-01

    Computational tools utilizing a unique empirical modeling system based on the hydrophobic effect and the measurement of logP(o/w) (the partition coefficient for solvent transfer between 1-octanol and water) are described. The associated force field, Hydropathic INTeractions (HINT), contains much rich information about non-covalent interactions in the biological environment because of its basis in an experiment that measures interactions in solution. HINT is shown to be the core of an evolving virtual screening system that is capable of taking into account a number of factors often ignored such as entropy, effects of solvent molecules at the active site, and the ionization states of acidic and basic residues and ligand functional groups. The outline of a comprehensive modeling system for virtual screening that incorporates these features is described. In addition, a detailed description of the Computational Titration algorithm is provided. As an example, three complexes of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are analyzed with our system and these results are compared with the experimental free energies of binding.

  7. HPV Testing from Dried Urine Spots as a Tool for Cervical Cancer Screening in Low-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Frati, Elena Rosanna; Martinelli, Marianna; Fasoli, Ester; Colzani, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Binda, Sandro; Olivani, Pierfranco; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, several screening strategies are available to prevent cervical cancer, but inadequate resources, sociocultural barriers, and sampling issues impede their success in low-income countries. To overcome these issues, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing from dried urine spots (DUS). Eighty-eight urine samples (including 56 HPV DNA positive specimens) were spotted on filter paper, dried, and stored in paper-bags. HPV DNA was detected from the DUS after 1 week and 4 weeks of storage using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The sensitivity, specificity, and concordance of the DUS-based HPV test were evaluated by comparing the results with those of HPV testing on fresh urine samples as the gold standard. The sensitivity of the test was 98.21% (95% CI: 90.56-99.68) for DUS stored for 1 week and 96.42% (95% CI: 87.88-99.01) for DUS stored for 4 weeks. The specificity was 100% (95% CI: 89.28-100) at both time points. The concordance between DUS and fresh urine HPV testing was "almost perfect" using the κ statistic. These preliminary data suggest that a DUS-based assay could bypass sociocultural barriers and sampling issues and therefore could be a suitable, effective tool for epidemiological surveillance and screening programs, especially in low-income countries.

  8. A Prospective Comparison of Informant- and Performance-Based Dementia Screening Tools to Predict In-hospital Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lily; Josephson, S. Andrew; Fukuda, Keiko A.; Neuhaus, John; Douglas, Vanja C.

    2014-01-01

    Dementia is an important risk factor for delirium, but the optimal strategy for incorporating cognitive impairment into delirium risk assessment at the time of hospital admission is unknown. We compared two informant-based screening tools for dementia and mild cognitive impairment (AD8 and D=(MC)2) to the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) and Mini-cog in predicting hospital-acquired delirium. This prospective cohort study at an academic medical center consisted of 162 medical inpatients over age 50 without delirium upon admission. Each participant was evaluated using the MMSE, Mini-cog, AD8, and D=(MC)2 upon admission and was assessed daily for delirium. An MMSE ≤ 24 carried a 5.5 (95% CI 2.7 – 11.1) relative risk for delirium, whereas cognitive impairment detected by the Mini-cog, D=(MC)2 or AD8 carried a 2-fold risk. Adding the D=(MC)2 to the MMSE increased the sensitivity for predicting delirium from 52% (32 – 73) for the MMSE alone to 65% (46 – 85) if either test was positive. If both were positive, specificity was maximized at 97% (94 – 100) but sensitivity was 17% (2 – 33). The MMSE and Mini-cog identify a large proportion of patients at risk for hospital-acquired delirium, but the combination of performance- and an informant-based screens may maximize specificity and sensitivity. PMID:25350550

  9. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial. PMID:25133142

  10. STOP-BANG questionnaire as a screening tool for diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea by unattended portable monitoring sleep study.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Viral; Walia, Reuben; Jones, Kellie; Aston, Christopher E; Awab, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure (STOP)-Body mass index (BMI), Age, Neck circumference, and Gender (BANG) questionnaire is a well validated screening tool for diagnosis of Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by an in- lab sleep study. However, performance of STOP-BANG as a screening tool for diagnosis of OSA in patients undergoing portable monitoring (PM) sleep study has not been well validated. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients older than 18 years who had unattended portable monitoring sleep study done at a VA medical center between June 2012 and October 2014. STOP-BANG questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) were routinely done prior to study. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) various STOP-BANG score thresholds were calculated for diagnosis of OSA defined by Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) ≥5. Out of 502 unattended portable monitoring sleep studies, there were 465 males and 37 females. STOP-BANG thresholds of ≥2 and 3 have high sensitivity of 99.8 and 98.9 %, respectively, but very low specificity. Higher score thresholds of ≥7 and 8 have high specificity of 95 and 98.3 %, and PPV of 98.1 and 98.5 %, respectively, but very low sensitivity. A threshold of ≥7 in patients with BMI ≥30 was 100 % specific. The false negative rate for unattended portable monitoring sleep study compared to in-lab study was 80 %. STOP-BANG score thresholds of ≥7 and 8 are highly specific and have high PPV and therefore can potentially reduce need of diagnostic sleep studies in selected patients. Score thresholds of ≤2 or 3 are highly sensitive for AHI ≥5 by unattended portable monitoring sleep study but have high false negative rates. Therefore, in-lab sleep study should be performed to rule out OSA.

  11. HbA1c as a Screening tool for Ketosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bing; Bu, Le; Zhang, Manna; Gusdon, Aaron M.; Zheng, Liang; Rampersad, Sharvan; Li, Jue; Qu, Shen

    2016-01-01

    Ketosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is overlooked due to atypical symptoms. The objective of this study is to evaluate the value of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a screening tool for ketosis in T2DM patients. This retrospective study consisted of 253 T2DM patients with ketosis at Shanghai 10th People’s Hospital during a period from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2015. A control group consisted of 221 T2DM patients without ketosis randomly selected from inpatients during the same period. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to examine the sensitivity and specificity of HbA1c as an indicator for ketosis. Higher HbA1c levels were correlated with ketosis. In patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.832, with 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.754–0.911. The optimal threshold was 10.1% (87 mmol/mol). In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the AUC was 0.811 (95% CI: 0.767–0.856), with an optimal threshold of 8.6% (70 mmol/mol). HbA1c is a potential screening tool for ketosis in patients with T2DM. Ketosis is much more likely with HbA1c values at ≥10.1% in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM and HbA1c values at ≥8.6% in patients with previously diagnosed T2DM. PMID:28009017

  12. Validity and cost-effectiveness of cone adaptation test as a screening tool to detect retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Rahul; Save, Prajakta; Deshpande, Madan; Shegunashi, Mahadev; Chougule, Marium; Khandekar, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Background: The cone adaptation test is to detect retinitis pigmentosa (RP) cases confirmed by electroretinogram (ERG). We present the validity and cost-effectiveness of cone adaptation test as a screening tool for detecting RP. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2013 and December 2013. All RP cases diagnosed by ophthalmologists of H. V. Desai Eye Hospital in the last 5 years were participated in this study. The cone adaptation test was done in photopic and scotopic illumination. Failed test means 10 s or more to complete the test under scotopic illumination. A technician who was masked for cone adaptation test finding carried out ERG. Demographics, symptoms, and history of treatment were inquired. Those with flat ERG wave in scotopic condition and corresponding clinical findings were defined as having RP. Sensitivity, specificity, and false-positive and false-negative parameters of validity were estimated. The unit cost of performing test and ERG was calculated. Results: All 32 RP patients (28 male, age median 23.5 ± 14.5 years) had a vision more than 6/60 and flat wave in ERG under mesopic/scotopic illumination. Thirty-one participants failed cone adaptation test. The sensitivity was 31/32 × 100 = 97%. The specificity was 100%. There was no false-positive case. Consanguinity rate among parents was 43%. The cost of testing one child using “cone adaptation test kit” was 2.5 US $. The unit cost of diagnosing RP using ERG was 10 US $. Conclusion: Cone adaptation is a valid and cost-effective screening tool test for RP. The consanguinity rate among parents of an RP patient was high. PMID:27843226

  13. Evaluation of AUSDRISK as a screening tool for lifestyle modification programs: international implications for policy and cost-effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Malo, Jonathan A; Versace, Vincent L; Janus, Edward D; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Coates, Michael J; Dunbar, James A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the current use of Australian Type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment Tool (AUSDRISK) as a screening tool to identify individuals at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes for entry into lifestyle modification programs. Research Design and Methods AUSDRISK scores were calculated from participants aged 40–74 years in the Greater Green Triangle Risk Factor Study, a cross-sectional population survey in 3 regions of Southwest Victoria, Australia, 2004–2006. Biomedical profiles of AUSDRISK risk categories were determined along with estimates of the Victorian population included at various cut-off scores. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, and receiver operating characteristics were calculated for AUSDRISK in determining fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥6.1 mmol/L. Results Increasing AUSDRISK scores were associated with an increase in weight, body mass index, FPG, and metabolic syndrome. Increasing the minimum cut-off score also increased the proportion of individuals who were obese and centrally obese, had impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and metabolic syndrome. An AUSDRISK score of ≥12 was estimated to include 39.5% of the Victorian population aged 40–74 (916 000), while a score of ≥20 would include only 5.2% of the same population (120 000). At AUSDRISK≥20, the PPV for detecting FPG≥6.1 mmol/L was 28.4%. Conclusions AUSDRISK is powered to predict those with IFG and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, but its effectiveness as the sole determinant for entry into a lifestyle modification program is questionable given the large proportion of the population screened-in using the current minimum cut-off of ≥12. AUSDRISK should be used in conjunction with oral glucose tolerance testing, fasting glucose, or glycated hemoglobin to identify those individuals at highest risk of progression to type 2 diabetes, who should be the primary targets for lifestyle modification. PMID:26468399

  14. Estimated risk for chronic pain determined using the generic STarT Back 5-item screening tool

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Hiroyuki; Matsudaira, Ko; Fujii, Tomoko; Kikuchi, Norimasa; Haga, Yuri; Sawada, Takayuki; Katsuhira, Junji; Yoshimoto, Takahiko; Kawamata, Kayo; Tonosu, Juichi; Sumitani, Masahiko; Kasahara, Satoshi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2017-01-01

    Objective The generic STarT Back 5-item screening tool (STarT-G) is used to manage chronic pain in the lower back and elsewhere. This study evaluated the validity of the Japanese version of this generic screening tool. Materials and methods Japanese participants between the ages of 20 and 64 years completed online surveys regarding pain. Survey reliability was assessed with internal consistency, as calculated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. Spearman’s correlation coefficients were used to evaluate concurrent validity between the STarT-G score and standard reference questionnaires. Associations between STarT-G scores and the presence of a disability due to chronic pain (DCP) were analyzed using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Results Analyses ultimately included data obtained from 52,842 Japanese participants (54.4% male) with a mean (standard deviation) age of 47.7 (9.4) years. Approximately 1.5% of participants had DCP, and the mean STarT-G score was 1.2 (1.4). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.71, indicating an acceptable reliability. The STarT-G score moderately correlated with the pain numerical rating scale (NRS) score (Spearman’s correlation coefficient: r = 0.34). When the STarT-G threshold was set at 4, the sensitivity and specificity of the DCP predictive model were 65.8% and 82.4%, respectively, and the area under the ROC was 0.808. Conclusion The STarT-G was internally consistent and was able to distinguish between subjects with and without a DCP. Therefore, the STarT-G can reliably be used in the Japanese population to identify patients with DCP. PMID:28280380

  15. Dementia screening using computerized tests.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, C Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The preclinical phase of dementia usually precedes the clinical diagnosis by many years. Early detection of dementing conditions during this preclinical phase may provide opportunities for treatments that may slow or mitigate progression. Conventional assessment tools usually can only detect dementia when the symptoms are overt and the disease is well-established. Computerized neurocognitive screening tools hold promise for diagnosing dementia in its early phase. The use, performance and development of several computerized screening tools to diagnose and monitor patients with pre-dementias and dementia are reviewed. The ability to accurately assess the presence of dementia clearly has direct relevance to insurance risk assessment and risk management. As new treatments appear, their role in clinical management of dementia patients will increase as well. In a future issue, the differential diagnosis of dementias related to the findings on these screening tools will be reviewed.

  16. Multi-residue screening of veterinary drugs in egg, fish and meat using high-resolution liquid chromatography accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peters, R J B; Bolck, Y J C; Rutgers, P; Stolker, A A M; Nielen, M W F

    2009-11-13

    The last 2 years multi-compound methods are gaining ground as screening methods. In this study a high-resolution liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HRLC-ToF-MS) is tested for the screening of about 100 veterinary drugs in three matrices, meat, fish and egg. While the results are satisfactory for 70-90% of the veterinary drugs, a more efficient sample preparation or extract purification is required for quantitative analysis of all analytes in more difficult matrices like egg. The average mass measurement error of the ToF-MS for the veterinary drugs spiked at concentrations ranging from 4 to 400 microg/kg, is 3.0 ppm (median 2.5 ppm) with little difference between the three matrices, but slightly decreases with increasing concentration. The SigmaFit value, a new feature for isotope pattern matching, also decreases with increasing concentration and, in addition, shows an increase with increasing matrix complexity. While the average SigmaFit value is 0.04, the median is 0.01 indicating some high individual deviations. As with the mass measurement error, the highest deviations are found in those regions of the chromatogram where most compounds elute from the column, be it analytes or matrix compounds. The median repeatability of the method ranges from 8% to 15%, decreasing with increasing concentration, while the median reproducibility ranges from 15% to 20% with little difference between matrices and concentrations. The median accuracy is in between 70% and 100% with a few compounds showing higher values due to matrix interference. The squared regression coefficient is >0.99 for 92% of the compounds showing a good overall linearity for most compounds. The detection capability, CCbeta, is within 2 times the associated validation level for >90% of the compounds studied. By changing a few conditions in the analyses protocol and analysing a number of blank samples, it was determined that the method is robust as well as specific. Finally

  17. Mass Spectrometry-Based Diagnosis of Hemoglobinopathies: A Potential Tool for the Screening of Genetic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Das, Rajdeep; Mitra, Gopa; Mathew, Boby; Bhat, Vijay; Ross, Cecil; Pal, Debnath; Mandal, Amit Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are caused by point mutation in globin gene that results in structural variant of hemoglobin. While 7 % of world populations are carrier of hemoglobinopathies, the prevalence of the disease varies between 3 to 17 % across different population groups in India. In a diagnostic laboratory, alkaline gel electrophoresis and cation exchange-based HPLC (CE-HPLC) are most widely used techniques for characterization of hemoglobin variants. In the above methods, the differential surface charge of hemoglobin molecule in variants is exploited for their characterization. Sometime, co-migration of variants in gel electrophoresis and co-elution or elution with unknown retention time in automated CE-HPLC might lead to ambiguity in the analysis of hemoglobinopathies. Under such circumstances, it is necessary to use other analytical methods that provide unambiguous results. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach and DNA sequence analysis are examples of such alternative methods. In the present study, liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry has been used for three commonly observed variants in India, e.g., HbE, HbQ India and HbD Punjab that appeared with inappropriate results in the conventional analysis. A customized hemoglobin variant database has been used in the mass spectrometry-based analysis of those three variants. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach was used to analyze above variant sample accurately.

  18. Predicting Structures of Ru-Centered Dyes: A Computational Screening Tool.

    PubMed

    Fredin, Lisa A; Allison, Thomas C

    2016-04-07

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) represent a means for harvesting solar energy to produce electrical power. Though a number of light harvesting dyes are in use, the search continues for more efficient and effective compounds to make commercially viable DSCs a reality. Computational methods have been increasingly applied to understand the dyes currently in use and to aid in the search for improved light harvesting compounds. Semiempirical quantum chemistry methods have a well-deserved reputation for giving good quality results in a very short amount of computer time. The most recent semiempirical models such as PM6 and PM7 are parametrized for a wide variety of molecule types, including organometallic complexes similar to DSC chromophores. In this article, the performance of PM6 is tested against a set of 20 molecules whose geometries were optimized using a density functional theory (DFT) method. It is found that PM6 gives geometries that are in good agreement with the optimized DFT structures. In order to reduce the differences between geometries optimized using PM6 and geometries optimized using DFT, the PM6 basis set parameters have been optimized for a subset of the molecules. It is found that it is sufficient to optimize the basis set for Ru alone to improve the agreement between the PM6 results and the DFT results. When this optimized Ru basis set is used, the mean unsigned error in Ru-ligand bond lengths is reduced from 0.043 to 0.017 Å in the set of 20 test molecules. Though the magnitude of these differences is small, the effect on the calculated UV/vis spectra is significant. These results clearly demonstrate the value of using PM6 to screen DSC chromophores as well as the value of optimizing PM6 basis set parameters for a specific set of molecules.

  19. Passive sampling - a tool for targeted screening of emerging pollutants in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodes, Vit; Grabic, Roman

    2016-04-01

    A screening of more than 300 pollutants such as pharmaceuticals (analgesics, psycholeptics, antidepressants, antibiotics, beta blockers), PCPs (UV blockers, musk's, repellents), illicit drugs, pesticides, perfluorinated compounds and their metabolites at 22 monitoring sites throughout the Czech Republic was conducted in 2013. POCIS samplers were used in this study. Two types of passive samplers (pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS) were deployed for 14 days in May and in October, 88 samples were collected in total. In total 265 and 310 target compounds were analyzed in pharmaceutical and pesticide samplers respectively. The chemicals of interest were extracted from the passive samplers according to standardized procedures. LC -MS/MS and LC-MS/HRMS methods were applied for analyses of extracts. 150 of 310 (48%) and 127 of 265 (48%) analyzed substances had been found in pesticide and pharmaceutical samplers respectively. 27 substances (pharmaceuticals, PCPs, pesticides, caffeine, nicotine metabolite cotinine) occurred at all sampled sites, additional 39 substances (pharmaceuticals, PCPs, pesticides) occurred at more than 17 (75%) sites. One of perfluorinated compounds (PFOA) occurred at 68% of sites, whilst one of illicit drugs (Methamphetamine) was found at 61% of sites. The highest number of contaminants found in one POCIS at a single monitoring site was 111. The concentrations varied from nanograms to thousands of nanograms per sampler. Emerging contaminants occurring in highest concentrations (> 1000 ng/sampler) were BP-4 and PBSA (UV blockers), caffeine, DEET (insect repellent), imidacloprid (insecticide), telmisartan (hypertension drug) and tramadol (analgesic). Monitoring in the Czech Republic has demonstrated that many target compounds enter river waters and a number of these compounds reach high concentrations.

  20. A Blood-Based Screening Tool for Alzheimer's Disease That Spans Serum and Plasma: Findings from TARC and ADNI

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Robert; Huebinger, Ryan; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Edwards, Melissa; Graff-Radford, Neill; Doody, Rachelle; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    Context There is no rapid and cost effective tool that can be implemented as a front-line screening tool for Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the population level. Objective To generate and cross-validate a blood-based screener for AD that yields acceptable accuracy across both serum and plasma. Design, Setting, Participants Analysis of serum biomarker proteins were conducted on 197 Alzheimer's disease (AD) participants and 199 control participants from the Texas Alzheimer's Research Consortium (TARC) with further analysis conducted on plasma proteins from 112 AD and 52 control participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). The full algorithm was derived from a biomarker risk score, clinical lab (glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, homocysteine), and demographic (age, gender, education, APOE*E4 status) data. Major Outcome Measures Alzheimer's disease. Results 11 proteins met our criteria and were utilized for the biomarker risk score. The random forest (RF) biomarker risk score from the TARC serum samples (training set) yielded adequate accuracy in the ADNI plasma sample (training set) (AUC = 0.70, sensitivity (SN) = 0.54 and specificity (SP) = 0.78), which was below that obtained from ADNI cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) analyses (t-tau/Aβ ratio AUC = 0.92). However, the full algorithm yielded excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.88, SN = 0.75, and SP = 0.91). The likelihood ratio of having AD based on a positive test finding (LR+) = 7.03 (SE = 1.17; 95% CI = 4.49–14.47), the likelihood ratio of not having AD based on the algorithm (LR−) = 3.55 (SE = 1.15; 2.22–5.71), and the odds ratio of AD were calculated in the ADNI cohort (OR) = 28.70 (1.55; 95% CI = 11.86–69.47). Conclusions It is possible to create a blood-based screening algorithm that works across both serum and plasma that provides a comparable screening accuracy to that obtained from CSF analyses. PMID:22163278

  1. Identifying Niemann-Pick type C in early-onset ataxia: two quick clinical screening tools.

    PubMed

    Synofzik, Matthis; Fleszar, Zofia; Schöls, Ludger; Just, Jennifer; Bauer, Peter; Torres Martin, Juan V; Kolb, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare multisystemic lysosomal disorder which, albeit treatable, is still starkly underdiagnosed. As NP-C features early onset ataxia (EOA) in 85-90 % of cases, EOA presents a promising target group for undiagnosed NP-C patients. Here, we assessed the ability of the previously established NP-C suspicion index (SI) and a novel abbreviated '2/3 SI' tool for rapid appraisal of suspected NP-C in unexplained EOA. This was a retrospective observational study comparing 'NP-C EOA' cases (EOA patients with confirmed NP-C) with non-NP-C EOA controls (EOA patients negative for NP-C gene mutations). NP-C risk prediction scores (RPS) from both the original and 2/3 SIs were calculated and their discriminatory performance evaluated. Among 133 patients (47 NP-C EOA cases; 86 non-NP-C EOA controls), moderate (40-69 points) and high (≥70 points) RPS were common based on original SI assessments in non-NP-C EOA controls [16 (19 %) and 8 (9 %), respectively], but scores ≥70 points were far more frequent [46 (98 %)] among NP-C EOA cases. RPS cut-off values provided 98 % sensitivity and 91 % specificity for NP-C at 70-point cut-off, and ROC analysis revealed an AUC of 0.982. Using the 2/3 SI, 90 % of NP-C EOA cases had scores of 2 or 3, and RPS analysis showed an AUC of 0.961. In conclusion, the NP-C SI and the new, quick-to-apply 2/3 SI distinguished well between NP-C and non-NP-C patients, even in EOA populations with high background levels of broadly NPC-compatible multisystemic disease features. While the original SI showed the greatest sensitivity, both tools reliably aided identification of patients with unexplained EOA who warranted further investigation for NP-C.

  2. Bringing the light to high throughput screening: use of optogenetic tools for the development of recombinant cellular assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus, Viviana; Di Silvio, Alberto; Rolland, Jean Francois; Mondini, Anna; Tremolada, Sara; Montag, Katharina; Scarabottolo, Lia; Redaelli, Loredana; Lohmer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The use of light-activated proteins represents a powerful tool to control biological processes with high spatial and temporal precision. These so called "optogenetic" technologies have been successfully validated in many recombinant systems, and have been widely applied to the study of cellular mechanisms in intact tissues or behaving animals; to do that, complex, high-intensity, often home-made instrumentations were developed to achieve the optimal power and precision of light stimulation. In our study we sought to determine if this optical modulation can be obtained also in a miniaturized format, such as a 384-well plate, using the instrumentations normally dedicated to fluorescence analysis in High Throughput Screening (HTS) activities, such as for example the FLIPR (Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader) instrument. We successfully generated optogenetic assays for the study of different ion channel targets: the CaV1.3 calcium channel was modulated by the light-activated Channelrhodopsin-2, the HCN2 cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channel was modulated by the light activated bPAC adenylyl cyclase, and finally the genetically encoded voltage indicator ArcLight was efficiently used to measure potassium, sodium or chloride channel activity. Our results showed that stable, robust and miniaturized cellular assays can be developed using different optogenetic tools, and efficiently modulated by the FLIPR instrument LEDs in a 384-well format. The spatial and temporal resolution delivered by this technology might enormously advantage the early stages of drug discovery, leading to the identification of more physiological and effective drug molecules.

  3. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) and multivariate analysis as a screening tool for detecting Sudan I dye in culinary spices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Anibal, Carolina V.; Marsal, Lluís F.; Callao, M. Pilar; Ruisánchez, Itziar

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis was evaluated as a tool for detecting Sudan I dye in culinary spices. Three Raman modalities were studied: normal Raman, FT-Raman and SERS. The results show that SERS is the most appropriate modality capable of providing a proper Raman signal when a complex matrix is analyzed. To get rid of the spectral noise and background, Savitzky-Golay smoothing with polynomial baseline correction and wavelet transform were applied. Finally, to check whether unadulterated samples can be differentiated from samples adulterated with Sudan I dye, an exploratory analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to raw data and data processed with the two mentioned strategies. The results obtained by PCA show that Raman spectra need to be properly treated if useful information is to be obtained and both spectra treatments are appropriate for processing the Raman signal. The proposed methodology shows that SERS combined with appropriate spectra treatment can be used as a practical screening tool to distinguish samples suspicious to be adulterated with Sudan I dye.

  4. Developmental Risk Signals as a Screening Tool for Early Identification of Sensory Processing Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Cristina; Gomez, M Marlene; Ramos, Gregorio; Rios Del Rio, Janina

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this research was to determine if the indicators of risk included in the Indicators of Developmental Risk Signals (INDIPCD-R) could differentiate between children at risk of sensory processing disorders (SPDs) from those with normal development and if the SPD indicators correlated with a delay or altered development. A retrospective, descriptive, correlational design was used with a sample of 51 children, 36 referred because of clinical sensory processing indicators and 15 with non-clinical indicators. Participants were assessed with a developmental scale Revised Profile of Developmental Behaviors (PCD-R), the Sensory Profile, play and clinical observations. The INDIPCD-R showed a high correlation with developmental areas of PCD-R and a sensitivity and specificity of 100%, when compared with the Sensory Profile. T-test results for independent samples showed significant differences at p ≤ 0.01 level between the children with SPD indicators and those with no clinical signs in the PCD-R. The Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted for unpaired samples, to verify if there were significant differences between children with apparent SPD indicators and children with no apparent difficulties. The Spearman's rho was used to identify the correlations between the INDIPCD-R, with different areas of development. This study supports the use of the INDIPCD-R as a screening instrument that could be used by occupational therapists to discriminate children with and without indicators of SPD. The limitation of this study was that it did not cover all the ages of the INDIPCD-R. Additional studies are required to determine the utility of this instrument for outcome studies and whether it is valid and reliable to identify children at risk of different pathologies. The INDIPCD-R is a low-cost instrument that allows the occupational therapist to make a quick review of the different components that could be involved in SPD and therefore guide the more in

  5. Exome sequencing is an efficient tool for genetic screening of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung-Ok; Koo, Soo Kyung; Park, Mi-Hyun; Rhee, Hwanseok; Yang, Song-Ju; Choi, Kyoung-Gyu; Jung, Sung-Chul; Kim, Han Su; Hyun, Young Se; Nakhro, Khriezhanuo; Lee, Hye Jin; Woo, Hae-Mi; Chung, Ki Wha

    2012-11-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is one of the most common inherited neuropathies and is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder with variable inheritance modes. As several molecules have been reported to have therapeutic effects on CMT, depending on the underlying genetic causes, exact genetic diagnostics have become very important for executing personalized therapy. Whole-exome sequencing has recently been introduced as an available method to identify rare or novel genetic defects from genetic disorders. Particularly, CMT is a model disease to apply exome sequencing because more than 50 genes (loci) are involved in its development with weak genotype-phenotype correlation. This study performed the exome sequencing in 25 unrelated CMT patients who revealed neither 17p12 duplication/deletion nor several major CMT genes. This study identified eight causative heterozygous mutations (32%). This detection rate seems rather high because each sample was tested before the study for major genetic causes. Therefore, this study suggests that the exome sequencing can be a highly exact, rapid, and economical molecular diagnostic tool for CMT patients who are tested for major genetic causes.

  6. Screening risk assessment tools for assessing the environmental impact in an abandoned pyritic mine in Spain.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; García-Gómez, Concepción; Oropesa, Ana Lourdes; Esteban, Elvira; Haro, Amparo; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón; Tarazona, Jose Vicente; Peñalosa, Jesus Manuel; Fernández, María Dolores

    2011-01-15

    This paper describes a new methodology for assessing site-specific environmental impact of contaminants. The proposed method integrates traditional risk assessment approaches with real and variable environmental characteristics at a local scale. Environmental impact on selected receptors was classified for each environmental compartment into 5 categories derived from the whole (chronic and acute) risk assessment using 8 risk levels. Risk levels were established according to three hazard quotients (HQs) which represented the ratio of exposure to acute and chronic toxicity values. This tool allowed integrating in only one impact category all the elements involved in the standard risk assessment. The methodology was applied to an abandoned metal mine in Spain, where high levels of As, Cd, Zn and Cu were detected. Risk affecting potential receptors such as aquatic and soil organisms and terrestrial vertebrates were assessed. Whole results showed that impact to the ecosystem is likely high and further investigation or remedial actions are necessary. Some proposals to refine the risk assessment for a more realistic diagnostic are included.

  7. Metabolic and Genetic Screening of Electromagnetic Hypersensitive Subjects as a Feasible Tool for Diagnostics and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Chiara; Chung Sheun Thai, Jeffrey; Raskovic, Desanka; Cesareo, Eleonora; Caccamo, Daniela; Trukhanov, Arseny

    2014-01-01

    Growing numbers of “electromagnetic hypersensitive” (EHS) people worldwide self-report severely disabling, multiorgan, non-specific symptoms when exposed to low-dose electromagnetic radiations, often associated with symptoms of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and/or other environmental “sensitivity-related illnesses” (SRI). This cluster of chronic inflammatory disorders still lacks validated pathogenetic mechanism, diagnostic biomarkers, and management guidelines. We hypothesized that SRI, not being merely psychogenic, may share organic determinants of impaired detoxification of common physic-chemical stressors. Based on our previous MCS studies, we tested a panel of 12 metabolic blood redox-related parameters and of selected drug-metabolizing-enzyme gene polymorphisms, on 153 EHS, 147 MCS, and 132 control Italians, confirming MCS altered (P < 0.05–0.0001) glutathione-(GSH), GSH-peroxidase/S-transferase, and catalase erythrocyte activities. We first described comparable—though milder—metabolic pro-oxidant/proinflammatory alterations in EHS with distinctively increased plasma coenzyme-Q10 oxidation ratio. Severe depletion of erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids with increased ω6/ω3 ratio was confirmed in MCS, but not in EHS. We also identified significantly (P = 0.003) altered distribution-versus-control of the CYP2C19∗1/∗2 SNP variants in EHS, and a 9.7-fold increased risk (OR: 95% C.I. = 1.3–74.5) of developing EHS for the haplotype (null)GSTT1 + (null)GSTM1 variants. Altogether, results on MCS and EHS strengthen our proposal to adopt this blood metabolic/genetic biomarkers' panel as suitable diagnostic tool for SRI. PMID:24812443

  8. Wide-Scope Screening of Illegal Adulterants in Dietary and Herbal Supplements via Rapid Polarity-Switching and Multistage Accurate Mass Confirmation Using an LC-IT/TOF Hybrid Instrument.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Wang, Meiling; Liu, Yanyan; Zhou, Jing; Dai, Hua; Huang, Zhiqiang; Shen, Lingling; Zhang, Qingsheng; Chen, Bo

    2015-08-12

    A new analytical strategy was developed that integrates a generic sample preparation into a liquid chromatography-multistage ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT(MS(n))/TOF), allowing for large-scale screening and qualitative confirmation of wide-scope illegal adulterants in different food matrices. Samples were pretreated by a fast single-tube multifunction extraction for accurate multistage mass measurement on the hybrid LC-IT/TOF system. A qualitative validation performed for over 500 analyte-matrix pairs showed the method can reduce most of the matrix effects and achieve a lower limit of confirmation at 0.1 mg/kg for 73% of the target compounds. A unique combination of dual-polarity detection, retention time, isotopic profile, and accurate MS(n) spectra enables more comprehensive and precise confirmation, based on the multiparameter matching by automated library searching against the user-created database. Finally, the applicability of this LC-IT(MS(n))/TOF-based screening procedure for discriminating coeluting isobars, identifying nontarget adulterants, and even tentatively elucidating unexpected species in real samples is demonstrated.

  9. Visceral Adiposity and Anthropometric Indicators as Screening Tools of Metabolic Syndrome among Low Income Rural Adults in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shu-xia; Zhang, Xiang-hui; Zhang, Jing-yu; He, Jia; Yan, Yi-zhong; Ma, Jiao-long; Ma, Ru-lin; Guo, Heng; Mu, La-ti; Li, Shu-gang; Niu, Qiang; Rui, Dong-sheng; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jia-ming; Wang, Kui; Xu, Shang-zhi; Gao, Xiang; Ding, Yu-song

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on metabolic syndrome (MetS) examined urban and high income settings. We thus investigated the prevalence of MetS among a multi-ethnic population living in a low income rural area and explored the use of visceral adiposity and anthropometric indicators to identify men and women with MetS. We recruited 10,029 individuals of nomadic Kazakhs, rural Uyghur and Han residents in Xinjiang, China. MetS was defined by the Joint Interim Statement criteria. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of each index. The age-adjusted prevalence of MetS was 21.8%. The visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), body adiposity index (BAI) and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were significantly associated with MetS, independent of ethnic, age, and other covariates. The AUC of VAI, LAP and WHtR were all greater than 0.7, and the LAP was the index that most accurately identified MetS status in men (AUC = 0.853) and women (AUC = 0.817), with the optimal cut-offs of 34.7 and 27.3, respectively. In conclusion, the prevalence of MetS in low income rural adults of Xinjiang was high and the LAP was an effective indicator for the screening of MetS. PMID:27782221

  10. Tools for diagnosis, monitoring and screening of Schistosoma infections utilizing lateral-flow based assays and upconverting phosphor labels.

    PubMed

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; De Dood, Claudia J; Kornelis, Dieuwke; Fat, Elisa M Tjon Kon; Wilson, R Alan; Kariuki, Thomas M; Nyakundi, Ruth K; Loverde, Philip T; Abrams, William R; Tanke, Hans J; Van Lieshout, Lisette; Deelder, André M; Van Dam, Govert J

    2014-12-01

    The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring.

  11. Tools for diagnosis, monitoring and screening of Schistosoma infections utilizing lateral-flow based assays and upconverting phosphor labels

    PubMed Central

    CORSTJENS, PAUL L. A. M.; DE DOOD, CLAUDIA J.; KORNELIS, DIEUWKE; FAT, ELISA M. TJON KON; WILSON, R. ALAN; KARIUKI, THOMAS M.; NYAKUNDI, RUTH K.; LOVERDE, PHILIP T.; ABRAMS, WILLIAM R.; TANKE, HANS J.; VAN LIESHOUT, LISETTE; DEELDER, ANDRÉ M.; VAN DAM, GOVERT J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring. PMID:24932595

  12. Development of a tool for defining and identifying the dying patient in hospital: Criteria for Screening and Triaging to Appropriate aLternative care (CriSTAL)

    PubMed Central

    Cardona-Morrell, Magnolia; Hillman, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a screening tool to identify elderly patients at the end of life and quantify the risk of death in hospital or soon after discharge for to minimise prognostic uncertainty and avoid potentially harmful and futile treatments. Design Narrative literature review of definitions, tools and measurements that could be combined into a screening tool based on routinely available or obtainable data at the point of care to identify elderly patients who are unavoidably dying at the time of admission or at risk of dying during hospitalisation. Main measurements Variables and thresholds proposed for the Criteria for Screening and Triaging to Appropriate aLternative care (CriSTAL screening tool) were adopted from existing scales and published research findings showing association with either in-hospital, 30-day or 3-month mortality. Results Eighteen predictor instruments and their variants were examined. The final items for the new CriSTAL screening tool included: age ≥65; meeting ≥2 deterioration criteria; an index of frailty with ≥2 criteria; early warning score >4; presence of ≥1 selected comorbidities; nursing home placement; evidence of cognitive impairment; prior emergency hospitalisation or intensive care unit readmission in the past year; abnormal ECG; and proteinuria. Conclusions An unambiguous checklist may assist clinicians in reducing uncertainty patients who are likely to die within the next 3 months and help initiate transparent conversations with families and patients about end-of-life care. Retrospective chart review and prospective validation will be undertaken to optimise the number of prognostic items for easy administration and enhanced generalisability. Development of an evidence-based tool for defining and identifying the dying patient in hospital: CriSTAL. PMID:25613983

  13. Non-targeted screening for contaminants in paper and board food-contact materials using effect-directed analysis and accurate mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bengtström, Linda; Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Trier, Xenia; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger; Granby, Kit; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Driffield, Malcolm; Højslev Petersen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Due to large knowledge gaps in chemical composition and toxicological data for substances involved, paper and board food-contact materials (P&B FCM) have been emerging as a FCM type of particular concern for consumer safety. This study describes the development of a step-by-step strategy, including extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, tentative identification of relevant substances and in vitro testing of selected tentatively identified substances. As a case study, we used two fractions from a recycled pizza box sample which exhibited aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity. These fractions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometers (QTOF MS) in order tentatively to identify substances. The elemental composition was determined for peaks above a threshold, and compared with entries in a commercial mass spectral library for GC-MS (GC-EI-QTOF MS) analysis and an in-house built library of accurate masses for substances known to be used in P&B packaging for UHPLC-QTOF analysis. Of 75 tentatively identified substances, 15 were initially selected for further testing in vitro; however, only seven were commercially available and subsequently tested in vitro and quantified. Of these seven, the identities of three pigments found in printing inks were confirmed by UHPLC tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ MS/MS). Two pigments had entries in the database, meaning that a material relevant accurate mass database can provide a fast tentative identification. Pure standards of the seven tentatively identified substances were tested in vitro but could not explain a significant proportion of the AhR-response in the extract. Targeted analyses of dioxins and PCBs, both well-known AhR agonists, was performed. However, the dioxins could explain approximately 3% of the activity observed in the pizza box extract indicating that some very AhR active substance(s) still remain to be

  14. Assessment and Screening. A Center Quick Training Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    Efficient and accurate screening and assessment strategies are essential for matching students with the programs and interventions to address their current needs and prevent problems from getting bigger. This process calls for screening tools that range from descriptions by referrers, through surveys to identify unrecognized problems, to analysis…

  15. A Preliminary Investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a Screening Tool for Anxiety in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S.; Howlin, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety…

  16. The Screening Tool of Feeding Problems Applied to Children (STEP-CHILD): Psychometric Characteristics and Associations with Child and Parent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiverling, Laura; Hendy, Helen M.; Williams, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the 23-item Screening Tool for Feeding Problems (STEP; Matson & Kuhn, 2001) with a sample of children referred to a hospital-based feeding clinic to examine the scale's psychometric characteristics and then demonstrate how a children's revision of the STEP, the STEP-CHILD is associated with child and parent variables.…

  17. Evaluation of the STarT Back Screening Tool for Prediction of Low Back Pain Intensity in an Outpatient Physical Therapy Setting.

    PubMed

    Toh, Irene; Chong, Hwei-Chi; Suet-Ching Liaw, Jennifer; Pua, Yong-Hao

    2017-04-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Background Optimal management of patients with low back pain (LBP) relies on accurate prognosis of future clinical outcomes. The STarT Back Screening Tool (SBT), a prognostic index developed and validated in the primary care setting, has 3 scoring measures: SBT overall, psychosocial, and categorical scores. Objective Our study aimed to compare the predictive validity of 3 SBT measures with future pain intensity in patients receiving physical therapy for LBP. Methods Two hundred seven patients with LBP receiving physical therapy completed the SBT at initial (baseline) evaluation and were evaluated 12 weeks later for their pain intensity. Multivariable proportional odds regression was used to evaluate the associations of the various SBT measures with pain intensity at follow-up. Results Adjusting for covariates, all SBT measures were positively and significantly associated with the odds of greater pain intensity at follow-up evaluation (P<.01). Adding SBT psychosocial scores to a covariate-only model improved its predictive accuracy (concordance statistic increase, 0.03; 95% confidence interval: 0.01, 0.09), while improvements in prediction were smaller or negligible with the SBT overall and categorical scores (concordance statistic increase, 0.02 and 0.007, respectively). In mutually adjusted analyses, SBT psychosocial scores added incremental predictive value over SBT overall scores in predicting future pain intensity (P = .03). Conclusion Among the 3 SBT measures, the SBT psychosocial subscale was a significant predictor of future pain intensity in patients with LBP and had comparable, if not better, prognostic significance compared with the SBT overall score. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(4):261-267. Epub 3 Mar 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7284.

  18. Validation of the Chinese version of the NUCOG cognitive screening tool in patients with epilepsy, dementia and other neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lan; Li, Shu-Chuen; Xia, Li; Pan, Songqing; Velakoulis, Dennis; Walterfang, Mark

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to develop and validate a Chinese version of the Neuropsychiatry Unit Cognitive Assessment Tool (NUCOG) for use in Chinese-speaking subjects internationally. Patients and healthy controls were recruited from two hospitals between July and October 2012. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were utilized to test criterion validity. Convergent validity was assessed via correlations between NUCOG and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Reliability was measured by internal consistency (Cronbach's α). Patients with epilepsy (n=144), neurological diseases (n=81), dementia (n=44), and controls (n=260) completed the NUCOG and the MMSE. Overall, both NUCOG and MMSE scores differed significantly across the four groups with the highest scores in the control group and the lowest in the dementia group (p<0.0001). The NUCOG scores could differentiate between patients with certain seizure types, stroke and transient ischemic attack. Compared to the MMSE, the NUCOG exhibited a higher area under the ROC curve. The convergent validity was substantially correlated, and internal consistency was very high (0.922). The Chinese version of NUCOG was demonstrated to be a sensitive and reliable screening tool for cognitive impairment in a Chinese-speaking population not only in China, but also in countries where there is a sizeable population of ethnic Chinese. Additionally, our study also showed the NUCOG could better differentiate cognitive function in patients with certain seizure types, stroke and transient ischemic attack than the MMSE. This potentially expands the clinical usefulness of NUCOG, enabling clinicians to measure the cognitive profile of patients with epilepsy and ischemic cerebrovascular diseases.

  19. MACCS : Multi-Mission Atmospheric Correction and Cloud Screening tool for high-frequency revisit data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, B.; Huc, M.; Feuvrier, T.; Ruffel, C.; Hagolle, O.; Lonjou, V.; Desjardins, C.

    2015-10-01

    For the production of Level2A products during Sentinel-2 commissioning in the Technical Expertise Center Sentinel-2 in CNES, CESBIO proposed to adapt the Venus Level-2 , taking advantage of the similarities between the two missions: image acquisition at a high frequency (2 days for Venus, 5 days with the two Sentinel-2), high resolution (5m for Venus, 10, 20 and 60m for Sentinel-2), images acquisition under constant viewing conditions. The Multi-Mission Atmospheric Correction and Cloud Screening (MACCS) tool was born: based on CNES Orfeo Toolbox Library, Venμs processor which was already able to process Formosat2 and VENμS data, was adapted to process Sentinel-2 and Landsat5-7 data; since then, a great effort has been made reviewing MACCS software architecture in order to ease the add-on of new missions that have also the peculiarity of acquiring images at high resolution, high revisit and under constant viewing angles, such as Spot4/Take5 and Landsat8. The recursive and multi-temporal algorithm is implemented in a core that is the same for all the sensors and that combines several processing steps: estimation of cloud cover, cloud shadow, water, snow and shadows masks, of water vapor content, aerosol optical thickness, atmospheric correction. This core is accessed via a number of plug-ins where the specificity of the sensor and of the user project are taken into account: products format, algorithmic processing chaining and parameters. After a presentation of MACCS architecture and functionalities, the paper will give an overview of the production facilities integrating MACCS and the associated specificities: the interest for this tool has grown worldwide and MACCS will be used for extensive production within the THEIA land data center and Agri-S2 project. Finally the paper will zoom on the use of MACCS during Sentinel-2 In Orbit Test phase showing the first Level-2A products.

  20. Creation of Novel Protein Variants with CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Mutagenesis: Turning a Screening By-Product into a Discovery Tool

    PubMed Central

    Vaimberg, Emma W.; Johannessen, Cory M.; Root, David E.; Doench, John G.

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 screening has proven to be a versatile tool for genomics research. Based on unexpected results from a genome-wide screen, we developed a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated approach to mutagenesis, exploiting the allelic diversity generated by error-prone non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) to identify novel gain-of-function and drug resistant alleles of the MAPK signaling pathway genes MEK1 and BRAF. We define the parameters of a scalable technique to easily generate cell populations containing thousands of endogenous allelic variants to map gene functions. Further, these results highlight an unexpected but important phenomenon, that Cas9-induced gain-of-function alleles are an inherent by-product of normal Cas9 loss-of-function screens and should be investigated during analysis of data from large-scale positive selection screens. PMID:28118392

  1. Evaluation of visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol's iodine as cervical cancer screening tools in a low-resource setting.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Sabuhi; Das, Vinta; Zahra, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    In view of the failure of cytology screening programmes for cervical cancer in developing countries, the World Health Organization suggested unaided visual inspection of the cervix after an application of acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI) as alternative screening methods. Our study evaluates the effectiveness of VIA and VILI compared to Pap smear as screening methods for carcinoma of the cervix in a low-resource setting. Three hundred and twenty-eight women were subjected to a Pap smear test, VIA, VILI and colposcopy. The results were as follows: Pap smear test (20.83%, specificity 98.38%), VIA (55.5%, 71.39%) and VILI (86.84%, 48.93%). Although VIA and VILI are less specific in comparison to the Pap smear test, they are more sensitive in detecting pre-invasive lesions. Hence VIA and VILI can be used as cervical cancer screening tools in low-resource settings.

  2. High-performance mass spectrometry as a drug discovery tool: a high-throughput screening assay to identify RNA-binding ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannes-Lowery, Kristin A.; Drader, Jared J.; Griffey, Richard H.; Hofstadler, Steven A.

    2001-04-01

    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is increasingly being used as a drug discovery tool. We describe the development of a parallel high-throughput screening (HTS) strategy to identify small molecules that bind RNA targets using FTMS as an alternative to classical high-throughput biological screening methods for combinatorial libraries. The Multitarget Affinity/Specificity Screening (MASS) assay takes advantage of the "intrinsic mass" label of each compound and target RNA by employing high resolution, high precision mass measurements. The ability to analyze complex mixtures allows large compound libraries to be screened in the presence of multiple RNA targets simultaneously. The identity of the small molecule(s) which bind, the RNA target to which it binds, the compound-specific binding affinity and the location of the binding site on the RNA can be determined in one set of rapid experiments. The MASS technology detects complexes with dissociation constants of < 5 mM, with high sensitivity.

  3. ReCLAIM v2.0: a spreadsheet tool for calculating doses and soil/water radionuclide screening levels for assessment of radioactively contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Willans, S M; Galais, N C M; Lennon, C P; Trivedi, D P

    2007-03-01

    This note describes an electronic spreadsheet tool called ReCLAIM v2.0, developed by Nexia Solutions Ltd. The tool calculates doses to exposure groups for assessment of radioactively contaminated land including UK Nuclear Licensed sites on an individual exposure pathway basis and on a multiple exposure pathway basis constituting various specifiable scenarios. It also calculates soil/water screening levels of individual radionuclides with reference to selected exposure pathways and a dose target, and considers radionuclide additivity. Subject to agreement with a ReCLAIM disclaimer, the tool, with accompanying documentation (User Guide and Verification Report), can be downloaded without cost from the website (www.nexiasolutions.com/reclaim).

  4. The Stop-Bang Questionnaire as a Screening Tool for Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Induced Hypertension in Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Pavarangkul, Tanut; Jungtrakul, Thipphailin; Chaobangprom, Pichsinee; Nitiwatthana, Luxanawadee; Jongkumchok, Wisit; Morrakotkhiew, Weerachat; Kachenchart, Sitthan; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Limpawattana, Panita; Srisaenpang, Sompong; Pinitsoontorn, Somdej; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common public health issue. If left untreated, OSA may cause a large health economic burden from cardiovascular complications particularly stroke. The diagnosis of OSA can be made by polysomnography, but its availability is limited in the developing countries in Asia. STOP-BANG questionnaire is a good screening tool but may need some adjustment for Asian population. STOP-BANG stands for: Snoring history, Tired during the day, Observed stop breathing while sleep, High blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) more than 35 kg/m2, Age more than 50 years, Neck circumference more than 40 cm and male Gender. We compared clinical features in STOP-BANG questionnaire between 42 OSA induced hypertension patients and 82 healthy control subjects in the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The best cutoff point for the BMI and the neck circumference were 24.5 kg/m2 and 36 cm, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the BMI cutoff point were 97.2% and 91.40, while those of the neck circumference were 94.7% and 82.9%. In conclusion, the appropriate cutoff points of BMI and neck circumference for Thai STOP-BANG questionnaire were 25 kg/m2 and 36 cm. PMID:27127598

  5. The Stop-Bang Questionnaire as a Screening Tool for Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Induced Hypertension in Asian Population.

    PubMed

    Pavarangkul, Tanut; Jungtrakul, Thipphailin; Chaobangprom, Pichsinee; Nitiwatthana, Luxanawadee; Jongkumchok, Wisit; Morrakotkhiew, Weerachat; Kachenchart, Sitthan; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Limpawattana, Panita; Srisaenpang, Sompong; Pinitsoontorn, Somdej; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common public health issue. If left untreated, OSA may cause a large health economic burden from cardiovascular complications particularly stroke. The diagnosis of OSA can be made by polysomnography, but its availability is limited in the developing countries in Asia. STOP-BANG questionnaire is a good screening tool but may need some adjustment for Asian population. STOP-BANG stands for: Snoring history, Tired during the day, Observed stop breathing while sleep, High blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) more than 35 kg/m(2), Age more than 50 years, Neck circumference more than 40 cm and male Gender. We compared clinical features in STOP-BANG questionnaire between 42 OSA induced hypertension patients and 82 healthy control subjects in the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The best cutoff point for the BMI and the neck circumference were 24.5 kg/m(2) and 36 cm, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the BMI cutoff point were 97.2% and 91.40, while those of the neck circumference were 94.7% and 82.9%. In conclusion, the appropriate cutoff points of BMI and neck circumference for Thai STOP-BANG questionnaire were 25 kg/m(2) and 36 cm.

  6. Cardiolipin fingerprinting of leukocytes by MALDI-TOF/MS as a screening tool for Barth syndrome[S

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Roberto; Lobasso, Simona; Gorgoglione, Ruggiero; Bowron, Ann; Steward, Colin G.; Corcelli, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Barth syndrome (BTHS), an X-linked disease associated with cardioskeletal myopathy, neutropenia, and organic aciduria, is characterized by abnormalities of card­iolipin (CL) species in mitochondria. Diagnosis of the disease is often compromised by lack of rapid and widely available diagnostic laboratory tests. The present study describes a new method for BTHS screening based on MALDI-TOF/MS analysis of leukocyte lipids. This generates a “CL fingerprint” and allows quick and simple assay of the relative levels of CL and monolysocardiolipin species in leukocyte total lipid profiles. To validate the method, we used vector algebra to analyze the difference in lipid composition between controls (24 healthy donors) and patients (8 boys affected by BTHS) in the high-mass phospholipid range. The method of lipid analysis described represents an important additional tool for the diagnosis of BTHS and potentially enables therapeutic monitoring of drug targets, which have been shown to ameliorate abnormal CL profiles in cells. PMID:26144817

  7. Application of a fish DNA damage assay as a biological toxicity screening tool for metal plating wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K.; Zong, M.; Meier, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    The utility of a fish DNA damage assay as a rapid monitoring tool was investigated. Metal plating wastewater was chosen as a sample because it contains various genotoxic metal species. Fish DNA damage assay results were compared to data generated from the conventional whole effluent toxicity (WET) test procedure. The Microtox{reg_sign} assay (Azur Environmental, Carlsbad, CA, USA) using Vibrio fischeri was also employed. Eleven samples from two metal plating companies were collected for this evaluation. For the fish DNA damage assay, 7-d-old fathead minnow larvae, Pimephales promelas, were utilized. They were exposed to a series of dilutions at 20 C for 2 h. Whole effluent toxicity tests conducted in this study included two acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and fathead minnows and two chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows. The fish DNA damage assay showed good correlations with both the acute and chronic WET test results, especially with those obtained with fathead minnows. The kappa values, an index of agreement, between the fish DNA damage assay and WET tests were shown to be acceptable. These findings imply that this novel fish DNA damage assay has use as an expedient toxicity screening procedure since it produces comparable results to those of the acute and chronic fathead minnow toxicity tests.

  8. Exploring the Potential of Venom from Nasonia vitripennis as Therapeutic Agent with High-Throughput Screening Tools

    PubMed Central

    Danneels, Ellen L.; Formesyn, Ellen M.; de Graaf, Dirk C.

    2015-01-01

    The venom from the ectoparasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) contains at least 80 different proteins and possibly even more peptides or other small chemical compounds, demonstrating its appealing therapeutic application. To better understand the dynamics of the venom in mammalian cells, two high-throughput screening tools were performed. The venom induced pathways related to an early stress response and activated reporters that suggest the involvement of steroids. Whether these steroids reside from the venom itself or show an induced release/production caused by the venom, still remains unsolved. The proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β was found to be down-regulated after venom and LPS co-treatment, confirming the anti-inflammatory action of N. vitripennis venom. When analyzing the expression levels of the NF-κB target genes, potentially not only the canonical but also the alternative NF-κB pathway can be affected, possibly explaining some counterintuitive results. It is proposed that next to an NF-κB binding site, the promoter of the genes tested by the PCR array may also contain binding sites for other transcription factors, resulting in a complex puzzle to connect the induced target gene with its respective transcription factor. Interestingly, Nasonia venom altered the expression of some drug targets, presenting the venom with an exciting therapeutical potential. PMID:26046700

  9. Number of genera as a potential screening tool for assessing quality of bryophyte communities in Ohio wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, William; Stapanian, Martin A.; Andreas, Barbara; Gara, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) have numerous advantages as indicators of environmental quality. A quality assessment index for bryophyte species assemblages (BQAI) was developed for the State of Ohio, USA. Reliable identification of bryophytes to species often requires considerable training, practice, and time. In contrast, reliable identification to genera for most bryophytes in Ohio requires much less training. We identified 110 bryophyte species (14 liverworts and 96 mosses) belonging to 69 genera (13 liverwort and 56 moss) in 45 wetlands (27 emergent, 13 forested, and 5 shrub) in Ohio. As expected, there were more genera and higher BQAI scores in forested than in emergent wetlands. Number of genera was highly correlated (r ≥ 0.9) with BQAI in emergent and forested wetlands and for the combined set of wetlands. Number of genera and BQAI responded almost identically to an index of wetland disturbance. The results suggest that number of genera has potential as a screening tool for assessing bryophyte community quality in wetlands in some regions.

  10. Kindergarten Screens as Tools for the Early Identification of Children at Risk for Remediation or Grade Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenner, George

    1995-01-01

    Compares the capability of three kindergarten screening instruments to correctly predict which children (n=95) would be recommended for referral to remedial programs or for retention: a Piagetian-based instrument, a general screening test, and a language-specific screen. Although the Piagetian-based test had poor predictive qualities, both the…

  11. ClereMed: Lessons Learned From a Pilot Study of a Mobile Screening Tool to Identify and Support Adults Who Have Difficulty With Medication Labels

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Allison; Dolovich, Lisa; Slavcev, Roderick; Drimmie, Rob; Aghaei, Behzad; Poon, Calvin; Khan, Shamrozé; Leat, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    cognitive impairment. Participants who owned a computer or touchscreen completed ClereMed in a mean time of 26 (SD 16) seconds, compared with 52 (SD 34) seconds for those who do not own a device (P<.001). Those who had difficulty, struggled with screen glare, button activation, and the “drag and drop” function. Conclusions ClereMed was well accepted by older participants, but it was only moderately accurate for reading ability and not for mild cognitive impairment. Future versions may be most useful as part of a larger medication assessment or as a tool to help family members and caregivers identify individuals with impaired functional reading ability. Future research is needed to improve the sensitivity for measuring cognitive impairment and on the feasibility of implementing a mobile app into pharmacy workflow. PMID:25131813

  12. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  13. An image-based software tool for screening retinal fundus images using vascular morphology and network transport analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Richard D.; Dickrell, Daniel J.; Meadows, David L.

    2014-03-01

    As the number of digital retinal fundus images taken each year grows at an increasing rate, there exists a similarly increasing need for automatic eye disease detection through image-based analysis. A new method has been developed for classifying standard color fundus photographs into both healthy and diseased categories. This classification was based on the calculated network fluid conductance, a function of the geometry and connectivity of the vascular segments. To evaluate the network resistance, the retinal vasculature was first manually separated from the background to ensure an accurate representation of the geometry and connectivity. The arterial and venous networks were then semi-automatically separated into two separate binary images. The connectivity of the arterial network was then determined through a series of morphological image operations. The network comprised of segments of vasculature and points of bifurcation, with each segment having a characteristic geometric and fluid properties. Based on the connectivity and fluid resistance of each vascular segment, an arterial network flow conductance was calculated, which described the ease with which blood can pass through a vascular system. In this work, 27 eyes (13 healthy and 14 diabetic) from patients roughly 65 years in age were evaluated using this methodology. Healthy arterial networks exhibited an average fluid conductance of 419 ± 89 μm3/mPa-s while the average network fluid conductance of the diabetic set was 165 ± 87 μm3/mPa-s (p < 0.001). The results of this new image-based software demonstrated an ability to automatically, quantitatively and efficiently screen diseased eyes from color fundus imagery.

  14. Assessment of risk factors and test performance on malnutrition prevalence at admission using four different screening tools.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Josefina; Ayala, Luis; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Muñiz, Ma José; Gamundí, Antoni; Martínez-Indart, Lorea; Masmiquel L, Lluis

    2014-03-01

    Antecedentes y objetivos: La desnutrición es muy frecuente en los pacientes que ingresan en el hospital. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es a) determinar la prevalencia de desnutrición al ingreso en un hospital de tercer nivel e identificar los factores de riesgo para desnutrición. b) Estudiar la sensibilidad y especifidad de diferentes test de cribado de desnutrición comparados con las valoración global subjetiva (VGS). Material y métodos: Realizamos un estudio prospectivo a las 24 h del ingreso hospitalario a individuos (56.4% hombres con una edad media de 61,3 ± 17 años) utilizando 4 test de cribado diferentes: mininutritional assessment short form (MNA-SF), nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS2002), malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST) y VGS. Además, se recogieron medidas antropométricas y comorbilidades. Resultados: La prevalencia global de desnutrición fue de 47.3%. Las tasas específicas fueron 54,2% para > 65 años, 40,7% en < 65 años (p = 0,002), 63,4% en las áreas médicas, 34,0% áreas quirúrgicas (p < 0,001). Los factores que influían en la presencia de desnutrición al ingreso fueron: cardiopatía (OR 1,74 IC 95% 1,16-2,60 p = 0,007) en el MNA-SF (AUC 0,62); hepatopatía (OR 4,45 IC 95% 1.9410,22 p < 0,001), > 65años (OR 2,10 IC 95% 1,19-3,93 p = 0,011), áreas médicas (OR 3,58 IC 95% 1,93-6,62 p < 0,001) en la VGS (AUC 0,96); neumopatía (OR 3,34 IC 95% 1,45-7,73 p = 0,005), áreas médicas (OR 2,55 IC 95% 1,09-5,98 p = 0,032) en el NRS 2002 (AUC 0,97). La pérdida de peso involuntaria fue común a todos los test. Conclusiones: La desnutrición es frecuente al ingreso hospitalario. La presencia de comorbilidades puede influir en la presencia de desnutrición al ingreso, sin embargo, podemos utilizar cualquiera de los tests propuestos para su detección en nuestro hospital.

  15. Focused Decision Support: a Data Mining Tool to Query the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Dataset and Guide Screening Management for the Individual Patient.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arjun; Hostetter, Jason; Morrison, James; Wang, Kenneth; Siegel, Eliot

    2016-04-01

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial enrolled ~155,000 participants to determine whether certain screening exams reduced mortality from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. Repurposing the data provides an unparalleled resource for matching patients with the outcomes of demographically or diagnostically comparable patients. A web-based application was developed to query this subset of patient information against a given patient's demographics and risk factors. Analysis of the matched data yields outcome information which can then be used to guide management decisions and imaging software. Prognostic information is also estimated via the proportion of matched patients that progress to cancer. The US Preventative Services Task Force provides screening recommendations for cancers of the breast, colorectal tract, and lungs. There is wide variability in adherence of clinicians to these guidelines and others published by the Fleischner Society and various cancer organizations. Data mining the PLCO dataset for clinical decision support can optimize the use of limited healthcare resources, focusing screening on patients for whom the benefit to risk ratio is the greatest and most efficacious. A data driven, personalized approach to cancer screening maximizes the economic and clinical efficacy and enables early identification of patients in which the course of disease can be improved. Our dynamic decision support system utilizes a subset of the PLCO dataset as a reference model to determine imaging and testing appropriateness while offering prognostic information for various cancers.

  16. Mammographically screen-detected asymmetric densities with architectural distortion and normal ultrasound at assessment: Value of MRI as a problem-solving tool.

    PubMed

    Price, Jeremy; Chen, Suet Wan

    2015-06-01

    Four cases are presented in which asymptomatic clients from an Australian mammography screening programme (BreastScreen ACT) were recalled for assessment of an asymmetric density with possible architectural distortion. In all four women, mammographic work-up was equivocal and ultrasound showed no suspicious correlate for biopsy. It was then doubtful as to whether any significant lesion was present. In all four cases, MRI revealed the presence of malignancy. Breast MRI can be a useful problem-solving tool in the work-up of such cases.

  17. Concurrent Validity of a Computer-Based Cognitive Screening Tool for Use in Adults with HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Mary Amanda; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Morrow, Lisa; Saxton, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Abstract As the incidence of HIV-associated dementia has decreased, the survival of HIV-infected individuals with milder forms of cognitive impairment has increased. Detecting this milder impairment in its earliest stages has great clinical and research importance. We report here the results of an initial evaluation of the Computer Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI®), a computerized screening tool designed to assess abnormal cognitive decline with reduced respondent and test administrator burden. Fifty-nine volunteers (29 HIV infected; age=50.9 years; education=14.9 years; 36/59 males) completed the CAMCI® and a battery of neuropsychological tests. The CAMCI was repeated 12 and 24 weeks later. The results from the CAMCI were compared to Global and Domain Impairment scores derived from the full neuropsychological test battery. The CAMCI detected mild impairment (compared with normal and borderline test performance) with a sensitivity of 0.72, specificity of 0.97, positive predictive rate of 0.93, and a negative predictive rate of 0.89. Median stability over 12 and 24 weeks of follow-up was 0.32 and 0.46, respectively. These rates did not differ as a function of serostatus. A discriminant function analysis correctly classified 90% of the subjects with respect to their overall Global Impairment Rating from six of the CAMCI scores. This preliminary study demonstrates that the CAMCI is sensitive to mild forms of cognitive impairment, and is stable over 24 weeks of follow-up. A larger trial to obtain risk-group appropriate normative data will be necessary to make the instrument useful in both clinical practice and research (e.g., clinical trials). PMID:21545295

  18. A Malaria Diagnostic Tool Based on Computer Vision Screening and Visualization of Plasmodium falciparum Candidate Areas in Digitized Blood Smears

    PubMed Central

    Walliander, Margarita; Mårtensson, Andreas; Diwan, Vinod; Rahtu, Esa; Pietikäinen, Matti; Lundin, Mikael; Lundin, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, however, manual evaluation of blood films is highly dependent on skilled personnel in a time-consuming, error-prone and repetitive process. In this study we propose a method using computer vision detection and visualization of only the diagnostically most relevant sample regions in digitized blood smears. Methods Giemsa-stained thin blood films with P. falciparum ring-stage trophozoites (n = 27) and uninfected controls (n = 20) were digitally scanned with an oil immersion objective (0.1 µm/pixel) to capture approximately 50,000 erythrocytes per sample. Parasite candidate regions were identified based on color and object size, followed by extraction of image features (local binary patterns, local contrast and Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors) used as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classifier was trained on digital slides from ten patients and validated on six samples. Results The diagnostic accuracy was tested on 31 samples (19 infected and 12 controls). From each digitized area of a blood smear, a panel with the 128 most probable parasite candidate regions was generated. Two expert microscopists were asked to visually inspect the panel on a tablet computer and to judge whether the patient was infected with P. falciparum. The method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100% as well as 90% and 100% for the two readers respectively using the diagnostic tool. Parasitemia was separately calculated by the automated system and the correlation coefficient between manual and automated parasitemia counts was 0.97. Conclusion We developed a decision support system for detecting malaria parasites using a computer vision algorithm combined with visualization of sample areas with the highest probability of malaria infection. The system provides a novel method for blood smear screening with a significantly reduced need for visual examination and

  19. Reliability of a Simple Physical Therapist Screening Tool to Assess Errors during Resistance Exercises for Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrup, Emil

    2014-01-01

    The main objective was to investigate the intra- and intertester reliability of a simple screening tool assessing errors in exercise execution by visual observation. 38 participants with no previous resistance exercise experience practiced for two weeks four typical upper limb exercises using elastic tubing. At 2-week follow-up, the participants were invited for a test-retest assessment on errors in technical execution. The assessment was based on ordinal deviation of joint position from neutral of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in a single plane by visual observation. Moderate intratester reliability weighted kappa (wΚ) score ranging from 0.50 (0.21–0.71) to 0.57 (0.24–0.82) for observer 1 and a fair to moderate intratester reliability wΚ score ranging from 0.27 (0.09–0.43) to 0.52 (0.15–0.86) for observer 2 across the four exercises was observed. For intertester reliability moderate to substantial mean wΚ scores were found between the two observers, slightly improving from round one to round two ranging from 0.40 (0.20–0.59) to 0.68 (0.45–0.91) in round one to 0.52 (0.20–0.80) to 0.69 (0.39–0.86) in round two. The exercise error assessment demonstrated fair to substantial intratester and intertester reliability, which is congruent with previously published studies. Hence the simplicity of defining a neutral joint position for each of the involved joints in the exercise and categorizing the deviation in “some deviation” and “substantial deviation” to either side in a single plane is a viable and inexpensive solution when assessing for errors during exercise. PMID:24738079

  20. An Integrated Tool to Study MHC Region: Accurate SNV Detection and HLA Genes Typing in Human MHC Region Using Targeted High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Xu, Yinyin; Liang, Dequan; Gao, Peng; Sun, Yepeng; Gifford, Benjamin; D’Ascenzo, Mark; Liu, Xiaomin; Tellier, Laurent C. A. M.; Yang, Fang; Tong, Xin; Chen, Dan; Zheng, Jing; Li, Weiyang; Richmond, Todd; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Li, Yingrui

    2013-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the most variable and gene-dense regions of the human genome. Most studies of the MHC, and associated regions, focus on minor variants and HLA typing, many of which have been demonstrated to be associated with human disease susceptibility and metabolic pathways. However, the detection of variants in the MHC region, and diagnostic HLA typing, still lacks a coherent, standardized, cost effective and high coverage protocol of clinical quality and reliability. In this paper, we presented such a method for the accurate detection of minor variants and HLA types in the human MHC region, using high-throughput, high-coverage sequencing of target regions. A probe set was designed to template upon the 8 annotated human MHC haplotypes, and to encompass the 5 megabases (Mb) of the extended MHC region. We deployed our probes upon three, genetically diverse human samples for probe set evaluation, and sequencing data show that ∼97% of the MHC region, and over 99% of the genes in MHC region, are covered with sufficient depth and good evenness. 98% of genotypes called by this capture sequencing prove consistent with established HapMap genotypes. We have concurrently developed a one-step pipeline for calling any HLA type referenced in the IMGT/HLA database from this target capture sequencing data, which shows over 96% typing accuracy when deployed at 4 digital resolution. This cost-effective and highly accurate approach for variant detection and HLA typing in the MHC region may lend further insight into immune-mediated diseases studies, and may find clinical utility in transplantation medicine research. This one-step pipeline is released for general evaluation and use by the scientific community. PMID:23894464

  1. A novel useful tool of computerized touch panel-type screening test for evaluating cognitive function of chronic ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Kentaro; Kono, Syoichiro; Deguchi, Shoko; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Kurata, Tomoko; Ikeda, Yoshio; Abe, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive and affective impairments are important non-motor features of ischemic stroke (IS) related to white-matter hyperintensity, including periventricular hyperintensity (PVH). To confirm the usefulness of a novel computerized touch panel-type screening test, we investigated cognitive and affective functioning among 142 IS patients and 105 age-and gender-matched normal control subjects. Assessment using the mini-mental state examination, Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, and frontal assessment battery revealed reduced cognitive function in IS patients, with the most severe reduction exhibited by cardiogenic embolism patients, followed by lacunar infarction patients, and atherothrombotic infarction patients. Our novel touch panel screening test revealed a similar pattern of results. In addition, PVH grading, classified using Fazekas' magnetic resonance imaging method, was also correlated with cognitive decline and touch panel screening test performance. In contrast, affective function, assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, vitality index, and apathy scale, was not significantly decreased in IS, and did not correlate with touch panel screening test results or PVH, although the number of microbleeds was correlated with apathy scale results. The present findings revealed that IS and PVH grading were significantly correlated with decline in general cognitive status (mini-mental state examination and Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised) and frontal lobe function (frontal assessment battery). Performance on all touch panel screening tests was correlated with IS and PVH grading, but was largely independent of depression or apathy. Touch panel screening tests were easily understood and performed by almost all patients with mild cognitive and motor dysfunction, due to visually clear images and simple methods not involving detailed manual-handling tasks such as writing. Touch panel screening tests may provide a useful tool for the early screening of cognitive

  2. Teaching Tools to Engage Anishinaabek First Nations Women in Cervical Cancer Screening: Report of an Educational Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehbe, Ingeborg; Wood, Brianne; Wakewich, Pamela; Maar, Marion; Escott, Nicholas; Jumah, Naana; Little, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore educational strategies for engaging First Nations women in Canada to attend cervical cancer screening. Design: Within a participatory action research framework, semi-structured interviews with health-care providers in First Nations communities revealed that education about the value of screening is perceived as being a key…

  3. A self-assessment tool for screening young adults at risk of type 2 diabetes using Strong Heart Family Study data

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fengxia; Cha, EunSeok; Lee, Elisa T.; Mayberry, Robert M.; Wang, Wenyu; Umpierrez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to characterize risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes in young adults ages 18–29 in order to develop a non-invasive risk assessment tool for use with younger American populations. Methods The self-assessment tool was developed using the Strong Heart Family Study data. A total of 590 young American Indian adults aged 18–29 (males=242) with normoglycemia and not receiving diabetes treatment were included. Risk factors recommended by the American Diabetes Association were used to assess diabetes risk in these young adults. A logistic regression model was developed to calculate the predicted probability. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the model. Results The final model showed that parental history of diabetes, obesity level, alcohol consumption, and high fasting glucose even within normal range were significantly associated with onset of prediabetes or diabetes in 5 years. The AUROC value was 0.68 with original and validated data, indicating the risk assessment tool had reasonably good discrimination ability. Conclusions This new non-invasive screening tool, based on data from American Indian young adults, has potential to screen young adults’ early-onset diabetes risk. Future studies are warranted to test this risk assessment tool in other racial/ethnic young adults. PMID:27480523

  4. Simple X-ray versus ultrasonography examination in blunt chest trauma: effective tools of accurate diagnosis and considerations for rib fractures

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eun Gu; Lee, Yunjung

    2016-01-01

    Simple radiography is the best diagnostic tool for rib fractures caused by chest trauma, but it has some limitations. Thus, other tools are also being used. The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasonography (US) for identifying rib fractures and to identify influencing factors of its effectiveness. Between October 2003 and August 2007, 201 patients with blunt chest trauma were available to undergo chest radiographic and US examinations for diagnosis of rib fractures. The two modalities were compared in terms of effectiveness based on simple radiographic readings and US examination results. We also investigated the factors that influenced the effectiveness of US examination. Rib fractures were detected on radiography in 69 patients (34.3%) but not in 132 patients. Rib fractures were diagnosed by using US examination in 160 patients (84.6%). Of the 132 patients who showed no rib fractures on radiography, 92 showed rib fractures on US. Among the 69 patients of rib fracture detected on radiography, 33 had additional rib fractures detected on US. Of the patients, 76 (37.8%) had identical radiographic and US results, and 125 (62.2%) had fractures detected on US that were previously undetected on radiography or additional fractures detected on US. Age, duration until US examination, and fracture location were not significant influencing factors. However, in the group without detected fractures on radiography, US showed a more significant effectiveness than in the group with detected fractures on radiography (P=0.003). US examination could detect unnoticed rib fractures on simple radiography. US examination is especially more effective in the group without detected fractures on radiography. More attention should be paid to patients with chest trauma who have no detected fractures on radiography. PMID:28119889

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of waist circumference as a single screening tool for identification of overweight and obesity among Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Kee, C C; Jamaiyah, H; Geeta, A; Ali, Z Ahmad; Safiza, M N Noor; Suzana, S; Khor, G L; Rahmah, R; Jamalludin, A R; Sumarni, M G; Lim, K H; Faudzi, Y Ahmad; Amal, N M

    2011-12-01

    Generalised obesity and central obesity are risk factors for Type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Waist circumference (WC) has been suggested as a single screening tool for identification of overweight or obese subjects in lieu of the body mass index (BMI) for weight management in public health program. Currently, the recommended waist circumference cut-off points of > or = 94cm for men and > or =80cm for women (waist action level 1) and > or = 102cm for men and > or = 88cm for women (waist action level 2) used for identification of overweight and obesity are based on studies in Caucasian populations. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the recommended waist action levels, and to determine optimal WC cut-off points for identification of overweight or obesity with central fat distribution based on BMI for Malaysian adults. Data from 32,773 subjects (14,982 men and 17,791 women) aged 18 and above who participated in the Third National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 were analysed. Sensitivity and specificity of WC at waist action level 1 were 48.3% and 97.5% for men; and 84.2% and 80.6% for women when compared to the cut-off points based on BMI > or = 25kg/m2. At waist action level 2, sensitivity and specificity were 52.4% and 98.0% for men, and 79.2% and 85.4% for women when compared with the cut-off points based on BMI (> or = 30 kg/m2). Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the appropriatescreening cut-off points for WC to identify subjects with overweight (> or = 25kg/m2) was 86.0cm (sensitivity=83.6%, specificity=82.5%) for men, and 79.1cm (sensitivity=85.0%, specificity=79.5%) for women. Waist circumference cut-off points to identify obese subjects (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) was 93.2cm (sensitivity=86.5%, specificity=85.7%) for men and 85.2cm (sensitivity=77.9%, specificity=78.0%) for women. Our findings demonstrated that the current recommended waist circumference cut-off points have low

  6. Ebola Outbreak Response; Experience and Development of Screening Tools for Viral Haemorrhagic Fever (VHF) in a HIV Center of Excellence Near to VHF Epicentres

    PubMed Central

    Parkes-Ratanshi, Rosalind; Elbireer, Ali; Mbambu, Betty; Mayanja, Faridah; Coutinho, Alex; Merry, Concepta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There have been 3 outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in Uganda in the last 2 years. VHF often starts with non-specific symptoms prior to the onset of haemorrhagic signs. HIV clinics in VHF outbreak countries such as Uganda see large numbers of patients with HIV 1/2 infection presenting with non-specific symptoms every day. Whilst there are good screening tools for general health care facilities expecting VHF suspects, we were unable to find tools for use in HIV or other non-acute clinics. Methods We designed tools to help with communication to staff, infection control and screening of HIV patients with non-specific symptoms in a large HIV clinic during the outbreaks in Uganda. We describe our experiences in using these tools in 2 Ebola Virus Disease outbreaks in Uganda. Results During the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, enhanced infection control and communication procedures were implemented within 24 hours of the WHO/Ministry of Health announcement of the outbreaks. During course of these outbreaks the clinic saw 12,544 patients with HIV 1/2 infection, of whom 3,713 attended without an appointment, suggesting new symptoms. Of these 4 were considered at risk of EVD and seen with full infection procedures; 3 were sent home after further investigation. One patient was referred to the National Referral Hospital VHF unit, but discharged on the same day. One additional VHF suspect was identified outside of a VHF outbreak; he was transferred to the National Referral Hospital and placed in isolation within 2 hours of arriving at the HIV clinic. Discussion Use of simple screening tools can be helpful in managing large numbers of symptomatic patients attending for routine and non-routine medical care (including HIV care) within a country experiencing a VHF outbreak, and can raise medical staff awareness of VHF outside of the epidemics. PMID:25007269

  7. Validation of the International HIV Dementia Scale as a Screening Tool for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in a German-Speaking HIV Outpatient Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Ute; Jessen, Arne B.; Hahn, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are widely present among people living with HIV. Especially its milder forms, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), remain highly prevalent worldwide. Diagnosing these conditions is subject to a time and resource consuming neuropsychological assessment. Selecting patients at a higher risk of cognitive impairment by using a simple but effective screening tool helps to organise access to further neuropsychological diagnosis. The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) has until now been a well-established screening tool in African and American countries, however these populations’ demographics defer significantly from ours, so using the same parameters could be ineffective. Objectives To calculate the prevalence of this condition among people attending an HIV outpatient clinic in Berlin and to validate the use of the IHDS as a screening tool for HAND in a German-speaking population. Methods We screened 480 HIV-infected patients using the IHDS, 89% of them were on a stable antiretroviral treatment. Ninety of them completed a standardised neuropsychological battery of tests and a specific cognitive complaints questionnaire. The same procedure was applied to a control group of 30 HIV-negative participants. HAND diagnosis was established according to the Frascati criteria. Results The overall prevalence of HAND in our cohort was 43% (20% ANI, 17% MND and 6% HIV-associated dementia). The optimal cut-off on the IHDS for detecting HAND cases was set at 11 and achieved both a sensitivity and a specificity of 80%. When specifically screening for the more severe form of HAND, HIV-associated dementia, a cut-off value of 10 offered an increase in both sensitivity (94%) and specificity (86%). The Youden Index for diagnostic accuracy was 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of HAND was comparable to the reported by recent studies performed in countries with a

  8. Early readmissions to the department of medicine as a screening tool for monitoring quality of care problems.

    PubMed

    Balla, Uri; Malnick, Stephen; Schattner, Ami

    2008-09-01

    disregarding a significant laboratory result (12%). In many patients more than 1 pitfall was identified (mean, 1.5 per patient). Risk factors for preventable readmission include older age and living in an institution (p < 0.05). Almost two-thirds of the readmitted patients with QOC problems were discharged after spending 2 days or fewer at the hospital. In conclusion, unplanned readmissions within 30 days of discharge are frequent, more prevalent in sicker patients, and possibly associated with increased mortality. In a third of readmitted patients a QOC problem can be identified, and these problems are preventable. Thus, readmission may be used as a screening tool for potential QOC problems in the department of medicine. Routine monitoring of all readmissions may provide a simple cost-effective means of identifying and addressing medical mistakes.

  9. The utility of yeast as a tool for cell-based, target-directed high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Norcliffe, J L; Alvarez-Ruiz, E; Martin-Plaza, J J; Steel, P G; Denny, P W

    2014-01-01

    Many Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) have recently been subject of increased focus, particularly with relation to high-throughput screening (HTS) initiatives. These vital endeavours largely rely of two approaches, in vitro target-directed screening using biochemical assays or cell-based screening which takes no account of the target or targets being hit. Despite their successes both of these approaches have limitations; for example, the production of soluble protein and a lack of cellular context or the problems and expense of parasite cell culture. In addition, both can be challenging to miniaturize for ultra (u)HTS and expensive to utilize. Yeast-based systems offer a cost-effective approach to study and screen protein targets in a direct-directed manner within a eukaryotic cellular context. In this review, we examine the utility and limitations of yeast cell-based, target-directed screening. In particular we focus on the currently under-explored possibility of using such formats in uHTS screening campaigns for NTDs.

  10. Screening Patients in Busy Hospital-Based HIV Care Centers for Hazardous and Harmful Drinking Patterns: The Identification of an Optimal Screening Tool

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Shiela M.; Rindskopf, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Because many HIV care providers fail to detect patients’ hazardous drinking, we examined the potential use of the AUDIT-C, the first three of the 10 items comprising the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), to efficiently screen patients for alcohol abuse. To perform this examination, we used Item Response Theory involving individual AUDIT items and AUDIT instruments completed by patients (N=400) at a Designated AIDS Center in New York City. At various AUDIT-C cutoff scores, specificities and sensitivities were then examined using the AUDIT as a “gold standard.” For cutoff scores on the AUDIT from 4–8, cutoff scores on the AUDIT-C of 3 and 4, respectively, resulted in sensitivities between .94–.98, and .81–.89, respectively, and in specificities between .82–.91, and .91–1.0, respectively. In busy HIV care centers, the AUDIT-C with cutoff scores of 3 or 4 is a reasonable alternative to the full AUDIT as an alcohol screening instrument. PMID:19850861

  11. Optimizing the G8 Screening Tool for Older Patients With Cancer: Diagnostic Performance and Validation of a Six-Item Version

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Tapia, Claudia; Canoui-Poitrine, Florence; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Soubeyran, Pierre; Mathoulin-Pelissier, Simone; Tournigand, Christophe; Paillaud, Elena; Laurent, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background. A multidimensional geriatric assessment (GA) is recommended in older cancer patients to inventory health problems and tailor treatment decisions accordingly but requires considerable time and human resources. The G8 is among the most sensitive screening tools for selecting patients warranting a full GA but has limited specificity. We sought to develop and validate an optimized version of the G8. Patients and Methods. We used a prospective cohort of cancer patients aged ≥70 years referred to geriatricians for GA (2007–2012: n = 729 [training set]; 2012–2014: n = 414 [validation set]). Abnormal GA was defined as at least one impaired domain across seven validated tests. Multiple correspondence analysis, multivariate logistic regression, and bootstrapped internal validation were performed sequentially. Results. The final model included six independent predictors for abnormal GA: weight loss, cognition/mood, performance status, self-rated health status, polypharmacy (≥6 medications per day), and history of heart failure/coronary heart disease. For the original G8, sensitivity was 87.2% (95% confidence interval, 84.3–89.7), specificity 57.7% (47.3–67.7), and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 86.5% (83.5–89.6). The modified G8 had corresponding values of 89.2% (86.5–91.5), 79.0% (69.4–86.6), and 91.6% (89.3; 93.9), with higher AUROC values for all tumor sites and stable properties on the validation set. Conclusion. A modified G8 screening tool exhibited better diagnostic performance with greater uniformity across cancer sites and required only six items. If these features are confirmed in other settings, the modified tool may facilitate selection for a full GA in older patients with cancer. Implications for Practice: Several screening tools have been developed to identify older patients with cancer likely to benefit from a complete geriatric assessment, but none combines appropriate sensitivity and specificity

  12. A brief patient self-administered substance use screening tool for primary care: two-site validation study of the Substance Use Brief Screen (SUBS)

    PubMed Central

    McNeely, Jennifer; Strauss, Shiela M; Saitz, Richard; Cleland, Charles M; Palamar, Joseph J; Rotrosen, John; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2015-01-01

    Background Substance use screening is widely encouraged in healthcare settings, but the lack of a screening approach that fits easily into clinical workflows has restricted its broad implementation. The Substance Use Brief Screen (SUBS) was developed as a brief, self-administered instrument to identify unhealthy use of tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. We evaluated the validity and test-retest reliability of the SUBS in adult primary care patients. Methods Adults age 18-65 were enrolled from urban safety net primary care clinics to self-administer the SUBS using touch-screen tablet computers for a test-retest reliability study (n=54) and a two-site validation study (n=586). In the test-retest reliability study, the SUBS was administered twice within a 2-week period. In the validation study, the SUBS was compared to reference standard measures, including self-reported measures and saliva drug tests. We measured test-retest reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the SUBS for detection of unhealthy use and substance use disorder for tobacco, alcohol, and drugs (illicit and prescription drug misuse). Results Test-retest reliability was good or excellent for each substance class. For detection of unhealthy use, the SUBS had sensitivity and specificity of 97.8% (95% CI 93.7 to 99.5) and 95.7% (95% CI 92.4 to 97.8), respectively, for tobacco; and 85.2% (95% CI 79.3 to 89.9) and 77.0% (95% CI 72.6 to 81.1) for alcohol. For unhealthy use of illicit or prescription drugs, sensitivity was 82.5% (95% CI 75.7 to 88.0) and specificity 91.1% (95% CI 87.9 to 93.6). With respect to identifying a substance use disorder, the SUBS had sensitivity and specificity of 100.0% (95% CI 92.7 to 100.0) and 72.1% (95% CI 67.1 to 76.8) for tobacco; 93.5% (95% CI 85.5 to 97.9) and 64.6% (95% CI 60.2 to 68.7) for alcohol; and 85.7% (95% CI 77.2 to 92.0) and 82.0% (95% CI 78.2 to 85.3) for drugs. Analyses of area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) indicated good

  13. Teaching tools to engage Anishinaabek First Nations women in cervical cancer screening: Report of an educational workshop

    PubMed Central

    Zehbe, Ingeborg; Wood, Brianne; Wakewich, Pamela; Maar, Marion; Escott, Nicholas; Jumah, Naana; Little, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore educational strategies for engaging First Nations women in Canada to attend cervical cancer screening. Design Within a participatory action research framework, semi-structured interviews with health-care providers in First Nations communities revealed that education about the value of screening is perceived as being a key factor to promote cervical cancer screening. Setting To obtain feedback from workshop informants, a 1-day educational workshop was held to identify appropriate educational intervention strategies, which would be applied in a forthcoming randomised controlled cervical screening trial. Methods Common discussion and discussion groups, which were facilitated by a First Nations workshop moderator and a note taker. Results This workshop helped to strengthen the ethical space dialogue with the First Nations communities with whom the study team had established research partnerships. The workshop atmosphere was relaxed and the invited informants decided that an educational health promotion event for community women needed to be held prior to inviting them to the cervical screening trial. Such an event would provide an opportunity to communicate the importance of attending regular cervical screening allowing women to make informed decisions about screening participation. Complementary promotional items, including an eye-catching pamphlet and storytelling, were also suggested. Conclusion The key messages from the events and promotional items can help to destigmatise women who develop a type of cancer that is caused by a sexually transmitted virus that affects both men and women. Developing and implementing positive health education that respectfully depicts female bodies, sexuality and health behaviours through a First Nations lens is strongly warranted. PMID:27867211

  14. Vaginal self-sampling for HPV infection as a primary cervical cancer screening tool in a Haitian population

    PubMed Central

    Boggan, Joel C.; Walmer, David K.; Henderson, Gregory; Chakhtoura, Nahida; McCarthy, Schatzi H.; Beauvais, Harry J.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as primary cervical cancer screening has not been studied in Caribbean women. We tested vaginal self-collection versus physician cervical sampling in a population of Haitian women. Methods Participants were screened for high-risk HPV with self-performed vaginal and clinician-collected cervical samples using Hybrid Capture 2 assays (Qiagen, Gaithersburg, Maryland). Women positive by either method then underwent colposcopy with biopsy of all visible lesions. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were calculated for each sample method compared to biopsy results, with kappa statistics performed for agreement. McNemar’s tests were performed for differences in sensitivity at ≥ cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)-I and ≥ CIN-II. Results Of 1845 women screened, 446 (24.3%) were HPV-positive by either method, including 105 (5.7%) only by vaginal swab and 53 (2.9%) only by cervical swab. Vaginal and cervical samples were 91.4% concordant (κ= 0.73 [95% CI: 0.69 – 0.77], p < 0.001). Overall, 133 HPV-positive women (29.9%) had CIN-I, while 32 (7.2%) had ≥ CIN-II. The sensitivity of vaginal swabs was similar to cervical swabs for detecting ≥ CIN-I (89.1% vs 87.9%, respectively, p=0.75) lesions and ≥ CIN-II disease (87.5% vs 96.9%, p=0.18). Eighteen of 19 cases of CIN-III and invasive cancer were found by both methods. Conclusions HPV screening via self-collected vaginal swabs or physician-collected cervical swabs are feasible options in this Haitian population. The agreement between cervical and vaginal samples was high, suggesting vaginal sample-only algorithms for screening could be effective for improving screening rates in this under-screened population. PMID:26462192

  15. A Novel Frizzled-Based Screening Tool Identifies Genetic Modifiers of Planar Cell Polarity in Drosophila Wings

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Mulero-Navarro, Sonia; Smith, Michael; Mlodzik, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Most mutant alleles in the Fz-PCP pathway genes were discovered in classic Drosophila screens looking for recessive loss-of-function (LOF) mutations. Nonetheless, although Fz-PCP signaling is sensitive to increased doses of PCP gene products, not many screens have been performed in the wing under genetically engineered Fz overexpression conditions, mostly because the Fz phenotypes were strong and/or not easy to score and quantify. Here, we present a screen based on an unexpected mild Frizzled gain-of-function (GOF) phenotype. The leakiness of a chimeric Frizzled protein designed to be accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) generated a reproducible Frizzled GOF phenotype in Drosophila wings. Using this genotype, we first screened a genome-wide collection of large deficiencies and found 16 strongly interacting genomic regions. Next, we narrowed down seven of those regions to finally test 116 candidate genes. We were, thus, able to identify eight new loci with a potential function in the PCP context. We further analyzed and confirmed krasavietz and its interactor short-stop as new genes acting during planar cell polarity establishment with a function related to actin and microtubule dynamics. PMID:27729438

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Student Risk Screening Scale: An Effective Tool for Use in Diverse Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Wendy Peia; Wilder, Kaitlin S.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Powers, Lisa; Yokoyama, Lynn T. K.; O'Hare, Mary Ellen; Jenkins, Abbie B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of the "Student Risk Screening Scale", as used in three ethnically, culturally, and economically diverse urban midwestern elementary schools. The results suggest strong internal consistency ([alpha] = 0.81-0.82) and test-retest stability (r = 0.86). Initial ratings of risk as measured by…

  17. Global epigenetic screening technologies: a novel tool to address cancer health disparities in high-risk population groups.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Preston, Rafael

    2008-12-01

    Racial, ethnic and class disparities in cancer incidence and mortality have been well documented. Disparities in the utilization of preventive, curative and treatment services among ethnic minorities have been reported. Screening can be effective at detecting cancer at treatable stages, but a large proportion of people at risk have not been screened or are not regularly screened, as recommended by the American Cancer Society's national guidelines. Early detection technologies have the potential of both influencing mortality from cancer, as well as enhancing primary prevention through detection and removal of lesions that could potentially develop into cancer. Cancer is an epigenetic disease characterized by the breakdown of DNA methylation and histones modification patterns. Epigenetic approaches may contribute to a reduction in cancer health disparities impacting early detection and increasing cancer treatment options. Epigenetic events represent important mechanism(s) by which gene function is selectively activated or inactivated, through genetic and non-genetic manifestations. Emerging evidence indicates that various epigenetic alterations, such as global histones modifications and DNA hypomethylation, common to most types of cancer, are modified by environmental exposures throughout the life course. A simple, easily explained and easy to understand non-invasive test, such as the DNA methylation index, that may screen for several cancer sites at once, may remove some of the existing barriers to cancer screening utilization, and contribute to the reduction of cancer disparities. Epigenetic approaches may also prove to be useful in identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that contribute to the prevalence of other chronic conditions in high risk populations, such as Puerto Rican populations in the United States and Puerto Rico.

  18. Learning algebra on screen and on paper: The effect of using a digital tool on students' understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2016-02-01

    The use of digital tools in algebra education is expected to not only contribute to master skill, but also to acquire conceptual understanding. The question is how digital tools affect students" thinking and understanding. This paper presents an analysis of data of one group of three grade seventh students (12-13 year-old) on the use of a digital tool for algebra, the Cover-up applet for solving equations in particular. This case study was part of a larger teaching experiment on initial algebra enriched with digital technology which aimed to improve students" conceptual understanding and skills in solving equations in one variable. The qualitative analysis of a video observation, digital and written work showed that the use of the applet affects student thinking in terms of strategies used by students while dealing with the equations. We conclude that the effects of the use of the digital tool can be traced from student problem solving strategies on paper-and-pencil environment which are similar to strategies while working with the digital tool. In future research, we recommend to use specific theoretical lenses, such as the theory of instrumental genesis and the onto-semiotic approach, to reveal more explicit relationships between students" conceptual understanding and the use of a digital tool.

  19. Metabolomics combined with chemometric tools (PCA, HCA, PLS-DA and SVM) for screening cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots during postharvest physiological deterioration.

    PubMed

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Coelho, Bianca; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2014-10-15

    Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates and suffer markedly from postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD). This paper deals with metabolomics combined with chemometric tools for screening the chemical and enzymatic composition in several genotypes of cassava roots during PPD. Metabolome analyses showed increases in carotenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolics, reactive scavenging species, and enzymes (superoxide dismutase family, hydrogen peroxide, and catalase) until 3-5days postharvest. PPD correlated negatively with phenolics and carotenoids and positively with anthocyanins and flavonoids. Chemometric tools such as principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and support vector machines discriminated well cassava samples and enabled a good prediction of samples. Hierarchical clustering analyses grouped samples according to their levels of PPD and chemical compositions.

  20. Validity of nutrition risk index as a malnutrition screening tool compared with subjective global assessment in end-stage renal disease patients on peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, N.; Sinha, A.; Gupta, A.; Bhadauria, D.; Manjunath, R.; Kaul, A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    We undertook this study to compare subjective global assessment (SGA) and nutrition risk index (NRI) as malnutrition screening tools in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Nutrition status of the patients was categorized into low, moderate and high risk of malnutrition based on both NRI and SGA. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of NRI were compared with SGA, an already validated tool of nutrition status assessment in PD patients. Two hundred and eighty-three end-stage renal disease patients (age 50.02 ± 13.76 years; 204 males, 150 diabetic) were included. Based on SGA, 71/283 (25.08%) had normal nutrition, 192/283 (67.84%) mild–moderate and 20/283 (7.07%) severe malnutrition. Based on NRI, 38/283 (13.43%) patients had normal nutritional status, 193/283 (68.20%) mild-moderate and 52/283 (18.37%) severe malnutrition. Twenty-three of 283 (8.1%) were correctly classified as normal by NRI (true negative) and 197/283 (69.6%) as malnourished (true positive), 15/283 (5.3%) as false negative, 48/283 (16.96%) were misclassified as malnourished (false positive). NRI has sensitivity of 92.9% and specificity of 32.39%. Positive predictive value and Negative predictive values (NPVs) of NRI are 80.41% and 60.53%, respectively. Accuracy of the test is 78%. The receiver operating characteristic curve of NRI is 0.63. To conclude, NRI carries high sensitivity but low specificity as compared to SGA. It can be used as screening tool but not as a diagnostic tool for assessment of nutritional status in PD patients because of its low specificity and NPV. PMID:26937075

  1. FRET-based calcium imaging: a tool for high-throughput/content phenotypic drug screening in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Honarnejad, Kamran; Kirsch, Achim K; Daschner, Alexander; Szybinska, Aleksandra; Kuznicki, Jacek; Herms, Jochen

    2013-12-01

    Perturbed intracellular store calcium homeostasis is suggested to play a major role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD). A number of mechanisms have been suggested to underlie the impairment of endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis associated with familial AD-linked presenilin 1 mutations (FAD-PS1). Without aiming at specifically targeting any of those pathophysiological mechanisms in particular, we rather performed a high-throughput phenotypic screen to identify compounds that can reverse the exaggerated agonist-evoked endoplasmic reticulum calcium release phenotype in HEK293 cells expressing FAD-PS1. For that purpose, we developed a fully automated high-throughput calcium imaging assay using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based calcium indicator at single-cell resolution. This novel robust assay offers a number of advantages compared with the conventional calcium measurement screening technologies. The assay was employed in a large-scale screen with a library of diverse compounds comprising 20,000 low-molecular-weight molecules, which resulted in the identification of 52 primary hits and 4 lead structures. In a secondary assay, several hits were found to alter the amyloid β (Aβ) production. In view of the recent failure of AD drug candidates identified by target-based approaches, such a phenotypic drug discovery paradigm may present an attractive alternative for the identification of novel AD therapeutics.

  2. A GIS based screening tool for locating and ranking of suitable stormwater harvesting sites in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Inamdar, P M; Cook, S; Sharma, A K; Corby, N; O'Connor, J; Perera, B J C

    2013-10-15

    There is the need to re-configure current urban water systems to achieve the objective of sustainable water sensitive cities. Stormwater represents a valuable alternative urban water source to reduce pressure on fresh water resources, and to mitigate the environmental impact of urban stormwater runoff. The selection of suitable urban stormwater harvesting sites is generally based on the judgement of water planners, who are faced with the challenge of considering multiple technical and socio-economic factors that influence the site suitability. To address this challenge, the present study developed a robust GIS based screening methodology for identifying potentially suitable stormwater harvesting sites in urban areas as a first pass for then more detailed investigation. The study initially evaluated suitability based on the match between harvestable runoff and demand through a concept of accumulated catchments. Drainage outlets of these accumulated catchments were considered as potential stormwater harvesting sites. These sites were screened and ranked under screening parameters namely demand, ratio of runoff to demand and weighted demand distance. The methodology described in this paper was successfully applied to a case study in Melbourne, Australia in collaboration with the local water utility. The methodology was found to be effective in supporting the selection of priority sites for stormwater harvesting schemes, as it provided the basis to identify, short-list and rank sites for further detailed investigation. The rapid identification of suitable sites for stormwater harvesting can assist planners in prioritising schemes in areas that will have the most impact on reducing potable water demand.

  3. The Environmental Protection Agency's Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) and Its Potential Use for Environmental Justice Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Bradley D.; Barzyk, Timothy M.; Smuts, MaryBeth; Hammond, Davyda M.; Medina-Vera, Myriam; Geller, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Our primary objective was to provide higher quality, more accessible science to address challenges of characterizing local-scale exposures and risks for enhanced community-based assessments and environmental decision-making. Methods. After identifying community needs, priority environmental issues, and current tools, we designed and populated the Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) in collaboration with stakeholders, following a set of defined principles, and considered it in the context of environmental justice. Results. C-FERST is a geographic information system and resource access Web tool under development for supporting multimedia community assessments. Community-level exposure and risk research is being conducted to address specific local issues through case studies. Conclusions. C-FERST can be applied to support environmental justice efforts. It incorporates research to develop community-level data and modeled estimates for priority environmental issues, and other relevant information identified by communities. Initial case studies are under way to refine and test the tool to expand its applicability and transferability. Opportunities exist for scientists to address the many research needs in characterizing local cumulative exposures and risks and for community partners to apply and refine C-FERST. PMID:22021316

  4. Evaluation of the SediMax automated microscopy sediment analyzer and the Sysmex UF-1000i flow cytometer as screening tools to rule out negative urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Íñigo, Melania; Coello, Andreu; Fernández-Rivas, Gema; Carrasco, María; Marcó, Clara; Fernández, Anabel; Casamajor, Teresa; Ausina, Vicente

    2016-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are highly prevalent in nosocomial and community settings, and their diagnosis is costly and time-consuming. Screening methods represent an important advance towards the final UTI diagnosis, diminishing inappropriate treatment or clinical complications. Automated analyzers have been developed and commercialized to screen and rule out negative urine samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate two of these automated analyzers (SediMax, an automatic sediment analyzer and UF-1000i a flow cytometer) to predict negative urine cultures. A total of 1934 urine samples were analyzed. A very strong correlation for white blood cells (WBC) (rs: 0.928) and a strong correlation for bacteria (BAC) (rs: 0.693) were obtained. We also calculated optimal cut-off points for both autoanalyzers: 18 WBC/μL and 97 BAC/μL for SediMax (sensitivity=96.25%, specificity=63.04%, negative predictive value=97.97%), and 40 WBC/μL and 460 BAC/μL for UF-1000i (sensitivity=98.13%, specificity=79.16%, negative predictive value=99.18%). The use of SediMax and UF-1000i resulted in a 46.33% and 57.19% reduction of all samples cultured, respectively. In conclusion, both analyzers are good UTI screening tools in our setting.

  5. The Your Disease Risk Index for colorectal cancer is an inaccurate risk stratification tool for advanced colorectal neoplasia at screening colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Schroy, Paul C; Coe, Alison M; Mylvaganam, Shamini R; Ahn, Lynne B; Lydotes, Maria A; Robinson, Patricia A; Davis, Julie T; Chen, Clara A; Ashba, Jacqueline; Atkinson, Michael L; Colditz, Graham A; Heeren, Timothy C

    2012-08-01

    Tailoring the use of screening colonoscopy based on the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) could optimize the cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Our goal was to assess the accuracy of the Your Disease Risk (YDR) CRC risk index for stratifying average risk patients into low- versus intermediate/high-risk categories for ACN. The YDR risk assessment tool was administered to 3,317 asymptomatic average risk patients 50 to 79 years of age just before their screening colonoscopy. Associations between YDR-derived relative risk (RR) scores and ACN prevalence were examined using logistic regression and χ(2) analyses. ACN was defined as a tubular adenoma ≥1 cm, tubulovillous or villous adenoma of any size, and the presence of high-grade dysplasia or cancer. The overall prevalence of ACN was 5.6%. Although YDR-derived RR scores were linearly associated with ACN after adjusting for age and gender (P = 0.033), the index was unable to discriminate "below average" from "above/average" risk patients [OR, 1.01; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-1.37]. Considerable overlap in rates of ACN was also observed between the different YDR risk categories in our age- and gender-stratified analyses. The YDR index lacks accuracy for stratifying average risk patients into low- versus intermediate/high-risk categories for ACN.

  6. Validation of the STOP-Bang Questionnaire as a Screening Tool for Obstructive Sleep Apnea among Different Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Auckley, Dennis; Ramachandran, Satya Krishna; Memtsoudis, Stavros; Mokhlesi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is clinically relevant because untreated OSA has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The STOP-Bang questionnaire is a validated screening tool for OSA. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of STOP-Bang for screening patients suspected of having OSA and to predict its accuracy in determining the severity of OSA in the different populations. Methods A search of the literature databases was performed. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Studies that used STOP-Bang questionnaire as a screening tool for OSA in adult subjects (>18 years); 2) The accuracy of the STOP-Bang questionnaire was validated by polysomnography—the gold standard for diagnosing OSA; 3) OSA was clearly defined as apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) or respiratory disturbance index (RDI) ≥ 5; 4) Publications in the English language. The quality of the studies were explicitly described and coded according to the Cochrane Methods group on the screening and diagnostic tests. Results Seventeen studies including 9,206 patients met criteria for the systematic review. In the sleep clinic population, the sensitivity was 90%, 94% and 96% to detect any OSA (AHI ≥ 5), moderate-to-severe OSA (AHI ≥15), and severe OSA (AHI ≥30) respectively. The corresponding NPV was 46%, 75% and 90%. A similar trend was found in the surgical population. In the sleep clinic population, the probability of severe OSA with a STOP-Bang score of 3 was 25%. With a stepwise increase of the STOP-Bang score to 4, 5, 6 and 7/8, the probability rose proportionally to 35%, 45%, 55% and 75%, respectively. In the surgical population, the probability of severe OSA with a STOP-Bang score of 3 was 15%. With a stepwise increase of the STOP-Bang score to 4, 5, 6 and 7/8, the probability increased to 25%, 35%, 45% and 65%, respectively. Conclusion This meta-analysis confirms the high performance of the STOP-Bang questionnaire in the sleep

  7. A preliminary investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a screening tool for anxiety in young people with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S S; Howlin, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent version (SCAS-P) as a screening tool for anxiety disorders when compared to a standardized DSM-IV-TR-based clinical interview, the Kiddie-Schedule for Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Thirty-two caregivers of youth with a clinical diagnosis of ASD (mean age 10.3 years) attending a specialist autism school participated in this study. They first completed the SCAS-P, a measure of adaptive functioning and a checklist of other emotional and behavioral difficulties. They were then interviewed with the K-SADS-PL. Internal consistency for the SCAS Total score was .88, but Cronbach's alphas were <.70 in three of the six SCAS-P subscales. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the SCAS-P against K-SADS diagnosis were .75, .71, .27, and .95, respectively. All values were >.70, except for the PPV. Evidence of convergent validity between the SCAS-P, K-SADS-PL and DBC anxiety subscale was also found. The high false positive rates notwithstanding, the preliminary data of acceptable to excellent sensitivity, specificity and NPV values tentatively suggest that the SCAS-P may be useful for screening non-help seeking young people with ASD for elevated anxiety symptoms. Further replication in larger studies is needed and ways in which the SCAS-P could be further developed and investigated for use with youth with ASD are discussed.

  8. Bias-corrected diagnostic performance of the naked-eye single-tube red-cell osmotic fragility test (NESTROFT): an effective screening tool for beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Manju; Jawahirani, Anil; Das, Kishor; Rughwani, Vinky; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2006-08-01

    It is being increasingly recognized that a majority of the countries in the thalassemia-belt need a cost-effective screening program as the first step towards control of thalassemia. Although the naked eye single tube red cell osmotic fragility test (NESTROFT) has been considered to be a very effective screening tool for beta-thalassemia trait, assessment of its diagnostic performance has been affected with the reference test- and verification-bias. Here, we set out to provide estimates of sensitivity and specificity of NESTROFT corrected for these potential biases. We conducted a cross-sectional diagnostic test evaluation study using data from 1563 subjects from Central India with a high prevalence of beta-thalassemia. We used latent class modelling after ensuring its validity to account for the reference test bias and global sensitivity analysis to control the verification bias. We also compared the results of latent class modelling with those of five discriminant indexes. We observed that across a range of cut-offs for the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the hemoglobin A2 (HbA2) concentration the average sensitivity and specificity of NESTROFT obtained from latent class modelling was 99.8 and 83.7%, respectively. These estimates were comparable to those characterizing the diagnostic performance of HbA2, which is considered by many as the reference test to detect beta-thalassemia. After correction for the verification bias these estimates were 93.4 and 97.2%, respectively. Combined with the inexpensive and quick disposition of NESTROFT, these results strongly support its candidature as a screening tool-especially in the resource-poor and high-prevalence settings.

  9. Validation of a cell-based ELISA as a screening tool identifying anti-alphavirus small-molecule inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Spurgers, Kevin B; Hurt, Clarence R; Cohen, Jeffrey W; Eccelston, Lori T; Lind, Cathleen M; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Glass, Pamela J

    2013-10-01

    Venezuelan (VEEV), eastern, and western equine encephalitis viruses, members of the genus Alphavirus, are causative agents of debilitative and sometimes fatal encephalitis. Although human cases are rare, these viruses pose a threat to military personnel, and to public health, due to their potential use as bioweapons. Currently, there are no licensed therapeutics for treating alphavirus infections. To address this need, small-molecules with potential anti-alphavirus activity, provided by collaborators, are tested routinely in live alphavirus assays utilizing time-consuming virus yield-reduction assays. To expedite the screening/hit-confirmation process, a cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and validated for the measurement of VEEV infection. A signal-to-background ratio of >900, and a z-factor of >0.8 indicated the robustness of this assay. For validation, the cell-based ELISA was compared directly to results from virus yield reduction assays in a single dose screen of 21 compounds. Using stringent criteria for anti-VEEV activity there was 90% agreement between the two assays (compounds displaying either antiviral activity, or no effect, in both assays). A concurrent compound-induced cell toxicity assay effectively filtered out false-positive hits. The cell-based ELISA also reproduced successfully compound dose-response virus inhibition data observed using the virus yield reduction assay. With available antibodies, this assay can be adapted readily to other viruses of interest to the biodefense community. Additionally, it is cost-effective, rapid, and amenable to automation and scale-up. Therefore, this assay could expedite greatly screening efforts and the identification of effective anti-alphavirus inhibitors.

  10. Lattice energy calculation - A quick tool for screening of cocrystals and estimation of relative solubility. Case of flavonoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshova, L. N.; Hofmann, D. W. M.; Boese, R.

    2013-03-01

    Cocrystals (or multicomponent crystals) have physico-chemical properties that are different from crystals of pure components. This is significant in drug development, since the desired properties, e.g. solubility, stability and bioavailability, can be tailored by binding two substances into a single crystal without chemical modification of an active component. Here, the FLEXCRYST program suite, implemented with a data mining force field, was used to estimate the relative stability and, consequently, the relative solubility of cocrystals of flavonoids vs their pure crystals, stored in the Cambridge Structural Database. The considerable potency of this approach for in silico screening of cocrystals, as well as their relative solubility, was demonstrated.

  11. The Lichtenberg Financial Decision Screening Scale (LFDSS): A new tool for assessing financial decision making and preventing financial exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, P.A.; Howard, H; Simaskp, P.; Mall, S.; Speir, J.; Farrell, C.; Tatro, R; Rahman-Filipiak, A.; Ficker, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges in preventing the financial exploitation of older adults is that neither criminal justice nor noncriminal justice professionals are equipped to detect capacity deficits. Because decision-making capacity is a cornerstone assessment in cases of financial exploitation, effective instruments for measuring this capacity are essential. We introduce a new screening scale for financial decision making that can be administered to older adults. To explore the scale’s implementation and assess construct validity, we conducted a pilot study of 29 older adults seen by APS workers and 79 seen by other professionals. Case examples are included. PMID:27010780

  12. ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools Retrospective Version (ICAST-R): Delphi Study and Field Testing in Seven Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Michael P.; Zolotor, Adam J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Andreva-Miller, Inna; Choo, Wan Yuen; Dunne, Simon K.; Gerbaka, Bernard; Isaeva, Oksana; Jain, Dipty; Kasim, Mohd Sham; Macfarlane, Bonnie; Mamyrova, Nurgul; Ramirez, Clemencia; Volkova, Elena; Youssef, Randa

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To gain consensus among an ethnically and linguistically diverse group of international child protection experts on the structure and content of a new survey tool for retrospective measurement of child abuse, and to determine the performance of the instrument through an international field trial with young adults. Methods: The…

  13. Body Mass Index and Skinfold Thickness Measurements as Body Composition Screening Tools in Caucasian and African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Charity Leigh; Solmon, Melinda A.; Zanovec, Michael T.; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2011-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding childhood obesity and its impact on children's health, and many states and school districts have mandated that health assessments be conducted as part of physical education. Tools such as the FITNESSGRAM[R] can help teachers inform students and parents if students are above a healthy weight range. The FITNESSGRAM…

  14. Rapid throughput analysis of filamentous fungal growth using turbidimetric measurements with the Bioscreen C: a tool for screening antifungal compounds.

    PubMed

    Medina, Angel; Lambert, Ronald J W; Magan, Naresh

    2012-01-01

    A rapid method for screening antifungal compounds and performing ecophysiological studies with filamentous fungi has been developed by the use of specific semi-solid media and spectrophotometric/turbidimetric measurements using the Bioscreen C with 2×100 microtitre well plates. The medium composition and preparation, inoculum size, medium volumes, and incubation parameters for measuring initial germination and growth dynamics have been optimised. These have been applied to assess the effectiveness of 18 concentrations of propyl propane thiosulfinate (PTS) against Aspergillus flavus in YES medium under different environmental regimes. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), and non-inhibitory concentration (NIC) values, and a newly developed MIC(50), have been calculated for the efficacy of these concentrations of PTS under four different environmental conditions (0.995 and 0.95 water activity (a(w)); 20 and 25°C) over 7d periods with automated measurements every 20 min. Data were modelled using the Lambert-Pearson Model, a mathematical modelling approach previously used for bacterial inhibition. Results have been compared with traditional growth rate data and Lethal Dose(50) (LD(50)) values. This approach could have major implications for rapid screening assays for growth and secondary metabolite production by filamentous organisms and has major advantages in terms of time reduction, culture medium volumes required, measurement and the ability to integrate and model key parameters for comparing efficacy.

  15. XRIndex: a brief screening tool for individual differences in security threat detection in x-ray images

    PubMed Central

    Rusconi, Elena; Ferri, Francesca; Viding, Essi; Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    X-ray imaging is a cost-effective technique at security checkpoints that typically require the presence of human operators. We have previously shown that self-reported attention to detail can predict threat detection performance with small-vehicle x-ray images (Rusconi et al., 2012). Here, we provide evidence for the generality of such a link by having a large sample of naïve participants screen more typical dual-energy x-ray images of hand luggage. The results show that the Attention to Detail score from the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) questionnaire (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) is a linear predictor of threat detection accuracy. We then develop and fine-tune a novel self-report scale for security screening: the XRIndex, which improves on the Attention to Detail scale for predictive power and opacity to interpretation. The XRIndex is not redundant with any of the Big Five personality traits. We validate the XRIndex against security x-ray images with an independent sample of untrained participants and suggest that the XRIndex may be a useful aid for the identification of suitable candidates for professional security training with a focus on x-ray threat detection. Further studies are needed to determine whether this can also apply to trained professionals. PMID:26321935

  16. XRIndex: a brief screening tool for individual differences in security threat detection in x-ray images.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Elena; Ferri, Francesca; Viding, Essi; Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    X-ray imaging is a cost-effective technique at security checkpoints that typically require the presence of human operators. We have previously shown that self-reported attention to detail can predict threat detection performance with small-vehicle x-ray images (Rusconi et al., 2012). Here, we provide evidence for the generality of such a link by having a large sample of naïve participants screen more typical dual-energy x-ray images of hand luggage. The results show that the Attention to Detail score from the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) questionnaire (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) is a linear predictor of threat detection accuracy. We then develop and fine-tune a novel self-report scale for security screening: the XRIndex, which improves on the Attention to Detail scale for predictive power and opacity to interpretation. The XRIndex is not redundant with any of the Big Five personality traits. We validate the XRIndex against security x-ray images with an independent sample of untrained participants and suggest that the XRIndex may be a useful aid for the identification of suitable candidates for professional security training with a focus on x-ray threat detection. Further studies are needed to determine whether this can also apply to trained professionals.

  17. Application of FISK, an invasiveness screening tool for non-native freshwater fishes, in the Murray-Darling Basin (southeastern Australia).

    PubMed

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H

    2013-08-01

    The Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) is currently one of the most popular pre-screening tools for freshwater fishes. A recent upgrade has ensured its wider climatic relevance to countries with subtropical regions. This enhancement is of particular importance to Australia, which encompasses tropical, arid, and temperate zones, and where the introduction of non-native fish species poses a significant risk to biodiversity. In this study, 55 fish species previously evaluated in a U.K.-based calibration of FISK are reassessed for their potential invasiveness in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB; southeastern Australia), the continent's largest catchment encompassing arid and temperate climates. Approximately half of the species were classed as "medium risk" and the other half as "high risk," and the ≥19 threshold previously identified from the calibration study was confirmed. The three highest scoring species (common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio, goldfish Carassius auratus, and eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki) were those already present and invasive in the area, whereas nearly half of the tropical and subtropical species had lower scores compared to U.K. assessments, possibly because of climate change predictions of drier conditions across the MDB. There were some discordances between FISK and two Australian-based assessment protocols, one of which is qualitative and the other represents a simplified version of FISK. Notably, the Australian origins of FISK should provide for an additional reason for further applications of the tool in other RA areas (i.e., drainage basins) of the continent, ultimately encouraging adoption as the country's reference screening tool for management and conservation purposes.

  18. Overcoming language and cultural barriers: a graphical communication tool to perform a parasitological screening in two vulnerable populations from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Buyayisqui, María Pía; Bordoni, Noemí; Garbossa, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of the application of a support tool for the detection of asymptomatic subjects carrying enteric parasites in two vulnerable populations in Argentina: a shantytown in the city of Buenos Aires and a rural Wichí indigenous community in the province of Chaco. The ethnic and cultural diversity, high illiteracy rate, and language barriers called for the development of an auxiliary resource to explain stool sample collection procedures. In individual interviews with each family, the authors used two instructional guidance leaflets in comic strip format depicting the procedures. They evaluated the acceptance of the graphical communication tool on the basis of the number of retrieved samples. Percentages of respondent families were 72.2% and 66.7%, respectively. Definitive validation of these instruments would allow their use in community studies, community service learning experiences, and research on aboriginal communities that would otherwise be excluded from studies on health status.

  19. A geographic information system screening tool to tackle diffuse pollution through the use of sustainable drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Todorovic, Zorica; Breton, Neil P

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable drainage systems (SUDS) offer many benefits that traditional solutions do not. Traditional approaches are unable to offer a solution to problems of flood management and water quality. Holistic consideration of the wide range of benefits from SUDS can result in advantages such as improved flood resilience and water quality enhancement through consideration of diffuse pollution sources. Using a geographical information system (GIS) approach, diffuse pollutant sources and opportunities for SUDS are easily identified. Consideration of potential SUDS locations results in source, site and regional controls, leading to improved water quality (to meet Water Framework Directive targets). The paper will discuss two different applications of the tool, the first of which is where the pollutant of interest is known. In this case the outputs of the tool highlight and isolate the areas contributing the pollutants and suggest the adequate SUDS measures to meet the required criteria. The second application is where the tool identifies likely pollutants at a receiving location, and SUDS measures are proposed to reduce pollution with assessed efficiencies.

  20. Hsp90 inhibitors, part 1: definition of 3-D QSAutogrid/R models as a tool for virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Ballante, Flavio; Caroli, Antonia; Wickersham, Richard B; Ragno, Rino

    2014-03-24

    The multichaperone heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 complex mediates the maturation and stability of a variety of oncogenic signaling proteins. For this reason, Hsp90 has emerged as a promising target for anticancer drug development. Herein, we describe a complete computational procedure for building several 3-D QSAR models used as a ligand-based (LB) component of a comprehensive ligand-based (LB) and structure-based (SB) virtual screening (VS) protocol to identify novel molecular scaffolds of Hsp90 inhibitors. By the application of the 3-D QSAutogrid/R method, eight SB PLS 3-D QSAR models were generated, leading to a final multiprobe (MP) 3-D QSAR pharmacophoric model capable of recognizing the most significant chemical features for Hsp90 inhibition. Both the monoprobe and multiprobe models were optimized, cross-validated, and tested against an external test set. The obtained statistical results confirmed the models as robust and predictive to be used in a subsequent VS.

  1. A human TREK-1/HEK cell line: a highly efficient screening tool for drug development in neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Moha ou Maati, Hamid; Peyronnet, Rémi; Devader, Christelle; Veyssiere, Julie; Labbal, Fabien; Gandin, Carine; Mazella, Jean; Heurteaux, Catherine; Borsotto, Marc

    2011-01-01

    TREK-1 potassium channels are involved in a number of physiopathological processes such as neuroprotection, pain and depression. Molecules able to open or to block these channels can be clinically important. Having a cell model for screening such molecules is of particular interest. Here, we describe the development of the first available cell line that constituvely expresses the TREK-1 channel. The TREK-1 channel expressed by the h-TREK-1/HEK cell line has conserved all its modulation properties. It is opened by stretch, pH, polyunsaturated fatty acids and by the neuroprotective molecule, riluzole and it is blocked by spadin or fluoxetine. We also demonstrate that the h-TREK-1/HEK cell line is protected against ischemia by using the oxygen-glucose deprivation model.

  2. The Landing Error Scoring System as a Screening Tool for an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury–Prevention Program in Elite-Youth Soccer Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Padua, Darin A.; DiStefano, Lindsay J.; Beutler, Anthony I.; de la Motte, Sarah J.; DiStefano, Michael J.; Marshall, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Context Identifying neuromuscular screening factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a critical step toward large-scale deployment of effective ACL injury-prevention programs. The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) is a valid and reliable clinical assessment of jump-landing biomechanics. Objective To investigate the ability of the LESS to identify individuals at risk for ACL injury in an elite-youth soccer population. Design Cohort study. Setting Field-based functional movement screening performed at soccer practice facilities. Patients or Other Participants A total of 829 elite-youth soccer athletes (348 boys, 481 girls; age = 13.9 ± 1.8 years, age range = 11 to 18 years), of whom 25% (n = 207) were less than 13 years of age. Intervention(s) Baseline preseason testing for all participants consisted of a jump-landing task (3 trials). Participants were followed prospectively throughout their soccer seasons for diagnosis of ACL injuries (1217 athlete-seasons of follow-up). Main Outcome Measure(s) Landings were scored for “errors” in technique using the LESS. We used receiver operator characteristic curves to determine a cutpoint on the LESS. Sensitivity and specificity of the LESS in predicting ACL injury were assessed. Results Seven participants sustained ACL injuries during the follow-up period; the mechanism of injury was noncontact or indirect contact for all injuries. Uninjured participants had lower LESS scores (4.43 ± 1.71) than injured participants (6.24 ± 1.75; t1215 = −2.784, P = .005). The receiver operator characteristic curve analyses suggested that 5 was the optimal cutpoint for the LESS, generating a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 64%. Conclusions Despite sample-size limitations, the LESS showed potential as a screening tool to determine ACL injury risk in elite-youth soccer athletes. PMID:25811846

  3. CRISPR/Cas9: An inexpensive, efficient loss of function tool to screen human disease genes in Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Dipankan; Marfo, Chris A; Li, Davis; Lane, Maura; Khokha, Mustafa K

    2015-12-15

    Congenital malformations are the major cause of infant mortality in the US and Europe. Due to rapid advances in human genomics, we can now efficiently identify sequence variants that may cause disease in these patients. However, establishing disease causality remains a challenge. Additionally, in the case of congenital heart disease, many of the identified candidate genes are either novel to embryonic development or have no known function. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop inexpensive and efficient technologies to screen these candidate genes for disease phenocopy in model systems and to perform functional studies to uncover their role in development. For this purpose, we sought to test F0 CRISPR based gene editing as a loss of function strategy for disease phenocopy in the frog model organism, Xenopus tropicalis. We demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can efficiently modify both alleles in the F0 generation within a few hours post fertilization, recapitulating even early disease phenotypes that are highly similar to knockdowns from morpholino oligos (MOs) in nearly all cases tested. We find that injecting Cas9 protein is dramatically more efficacious and less toxic than cas9 mRNA. We conclude that CRISPR based F0 gene modification in X. tropicalis is efficient and cost effective and readily recapitulates disease and MO phenotypes.

  4. Stable expression and characterisation of a human alpha 7 nicotinic subunit chimera: a tool for functional high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Craig, Peter J; Bose, Suchira; Zwart, Ruud; Beattie, Ruth E; Folly, Elizabeth A; Johnson, Laura R; Bell, Emma; Evans, Non M; Benedetti, Giovanni; Pearson, Kathy H; McPhie, Gordon I; Volsen, Stephen G; Millar, Neil S; Sher, Emanuele; Broad, Lisa M

    2004-10-11

    A chimera comprising the N-terminal region of the human alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, fused to the transmembrane/C-terminal domains of the mouse serotonin 5-HT3 receptor, was constructed. Injection of the chimera cDNA into Xenopus oocytes, or transient transfection in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells, resulted in the expression of functional channels that were sensitive to nicotinic acetylcholine, but not serotonin receptor ligands. In both systems, the responses obtained from chimeric receptors inactivated more slowly than those recorded following activation of wild-type alpha7 receptors. A stable HEK-293 cell line expressing the human alpha7/mouse 5-HT3 chimera was established, which showed that the chimera displayed a similar pharmacological profile to wild-type alpha7 receptors. Use of this chimera in high-throughput screening may enable the identification of novel pharmacological agents that will help to define further the role of alpha7 nicotinic receptors in physiology and disease.

  5. Translational and functional oncogenomics. From cancer-oriented genomic screenings to new diagnostic tools and improved cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Medico, Enzo

    2008-01-01

    We present here an experimental pipeline for the systematic identification and functional characterization of genes with high potential diagnostic and therapeutic value in human cancer. Complementary competences and resources have been brought together in the TRANSFOG Consortium to reach the following integrated research objectives: 1) execution of cancer-oriented genomic screenings on tumor tissues and experimental models and merging of the results to generate a prioritized panel of candidate genes involved in cancer progression and metastasis; 2) setup of systems for high-throughput delivery of full-length cDNAs, for gain-of-function analysis of the prioritized candidate genes; 3) collection of vectors and oligonucleotides for systematic, RNA interference-mediated down-regulation of the candidate genes; 4) adaptation of existing cell-based and model organism assays to a systematic analysis of gain and loss of function of the candidate genes, for identification and preliminary validation of novel potential therapeutic targets; 5) proteomic analysis of signal transduction and protein-protein interaction for better dissection of aberrant cancer signaling pathways; 6) validation of the diagnostic potential of the identified cancer genes towards the clinical use of diagnostic molecular signatures; 7) generation of a shared informatics platform for data handling and gene functional annotation. The results of the first three years of activity of the TRANSFOG Consortium are also briefly presented and discussed.

  6. Scratch Cell Test: A Simple, Cost Effective Screening Tool to Evaluate Self-Healing in Anti-Corrosion Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Amitha; Somaiah, Durga; Megha; Poddar, Mitalee

    2014-09-01

    A quick and simple scratch cell set up to evaluate the self-healing of an hybrid sol-gel (ormosil) coating was fabricated. This methacrylate-based anti-corrosion coating was applied on the aerospace aluminium alloy AA2024-T3, and cured at room temperature. This technique of evaluation requires minimum instrumentation. The inhibitors cerium nitrate, benzotriazole and 8-hydroxy quinoline (8-HQ) were used in the study. The self-healing ability of the inhibitors decreased in the following order: 8-HQ, BTZ and Ce. 8-HQ showed the highest self-healing ability and was comparable to the commercial hexavalent chromium conversion coating—Alodine. Spectroscopic analysis of the electrolyte and EDX of the coatings indicated the movement of the inhibitor from the coating to the site of damage, thereby effecting self-healing. It was observed that an increased inhibitor concentration in the coatings did not accelerate the healing process. Inhibitor release was slower in the coatings doped with inhibitor-loaded nano-containers, when compared to inhibitor-spiked coatings. This property of controlled release is desirable in self-healing coatings. Electro impedance studies further confirmed self-healing efficiency of the coatings. The scratch cell study reported here is the first of its kind with the ormosil under study on AA2024-T3 aluminium alloy. The results are encouraging and warranty a quick and simple qualitative screening of the self-healing potential of the inhibitors with minimum instrumentation.

  7. Pooled-sample testing as a herd-screening tool for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Zanzi, C A; Johnson, W O; Thurmond, M C; Hietala, S K

    2000-05-01

    The study was conducted to develop methodology for least-cost strategies for using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/probe testing of pooled blood samples to identify animals in a herd persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Cost was estimated for 5 protocols using Monte Carlo simulations for herd prevalences of BVDV persistent infection (BVDV-PI) ranging from 0.5% to 3%, assuming a cost for a PCR/probe test of $20. The protocol associated with the least cost per cow involved an initial testing of pools followed by repooling and testing of positive pools. For a herd prevalence of 1%, the least cost per cow was $2.64 (95% prediction interval = $1.72, $3.68), where pool sizes for the initial and repooled testing were 20 and 5 blood samples per pool, respectively. Optimization of the least cost for pooled-sample testing depended on how well a presumed prevalence of BVDV-PI approximated the true prevalence of BVDV infection in the herd. As prevalence increased beyond 3%, the least cost increased, thereby diminishing the competitive benefit of pooled testing. The protocols presented for sample pooling have general application to screening or surveillance using a sensitive diagnostic test to detect very low prevalence diseases or pathogens in flocks or herds.

  8. Association between nutritional status and positive childhood disability screening using the ten questions plus tool in Sarlahi, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Katz, J; Mullany, L C; Haytmanek, E; Khatry, S K; Darmstadt, G L; West, K P; LeClerq, S C; Tielsch, J M

    2010-12-01

    The study was conducted to examine the association between the indicators of malnutrition and disability of children as reported by caregivers. The Ten Questions Plus questionnaire was administered to caregivers of 1,902 children aged 1-9 years, during August 2007-March 2008, in rural Nepal. Height and weight of children were also measured. The main outcome was a positive response to one or more questions. In total, 514 (27%) children had a positive response to at least one question. Moderate stunting [odds ratio (OR)=1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-2.12) and severe (OR=2.39, 95% CI 1.60-3.57) stunting were independently associated with reported delay in sitting, standing, or walking. Severe stunting was also associated with report of delayed learning compared to other children of similar age (OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.27-3.20). Parental report of disability was quite prevalent in this setting, with over a quarter of the sample screening positive. Chronic malnutrition may be associated with delayed motor and mental development.

  9. Automated screening of 2D crystallization trials using transmission electron microscopy: a high-throughput tool-chain for sample preparation and microscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Coudray, Nicolas; Hermann, Gilles; Caujolle-Bert, Daniel; Karathanou, Argyro; Erne-Brand, Françoise; Buessler, Jean-Luc; Daum, Pamela; Plitzko, Juergen M; Chami, Mohamed; Mueller, Urs; Kihl, Hubert; Urban, Jean-Philippe; Engel, Andreas; Rémigy, Hervé-W

    2011-02-01

    We have built and extensively tested a tool-chain to prepare and screen two-dimensional crystals of membrane proteins by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at room temperature. This automated process is an extension of a new procedure described recently that allows membrane protein 2D crystallization in parallel (Iacovache et al., 2010). The system includes a gantry robot that transfers and prepares the crystalline solutions on grids suitable for TEM analysis and an entirely automated microscope that can analyze 96 grids at once without human interference. The operation of the system at the user level is solely controlled within the MATLAB environment: the commands to perform sample handling (loading/unloading in the microscope), microscope steering (magnification, focus, image acquisition, etc.) as well as automatic crystal detection have been implemented. Different types of thin samples can efficiently be screened provided that the particular detection algorithm is adapted to the specific task. Hence, operating time can be shared between multiple users. This is a major step towards the integration of transmission electron microscopy into a high throughput work-flow.

  10. Peptide array on cellulose support--a screening tool to identify peptides with dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitory activity within the sequence of α-lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Isabelle M E; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y

    2014-11-13

    The inhibition of the enzyme dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is an effective pharmacotherapeutic approach for the management of type 2 diabetes. Recent findings have suggested that dietary proteins, including bovine α-lactalbumin, could be precursors of peptides able to inhibit DPP-IV. However, information on the location of active peptide sequences within the proteins is far from being comprehensive. Moreover, the traditional approach to identify bioactive peptides from foods can be tedious and long. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use peptide arrays to screen α-lactalbumin-derived peptides for their interaction with DPP-IV. Deca-peptides spanning the entire α-lactalbumin sequence, with a frame shift of 1 amino acid between successive sequences, were synthesized on cellulose membranes using "SPOT" technology, and their binding to and inhibition of DPP-IV was studied. Among the 114 α-lactalbumin-derived decamers investigated, the peptides 60WCKDDQNPHS69 (αK(i) = 76 µM), 105LAHKALCSEK114 (K(i) = 217 µM) and 110LCSEKLDQWL119 (K(i) = 217 µM) were among the strongest DPP-IV inhibitors. While the SPOT- and traditionally-synthesized peptides showed consistent trends in DPP-IV inhibitory activity, the cellulose-bound peptides' binding behavior was not correlated to their ability to inhibit the enzyme. This research showed, for the first time, that peptide arrays are useful screening tools to identify DPP-IV inhibitory peptides from dietary proteins.

  11. Could molecular assessment of calcium metabolism be a useful tool to early screen patients at risk for pre-eclampsia complicated pregnancy? Proposal and rationale.

    PubMed

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Di Gangi, Stefania; Saccardi, Carlo; Cosmi, Erich; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Plebani, Mario

    2015-06-01

    One of the most frequent causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity is represented by hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Women at high risk must be subjected to a more intensive antenatal surveillance and prophylactic treatments. Many genetic risk factors, clinical features and biomarkers have been proposed but none of these seems able to prevent pre-eclampsia onset. English literature review of manuscripts focused on calcium intake and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy was performed. We performed a critical analysis of evidences about maternal calcium metabolism pattern in pregnancy analyzing all possible bias affecting studies. Calcium supplementation seems to give beneficial effects on women with low calcium intake. Some evidence reported that calcium supplementation may drastically reduce the percentage of pre-eclampsia onset consequently improving the neonatal outcome. Starting from this evidence, it is intuitive that investigations on maternal calcium metabolism pattern in first trimester of pregnancy could represent a low cost, large scale tool to screen pregnant women and to identify those at increased risk of pre-eclampsia onset. We propose a biochemical screening of maternal calcium metabolism pattern in first trimester of pregnancy to discriminate patients who potentially may benefit from calcium supplementation. In a second step we propose to randomly allocate the sub-cohort of patients with calcium metabolism disorders in a treatment group (calcium supplementation) or in a control group (placebo) to define if calcium supplementation may represent a dietary mean to reduce pre-eclampsia onset and to improve pregnancy outcome.

  12. Waist-to-height ratio is a better screening tool than waist circumference and BMI for adult cardiometabolic risk factors: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, M; Gunn, P; Gibson, S

    2012-03-01

    Our aim was to differentiate the screening potential of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC) for adult cardiometabolic risk in people of different nationalities and to compare both with body mass index (BMI). We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that used receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for assessing the discriminatory power of anthropometric indices in distinguishing adults with hypertension, type-2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome and general cardiovascular outcomes (CVD). Thirty one papers met the inclusion criteria. Using data on all outcomes, averaged within study group, WHtR had significantly greater discriminatory power compared with BMI. Compared with BMI, WC improved discrimination of adverse outcomes by 3% (P < 0.05) and WHtR improved discrimination by 4-5% over BMI (P < 0.01). Most importantly, statistical analysis of the within-study difference in AUC showed WHtR to be significantly better than WC for diabetes, hypertension, CVD and all outcomes (P < 0.005) in men and women. For the first time, robust statistical evidence from studies involving more than 300 000 adults in several ethnic groups, shows the superiority of WHtR over WC and BMI for detecting cardiometabolic risk factors in both sexes. Waist-to-height ratio should therefore be considered as a screening tool.

  13. Cross-cultural validation of the paediatric Gait, Arms, Legs, Spine (pGALS) tool for the screening of musculoskeletal disorders in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Torres, Luis Antonio; Hernández-Garduño, Adolfo Gabriel; Arellano-Valdés, Carmen Araceli; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Rubio-Perez, Nadina; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the paediatric Gait, Arms, Legs, Spine (pGALS) tool for Mexican Spanish to screen Mexican paediatric population for musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders. A cross-sectional study was performed in the Paediatric Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Guadalajara, Jalisco. The validation included children and adolescents aged 6-16 years, 87 patients with musculoskeletal disorders and 88 controls without musculoskeletal disorders. The cross-cultural validation followed the current published guidelines. The average pGALS administration time was 2.9 min (SD 0.54). The internal consistency score (Cronbach's α) was 0.90 (0.89 for inflammatory and 0.77 for non-inflammatory disorders) for MSK disorders, with a sensitivity of 97 % (95 % CI 92-99 %), a specificity of 93 % (95 % CI 86-97 %), a LR+ of 14.3, and a ROC curve of 0.95 (95 % CI 0.92-0.98 %). The inflammatory disorders group had a sensitivity of 97 % (95 % CI 86-99 %), a specificity of 93 % (95 % CI 86-97 %), a LR+ of 14.2, and a ROC curve of 0.95 % (95 % CI 0.91-0.99 %). The non-inflammatory disorders group had a sensitivity of 98 % (95 % CI 89-99 %), a specificity of 93 % (95 % CI 86-97 %), and a LR+ of 14.37, with a ROC curve of 0.95 % (95 % CI 0.92-0.98 %). pGALS is a valid screening tool, fast, easy to administer, and useful for detecting musculoskeletal disorders in Mexican children and adolescents.

  14. Chronic Widespread Pain Drawn on a Body Diagram is a Screening Tool for Increased Pain Sensitization, Psycho-Social Load, and Utilization of Pain Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Visser, Eric J; Ramachenderan, Jonathan; Davies, Stephanie J; Parsons, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that chronic widespread pain, (CWP) drawn by patients on a body diagram, could be used as a screening tool for increased pain sensitization, psycho-social load, and utilization of pain management strategies. The triage questionnaires of 144 adults attending a chronic pain outpatients' clinic were audited and the percentage pain surface area (PPSA) drawn on their body diagrams was calculated using the "rule of nines" (RON) method for burns area assessment. Outcomes were measured using the painDETECT Questionnaire (PD-Q) and other indices and compared using a nonrandomized, case-control method. It was found that significantly more subjects with CWP (defined as a PPSA ≥ 20%) reported high (≥ 19) PD-Q scores (suggesting pain "sensitization" or neuropathic pain) (P = 0.0002), "severe" or "extremely severe" anxiety scores on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 Items Questionnaire (P = 0.0270), ≥ 5 psycho-social stressors (P = 0.0022), ≥ 5 significant life events (P = 0.0098), and used ≥ 7 pain management strategies (PMS) (P < 00001), compared to control subjects with a lower PPSA. A Widespread Pain Index score ≥ 7 (OR = 11.36), PD-Q score ≥ 19 (OR = 4.46) and use of ≥ 7 PMS (OR = 5.49) were independently associated with CWP. This study demonstrates that calculating PPSA on a body diagram (using the RON method) is a valid and convenient "snapshot" screening tool to identify patients with an increased likelihood of pain sensitization, psycho-social load, and utilizing pain management resources.

  15. Epigenome: A Biomarker or Screening Tool to Evaluate Health Impact of Cumulative Exposure to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Olden, Kenneth; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Bussard, David

    2016-01-01

    Current risk assessment practices and toxicity information are hard to utilize for assessing the health impact of combined or cumulative exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors encountered in the “real world” environment. Non-chemical stressors such as heat, radiation, noise, humidity, bacterial and viral agents, and social factors, like stress related to violence and socioeconomic position generally cannot be currently incorporated into the risk assessment paradigm. The Science and Decisions report released by the National Research Council (NRC) in 2009 emphasized the need to characterize the effects of multiple stressors, both chemical and non-chemical exposures. One impediment to developing information relating such non-chemical stressors to health effects and incorporating them into cumulative assessment has been the lack of analytical tools to easily and quantitatively monitor the cumulative exposure to combined effects of stressors over the life course.

  16. Genetic screening test for psoriatic arthritis and UVB irradiation potential responders: A new tool to identify psoriasis subpopulation patients?

    PubMed Central

    Lotti, Torello; Tognetti, Linda; Galeone, Massimiliano; Bruscino, Nicola; Moretti, Silvia; Giorgini, Simonetta

    2011-01-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a psoriasis-associated inflammatory disease of the joints and enthuses. The occurrence of PsA is linked to the complex interplay of gene environment, and immune system. Genetic factors have long been recognized to play an important role in PsA. Genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region have been shown to be associated with PsA. These include genes coded in the HLA region, (especially Class I antigens) and non-HLA genes (i.e., MHC class I chain-related antigen A, MICA, and TNF-α genes). Association studies in PsA have also identified a number of genes outside MHC region, including interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene cluster, killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), and IL-23R genes. Established systemic treatments for moderate-severe psoriasis and PsA may be potentially dangerous and usually time consuming for the patient and often expensive for the National Health Systems. Tests which could predict which subset of psoriatic patients could develop the most severe forms of the disease (i.e., PsA) or will respond to well-established (UVB irradiation) or other systemic treatments are now required. The goal of genetic test screening is to rapidly and safely identify subjects for preventive or early treatment or extended surveillance prior to the onset of signs and symptoms. Genetic tests today represent a reliable investigation procedure which could rapidly and consistently improve the diagnostic ability of the dermatologist and contribute to the early and correct treatment of the different subsets of PsA. PMID:23130225

  17. The value of bilicheck® as a screening tool for neonatal jaundice in the South of iran.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Fariba; Kiyani Rad, Neamat Allah

    2013-06-01

    The gold standard to assess jaundice in neonates is the serum bilirubin measurement. Blood sampling for the determination of total serum bilirubin (TSB) is painful for newborns and stressful for parents. The Bilicheck®, a new transcutaneous bilirubinometer, is considered as a more accurate measurement of bilirubin compared to the previous bilirubinometers courtesy of its advanced technology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) measurements using the Bilicheck® device and TSB in some Iranian neonates and to determine the most reliable cut-off value with the highest sensitivity and desirable specificity for bilirubin measured by the Bilicheck® on the forehead. This prospective observational study was conducted in 2011 on 560 healthy neonates with jaundice. TcB was measured using the Bilicheck® (Respironic, USA) within 30 minutes of TSB measurement via direct spectrophotometry. The results were assessed by simple linear regression analysis and receiver operative characteristic curve. There was good a correlation between TcB and TSB (r=0.969, r(2)=0.94), and this was not affected by sex, gestational age, postnatal age, and birth weight. TSB can be calculated through the measurement of TcB and use of the linear regression equation: TSB=-0.99+1.06TcB. Sensitivity and specificity of the Bilicheck® at the most reliable cut-off value (15 mg/dl) were 96.6% and 99%, respectively. The findings of the present study indicate that the Bilicheck® is a non-invasive, simple, easy, and reliable method for bilirubin measurement in neonatal jaundice, especially in neonates with bilirubin levels ≤15 mg/dl.

  18. Screening for Older Emergency Department Inpatients at Risk of Prolonged Hospital Stay: The Brief Geriatric Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Launay, Cyrille P.; de Decker, Laure; Kabeshova, Anastasiia; Annweiler, Cédric; Beauchet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were 1) to confirm that combinations of brief geriatric assessment (BGA) items were significant risk factors for prolonged LHS among geriatric patients hospitalized in acute care medical units after their admission to the emergency department (ED); and 2) to determine whether these combinations of BGA items could be used as a prognostic tool of prolonged LHS. Methods Based on a prospective observational cohort design, 1254 inpatients (mean age ± standard deviation, 84.9±5.9 years; 59.3% female) recruited upon their admission to ED and discharged in acute care medical units of Angers University Hospital, France, were selected in this study. At baseline assessment, a BGA was performed and included the following 6 items: age ≥85years, male gender, polypharmacy (i.e., ≥5 drugs per day), use of home-help services, history of falls in previous 6 months and temporal disorientation (i.e., inability to give the month and/or year). The LHS in acute care medical units was prospectively calculated in number of days using the hospital registry. Results Area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of prolonged LHS of different combinations of BGA items ranged from 0.50 to 0.57. Cox regression models revealed that combinations defining a high risk of prolonged LHS, identified from ROC curves, were significant risk factors for prolonged LHS (hazard ratio >1.16 with P>0.010). Kaplan-Meier distributions of discharge showed that inpatients classified in high-risk group of prolonged LHS were discharged later than those in low-risk group (P<0.003). Prognostic value for prolonged LHS of all combinations was poor with sensitivity under 77%, a high variation of specificity (from 26.6 to 97.4) and a low likelihood ratio of positive test under 5.6. Conclusion Combinations of 6-item BGA tool were significant risk factors for prolonged LHS but their prognostic value was poor in the studied sample of older inpatients. PMID:25333271

  19. Development of a screening tool to prioritize testing for the carcinogenic hazard of residual aromatic extracts and related petroleum streams.

    PubMed

    Goyak, Katy O; Kung, Ming H; Chen, Min; Aldous, Keith K; Freeman, James J

    2016-12-15

    Residual aromatic extracts (RAE) are petroleum substances with variable composition predominantly containing aromatic hydrocarbons with carbon numbers greater than C25. Because of the high boiling nature of RAEs, the aromatics present are high molecular weight, with most above the range of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, refinery distillations are imperfect; some PAHs and their heteroatom-containing analogs (collectively referred to as polycyclic aromatic content or PAC) may remain in the parent stream and be extracted into the RAE, and overall PAC content is related to the carcinogenic potential of an RAE. We describe here a real-time analytical chemistry-based tool to assess the carcinogenic hazard of RAE via the development of a functional relationship between carcinogenicity and boiling point. Samples representative of steps along the RAE manufacturing process were obtained from five refineries to evaluate relationships between mutagenicity index (MI), PAC ring content and gas chromatographic distillation (GCD) curves. As expected, a positive linear relationship between MI and PAC ring content occurred, most specifically for 3-6 ring PAC (R(2)=0.68). A negative correlation was found between MI and temperature at 5% vaporization by GCD (R(2)=0.72), indicating that samples with greater amounts of lower boiling constituents were more likely to be carcinogenic. The inverse relationship between boiling range and carcinogenicity was further demonstrated by fractionation of select RAE samples (MI=0.50+0.07; PAC=1.70+0.51wt%; n=5) into low and high boiling fractions, where lower boiling fractions were both more carcinogenic than the higher boiling fractions (MI=2.36±0.55 and 0.17±0.11, respectively) and enriched in 3-6 ring PACs (5.20+0.70wt% and 0.97+0.35wt%, respectively). The criteria defining carcinogenicity was established as 479°C for the 5% vaporization points by GCD, with an approximate 95% probability of a future sample having

  20. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index as a screening tool for sleep dysfunction in clinical and non-clinical samples: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mollayeva, Tatyana; Thurairajah, Pravheen; Burton, Kirsteen; Mollayeva, Shirin; Shapiro, Colin M; Colantonio, Angela

    2016-02-01

    This review appraises the process of development and the measurement properties of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), gauging its potential as a screening tool for sleep dysfunction in non-clinical and clinical samples; it also compares non-clinical and clinical populations in terms of PSQI scores. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and HAPI databases were searched. Critical appraisal of studies of measurement properties was performed using COSMIN. Of 37 reviewed studies, 22 examined construct validity, 19 - known-group validity, 15 - internal consistency, and three - test-retest reliability. Study quality ranged from poor to excellent, with the majority designated fair. Internal consistency, based on Cronbach's alpha, was good. Discrepancies were observed in factor analytic studies. In non-clinical and clinical samples with known differences in sleep quality, the PSQI global scores and all subscale scores, with the exception of sleep disturbance, differed significantly. The best evidence synthesis for the PSQI showed strong reliability and validity, and moderate structural validity in a variety of samples, suggesting the tool fulfills its intended utility. A taxonometric analysis can contribute to better understanding of sleep dysfunction as either a dichotomous or continuous construct.

  1. MLViS: A Web Tool for Machine Learning-Based Virtual Screening in Early-Phase of Drug Discovery and Development.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Selcuk; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Goksuluk, Dincer

    2015-01-01

    Virtual screening is an important step in early-phase of drug discovery process. Since there are thousands of compounds, this step should be both fast and effective in order to distinguish drug-like and nondrug-like molecules. Statistical machine learning methods are widely used in drug discovery studies for classification purpose. Here, we aim to develop a new tool, which can classify molecules as drug-like and nondrug-like based on various machine learning methods, including discriminant, tree-based, kernel-based, ensemble and other algorithms. To construct this tool, first, performances of twenty-three different machine learning algorithms are compared by ten different measures, then, ten best performing algorithms have been selected based on principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis results. Besides classification, this application has also ability to create heat map and dendrogram for visual inspection of the molecules through hierarchical cluster analysis. Moreover, users can connect the PubChem database to download molecular information and to create two-dimensional structures of compounds. This application is freely available through www.biosoft.hacettepe.edu.tr/MLViS/.

  2. QSAR Modelling of CYP3A4 Inhibition as a Screening Tool in the Context of DrugDrug Interaction Studies.

    PubMed

    Hamon, Véronique; Horvath, Dragos; Gaudin, Cédric; Desrivot, Julie; Junges, Céline; Arrault, Alban; Bertrand, Marc; Vayer, Philippe

    2012-09-01

    Drugdrug interaction potential (DDI), especially cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 inhibition potential, is one of the most important parameters to be optimized before preclinical and clinical pharmaceutical development as regard to the number of marketed drug metabolized mainly by this CYP and potentially co-administered with the future drug. The present study aims to develop in silico models for CYP3A4 inhibition prediction to help medicinal chemists during the discovery phase and even before the synthesis of new chemical entities (NCEs), focusing on NCEs devoid of any inhibitory potential toward this CYP. In order to find a relevant relationship between CYP3A4 inhibition and chemical features of the screened compounds, we applied a genetic-algorithm-based QSAR exploratory tool SQS (Stochastic QSAR Sampler) in combination with different description approaches comprising alignment-independent Volsurf descriptors, ISIDA fragments and Topological Fuzzy Pharmacophore Triplets. The experimental data used to build models were extracted from an in-house database. We derived a model with good prediction ability that was confirmed on both newly synthesized compound and public dataset retrieved from Pubchem database. This model is a promising efficient tool for filtering out potentially problematic compounds.

  3. Hypercoagulation screening as an innovative tool for risk assessment, early diagnosis and prognosis in cancer: the HYPERCAN study.

    PubMed

    Falanga, Anna; Santoro, Armando; Labianca, Roberto; De Braud, Filippo; Gasparini, Giampietro; D'Alessio, Andrea; Barni, Sandro; Iacoviello, Licia

    2016-04-01

    predictive of cancer diagnosis in an otherwise healthy subject and/or may be prognostic of cancer outcome, or of disease progression/relapse in cancer-affected individuals. Finally, the proposed screening with relatively simple and non-high-cost laboratory tests and the use of easy-obtainable peripheral blood samples add a very relevant translational value to this study.

  4. Rational development of solid dispersions via hot-melt extrusion using screening, material characterization, and numeric simulation tools.

    PubMed

    Zecevic, Damir E; Wagner, Karl G

    2013-07-01

    Effective and predictive small-scale selection tools are inevitable during the development of a solubility enhanced drug product. For hot-melt extrusion, this selection process can start with a microscale performance evaluation on a hot-stage microscope (HSM). A batch size of 400 mg can provide sufficient materials to assess the drug product attributes such as solid-state properties, solubility enhancement, and physical stability as well as process related attributes such as processing temperature in a twin-screw extruder (TSE). Prototype formulations will then be fed into a 5 mm TSE (~1-2 g) to confirm performance from the HSM under additional shear stress. Small stress stability testing might be performed with these samples or a larger batch (20-40 g) made by 9 or 12 mm TSE. Simultaneously, numeric process simulations are performed using process data as well as rheological and thermal properties of the formulations. Further scale up work to 16 and 18 mm TSE confirmed and refined the simulation model. Thus, at the end of the laboratory-scale development, not only the clinical trial supply could be manufactured, but also one can form a sound risk assessment to support further scale up even without decades of process experience.

  5. Feasibility of the STarT back screening tool in chiropractic clinics: a cross-sectional study of patients with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kongsted, Alice; Johannesen, Else; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2011-04-28

    The STarT back screening tool (SBT) allocates low back pain (LBP) patients into three risk groups and is intended to assist clinicians in their decisions about choice of treatment. The tool consists of domains from larger questionnaires that previously have been shown to be predictive of non-recovery from LBP. This study was performed to describe the distribution of depression, fear avoidance and catastrophising in relation to the SBT risk groups. A total of 475 primary care patients were included from 19 chiropractic clinics. They completed the SBT, the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), and the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Associations between the continuous scores of the psychological questionnaires and the SBT were tested by means of linear regression, and the diagnostic performance of the SBT in relation to the other questionnaires was described in terms of sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios.In this cohort 59% were in the SBT low risk, 29% in the medium risk and 11% in high risk group. The SBT risk groups were positively associated with all of the psychological questionnaires. The SBT high risk group had positive likelihood ratios for having a risk profile on the psychological scales ranging from 3.8 (95% CI 2.3 - 6.3) for the MDI to 7.6 (95% CI 4.9 - 11.7) for the FABQ. The SBT questionnaire was feasible to use in chiropractic practice and risk groups were related to the presence of well-established psychological prognostic factors. If the tool proves to predict prognosis in future studies, it would be a relevant alternative in clinical practice to other more comprehensive questionnaires.

  6. Fragment-Based Screening for Enzyme Inhibitors Using Calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Recht, Michael I; Nienaber, Vicki; Torres, Francisco E

    2016-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) provides a sensitive and accurate means by which to study the thermodynamics of binding reactions. In addition, it enables label-free measurement of enzymatic reactions. The advent of extremely sensitive microcalorimeters have made it increasingly valuable as a tool for hit validation and characterization, but its use in primary screening is hampered by requiring large quantities of reagents and long measurement times. Nanocalorimeters can overcome these limitations of conventional ITC, particularly for screening libraries of 500-1000 compounds such as those encountered in fragment-based lead discovery. This chapter describes how nanocalorimetry and conventional microcalorimetry can be used to screen compound libraries for enzyme inhibitors.

  7. Use of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma for noninvasive prenatal screening.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Amy J; Mitchell, Michael E; Tomita-Mitchell, Aoy

    2014-12-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free fetal (cfDNA) offers potential as a screening tool for fetal anomalies. All pregnant women should be offered prenatal screening and diagnostic testing based on current guidelines. Adoption of NIPT in high-risk pregnancies suggests a change in the standard of care for genetic screening; there are advantages to an accurate test with results available early in pregnancy. This accuracy decreases the overall number of invasive tests needed for diagnosis, subjecting fewer pregnancies to the risks of invasive procedures. Women undergoing NIPT need informed consent before testing and accurate, sensitive counseling after results are available.

  8. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Circulating Cell-Free DNA Can Be Used as an Adjuvant Tool for Prostate Cancer Screening: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Changqing; Luo, Changliang; Hu, Wei; Ding, Xu; Yuan, Chunhui; Wang, Fubing

    2016-01-01

    As part of "liquid biopsy," lots of literature indicated the potential diagnostic value of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the management of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the literature on the accuracy of cfDNA detection in PCa has been inconsistent. Hence, we performed this meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic value of cfDNA in PCa. A total of 19 articles were included in this analysis according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. We then investigated two main subgroups in this meta-analysis, including qualitative analysis of abnormal level of cfDNA and qualitative analysis of single-gene methylation alterations. Overall, the results of quantitative analysis showed sensitivity of 0.73 (95% CI, 0.62-0.82) and specificity of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.70-0.87), with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80-0.86). For qualitative assessment, the values were 0.34 (95% CI, 0.22-0.48), 0.99 (95% CI, 0.97-1.00), and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88-0.93), respectively. Our results suggest the pooled specificity of each subgroup is much higher than the specificity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). However, they are not recommended for PCa screening alone, because their sensitivities are not higher than the conventional serum biomarkers PSA. We conclude that analysis of cfDNA can be used as an adjuvant tool for PCa screening.

  9. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Circulating Cell-Free DNA Can Be Used as an Adjuvant Tool for Prostate Cancer Screening: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Changliang; Hu, Wei; Ding, Xu; Yuan, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    As part of “liquid biopsy,” lots of literature indicated the potential diagnostic value of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the management of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the literature on the accuracy of cfDNA detection in PCa has been inconsistent. Hence, we performed this meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic value of cfDNA in PCa. A total of 19 articles were included in this analysis according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. We then investigated two main subgroups in this meta-analysis, including qualitative analysis of abnormal level of cfDNA and qualitative analysis of single-gene methylation alterations. Overall, the results of quantitative analysis showed sensitivity of 0.73 (95% CI, 0.62–0.82) and specificity of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.70–0.87), with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80–0.86). For qualitative assessment, the values were 0.34 (95% CI, 0.22–0.48), 0.99 (95% CI, 0.97–1.00), and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88–0.93), respectively. Our results suggest the pooled specificity of each subgroup is much higher than the specificity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). However, they are not recommended for PCa screening alone, because their sensitivities are not higher than the conventional serum biomarkers PSA. We conclude that analysis of cfDNA can be used as an adjuvant tool for PCa screening. PMID:27766004

  10. Temperature-controlled micro-TLC: a versatile green chemistry and fast analytical tool for separation and preliminary screening of steroids fraction from biological and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Bartoszuk, Małgorzata A; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2011-11-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous research focusing on development of micro-TLC methodology under temperature-controlled conditions. The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple analytical protocols without multi-steps sample pre-purification. One of the advantages of planar chromatography over its column counterpart is that each TLC run can be performed using non-previously used stationary phase. Therefore, it is possible to fractionate or separate complex samples characterized by heavy biological matrix loading. In present studies components of interest, mainly steroids, were isolated from biological samples like fish bile using single pre-treatment steps involving direct organic liquid extraction and/or deproteinization by freeze-drying method. Low-molecular mass compounds with polarity ranging from estetrol to progesterone derived from the environmental samples (lake water, untreated and treated sewage waters) were concentrated using optimized solid-phase extraction (SPE). Specific bands patterns for samples derived from surface water of the Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland can be easily observed on obtained micro-TLC chromatograms. This approach can be useful as simple and non-expensive complementary method for fast control and screening of treated sewage water discharged by the municipal wastewater treatment plants. Moreover, our experimental results show the potential of micro-TLC as an efficient tool for retention measurements of a wide range of steroids under reversed-phase (RP) chromatographic conditions. These data can be used for further optimalization of SPE or HPLC systems working under RP conditions. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that micro-TLC based analytical approach can be applied as an effective method for the internal standard (IS) substance search. Generally, described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of the

  11. Effectiveness of FISK, an invasiveness screening tool for non-native freshwater fishes, to perform risk identification assessments in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Almeida, David; Ribeiro, Filipe; Leunda, Pedro M; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H

    2013-08-01

    Risk assessments are crucial for identifying and mitigating impacts from biological invasions. The Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) is a risk identification (screening) tool for freshwater fishes consisting of two subject areas: biogeography/history and biology/ecology. According to the outcomes, species can be classified under particular risk categories. The aim of this study was to apply FISK to the Iberian Peninsula, a Mediterranean climate region highly important for freshwater fish conservation due to a high level of endemism. In total, 89 fish species were assessed by three independent assessors. Results from receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that FISK can discriminate reliably between noninvasive and invasive fishes for Iberia, with a threshold of 20.25, similar to those obtained in several regions around the world. Based on mean scores, no species was categorized as "low risk," 50 species as "medium risk," 17 as "moderately high risk," 11 as "high risk," and 11 as "very high risk." The highest scoring species was goldfish Carassius auratus. Mean certainty in response was above the category "mostly certain," ranging from tinfoil barb Barbonymus schwanenfeldii with the lowest certainty to eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki with the highest level. Pair-wise comparison showed significant differences between one assessor and the other two on mean certainty, with these two assessors showing a high coincidence rate for the species categorization. Overall, the results suggest that FISK is a useful and viable tool for assessing risks posed by non-native fish in the Iberian Peninsula and contributes to a "watch list" in this region.

  12. Non-invasive 13C-glucose breath test using residual gas analyzer-mass spectrometry: a novel tool for screening individuals with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Chiranjit; Maity, Abhijit; Banik, Gourab D; Som, Suman; Chakraborty, Arpita; Selvan, Chitra; Ghosh, Shibendu; Ghosh, Barnali; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Pradhan, Manik

    2014-09-01

    We report, for the first time, the clinical feasibility of a novel residual gas analyzer mass spectrometry (RGA-MS) method for accurate evaluation of the (13)C-glucose breath test ((13)C-GBT) in the diagnosis of pre-diabetes (PD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). In T2D or PD, glucose uptake is impaired and results in blunted isotope enriched (13)CO2 production in exhaled breath samples. Using the Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, an optimal diagnostic cut-off point of the (13)CO2/(12)CO2 isotope ratios expressed as the delta-over-baseline (DOB) value, was determined to be δDOB(13)C‰ = 28.81‰ for screening individuals with non-diabetes controls (NDC) and pre-diabetes (PD), corresponding to a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 94.4%. We also determined another optimal diagnostic cut-off point of δDOB(13)C‰ = 19.88‰ between individuals with PD and T2D, which exhibited 100% sensitivity and 95.5% specificity. Our RGA-MS methodology for the (13)C-GBT also manifested a typical diagnostic positive and negative predictive value of 96% and 100%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy, precision and validity of the results were also confirmed by high-resolution optical cavity enhanced integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) measurements. The δDOB(13)C‰ values measured with RGA-MS method, correlated favourably (R(2) = 0.979) with those determined by the laser based ICOS method. Moreover, we observed that the effects of endogenous CO2 production related to basal metabolic rates in individuals were statistically insignificant (p = 0.37 and 0.73) on the diagnostic accuracy. Our findings suggest that the RGA-MS is a valid and sufficiently robust method for the (13)C-GBT which may serve as an alternative non-invasive point-of-care diagnostic tool for routine clinical practices as well as for large-scale diabetes screening purposes in real-time.

  13. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction-capillary gel electrophoresis: a promising tool for GMO screening--assay for simultaneous detection of five genetically modified cotton events and species.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Anna; Esteve, Teresa; Pla, Maria

    2009-01-01

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay coupled to capillary gel electrophoresis for amplicon identification by size and color (multiplex PCR-CGE-SC) was developed for simultaneous detection of cotton species and 5 events of genetically modified (GM) cotton. Validated real-time-PCR reactions targeting Bollgard, Bollgard II, Roundup Ready, 3006-210-23, and 281-24-236 junction sequences, and the cotton reference gene acp1 were adapted to detect more than half of the European Union-approved individual or stacked GM cotton events in one reaction. The assay was fully specific (<1.7% of false classification rate), with limit of detection values of 0.1% for each event, which were also achieved with simulated mixtures at different relative percentages of targets. The assay was further combined with a second multiplex PCR-CGE-SC assay to allow simultaneous detection of 6 cotton and 5 maize targets (two endogenous genes and 9 GM events) in two multiplex PCRs and a single CGE, making the approach more economic. Besides allowing simultaneous detection of many targets with adequate specificity and sensitivity, the multiplex PCR-CGE-SC approach has high throughput and automation capabilities, while keeping a very simple protocol, e.g., amplification and labeling in one step. Thus, it is an easy and inexpensive tool for initial screening, to be complemented with quantitative assays if necessary.

  14. The Screening Tool of Feeding Problems applied to children (STEP-CHILD): psychometric characteristics and associations with child and parent variables.

    PubMed

    Seiverling, Laura; Hendy, Helen M; Williams, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the 23-item Screening Tool for Feeding Problems (STEP; Matson & Kuhn, 2001) with a sample of children referred to a hospital-based feeding clinic to examine the scale's psychometric characteristics and then demonstrate how a children's revision of the STEP, the STEP-CHILD is associated with child and parent variables. Participants included 142 children (95 boys, 47 girls; mean age = 61.4 months; 43 with autism, 51 with other special needs, 48 with no special needs). Children ranged in age from 24 months to 18 years. Factor analysis revealed a 15-item STEP-CHILD with six subscales of child feeding problems: chewing problems, rapid eating, food refusal, food selectivity, vomiting, and stealing food. Mediation analysis documented that "overly permissive" actions by parents (such as infrequent insistence on eating during meals, or frequent preparation of Special Meals for children different than the family meal) explained over 34% of the links between children's feeding problems and poor weight and diet outcomes.

  15. Reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification as a rapid screening/monitoring tool for Salmonella enterica detection in liquid whole eggs.

    PubMed

    Techathuvanan, Chayapa; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2012-04-01

    Reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a novel molecular detection method that is specific, fast, and simple. It is based on reverse transcription followed by DNA amplification using the Bst DNA polymerase large fragment requiring one temperature and a simple waterbath, without the need for any expensive equipment. Detection is by turbidity or agarose gel electrophoresis. Our objective was to apply this LAMP-based technology to rapidly and sensitively detect Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in liquid whole eggs (LWEs) within 1 d. LWE were inoculated with S. Enteritidis and stomached in tetrathionate broth (TTB), and spread-plated on Xylose lysine tergitol 4 agar either immediately or after 6, 12, or 16-h enrichment. RNA was extracted from 5-mL TTB and the RT-LAMP assay was carried out using invA primers. After 16