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Sample records for accurate short term

  1. Short-term retention of relational memory in amnesia revisited: accurate performance depends on hippocampal integrity.

    PubMed

    Yee, Lydia T S; Hannula, Deborah E; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location), participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval.

  2. Short-term retention of relational memory in amnesia revisited: accurate performance depends on hippocampal integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Lydia T. S.; Hannula, Deborah E.; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location), participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval. PMID:24478681

  3. Mathematical analysis and algorithms for efficiently and accurately implementing stochastic simulations of short-term synaptic depression and facilitation.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Mark D; Mohan, Ashutosh; Stricker, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The release of neurotransmitter vesicles after arrival of a pre-synaptic action potential (AP) at cortical synapses is known to be a stochastic process, as is the availability of vesicles for release. These processes are known to also depend on the recent history of AP arrivals, and this can be described in terms of time-varying probabilities of vesicle release. Mathematical models of such synaptic dynamics frequently are based only on the mean number of vesicles released by each pre-synaptic AP, since if it is assumed there are sufficiently many vesicle sites, then variance is small. However, it has been shown recently that variance across sites can be significant for neuron and network dynamics, and this suggests the potential importance of studying short-term plasticity using simulations that do generate trial-to-trial variability. Therefore, in this paper we study several well-known conceptual models for stochastic availability and release. We state explicitly the random variables that these models describe and propose efficient algorithms for accurately implementing stochastic simulations of these random variables in software or hardware. Our results are complemented by mathematical analysis and statement of pseudo-code algorithms.

  4. Short-Term Vocational Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botterbusch, Karl F.

    This guide is intended to assist vocational rehabilitation counselors in planning and conducting short-term vocational evaluations of clients. The first section discusses the elements that must be included in a comprehensive vocational evaluation. Next, strategies for conducting a vocational evaluation are explained. The next section, a case study…

  5. Information exchange between short term and long term operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijs, Steven

    2016-04-01

    This research focuses on the interactions between optimal short term and long term operations of managed water systems. Stochastic Dynamic Programming is used as a framework to find and analyze optimal operations. When considering optimal operations under uncertainty, the short term operations are influenced by the long term optimal policy through the value function of the end-state at the short term horizon. Conversely, the optimal long-term operations are influenced by the value of future decisions, which is partly determined by the short term operations. This leads to a two-way information flow between short and long term operations. The implications of this information flow are discussed.

  6. Accurate numerical simulation of short fiber optical parametric amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Marhic, M E; Rieznik, A A; Kalogerakis, G; Braimiotis, C; Fragnito, H L; Kazovsky, L G

    2008-03-17

    We improve the accuracy of numerical simulations for short fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs). Instead of using the usual coarse-step method, we adopt a model for birefringence and dispersion which uses fine-step variations of the parameters. We also improve the split-step Fourier method by exactly treating the nonlinear ellipse rotation terms. We find that results obtained this way for two-pump OPAs can be significantly different from those obtained by using the usual coarse-step fiber model, and/or neglecting ellipse rotation terms.

  7. Long short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Hochreiter, S; Schmidhuber, J

    1997-11-15

    Learning to store information over extended time intervals by recurrent backpropagation takes a very long time, mostly because of insufficient, decaying error backflow. We briefly review Hochreiter's (1991) analysis of this problem, then address it by introducing a novel, efficient, gradient-based method called long short-term memory (LSTM). Truncating the gradient where this does not do harm, LSTM can learn to bridge minimal time lags in excess of 1000 discrete-time steps by enforcing constant error flow through constant error carousels within special units. Multiplicative gate units learn to open and close access to the constant error flow. LSTM is local in space and time; its computational complexity per time step and weight is O(1). Our experiments with artificial data involve local, distributed, real-valued, and noisy pattern representations. In comparisons with real-time recurrent learning, back propagation through time, recurrent cascade correlation, Elman nets, and neural sequence chunking, LSTM leads to many more successful runs, and learns much faster. LSTM also solves complex, artificial long-time-lag tasks that have never been solved by previous recurrent network algorithms.

  8. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  9. Short-term intercultural psychotherapy: ethnographic inquiry.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical practice. Such approaches allow clinicians conducting short-term intercultural treatments to foreground clients' indigenous conceptions of selfhood, mind, relationship, and emotional disturbance, and thus to more fully grasp their internal, interpersonal, and external worlds. This article demonstrates the uses of clinically adapted ethnographic inquiry in three short-term intercultural cases. PMID:14964524

  10. Short-Term Intercultural Psychotherapy: Ethnographic Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeley, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical…

  11. Analyzing Short-Term Disability Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houff, James N.; Wiatrowski, William J.

    1989-01-01

    The Bureau of Labour Statistics has combined data on sick leave and sickness and accident insurance. Results show that short-term disability benefits vary by length of service and between the private and public sectors. (Author)

  12. Short-term memory across eye blinks.

    PubMed

    Irwin, David E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes.

  13. Short term memory for tactile stimuli.

    PubMed

    Gallace, Alberto; Tan, Hong Z; Haggard, Patrick; Spence, Charles

    2008-01-23

    Research has shown that unreported information stored in rapidly decaying visual representations may be accessed more accurately using partial report than using full report procedures (e.g., [Sperling, G., 1960. The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological Monographs, 74, 1-29.]). In the 3 experiments reported here, we investigated whether unreported information regarding the actual number of tactile stimuli presented in parallel across the body surface can be accessed using a partial report procedure. In Experiment 1, participants had to report the total number of stimuli in a tactile display composed of up to 6 stimuli presented across their body (numerosity task), or else to detect whether or not a tactile stimulus had previously been presented in a position indicated by a visual probe given at a variable delay after offset of a tactile display (i.e., partial report). The results showed that participants correctly reported up to 3 stimuli in the numerosity judgment task, but their performance was significantly better than chance when up to 5 stimuli were presented in the partial report task. This result shows that short-lasting tactile representations can be accessed using partial report procedures similar to those used previously in visual studies. Experiment 2 showed that the duration of these representations (or the time available to consciously access them) depends on the number of stimuli presented in the display (the greater the number of stimuli that are presented, the faster their representation decays). Finally, the results of a third experiment showed that the differences in performance between the numerosity judgment and partial report tasks could not be explained solely in terms of any difference in task difficulty. PMID:18083147

  14. Short-term energy outlook: Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, C.; Paxson, D.; Reznek, A. P.; Chu, C.; Sitzer, S.; Gamson, N.; Childress, J. P.; Paul, S.; Weigel, H.; Sutton, S.

    1981-05-01

    Detailed discussions of forecasting methodology and analytical topics concerning short-term energy markets are presented. Major assumptions necessary to make the energy forecasts are also discussed. Supplementary analyses of topics related to short-term energy forecasting are also given. The discussions relate to the forecasts prepared using the short term integrated forecasting system. This set of computer models uses data from various sources to develop energy supply and demand balances. Econmetric models used to predict the demand for petroleum products, natural gas, coal, and electricity are discussed. Price prediction models are also discussed. The role of oil inventories in world oil markets is reviewed. Various relationship between weather patterns and energy consumption are discussed.

  15. Reconstructing Clusters for Preconditioned Short-term Load Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itagaki, Tadahiro; Mori, Hiroyuki

    This paper presents a new preconditioned method for short-term load forecasting that focuses on more accurate predicted value. In recent years, the deregulated and competitive power market increases the degree of uncertainty. As a result, more sophisticated short-term load forecasting techniques are required to deal with more complicated load behavior. To alleviate the complexity of load behavior, this paper presents a new preconditioned model. In this paper, clustering results are reconstructed to equalize the number of learning data after clustering with the Kohonen-based neural network. That enhances a short-term load forecasting model at each reconstructed cluster. The proposed method is successfully applied to real data of one-step ahead daily maximum load forecasting.

  16. Relationship between short- and long-term memory and short- and long-term extinction.

    PubMed

    Cammarota, Martín; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Rossato, Janine I; Ramirez, Maria; Medina, Jorge H; Izquierdo, Iván

    2005-07-01

    Both the acquisition and the extinction of memories leave short- and long-term mnemonic traces. Here, we show that in male Wistar rats, the short-term memory for a step-down inhibitory avoidance task (IA) is resistant to extinction, and that its expression does not influence retrieval or extinction of long-term memory. It has been known for some time that short- and long-term inhibitory avoidance memory involve separate and parallel processes. Here we show that, instead, short-term extinction of IA long-term memory is the first step towards its long-term extinction, and that this link requires functional NMDA receptors and protein synthesis in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus at the time of the first CS-no US presentation.

  17. Short-Term Play Therapy for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaduson, Heidi Gerard, Ed.; Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.

    Play therapy offers a powerful means of helping children resolve a wide range of psychological difficulties, and many play approaches are ideally suited to short-term work. This book brings together leading play therapists to share their expertise on facilitating children's healing in a shorter time frame. The book provides knowledge and skills…

  18. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  19. Two Distinct Origins of Long-Term Learning Effects in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Perez, Trecy Martinez; Oberauer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In this study we show that sublist-level, incidental learning of item co-occurrence regularities affects immediate serial recall of words and…

  20. Power system very short-term load prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, D.J.; Johnson, J.M.; Whitney, P.

    1997-02-01

    A fundamental objective of a power-system operating and control scheme is to maintain a match between the system`s overall real-power load and generation. To accurately maintain this match, modern energy management systems require estimates of the future total system load. Several strategies and tools are available for estimating system load. Nearly all of these estimate the future load in 1-hour steps over several hours (or time frames very close to this). While hourly load estimates are very useful for many operation and control decisions, more accurate estimates at closer intervals would also be valuable. This is especially true for emerging Area Generation Control (AGC) strategies such as look-ahead AGC. For these short-term estimation applications, future load estimates out to several minutes at intervals of 1 to 5 minutes are required. The currently emerging operation and control strategies being developed by the BPA are dependent on accurate very short-term load estimates. To meet this need, the BPA commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Montana Tech (an affiliate of the University of Montana) to develop an accurate load prediction algorithm and computer codes that automatically update and can reliably perform in a closed-loop controller for the BPA system. The requirements include accurate load estimation in 5-minute steps out to 2 hours. This report presents the results of this effort and includes: a methodology and algorithms for short-term load prediction that incorporates information from a general hourly forecaster; specific algorithm parameters for implementing the predictor in the BPA system; performance and sensitivity studies of the algorithms on BPA-supplied data; an algorithm for filtering power system load samples as a precursor to inputting into the predictor; and FORTRAN 77 subroutines for implementing the algorithms.

  1. The economics of short-term leasing.

    PubMed

    Flath, D

    1980-04-01

    Short-term leasing is an everyday occurrence. Tax savings cannot account for the ubiquity of leasing by temporary users. Monopoly explanations are inconsistent with concurrent leasing and selling markets for perfect substitutes. Leasing economizes upon the costs of detecting, assuring, and maintaining quality, costs of search, and costs of risk-bearing. This view is based on standard economic reasoning and has numerous specific implications.

  2. Self-Organized Short-Term Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppersmith, S. N.; Jones, T. C.; Kadanoff, L. P.; Levine, A.; McCarten, J. P.; Nagel, S. R.; Venkataramani, S. C.; Wu, Xinlei

    1997-05-01

    We report short-term memory formation in a nonlinear dynamical system with many degrees of freedom. The system ``remembers'' a sequence of impulses for a transient period, but it coarsens and eventually ``forgets'' nearly all of them. The memory duration increases as the number of degrees of freedom in the system increases. We demonstrate the existence of these transient memories in a laboratory experiment.

  3. Is visual short-term memory depthful?

    PubMed

    Reeves, Adam; Lei, Quan

    2014-03-01

    Does visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on depth, as it might be if information was stored in more than one depth layer? Depth is critical in natural viewing and might be expected to affect retention, but whether this is so is currently unknown. Cued partial reports of letter arrays (Sperling, 1960) were measured up to 700 ms after display termination. Adding stereoscopic depth hardly affected VSTM capacity or decay inferred from total errors. The pattern of transposition errors (letters reported from an uncued row) was almost independent of depth and cue delay. We conclude that VSTM is effectively two-dimensional. PMID:24491386

  4. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Short Term Exogenic Climate Change Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahenbuhl, Daniel

    Several short term exogenic forcings affecting Earth's climate are but recently identified. Lunar nutation periodicity has implications for numerical meteorological prediction. Abrupt shifts in solar wind bulk velocity, particle density, and polarity exhibit correlation with terrestrial hemispheric vorticity changes, cyclonic strengthening and the intensification of baroclinic disturbances. Galactic Cosmic ray induced tropospheric ionization modifies cloud microphysics, and modulates the global electric circuit. This dissertation is constructed around three research questions: (1): What are the biweekly declination effects of lunar gravitation upon the troposphere? (2): How do United States severe weather reports correlate with heliospheric current sheet crossings? and (3): How does cloud cover spatially and temporally vary with galactic cosmic rays? Study 1 findings show spatial consistency concerning lunar declination extremes upon Rossby longwaves. Due to the influence of Rossby longwaves on synoptic scale circulation, our results could theoretically extend numerical meteorological forecasting. Study 2 results indicate a preference for violent tornadoes to occur prior to a HCS crossing. Violent tornadoes (EF3+) are 10% more probable to occur near, and 4% less probable immediately after a HCS crossing. The distribution of hail and damaging wind reports do not mirror this pattern. Polarity is critical for the effect. Study 3 results confirm anticorrelation between solar flux and low-level marine-layer cloud cover, but indicate substantial regional variability between cloud cover altitude and GCRs. Ultimately, this dissertation serves to extend short term meteorological forecasting, enhance climatological modeling and through analysis of severe violent weather and heliospheric events, protect property and save lives.

  7. Vitreon, a short-term vitreoretinal tamponade.

    PubMed Central

    Blinder, K J; Peyman, G A; Desai, U R; Nelson, N C; Alturki, W; Paris, C L

    1992-01-01

    This investigation of the liquid perfluorocarbon, perfluorophenanthrene (Vitreon), establishes its safety and efficacy as a short-term vitreoretinal tamponade. We utilised Vitreon as an intraoperative tool and postoperative vitreoretinal tamponade in 16 patients. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) (six), giant retinal tear (four), rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (three), retinal detachment with keratoprosthesis (two), and submacular and vitreous haemorrhage (one) were successfully repaired. Vitreon was left in the eye and removed 5 days to 4 weeks postoperatively. Complications encountered included proliferative PVR (five), limited peripheral retinal detachment (three), macular pucker (two) cataract (three), hypotony (two), excessive fibrin reaction (one), and elevated intraocular pressure (one). At the latest evaluation, all retinas are attached with a follow-up of 1.25 to 12 months (mean 6.8 months). PMID:1420054

  8. Neural network based short term load forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, C.N.; Wu, H.T. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Vemuri, S. . Controls and Composition Div.)

    1993-02-01

    The artificial neural network (ANN) technique for short term load forecasting (STLF) has been proposed by several authors, and gained a lot of attention recently. In order to evaluate ANN as a viable technique for STLF, one has to evaluate the performance of ANN methodology for practical considerations of STLF problems. This paper makes an attempt to address these issues. The paper presents the results of a study to investigate whether the ANN model is system dependent, and/or case dependent. Data from two utilities were used in modeling and forecasting. In addition, the effectiveness of a next 24 hour ANN model is predicting 24 hour load profile at one time was compared with the traditional next one hour ANN model.

  9. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  10. Artificial neural networks for short term electrical load forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Reinschmidt, K.F.

    1995-10-01

    The accurate prediction of hourly electrical demand one or more days ahead is of great economic importance to electric utilities for generation unit dispatch and unit commitment. Artificial neural networks for pattern recognition are developed to identify days in the historical record that are most similar to the days being forecasted, to use for load prediction. Artificial neural networks are also used to generate linear and nonlinear multivariate time series models, to project demands forward in time. The genetic algorithm is used to select the optimal set of independent variables for forecasting. Techniques are developed to combine forecasts derived from independent methods, to achieve better accuracy than any single forecast. In this way, artificial neural networks can be used to generate practical, accurate short-term electrical load forecasts.

  11. Short-term predictions of solar flares.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, V. A.

    1990-02-01

    A review of present-day theoretical investigations of the problem of the accumulation and release of energy in solar flares permits advancing the opinion that only individual flare events are described by a concrete model and that a single model alone does not describe the entire diversity of flares. Consideration of the observational data does not permit claiming the existence of a single universal mechanism known today of flare events. It appears possible to treat the problem of prediction in terms of the algebra of logic (Boolean logic) and to compare the truth table with the often-used contingency table. The introduction of a number of very general assumptions permits forming a general approach to the development of predictive schemes and selection of the individual elements of the models and informative criteria. Experimental results are given on the testing of some prediction procedures. The author's procedure of routine short-term prediction of flares on the basis of the methods of instruction on pattern recognition implemented in the form of a set of programs is outlined. The results of the application of this procedure in 1986 - 1988 are presented.

  12. Complex network structure influences processing in long-term and short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Chan, Kit Ying; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Complex networks describe how entities in systems interact; the structure of such networks is argued to influence processing. One measure of network structure, clustering coefficient, C, measures the extent to which neighbors of a node are also neighbors of each other. Previous psycholinguistic experiments found that the C of phonological word-forms influenced retrieval from the mental lexicon (that portion of long-term memory dedicated to language) during the on-line recognition and production of spoken words. In the present study we examined how network structure influences other retrieval processes in long- and short-term memory. In a false-memory task—examining long-term memory—participants falsely recognized more words with low- than high-C. In a recognition memory task—examining veridical memories in long-term memory—participants correctly recognized more words with low- than high-C. However, participants in a serial recall task—examining redintegration in short-term memory—recalled lists comprised of high-C words more accurately than lists comprised of low-C words. These results demonstrate that network structure influences cognitive processes associated with several forms of memory including lexical, long-term, and short-term. PMID:22745522

  13. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  14. Short-term energy outlook quarterly projections. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short- term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets.

  15. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, M.A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, J.G.; Dwyer, J.; Roy, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record. ?? 2010.

  17. Short term oral minocycline treatment of meibomianitis

    PubMed Central

    Aronowicz, J D; Shine, W E; Oral, D; Vargas, J M; McCulley, J P

    2006-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the clinical impact, aqueous tear parameters, and meibomian gland morphology in patients with primary meibomianitis before, during, and 3 months after a course of oral minocycline. Methods 16 patients were prospectively enrolled, 11 male and five female (mean age 69 years old). Each patient received routine clinical evaluations before, after 3 months therapy, and at 6 month study follow up visit. The clinical appearance, tear volume, flow and turnover, evaporation, Schirmer I test, meibomian gland dropout, lissamine green staining, and bacteriology wer evaluated. Results Improvement was observed in clinical signs of meibomianitis at the second and third visits. Microbial culture findings improved. Decreased aqueous tear volume and flow, and increased evaporation rate range at 35–45% relative humidity (RH) (p<0.05) were also detected. Other related tear parameters did not change. Meibomian gland dropout showed no improvement. Conclusions 3 months of oral minocycline resulted in clinical improvements in all meibomianitis signs that persisted for at least 3 months after discontinuation despite decreased aqueous tear volume and flow with increased evaporation (35–45% RH). However, there was improvement in the turbidity of secretions. Short term minocycline therapy probably has efficacy in the management of meibomianitis that extends beyond eradication of bacteria. PMID:16613920

  18. Short-term municipal water demand forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougadis, John; Adamowski, Kaz; Diduch, Roman

    2005-01-01

    Water demand forecasts are needed for the design, operation and management of urban water supply systems. In this study, the relative performance of regression, time series analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) models are investigated for short-term peak water demand forecasting. The significance of climatic variables (rainfall and maximum air temperature, in addition to past water demand) on water demand management is also investigated.Numerical analysis was performed on data from the city of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The existing water supply infrastructure will not be able to meet the demand for projected population growth; thus, a study is needed to determine the effect of peak water demand management on the sizing and staging of facilities for developing an expansion strategy. Three different ANNs and regression models and seven time-series models have been developed and compared. The ANN models consistently outperformed the regression and time-series models developed in this study. It has been found that water demand on a weekly basis is more significantly correlated with the rainfall amount than the occurrence of rainfall. Copyright

  19. Probing short-term face memory in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Punit; Gaule, Anne; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard

    2015-03-01

    It has recently been proposed that the face recognition deficits seen in neurodevelopmental disorders may reflect impaired short-term face memory (STFM). For example, introducing a brief delay between the presentation of target and test faces seems to disproportionately impair matching or recognition performance in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The present study sought to determine whether deficits of STFM contribute to impaired face recognition seen in Developmental Prosopagnosia. To determine whether developmental prosopagnosics exhibit impaired STFM, the present study used a six-alternative-forced-choice match-to-sample procedure. Memory demand was manipulated by employing a short or long delay between the presentation of the target face, and the six test faces. Crucially, the perceptual demands were identical in both conditions, thereby allowing the independent contribution of STFM to be assessed. Prosopagnosics showed clear evidence of a category-specific impairment for face-matching in both conditions; they were both slower and less accurate than matched controls. Crucially, however, the prosopagnosics showed no evidence of disproportionate face recognition impairment in the long-interval condition. While individuals with DP may have problems with the perceptual encoding of faces, it appears that their representations are stable over short durations. These results suggest that the face recognition difficulties seen in DP and autism may be qualitatively different, attributable to deficits of perceptual encoding and perceptual maintenance, respectively.

  20. Towards numerically accurate many-body perturbation theory: Short-range correlation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Gulans, Andris

    2014-10-28

    The example of the uniform electron gas is used for showing that the short-range electron correlation is difficult to handle numerically, while it noticeably contributes to the self-energy. Nonetheless, in condensed-matter applications studied with advanced methods, such as the GW and random-phase approximations, it is common to neglect contributions due to high-momentum (large q) transfers. Then, the short-range correlation is poorly described, which leads to inaccurate correlation energies and quasiparticle spectra. To circumvent this problem, an accurate extrapolation scheme is proposed. It is based on an analytical derivation for the uniform electron gas presented in this paper, and it provides an explanation why accurate GW quasiparticle spectra are easy to obtain for some compounds and very difficult for others.

  1. Statistical approaches to short-term electricity forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellova, Andrea

    The study of the short-term forecasting of electricity demand has played a key role in the economic optimization of the electric energy industry and is essential for power systems planning and operation. In electric energy markets, accurate short-term forecasting of electricity demand is necessary mainly for economic operations. Our focus is directed to the question of electricity demand forecasting in the Czech Republic. Firstly, we describe the current structure and organization of the Czech, as well as the European, electricity market. Secondly, we provide a complex description of the most powerful external factors influencing electricity consumption. The choice of the most appropriate model is conditioned by these electricity demand determining factors. Thirdly, we build up several types of multivariate forecasting models, both linear and nonlinear. These models are, respectively, linear regression models and artificial neural networks. Finally, we compare the forecasting power of both kinds of models using several statistical accuracy measures. Our results suggest that although the electricity demand forecasting in the Czech Republic is for the considered years rather a nonlinear than a linear problem, for practical purposes simple linear models with nonlinear inputs can be adequate. This is confirmed by the values of the empirical loss function applied to the forecasting results.

  2. Short-term Variability of Extinction by Broadband Stellar Photometry

    SciTech Connect

    Musat, I.C.; Ellingson, R.G.

    2005-03-18

    Aerosol optical depth variation over short-term time intervals is determined from broadband observations of stars with a whole sky imager. The main difficulty in such measurements consists of accurately separating the star flux value from the non-stellar diffuse skylight. Using correction method to overcome this difficulty, the monochromatic extinction at the ground due to aerosols is extracted from heterochromatic measurements. A form of closure is achieved by comparison with simultaneous or temporally close measurements with other instruments, and the total error of the method, as a combination of random error of measurements and systematic error of calibration and model, is assessed as being between 2.6 and 3% rms.

  3. Short-term load forecasting with local ANN predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Drezga, I.; Rahman, S.

    1999-08-01

    A new technique for artificial neural network (ANN) based short-term load forecasting (STLF) is present in this paper. The technique implemented active selection of training data, employing the k-nearest neighbors concept. A novel concept of pilot simulation was used to determine the number of hidden units for the ANNs. The ensemble of local ANN predictors was used to produce the final forecast, whereby the iterative forecasting procedure used a simple average of ensemble ANNs. Results obtained using data from two US utilities showed forecasting accuracy comparable to those using similar techniques. Excellent forecasts for one-hour-ahead and five-days-ahead forecasting, robust behavior for sudden and large weather changes, low maximum errors and accurate peak-load predictions are some of the findings discussed in the paper.

  4. Short-Term Reciprocity in Late Parent-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Long-term concepts of parent-child reciprocity assume that the amount of support given and received is only balanced in a generalized fashion over the life course. We argue that reciprocity in parent-child relationships also operates in the short term. Our analysis of short-term reciprocity focuses on concurrent exchange in its main upward and…

  5. Distinguishing short-term memory from working memory.

    PubMed

    Kail, R; Hall, L K

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to determine whether short-term memory and working memory could be distinguished. In two studies, 7- to 13-year-olds (N = 155, N = 132) were administered tasks thought to assess short-term memory as well as tasks thought to assess working memory. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses distinguished short-term memory tasks from working memory tasks. In addition, performance on working memory tasks was related to word decoding skill but performance on short-term memory tasks was not. Finally, performance on both short-term memory and working memory tasks were associated with age-related increases in processing speed. Results are discussed in relation to models of short-term and working memory.

  6. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

  7. Short- and Long-Term Propagation of Spacecraft Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John C., Jr.; Sweetser, Theodore; Chung, Min-Kun; Yen, Chen-Wan L.; Roncoli, Ralph B.; Kwok, Johnny H.; Vincent, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    The Planetary Observer Planning Software (POPS) comprises four computer programs for use in designing orbits of spacecraft about planets. These programs are the Planetary Observer High Precision Orbit Propagator (POHOP), the Planetary Observer Long-Term Orbit Predictor (POLOP), the Planetary Observer Post Processor (POPP), and the Planetary Observer Plotting (POPLOT) program. POHOP and POLOP integrate the equations of motion to propagate an initial set of classical orbit elements to a future epoch. POHOP models shortterm (one revolution) orbital motion; POLOP averages out the short-term behavior but requires far less processing time than do older programs that perform long-term orbit propagations. POPP postprocesses the spacecraft ephemeris created by POHOP or POLOP (or optionally can use a less accurate internal ephemeris) to search for trajectory-related geometric events including, for example, rising or setting of a spacecraft as observed from a ground site. For each such event, POPP puts out such user-specified data as the time, elevation, and azimuth. POPLOT is a graphics program that plots data generated by POPP. POPLOT can plot orbit ground tracks on a world map and can produce a variety of summaries and generic ordinate-vs.-abscissa plots of any POPP data.

  8. Vaccination: short- to long-term benefits from investment.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Stuart; Rojas, Amós José García; Glenngård, Anna H; Marin, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In the context of current economic difficulties across Europe, accurate budgeting and resource allocation have become increasingly important. Vaccination programmes can respond to the needs of governments to budget with confidence. It may be more reliable and accurate to forecast budget and resource allocation for a vaccination programme than for unpredictable seasonal disease peaks of infections such as rotavirus gastroenteritis, influenza, and pneumonia. In addition, prevention through vaccination involves low levels of investment relative to the substantial benefits that may be obtained. In France, total lifelong vaccination costs, per fully compliant individual, ranged from €865 to €3,313, covering 12 to 16 diseases, which is comparable to, or lower than, costs of other preventive measures. In addition, effectively implemented vaccination programmes have the potential to generate substantial savings both in the short and in the long term. For example, vaccination programmes for rotavirus, meningitis C, human papillomavirus, influenza, and pneumonia have all been shown to significantly reduce the disease burden, and thus the associated costs, in the first years following vaccination implementation. These programmes demonstrate the potential for health authorities to obtain early, and often substantial, return on investment.

  9. Fast and accurate short read alignment with Burrows–Wheeler transform

    PubMed Central

    Li, Heng; Durbin, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: The enormous amount of short reads generated by the new DNA sequencing technologies call for the development of fast and accurate read alignment programs. A first generation of hash table-based methods has been developed, including MAQ, which is accurate, feature rich and fast enough to align short reads from a single individual. However, MAQ does not support gapped alignment for single-end reads, which makes it unsuitable for alignment of longer reads where indels may occur frequently. The speed of MAQ is also a concern when the alignment is scaled up to the resequencing of hundreds of individuals. Results: We implemented Burrows-Wheeler Alignment tool (BWA), a new read alignment package that is based on backward search with Burrows–Wheeler Transform (BWT), to efficiently align short sequencing reads against a large reference sequence such as the human genome, allowing mismatches and gaps. BWA supports both base space reads, e.g. from Illumina sequencing machines, and color space reads from AB SOLiD machines. Evaluations on both simulated and real data suggest that BWA is ∼10–20× faster than MAQ, while achieving similar accuracy. In addition, BWA outputs alignment in the new standard SAM (Sequence Alignment/Map) format. Variant calling and other downstream analyses after the alignment can be achieved with the open source SAMtools software package. Availability: http://maq.sourceforge.net Contact: rd@sanger.ac.uk PMID:19451168

  10. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short-term scholars. 62.21 Section 62.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific Program Provisions § 62.21 Short-term scholars. (a) Introduction. These regulations govern scholars...

  11. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-06

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  12. Double Dissociations in Visual and Spatial Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Zhao, Zengmei

    2004-01-01

    A visual short-term memory task was more strongly disrupted by visual than spatial interference, and a spatial memory task was simultaneously more strongly disrupted by spatial than visual interference. This double dissociation supports a fractionation of visuospatial short-term memory into separate visual and spatial components. In 6 experiments,…

  13. Short-Term Training--Where the Action Is!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, George R.

    In order to address major permanent changes in the economic structure and workforce of its community, Chemeketa Community College (CCC) in Oregon has made a commitment to initiate as many short-term training programs as its resources permit. Short-term training, which takes less time than regular one-year certificate or two-year associate degree…

  14. Short-Term Memory; An Annotated Bibliography. Supplement 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis F.

    A compilation of 165 references dealing with short term memory, this bibliography supplements "Short-Term Memory: An Annotated Bibliography" (August 1968). The time period covered is predominantly June 1968 to June 1969. Such aspects and topics as psychometrics, motivation, human engineering, vision, auditory perception, verbal and nonverbal…

  15. Short-Term Memory: An Annotated Bibliography. Supplement II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis F.

    This bibliography is an annotated compilation of 198 references dealing with short-term memory. It is added as a second supplement to Short-Term Memory: An Annotated Bibliography, August, 1968. The time period covered is predominantly June, 1969 to December, 1970. References included are arranged alphabetically by author. An alphabetical index of…

  16. Short-Term Group Treatment for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Alvin; McCormack, WIlliam A.

    1992-01-01

    Adult children of alcoholics (n=24) were tested on measures of loneliness, anxiety, hostility, depression, and interpersonal dependency before and after participation in short-term group therapy. Highly significant test score changes supported effectiveness of individual therapy in short-term groups. (Author/NB)

  17. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  18. Short term energy forecasting with neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    McMenamin, J.S.; Monforte, F.A. )

    1998-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are beginning to be used by electric utilities to forecast hourly system loads on a day-ahead basis. This paper discusses the neural network specification in terms of conventional econometric language, providing parallel concepts for terms such as training, learning, and nodes in the hidden layer. It is shown that these models are flexible nonlinear equations that can be estimated using nonlinear least squares. It is argued that these models are especially well suited to hourly load forecasting, reflecting the presence of important nonlinearities and variable interactions. The paper proceeds to show how conventional statistics, such as the BIC and MAPE statistics can be used to select the number of nodes in the hidden layer. It is concluded that these models provide a powerful, robust and sensible approach to hourly load forecasting that will provide modest improvements in forecast accuracy relative to well-specified regression models.

  19. The mind and brain of short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L; Nee, Derek Evan; Lustig, Cindy A; Berman, Marc G; Moore, Katherine Sledge

    2008-01-01

    The past 10 years have brought near-revolutionary changes in psychological theories about short-term memory, with similarly great advances in the neurosciences. Here, we critically examine the major psychological theories (the "mind") of short-term memory and how they relate to evidence about underlying brain mechanisms. We focus on three features that must be addressed by any satisfactory theory of short-term memory. First, we examine the evidence for the architecture of short-term memory, with special attention to questions of capacity and how--or whether--short-term memory can be separated from long-term memory. Second, we ask how the components of that architecture enact processes of encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. Third, we describe the debate over the reason about forgetting from short-term memory, whether interference or decay is the cause. We close with a conceptual model tracing the representation of a single item through a short-term memory task, describing the biological mechanisms that might support psychological processes on a moment-by-moment basis as an item is encoded, maintained over a delay with some forgetting, and ultimately retrieved.

  20. Efficacy of Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    BARBER, JACQUES P.

    1994-01-01

    The author outlines the history of brief dynamic psychotherapy, describes some of its characteristics, and addresses methodological requirements for assessing the efficacy of psychotherapy. Review of two major meta-analyses suggests that manual-based brief dynamic psychotherapy by trained therapists is likely to be as effective as other forms of psychotherapy and more effective than no treatment. More studies are needed that 1) compare brief dynamic psychotherapy with other forms of treatment for specific psychiatric disorders; 2) use theory-specific measures of outcome in addition to measures of symptoms; and 3) compare brief dynamic psychotherapy with long-term psychotherapy. PMID:22700185

  1. Short-term forgetting without interference.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Denis; Mercer, Tom

    2012-07-01

    In the 1st reported experiment, we demonstrate that auditory memory is robust over extended retention intervals (RIs) when listeners compare the timbre of complex tones, even when active or verbal rehearsal is difficult or impossible. Thus, our tones have an abstract timbre that resists verbal labeling, they differ across trials so that no "standard" comparison stimulus is built up, and the spectral change to be discriminated is very slight and therefore does not shift stimuli across verbal categories. Nonetheless, performance in this nonverbal immediate memory task was better at short (1-, 2-, or 4-s) than long (8-, 16-, or 32-s) RIs, an outcome predicted by temporal distinctiveness theory whereby at long RIs, tones are closer in time to tones on previous trials. We reject this account in the 2nd experiment, where we demonstrate that the ratio of RI to intertrial interval makes absolutely no difference to performance. We suggest that steady forgetting is consistent with a psychoacoustically derived conception of an auditory memory (the timbre memory model) that embodies time-based forgetting in the absence of feature-specific interference. PMID:22449135

  2. Encephalopathy and vestibulopathy following short-term hydrocarbon exposure.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, M J; Furman, J; Ryan, C; Durrant, J; Kern, E

    1989-01-01

    Dizziness, headaches, and weakness occurred among three men after short-term hydrocarbon exposure during improper welding procedures in a closed container. Symptoms were related to objective evidence of vestibular and cognitive dysfunction. Symptoms and abnormal test results persisted for 6 to 18 months. Simulation of the accident failed to demonstrate likely exposures except aliphatic hydrocarbons, well within the permissible exposure levels. Short-term exposures to neurotoxins may lead to long-term central nervous system abnormalities.

  3. Encephalopathy and vestibulopathy following short-term hydrocarbon exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, M.J.; Furman, J.; Ryan, C.; Durrant, J.; Kern, E.

    1989-01-01

    Dizziness, headaches, and weakness occurred among three men after short-term hydrocarbon exposure during improper welding procedures in a closed container. Symptoms were related to objective evidence of vestibular and cognitive dysfunction. Symptoms and abnormal test results persisted for 6 to 18 months. Simulation of the accident failed to demonstrate likely exposures except aliphatic hydrocarbons, well within the permissible exposure levels. Short-term exposures to neurotoxins may lead to long-term central nervous system abnormalities.

  4. Focusing on Short-Term Achievement Gains Fails to Produce Long-Term Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissmer, David W.; Ober, David R.; Beekman, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The short-term emphasis engendered by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has focused research predominantly on unraveling the complexities and uncertainties in assessing short-term results, rather than developing methods and assessing results over the longer term. In this paper we focus on estimating long-term gains and address questions important to…

  5. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the second quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates.

  6. Auditory short-term memory behaves like visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Kristina M; Kaplan, Elina; Kahana, Michael J; Sekuler, Robert

    2007-03-01

    Are the information processing steps that support short-term sensory memory common to all the senses? Systematic, psychophysical comparison requires identical experimental paradigms and comparable stimuli, which can be challenging to obtain across modalities. Participants performed a recognition memory task with auditory and visual stimuli that were comparable in complexity and in their neural representations at early stages of cortical processing. The visual stimuli were static and moving Gaussian-windowed, oriented, sinusoidal gratings (Gabor patches); the auditory stimuli were broadband sounds whose frequency content varied sinusoidally over time (moving ripples). Parallel effects on recognition memory were seen for number of items to be remembered, retention interval, and serial position. Further, regardless of modality, predicting an item's recognizability requires taking account of (1) the probe's similarity to the remembered list items (summed similarity), and (2) the similarity between the items in memory (inter-item homogeneity). A model incorporating both these factors gives a good fit to recognition memory data for auditory as well as visual stimuli. In addition, we present the first demonstration of the orthogonality of summed similarity and inter-item homogeneity effects. These data imply that auditory and visual representations undergo very similar transformations while they are encoded and retrieved from memory.

  7. Dissociation of Short-Term Forgetting from the Passage of Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, K. Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    In many theories, forgetting is closely linked to the passage of time. In the present experiments, recall in a short-term memory task was less accurate when the retention interval included a difficult arithmetic addition task, compared with an easy task. In a novel condition, the interfering task was switched from hard to easy partway through the…

  8. Accurate typing of short tandem repeats from genome-wide sequencing data and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Fungtammasan, Arkarachai; Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E.; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Sun, Chen; Harris, Robert; Medvedev, Paul; Eckert, Kristin; Makova, Kateryna D.

    2015-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are implicated in dozens of human genetic diseases and contribute significantly to genome variation and instability. Yet profiling STRs from short-read sequencing data is challenging because of their high sequencing error rates. Here, we developed STR-FM, short tandem repeat profiling using flank-based mapping, a computational pipeline that can detect the full spectrum of STR alleles from short-read data, can adapt to emerging read-mapping algorithms, and can be applied to heterogeneous genetic samples (e.g., tumors, viruses, and genomes of organelles). We used STR-FM to study STR error rates and patterns in publicly available human and in-house generated ultradeep plasmid sequencing data sets. We discovered that STRs sequenced with a PCR-free protocol have up to ninefold fewer errors than those sequenced with a PCR-containing protocol. We constructed an error correction model for genotyping STRs that can distinguish heterozygous alleles containing STRs with consecutive repeat numbers. Applying our model and pipeline to Illumina sequencing data with 100-bp reads, we could confidently genotype several disease-related long trinucleotide STRs. Utilizing this pipeline, for the first time we determined the genome-wide STR germline mutation rate from a deeply sequenced human pedigree. Additionally, we built a tool that recommends minimal sequencing depth for accurate STR genotyping, depending on repeat length and sequencing read length. The required read depth increases with STR length and is lower for a PCR-free protocol. This suite of tools addresses the pressing challenges surrounding STR genotyping, and thus is of wide interest to researchers investigating disease-related STRs and STR evolution. PMID:25823460

  9. Retrieval-Induced Inhibition in Short-Term Memory.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Suk; Choi, Joongrul

    2015-07-01

    We used a visual illusion called motion repulsion as a model system for investigating competition between two mental representations. Subjects were asked to remember two random-dot-motion displays presented in sequence and then to report the motion directions for each. Remembered motion directions were shifted away from the actual motion directions, an effect similar to the motion repulsion observed during perception. More important, the item retrieved second showed greater repulsion than the item retrieved first. This suggests that earlier retrieval exerted greater inhibition on the other item being held in short-term memory. This retrieval-induced motion repulsion could be explained neither by reduced cognitive resources for maintaining short-term memory nor by continued inhibition between short-term memory representations. These results indicate that retrieval of memory representations inhibits other representations in short-term memory. We discuss mechanisms of retrieval-induced inhibition and their implications for the structure of memory. PMID:26001735

  10. Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) Overview

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) utilizes estimated econometric relationships for demand, inventories and prices to forecast energy market outcomes across key sectors and selected regions throughout the United States.

  11. Optimal fuzzy inference for short-term load forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Hidenori

    1996-02-01

    This paper proposes an optimal fuzzy inference method for short-term load forecasting. The proposed method constructs an optimal structure of the simplified fuzzy inference that minimizes model errors and the number of the membership functions to grasp nonlinear behavior of power system short-term loads. The model is identified by simulated annealing and the steepest descent method. The proposed method is demonstrated in examples.

  12. Optimal fuzzy inference for short-term load forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Hidenori

    1995-12-31

    This paper proposes an optimal fuzzy inference method for short-term load forecasting. The proposed method constructs an optimal structure of the simplified fuzzy inference that minimizes model errors and the number of the membership functions to grasp nonlinear behavior of power system short-term loads. The model is identified by simulated annealing and the steepest descent method. The proposed method is demonstrated in examples.

  13. Comparison of very short-term load forecasting techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.; Kwan, C.; Lewis, F.L.; Subbarayan, S.; Shoults, R.R.; Manry, M.T.; Naccarino, J.

    1996-05-01

    Three practical techniques--Fuzzy Logic (FL), Neural Networks (NN), and Auto-regressive model (AR)--for very short-term load forecasting have been proposed and discussed in this paper. Their performances are evaluated through a simulation study. The preliminary study shows that it is feasible to design a simple, satisfactory dynamic forecaster to predict the very short-term load trends on-line. FL and NN can be good candidates for this application.

  14. Short-term memory and dual task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.

  15. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rather encouraging regarding the existence of both decay and capacity limits. Working memory has been conceived and defined in three different, slightly discrepant ways: as short-term memory applied to cognitive tasks, as a multi-component system that holds and manipulates information in short-term memory, and as the use of attention to manage short-term memory. Regardless of the definition, there are some measures of memory in the short term that seem routine and do not correlate well with cognitive aptitudes and other measures (those usually identified with the term “working memory”) that seem more attention demanding and do correlate well with these aptitudes. The evidence is evaluated and placed within a theoretical framework depicted in Fig. 1. PMID:18394484

  16. Transfer of Information from Short- to Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modigliani, Vito; Seamon, John G.

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined current hypotheses concerning information transfer from short-term memory (STM) to long-term memory (LTM) using a Peterson STM task with word triplets presented over retention intervals of 0, 3, 6, 9, and 18 sec. (Editor)

  17. The roles of long-term phonotactic and lexical prosodic knowledge in phonological short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Yuki; Ueno, Taiji; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Saito, Satoru

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have explored and confirmed the influence of long-term phonological representations on phonological short-term memory. In most investigations, phonological effects have been explored with respect to phonotactic constraints or frequency. If interaction between long-term memory and phonological short-term memory is a generalized principle, then other phonological characteristics-that is, suprasegmental aspects of phonology-should also exert similar effects on phonological short-term memory. We explored this hypothesis through three immediate serial-recall experiments that manipulated Japanese nonwords with respect to lexical prosody (pitch-accent type, reflecting suprasegmental characteristics) as well as phonotactic frequency (reflecting segmental characteristics). The results showed that phonotactic frequency affected the retention not only of the phonemic sequences, but also of pitch-accent patterns, when participants were instructed to recall both the phoneme sequence and accent pattern of nonwords. In addition, accent pattern typicality influenced the retention of the accent pattern: Typical accent patterns were recalled more accurately than atypical ones. These results indicate that both long-term phonotactic and lexical prosodic knowledge contribute to phonological short-term memory performance.

  18. The role of semantic knowledge in short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Forde, Emer M E; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we examine the role of stored semantic knowledge in recall from short-term memory. We assessed the performance of a patient (FK), who showed a consistent lack of semantic knowledge for some words ('unknown') but not others ('known') on a range of serial recall tasks using both spoken and written words. Overall, FK was significantly better at recalling lists of known compared with unknown words. His recall of unknown words was characterized by numerous phonological errors, such as repeating 'bear skunk' as 'bunk scare'. FK showed a relatively normal primacy effect in immediate recall, but a striking lack of a recency effect. This pattern of performance is useful for constraining theoretical accounts of language production and verbal short-term memory and for understanding the role that long-term semantic knowledge may play in maintaining information in short-term memory.

  19. Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary learning in polyglots.

    PubMed

    Papagno, C; Vallar, G

    1995-02-01

    Polyglot and non-polyglot Italian subjects were given tests assessing verbal (phonological) and visuo-spatial short-term and long-term memory, general intelligence, and vocabulary knowledge in their native language. Polyglots had a superior level of performance in verbal short-term memory tasks (auditory digit span and nonword repetition) and in a paired-associate learning test, which assessed the subjects' ability to acquire new (Russian) words. By contrast, the two groups had comparable performance levels in tasks assessing general intelligence, visuo-spatial short-term memory and learning, and paired-associate learning of Italian words. These findings, which are in line with neuropsychological and developmental evidence, as well as with data from normal subjects, suggest a close relationship between the capacity of phonological memory and the acquisition of foreign languages. PMID:7754088

  20. The Interdependence of Long- and Short-Term Components in Unmasked Repetition Priming: An Indication of Shared Resources.

    PubMed

    Merema, Matt R; Speelman, Craig P

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that unmasked repetition priming is composed of distinct long-and short-term priming components. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between these components by examining the relationship between them. A total of 60 people (45 females, 15 males) participated in a computer-based lexical decision task designed to measure levels of short-term priming across different levels of long-term priming. The results revealed an interdependent relationship between the two components, whereby an increase in long-term priming prompted a decrease in short-term priming. Both long-term and short-term priming were accurately captured by a single power function over seven minutes post repetition, suggesting the two components may draw on the same resources. This interdependence between long- and short-term priming may serve to improve fluency in reading.

  1. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the first quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  2. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  3. Language repetition and short-term memory: an integrative framework

    PubMed Central

    Majerus, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Short-term maintenance of verbal information is a core factor of language repetition, especially when reproducing multiple or unfamiliar stimuli. Many models of language processing locate the verbal short-term maintenance function in the left posterior superior temporo-parietal area and its connections with the inferior frontal gyrus. However, research in the field of short-term memory has implicated bilateral fronto-parietal networks, involved in attention and serial order processing, as being critical for the maintenance and reproduction of verbal sequences. We present here an integrative framework aimed at bridging research in the language processing and short-term memory fields. This framework considers verbal short-term maintenance as an emergent function resulting from synchronized and integrated activation in dorsal and ventral language processing networks as well as fronto-parietal attention and serial order processing networks. To-be-maintained item representations are temporarily activated in the dorsal and ventral language processing networks, novel phoneme and word serial order information is proposed to be maintained via a right fronto-parietal serial order processing network, and activation in these different networks is proposed to be coordinated and maintained via a left fronto-parietal attention processing network. This framework provides new perspectives for our understanding of information maintenance at the non-word-, word- and sentence-level as well as of verbal maintenance deficits in case of brain injury. PMID:23874280

  4. Short-term cardiac memory and mother rotor fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Baher, Ali; Qu, Zhilin; Hayatdavoudi, Ashkan; Lamp, Scott T; Yang, Ming-Jim; Xie, Fagen; Turner, Stephen; Garfinkel, Alan; Weiss, James N

    2007-01-01

    Short-term cardiac memory refers to the effects of pacing history on action potential duration (APD). Although the ionic mechanisms for short-term memory occurring over many heartbeats (also called APD accommodation) are poorly understood, they may have important effects on reentry and fibrillation. To explore this issue, we incorporated a generic memory current into the Phase I Luo and Rudy action potential model, which lacks short-term memory. The properties of this current were matched to simulate quantitatively human ventricular monophasic action potential accommodation. We show that, theoretically, short-term memory can resolve the paradox of how mother rotor fibrillation is initiated in heterogeneous tissue by physiological pacing. In simulated heterogeneous two-dimensional tissue and three-dimensional ventricles containing an inward rectifier K(+) current gradient, short-term memory could spontaneously convert multiple wavelet fibrillation to mother rotor fibrillation or to a mixture of both fibrillation types. This was due to progressive acceleration and stabilization of rotors as accumulation of memory shortened APD and flattened APD restitution slope nonuniformly throughout the tissue. PMID:16891403

  5. A Revised Model of Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Learning of Verbal Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Neil; Hitch, Graham J.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between short- and long-term memory is studied within a model in which phonemic and (temporal) contextual information have separate influences on immediate verbal serial recall via connections with short- and long-term plasticity [Burgess, N., & Hitch, G.J. (1999). Memory for serial order: a network model of the phonological loop…

  6. Correlation between short-term and long-term intraocular pressure fluctuation in glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Tojo, Naoki; Abe, Shinya; Miyakoshi, Mari; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated correlations between short-term and long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations. Methods We examined 50 eyes of glaucoma patients who were followed for >2 years. We measured short-term IOP fluctuation using a Triggerfish® contact lens sensor (CLS). The short-term IOP fluctuation (mVeq) was defined as the difference between the maximum value and the minimum value measured during the 24-hour course with CLS. The long-term IOP fluctuation was defined by four parameters: 1) the mean IOP (mmHg) determined during follow-up; 2) the IOP difference, which was defined as the difference between the maximum IOP and the minimum IOP; 3) the standard deviation of IOP; and 4) the peak IOP, which was defined as the maximum IOP. Correlations between these parameters and the short-term IOP fluctuation were examined. Results The mean follow-up period was 5.4 years. The average IOP was 15.0±4.0 mmHg. The range of short-term IOP fluctuation identified with CLS was significantly correlated with all the four long-term IOP fluctuation parameters. Conclusion Short-term IOP fluctuations were found to be associated with long-term IOP fluctuations. Examination of 24-hour IOP fluctuations with the CLS might be useful for predicting the long-term IOP fluctuation. PMID:27621590

  7. Correlation between short-term and long-term intraocular pressure fluctuation in glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Tojo, Naoki; Abe, Shinya; Miyakoshi, Mari; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated correlations between short-term and long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations. Methods We examined 50 eyes of glaucoma patients who were followed for >2 years. We measured short-term IOP fluctuation using a Triggerfish® contact lens sensor (CLS). The short-term IOP fluctuation (mVeq) was defined as the difference between the maximum value and the minimum value measured during the 24-hour course with CLS. The long-term IOP fluctuation was defined by four parameters: 1) the mean IOP (mmHg) determined during follow-up; 2) the IOP difference, which was defined as the difference between the maximum IOP and the minimum IOP; 3) the standard deviation of IOP; and 4) the peak IOP, which was defined as the maximum IOP. Correlations between these parameters and the short-term IOP fluctuation were examined. Results The mean follow-up period was 5.4 years. The average IOP was 15.0±4.0 mmHg. The range of short-term IOP fluctuation identified with CLS was significantly correlated with all the four long-term IOP fluctuation parameters. Conclusion Short-term IOP fluctuations were found to be associated with long-term IOP fluctuations. Examination of 24-hour IOP fluctuations with the CLS might be useful for predicting the long-term IOP fluctuation.

  8. Model documentation report: Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Short- Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (AYE) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). The STHGM performs a short-term (18 to 27- month) forecast of hydroelectric generation in the United States using an autoregressive integrated moving average (UREMIA) time series model with precipitation as an explanatory variable. The model results are used as input for the short-term Energy Outlook.

  9. Short-Termed Integrated Forecasting System: 1993 Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) and describe its basic properties. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Energy Department (DOE) developed the STIFS model to generate short-term (up to 8 quarters), monthly forecasts of US supplies, demands, imports exports, stocks, and prices of various forms of energy. The models that constitute STIFS generate forecasts for a wide range of possible scenarios, including the following ones done routinely on a quarterly basis: A base (mid) world oil price and medium economic growth. A low world oil price and high economic growth. A high world oil price and low economic growth. This report is written for persons who want to know how short-term energy markets forecasts are produced by EIA. The report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  10. Short-term treatment of a Central American torture survivor.

    PubMed

    Munczek, D S

    1998-01-01

    The short-term treatment of a Honduran torture survivor is recounted. Torture--the "counter-therapy of the State" (Ritterman 1987, p. 43)--involves intentional physical and psychological destruction of human beings. The socio-political context in which the traumatic events occurred is described, as are the theoretical and ethical assumptions underlying the work. Treatment of victims of organized violence is a formidable challenge. Obstacles and advantages of short-term psychotherapy and use of the therapist's emotional reactions to understand survivors' experiences are emphasized.

  11. Climax spent fuel dosimetry. Short term exposure, 8 March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Quam, W.; DeVore, T.

    1984-06-01

    The second short-term exposure (performed 8 March 1983) in Hole CFH3 at the Climax Spent Fuel Test site is described. These short-term (1 hour long) exposures are intended to provide an independent measurement of the exposure rate at the wall and the 0.51-m and 0.66-m locations. Only CaF{sub 2} TLD`s were used in the second short-term exposure. Harshaw chips were cut to 0.32 x 0.18 x 0.09 cm size and aged by several exposure/readout/bakeout cycles until all odd chips were weeded out and the remaining chips exhibited stable sensitivities. Exposure at Climax was done by removing the existing long-term dosimetry strings and inserting identical strings using the CaF{sub 2} TLD`s in the stainless steel holders. The first short-term exposure produced absorbed doses as high as {similar_to}000 rads-LiF. The linearity corrections determined for the CaF{sub 2} TLD`s at these exposure levels were {similar_to}2%. The present post-exposure calibration method used calibration doses very close to those encountered in the field.

  12. Short term UV line profile variation in 59 Cyg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Doazan, V.; Peters, G. J.; Willis, A.; Snow, T. P.; Aitken, D.; Barker, P. K.; Bolton, C. T.; Henrichs, H.; Kitchen, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    The International ultraviolet Explorer high dispersion spectra of 59 Cyg obtained as part of the long term monitoring program have shown that noticeable variation can occur in C 5 and N 5 on timescales 3 hours t24 to 28 hours. In order to begin to resolve whether these changes occur continuously or sporadically, 48 hours were devoted to monitoring this star in January 1982. The January spectra show no short term variation, which may be consistent with sporadic rather than continuous variation.

  13. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shall satisfy the definition of a short-term scholar as set forth in § 62.4. (e) Cross-cultural... shall be exempted from the requirements of providing cross-cultural activities and orientation as set... listed on the Form DS-2019 if his or her Responsible Officer issues a written authorization of...

  14. End Anchoring in Short-Term Order Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon; Lelievre, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Temporally grouping lists has systematic effects on immediate serial recall accuracy, order errors, and recall latencies, and is generally taken to reflect the use of multiple dimensions of ordering in short-term memory. It has been argued that these representations are fully relative, in that all sequence positions are anchored to both the start…

  15. A Short Term Real Time Study in Syntactic Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Maria Eugenia Lamoglia

    Recent research has shown that Brazilian Portuguese is undergoing a change regarding the null subject parameter, evolving from a null subject to a non-null subject language. This paper presents the results of a short term, real time study of speakers of Brazilian Portuguese with low and mid levels of formal education. The study was based on…

  16. The Challenge of Short-Term Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Elizabeth; Stoecker, Randy; Martin, Amy; Seblonka, Kristy; Hilgendorf, Amy; Nellis, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of interviews with staff from 64 community organizations regarding their experiences with service-learners. One of the themes that emerged from the interviews focused on concerns related to short-term service-learning commitments that last a semester or less. We explore the challenges presented to community groups…

  17. CONTROLLED, SHORT-TERM DERMAL AND INHALATION EXPOSURE TO CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted to determine the uptake by humans of chloroform as a result of controlled short-term dermal and inhalation exposures. The approach used continuous real-time breath analysis to determine exhaled-breath profiles and evaluate chloroform kinetics in the huma...

  18. A DAPHNIA MAGNA SHORT-TERM SURVIVAL AND GROWTH TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the change in acceptable test temperatures for invertebrate toxicity tests from <20oC to 25oC, it is now possible to use Daphnia magna for short-term chronic testing. When cultured at 25oC the dry weight of <24 hr old D. magna ranges from 7 to 15 g depending upon nutrition,...

  19. Exogenous Attention Influences Visual Short-Term Memory in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Oakes, Lisa M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that developing visual attentional mechanisms influence infants' Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM) in the context of multiple items. Five- and 10-month-old infants (N = 76) received a change detection task in which arrays of three differently colored squares appeared and disappeared. On each trial one square…

  20. Interference-Based Forgetting in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…

  1. Decay uncovered in nonverbal short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Tom; McKeown, Denis

    2014-02-01

    Decay theory posits that memory traces gradually fade away over the passage of time unless they are actively rehearsed. Much recent work exploring verbal short-term memory has challenged this theory, but there does appear to be evidence for trace decay in nonverbal auditory short-term memory. Numerous discrimination studies have reported a performance decline as the interval separating two tones is increased, consistent with a decay process. However, most of this tone comparison research can be explained in other ways, without reference to decay, and these alternative accounts were tested in the present study. In Experiment 1, signals were employed toward the end of extended retention intervals to ensure that listeners were alert to the presence and frequency content of the memoranda. In Experiment 2, a mask stimulus was employed in an attempt to distinguish between a highly detailed sensory trace and a longer-lasting short-term memory, and the distinctiveness of the stimuli was varied. Despite these precautions, slow-acting trace decay was observed. It therefore appears that the mere passage of time can lead to forgetting in some forms of short-term memory. PMID:23801385

  2. Validation of a Fish Short-term Reproduction Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fish Short-term Reproduction Assay is an in vivo assay conducted with fathead minnows and is designed to detect changes in spawning, gross morphology, histopathology, and specific biochemical endpoints that reflect disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis...

  3. 47 CFR 74.24 - Short-term operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the transmission of the call sign of the associated part 73 broadcast station or broadcast auxiliary... base station, a remote pickup automatic relay station, an aural broadcast STL station, an aural... to commencing short-term operation of a remote pickup broadcast station, a remote pickup...

  4. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  5. Short Term Skill Training. Alternative Approaches. Information Series No. 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Russell

    Short term skill training programs are those programs, usually one year or less, designed to train, retrain, or upgrade the skills of workers. Such programs provide an opportunity for postsecondary vocational institutions to respond to the human resource needs of their communities. A number of important policy issues are involved in the provision…

  6. Short-Term Memory Effects in Four Learning Modes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furukawa, James M.; And Others

    The effect of three levels of short-term memory (STM) and four learning modes (control, chunking organizational strategy, programmed instruction, and adjunct questions) on prose learning and recall was studied. The participants in this study were educational psychology students at Towson State College in Maryland. Significant STM and learning mode…

  7. Valuing Short-Term Study Abroad in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Chung-Ping A.; Steagall, Jeffrey W.; Gallo, Andres; Michelman, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    Short-term study abroad courses often claim to provide a unique experience for students, but it is not clear how the value translates into a dollar amount. The paper uses the contingent valuation method to assess participating students' pre- and post-trip perceived dollar value of their study abroad courses at an AACSB accredited business school.…

  8. Visual Short-Term Memory During Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerzel, Dirk; Ziegler, Nathalie E.

    2005-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) was probed while observers performed smooth pursuit eye movements. Smooth pursuit keeps a moving object stabilized in the fovea. VSTM capacity for position was reduced during smooth pursuit compared with a condition with eye fixation. There was no difference between a condition in which the items were approximately…

  9. Retention interval affects visual short-term memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Bankó, Eva M; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2010-03-01

    Humans can efficiently store fine-detailed facial emotional information in visual short-term memory for several seconds. However, an unresolved question is whether the same neural mechanisms underlie high-fidelity short-term memory for emotional expressions at different retention intervals. Here we show that retention interval affects the neural processes of short-term memory encoding using a delayed facial emotion discrimination task. The early sensory P100 component of the event-related potentials (ERP) was larger in the 1-s interstimulus interval (ISI) condition than in the 6-s ISI condition, whereas the face-specific N170 component was larger in the longer ISI condition. Furthermore, the memory-related late P3b component of the ERP responses was also modulated by retention interval: it was reduced in the 1-s ISI as compared with the 6-s condition. The present findings cannot be explained based on differences in sensory processing demands or overall task difficulty because there was no difference in the stimulus information and subjects' performance between the two different ISI conditions. These results reveal that encoding processes underlying high-precision short-term memory for facial emotional expressions are modulated depending on whether information has to be stored for one or for several seconds.

  10. Short-term energy outlook, Quarterly projections. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

  11. Short-Term Effects of Playing Computer Games on Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. Method: One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour.…

  12. A Test of Tactile Concentration and Short-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kainthola, S. D.; Singh, T. B.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty students and 45 adults with visual impairments or blindness were administered a test of tactile concentration and short-term memory involving the reproduction of the order of finger stimulation using the Finger Knocking Box. Reliability and validity scores indicated encouraging results with use of the instrument. (JDD)

  13. Relation between Intelligence and Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ronald L.; Sandberg, Tor

    1977-01-01

    Intelligence and short-term memory correlations in children were measured using probed serial recall of supraspan digit lists. Results showed the predictive power of intelligence to range from a maximum in the case of recall for recency items to practically zero in the case of primacy items. (Author/MV)

  14. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  15. Assurance of Learning in Short-Term, Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Mary L.; Gullekson, Nicole L.; McCambridge, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Business students are increasingly seeking international experience in short-term, study abroad programs to enhance their intercultural knowledge, intercultural communication skills, and global perspectives to be more competitive in the global arena. Intuitively, universities initiating these programs and the students sojourning abroad believe in…

  16. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The forecasts in this issue cover the second quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Changes to macroeconomic measures by the Bureau of Economic Analysis have been incorporated into the STIFS model used.

  17. Short-term storage of Atlantic sturgeon spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is significant interest to restore the Atlantic sturgeon, a species of concern. Biologists are interested in both the short-term storage and cryopreservation of semen to maximize availability of viable spermatozoa whenever a rare ripe female is found and available for spawning. We conducted sh...

  18. Short-Term Therapy: A Shift in Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhriman, Addie

    1992-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Steenbarger on science-practice integration in brief counseling and therapy. Considers three dimensions that emerge from the integrated analysis presented in Steenbarger's article: catalysis, involvement, and time. Discusses each of these three characteristics as they are related specifically to a short-term format.…

  19. Semantic and phonological contributions to short-term repetition and long-term cued sentence recall.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Jed A; Rose, Nathan S; Deschamps, Tiffany; Leigh, Rosie C; Panamsky, Lilia; Silberberg, Alexandra; Madani, Noushin; Links, Kira A

    2016-02-01

    The function of verbal short-term memory is supported not only by the phonological loop, but also by semantic resources that may operate on both short and long time scales. Elucidation of the neural underpinnings of these mechanisms requires effective behavioral manipulations that can selectively engage them. We developed a novel cued sentence recall paradigm to assess the effects of two factors on sentence recall accuracy at short-term and long-term stages. Participants initially repeated auditory sentences immediately following a 14-s retention period. After this task was complete, long-term memory for each sentence was probed by a two-word recall cue. The sentences were either concrete (high imageability) or abstract (low imageability), and the initial 14-s retention period was filled with either an undemanding finger-tapping task or a more engaging articulatory suppression task (Exp. 1, counting backward by threes; Exp. 2, repeating a four-syllable nonword). Recall was always better for the concrete sentences. Articulatory suppression reduced accuracy in short-term recall, especially for abstract sentences, but the sentences initially recalled following articulatory suppression were retained better at the subsequent cued-recall test, suggesting that the engagement of semantic mechanisms for short-term retention promoted encoding of the sentence meaning into long-term memory. These results provide a basis for using sentence imageability and subsequent memory performance as probes of semantic engagement in short-term memory for sentences.

  20. Business Students' Choice of Short-Term or Long-Term Study Abroad Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Stacey R.; Flanagan, David J.; Wang, Xiaodan

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a proliferation of short-term study abroad opportunities. Although they are both supplementing and replacing semester-long study abroad programs, research has focused primarily on semester (long-term) programs. We draw on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explore factors that predict why students choose long-term and…

  1. VALIDATION OF A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING LONG-TERM EXPOSURES BASED ON SHORT-TERM MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for estimating long-term exposures from short-term measurements is validated using data from a recent EPA study of exposure to fine particles. The method was developed a decade ago but long-term exposure data to validate it did not exist until recently. In this paper, ...

  2. A neural network short term load forecasting model for the Greek power system

    SciTech Connect

    Bakirtzis, A.G.; Petridis, V.; Kiartzis, S.J.; Alexiadis, M.C.; Maissis, A.H.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents the development of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based short-term load forecasting model for the Energy Control Center of the Greek Public Power Corporation (PPC). The model can forecast daily load profiles with a lead time of one to seven days. Attention was paid for the accurate modeling of holidays. Experiences gained during the development of the model regarding the selection of the input variables, the ANN structure, and the training data set are described in the paper. The results indicate that the load forecasting model developed provides accurate forecasts.

  3. Short-term load forecasting using an artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.Y.; Cha, Y.T. ); Park, J.H. )

    1992-02-01

    Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Method is applied to forecast the short-term load for a large power system. The load has two distinct patterns: weekday and weekend-day patterns. The weekend-day pattern include Saturday, Sunday, and Monday loads. In this paper a nonlinear load model is proposed and several structures of ANN for short-term load forecasting are tested. Inputs to the ANN are past loads and the output of the ANN is the load forecast for a given day. The network with one or two hidden layers are tested with various combination of neurons, and results are compared in terms of forecasting error. The neural network, when grouped into different load patterns, gives good load forecast.

  4. Short-term synaptic plasticity and heterogeneity in neural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias, J. F.; Kappen, H. J.; Longtin, A.; Torres, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    We review some recent results on neural dynamics and information processing which arise when considering several biophysical factors of interest, in particular, short-term synaptic plasticity and neural heterogeneity. The inclusion of short-term synaptic plasticity leads to enhanced long-term memory capacities, a higher robustness of memory to noise, and irregularity in the duration of the so-called up cortical states. On the other hand, considering some level of neural heterogeneity in neuron models allows neural systems to optimize information transmission in rate coding and temporal coding, two strategies commonly used by neurons to codify information in many brain areas. In all these studies, analytical approximations can be made to explain the underlying dynamics of these neural systems.

  5. Assessment of highly active dune mobility in the medium, short and very short term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Marina; Muñoz-Pérez, Juan J.; Román-Sierra, Jorge; Tsoar, Haim; Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Gómez-Pina, Gregorio

    2011-06-01

    Dune activity or stability has usually been studied over long time periods; however, this may not reflect changes that occur in the short term, especially for highly active dunefields. Extreme wind conditions that are generated near the Strait of Gibraltar (SW Spain) have given rise to the transgressive Valdevaqueros dunefield. The current work focuses on analyzing the sand drift potential and the evolution of the dune profile in the medium term (months), the short term (days) and the very short term (hours). Topographic data, which were collected with a differential GPS, were interpreted from reconstructed empirical orthogonal functions (EOF). The results showed that generally the dune profile presented shifting morphologies, especially around the crest and brink, and a trend towards migration to a gentler steady state. As a result, the leeward side adopted continuous slope variations during the different survey periods, whereas the windward slope did not undergo any significant change. Lateral and vertical displacements were analyzed during a severe easterly sandstorm, when the dune brink experienced an advance migration rate of 1.75 m in 24 h. Sand transport rates of 25.5-36.5 m 3 m - 1 month - 1 , 22.52 m 3 m - 1 day - 1 and 0.93 m 3 m - 1 h - 1 were measured for the medium term, short term and very short term, respectively. These values were compared to the theoretical sand transport rate for Valdevaqueros dune, based on the classic Bagnold equation as well other more recent formulae, to obtain a ratio between the real and the theoretical rates for each study period. These results together with the sand drift potential (up to 10,000 vector units) demonstrate that Valdevaqueros (Tarifa) is a dunefield with one of the highest sand transport capacities in Europe.

  6. 2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling impairs short-term fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Hartley, N D; Gunduz-Cinar, O; Halladay, L; Bukalo, O; Holmes, A; Patel, S

    2016-03-01

    Impairments in fear extinction are thought to be central to the psychopathology of posttraumatic stress disorder, and endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been strongly implicated in extinction learning. Here we utilized the monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 to selectively augment brain 2-AG levels combined with an auditory cue fear-conditioning paradigm to test the hypothesis that 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling modulates short-term fear extinction learning in mice. We show that systemic JZL184 impairs short-term extinction learning in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner without affecting non-specific freezing behavior or the acquisition of conditioned fear. This effect was also observed in over-conditioned mice environmentally manipulated to re-acquire fear extinction. Cumulatively, the effects of JZL184 appear to be partly due to augmentation of 2-AG signaling in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), as direct microinfusion of JZL184 into the BLA produced similar results. Moreover, we elucidate a short ~3-day temporal window during which 2-AG augmentation impairs extinction behavior, suggesting a preferential role for 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling in the modulation of short-term behavioral sequelae to acute traumatic stress exposure.

  7. 2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling impairs short-term fear extinction

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, N D; Gunduz-Cinar, O; Halladay, L; Bukalo, O; Holmes, A; Patel, S

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in fear extinction are thought to be central to the psychopathology of posttraumatic stress disorder, and endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been strongly implicated in extinction learning. Here we utilized the monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 to selectively augment brain 2-AG levels combined with an auditory cue fear-conditioning paradigm to test the hypothesis that 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling modulates short-term fear extinction learning in mice. We show that systemic JZL184 impairs short-term extinction learning in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner without affecting non-specific freezing behavior or the acquisition of conditioned fear. This effect was also observed in over-conditioned mice environmentally manipulated to re-acquire fear extinction. Cumulatively, the effects of JZL184 appear to be partly due to augmentation of 2-AG signaling in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), as direct microinfusion of JZL184 into the BLA produced similar results. Moreover, we elucidate a short ~3-day temporal window during which 2-AG augmentation impairs extinction behavior, suggesting a preferential role for 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling in the modulation of short-term behavioral sequelae to acute traumatic stress exposure. PMID:26926885

  8. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  9. Short-term memory load and pronunciation rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweickert, Richard; Hayt, Cathrin

    1988-01-01

    In a test of short-term memory recall, two subjects attempted to recall various lists. For unpracticed subjects, the time it took to read the list is a better predictor of immediate recall than the number of items on the list. For practiced subjects, the two predictors do about equally well. If the items that must be recalled are unfamiliar, it is advantageous to keep the items short to pronounce. On the other hand, if the same items will be encountered over and over again, it is advantageous to make them distinctive, even at the cost of adding to the number of syllables.

  10. Short-term and long-term within-person variability in performance: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Minbashian, Amirali; Luppino, Daniella

    2014-09-01

    Previous research on within-person variability in performance has largely examined short-term fluctuations and long-term changes in performance separately. The present study proposes a model-based on the cognitive-affective personality system meta--theory (Mischel & Shoda, 1995)--that integrates short-term and long-term performance variability within the 1 framework. Key propositions of the model include that short-term performance fluctuations are contingent on variability in situational cues and that situational cue-performance contingencies change over time. To test the propositions, performance data for 393 professional male tennis players were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. The results showed that 2 types of situational cues--resource allocation cues and task complexity--interact in complex ways to account for short-term performance variability. Moreover, as predicted, the contingency of performance on the situational cues changed over time, highlighting the importance of an integrated approach to short-term and long-term performance variability. The implications of these findings are discussed for studies of performance at work and practical applications that managers can employ to increase work performance. Furthermore, parallels are drawn with previous studies from the broader literature on dynamic job performance. PMID:25019419

  11. Speed selectivity in visual short term memory for motion.

    PubMed

    McKeefry, D J; Burton, M P; Vakrou, C

    2007-08-01

    In this study we employed a 'memory masking' paradigm to determine which stimulus attributes are important in the storage of information about the speed of moving grating stimuli in visual short term memory (VSTM). Delayed speed discrimination thresholds were measured in the presence of masking stimuli which varied in terms of their spatial and temporal frequency content. Memory masking results demonstrate that it is genuinely the speed of the stimulus, as opposed to temporal or spatial frequency content, that is crucial in the retention of information about motion in visual short term memory. The property of speed selectivity exhibited by VSTM mirrors that reported for neurons in area V5/MT, a brain area crucial for the processing of visual motion in primate brain. This link between area V5/MT and VSTM for motion is consistent with current views which suggest that there is a close association between the neural mechanisms involved in the analysis of sensory information and those involved in its retention in short term memory.

  12. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback.

  13. Verbal Short-Term Memory Reflects the Organization of Long-Term Memory: Further Evidence from Short-Term Memory for Emotional Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Many studies suggest that long-term lexical-semantic knowledge is an important determinant of verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This study explored the impact of emotional valence on word immediate serial recall as a further lexico-semantic long-term memory (LTM) effect on STM. This effect is particularly interesting for the study of…

  14. A Very Short-Term Load Forecasting of Long-Term Fluctuation Components in the Electric Power Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Seiji; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    It is indispensable to forecast accurately the very short-term load demand to avoid undesirable disturbances in power system operations which deteriorate economical generations. The authors have so far developed a short-term forecasting method by using Local Fuzzy Reconstruction Method, a variant of the methods based on the chaos theory. However, this approach is unable to give accurate forecasting results in case where load demand consecutively exceeds the historical maximum or is lower than the minimum because forecasting is performed by the historical data themselves. Also, in forecasting holidays in summer, forecasting result of weekdays might appear due to similar demand trend. This paper presents novel demand forecasting methods that are able to make accurate forecasts by resolving the above mentioned problems. First, the new method improves the accuracy by extrapolating forecasted transition from the current point. Secondly, to eliminate miss forecast which may be occurred on holidays in summer, historical data are labeled by the information of the day of the week to distinguish similarly behaved weekdays’ load patterns. The proposed methods are applied to 10, 30, and 60 minutes ahead demand forecasting, and the accuracy is improved 10% to 20% compared with the method previously proposed.

  15. Terrestrial short-term ecotoxicity of a green formicide.

    PubMed

    Tiepo, Erasmo N; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Resgalla, Charrid; Cotelle, Sylvie; Férard, Jean-François; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2010-07-01

    When ants become annoying, large quantities of formicide are applied to terrestrial ecosystems in tropical regions, but awareness of the health and environmental impacts related to the use of synthetic pesticides has been increasing. The use of green pesticides to combat target organisms could reduce these impacts. In this regard, terrestrial ecotoxicity tests with higher plants (Brassica olaracea, Lactuca sativa and Mucuna aterrima), annelids (Eisenia foetida), Collembola (Folsomia candida) and soil enzyme activity analysis (diacetate fluorescein hydrolysis) were used to evaluate short-term terrestrial ecotoxicity of a green pesticide prepared from naturally-occurring organic compounds. At the highest formicide concentration tested in these experiments (i.e., 50 g kg(-1) soil) no toxicity toward terrestrial organisms was observed. The lack of short-term terrestrial ecotoxicity suggest that this green formicide can be classed as an environmentally friendly product as compared to the ecotoxicity of the most commonly used commercialized formicides.

  16. SHORT-TERM N215-INCORPORATION BY AZOTOBACTER1

    PubMed Central

    Bulen, W. A.; LeComte, J. R.; Bales, H. E.

    1963-01-01

    Bulen, W. A. (Charles F. Kettering Research Laboratory, Yellow Springs, Ohio), J. R. LeComte, and H. E. Bales. Short-term N215-incorporation by Azotobacter. J. Bacteriol. 85:666–670. 1963.—Short-term N215-incorporation measurements were used to determine which of the growth requirements were necessary for nitrogen fixation by Azotobacter agilis (A. vinelandii). Normal cells required neither added iron nor molybdenum, but a marked stimulation by Na+ and a minor stimulation by Mg2+ were observed. The Na+ stimulation was not accompanied by an increase in O2 uptake. A lag period preceded the response of molybdenum-deficient cells to added Mo. In systems employing 10 and 20% O2 with 10% N215 in the gas phase, O2 appeared to be both required and inhibitory. These observations may be helpful in attempts to fractionate cell-free nitrogen-fixing systems from this aerobe. PMID:14042947

  17. Vasopressin analogues and spatial short-term memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Buresová, O; Skopková, J

    1980-01-01

    The effect of vasopressin analogues on short-term memory was tested in the 12-arm radical maze. After the first 6 choices rat (n = 16) were removed from the apparatus and allowed to complete the remaining 6 choices 20 min later. Whereas desgly-NH2-VP, AVP, dAVP and dDAVP (3.0 mu/kg) administered 40 min before or immediately after the first 6 choices did not change the incidence of errors in the second series of choices (2.0 errors under control conditions), similarly applied dDAVP deteriorated the rat's performance almost to the chance level of 3 errors. The significance of short-term memory tests for assessing the mnestic role of peptide hormones is stressed.

  18. Short-term case mix management with linear programming.

    PubMed

    Hughes, W L; Soliman, S Y

    1985-01-01

    One short-term economic incentive created by a prospective payment system based on diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) is for hospital managers to optimally and efficiently use the hospital's current mix of services to maximize net contribution. DRGs provide a managerial definition of the hospital's product by determining the number of patients discharged within each of the 467 groupings. Thus, the DRG case mix can be thought of as the hospital's product mix. As in major industry, linear programming models may prove useful in determining the hospital's financially optimal case mix. This article provides a framework for applying the linear programming concept to case mix planning in the hospital setting. It also presents an illustration and interpretation of a linear programming model that provides information about the short-term optimal case mix.

  19. Short-term hydroelectric generation model. Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models.

  20. An ethics curriculum for short-term global health trainees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues. Methods We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, “Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training.” The curriculum was developed through solicitation of actual ethical issues experienced by trainees and program leaders; content drafting; and external content review. It was then evaluated from November 1, 2011, through July 1, 2012, by analyzing web usage data and by conducting user surveys. The survey included basic demographic data; prior experience in global health and global health ethics; and assessment of cases within the curriculum. Results The ten case curriculum is freely available at http://ethicsandglobalhealth.org. An average of 238 unique visitors accessed the site each month (standard deviation, 19). Of users who had been abroad before for global health training or service, only 31% reported prior ethics training related to short-term work. Most users (62%) reported accessing the site via personal referral or their training program; however, a significant number (28%) reported finding the site via web search, and 8% discovered it via web links. Users represented different fields: medicine (46%), public health (15%), and nursing (11%) were most common. All cases in the curriculum were evaluated favorably. Conclusions The curriculum is meeting a critical need for an introduction to the ethical issues in short-term global health training. Future work will integrate this curriculum within more comprehensive curricula for global health and evaluate specific knowledge and behavioral effects, including at training sites abroad. PMID:23410089

  1. Electricity price short-term forecasting using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Szkuta, B.R.; Sanabria, L.A.; Dillon, T.S.

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents the System Marginal Price (SMP) short-term forecasting implementation using the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) computing technique. The described approach uses the three-layered ANN paradigm with back-propagation. The retrospective SMP real-world data, acquired from the deregulated Victorian power system, was used for training and testing the ANN. The results presented in this paper confirm considerable value of the ANN based approach in forecasting the SMP.

  2. "Short and long-term therapies in psychosomatic disorders".

    PubMed

    Philippopoulos, G S

    Narcoanalysis (narcosynthesis) as well as psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy (psychoanalytic psychotherapy) are both, in my opinion, practical and useful short-term methods of therapy in psychosomatic disorders. Psychoanalytic psychoterapy may also be used as an alternative to narcoanalysis when the latter method decisively fails the therapist. In selecting candidates for psychotherapy in psychosomatic practice, 3 essential factors should be taken into consideration, viz. the time of onset of the illness, the patient's personality structure and his intellectual capacities. PMID:1052268

  3. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Isserlin, Ruth; Arab, Sara; Momen, Abdul; Cheng, Henry S.; Wu, Jun; Afroze, Talat; Li, Ren-Ke; Fish, Jason E.; Bader, Gary D.; Husain, Mansoor

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR). Background Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia. Methods Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL) diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d), prior to myocardial infarction (MI) via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV) of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR) analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI. Results This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01). mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group) identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM). Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX) IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38). CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function. PMID:26098549

  4. Short-term energy outlook. Volume 2. Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-05-01

    Recent changes in forecasting methodology for nonutility distillate fuel oil demand and for the near-term petroleum forecasts are discussed. The accuracy of previous short-term forecasts of most of the major energy sources published in the last 13 issues of the Outlook is evaluated. Macroeconomic and weather assumptions are included in this evaluation. Energy forecasts for 1983 are compared. Structural change in US petroleum consumption, the use of appropriate weather data in energy demand modeling, and petroleum inventories, imports, and refinery runs are discussed.

  5. Short-term memory deficit after focal parietal damage.

    PubMed

    Markowitsch, H J; Kalbe, E; Kessler, J; von Stockhausen, H M; Ghaemi, M; Heiss, W D

    1999-12-01

    The neuropsychological symptomatology is reported for a 44-year-old patient of normal intelligence, EE, after removal of a circumscribed left hemispheric tumor the major part of which was located in the angular gyrus and in the subcortical white matter. EE had a distinct and persistent short-term memory impairment together with an equally severe impairment in transcoding numbers. On the other hand, his performance was flawless in calculation tasks and in all other tests involving number processing. Impairments in language tests could be attributed to his short-term memory deficit, which furthermore was characterized by a strong primacy effect in the absence of a recency effect. His graphomotoric output was temporarily inhibited. The patient, with a strong left-sided dominance, manifested a bi-hemispherical activation of the Broca and Wernicke regions in a positron-emission-tomographic investigation when required to produce verbs which he was to derive from nouns. The findings in EE suggest that unilateral and restricted lateral parietal damage can result in a profound short-term memory deficit together with a transcoding deficit for stimuli extending over only a few digits or syllables in the absence of any symptoms of the Gerstmann syndrome.

  6. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  7. Does tonality boost short-term memory in congenital amusia?

    PubMed

    Albouy, Philippe; Schulze, Katrin; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. Recent findings have demonstrated that this deficit is linked to an impaired short-term memory for tone sequences. As it has been shown before that non-musicians' implicit knowledge of musical regularities can improve short-term memory for tone information, the present study investigated if this type of implicit knowledge could also influence amusics' short-term memory performance. Congenital amusics and their matched controls, who were non-musicians, had to indicate whether sequences of five tones, presented in pairs, were the same or different; half of the pairs respected musical regularities (tonal sequences) and the other half did not (atonal sequences). As previously reported for non-musician participants, the control participants showed better performance (as measured with d') for tonal sequences than for atonal ones. While this improvement was not observed in amusics, both control and amusic participants showed faster response times for tonal sequences than for atonal sequences. These findings suggest that some implicit processing of tonal structures is potentially preserved in congenital amusia. This observation is encouraging as it strengthens the perspective to exploit implicit knowledge to help reducing pitch perception and memory deficits in amusia. PMID:24041778

  8. Robust short-term memory without synaptic learning.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Samuel; Marro, J; Torres, Joaquín J

    2013-01-01

    Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can--as a gradual modification of synaptic weights--since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds). The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings. PMID:23349664

  9. An approach to distribution short-term load forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Gaustad, K.L.

    1995-03-01

    This paper reports on the developments and findings of the Distribution Short-Term Load Forecaster (DSTLF) research activity. The objective of this research is to develop a distribution short-term load forecasting technology consisting of a forecasting method, development methodology, theories necessary to support required technical components, and the hardware and software tools required to perform the forecast The DSTLF consists of four major components: monitored endpoint load forecaster (MELF), nonmonitored endpoint load forecaster (NELF), topological integration forecaster (TIF), and a dynamic tuner. These components interact to provide short-term forecasts at various points in the, distribution system, eg., feeder, line section, and endpoint. This paper discusses the DSTLF methodology and MELF component MELF, based on artificial neural network technology, predicts distribution endpoint loads for an hour, a day, and a week in advance. Predictions are developed using time, calendar, historical load, and weather data. The overall DSTLF architecture and a prototype MELF module for retail endpoints have been developed. Future work will be focused on refining and extending MELF and developing NELF and TIF capabilities.

  10. Short-term memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jia, Jason; Fernandes, Yohaan; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-08-15

    Learning and memory represent perhaps the most complex behavioral phenomena. Although their underlying mechanisms have been extensively analyzed, only a fraction of the potential molecular components have been identified. The zebrafish has been proposed as a screening tool with which mechanisms of complex brain functions may be systematically uncovered. However, as a relative newcomer in behavioral neuroscience, the zebrafish has not been well characterized for its cognitive and mnemonic features, thus learning and/or memory screens with adults have not been feasible. Here we study short-term memory of adult zebrafish. We show animated images of conspecifics (the stimulus) to the experimental subject during 1 min intervals on ten occasions separated by different (2, 4, 8 or 16 min long) inter-stimulus intervals (ISI), a between subject experimental design. We quantify the distance of the subject from the image presentation screen during each stimulus presentation interval, during each of the 1-min post-stimulus intervals immediately following the stimulus presentations and during each of the 1-min intervals furthest away from the last stimulus presentation interval and just before the next interval (pre-stimulus interval), respectively. Our results demonstrate significant retention of short-term memory even in the longest ISI group but suggest no acquisition of reference memory. Because in the employed paradigm both stimulus presentation and behavioral response quantification is computer automated, we argue that high-throughput screening for drugs or mutations that alter short-term memory performance of adult zebrafish is now becoming feasible.

  11. Robust Short-Term Memory without Synaptic Learning

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Samuel; Marro, J.; Torres, Joaquín J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can – as a gradual modification of synaptic weights – since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds). The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings. PMID:23349664

  12. 24 CFR 576.106 - Short-term and medium-term rental assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under 24 CFR part 888, and complies with HUD's standard of rent reasonableness, as established under 24 CFR 982.507. (2) For purposes of calculating rent under this section, the rent shall equal the sum of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short-term and medium-term...

  13. 24 CFR 576.106 - Short-term and medium-term rental assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under 24 CFR part 888, and complies with HUD's standard of rent reasonableness, as established under 24 CFR 982.507. (2) For purposes of calculating rent under this section, the rent shall equal the sum of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Short-term and medium-term...

  14. 24 CFR 576.106 - Short-term and medium-term rental assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under 24 CFR part 888, and complies with HUD's standard of rent reasonableness, as established under 24 CFR 982.507. (2) For purposes of calculating rent under this section, the rent shall equal the sum of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short-term and medium-term...

  15. VALIDATION OF A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING LONG-TERM EXPOSURES BASED ON SHORT-TERM MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for estimating long-term exposures from short-term measurements is validated using data from a recent EPA study of exposure to fine particles. The method was developed a decade ago but data to validate it did not exist until recently. In this paper, data from repeated ...

  16. The interaction of short-term and long-term memory in phonetic category formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnsberger, James D.

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the role that short-term memory capacity plays in the relationship between novel stimuli (e.g., non-native speech sounds, native nonsense words) and phonetic categories in long-term memory. Thirty native speakers of American English were administered five tests: categorial AXB discrimination using nasal consonants from Malayalam; categorial identification, also using Malayalam nasals, which measured the influence of phonetic categories in long-term memory; digit span; nonword span, a short-term memory measure mediated by phonetic categories in long-term memory; and paired-associate word learning (word-word and word-nonword pairs). The results showed that almost all measures were significantly correlated with one another. The strongest predictor for the discrimination and word-nonword learning results was nonword (r=+0.62) and digit span (r=+0.51), respectively. When the identification test results were partialed out, only nonword span significantly correlated with discrimination. The results show a strong influence of short-term memory capacity on the encoding of phonetic detail within phonetic categories and suggest that long-term memory representations regulate the capacity of short-term memory to preserve information for subsequent encoding. The results of this study will also be discussed with regards to resolving the tension between episodic and abstract models of phonetic category structure.

  17. Short-term Action Intentions Overrule Long-Term Semantic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Elk, M.; van Schie, H.T.; Bekkering, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the preparation of an unusual action with an object (e.g. bringing a cup towards the eye) could selectively overrule long-term semantic representations. In the first experiment it was found that unusual action intentions activated short-term semantic goal representations, rather than long-term…

  18. Comparison of jobs, exposures, and mortality risks for short-term and long-term workers

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, P.A.; Schairer, C.; Blair, A. )

    1990-08-01

    We compared the jobs, estimates of exposures, and mortality experience of short-term (less than or equal to 1 year) and long-term (greater than 1 year) workers from nine plants producing formaldehyde or formaldehyde products. There were few jobs that were filled solely or primarily by newly hired workers. The estimated median level of formaldehyde exposure experienced by short-term workers on their first job was nearly identical to that for long-term workers, although short-term workers were more likely to be in jobs exposed to particulates than were long-term workers. As duration of employment increased, there was little change in the average estimated exposure level of formaldehyde, but the likelihood of being exposed to particulates decreased. Short-term workers had greater risks than long-term workers of dying from diseases of the circulatory system, arteriosclerotic heart disease, emphysema, diseases of the digestive system, cirrhosis of the liver, motor vehicle accidents, suicide and malignant neoplasms, particularly cancers of the stomach, colon, lung, prostate, and brain.

  19. A mathematical approach for predicting long-term indoor radon concentrations from short-term measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ahmady, K.K.; Hintenlang, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Assessment of long-term radon concentrations from short-term testing results are of significant importance when radon risk assessment and liability issues are considered. These issues are based on the figure of annual exposure to indoor radon while radon measurement practices are mainly followed the EPA short-term testing protocols. A mathematical framework has been developed that facilities non-statistical approach to construct the relationship between the short-term indoor radon measurements and the long term annual indoor radon levels. This approach was based on the application of the time-dependent indoor radon concentrations calculated from the corresponding contributions of indoor radon driving forces for different time periods having a reference starting time. The approach utilizes an analytical procedure that is based on the solutions of the mass balance equation for the radon gas in the indoor environment. The solutions are applied through semi-analytical modeling of time-dependent indoor radon concentrations. This treatment provides a powerful tool and procedure to assess long-term indoor radon concentrations from short-term testing results.

  20. Short-term action intentions overrule long-term semantic knowledge.

    PubMed

    van Elk, M; van Schie, H T; Bekkering, H

    2009-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the preparation of an unusual action with an object (e.g. bringing a cup towards the eye) could selectively overrule long-term semantic representations. In the first experiment it was found that unusual action intentions activated short-term semantic goal representations, rather than long-term conceptual associations. In a second experiment the reversal of long-term priming effects was replicated, while reducing the need for internal verbalization as a possible strategy to accomplish the task. Priming effects in the first two experiments were found to involve the selection of object knowledge at a semantic level, rather than reflecting a general effect of action preparation on word processing (Experiment 3). Finally, in a fourth experiment short-term priming effects were shown to extend beyond a lexical level by showing faster responses to pictures representing the short-term action goal. Together, the present findings extend the 'selection-for-action' principle previously used in visual attention to a semantic level, by showing that semantic information is selectively activated in line with the short-term goal of the actor.

  1. Musical and Verbal Memory in Alzheimer's Disease: A Study of Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Marie-Claude; Belleville, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal…

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Key drivers for EIA's short-term U.S. crude oil production outlook

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil production increased by 790,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) between 2011 and 2012, the largest increase in annual output since the beginning of U.S. commercial crude oil production in 1859. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects U.S. crude oil production to continue rising over the next two years represented in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  3. The role of short-term memory in semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Beer, A L; Diehl, V A

    2001-07-01

    Two theories of priming were compared: spreading activation theories, in particular ACT, and compound-cue theories. Whereas ACT assumes that priming is a result of diffusing activation in long-term memory, compound-cue models suggest that priming results from a formation process of prime and target in short-term memory. Thirty-eight participants took part in a study that combined a digit span task with a double lexical decision task consisting of a prime and a target item. Digit span length (low, medium, and high) and prime type (related or unrelated word or nonword) were both within-subject variables. As expected, results showed significant priming effects. In favor of ACT, no interaction between digit span length and prime type was found. Additionally, a nonword inhibition effect (unrelated versus nonword prime) was found, which was predicted by compound-cue theories. This finding is discussed in terms of the process interference and response competition hypotheses.

  4. Long- and short-term temperature responses of microbially-mediated boreal soil organic matter transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K.; Buckeridge, K. M.; Edwards, K. A.; Ziegler, S. E.; Billings, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Microorganisms use exoenzymes to decay soil organic matter into assimilable substrates, some of which are transformed into CO2. Microbial CO2 efflux contributes up to 60% of soil respiration, a feature that can change with temperature due to altered exoenzyme activities (short-term) and microbial communities producing different exoenzymes (longer-term). Often, however, microbial temperature responses are masked by factors that also change with temperature in soil, making accurate projections of microbial CO2 efflux with warming challenging. Using soils along a natural climate gradient similar in most respects except for temperature regime (Newfoundland Labrador Boreal Ecosystem Latitudinal Transect), we investigated short-vs. long-term temperature responses of microbially-mediated organic matter transformations. While incubating soils at 5, 15, and 25°C for 84 days, we measured exoenzyme activities, CO2 efflux rates and biomass, and extracted DNA at multiple times. We hypothesized that short-term, temperature-induced increases in exoenzyme activities and CO2 losses would be smaller in soils from warmer regions, because microbes presumably adapted to warmer regions should use assimilable substrates more efficiently and thus produce exoenzymes at a lower rate. While incubation temperature generally induced greater exoenzyme activities (p<0.001), exoenzymes' temperature responses depended on enzymes and regions (p<0.001). Rate of CO2 efflux was affected by incubation temperature (P<0.001), but not by region. Microbial biomass and DNA sequencing will reveal how microbial community abundance and composition change with short-vs. longer-term temperature change. Though short-term microbial responses to temperature suggest higher CO2 efflux and thus lower efficiency of resource use with warming, longer-term adaptations of microbial communities to warmer climates remain unknown; this work helps fill that knowledge gap.

  5. Short-term energy outlook, Annual supplement 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-25

    This supplement is published once a year as a complement to the Short- Term Energy Outlook, Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts. Chap. 2 analyzes the response of the US petroleum industry to the recent four Federal environmental rules on motor gasoline. Chap. 3 compares the EIA base or mid case energy projections for 1995 and 1996 (as published in the first quarter 1995 Outlook) with recent projections made by four other major forecasting groups. Chap. 4 evaluates the overall accuracy. Chap. 5 presents the methology used in the Short- Term Integrated Forecasting Model for oxygenate supply/demand balances. Chap. 6 reports theoretical and empirical results from a study of non-transportation energy demand by sector. The empirical analysis involves the short-run energy demand in the residential, commercial, industrial, and electrical utility sectors in US.

  6. Similarity as an organising principle in short-term memory.

    PubMed

    LeCompte, D C; Watkins, M J

    1993-03-01

    The role of stimulus similarity as an organising principle in short-term memory was explored in a series of seven experiments. Each experiment involved the presentation of a short sequence of items that were drawn from two distinct physical classes and arranged such that item class changed after every second item. Following presentation, one item was re-presented as a probe for the 'target' item that had directly followed it in the sequence. Memory for the sequence was considered organised by class if probability of recall was higher when the probe and target were from the same class than when they were from different classes. Such organisation was found when one class was auditory and the other was visual (spoken vs. written words, and sounds vs. pictures). It was also found when both classes were auditory (words spoken in a male voice vs. words spoken in a female voice) and when both classes were visual (digits shown in one location vs. digits shown in another). It is concluded that short-term memory can be organised on the basis of sensory modality and on the basis of certain features within both the auditory and visual modalities.

  7. Customer short term load forecasting by using ARIMA transfer function model

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, M.Y.; Hwang, J.C.; Chen, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    Short-term load forecasting plays an important role in electric power system operation and planning. An accurate load forecasting not only reduces the generation cost in a power system, but also provides a good principle of effective operation. In this paper, the ARIMA model and transfer function model are applied to the short-term load forecasting by considering weather-load relationship. For four types of customer in Taiwan power (Taipower) system, residential load, commercial load, office load and industrial load customers, the summer ARIMA model transfer function model have been derived to proceed the short-term load forecasting during one week. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, this paper compares the results of the transfer function model and the univariate ARIMA model with conventional regression. Besides, the transfer function model`s accuracy of the load forecast on weekday and weekend is thoroughly investigated. To improve the accuracy level of load forecast, the temperature effect is considered in the transfer function. According to the short-term load forecasting for these four customer classes, it is concluded that the proposed method can achieve better accuracy of load forecast than ARIMA model by considering the causality between power consumption and temperature.

  8. The Short-term Clinical Outcome of Total Hip Arthroplasty Using Short Metaphyseal Loading Femoral Stem

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the short-term clinical and radiological outcomes of total hip arthroplasty (THA) with short metaphyseal loading femoral stem. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 56 cases in 47 patients who had undergone THA with short metaphyseal loading femoral stem from April 2010 to December 2011. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mean age was 54 years (range, 26-77 years). The average follow up period was 4.6 years. Clinical results were evaluated by Harris hip scores (HHS) before the operation and at the last follow-up. Radiographic analysis was done by evaluating osteolysis, loosening, stress shielding, and alignement. Results The mean HHS significantly improved from 45 (range, 15-58) preoperatively to 98 (range, 85-100) at the last follow-up. In radiographic analyses, there was no evidence of osteolysis or loosening around the stems and the acetabuluar components. All cases showed rounding off of the calcar, grade 1 bone resorption of the proximal femur. With regard to implant alignment, 51 femoral component (91.1%) were in neutral position, and 5 (8.9%) were in varus position. There was 1 intraoperative fracture treated by cerclage wiring and no case was revised during follow-up period. Conclusion Although longer follow-up is needed to confirm the durability of the short metaphyseal loading femoral stem, this short stem might provide stable fixation without diaphyseal fixation and demonstrated good clinical result at mean 4.6 year short term follow-up. PMID:27536649

  9. Interactions between short-term and long-term cardiovascular control mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, Dirk; Frank, Birgit; Götze, Christine; Stein, Phyllis K.; Żebrowski, Jan J.; Baranowski, Rafal; Palacios, Manuel; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Caminal, Pere; Bayés de Luna, Anthony; Schmidt, Georg; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2007-03-01

    The cardiovascular system incorporates several controlling mechanisms acting as feedback loops over different time horizons. Because of their complex interrelationships, information-based methods such as autonomic information flow (AIF) functions promise to be useful in identifying normal and pathological behavior. Optimal adjustment between those controllers is necessary for healthy global behavior of the organism. We investigated the question as to whether there are typical relationships between short-term and long-term AIF by means of a meta-analysis of several of our own clinical studies of the mortality of patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, heart failure, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, and the length of stay in hospital after abdominal aorta surgery. We found a fundamental association of increased short-term randomness (decreased AIF) and decreased long-term randomness (increased AIF) due to pathology. A systems theoretic validation of this fundamental type of association was done by an appropriate mathematical model using a dissipative system with two feedback loops over different time horizons. The systematic simulation of an increasing collapse of the short feedback loop confirmed the inverse association between short-term and long-term information flow as a fundamental, system inherent type of readjustment that occurs under pathological conditions.

  10. Short Term Electricity Storage For CPV Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrumaux, C.; Auberton, A.; Gombert, A.; Heile, I.; Röttger, M.

    2011-12-01

    An initial analysis of short term electricity storage for CPV power plants is performed with respect to its functions "power output smoothing" and "end of day energy production". First, the different storage technologies are shortly discussed. Then charge and discharge of the storage device of a model CPV plant is studied by using measured DNI data for selected days at a good CPV location. The selection of days is done according to their average DNI per day classification. The power to energy ratio of the storage, the allowed minimum state of charge (SOC) and the requested power from the storage are the varying parameters of the study. With increasing capacity of the storage, the requirements can be best fulfilled with the used initial storage strategies but the power output is shifted significantly.

  11. Accurate mass measurements of short-lived isotopes with the MISTRAL* rf spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Toader, C.; Audi, G.; Doubre, H.; Jacotin, M.; Henry, S.; Kepinski, J.-F.; Le Scornet, G.; Lunney, D.; Monsanglant, C.; Saint Simon, M. de; Thibault, C.; Borcea, C.; Duma, M.; Lebee, G.

    1999-01-15

    The MISTRAL* experiment has measured its first masses at ISOLDE. Installed in May 1997, this radiofrequency transmission spectrometer is to concentrate on nuclides with particularly short half-lives. MISTRAL received its first stable beam in October and first radioactive beam in November 1997. These first tests, with a plasma ion source, resulted in excellent isobaric separation and reasonable transmission. Further testing and development enabled first data taking in July 1998 on neutron-rich Na isotopes having half-lives as short as 31 ms.

  12. Short term dynamics of the debris-covered Miage Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyffe, Catriona; Brock, Ben; Kirkbride, Martin; Mair, Doug; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina

    2016-04-01

    Due to the often inaccessible nature of debris-covered glaciers, studies of their dynamics tend to be restricted to those using remotely sensed data. This paper presents data on the short-term glacier dynamics of the debris-covered Miage Glacier, Western Italian Alps. The glacier velocity was calculated from repeat occupation of up to 22 points using a differential GPS system over two melt seasons. Meteorological, hydrological and water chemistry data were collected over the same time periods, and the nature of the hydrological system was studied using dye tracing, to allow the short term variations in glacier dynamics to be understood in terms of the likely glacial drainage system and its evolution. The highest glacier velocities and the greatest velocity variability was found near to where a cluster of moulins enter the glacier, close to the limit of continuous debris cover. The melt from the clean and dirty ice occasionally led to inputs overcoming the channelized system (both in spring and mid-summer), leading to increased velocities. On the debris-covered lower glacier however velocities were lower and less variable, and significant speed-up was confined to a period when subglacial water was thought to have been transferred subglacially from higher upglacier. The subdued sub-debris melt signal is thought to be the cause of the reduced velocity variability, in spite of the hydrological system beneath this part of the glacier remaining inefficient.

  13. Attention Problems, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Visuospatial Short-Term Memory: Differential Effects on Near- and Long-Term Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarver, Dustin E.; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Scanlan, Sean W.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Altro, Thomas A.; Bolden, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in children's phonological and visuospatial short-term memory as potential mediators of the relationship among attention problems and near- and long-term scholastic achievement. Nested structural equation models revealed that teacher-reported attention problems were associated negatively with…

  14. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the fourth quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook.

  15. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, second quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the first quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the second quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). 34 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. Auditory short-term memory in the Japanese monkey.

    PubMed

    Kojima, S

    1985-01-01

    Auditory short-term memory in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) was studied using a GO/NO GO auditory delayed matching to sample task. Three temporal parameters: delay interval, intertrial interval and sample stimulus duration were manipulated. Delayed matching performance deteriorated as the delay interval was lengthened, and reached a near chance level at 16 sec. Longer intertrial intervals and sample duration ameliorated performance. When the number of the sample stimulus was increased to 3 tones to examine a serial position effect, a primary effect was not observed, although a recency effect was obtained. The fragility of auditory delayed matching performance was discussed.

  18. Improving digit span assessment of short-term verbal memory.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Kishiyamaa, Mark M; Lund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Edwards, Ben; Poliva, Oren; Hink, Robert F; Reed, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    We measured digit span (DS) in two experiments that used computerized presentation of randomized auditory digits with performance-adapted list length adjustment. A new mean span (MS) metric of DS was developed that showed reduced variance, improved test-retest reliability, and higher correlations with the results of other neuropsychological test results when compared to traditional DS measures. The MS metric also enhanced the sensitivity of forward versus backward span comparisons, enabled the development of normative performance criteria with subdigit precision, and elucidated changes in DS performance with age and education level. Computerized stimulus delivery and improved scoring metrics significantly enhance the precision of DS assessments of short-term verbal memory.

  19. Short-term prospective spirometric study of new coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, J.L.; Hodous, T.K.

    1982-09-01

    This study examined prospectively a small cohort (N=116) of new coal miners with questionnaires and spirometry. Data collection began just prior to underground employment and extended over a two year period at 6 month intervals to address the question or short-term adverse occupational pulmonary effects and their relationship to outward migration from the industry. A comparison of the initial (unexposed) and six month (exposed) changes in lung function over the work shift was also conducted to detect an acute effect due to dust, which might be related to chronic decline in lung function.

  20. Short-term bioconcentration studies of Np in freshwater biota

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Simmons, M.A. )

    1990-12-01

    Short-term laboratory exposures were conducted to determine the potential accumulation of Np in aquatic organisms. Concentration factors were highest in green algae. Daphnia magna, a filter-feeding crustacean, accumulated Np at levels one order of magnitude greater than the amphipod Gammarus sp., an omnivorous substrate feeder. Accumulation of Np in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was highest in carcass (generally greater than 78% of the total body burden) and lowest in fillets. Recommended concentration factors for Np, based on fresh weight, were 300 for green algae, 100 for filter-feeding invertebrates, for nonfilter-feeding invertebrates, 10 for whole fish, and one for fish flesh.

  1. Short-term electric load forecasting using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, E.; Bartlett, E.

    1993-12-31

    Short-term electric load forecasting (STELF) plays an important role in electric utilities, and several techniques are used to perform these predictions and system modelings. Recently, artificial neural networks (ANN`s) have been implemented for STELF with some success. This paper will examine improved STELF by optimization of ANN techniques. The strategy for the research involves careful selection of input variables and utilization of effective generalization. Some results have been obtained which show that, with the selection of another input variable, the ANN`s use for STELF can be improved.

  2. Conversion of short-term to long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm.

    PubMed

    Moore, Shannon J; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Stinnett, Gwen S; Seasholtz, Audrey F; Murphy, Geoffrey G

    2013-10-01

    It is well-known that stress can significantly impact learning; however, whether this effect facilitates or impairs the resultant memory depends on the characteristics of the stressor. Investigation of these dynamics can be confounded by the role of the stressor in motivating performance in a task. Positing a cohesive model of the effect of stress on learning and memory necessitates elucidating the consequences of stressful stimuli independently from task-specific functions. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating a task-independent stressor (elevated light level) on short-term and long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm. Short-term memory was elicited in both low light and high light conditions, but long-term memory specifically required high light conditions during the acquisition phase (familiarization trial) and was independent of the light level during retrieval (test trial). Additionally, long-term memory appeared to be independent of stress-mediated glucocorticoid release, as both low and high light produced similar levels of plasma corticosterone, which further did not correlate with subsequent memory performance. Finally, both short-term and long-term memory showed no savings between repeated experiments suggesting that this novel object recognition paradigm may be useful for longitudinal studies, particularly when investigating treatments to stabilize or enhance weak memories in neurodegenerative diseases or during age-related cognitive decline.

  3. Short- and Long-Term Outcomes for Extremely Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ravi Mangal

    2016-02-01

    Prematurity is the leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. In developed countries, extremely preterm infants contribute disproportionately to both neonatal and infant mortality. Survival of this high-risk population has incrementally improved in recent years. Despite these improvements, approximately one in four extremely preterm infants dies during the birth hospitalization. Among those who survive, respiratory and other morbidities are common, although their effect on quality of life is variable. In addition, long-term neurodevelopmental impairment is a large concern for patients, clinicians, and families. However, the interplay of multiple factors contributes to neurodevelopmental impairment, with measures that change over time and outcomes that can be difficult to define and predict. Understanding outcomes of extremely preterm infants can help better counsel families regarding antenatal and postnatal care and guide strategies to improve survival without morbidity. This review summarizes recent evidence to provide an overview into the short- and long-term outcomes for extremely preterm infants.

  4. No temporal decay in verbal short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Oberauer, Klaus; Brown, Gordon D A

    2009-03-01

    Many models of short-term memory (STM) ascribe an important role to temporal decay and forgetting because of the passage of time alone. We argue against decay as the primary form of forgetting from STM, and suggest that new experimental methodologies and recent models provide new perspectives on the old issue of the causes of forgetting. We show that several classic sources of evidence for time-based forgetting can be re-interpreted in terms of an interference-based view, and that new experiments provide compelling evidence against decay. We conclude that progress requires moving beyond demonstrations of qualitative effects and focusing instead on testing quantitative predictions of models. PMID:19223224

  5. Cash benefits for short-term sickness, 1948--76.

    PubMed

    Price, D N

    1978-10-01

    National income-maintenance programs provide cash benefits when workers become unemployed, retire, are injured on the job, have a long-term disability, or die. For short-term sickness, however, only five States, one other jurisdiction, and a single industry require wage-replacement protection. Voluntary plans cover a substantial number of additional workers, including many whose protection was established through labor-management negotiations. In this annual update of estimates on the extent of protection provided, many of the historical statistics have been revised back to 1967 as a result of new information on the amount of sick-leave benefits paid to employees of the Federal Government. The effects of the new data on the benefit series are examined, as are trends in the provision of sickness benefits for maternity--an issue subject to considerable recent controversy. PMID:715639

  6. Short and long-term strength of shale rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybacki, Erik; Dresen, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Stimulation of oil and gas bearing shales commonly utilizes advanced hydraulic fracturing techniques to enhance the production rate. Successful hydrofrac campaigns depend on the geomechanical properties of the reservoir. For example, the short term strength and brittleness may control the hydraulic breakdown pressure and borehole stability. The long term creep properties may determine the closure rate of hydraulically induced fractures, for example by proppant embedment. We performed a series of mechanical tests on shales with different mineral content, porosity and maturity. Cylindrical samples of 1-5 cm in diameter and 2-10 cm in length were deformed at confining pressures of 0.1 - 400 MPa and temperatures of 25°-400°C in constant strain rate and constant stress mode in order to evaluate the influence of loading conditions and composition on their strength and ductility. Short-term constant strain rate tests show that, at fixed loading direction with respect to bedding orientation, the peak strength and Young's modulus vary with mineral content, humidity and porosity, but depend also on applied pressure, temperature and strain rate. The (porosity-corrected) variation of peak strength and Young's modulus with composition can be roughly estimated from the mechanical behavior of all components at given pressure-temperature conditions and their volumetric proportion. Samples deforming in the brittle-semibrittle regime may be characterized by empirical brittleness indices based on their deformation behavior, Young's modulus, or bulk composition. These indices are correlated at low pressure-temperature conditions (corresponding to < about 4 km depth). First long-term deformation experiments at constant load show transient viscoplastic creep behavior. The associated strain rates increase with increasing differential stress, increasing temperature and decreasing pressure, accompanied by slight porosity reduction. Therefore, estimates of fracture healing rates by

  7. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, third quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the second quarter of 1996, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the third quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  8. Plant community controls on short-term ecosystem nitrogen retention.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D

    2016-05-01

    Retention of nitrogen (N) is a critical ecosystem function, especially in the face of widespread anthropogenic N enrichment; however, our understanding of the mechanisms involved is limited. Here, we tested under glasshouse conditions how plant community attributes, including variations in the dominance, diversity and range of plant functional traits, influence N uptake and retention in temperate grassland. We added a pulse of (15) N to grassland plant communities assembled to represent a range of community-weighted mean plant traits, trait functional diversity and divergence, and species richness, and measured plant and microbial uptake of (15) N, and leaching losses of (15) N, as a short-term test of N retention in the plant-soil system. Root biomass, herb abundance and dominant plant traits were the main determinants of N retention in the plant-soil system: greater root biomass and herb abundance, and lower root tissue density, increased plant (15) N uptake, while higher specific leaf area and root tissue density increased microbial (15) N uptake. Our results provide novel, mechanistic insight into the short-term fate of N in the plant-soil system, and show that dominant plant traits, rather than trait functional diversity, control the fate of added N in the plant-soil system.

  9. Short-Term Effects of Hydrokinesiotherapy in Hospitalized Preterm Newborns

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Tobinaga, Welcy Cassiano; Abelenda, Vera Lucia Barros; de Sá, Paula Morisco

    2016-01-01

    Background. In the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment, preterm newborns are subject to environmental stress and numerous painful interventions. It is known that hydrokinesiotherapy promotes comfort and reduces stress because of the physiological properties of water. Objective. To evaluate the short-term effects of hydrokinesiotherapy on reducing stress in preterm newborns admitted to the NICU. Materials and Methods. Fifteen preterm newborns underwent salivary cortisol measurement, pain evaluation using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), and heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation measurements before and after the application of hydrokinesiotherapy. Results. The mean gestational age of the newborns was 34.2 ± 1.66 weeks, and the mean weight was 1823.3 ± 437.4 g. Immediately after application of hydrokinesiotherapy, a significant reduction was observed in salivary cortisol (p = 0.004), heart rate (p = 0.003), and respiratory rate (p = 0.004) and a significant increase was observed in peripheral oxygen saturation (p = 0.002). However, no significant difference was observed in the NIPS score (p > 0.05). Conclusion. In the present study, neonatal hydrotherapy promoted short-term relief from feelings of stress. Neonatal hydrokinesiotherapy may be a therapeutic alternative. However, this therapy needs to be studied in randomized, crossover, and blinded trials. This trial is registered with NCT02707731.

  10. Short-term algal toxicity test based on phosphate uptake.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, H Hidehiro; Shimada, Akiko; Hirayama, Kimiaki

    2004-04-01

    In order to develop a short-term algal toxicity test, the growth of and the phosphate uptake by the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum during batch culture were observed. In the control medium, S. capricornutum took up phosphate earlier than it grew. It was also observed that the phosphate uptake was inhibited by the presence of a toxicant. From these results, phosphate uptake was considered as one of the useful effect parameters for a short-term algal toxicity test. As the removal rate of phosphate from the medium is a function of the amount of algal cell initially inoculated, the test period is variable. The relationship between the amount of inoculation and phosphate uptake was examined and the test conditions suitable for a 3-h toxicity test were established as one example. According to this test procedure, the inhibitory effect of some toxicants on the phosphate uptake was determined. For comparison, a conventional algal assay based on algal growth was also performed. The EC50s for both tests were close. This indicated that the algal toxicity test method proposed in this paper would be useful for the uses where rapidity is required. PMID:15087199

  11. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration approximately 28, 59, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights. Reticulocyte count was decreased after both short- and long-term flights, indicating that a reduction in red blood cell mass is probably more closely related to suppression of red cell production than to an increase in destruction of erythrocytes. Serum ferritin and number of platelets were also elevated after Shuttle flights. In determining the reasons for postflight differences between the shorter and longer flights, it is important to consider not only duration but also countermeasures, differences between spacecraft, and procedures for landing and egress.

  12. Short-Term Effects of Hydrokinesiotherapy in Hospitalized Preterm Newborns.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Tobinaga, Welcy Cassiano; de Lima Marinho, Cirlene; Abelenda, Vera Lucia Barros; de Sá, Paula Morisco; Lopes, Agnaldo José

    2016-01-01

    Background. In the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment, preterm newborns are subject to environmental stress and numerous painful interventions. It is known that hydrokinesiotherapy promotes comfort and reduces stress because of the physiological properties of water. Objective. To evaluate the short-term effects of hydrokinesiotherapy on reducing stress in preterm newborns admitted to the NICU. Materials and Methods. Fifteen preterm newborns underwent salivary cortisol measurement, pain evaluation using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), and heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation measurements before and after the application of hydrokinesiotherapy. Results. The mean gestational age of the newborns was 34.2 ± 1.66 weeks, and the mean weight was 1823.3 ± 437.4 g. Immediately after application of hydrokinesiotherapy, a significant reduction was observed in salivary cortisol (p = 0.004), heart rate (p = 0.003), and respiratory rate (p = 0.004) and a significant increase was observed in peripheral oxygen saturation (p = 0.002). However, no significant difference was observed in the NIPS score (p > 0.05). Conclusion. In the present study, neonatal hydrotherapy promoted short-term relief from feelings of stress. Neonatal hydrokinesiotherapy may be a therapeutic alternative. However, this therapy needs to be studied in randomized, crossover, and blinded trials. This trial is registered with NCT02707731. PMID:27672453

  13. Short-Term Effects of Hydrokinesiotherapy in Hospitalized Preterm Newborns

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Tobinaga, Welcy Cassiano; Abelenda, Vera Lucia Barros; de Sá, Paula Morisco

    2016-01-01

    Background. In the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment, preterm newborns are subject to environmental stress and numerous painful interventions. It is known that hydrokinesiotherapy promotes comfort and reduces stress because of the physiological properties of water. Objective. To evaluate the short-term effects of hydrokinesiotherapy on reducing stress in preterm newborns admitted to the NICU. Materials and Methods. Fifteen preterm newborns underwent salivary cortisol measurement, pain evaluation using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), and heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation measurements before and after the application of hydrokinesiotherapy. Results. The mean gestational age of the newborns was 34.2 ± 1.66 weeks, and the mean weight was 1823.3 ± 437.4 g. Immediately after application of hydrokinesiotherapy, a significant reduction was observed in salivary cortisol (p = 0.004), heart rate (p = 0.003), and respiratory rate (p = 0.004) and a significant increase was observed in peripheral oxygen saturation (p = 0.002). However, no significant difference was observed in the NIPS score (p > 0.05). Conclusion. In the present study, neonatal hydrotherapy promoted short-term relief from feelings of stress. Neonatal hydrokinesiotherapy may be a therapeutic alternative. However, this therapy needs to be studied in randomized, crossover, and blinded trials. This trial is registered with NCT02707731. PMID:27672453

  14. Early neural signatures of visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Agam, Yigal; Hyun, Joo-Seok; Danker, Jared F; Zhou, Feng; Kahana, Michael J; Sekuler, Robert

    2009-01-15

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) relies on a distributed network including sensory-related, posterior regions of the brain and frontal areas associated with attention and cognitive control. To characterize the fine temporal details of processing within this network, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while human subjects performed a recognition-memory task. The task's difficulty was graded by varying the perceptual similarity between the items held in memory and the probe used to access memory. The evaluation of VSTM's contents against a test stimulus produced clear similarity-dependent differences in ERPs as early as 156 ms after probe onset. Posterior recording sites were the first to reflect the difficulty of the analysis, preceding their frontal counterparts by about 50 ms. Our results suggest an initial feed-forward interaction underlying stimulus-memory comparisons, consistent with the idea that visual areas contribute to temporary storage of visual information for use in ongoing tasks. This study provides a first look into early neural activity underlying the processing of visual information in short-term memory.

  15. Short-term memory for emotional faces in dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Saima; Ridout, Nathan

    2010-07-01

    The study aimed to determine if the memory bias for negative faces previously demonstrated in depression and dysphoria generalises from long- to short-term memory. A total of 29 dysphoric (DP) and 22 non-dysphoric (ND) participants were presented with a series of faces and asked to identify the emotion portrayed (happiness, sadness, anger, or neutral affect). Following a delay, four faces were presented (the original plus three distractors) and participants were asked to identify the target face. Half of the trials assessed memory for facial emotion, and the remaining trials examined memory for facial identity. At encoding, no group differences were apparent. At memory testing, relative to ND participants, DP participants exhibited impaired memory for all types of facial emotion and for facial identity when the faces featured happiness, anger, or neutral affect, but not sadness. DP participants exhibited impaired identity memory for happy faces relative to angry, sad, and neutral, whereas ND participants exhibited enhanced facial identity memory when faces were angry. In general, memory for faces was not related to performance at encoding. However, in DP participants only, memory for sad faces was related to sadness recognition at encoding. The results suggest that the negative memory bias for faces in dysphoria does not generalise from long- to short-term memory. PMID:20544496

  16. Gaze direction affects visuo-spatial short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Carlei, Christophe; Kerzel, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries were investigated by changing the horizontal position of stimuli that had to be remembered in a visuo-spatial short-term memory task. Observers looked at matrices containing a variable number of filled squares on the left or right side of the screen center. At stimulus offset, participants reproduced the positions of the filled squares in an empty response matrix. Stimulus and response matrices were presented in the same quadrant. We observed that memory performance was better when the matrices were shown on the left side of the screen. We distinguished between recall strategies that relied on visual or non-visual (verbal) cues and found that the effect of gaze position occurred more reliably in participants using visual recall strategies. Overall, the results show that there is a solid enhancement of visuo-spatial short-term memory when observers look to the left. In contrast, vertical position had no influence on performance. We suggest that unilateral gaze to the left activates centers in the right hemisphere contributing to visuo-spatial memory. PMID:24998909

  17. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ≥ 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  18. Bilateral femur fractures associated with short-term bisphosphonate use.

    PubMed

    Rifai, Aiman; Pourtaheri, Sina; Carbone, Andrew; Callaghan, John J; Stadler, Chris M; Record, Nicole; Issa, Kimona

    2015-02-01

    Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed drugs to treat osteoporosis because they have been proposed to prevent bone loss. Nevertheless, in up to 0.1% of patients, long-term use may cause atypical stress or insufficiency femoral fractures. Bilateral femoral shaft fractures have been reported after long-term use of bisphosphonates; however, there is limited evidence of the effect of short-term use. The current study reports a case of bilateral femoral fractures after a low-energy fall in a 56-year-old woman and provides a review of the literature on bilateral femoral shaft fractures after long-term use of bisphosphonates. Patients should be educated about the potential for stress fractures with the use of this treatment. In patients with thigh pain, a thorough history and physical examination, including the contralateral thigh, may be beneficial to detect bilateral traumatic or atypical stress fracture patterns. More studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to better identify patients who may be at risk for fracture, including histomorphometric evidence of low bone turnover in patients with unfortunate bilateral cases.

  19. Evaluation of the Emu-pim-1 transgenic mouse model for short-term carcinogenicity testing.

    PubMed

    van Kreijl, C F; van der Houven van Oordt, C W; Kroese, E D; Sørensen, I K; Breuer, M L; Storer, R D

    1998-01-01

    The value of the chronic rodent carcinogenicity assay in adequately predicting cancer risk in humans has become a matter of debate over the past few years. Therefore, more rapid and accurate alternative tests are urgently needed. Transgenic mouse models, those harboring genetic changes that are relevant to the multistage cancer process, may provide such alternative tests. Transgenic Emu-pim-1 mice, developed by Berns and coworkers in 1989, contain the pimn-1 oncogene, which is expressed at elevated levels in their lymphoid compartments. As a result, these mice are predisposed to the development of T-cell lymphomas. Because of the low incidence of spontaneous tumors and the increased sensitivity to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced carcinogenesis, Emu-pim-1 mice were suggested to be one of the first potential and attractive candidates to be used in short-term carcinogenicity testing. In the present article, the results from 2 recent short-term assays (with mitomycin C and x-rays) are briefly presented, together with a review of all 11 performed bioassays and their corresponding histopathologic and molecular data. The overall results allow the first evaluation of the Emu-pim-1 mouse model with regard to its usefulness in short-term carcinogenicity testing. It has been shown that the model is primarily suitable as a sensitive short-term assay for genotoxic carcinogens that not only induce (at least) gene mutations and/or large deletions and rearrangements but that also sufficiently target the lymphoid system. However, the Emu-pim-1 mice lack sufficient sensitivity to justify their routine use in short-term carcinogenicity testing in general.

  20. Accurate mass determination of short-lived isotopes by a tandem Penning-trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stolzenberg, H.; Becker, S.; Bollen, G.; Kern, F.; Kluge, H.; Otto, T.; Savard, G.; Schweikhard, L. ); Audi, G. ); Moore, R.B. ); The ISOLDE Collaboration

    1990-12-17

    A mass spectrometer consisting of two Penning traps has been set up for short-lived isotopes at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN. The ion beam is collected and cooled in the first trap. After delivery to the second trap, high-accuracy direct mass measurements are made by determining the cyclotron frequency of the stored ions. Measurements have been performed for {sup 118}Cs--{sup 137}Cs. A resolving power of over 10{sup 6} and an accuracy of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}7} have been achieved, corresponding to about 20 keV.

  1. Working memory training improves visual short-term memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Schwarb, Hillary; Nail, Jayde; Schumacher, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    Since antiquity, philosophers, theologians, and scientists have been interested in human memory. However, researchers today are still working to understand the capabilities, boundaries, and architecture. While the storage capabilities of long-term memory are seemingly unlimited (Bahrick, J Exp Psychol 113:1-2, 1984), working memory, or the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in memory, seems to have stringent capacity limits (e.g., Cowan, Behav Brain Sci 24:87-185, 2001). Individual differences, however, do exist and these differences can often predict performance on a wide variety of tasks (cf. Engle What is working-memory capacity? 297-314, 2001). Recently, researchers have promoted the enticing possibility that simple behavioral training can expand the limits of working memory which indeed may also lead to improvements on other cognitive processes as well (cf. Morrison and Chein, Psychol Bull Rev 18:46-60 2011). However, initial investigations across a wide variety of cognitive functions have produced mixed results regarding the transferability of training-related improvements. Across two experiments, the present research focuses on the benefit of working memory training on visual short-term memory capacity-a cognitive process that has received little attention in the training literature. Data reveal training-related improvement of global measures of visual short-term memory as well as of measures of the independent sub-processes that contribute to capacity (Awh et al., Psychol Sci 18(7):622-628, 2007). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit irrelevant information within and between trials is enhanced via n-back training allowing for selective improvement on untrained tasks. Additionally, we highlight a potential limitation of the standard adaptive training procedure and propose a modified design to ensure variability in the training environment.

  2. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  3. Integrating short-term and long-term forecasting with reservoir optimisation; Mantaro Basin, Peru.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, R. A.; Lasarte, A.; Butts, M. B.

    2009-04-01

    Operational water management often requires a trade-off between short-term and long-term water demands, where short-term demands are driven for example by hydropower generation and flood protection requirements and the long-term demands by water and irrigation supply, sustainable reservoir management and the seasonal impacts of snow melt or climate. This paper presents an operational decision support system designed to forecast and optimise reservoir operations in both the short-term and long-term. The system has been established for the 20,000 km2 Mantaro river basin located in the high Andes with altitudes ranging from 3500 to nearly 6000 m.a.s.l.. The two main power stations at Tablachaca have a combined capacity of more than 1000 MW that supplies 30% of Peru's electrical energy. In addition, the basin's water resources supply extensive agricultural areas, an urban population and mining activities and sustain important ecological habitats. In this paper, the methodologies used for the integrating short-term and long-term forecasting are presented together with their application to the optimal operation of reservoirs. A key element in the system is the MIKE BASIN modelling tool. The system uses several modelling capabilities of MIKE BASIN: rainfall-runoff, reservoir operation, hydropower production, and river flow routing. The system also takes advantage of long-term forecasts (based on statistical information) and short-term forecasts (based on telemetry data). The continually updated runoff and flow forecasts enter the optimization, which applies the Model Predictive Control principle for MIKE BASIN as the core simulation model. For each optimization, a non-linear program algorithm is used to find the best release strategy. On the basis of the forecasted inflows and the real time data the system suggests to the user from which reservoirs to release water for alleviation of possible forecasted deficits. In addition to the Tablachaca scheme the model accounts for

  4. Elliptic Anomaly in Constructing Long-Term and Short-Term Dynamical Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumberg, V. A.; Brumberg, E. V.

    2001-07-01

    The techniques of Brumberg and Brumberg (1999) based on the use of elliptic anomaly are specified in this paper in two aspects. The iteration technique (Broucke, 1969) to construct short-term semi-analytical theories of motion in rectangular coordinates in lines of Encke and Hill is reelaborated in terms of elliptic anomaly resulting in extending this technique for high-eccentricity orbits. In constructing long-term semi-analytical theories the key point is to integrate trigonometric functions of several angular arguments related to time by different differential expressions. This problem is reduced in the paper to linear algebraic recurrence relations admitting efficient solution by iterations.

  5. Short-term and long-term effects of reinforcers on choice.

    PubMed

    Buckner, R L; Green, L; Myerson, J

    1993-03-01

    The relation between molar and molecular aspects of time allocation was studied in pigeons on concurrent variable-time variable-time schedules of reinforcement. Fifteen-minute reinforcer-free periods were inserted in the middle of every third session. Generalized molar matching of time ratios to reinforcer ratios was observed during concurrent reinforcement. Contrary to melioration theory, preference was unchanged during the reinforcer-free periods as well as in extinction. In addition to this long-term effect of reinforcement, short-term effects were observed: Reinforcers increased the duration of the stays during which they were delivered but had little consistent effect either on the immediately following stay in the same schedule or on the immediately following stay in the alternative schedule. Thus, an orderly effect of reinforcer delivery on molecular aspects of time allocation was observed, but because of its short-term nature, this effect cannot account for the matching observed at the molar level.

  6. Short-term and long-term effects of reinforcers on choice

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Randy L.; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel

    1993-01-01

    The relation between molar and molecular aspects of time allocation was studied in pigeons on concurrent variable-time variable-time schedules of reinforcement. Fifteen-minute reinforcer-free periods were inserted in the middle of every third session. Generalized molar matching of time ratios to reinforcer ratios was observed during concurrent reinforcement. Contrary to melioration theory, preference was unchanged during the reinforcer-free periods as well as in extinction. In addition to this long-term effect of reinforcement, short-term effects were observed: Reinforcers increased the duration of the stays during which they were delivered but had little consistent effect either on the immediately following stay in the same schedule or on the immediately following stay in the alternative schedule. Thus, an orderly effect of reinforcer delivery on molecular aspects of time allocation was observed, but because of its short-term nature, this effect cannot account for the matching observed at the molar level. PMID:16812687

  7. A Single Brief Burst Induces GluR1-Dependent Associative Short-Term Potentiation: A Potential Mechanism for Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martha A.; Maramara, Lauren A.; Lisman, John

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that short-term memory (STM) is selectively reduced in GluR1 knockout mice. This raises the possibility that a form of synaptic modification dependent on GluR1 might underlie STM. Studies of synaptic plasticity have shown that stimuli too weak to induce long-term potentiation induce short-term potentiation (STP), a phenomenon…

  8. Finding Short-Term Variability in Methanol Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Samuel; Barott, W. C.; Catanach, T.

    2012-05-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) performed 53 observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers between July 2010 and January 2011 in an effort to identify short-timescale variability. With the notable exception of Weisberg et al. (2005), few analyses have been performed analyzing variability in masers on timescales of minutes or less. This work is aimed both at providing additional data (including refined positions) on the catalog of observed sources as well as identifying the prevalence and cause of short-term phenomena. Observations utilized both the ATA correlator (for mapping) and beamformer (for recording voltage time series). A combination of Fast-Fourier Transforms and Continuous Wavelet Transforms are applied to channelized power series waterfalls) in this investigation. Wavelet analysis can be thought of as a generalization of Fourier analysis that allows us to examine non-stationary characteristics of the spectra. The survey included both short (10 minute), long (60 minute), and follow-up observations on candidate targets. Analysis so far has identified three variable sources out of 43 distinct objects that were observed. These objects exhibit significant variation on the order of several minutes, are consistent in follow-up observations, and we have ruled out instrumental variation. Future and ongoing work includes identifying the source of this variation as intrinsic to the source or a property of the ISM. Shorter time-scales will be investigated using a combination of techniques, including total power variation, pulse searching (in an attempt to find pulsars), and phase-shift demodulation techniques. The case for SETI analysis of these data is given, for example, by Cordes (1993), who suggested that extraterrestrial intelligences could use masers to amplify interstellar signals.This project was funded by the National Science Foundation Grant AST0852095. [1] Weisberg J. M. et al. (2005) Science, 309, 5731. [2] Cordes J. M. (1993) Astron. Soc. Pacific Conf. Series

  9. Short-Term Plasticity and Long-Term Potentiation in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions: Towards Volatile Synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Abhronil; Roy, Kaushik

    2016-02-01

    Synaptic memory is considered to be the main element responsible for learning and cognition in humans. Although traditionally nonvolatile long-term plasticity changes are implemented in nanoelectronic synapses for neuromorphic applications, recent studies in neuroscience reveal that biological synapses undergo metastable volatile strengthening followed by a long-term strengthening provided that the frequency of the input stimulus is sufficiently high. Such "memory strengthening" and "memory decay" functionalities can potentially lead to adaptive neuromorphic architectures. In this paper, we demonstrate the close resemblance of the magnetization dynamics of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) to short-term plasticity and long-term potentiation observed in biological synapses. We illustrate that, in addition to the magnitude and duration of the input stimulus, the frequency of the stimulus plays a critical role in determining long-term potentiation of the MTJ. Such MTJ synaptic memory arrays can be utilized to create compact, ultrafast, and low-power intelligent neural systems.

  10. Long vs. short-term energy storage:sensitivity analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Inc., Menlo Park, CA); Hassenzahl, William V. (,Advanced Energy Analysis, Piedmont, CA)

    2007-07-01

    This report extends earlier work to characterize long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies, primarily on the basis of life-cycle cost, and to investigate sensitivities to various input assumptions. Another technology--asymmetric lead-carbon capacitors--has also been added. Energy storage technologies are examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. Sensitivity analyses include cost of electricity and natural gas, and system life, which impacts replacement costs and capital carrying charges. Results are presented in terms of annual cost, $/kW-yr. A major variable affecting system cost is hours of storage available for discharge.

  11. Short-term contracts: Descending the career ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Elizabeth

    2002-12-01

    Elizabeth Griffin brings a personal insight to the hurdles that women seeking a scientific career face, arguing that the only gender differences are those of attitude, tradition and style. The policy of employing some but not all academic researchers through short-term contracts is highly divisive, in that it creates a two-tier system not only of opportunities and expectations but also of personal worth and value. Far more women than men are trapped in these career cul-de-sacs, and a seriously large fraction is unable to stay in research until retirement. It is the employment policy that is at fault, not the potential of the researchers or the quality of their research.

  12. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, James

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  13. The effects of short-term hypergravity on Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Jenifer N; Pandey, Santosh; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

    2016-08-01

    As we seek to recognize the opportunities of advanced aerospace technologies and spaceflight, it is increasingly important to understand the impacts of hypergravity, defined as gravitational forces greater than those present on the earth's surface. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been established as a powerful model to study the effects of altered gravity regimens and has displayed remarkable resilience to space travel. In this study, we investigate the effects of short-term and defined hypergravity exposure on C. elegans motility, brood size, pharyngeal pumping rates, and lifespan. The results from this study advance our understanding of the effects of shorter durations of exposure to increased gravitational forces on C. elegans, and also contribute to the growing body of literature on the impacts of altered gravity regimens on earth's life forms. PMID:27662786

  14. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration = 28, 56, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights.

  15. The effects of short-term hypergravity on Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Jenifer N; Pandey, Santosh; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

    2016-08-01

    As we seek to recognize the opportunities of advanced aerospace technologies and spaceflight, it is increasingly important to understand the impacts of hypergravity, defined as gravitational forces greater than those present on the earth's surface. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been established as a powerful model to study the effects of altered gravity regimens and has displayed remarkable resilience to space travel. In this study, we investigate the effects of short-term and defined hypergravity exposure on C. elegans motility, brood size, pharyngeal pumping rates, and lifespan. The results from this study advance our understanding of the effects of shorter durations of exposure to increased gravitational forces on C. elegans, and also contribute to the growing body of literature on the impacts of altered gravity regimens on earth's life forms.

  16. Short-Term Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    U.S. liquid fuels production increased from 7.43 million barrels per day (b/d) in 2008 to 13.75 million b/d in 2015. However, the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) expects liquid fuels production to decline to 12.99 million b/d in 2017, mainly as a result of prolonged low oil prices. The liquid fuels production forecast reflects a 1.24 million b/d decline in crude oil production by 2017 that is partially offset by a 450,000 b/d increase in the production of hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL)—a group of products including ethane, propane, butane (normal and isobutane), natural gasoline, and refinery olefins. This analysis will discuss the outlook for each of these four HGL streams and related infrastructure projects through 2017.

  17. Risk Quantification for ANN Based Short-Term Load Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, Daisuke; Mori, Hiroyuki

    A new risk assessment method for short-term load forecasting is proposed. The proposed method makes use of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to forecast one-step ahead daily maximum loads and evaluate uncertainty of in load forecasting. As ANN the model, the Radial Basis Function (RBF) network is employed to forecast loads due to the good performance. Sufficient realistic pseudo-scenarios are required to carry out quantitative risk analysis. The multivariate normal distribution with the correlation between input variables is used to give more realistic results to ANN. In addition, the method of Moment Matching is used to improve the accuracy of the multivariate normal distribution. The Peak Over Threshold (POT) approach is used to evaluate risk that exceeds the upper bounds of generation capacity. The proposed method is successfully applied to real data of daily maximum load forecasting.

  18. Short term load forecasting using fuzzy neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bakirtzis, A.G.; Theocharis, J.B.; Kiartzis, S.J.; Satsios, K.J.

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents the development of a fuzzy system for short term load forecasting. The fuzzy system has the network structure and the training procedure of a neural network and is called Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN). A FNN initially creates a rule base from existing historical load data. The parameters of the rule base are then tuned through a training process, so that the output of the FNN adequately matches the available historical load data. Once trained, the FNN can be used to forecast future loads. Test results show that the FNN can forecast future loads with an accuracy comparable to that of neural networks, while its training is much faster than that of neural networks.

  19. Short-term memory impairment and arithmetical ability.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, B; Cipolotti, L; Warrington, E K

    1996-02-01

    We document the dissociation of preserved calculation skills in a patient with impaired auditory short-term memory. The patient (MRF) had a memory span of three digits. Furthermore, he showed rapid decrement in performance of single digits and letters with both auditory and visual presentation in the Brown-Peterson forgetting task. Analysis of his calculation skills revealed a normal ability to solve auditorily presented multidigit addition and subtraction problems such as 173 + 68 and to execute the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (Sampson, 1956, 1958; Gronwall, 1977). In addition, his performance on other tests, including arithmetic manipulation of natural numbers, decimals and fractions, approximation, magnitude, ratio, and percentage, appeared to be normal (Hitch, 1978b). It is argued that these findings require a revision of Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) concept of the function of working memory. PMID:8920104

  20. Astronomical observation tasks short-term scheduling using PDDS algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    A concept of the ground-based optical astronomical observation efficiency is considered in this paper. We believe that a telescope efficiency can be increased by properly allocating observation tasks with respect to the current environment state and probability to obtain the data with required properties under the current conditions. An online observations scheduling is assumed to be an essential part for raising the efficiency. The short-term online scheduling is treated as the discrete optimisation problems which are stated using several abstraction levels. The optimisation problems are solved using the parallel depth-bounded discrepancy search (PDDS) algorithm by Moisan et al. (2014). Some aspects of the algorithm performance are discussed. The presented algorithm is a core of open-source chelyabinsk C++ library which is planned to be used at 2.5 m telescope of Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

  1. Emulating short-term synaptic dynamics with memristive devices

    PubMed Central

    Berdan, Radu; Vasilaki, Eleni; Khiat, Ali; Indiveri, Giacomo; Serb, Alexandru; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2016-01-01

    Neuromorphic architectures offer great promise for achieving computation capacities beyond conventional Von Neumann machines. The essential elements for achieving this vision are highly scalable synaptic mimics that do not undermine biological fidelity. Here we demonstrate that single solid-state TiO2 memristors can exhibit non-associative plasticity phenomena observed in biological synapses, supported by their metastable memory state transition properties. We show that, contrary to conventional uses of solid-state memory, the existence of rate-limiting volatility is a key feature for capturing short-term synaptic dynamics. We also show how the temporal dynamics of our prototypes can be exploited to implement spatio-temporal computation, demonstrating the memristors full potential for building biophysically realistic neural processing systems. PMID:26725838

  2. Short and long term variations in the solar constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, K. H.

    1981-01-01

    Short and long term variations in the solar constant are examined theoretically. The variations observed by the Solar Maximum Mission, lasting several days and associated with the passage of sunspot groups, strikingly demonstrates the well known lack of a bright ring effect around sunspots. This suggests that sunspot magnetic fields do not simply block the heat flowing upward into the photosphere. Rather, it is suggested that gravitational draining occurs; this cools sunspots and transports downward the heat that would otherwise flow into the photosphere. A model of sunspot temperature with depth shows modest support when compared with the empirical model of Van't Veer. Secular trends in the solar constant may occur and be associated with the influence of the convection zone magnetic field upon convective heat transport. As a start to understanding this problem, the Schwarzschild criterion has been modified to include the effects of magnetic field.

  3. Short-Term Planning of Hybrid Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knežević, Goran; Baus, Zoran; Nikolovski, Srete

    2016-07-01

    In this paper short-term planning algorithm for hybrid power system consist of different types of cascade hydropower plants (run-of-the river, pumped storage, conventional), thermal power plants (coal-fired power plants, combined cycle gas-fired power plants) and wind farms is presented. The optimization process provides a joint bid of the hybrid system, and thus making the operation schedule of hydro and thermal power plants, the operation condition of pumped-storage hydropower plants with the aim of maximizing profits on day ahead market, according to expected hourly electricity prices, the expected local water inflow in certain hydropower plants, and the expected production of electrical energy from the wind farm, taking into account previously contracted bilateral agreement for electricity generation. Optimization process is formulated as hourly-discretized mixed integer linear optimization problem. Optimization model is applied on the case study in order to show general features of the developed model.

  4. The effects of short-term hypergravity on Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldanha, Jenifer N.; Pandey, Santosh; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

    2016-08-01

    As we seek to recognize the opportunities of advanced aerospace technologies and spaceflight, it is increasingly important to understand the impacts of hypergravity, defined as gravitational forces greater than those present on the earth's surface. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been established as a powerful model to study the effects of altered gravity regimens and has displayed remarkable resilience to space travel. In this study, we investigate the effects of short-term and defined hypergravity exposure on C. elegans motility, brood size, pharyngeal pumping rates, and lifespan. The results from this study advance our understanding of the effects of shorter durations of exposure to increased gravitational forces on C. elegans, and also contribute to the growing body of literature on the impacts of altered gravity regimens on earth's life forms.

  5. [Activity of Ginkgo biloba extract on short-term memory].

    PubMed

    Hindmarch, I

    1986-09-25

    Eight healthy female volunteers were included in a double-blind, cross-over trial comparing Ginkgo biloba extract in acute and ascending doses (120, 240, 600 mg) with a placebo. One hour after treatment they were subjected to a battery of tests, including: critical flicker fusion, choice reaction time, subjective rating scale and Sternberg memory scanning test. No statistically significant differences with the placebo were observed in the first three tests. In contrast, short term memory, as assessed by the Sternberg technique, was very significantly improved following 600 mg of Ginkgo biloba extract, as compared with the placebo. These results differentiate Ginkgo biloba extract from sedative and stimulant drugs and suggest a specific effect on memory processes.

  6. Short-term scheduling of reactive power controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Yingyi; Liao Csongming

    1995-05-01

    A two-level approach is presented to solve the problem of optimal short-term (one day) scheduling of reactive power controllers in this paper. The entire problem is decomposed into two levels: the master and the slave levels. The master level deals with minimization of the depreciation cost of compensators and EHV transformer taps in order to reduce the control action for compensators and EHV transformer taps while satisfying operating constraints. The slave level treats minimization of capitalized MW losses while satisfying system security constraints. The slave level also treats OLTCs and determines scheduling of the generator voltages. These two levels interact through linear constraints in the iteration process. A practical 265-bus system, namely Taiwan Power System, are used to serve as a sample to show the applicability of the presented approach.

  7. Short-term memory stores organized by information domain.

    PubMed

    Noyce, Abigail L; Cestero, Nishmar; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Somers, David C

    2016-04-01

    Vision and audition have complementary affinities, with vision excelling in spatial resolution and audition excelling in temporal resolution. Here, we investigated the relationships among the visual and auditory modalities and spatial and temporal short-term memory (STM) using change detection tasks. We created short sequences of visual or auditory items, such that each item within a sequence arose at a unique spatial location at a unique time. On each trial, two successive sequences were presented; subjects attended to either space (the sequence of locations) or time (the sequence of inter item intervals) and reported whether the patterns of locations or intervals were identical. Each subject completed blocks of unimodal trials (both sequences presented in the same modality) and crossmodal trials (Sequence 1 visual, Sequence 2 auditory, or vice versa) for both spatial and temporal tasks. We found a strong interaction between modality and task: Spatial performance was best on unimodal visual trials, whereas temporal performance was best on unimodal auditory trials. The order of modalities on crossmodal trials also mattered, suggesting that perceptual fidelity at encoding is critical to STM. Critically, no cost was attributable to crossmodal comparison: In both tasks, performance on crossmodal trials was as good as or better than on the weaker unimodal trials. STM representations of space and time can guide change detection in either the visual or the auditory modality, suggesting that the temporal or spatial organization of STM may supersede sensory-specific organization.

  8. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific.

  9. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific. PMID:26476140

  10. Short-term chronoamperometric screening of chlorpromazine-package interactions.

    PubMed

    Sarsfield, B A; Maloy, J T

    1998-09-01

    A new electroanalytical method has been developed to measure and predict solute sorption interactions with solid surfaces. By maximizing surface-to-volume ratios, this method significantly reduces the study time of drug-package interactions and allows prediction of possible long-term effects. Chronoamperometry experiments were run in 40 microL drops of solution containing drug placed on a solid substrate disk of about 7 mm diameter in a sample cell designed to accommodate a miniaturized three-electrode setup. Logarithmic current signatures obtained by computing Delta(ln i)/Delta(ln t) were used to define the experimental conditions necessary to avoid the kinetic complications of chlorpromazine oxidation in the interpretation of the results of the chronoamperometric analysis. Results of sorption studies of chlorpromazine to glass, polypropylene, high density polyethylene, poly(ethylene terephthalate), ethylene vinyl acetate, and poly(vinyl chloride) are presented. The small volume sorption experiments demonstrated that chlorpromazine interacts most quickly with PVC and HDPE and least with glass and polypropylene. Long term stability tests confirmed these predictions, thereby indicating that the small volume method makes drug-package interaction studies feasible in early development. The generation and analysis of Delta(ln i)/Delta(ln t) signature curves extends the usefulness of the electroanalytical method to other systems by accurately identifying the appropriate time domains for steady state or Cottrell behavior.

  11. An analysis of long-term trends, seasonality and short-term dynamics in water quality data from Plynlimon, Wales.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Sarah J; Wade, Andrew J; Skeffington, Richard A; Neal, Colin; Reynolds, Brian; Rowland, Philip; Neal, Margaret; Norris, Dave

    2012-09-15

    This paper examines two hydrochemical time-series derived from stream samples taken in the Upper Hafren catchment, Plynlimon, Wales. One time-series comprises data collected at 7-hour intervals over 22 months (Neal et al., 2012-this issue), while the other is based on weekly sampling over 20 years. A subset of determinands: aluminium, calcium, chloride, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon, iron, nitrate, pH, silicon and sulphate are examined within a framework of non-stationary time-series analysis to identify determinand trends, seasonality and short-term dynamics. The results demonstrate that both long-term and high-frequency monitoring provide valuable and unique insights into the hydrochemistry of a catchment. The long-term data allowed analysis of long-term trends, demonstrating continued increases in DOC concentrations accompanied by declining SO(4) concentrations within the stream, and provided new insights into the changing amplitude and phase of the seasonality of the determinands such as DOC and Al. Additionally, these data proved invaluable for placing the short-term variability demonstrated within the high-frequency data within context. The 7-hour data highlighted complex diurnal cycles for NO(3), Ca and Fe with cycles displaying changes in phase and amplitude on a seasonal basis. The high-frequency data also demonstrated the need to consider the impact that the time of sample collection can have on the summary statistics of the data and also that sampling during the hours of darkness provides additional hydrochemical information for determinands which exhibit pronounced diurnal variability. Moving forward, this research demonstrates the need for both long-term and high-frequency monitoring to facilitate a full and accurate understanding of catchment hydrochemical dynamics.

  12. Small mammals as indicators of short-term and long-term disturbance in mixed prairie.

    PubMed

    Leis, Sherry A; Leslie, David M; Engle, David M; Fehmi, Jeffrey S

    2008-02-01

    Disturbance by military maneuvers over short and long time scales may have differential effects on grassland communities. We assessed small mammals as indicators of disturbance by military maneuvers in a mixed prairie in southern Oklahoma USA. We examined sites on two soil series, Foard and Lawton, across a gradient of disturbance intensity. A MANOVA showed that abundance of small mammals was associated (p = 0.03) with short-term (cover of vehicle tracks) disturbance but was not associated (p = 0.12) with long-term (loss of soil organic carbon, SOC) disturbance intensity. At the individual species level, Sigmodon hispidus (cotton rat) and Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) occurred across all levels of disturbance and in both soil types. Only P. maniculatus abundance changed (p < 0.01) with short-term disturbance and increased by about one individual per 5% of additional track-cover. Abundance of P. maniculatus also increased (p = 0.04) by about three individuals per 1% increase in soil carbon. Chaetodipus hispidus (hispid pocket mouse) and Reithrodontomys fulvescens (fulvous harvest mouse) only occurred in single soil types limiting their potential as more general indicators. Abundance of P. maniculatus was positively related to shifts in plant species composition and likely reflected changes in vegetation structure (i.e. litter depth) and forage availability resulting from disturbance. Peromyscus maniculatus may be a useful biological indicator of ecosystem change because it responded predictably to both long-term and short-term disturbance and, when coupled with soil, plant, and disturbance history variables, can reveal land condition trends. PMID:17458511

  13. Small mammals as indicators of short-term and long-term disturbance in mixed prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leis, S.A.; Leslie, David M.; Engle, David M.; Fehmi, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Disturbance by military maneuvers over short and long time scales may have differential effects on grassland communities. We assessed small mammals as indicators of disturbance by military maneuvers in a mixed prairie in southern Oklahoma USA. We examined sites on two soil series, Foard and Lawton, across a gradient of disturbance intensity. A MANOVA showed that abundance of small mammals was associated (p = 0.03) with short-term (cover of vehicle tracks) disturbance but was not associated (p = 0.12) with long-term (loss of soil organic carbon, SOC) disturbance intensity. At the individual species level, Sigmodon hispidus (cotton rat) and Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) occurred across all levels of disturbance and in both soil types. Only P. maniculatus abundance changed (p < 0.01) with short-term disturbance and increased by about one individual per 5% of additional track-cover. Abundance of P. maniculatus also increased (p = 0.04) by about three individuals per 1% increase in soil carbon. Chaetodipus hispidus (hispid pocket mouse) and Reithrodontomys fulvescens (fulvous harvest mouse) only occurred in single soil types limiting their potential as more general indicators. Abundance of P. maniculatus was positively related to shifts in plant species composition and likely reflected changes in vegetation structure (i.e. litter depth) and forage availability resulting from disturbance. Peromyscus maniculatus may be a useful biological indicator of ecosystem change because it responded predictably to both long-term and short-term disturbance and, when coupled with soil, plant, and disturbance history variables, can reveal land condition trends. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  14. SOAP3-dp: Fast, Accurate and Sensitive GPU-Based Short Read Aligner

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoqian; Wu, Edward; Lee, Lap-Kei; Lin, Haoxiang; Zhu, Wenjuan; Cheung, David W.; Ting, Hing-Fung; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Peng, Shaoliang; Yu, Chang; Li, Yingrui; Li, Ruiqiang; Lam, Tak-Wah

    2013-01-01

    To tackle the exponentially increasing throughput of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), most of the existing short-read aligners can be configured to favor speed in trade of accuracy and sensitivity. SOAP3-dp, through leveraging the computational power of both CPU and GPU with optimized algorithms, delivers high speed and sensitivity simultaneously. Compared with widely adopted aligners including BWA, Bowtie2, SeqAlto, CUSHAW2, GEM and GPU-based aligners BarraCUDA and CUSHAW, SOAP3-dp was found to be two to tens of times faster, while maintaining the highest sensitivity and lowest false discovery rate (FDR) on Illumina reads with different lengths. Transcending its predecessor SOAP3, which does not allow gapped alignment, SOAP3-dp by default tolerates alignment similarity as low as 60%. Real data evaluation using human genome demonstrates SOAP3-dp's power to enable more authentic variants and longer Indels to be discovered. Fosmid sequencing shows a 9.1% FDR on newly discovered deletions. SOAP3-dp natively supports BAM file format and provides the same scoring scheme as BWA, which enables it to be integrated into existing analysis pipelines. SOAP3-dp has been deployed on Amazon-EC2, NIH-Biowulf and Tianhe-1A. PMID:23741504

  15. The short-term prediction of universal time and length of day using atmospheric angular momentum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, A. P.; Steppe, J. A.; Dickey, J. O.; Eubanks, T. M.; Sung, L.-Y.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to predict short-term variations in the Earth's rotation has gained importance in recent years owing to more precise spacecraft tracking requirements. Universal time (UT1), that component of the Earth's orientation corresponding to the rotation angle, can be measured by number of high-precision space geodetic techniques. A Kalman filter developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) optimally combines these different data sets and generates a smoothed times series and a set of predictions for UT1, as well as for additional Earth orientation components. These UT1 predictions utilize an empirically derived random walk stochastic model for the length of the day (LOD) and require frequent and up-to-date measurements of either UT1 or LOD to keep errors from quickly accumulating. Recent studies have shown that LOD variations are correlated with changes in the Earth's axial atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) over timescales of several years down to as little as 8 days. AAM estimates and forecasts out to 10 days are routinely available from meteorological analysis centers; these data can supplement geodetic measurements to improve the short-term prediction of LOD and have therefore been incorporated as independent data types in the JPL Kalman filter. We find that AAM and, to a lesser extent, AAM forecast data are extremely helpful in generating accurate near-real-time estimates of UT1 and LOD and in improving short-term predictions of these quantities out to about 10 days.

  16. A comparison of short-term measurements of lake evaporation using eddy correlation and energy budget methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stannard, D.I.; Rosenberry, D.O.

    1991-01-01

    Concurrent short-term measurements of evaporation from a shallow lake, using eddy correlation and energy budget methods, indicate that sensible and latent heat flux between lake and atmosphere, and energy storage in the lake, may vary considerably across the lake. Measuring net radiation with a net radiometer on the lake appeared to be more accurate than measuring incoming radiation nearby and modeling outgoing radiation. Short-term agreement between the two evaporation measurements was obtained by using an energy storage term that was weighted to account for the area-of-influence of the eddy correlation sensors. Relatively short bursts of evaporation were indicated by the eddy correlation sensors shortly after midnight on two of three occasions. ?? 1991.

  17. Short-Term Load Forecasting using Dynamic Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chogumaira, Evans N.; Hiyama, Takashi

    This paper presents short-term electricity load forecasting using dynamic neural networks, DNN. The proposed approach includes an assessment of the DNN's stability to ascertain continued reliability. A comparative study between three different neural network architectures, which include feedforward, Elman and the radial basis neural networks, is performed. The performance and stability of each DNN is evaluated using actual hourly load data. Stability for each of the three different networks is determined through Eigen values analysis. The neural networks weights are dynamically adapted to meet the performance and stability requirements. A new approach for adapting radial basis function (RBF) neural network weights is also proposed. Evaluation of the networks is done in terms of forecasting error, stability and the effort required in training a particular network. The results show that DNN based on the radial basis neural network architecture performs much better than the rest. Eigen value analysis also shows that the radial basis based DNN is more stable making it very reliable as the input varies.

  18. Heterogeneous artificial neural network for short term electrical load forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Piras, A.; Germond, A.; Buchenel, B.; Imhof, K.; Jaccard, Y.

    1995-12-31

    Short term electrical load forecasting is a topic of major interest for the planning of energy production and distribution. The use of artificial neural networks has been demonstrated as a valid alternative to classical statistical methods in terms of accuracy of results. However, a common architecture able to forecast the load in different geographical regions, showing different load shape and climate characteristics, is still missing. In this paper the authors discuss a heterogeneous neural network architecture composed of an unsupervised part, namely a neural gas, which is used to analyze the process in submodels finding local features in the data and suggesting regression variables, and a supervised one, a multilayer perceptron, which performs the approximation of the underlying function. The results outputs are then summed by a weighted fuzzy average, allowing a smooth transition between sub models. The effectiveness of the proposed architecture is demonstrated by two days ahead load forecasting of EOS power system sub areas, corresponding to five different geographical regions, and of its total electrical load.

  19. Heterogeneous artificial neural network for short term electrical load forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Piras, A.; Germond, A.; Buchenel, B.; Imhof, K.; Jaccard, Y.

    1996-02-01

    Short term electrical load forecasting is a topic of major interest for the planning of energy production and distribution. The use of artificial neural networks has been demonstrated as a valid alternative to classical statistical methods in terms of accuracy of results. However a common architecture able to forecast the load in different geographical regions, showing different load shape and climate characteristics, is still missing. In this paper the authors discuss a heterogeneous neural network architecture composed of an unsupervised part, namely a neural gas, which is used to analyze the process in sub models finding local features in the data and suggesting regression variables, and a supervised one, a multilayer perceptron, which performs the approximation of the underlying function. The resulting outputs are then summed by a weighted fuzzy average, allowing a smooth transition between sub models. The effectiveness of the proposed architecture is demonstrated by two days ahead load forecasting of EOS power system sub areas, corresponding to five different geographical regions, and of its total electrical load.

  20. Local short-term variability in solar irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Gerald M.; Monahan, Adam H.; Heinemann, Detlev

    2016-05-01

    Characterizing spatiotemporal irradiance variability is important for the successful grid integration of increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV) power systems. Using 1 Hz data recorded by as many as 99 pyranometers during the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), we analyze field variability of clear-sky index k* (i.e., irradiance normalized to clear-sky conditions) and sub-minute k* increments (i.e., changes over specified intervals of time) for distances between tens of meters and about 10 km. By means of a simple classification scheme based on k* statistics, we identify overcast, clear, and mixed sky conditions, and demonstrate that the last of these is the most potentially problematic in terms of short-term PV power fluctuations. Under mixed conditions, the probability of relatively strong k* increments of ±0.5 is approximately twice as high compared to increment statistics computed without conditioning by sky type. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation structures of k* increment fields differ considerably between sky types. While the profiles for overcast and clear skies mostly resemble the predictions of a simple model published by , this is not the case for mixed conditions. As a proxy for the smoothing effects of distributed PV, we finally show that spatial averaging mitigates variability in k* less effectively than variability in k* increments, for a spatial sensor density of 2 km-2.

  1. Severe neurotrauma in Switzerland: have short-term outcomes improved?

    PubMed

    Haller, Chiara Simone; Walder, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Neurotrauma has a high incidence in high-income countries (790 per 100,000 population per year) and can be considered a silent epidemic. Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major burden for societies and is associated with high costs for both immediate and long-term care. Population-based studies including patients with severe TBI are rare. A recent cohort study in Switzerland observed an incidence of 11 / 100,000 population / year. Mortality rate at 14 days post-injury was 30% in Switzerland and was associated with the severity of the injury and the age of the injured person. Thirty-five percent of patients were >65 years; in this subpopulation the incidence (22/100,000/year) and death rate (41%) were higher; this high proportion of elderly patients in this setting is new. A decrease in disability in the first year after TBI was observed in large multicentre cohort studies including the Swiss cohort study. There is some evidence that the speed of decrease of disability over time is associated with intensive neurorehabilitation. In conclusion, short-term outcome may have improved for younger patients over recent years, but this improvement may be masked by the higher proportion of elderly patients with less favourable outcomes. Additionally, we propose that clinical pathways from the prehospital period to rehabilitation could be improved, and in turn allow a higher level of positive outcomes not only in young but also in elderly patients.

  2. Molecular pharmacological dissection of short- and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Luciana A; Barros, Daniela M; Vianna, Monica R M; Coitinho, Adriana; deDavid e Silva, Tiago; Choi, Humberto; Moletta, Beatriz; Medina, Jorge H; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2002-06-01

    1. It has been discussed for over 100 years whether short-term memory (STM) is separate from, or just an early phase of, long-term memory (LTM). The only way to solve this dilemma is to find out at least one treatment that blocks STM while keeping LTM intact for the same task in the same animal. 2. The effect of a large number of treatments infused into the hippocampus, amygdala, and entorhinal, posterior parietal or prefrontal cortex on STM and LTM of a one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance task was studied. The animals were tested at 1.5 h for STM, and again at 24 h for LTM. The treatments were given after training. 3. Eleven different treatments blocked STM without affecting LTM. Eighteen treatments affected the two memory types differentially, either blocking or enhancing LTM alone. Thus, STM is separate from, and parallel to the first hours of processing of, LTM of that task. 4. The mechanisms of STM are different from those of LTM. The former do not include gene expression or protein synthesis; the latter include a double peak of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity, accompanied by the phosphorylation of CREB, and both gene expression and protein synthesis. 5. Possible cellular and molecular events that do not require mRNA or protein synthesis should account for STM. These might include a hyperactivation of glutamate AMPA receptors, ribosome changes, or the exocytosis of glycoproteins that participate in cell addition.

  3. Short-Term International Internship Experiences for Future Teachers and Other Child Development Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes associated with participation in short-term, international internship experiences. Results suggest short-term international internship experiences contribute to rich personal and professional development outcomes. Findings highlight participant challenges associated with initial internship experiences, professional…

  4. Short-term Gains with Long-term Consequences: The Evolving Story of Sepsis Survivorship.

    PubMed

    Maley, Jason H; Mikkelsen, Mark E

    2016-06-01

    Sepsis is an acute, life-threatening condition that afflicts millions of patients annually. Advances in care and heightened awareness have led to substantial declines in short-term mortality. An expanding body of literature describes the long-term impact of sepsis, revealing long-term cognitive and functional impairments, sustained inflammation and immune dysfunction, increased healthcare resource use, reduced health-related quality of life, and increased mortality. The evidence challenges the notion that sepsis is an acute, transient illness, revealing rather that sepsis is an acute illness with lingering consequences. This article provides a state-of-the-art review of the emerging literature of the long-term consequences of sepsis. PMID:27229651

  5. Short Term Gains, Long Term Pains: How Cues About State Aid Learning in Dynamic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Gureckis, Todd M.; Love, Bradley C.

    2009-01-01

    Successful investors seeking returns, animals foraging for food, and pilots controlling aircraft all must take into account how their current decisions will impact their future standing. One challenge facing decision makers is that options that appear attractive in the short-term may not turn out best in the long run. In this paper, we explore human learning in a dynamic decision-making task which places short- and long-term rewards in conflict. Our goal in these studies was to evaluate how people’s mental representation of a task affects their ability to discover an optimal decision strategy. We find that perceptual cues that readily align with the underlying state of the task environment help people overcome the impulsive appeal of short-term rewards. Our experimental manipulations, predictions, and analyses are motivated by current work in reinforcement learning which details how learners value delayed outcomes in sequential tasks and the importance that “state” identification plays in effective learning. PMID:19427635

  6. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-03-04

    results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  7. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-02-04

    the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  8. Tritanium acetabular wedge augments: short-term results

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Camilo; Heller, Snir

    2016-01-01

    Background Reconstruction of acetabular defects in total hip arthroplasty (THA) presents a great challenge to orthopaedic surgeons. Previous studies have reported on the use and outcomes of trabecular metal acetabular augments for the reconstruction of acetabular defects. However, no study has been conducted evaluating the short-term results of tritanium acetabular wedge augments for the reconstruction of acetabular defects in THA. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using a prospective database at a single institution including primary and revision THA patients from January 2013 to December 2014. Patients were included if they received a tritanium acetabular wedge augment system and had a minimum of 2-year follow-up (average 2.2 years ±0.3, range, 2–2.6 years). Demographic data and outcomes data [Harris Hip Score—HHS and Short Form (SF)-36] was collected. Radiographic data was also collected on THA revision cases (Paprosky classification), developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) cases (Crowe classification), and radiographic follow-up using DeLee and Charnley’s classification system. Results There were 4 revision THA patients, 3 DDH patients, and 1 patient with posttraumatic arthritis. At the latest radiographic follow-up, there were no lucent lines in DeLee and Charnley Zones I, II or III. During the follow-up period, there was no open revision surgery. The SF-36 physical score significantly improved from preoperative measurement (29.6±2.2) to postoperative measurement (52.2±8.7, P=0.003), and the SF-36 mental score also significantly improved from preoperative assessment (34.5±4.5) to postoperative assessment (52.2±7.5, P=0.003). Total HHS scores also significantly improved postoperatively (P=0.02), with significant improvements in both the pain score (P=0.01) and function score (P=0.02). Conclusions Tritanium acetabular wedge augments in this short follow-up case series exhibit high clinical outcome scores, no radiographic lucency, and no

  9. Accurate measurement of dispersion data through short and narrow tubes used in very high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; McDonald, Thomas; Gilar, Martin

    2015-09-01

    An original method is proposed for the accurate and reproducible measurement of the time-based dispersion properties of short L< 50cm and narrow rc< 50μm tubes at mobile phase flow rates typically used in very high-pressure liquid chromatography (vHPLC). Such tubes are used to minimize sample dispersion in vHPLC; however, their dispersion characteristics cannot be accurately measured at such flow rates due to system dispersion contribution of vHPLC injector and detector. It is shown that using longer and wider tubes (>10μL) enables a reliable measurement of the dispersion data. We confirmed that the dimensionless plot of the reduced dispersion coefficient versus the reduced linear velocity (Peclet number) depends on the aspect ratio, L/rc, of the tube, and unexpectedly also on the diffusion coefficient of the analyte. This dimensionless plot could be easily obtained for a large volume tube, which has the same aspect ratio as that of the short and narrow tube, and for the same diffusion coefficient. The dispersion data for the small volume tube are then directly extrapolated from this plot. For instance, it is found that the maximum volume variances of 75μm×30.5cm and 100μm×30.5cm prototype finger-tightened connecting tubes are 0.10 and 0.30μL(2), respectively, with an accuracy of a few percent and a precision smaller than seven percent.

  10. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  11. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Short-term de facto transfer leasing... PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de facto transfer leasing...) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangement in which...

  12. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  13. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  14. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  15. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  16. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  17. 34 CFR 664.11 - What is a short-term seminar project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a short-term seminar project? 664.11 Section... Projects Does the Secretary Assist Under This Program? § 664.11 What is a short-term seminar project? A short-term seminar project is— (a) Designed to help integrate international studies into an...

  18. 34 CFR 664.11 - What is a short-term seminar project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is a short-term seminar project? 664.11 Section... Projects Does the Secretary Assist Under This Program? § 664.11 What is a short-term seminar project? A short-term seminar project is— (a) Designed to help integrate international studies into an...

  19. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  20. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  1. Musical and verbal memory in Alzheimer's disease: a study of long-term and short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Marie-Claude; Belleville, Sylvie

    2009-10-01

    Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal memory using a task that used pseudowords (LTM) or syllables (STM). Results indicated impaired musical memory in AD patients relative to healthy controls. The deficit was found for both long-term and short-term memory. Furthermore, it was of the same magnitude for both musical and verbal domains whether tested with short-term or long-term memory tasks. No correlation was found between musical and verbal LTM. However, there was a significant correlation between verbal and musical STM in AD participants and healthy older adults, which suggests that the two domains may share common mechanisms. PMID:19398148

  2. Language Identification in Short Utterances Using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Zazo, Ruben; Lozano-Diez, Alicia; Gonzalez-Dominguez, Javier; Toledano, Doroteo T; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) have recently outperformed other state-of-the-art approaches, such as i-vector and Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), in automatic Language Identification (LID), particularly when dealing with very short utterances (∼3s). In this contribution we present an open-source, end-to-end, LSTM RNN system running on limited computational resources (a single GPU) that outperforms a reference i-vector system on a subset of the NIST Language Recognition Evaluation (8 target languages, 3s task) by up to a 26%. This result is in line with previously published research using proprietary LSTM implementations and huge computational resources, which made these former results hardly reproducible. Further, we extend those previous experiments modeling unseen languages (out of set, OOS, modeling), which is crucial in real applications. Results show that a LSTM RNN with OOS modeling is able to detect these languages and generalizes robustly to unseen OOS languages. Finally, we also analyze the effect of even more limited test data (from 2.25s to 0.1s) proving that with as little as 0.5s an accuracy of over 50% can be achieved.

  3. Language Identification in Short Utterances Using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zazo, Ruben; Lozano-Diez, Alicia; Gonzalez-Dominguez, Javier; T. Toledano, Doroteo; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) have recently outperformed other state-of-the-art approaches, such as i-vector and Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), in automatic Language Identification (LID), particularly when dealing with very short utterances (∼3s). In this contribution we present an open-source, end-to-end, LSTM RNN system running on limited computational resources (a single GPU) that outperforms a reference i-vector system on a subset of the NIST Language Recognition Evaluation (8 target languages, 3s task) by up to a 26%. This result is in line with previously published research using proprietary LSTM implementations and huge computational resources, which made these former results hardly reproducible. Further, we extend those previous experiments modeling unseen languages (out of set, OOS, modeling), which is crucial in real applications. Results show that a LSTM RNN with OOS modeling is able to detect these languages and generalizes robustly to unseen OOS languages. Finally, we also analyze the effect of even more limited test data (from 2.25s to 0.1s) proving that with as little as 0.5s an accuracy of over 50% can be achieved. PMID:26824467

  4. Language Identification in Short Utterances Using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Zazo, Ruben; Lozano-Diez, Alicia; Gonzalez-Dominguez, Javier; Toledano, Doroteo T; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) have recently outperformed other state-of-the-art approaches, such as i-vector and Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), in automatic Language Identification (LID), particularly when dealing with very short utterances (∼3s). In this contribution we present an open-source, end-to-end, LSTM RNN system running on limited computational resources (a single GPU) that outperforms a reference i-vector system on a subset of the NIST Language Recognition Evaluation (8 target languages, 3s task) by up to a 26%. This result is in line with previously published research using proprietary LSTM implementations and huge computational resources, which made these former results hardly reproducible. Further, we extend those previous experiments modeling unseen languages (out of set, OOS, modeling), which is crucial in real applications. Results show that a LSTM RNN with OOS modeling is able to detect these languages and generalizes robustly to unseen OOS languages. Finally, we also analyze the effect of even more limited test data (from 2.25s to 0.1s) proving that with as little as 0.5s an accuracy of over 50% can be achieved. PMID:26824467

  5. Acute kidney injury: short-term and long-term effects.

    PubMed

    Doyle, James F; Forni, Lui G

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common cause of organ dysfunction in critically ill adults, with a single episode of AKI, regardless of stage, carrying a significant morbidity and mortality risk. Since the consensus on AKI nomenclature has been reached, data reflecting outcomes have become more apparent allowing investigation of both short- and long-term outcomes.Classically the short-term effects of AKI can be thought of as those reflecting an acute deterioration in renal function per se. However, the effects of AKI, especially with regard to distant organ function ("organ cross-talk"), are being elucidated as is the increased susceptibility to other conditions. With regards to the long-term effects, the consideration that outcome is a simple binary endpoint of dialysis or not, or survival or not, is overly simplistic, with the reality being much more complex.Also discussed are currently available treatment strategies to mitigate these adverse effects, as they have the potential to improve patient outcome and provide considerable economic health savings. Moving forward, an agreement for defining renal recovery is warranted if we are to assess and extrapolate the efficacy of novel therapies. Future research should focus on targeted therapies assessed by measure of long-term outcomes. PMID:27373891

  6. Short-term outcome of patients with preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Koual, Meriem; Abbou, Hind; Carbonnel, Marie; Picone, Olivier; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia constitutes a cause of increased mortality in mothers and fetuses. Screening for promoting factors is essential for adequate prevention in the event of any subsequent pregnancy, and for the adequate follow-up of concerned patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the short-term outcome of patients with preeclampsia and to identify possible new factors predisposing them to the disease. Methods One hundred fifty-five patients having experienced preeclampsia between 2005 and 2010 from the Gynecology and Obstetrics Department of the Foch Hospital (Suresnes, France) were included in the study. All patients had undergone close clinical and standard biological follow-up immediately postpartum and then 3 months later with a reference practitioner. In severe cases, further investigation was carried out by full etiological examination with an assessment of both autoimmune and thrombophilic status. Results Obesity and gestational diabetes were observed to be major risk factors for preeclampsia, which were found in 46% and 15% of the cases, respectively. The etiological assessment showed abnormalities in 11% of the patients. Impaired thrombophilia was found in 3% of the patients, impaired autoimmune status in 4%, a combination of both abnormalities in only 1% of the patients, and detection of renal abnormalities in 3% of the patients were observed. In the immediate postpartum period, 66% of patients had maintained elevated blood pressure levels, and 66% had proteinuria > 0.3 g/24 hours. At the 3-month postpartum assessment, persisting arterial hypertension was found in 16% of the patients, requiring continuation of antihypertensive therapy, and 22% of the patients had proteinuria over the accepted threshold (0.15 g/24 hours). Conclusion Patients with preeclampsia have increased cardiovascular risk, necessitating lifestyle measures and long-term follow-up. Etiological assessment must be carried out, systematically aiming at the detection

  7. Conceptual short term memory in perception and thought.

    PubMed

    Potter, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual short term memory (CSTM) is a theoretical construct that provides one answer to the question of how perceptual and conceptual processes are related. CSTM is a mental buffer and processor in which current perceptual stimuli and their associated concepts from long term memory (LTM) are represented briefly, allowing meaningful patterns or structures to be identified (Potter, 1993, 1999, 2009). CSTM is different from and complementary to other proposed forms of working memory: it is engaged extremely rapidly, has a large but ill-defined capacity, is largely unconscious, and is the basis for the unreflective understanding that is characteristic of everyday experience. The key idea behind CSTM is that most cognitive processing occurs without review or rehearsal of material in standard working memory and with little or no conscious reasoning. When one perceives a meaningful stimulus such as a word, picture, or object, it is rapidly identified at a conceptual level and in turn activates associated information from LTM. New links among concurrently active concepts are formed in CSTM, shaped by parsing mechanisms of language or grouping principles in scene perception and by higher-level knowledge and current goals. The resulting structure represents the gist of a picture or the meaning of a sentence, and it is this structure that we are conscious of and that can be maintained in standard working memory and consolidated into LTM. Momentarily activated information that is not incorporated into such structures either never becomes conscious or is rapidly forgotten. This whole cycle - identification of perceptual stimuli, memory recruitment, structuring, consolidation in LTM, and forgetting of non-structured material - may occur in less than 1 s when viewing a pictured scene or reading a sentence. The evidence for such a process is reviewed and its implications for the relation of perception and cognition are discussed. PMID:22557984

  8. Short-term Physical Inactivity Impairs Vascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Nosova, Emily V.; Yen, Priscilla; Chong, Karen C.; Alley, Hugh F.; Stock, Eveline O.; Quinn, Alex; Hellmann, Jason; Conte, Michael S.; Owens, Christopher D.; Spite, Matthew; Grenon, S. Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sedentarism, also termed physical inactivity, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Mechanisms thought to be involved include insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and increased inflammation. It is unknown whether changes in vascular and endothelial function also contribute to this excess risk. We hypothesized that short-term exposure to inactivity would lead to endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and increased vascular inflammation. Methods Five healthy subjects (4 males and 1 female) underwent 5 days of bed rest (BR) to simulate inactivity. Measurements of vascular function [flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) to evaluate endothelial function; applanation tonometry to assess arterial resistance], inflammation and metabolism were made before BR, daily during BR and after 2 recovery days. Subjects maintained an isocaloric diet throughout. Results Bed rest led to significant decreases in brachial artery and femoral artery FMD [Brachial: 11 ± 3% pre-BR vs. 9 ± 2% end-BR, P=0.04; Femoral: 4 ± 1% vs. 2 ± 1%, P=0.04]. The central augmentation index increased with BR [−4 ± 9% vs. 5 ± 11%, P=0.03]. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased [58 ± 7 mmHg vs. 62 ± 7 mmHg, P=0.02], while neither systolic blood pressure nor heart rate changed. 15-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite, increased but the other inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers were unchanged. Conclusions Our findings show that acute exposure to sedentarism results in decreased endothelial function, arterial stiffening, increased DBP, and an increase in 15-HETE. We speculate that inactivity promotes a vascular “deconditioning” state characterized by impaired endothelial function, leading to arterial stiffness and increased arterial tone. Although physiologically significant, the underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance of these findings need to be further explored. PMID:24630521

  9. Short term hypothyroidism affects ovarian function in the cycling rat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rats made hypothyroid with propilthyouracil start showing abnormal cycling on the second cycle after the start of the treatment, with a high proportion of spontaneous pseudopregnancies and reduced fertility. Methods To investigate some of the mechanisms involved in these reproductive abnormalities, hypothyroidism was induced in virgin rats by propilthyouracil (0.1 g/L in the drinking water) and we determined circulating hormones by radioimmunoassay and whole ovary expression of ovarian hormone receptors, growth factors and steroidogenic enzymes using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The study was performed on days 6 to 9 of treatment, corresponding to diestrus I (at 20.00-22.00 h), diestrus II (at 20.00-22.00 h), proestrus and estrus (both at 8.00-10.00 h and 20.00-22.00 h) of the second estrous cycle after beginning propilthyouracil treatment. Another group of rats was mated on day 8 and the treatment continued through the entire pregnancy to evaluate reproductive performance. Results Hypothyroidism increased circulating prolactin and estradiol on estrus 5 to 7-fold and 1.2 to 1.4-fold respectively. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 diminished 60 and 20% respectively on proestrus morning. Hypothyroidism doubled the ovarian mRNA contents of estrogen receptor-beta on proestrus and estrus evenings, cyp19A1 aromatase mRNA on estrus evening and of growth hormone receptor on proestrus evening. Hypothyroidism did not influence ovulation rate or the number of corpora lutea at term, but a diminished number of implantation sites and pups per litter were observed (Hypothyroid: 11.7 +/- 0.8 vs. Control: 13.9 +/- 0.7). Conclusions Short term hypothyroidism alters normal hormone profile in the cycling rat increasing the expression of estrogen receptor-beta and cyp19A1 aromatase on estrus, which in turn may stimulate estradiol and prolactin secretion, favouring corpus luteum survival and the subsequent instauration of pseudopregnancy. PMID:20149258

  10. Sequential dynamics in visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Kool, Wouter; Conway, Andrew R A; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2014-10-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is thought to help bridge across changes in visual input, and yet many studies of VSTM employ static displays. Here we investigate how VSTM copes with sequential input. In particular, we characterize the temporal dynamics of several different components of VSTM performance, including: storage probability, precision, variability in precision, guessing, and swapping. We used a variant of the continuous-report VSTM task developed for static displays, quantifying the contribution of each component with statistical likelihood estimation, as a function of serial position and set size. In Experiments 1 and 2, storage probability did not vary by serial position for small set sizes, but showed a small primacy effect and a robust recency effect for larger set sizes; precision did not vary by serial position or set size. In Experiment 3, the recency effect was shown to reflect an increased likelihood of swapping out items from earlier serial positions and swapping in later items, rather than an increased rate of guessing for earlier items. Indeed, a model that incorporated responding to non-targets provided a better fit to these data than alternative models that did not allow for swapping or that tried to account for variable precision. These findings suggest that VSTM is updated in a first-in-first-out manner, and they bring VSTM research into closer alignment with classical working memory research that focuses on sequential behavior and interference effects.

  11. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Short-Term Dynamical Interactions Among Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Chambers, John E.; DiVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We show that short-term perturbations among massive planets in multiple planet systems can result in radial velocity variations of the central star which differ substantially from velocity variations derived assuming the planets are executing independent Keplerian motions. We discuss two alternate fitting methods which can lead to an improved dynamical description of multiple planet systems. In the first method, the osculating orbital elements are determined via a Levenberg-Marquardt minimization scheme driving an N-body integrator. The second method is an improved analytic model in which orbital elements such as the periods and longitudes of periastron are allowed to vary according to a simple model for resonant interactions between the planets. Both of these methods can potentially determine the true masses for the planets by eliminating the sin(i) degeneracy inherent in fits that assume independent Keplerian motions. As more radial velocity data is accumulated from stars such as GJ876, these methods should allow for unambiguous determination of the planetary masses and relative inclinations.

  13. Genotoxicity Assessment of Erythritol by Using Short-term Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young-Shin

    2013-01-01

    Erythritol is a sugar alcohol that is widely used as a natural sugar substitute. Thus, the safety of its usage is very important. In the present study, short-term genotoxicity assays were conducted to evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of erythritol. According to the OECD test guidelines, the maximum test dose was 5,000 μg/plate in bacterial reverse mutation tests, 5,000 μg/ml in cell-based assays, and 5,000 mg/kg for in vivo testing. An Ames test did not reveal any positive results. No clastogenicity was observed in a chromosomal aberration test with CHL cells or an in vitro micronucleus test with L5178Y tk+/− cells. Erythritol induced a marginal increase of DNA damage at two high doses by 24 hr of exposure in a comet assay using L5178Y tk+/− cells. Additionally, in vivo micronucleus tests clearly demonstrated that oral administration of erythritol did not induce micronuclei formation of the bone marrow cells of male ICR mice. Taken together, our results indicate that erythritol is not mutagenic to bacterial cells and does not cause chromosomal damage in mammalian cells either in vitro or in vivo. PMID:24578795

  14. Short-term Aerosol Trends: Reality or Myth?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Zubko, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The main questions addressed in this slide presentation involve short-term trends of MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over 6 years: (1) Why are the trends different in different regions? (2) How are these trends so high? (3) Why are they "coherent" in many areas? (4) Are these changes in aerosol concentrations real, i.e., are they monotonic changes in emissions? Several views of the Spatial Distribution of AOT from Terra are shown. In conclusion there are several trends: (1) There is a broad spatial inhomogenueity in AOT trends over 6 years of MODIS Terra and Aqua (2) Some of the areas demonstrate clear positive trends related to increase of emission (e.g., Eastern China) (3) Strong trends in some other areas are superficial and might be attributed, in part, to: (3a) Least squares linear trend sensitivity to outliers (need to use more robust linear fitting method) (3b) Spatial and temporal shifts or trends in meteorological conditions, especially in wind patterns responsible for aerosol transport (6) Aerosol trends should be studied together with changes in meteorology patterns as they might closely linked together

  15. Audiovisual integration facilitates monkeys' short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans.

  16. Short-term stabilization of grape marc through earthworms.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Lazcano, Cristina; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-03-15

    The winery industry generates vast amounts of organic waste during the various stages of wine production. Among the possible methodological alternatives available for its treatment, vermicomposting is one of the best-known processes for the biological stabilization of solid organic wastes by transforming them into safer and more stabilized materials suitable for application to soil. In this study we carried out a mesocosm experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of the active phase of vermicomposting for the stabilization of grape marc, an enriched lignocellulosic by-product obtained after the grape crushing and pressing stages in wine production. For this we analysed the chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties of the product resulting from this phase, in comparison with those in a control treatment. Earthworm activity reduced the abundance of both bacterial and fungal PLFA biomarkers. Decreases in microbial activity and in protease and cellulase activities were also attributed to the presence of earthworms. The differences in microbial communities were accompanied by a reduction in the labile C pool and the cellulose content. These results indicate that earthworms played a key role in the stabilization of the grape marc in the short-term, via its effects on organic matter decomposition and microbial biomass and activity.

  17. Short-term toxicity of nine industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Komsta, E.; Secours, V.E.; Chu, I.; Morris, R.; Harrison, J.; Baranowski, E.; Villeneuve, D.C. ); Valli, V.E. )

    1989-07-01

    There are a number of industrial chemicals currently used in Canada in sufficiently large quantities that warrant a careful environmental and human health hazard assessment by the regulatory agencies. A review of the existing toxicity data for these chemicals indicated that most of the studies were inadequate due to study design, small group size, inadequate procedures or insufficient parameters being monitored. In order to determine if further studies were warranted it was decided to screen 9 of these chemicals in a short-term study using male and female rats. The chemicals were chosen based on considerations such as quantity, availability of toxicological data, chemical and structural properties and commercial availability. The chemicals selected were: tri(butoxyethyl) phosphate, dimethylol urea, 2-butyne-1,4-diol, triallyl-s-triazine-trione, cyclohexanone oxime, p-toluene sulphonhydrazide, 2-nitroaniline, propargyl alcohol and 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole. The assay consisted of a 14-day oral dosing regime followed by a comprehensive evaluation of biochemical, hematological and histophathological changes.

  18. Airway response to ultra short-term exposure to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Fouke, J.M.; Delemos, R.A.; McFadden, E.R. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    To determine whether acute short-term exposure to oxidant pollutants can cause changes in respiratory mechanics, we gave 0.5 ppm ozone for 5 min to 7 baboons. We measured pulmonary resistance (RL) and obtained dose response curves to methacholine before and after the exposures. This brief insult increased resistance (control RL = 1.53 +/- 0.21 cm H/sub 2/O.L-1 s; post-ozone RL = 3.53 +/- 0.54 cm H/sub 2/O.L-1 s). On a second occasion, 6 of these animals were restudied before and after the administration of cromolyn sodium. Although this drug had no effect on the measurements of mechanics made in the control period, it significantly reduced the ozone-induced changes in mechanics. The increase in RL was 52% of that produced in the first study. The results demonstrated that the ozone injury with its acute and subacute airway sequelae occurs quite rapidly and after very brief exposure. The time course of the change in mechanics and the effects of cromolyn suggest the hypothesis that surface epithelial cells are disrupted, causing subsequent release of bronchoconstricting agents.

  19. Visual short-term memory load strengthens selective attention.

    PubMed

    Roper, Zachary J J; Vecera, Shaun P

    2014-04-01

    Perceptual load theory accounts for many attentional phenomena; however, its mechanism remains elusive because it invokes underspecified attentional resources. Recent dual-task evidence has revealed that a concurrent visual short-term memory (VSTM) load slows visual search and reduces contrast sensitivity, but it is unknown whether a VSTM load also constricts attention in a canonical perceptual load task. If attentional selection draws upon VSTM resources, then distraction effects-which measure attentional "spill-over"-will be reduced as competition for resources increases. Observers performed a low perceptual load flanker task during the delay period of a VSTM change detection task. We observed a reduction of the flanker effect in the perceptual load task as a function of increasing concurrent VSTM load. These findings were not due to perceptual-level interactions between the physical displays of the two tasks. Our findings suggest that perceptual representations of distractor stimuli compete with the maintenance of visual representations held in memory. We conclude that access to VSTM determines the degree of attentional selectivity; when VSTM is not completely taxed, it is more likely for task-irrelevant items to be consolidated and, consequently, affect responses. The "resources" hypothesized by load theory are at least partly mnemonic in nature, due to the strong correspondence they share with VSTM capacity.

  20. Short Term Memory, Working Memory, and Syntactic Comprehension in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sixty one people with aphasia were tested on ten tests of short term memory (STM) and for the ability to use syntactic structure to determine the meanings of eleven types of sentences in three tasks – object manipulation, picture matching and picture matching with self-paced listening. Multilevel models showed relationships between measures of the ability to retain and manipulate item and order information in STM and accuracy and RT, and a greater relationship between these STM measures and accuracy and RT for several more complex sentence types in individual tasks. There were no effects of measures of STM that reflect the use of phonological codes or rehearsal on comprehension. There was only one effect of STM measures on self-paced listening times. There were double dissociations between performance on STM and individual comprehension tasks, indicating that normal STM is not necessary to perform normally on these tasks. The results are most easily related to the view that STM plays a facilitatory role in supporting the use of the products of the comprehension process to accomplish operations related to tasks. PMID:23865692

  1. Diverse thalamocortical short-term plasticity elicited by ongoing stimulation.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Quesada, Marta; Martini, Francisco J; Ferrati, Giovanni; Bureau, Ingrid; Maravall, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    To produce sensation, neuronal pathways must transmit and process stimulus patterns that unfold over time. This behavior is determined by short-term synaptic plasticity (STP), which shapes the temporal filtering properties of synapses in a pathway. We explored STP variability across thalamocortical (TC) synapses, measuring whole-cell responses to stimulation of TC fibers in layer 4 neurons of mouse barrel cortex in vitro. As expected, STP during stimulation from rest was dominated by depression. However, STP during ongoing stimulation was strikingly diverse across TC connections. Diversity took the form of variable tuning to the latest interstimulus interval: some connections responded weakly to shorter intervals, while other connections were facilitated. These behaviors did not cluster into categories but formed a continuum. Diverse tuning did not require disynaptic inhibition. Hence, monosynaptic excitatory lemniscal TC connections onto layer 4 do not behave uniformly during ongoing stimulation. Each connection responds differentially to particular stimulation intervals, enriching the ability of the pathway to convey complex, temporally fluctuating information.

  2. Audiovisual integration facilitates monkeys' short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans. PMID:27010716

  3. Perceptual asymmetries are preserved in short-term memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Montaser-Kouhsari, Leila; Carrasco, Marisa

    2009-11-01

    Visual performance is heterogeneous at isoeccentric locations; it is better on the horizontal than on the vertical meridian and worse at the upper than at the lower region of the vertical meridian (Carrasco, Talgar, & Cameron, 2001; Talgar & Carrasco, 2002). It is unknown whether these performance inhomogeneities are also present in spatial frequency tasks and whether asymmetries present during encoding of visual information also emerge in visual short-term memory (VSTM) tasks. Here, we investigated the similarity of the perceptual and VSTM tasks in spatial frequency discrimination (Experiments 1 and 2) and perceived spatial frequency (Experiments 3 and 4). We found that (1) performance in both simultaneous (perceptual) and delayed (VSTM) spatial frequency discrimination tasks varies as a function of location; it is better along the horizontal than along the vertical meridian; and (2) perceived spatial frequency in both tasks is higher along the horizontal than along the vertical meridian. These results suggest that perceived spatial frequency may mediate performance differences in VSTM tasks across the visual field, implying that the quality with which we encode information affects VSTM.

  4. An information capacity limitation of visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Sewell, David K; Lilburn, Simon D; Smith, Philip L

    2014-12-01

    Research suggests that visual short-term memory (VSTM) has both an item capacity, of around 4 items, and an information capacity. We characterize the information capacity limits of VSTM using a task in which observers discriminated the orientation of a single probed item in displays consisting of 1, 2, 3, or 4 orthogonally oriented Gabor patch stimuli that were presented in noise for 50 ms, 100 ms, 150 ms, or 200 ms. The observed capacity limitations are well described by a sample-size model, which predicts invariance of ∑(i)(d'(i))² for displays of different sizes and linearity of (d'(i))² for displays of different durations. Performance was the same for simultaneous and sequentially presented displays, which implicates VSTM as the locus of the observed invariance and rules out explanations that ascribe it to divided attention or stimulus encoding. The invariance of ∑(i)(d'(i))² is predicted by the competitive interaction theory of Smith and Sewell (2013), which attributes it to the normalization of VSTM traces strengths arising from competition among stimuli entering VSTM.

  5. Dimension-based attention in visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Michael; Barrett, Doug J K

    2016-07-01

    We investigated how dimension-based attention influences visual short-term memory (VSTM). This was done through examining the effects of cueing a feature dimension in two perceptual comparison tasks (change detection and sameness detection). In both tasks, a memory array and a test array consisting of a number of colored shapes were presented successively, interleaved by a blank interstimulus interval (ISI). In Experiment 1 (change detection), the critical event was a feature change in one item across the memory and test arrays. In Experiment 2 (sameness detection), the critical event was the absence of a feature change in one item across the two arrays. Auditory cues indicated the feature dimension (color or shape) of the critical event with 80 % validity; the cues were presented either prior to the memory array, during the ISI, or simultaneously with the test array. In Experiment 1, the cue validity influenced sensitivity only when the cue was given at the earliest position; in Experiment 2, the cue validity influenced sensitivity at all three cue positions. We attributed the greater effectiveness of top-down guidance by cues in the sameness detection task to the more active nature of the comparison process required to detect sameness events (Hyun, Woodman, Vogel, Hollingworth, & Luck, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35; 1140-1160, 2009). PMID:26920437

  6. Short term fluctuations of wind and solar power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anvari, M.; Lohmann, G.; Wächter, M.; Milan, P.; Lorenz, E.; Heinemann, D.; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza; Peinke, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Wind and solar power are known to be highly influenced by weather events and may ramp up or down abruptly. Such events in the power production influence not only the availability of energy, but also the stability of the entire power grid. By analysing significant amounts of data from several regions around the world with resolutions of seconds to minutes, we provide strong evidence that renewable wind and solar sources exhibit multiple types of variability and nonlinearity in the time scale of seconds and characterise their stochastic properties. In contrast to previous findings, we show that only the jumpy characteristic of renewable sources decreases when increasing the spatial size over which the renewable energies are harvested. Otherwise, the strong non-Gaussian, intermittent behaviour in the cumulative power of the total field survives even for a country-wide distribution of the systems. The strong fluctuating behaviour of renewable wind and solar sources can be well characterised by Kolmogorov-like power spectra and q-exponential probability density functions. Using the estimated potential shape of power time series, we quantify the jumpy or diffusive dynamic of the power. Finally we propose a time delayed feedback technique as a control algorithm to suppress the observed short term non-Gaussian statistics in spatially strong correlated and intermittent renewable sources.

  7. Leukocyte subsets and neutrophil function after short-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C. F.; Mehta, S. K.; Kaur, I.; Jones, M. L.; Feeback, D. L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in leukocyte subpopulations and function after spaceflight have been observed but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not well defined. This study investigated the effects of short-term spaceflight (8-15 days) on circulating leukocyte subsets, stress hormones, immunoglobulin levels, and neutrophil function. At landing, a 1.5-fold increase in neutrophils was observed compared with preflight values; lymphocytes were slightly decreased, whereas the results were variable for monocytes. No significant changes were observed in plasma levels of immunoglobulins, cortisol, or adrenocorticotropic hormone. In contrast, urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were significantly elevated at landing. Band neutrophils were observed in 9 of 16 astronauts. Neutrophil chemotactic assays showed a 10-fold decrease in the optimal dose response after landing. Neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells was increased both before and after spaceflight. At landing, the expression of MAC-1 was significantly decreased while L-selectin was significantly increased. These functional alterations may be of clinical significance on long-duration space missions.

  8. Short term effects of airborne pollen concentrations on asthma epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, A; Galan, I; Banegas, J; Aranguez, E

    2003-01-01

    Methods: This study, based on time series analysis adjusting for meteorological factors and air pollution variables, assessed the short term effects of different types of allergenic pollen on asthma hospital emergencies in the metropolitan area of Madrid (Spain) for the period 1995–8. Results: Statistically significant associations were found for Poaceae pollen (lag of 3 days) and Plantago pollen (lag of 2 days), representing an increase in the range between the 99th and 95th percentiles of 17.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2 to 32.8) and 15.9% (95% CI 6.5 to 26.2) for Poaceae and Plantago, respectively. A positive association was also observed for Urticaceae (lag of 1 day) with an 8.4% increase (95% CI 2.8 to 14.4). Conclusions: There is an association between pollen levels and asthma related emergencies, independent of the effect of air pollutants. The marked relationship observed for Poaceae and Plantago pollens suggests their implication in the epidemic distribution of asthma during the period coinciding with their abrupt release into the environment. PMID:12885991

  9. Perceptual asymmetries are preserved in short-term memory tasks

    PubMed Central

    Montaser-Kouhsari, Leila; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Visual performance is heterogeneous at isoeccentric locations; it is better on the horizontal than on the vertical meridian and worse at the upper than at the lower region of the vertical meridian (Carrasco, Talgar, & Cameron, 2001; Talgar & Carrasco, 2002). It is unknown whether these performance inhomogeneities are also present in spatial frequency tasks and whether asymmetries present during encoding of visual information also emerge in visual short-term memory (VSTM) tasks. Here, we investigated the similarity of the perceptual and VSTM tasks in spatial frequency discrimination (Experiments 1 and 2) and perceived spatial frequency (Experiments 3 and 4). We found that (1) performance in both simultaneous (perceptual) and delayed (VSTM) spatial frequency discrimination tasks varies as a function of location; it is better along the horizontal than along the vertical meridian; and (2) perceived spatial frequency in both tasks is higher along the horizontal than along the vertical meridian. These results suggest that perceived spatial frequency may mediate performance differences in VSTM tasks across the visual field, implying that the quality with which we encode information affects VSTM. PMID:19933562

  10. Exogenous attention influences visual short-term memory in infants

    PubMed Central

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Oakes, Lisa M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that developing visual attentional mechanisms influence infants' Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM) in the context of multiple items. Five-and 10-month-old infants (N = 76) received a change detection task in which arrays of 3 differently colored squares appeared and disappeared. On each trial one square changed color and one square was cued; sometimes the cued item was the changing item, and sometimes the changing item was not the cued item. Ten-month-old infants exhibited enhanced memory for the cued item when the cue was a spatial pre-cue (Experiment 1) and 5-month-old infants exhibited enhanced memory for the cued item when the cue was relative motion (Experiment 2). These results demonstrate for the first time that infants younger than 6 months can encode information in VSTM about individual items in multiple-object arrays, and that attention-directing cues influence both perceptual and VSTM encoding of stimuli in infants as in adults. PMID:21477189

  11. Positive illusions about the self: short-term benefits and long-term costs.

    PubMed

    Robins, R W; Beer, J S

    2001-02-01

    Two studies addressed parallel questions about the correlates and consequences of self-enhancement bias. Study 1 was conducted in a laboratory context and examined self-enhancing evaluations of performance in a group-interaction task. Study 2 assessed students' illusory beliefs about their academic ability when they first entered college and then followed them longitudinally to test claims about the long-term benefits of positive illusions. Both studies showed that self-enhancement bias was related to narcissism, ego involvement, self-serving attributions, and positive affect. Study 2 found that self-enhancement was associated with decreasing levels of self-esteem and well-being as well as with increasing disengagement from the academic context. Self-enhancement did not predict higher academic performance or higher graduate rates. Thus, the findings suggest that self-enhancing beliefs may be adaptive in the short term but not in the long term.

  12. A phenomenological memristor model for short-term/long-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ling; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Ahmad, Hafiz Gulfam; Chen, Yiran

    2014-08-01

    Memristor is considered to be a natural electrical synapse because of its distinct memory property and nanoscale. In recent years, more and more similar behaviors are observed between memristors and biological synapse, e.g., short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). The traditional mathematical models are unable to capture the new emerging behaviors. In this article, an updated phenomenological model based on the model of the Hewlett-Packard (HP) Labs has been proposed to capture such new behaviors. The new dynamical memristor model with an improved ion diffusion term can emulate the synapse behavior with forgetting effect, and exhibit the transformation between the STM and the LTM. Further, this model can be used in building new type of neural networks with forgetting ability like biological systems, and it is verified by our experiment with Hopfield neural network.

  13. Short Term Weather Forecasting and Long Term Climate Predictions in Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, D. M.; Daniel, I.; Mecikalski, J.; Graves, S.

    2008-05-01

    The SERVIR project utilizes several predictive models to support regional monitoring and decision support in Mesoamerica. Short term forecasts ranging from a few hours to several days produce more than 30 data products that are used daily by decision makers, as well as news organizations in the region. The forecast products can be visualized in both two and three dimensional viewers such as Google Maps and Google Earth. Other viewers developed specifically for the Mesoamerican region by the University of Alabama in Huntsville and the Institute for the Application of Geospatial Technologies in Auburn New York can also be employed. In collaboration with the NASA Short Term Prediction Research and Transition (SpoRT) Center SERVIR utilizes the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to produce short-term (24 hr) regional weather forecasts twice a day. Temperature, precipitation, wind, and other variables are forecast in 10km and 30km grids over the Mesoamerica region. Using the PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model, known as MM5, SERVIR produces 48 hour- forecasts of soil temperature, two meter surface temperature, three hour accumulated precipitation, winds at different heights, and other variables. These are forecast hourly in 9km grids. Working in collaboration with the Atmospheric Science Department of the University of Alabama in Huntsville produces a suite of short-term (0-6 hour) weather prediction products are generated. These "convective initiation" products predict the onset of thunderstorm rainfall and lightning within a 1-hour timeframe. Models are also employed for long term predictions. The SERVIR project, under USAID funding, has developed comprehensive regional climate change scenarios of Mesoamerica for future years: 2010, 2015, 2025, 2050, and 2099. These scenarios were created using the Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research (MM5) model and processed on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Cheetah supercomputer. The goal of these

  14. The short- to medium-term predictive accuracy of static and dynamic risk assessment measures in a secure forensic hospital.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chi Meng; Thomas, Stuart D M; Ogloff, James R P; Daffern, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Although violence risk assessment knowledge and practice has advanced over the past few decades, it remains practically difficult to decide which measures clinicians should use to assess and make decisions about the violence potential of individuals on an ongoing basis, particularly in the short to medium term. Within this context, this study sought to compare the predictive accuracy of dynamic risk assessment measures for violence with static risk assessment measures over the short term (up to 1 month) and medium term (up to 6 months) in a forensic psychiatric inpatient setting. Results showed that dynamic measures were generally more accurate than static measures for short- to medium-term predictions of inpatient aggression. These findings highlight the necessity of using risk assessment measures that are sensitive to important clinical risk state variables to improve the short- to medium-term prediction of aggression within the forensic inpatient setting. Such knowledge can assist with the development of more accurate and efficient risk assessment procedures, including the selection of appropriate risk assessment instruments to manage and prevent the violence of offenders with mental illnesses during inpatient treatment.

  15. Comparison of Short-term and Long-term Earthquake Forecast Models for Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmstetter, A.; Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    2004-12-01

    Many earthquakes are triggered in part by preceding events. Aftershocks are the most obvious examples, but many large earthquakes are preceded by smaller ones. The large fluctuations of seismicity rate due to earthquake interactions thus provide a way to improve earthquake forecasting significantly. We have developed a model to estimate daily earthquake probabilities in Southern California, using the Epidemic Type Earthquake Sequence model [Kagan and Knopoff, 1987; Ogata, 1988]. The forecasted seismicity rate is the sum of a constant external loading and of the aftershocks of all past earthquakes. The background rate is estimated by smoothing past seismicity. Each earthquake triggers aftershocks with a rate that increases exponentially with its magnitude and which decreases with time following Omori's law. We use an isotropic kernel to model the spatial distribution of aftershocks for small (M≤5.5) mainshocks, and a smoothing of the location of early aftershocks for larger mainshocks. The model also assumes that all earthquake magnitudes follow the Gutenberg-Richter law with a unifom b-value. We use a maximum likelihood method to estimate the model parameters and tests the short-term and long-term forecasts. A retrospective test using a daily update of the forecasts between 1985/1/1 and 2004/3/10 shows that the short-term model decreases the uncertainty of an earthquake occurrence by a factor of about 10.

  16. Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Orthopedic Biodegradable Implants

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Ami R.; Wallace, James S.; Nukavarapu, Syam P.

    2012-01-01

    Presently, orthopedic and oral/maxillofacial implants represent a combined $2.8 billion market, a figure expected to experience significant and continued growth. Although traditional permanent implants have been proved clinically efficacious, they are also associated with several drawbacks, including secondary revision and removal surgeries. Non-permanent, biodegradable implants offer a promising alternative for patients, as they provide temporary support and degrade at a rate matching tissue formation, and thus, eliminate the need for secondary surgeries. These implants have been in clinical use for nearly 25 years, competing directly with, or maybe even exceeding, the performance of permanent implants. The initial implantation of biodegradable materials, as with permanent materials, mounts an acute host inflammatory response. Over time, the implant degradation profile and possible degradation product toxicity mediate long-term biodegradable implant-induced inflammation. However, unlike permanent implants, this inflammation is likely to cease once the material disappears. Implant-mediated inflammation is a critical determinant for implant success. Thus, for the development of a proactive biodegradable implant that has the ability to promote optimal bone regeneration and minimal detrimental inflammation, a thorough understanding of short- and long-term inflammatory events is required. Here, we discuss an array of biodegradable orthopedic implants, their associated short- and long- term inflammatory effects, and methods to mediate these inflammatory events. PMID:22043969

  17. Romantic preferences in Brazilian undergraduate students: from the short term to the long term.

    PubMed

    Castro, Felipe Nalon; de Araújo Lopes, Fívia

    2011-09-01

    A number of studies have described different preference patterns typically found for men and women when choosing romantic mates. These vary according to the involvement level expected in the relationship. Despite the number of investigations on the topic, one must be careful not to generalize because most studies use samples composed of North American university undergraduates. This study sought to determine if the preference patterns typically found in other countries also occur among Brazilian undergraduates. The importance of characteristics and modifications in preference patterns under gradually restrictive conditions was also investigated. In general, the results obtained suggest that the preferences found in a number of countries also occur in Brazil. In short-term relationships, men prioritize physical attributes, whereas personal traits gain importance when involvement increases. Women in short-term relationships value physical and personal traits, whereas in the long term, they emphasize personal characteristics and their mate's desire to acquire resources. Resource-related traits were less important than the other traits, and were more important for women than for men. PMID:20830643

  18. Short-term and long-term treatment outcomes with Class III activator

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyo-kyung; Chong, Hyun-Jeong; An, Ki-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate short-term and long-term skeletodental outcomes of Class III activator treatment. Methods A Class III activator treatment group (AG) comprised of 22 patients (9 boys, 13 girls) was compared with a Class III control group (CG) comprised of 17 patients (6 boys, 11 girls). The total treatment period was divided into three stages; the initial stage (T1), the post-activator treatment or post-mandibular growth peak stage (T2), and the long-term follow-up stage (T3). Cephalometric changes were evaluated statistically via the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Friedman test. Results The AG exhibited significant increases in the SNA angle, ANB angle, Wits appraisal, A point-N perpendicular, Convexity of A point, and proclination of the maxillary incisors, from T1 to T2. In the long-term follow-up (T1-T3), the AG exhibited significantly greater increases in the ANB angle, Wits appraisal, and Convexity of A point than the CG. Conclusions Favorable skeletal outcomes induced during the Class III activator treatment period were generally maintained until the long-term follow-up period of the post-mandibular growth peak stage. PMID:26445717

  19. Short-term landfill methane emissions dependency on wind.

    PubMed

    Delkash, Madjid; Zhou, Bowen; Han, Byunghyun; Chow, Fotini K; Rella, Chris W; Imhoff, Paul T

    2016-09-01

    Short-term (2-10h) variations of whole-landfill methane emissions have been observed in recent field studies using the tracer dilution method for emissions measurement. To investigate the cause of these variations, the tracer dilution method is applied using 1-min emissions measurements at Sandtown Landfill (Delaware, USA) for a 2-h measurement period. An atmospheric dispersion model is developed for this field test site, which is the first application of such modeling to evaluate atmospheric effects on gas plume transport from landfills. The model is used to examine three possible causes of observed temporal emissions variability: temporal variability of surface wind speed affecting whole landfill emissions, spatial variability of emissions due to local wind speed variations, and misaligned tracer gas release and methane emissions locations. At this site, atmospheric modeling indicates that variation in tracer dilution method emissions measurements may be caused by whole-landfill emissions variation with wind speed. Field data collected over the time period of the atmospheric model simulations corroborate this result: methane emissions are correlated with wind speed on the landfill surface with R(2)=0.51 for data 2.5m above ground, or R(2)=0.55 using data 85m above ground, with emissions increasing by up to a factor of 2 for an approximately 30% increase in wind speed. Although the atmospheric modeling and field test are conducted at a single landfill, the results suggest that wind-induced emissions may affect tracer dilution method emissions measurements at other landfills. PMID:26896003

  20. Short-term cholinergic desensitization of rat pancreatic secretory response

    SciTech Connect

    Asselin, J.; Larose, L.; Morisset, J.

    1987-03-01

    Dispersed pancreatic acini were first exposed to carbamylcholine (10/sup -7/-10/sup -4/ M) for 60 min, washed, and reexposed to this same agonist (10/sup -8/-10/sup -3/ M) for 15 min. During this second incubation, the functional secretory capacity of these acini was evaluated by measuring amylase release. Acini preexposed to concentrations of carbamylcholine of 10/sup -6/ M or greater showed shifts to the right in the subsequent carbamylcholine dose-response curves of amylase release. A 3-h recovery period (without carbamylcholine) did not restore the altered carbamylcholine dose-response curve. Ca/sup 2 +/ concentrations of 10/sup -7/ M or 2.5 x 10/sup -3/ M instead of 0.5 x 10/sup -3/ M during the 60-min preincubation did not affect the desensitization process. With use of N-(/sup 3/H)methylscopolamine to evaluate muscarinic receptors, the only changes observed after desensitization were a significant decrease in the high-affinity and an equivalent increase in that of the low-affinity receptors. After cholinergic exposure amylase release stimulated by caerulein was only slightly modified, whereas amylase release in response to a phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and to the ionophore A23187 was not altered. These data indicate that short-term desensitization with a cholinergic agent is relatively specific to muscarinic agonists, causes changes in the muscarinic receptor high-and low-affinity concentration but does not alter intracellular steps after calcium mobilization or protein kinase C activation known to be involved in the secretion process.

  1. Short-term wind speed predictions with machine learning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, M. A.; Khatibi, R.; FazeliFard, M. H.; Naghipour, L.; Makarynskyy, O.

    2016-02-01

    Hourly wind speed forecasting is presented by a modeling study with possible applications to practical problems including farming wind energy, aircraft safety and airport operations. Modeling techniques employed in this paper for such short-term predictions are based on the machine learning techniques of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic expression programming (GEP). Recorded values of wind speed were used, which comprised 8 years of collected data at the Kersey site, Colorado, USA. The January data over the first 7 years (2005-2011) were used for model training; and the January data for 2012 were used for model testing. A number of model structures were investigated for the validation of the robustness of these two techniques. The prediction results were compared with those of a multiple linear regression (MLR) method and with the Persistence method developed for the data. The model performances were evaluated using the correlation coefficient, root mean square error, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient and Akaike information criterion. The results indicate that forecasting wind speed is feasible using past records of wind speed alone, but the maximum lead time for the data was found to be 14 h. The results show that different techniques would lead to different results, where the choice between them is not easy. Thus, decision making has to be informed of these modeling results and decisions should be arrived at on the basis of an understanding of inherent uncertainties. The results show that both GEP and ANN are equally credible selections and even MLR should not be dismissed, as it has its uses.

  2. Short-term potentiation of breathing in humans.

    PubMed

    Fregosi, R F

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the increase in ventilation induced by hypoxic stimulation of the carotid bodies (CB) persists after cessation of the stimulus in humans. I reasoned that a short-term potentiation (STP) of breathing, sometimes called an "afterdischarge," could be unmasked by combining hypoxia with exercise, because ventilation increases synergistically under these conditions. Seven young healthy men performed mild bicycle exercise (30% peak power) while breathing O2 for 1.5 min ("control" state), and their CB were then stimulated by 1.5 min of hypoxic exercise (10% O2--balance N2). CB stimulation was then terminated by changing the inspirate back to O2 as exercise continued. Inspiratory and expiratory duration (TI and TE) and inspiratory flow and its time integral [tidal volume (VT)] were measured with a pneumotachometer. Inspired minute ventilation (VI) and mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI) declined exponentially after the cessation of CB stimulation, with first-order time constants of 28.6 +/- 6.7 and 24.6 +/- 1.6 (SD) s, respectively. The slow decay of VI was due primarily to potentiation of both TI and TE, although the effect on the latter predominated. Additional experiments in six subjects showed that brief intense CB stimulation with four to five breaths of N2 during mild exercise induced STP of similar magnitude to that observed in the hypoxic exercise experiments. Finally, the imposition of hyperoxia during air breathing exercise at a level of respiratory drive similar to that induced by the hypoxic exercise did not change VI significantly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1757326

  3. Short Term Effects of Cocoa Consumption on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne, T; Alleyne, A; Arrindell, D; Balleram, N; Cozier, D; Haywood, R; Humphrey, C; Pran, L; Rampersad, K; Reyes, D; Bahall, S; Holder, R; Ignacio, D

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension, defined as diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and systolic pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among black populations globally. Several studies have shown that prolonged consumption of cocoa or cocoa containing products leads to decreased blood pressure (BP) in hypertensives. In this study, we investigated the flavonoid content of the top selling cocoa/cocoa based products in Trinidad and Tobago and attempted to determine if consumption of cocoa had any immediate impact on blood pressure levels. The flavonoid content of three 100% cocoa powder products and four cocoa-based formulas was measured using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. The brand with the highest flavonoid content, 372 gallic acid equivalents, was selected to evaluate the short-term impact of cocoa consumption on blood pressure. Thirty-six participants comprising nineteen hypertensives and seventeen persons with normal blood pressure had their blood pressure recorded on three separate days using ambulatory blood pressure monitors; the blood pressure was recorded every half hour for eight hours. On the first day, the participants received no intervention but on the second and third days, they received either the intervention (5 g cocoa in 125 ml water) or a placebo, in any order. Statistical analysis conducted using t-test statistic and a 95% confidence interval revealed that whether participants regularly took antihypertensive medication or not, a single intervention of cocoa induced decreases in both the diastolic and systolic BPs that were significant (p = 0.0001). Mean decreases of between 8 mmHg and 18 mmHg were observed. PMID:25429467

  4. Short term outcome of laparoscopic ventral rectopexy for rectal prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Naeem, Muhammad; Anwer, Mariyah; Qureshi, Muhammad Shamim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out the short term outcomes of effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic ventral rectopexy for rectal prolapse. Methods: It was a descriptive case series study of 31 consecutive patients of rectal prolapse in Colorectal division of Ward 2, Department of General surgery, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center, Karachi, from November 2009 to November 2015. These patients were admitted through outpatient department with complains of something coming out of anus, constipation and per rectal bleeding. All patients were clinically examined and baseline investigations were done. All patients underwent laparoscopic repair with ventral mesh placement on rectum. Results: Among 31 patients, mean age was 45 years range (20 - 72). While females were 14(45%) and males 17(55%). We observed variety of presentations, including solitary rectal ulcers (n=4) and rectocele (n=3) but full thickness rectal prolapse was predominant(n=24). All patients had laparoscopic repair with mesh placement. Average hospital stay was three days. Out of 31 patients, there was one (3.2%) recurrence. Port site minor infection in 3(9.7%) patients, while conversion to open approach was done in two (6.4%), postoperative ileus observed in two (6.4%) patients. one(3.2%) patient developed intractable back pain and mesh was removed six weeks after the operation. one(4.8%) patient complained of abdominal pain off and on postoperatively. No patient developed denovo or worsening constipation while constipation was improved in 21 patients (67%). Sexual dysfunction such as dysperunia in females and impotence in males was not detected in follow up. Conclusions: This study provides the limited evidence that nerve sparing laparoscopic ventral rectopexy is safe and effective treatment of external and symptomatic internal rectal prolapse. It has better cosmetic and functional outcome as advantages of minimal access and comparable recurrence rate.

  5. Short-term effect of antibiotics on human gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Panda, Suchita; El khader, Ismail; Casellas, Francesc; López Vivancos, Josefa; García Cors, Montserrat; Santiago, Alba; Cuenca, Silvia; Guarner, Francisco; Manichanh, Chaysavanh

    2014-01-01

    From birth onwards, the human gut microbiota rapidly increases in diversity and reaches an adult-like stage at three years of age. After this age, the composition may fluctuate in response to external factors such as antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that resilience is not complete months after cessation of the antibiotic intake. However, little is known about the short-term effects of antibiotic intake on the gut microbial community. Here we examined the load and composition of the fecal microbiota immediately after treatment in 21 patients, who received broad-spectrum antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones and β-lactams. A fecal sample was collected from all participants before treatment and one week after for microbial load and community composition analyses by quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Fluoroquinolones and β-lactams significantly decreased microbial diversity by 25% and reduced the core phylogenetic microbiota from 29 to 12 taxa. However, at the phylum level, these antibiotics increased the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio (p = 0.0007, FDR = 0.002). At the species level, our findings unexpectedly revealed that both antibiotic types increased the proportion of several unknown taxa belonging to the Bacteroides genus, a Gram-negative group of bacteria (p = 0.0003, FDR<0.016). Furthermore, the average microbial load was affected by the treatment. Indeed, the β-lactams increased it significantly by two-fold (p = 0.04). The maintenance of or possible increase detected in microbial load and the selection of Gram-negative over Gram-positive bacteria breaks the idea generally held about the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on gut microbiota.

  6. Neural circuit mechanisms of short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Mark

    Memory over time scales of seconds to tens of seconds is thought to be maintained by neural activity that is triggered by a memorized stimulus and persists long after the stimulus is turned off. This presents a challenge to current models of memory-storing mechanisms, because the typical time scales associated with cellular and synaptic dynamics are two orders of magnitude smaller than this. While such long time scales can easily be achieved by bistable processes that toggle like a flip-flop between a baseline and elevated-activity state, many neuronal systems have been observed experimentally to be capable of maintaining a continuum of stable states. For example, in neural integrator networks involved in the accumulation of evidence for decision making and in motor control, individual neurons have been recorded whose activity reflects the mathematical integral of their inputs; in the absence of input, these neurons sustain activity at a level proportional to the running total of their inputs. This represents an analog form of memory whose dynamics can be conceptualized through an energy landscape with a continuum of lowest-energy states. Such continuous attractor landscapes are structurally non-robust, in seeming violation of the relative robustness of biological memory systems. In this talk, I will present and compare different biologically motivated circuit motifs for the accumulation and storage of signals in short-term memory. Challenges to generating robust memory maintenance will be highlighted and potential mechanisms for ameliorating the sensitivity of memory networks to perturbations will be discussed. Funding for this work was provided by NIH R01 MH065034, NSF IIS-1208218, Simons Foundation 324260, and a UC Davis Ophthalmology Research to Prevent Blindness Grant.

  7. Short-Term Variability on the Scotian Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenan, B.; Petrie, B.; Harrison, G.; Oakey, N.; Strain, P.

    2002-12-01

    The traditional view of the production cycle on the continental shelf of Nova Scotia features a spring bloom followed by a period of low production and a less intense fall bloom. The annual cycle of primary productivity thus has a large, low frequency component. However, there is increasing evidence that the production cycle has significant variability on shorter time scales. Physical, chemical and biological variability on the Scotian Shelf is examined on a daily to weekly timescale. This is accomplished through the use of a newly developed mooring platform (SeaHorse) that uses surface wave energy to enable the instrument to climb down the mooring wire and then float upwards while sampling the water column. This provides bi-hourly profiles of temperature, salinity, pressure and chlorophyll at one location over month-long periods. Results from the three-week deployment in October 2000 indicate a subsurface chlorophyll maximum below the pycnocline during the first part of the time series. An event occurred in mid-October during which the temperature, salinity and density iso-surfaces rose approximately 25 m. During this event, a small bloom, with peak chlorophyll concentrations of about 2 mg m-3 and duration of several days, began as nutrients were brought into the upper part of the water column by upwelling-favorable winds. SeaWiFS ocean color satellite images were valuable in providing a spatial context for chlorophyll concentrations, however, the lack of temporal resolution due to poor quality images means that this data set provided limited information for short-term chlorophyll variability. Gradient Richardson Numbers were estimated for 2 m vertical bins using SeaHorse CTD data and nearby ADCP current measurements. A trend of decreasing Ri in the ocean mixed layer with increasing surface wind stress is suggested.

  8. Short term outcome of laparoscopic ventral rectopexy for rectal prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Naeem, Muhammad; Anwer, Mariyah; Qureshi, Muhammad Shamim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out the short term outcomes of effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic ventral rectopexy for rectal prolapse. Methods: It was a descriptive case series study of 31 consecutive patients of rectal prolapse in Colorectal division of Ward 2, Department of General surgery, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center, Karachi, from November 2009 to November 2015. These patients were admitted through outpatient department with complains of something coming out of anus, constipation and per rectal bleeding. All patients were clinically examined and baseline investigations were done. All patients underwent laparoscopic repair with ventral mesh placement on rectum. Results: Among 31 patients, mean age was 45 years range (20 - 72). While females were 14(45%) and males 17(55%). We observed variety of presentations, including solitary rectal ulcers (n=4) and rectocele (n=3) but full thickness rectal prolapse was predominant(n=24). All patients had laparoscopic repair with mesh placement. Average hospital stay was three days. Out of 31 patients, there was one (3.2%) recurrence. Port site minor infection in 3(9.7%) patients, while conversion to open approach was done in two (6.4%), postoperative ileus observed in two (6.4%) patients. one(3.2%) patient developed intractable back pain and mesh was removed six weeks after the operation. one(4.8%) patient complained of abdominal pain off and on postoperatively. No patient developed denovo or worsening constipation while constipation was improved in 21 patients (67%). Sexual dysfunction such as dysperunia in females and impotence in males was not detected in follow up. Conclusions: This study provides the limited evidence that nerve sparing laparoscopic ventral rectopexy is safe and effective treatment of external and symptomatic internal rectal prolapse. It has better cosmetic and functional outcome as advantages of minimal access and comparable recurrence rate. PMID:27648031

  9. Frailty as a predictor of short-term adverse outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Tiago; Paúl, Constança; Gobbens, Robbert J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare how different frailty measures (Frailty Phenotype/FP, Groningen Frailty Indicator/GFI and Tilburg Frailty Indicator/TFI) predict short-term adverse outcomes. Secondarily, adopting a multidimensional approach to frailty (integral conceptual model–TFI), this study aims to compare how physical, psychological and social frailty predict the outcomes. A longitudinal study was carried out with 95 community-dwelling elderly. Participants were assessed at baseline for frailty, determinants of frailty, and adverse outcomes (healthcare utilization, quality of life, disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living/ADL and IADL). Ten months later the outcomes were assessed again. Frailty was associated with specific healthcare utilization indicators: the FP with a greater utilization of informal care; GFI with an increased contact with healthcare professionals; and TFI with a higher amount of contacts with a general practitioner. After controlling for the effect of life-course determinants, comorbidity and adverse outcome at baseline, GFI predicted IADL disability and TFI predicted quality of life. The effect of the FP on the outcomes was not significant, when compared with the other measures. However, when comparing TFI’s domains, the physical domain was the most significant predictor of the outcomes, even explaining part of the variance of ADL disability. Frailty at baseline was associated with adverse outcomes at follow-up. However, the relationship of each frailty measure (FP, GFI and TFI) with the outcomes was different. In spite of the role of psychological frailty, TFI’s physical domain was the determinant factor for predicting disability and most of the quality of life. PMID:26246968

  10. Is Earthquake Prediction Possible from Short-Term Foreshocks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Avlonitis, Markos; Di Fiore, Boris; Minadakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Foreshocks preceding mainshocks in the short-term, ranging from minutes to a few months prior the mainshock, have been known from several decades ago. Understanding the generation mechanisms of foreshocks was supported by seismicity observations and statistics, laboratory experiments, theoretical considerations and simulation results. However, important issues remain open. For example, (1) How foreshocks are defined? (2) Why only some mainshocks are preceded by foreshocks but others do not? (2) Is the mainshock size dependent on some attributes of the foreshock sequence? (3) Is that possible to discriminate foreshocks from other seismicity styles (e.g. swarms, aftershocks)? To approach possible replies to these issues we reviewed about 400 papers, reports, books and other documents referring to foreshocks as well as to relevant laboratory experiments. We found that different foreshock definitions are used by different authors. We found also that the ratio of mainshocks preceded by foreshocks increases with the increase of monitoring capabilities and that foreshock activity is dependent on source mechanical properties and favoured by material heterogeneity. Also, the mainshock size does not depend on the largest foreshock size but rather by the foreshock area. Seismicity statistics may account for an effective discrimination of foreshocks from other seismicity styles since during foreshock activities the seismicity rate increases with the inverse of time and, at the same, the b-value of the G-R relationship as a rule drops significantly. Our literature survey showed that only the last years the seismicity catalogs organized in some well monitored areas are adequately complete to search for foreshock activities. Therefore, we investigated for a set of "good foreshock examples" covering a wide range of mainshock magnitudes from 4.5 to 9 in Japan (Tohoku 2011), S. California, Italy (including L' Aquila 2009) and Greece. The good examples used indicate that foreshocks

  11. Short-term change detection for UAV video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, Günter; Krüger, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    In the last years, there has been an increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for video reconnaissance and surveillance. An important application in this context is change detection in UAV video data. Here we address short-term change detection, in which the time between observations ranges from several minutes to a few hours. We distinguish this task from video motion detection (shorter time scale) and from long-term change detection, based on time series of still images taken between several days, weeks, or even years. Examples for relevant changes we are looking for are recently parked or moved vehicles. As a pre-requisite, a precise image-to-image registration is needed. Images are selected on the basis of the geo-coordinates of the sensor's footprint and with respect to a certain minimal overlap. The automatic imagebased fine-registration adjusts the image pair to a common geometry by using a robust matching approach to handle outliers. The change detection algorithm has to distinguish between relevant and non-relevant changes. Examples for non-relevant changes are stereo disparity at 3D structures of the scene, changed length of shadows, and compression or transmission artifacts. To detect changes in image pairs we analyzed image differencing, local image correlation, and a transformation-based approach (multivariate alteration detection). As input we used color and gradient magnitude images. To cope with local misalignment of image structures we extended the approaches by a local neighborhood search. The algorithms are applied to several examples covering both urban and rural scenes. The local neighborhood search in combination with intensity and gradient magnitude differencing clearly improved the results. Extended image differencing performed better than both the correlation based approach and the multivariate alternation detection. The algorithms are adapted to be used in semi-automatic workflows for the ABUL video exploitation system of Fraunhofer

  12. Short-Term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Curry, Susan J.; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing, but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term…

  13. An Opportunistic Routing Mechanism Combined with Long-Term and Short-Term Metrics for WMN

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Xianglan; Qiu, Tie

    2014-01-01

    WMN (wireless mesh network) is a useful wireless multihop network with tremendous research value. The routing strategy decides the performance of network and the quality of transmission. A good routing algorithm will use the whole bandwidth of network and assure the quality of service of traffic. Since the routing metric ETX (expected transmission count) does not assure good quality of wireless links, to improve the routing performance, an opportunistic routing mechanism combined with long-term and short-term metrics for WMN based on OLSR (optimized link state routing) and ETX is proposed in this paper. This mechanism always chooses the highest throughput links to improve the performance of routing over WMN and then reduces the energy consumption of mesh routers. The simulations and analyses show that the opportunistic routing mechanism is better than the mechanism with the metric of ETX. PMID:25250379

  14. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan; Tröger, Josephine; Muñoz, Katherine; Frör, Oliver; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2016-04-15

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  15. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan; Tröger, Josephine; Muñoz, Katherine; Frör, Oliver; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2016-04-15

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  16. Renovating? Take a look at the new short-term paths to financing.

    PubMed

    Kluger, M

    1984-02-01

    A hospital's renovation project can be financed through a diversity of financing techniques. Although the traditional vehicle for hospital capital financing is long-term, fixed-rate debt, there are a growing number of short-term financing alternatives that can provide greater flexibility and generate debt service savings. The author describes some of the new short-term financing techniques, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of short- versus long-term financing.

  17. Short-Term Memory for Temporal Intervals: Contrasting Explanations of the Choose-Short Effect in Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Carlos; Machado, Armando

    2011-01-01

    To better understand short-term memory for temporal intervals, we re-examined the choose-short effect. In Experiment 1, to contrast the predictions of two models of this effect, the subjective shortening and the coding models, pigeons were exposed to a delayed matching-to-sample task with three sample durations (2, 6 and 18 s) and retention…

  18. Protein aggregation in E. coli : short term and long term effects of nutrient density.

    PubMed

    Baig, Ulfat I; Bhadbhade, Bharati J; Mariyam, Dincy; Watve, Milind G

    2014-01-01

    During exponential growth some cells of E. coli undergo senescence mediated by asymmetric segregation of damaged components, particularly protein aggregates. We showed previously that functional cell division asymmetry in E. coli was responsive to the nutritional environment. Short term exposure as well as long term selection in low calorie environments led to greater cell division symmetry and decreased frequency of senescent cells as compared to high calorie environments. We show here that long term selection in low nutrient environment decreased protein aggregation as revealed by fluorescence microscopy and proportion of insoluble proteins. Across selection lines protein aggregation was correlated significantly positively with the RNA content, presumably indicating metabolic rate. This suggests that the effects of caloric restriction on cell division symmetry and aging in E. coli may work via altered protein handling mechanisms. The demonstrable effects of long term selection on protein aggregation suggest that protein aggregation is an evolvable phenomenon rather than being a passive inevitable process. The aggregated proteins progressively disappeared on facing starvation indicating degradation and recycling demonstrating that protein aggregation is a reversible process in E. coli. PMID:25210787

  19. Short-term and Long-term Variations of Dose Rate measured by MSL/RAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Rafkin, Scot; Boettcher, Stephan; Reitz, Guenther; Koehler, Jan; Ehresmann, Bent; Martin, Cesar; Burmeister, Soenke; Posner, Arik; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Hassler, Donald M.; Brinza, David; Boehm, Henning Eckart; Lohf, Henning; Appel, Jan

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), onboard Mars Science Laboratory’s (MSL) rover Curiosity, measures the spectra of both energetic charged and neutral particles along with radiation dose rate at the surface of Mars. Several effects have been observed for the first time to influence the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR)-driven particle radiation on the surface: [a] short-term diurnal variations of the Martian atmospheric pressure caused by daily thermal tides [Rafkin 2014]; [b] long-term seasonal pressure changes in the Martian atmosphere; and [c] the modulation of the primary GCR fluxes by the heliospheric magnetic field, which correlates with long-term solar activities and heliospheric rotation. These concurrent factors affect the dose rate variations measured by RAD on the Martian surface. RAD also recorded the dose rate during the 253-day cruise phase of MSL from the Earth to Mars. The variations of the GCR-induced dose rates during quiet time period without the direct detection of Solar Particle Events (SPE) were solely driven by the changes of heliospheric conditions (i.e. [c]). The RAD cruise and surface dose measurements, along with the surface pressure data and the solar modulation factor, are analysed in order to understand how the long-term influences ([b] and [c]) individually correlate with the measured dose rates.

  20. Short-term vs. long-term heart rate variability in ischemic cardiomyopathy risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Schulz, Steffen; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Vázquez, Rafael; Bayés de Luna, Antoni; Caminal, Pere

    2013-01-01

    In industrialized countries with aging populations, heart failure affects 0.3–2% of the general population. The investigation of 24 h-ECG recordings revealed the potential of nonlinear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) for enhanced risk stratification in patients with ischemic heart failure (IHF). However, long-term analyses are time-consuming, expensive, and delay the initial diagnosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether 30 min short-term HRV analysis is sufficient for comparable risk stratification in IHF in comparison to 24 h-HRV analysis. From 256 IHF patients [221 at low risk (IHFLR) and 35 at high risk (IHFHR)] (a) 24 h beat-to-beat time series (b) the first 30 min segment (c) the 30 min most stationary day segment and (d) the 30 min most stationary night segment were investigated. We calculated linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear HRV analysis indices. Optimal parameter sets for risk stratification in IHF were determined for 24 h and for each 30 min segment by applying discriminant analysis on significant clinical and non-clinical indices. Long- and short-term HRV indices from frequency domain and particularly from nonlinear dynamics revealed high univariate significances (p < 0.01) discriminating between IHFLR and IHFHR. For multivariate risk stratification, optimal mixed parameter sets consisting of 5 indices (clinical and nonlinear) achieved 80.4% AUC (area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics) from 24 h HRV analysis, 84.3% AUC from first 30 min, 82.2 % AUC from daytime 30 min and 81.7% AUC from nighttime 30 min. The optimal parameter set obtained from the first 30 min showed nearly the same classification power when compared to the optimal 24 h-parameter set. As results from stationary daytime and nighttime, 30 min segments indicate that short-term analyses of 30 min may provide at least a comparable risk stratification power in IHF in comparison to a 24 h analysis period. PMID:24379785

  1. Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short-term

  2. Response to Energy Dilution in the Short Term: Evidence of Nutritional Wisdom in Young Children?

    PubMed

    Hetherington, M M; Wood, C; Lyburn, S C

    2000-01-01

    Young children respond to energy dilution achieved using fat or sugar substitutes by compensating for reduced energy within a single meal. The ability to respond to energy dilution in the short term may diminish with age, since adults do not reliably demonstrate accurate caloric compensation in the short term. Two experiments were conducted to examine caloric compensation across age groups. In Experiment 1,15 young children (2-5 years) and 10 older children (7-10 years) received regular (100 g: 73 kcal) and low-calorie (100 g: 6 kcal) raspberry gelatin dessert as a mid-morning snack on two test days separated by at least 2 weeks. Young children demonstrated caloric compensation by consuming more following the low-calorie snack (571.3 ± 48.8 kcal) than after the regular snack (487.7 ± 31.5 kcal). Older children failed to adjust intake in response to the difference in energy. In Experiment 2, a similar procedure was used but young children (n = 19) received 150 g of raspberry gelatin dessert (9 kcal vs. 109 kcal) and older children (n = 12) received 225 g of gelatin dessert (13 kcal vs. 164 kcal). The compensation index (COMPX) indicated that young children (88.1 ± 22.4%) compensated better than older children (21.5 ± 21.9%). Short-term caloric compensation may diminish with age, possibly reflecting a transition from using unlearned internal cues to a more adult pattern of eating influenced by external cues and learning.

  3. Downstream Effect of Ramping Neuronal Activity through Synapses with Short-Term Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2016-04-01

    Ramping neuronal activity refers to spiking activity with a rate that increases quasi-linearly over time. It has been observed in multiple cortical areas and is correlated with evidence accumulation processes or timing. In this work, we investigated the downstream effect of ramping neuronal activity through synapses that display short-term facilitation (STF) or depression (STD). We obtained an analytical result for a synapse driven by deterministic linear ramping input that exhibits pure STF or STD and numerically investigated the general case when a synapse displays both STF and STD. We show that the analytical deterministic solution gives an accurate description of the averaging synaptic activation of many inputs converging onto a postsynaptic neuron, even when fluctuations in the ramping input are strong. Activation of a synapse with STF shows an initial cubical increase with time, followed by a linear ramping similar to a synapse without STF. Activation of a synapse with STD grows in time to a maximum before falling and reaching a plateau, and this steady state is independent of the slope of the ramping input. For a synapse displaying both STF and STD, an increase in the depression time constant from a value much smaller than the facilitation time constant τ(F) to a value much larger than τ(F) leads to a transition from facilitation dominance to depression dominance. Therefore, our work provides insights into the impact of ramping neuronal activity on downstream neurons through synapses that display short-term plasticity. In a perceptual decision-making process, ramping activity has been observed in the parietal and prefrontal cortices, with a slope that decreases with task difficulty. Our work predicts that neurons downstream from such a decision circuit could instead display a firing plateau independent of the task difficulty, provided that the synaptic connection is endowed with short-term depression. PMID:26890350

  4. Artificial neural networks for short-term electric demand forecasting: Accuracy and economic value

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, B.F.; Jitprapaikulsarn, S.; Konda, S.; Maratukulam, D.

    1998-12-31

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are increasingly used by utilities to forecast short-term (1 to 7 day ahead) demands for electricity. Over the past decade, interest in improving the accuracy of short-term demand forecasting has sharply increased. This interest is stimulated in part by competition, which has motivated efforts to save costs, and in part by methodological advances. ANNs are exceptionally promising because they do not require specification of a particular functional relationship between inputs and outputs, and because of their ability to adapt as new data becomes available. In the first section of this paper, the authors report the results of a survey which quantifies the extent to which use of ANNs can improve upon current forecasting practice. Yet is the effort and expense required to develop and use these new systems justified by the benefits they bring? Improved accuracy has value only if it leads to better decisions. The authors attempt to answer that question in the remainder of the paper by, first, surveying electric utilities on their uses of forecasts and benefits they perceive from using ANNs and, second, simulating how improved accuracy lowers expected power generation costs. The results show that, on average, electric utilities can realize considerable savings by adopting more accurate ANN-based forecasting systems, but that the potential savings can vary greatly from utility to utility.

  5. A direct comparison of short-term audiomotor and visuomotor memory.

    PubMed

    Ward, Amanda M; Loucks, Torrey M; Ofori, Edward; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2014-04-01

    Audiomotor and visuomotor short-term memory are required for an important variety of skilled movements but have not been compared in a direct manner previously. Audiomotor memory capacity might be greater to accommodate auditory goals that are less directly related to movement outcome than for visually guided tasks. Subjects produced continuous isometric force with the right index finger under auditory and visual feedback. During the first 10 s of each trial, subjects received continuous auditory or visual feedback. For the following 15 s, feedback was removed but the force had to be maintained accurately. An internal effort condition was included to test memory capacity in the same manner but without external feedback. Similar decay times of ~5-6 s were found for vision and audition but the decay time for internal effort was ~4 s. External feedback thus provides an advantage in maintaining a force level after feedback removal, but may not exclude some contribution from a sense of effort. Short-term memory capacity appears longer than certain previous reports but there may not be strong distinctions in capacity across different sensory modalities, at least for isometric force.

  6. Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications for human body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2014-07-01

    Adults consume millions of kilocalories over the course of a few years, but the typical weight gain amounts to only a few thousand kilocalories of stored energy. Furthermore, food intake is highly variable from day to day and yet body weight is remarkably stable. These facts have been used as evidence to support the hypothesis that human body weight is regulated by active control of food intake operating on both short and long time scales. Here, we demonstrate that active control of human food intake on short time scales is not required for body weight stability and that the current evidence for long term control of food intake is equivocal. To provide more data on this issue, we emphasize the urgent need for developing new methods for accurately measuring energy intake changes over long time scales. We propose that repeated body weight measurements can be used along with mathematical modeling to calculate long-term changes in energy intake and thereby quantify adherence to a diet intervention and provide dynamic feedback to individuals that seek to control their body weight.

  7. The word superiority effect: Dependence on short-term memory factors.

    PubMed

    Appelman, I B

    1976-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test whether the word superiority effect, that letters in words are perceived more accurately than letters in nonwords, could be attributed to short-term memory (STM) factors. One hypothesis attributed the word superiority effect to superior maintenance of words in STM. Another hypothesis was that letters in STM have considerable positional uncertainty which is overcome by the orthographic characteristics of the words. Both experiments utilized a simultaneous same-different task, where subjects compared two four-letter strings, one on top of the other, which were presented tachistoscopically. In Experiment I, the two presented strings were either both words or both nonwords and a word superiority effect was obtained. This result was interpreted as disconfirming the STM maintenance hypothesis. In Experiment II, letters were removed from one of the two letter strings, making the serial position of the comparison unambiguous. The word superiority effect disappeared. This result was interpreted as supporting the positional uncertainty hypothesis.

  8. Practical experiences with an adaptive neural network short-term load forecasting system

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, O.; Park, D.; Merchant, R.; Dinh, T.; Tong, C.; Azeem, A.; Farah, J.; Drake, C.

    1995-02-01

    An adaptive neural network based short-term electric load forecasting system is presented. The system is developed and implemented for Florida Power and Light Company (FPL). Practical experiences with the system are discussed. The system accounts for seasonal and daily characteristics, as well as abnormal conditions such as cold fronts, heat waves, holidays and other conditions. It is capable of forecasting load with a lead time of one hour to seven days. The adaptive mechanism is used to train the neural networks when on-line. The results indicate that the load forecasting system presented gives robust and more accurate forecasts and allows greater adaptability to sudden climatic changes compared with statistical methods. The system is portable and can be modified to suit the requirements of other utility companies.

  9. Using electrophysiology to demonstrate that cueing affects long-term memory storage over the short term.

    PubMed

    Maxcey, Ashleigh M; Fukuda, Keisuke; Song, Won S; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2015-10-01

    As researchers who study working memory, we often assume that participants keep a representation of an object in working memory when we present a cue that indicates that the object will be tested in a couple of seconds. This intuitively accounts for how well people can remember a cued object, relative to their memory for that same object presented without a cue. However, it is possible that this superior memory does not purely reflect storage of the cued object in working memory. We tested the hypothesis that cues presented during a stream of objects, followed by a short retention interval and immediate memory test, can change how information is handled by long-term memory. We tested this hypothesis by using a family of frontal event-related potentials believed to reflect long-term memory storage. We found that these frontal indices of long-term memory were sensitive to the task relevance of objects signaled by auditory cues, even when the objects repeated frequently, such that proactive interference was high. Our findings indicate the problematic nature of assuming process purity in the study of working memory, and demonstrate that frequent stimulus repetitions fail to isolate the role of working memory mechanisms.

  10. Dancing Bees Improve Colony Foraging Success as Long-Term Benefits Outweigh Short-Term Costs

    PubMed Central

    Schürch, Roger; Grüter, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Waggle dancing bees provide nestmates with spatial information about high quality resources. Surprisingly, attempts to quantify the benefits of this encoded spatial information have failed to find positive effects on colony foraging success under many ecological circumstances. Experimental designs have often involved measuring the foraging success of colonies that were repeatedly switched between oriented dances versus disoriented dances (i.e. communicating vectors versus not communicating vectors). However, if recruited bees continue to visit profitable food sources for more than one day, this procedure would lead to confounded results because of the long-term effects of successful recruitment events. Using agent-based simulations, we found that spatial information was beneficial in almost all ecological situations. Contrary to common belief, the benefits of recruitment increased with environmental stability because benefits can accumulate over time to outweigh the short-term costs of recruitment. Furthermore, we found that in simulations mimicking previous experiments, the benefits of communication were considerably underestimated (at low food density) or not detected at all (at medium and high densities). Our results suggest that the benefits of waggle dance communication are currently underestimated and that different experimental designs, which account for potential long-term benefits, are needed to measure empirically how spatial information affects colony foraging success. PMID:25141306

  11. Using electrophysiology to demonstrate that cueing affects long-term memory storage over the short term.

    PubMed

    Maxcey, Ashleigh M; Fukuda, Keisuke; Song, Won S; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2015-10-01

    As researchers who study working memory, we often assume that participants keep a representation of an object in working memory when we present a cue that indicates that the object will be tested in a couple of seconds. This intuitively accounts for how well people can remember a cued object, relative to their memory for that same object presented without a cue. However, it is possible that this superior memory does not purely reflect storage of the cued object in working memory. We tested the hypothesis that cues presented during a stream of objects, followed by a short retention interval and immediate memory test, can change how information is handled by long-term memory. We tested this hypothesis by using a family of frontal event-related potentials believed to reflect long-term memory storage. We found that these frontal indices of long-term memory were sensitive to the task relevance of objects signaled by auditory cues, even when the objects repeated frequently, such that proactive interference was high. Our findings indicate the problematic nature of assuming process purity in the study of working memory, and demonstrate that frequent stimulus repetitions fail to isolate the role of working memory mechanisms. PMID:25604772

  12. Health reform in New Zealand: short-term gain but long-term pain?

    PubMed

    Ashton, Toni; Tenbensel, Tim

    2012-10-01

    Following a period of quite radical structural reform during the 1990s, health reform in New Zealand is now more incremental and often 'under the radar' of public scrutiny and debate. However, many changes have been made to the roles and functions of key agencies and this could have a profound effect on the direction and performance of the public health system. In particular, the objective of reform at the national level has shifted away from improving population health and reducing health disparities towards improving the performance of service providers. This article describes some of the reforms that have been introduced in recent years and discusses some implications of these changes. We argue that policy settings that are concerned only with getting the right services to the right people at the right time are inherently short-sighted if they fail to tackle the long-term causes of increasing demand for future health services. PMID:23186398

  13. Distribution of Short-Term and Lifetime Predicted Risks of Cardiovascular Diseases in Peruvian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quispe, Renato; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Burroughs Peña, Melissa S; Poterico, Julio A; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Huffman, Mark D; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-term risk assessment tools for prediction of cardiovascular disease events are widely recommended in clinical practice and are used largely for single time-point estimations; however, persons with low predicted short-term risk may have higher risks across longer time horizons. Methods and Results We estimated short-term and lifetime cardiovascular disease risk in a pooled population from 2 studies of Peruvian populations. Short-term risk was estimated using the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease Pooled Cohort Risk Equations. Lifetime risk was evaluated using the algorithm derived from the Framingham Heart Study cohort. Using previously published thresholds, participants were classified into 3 categories: low short-term and low lifetime risk, low short-term and high lifetime risk, and high short-term predicted risk. We also compared the distribution of these risk profiles across educational level, wealth index, and place of residence. We included 2844 participants (50% men, mean age 55.9 years [SD 10.2 years]) in the analysis. Approximately 1 of every 3 participants (34% [95% CI 33 to 36]) had a high short-term estimated cardiovascular disease risk. Among those with a low short-term predicted risk, more than half (54% [95% CI 52 to 56]) had a high lifetime predicted risk. Short-term and lifetime predicted risks were higher for participants with lower versus higher wealth indexes and educational levels and for those living in urban versus rural areas (P<0.01). These results were consistent by sex. Conclusions These findings highlight potential shortcomings of using short-term risk tools for primary prevention strategies because a substantial proportion of Peruvian adults were classified as low short-term risk but high lifetime risk. Vulnerable adults, such as those from low socioeconomic status and those living in urban areas, may need greater attention regarding cardiovascular preventive strategies. PMID:26254303

  14. Short-term Ensemble Flood Forecasting Experiments in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collischonn, Walter; Meller, Adalberto; Fan, Fernando; Moreira, Demerval; Dias, Pedro; Buarque, Diogo; Bravo, Juan

    2013-04-01

    Flood Forecasting and issuing early warnings to communities under risk can help reduce the impacts of those events. However, to be effective, warnings should be given several hours in advance. The best solution to extend the lead time is possibly the use of rainfall-runoff models with input given by rainfall and streamflow observations and by forecasts of future precipitation derived from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Recent studies showed that probabilistic or ensemble flood forecasts produced using ensemble precipitation forecasts as input data outperform deterministic flood forecasts in several cases in Europe and the United States, and ensemble flood forecasting systems are increasingly becoming operational in these regions. In Brazil, on the other hand, operational flood warning systems are rare, and often based on simplified river routing or linear transfer function models. However, a large number of global and regional meteorological models is operationally run covering most of the country, and forecasts of those models are available for recent years. We used this available data to conduct experiments of short term ensemble flood forecasting in the Paraopeba River basin (12 thousand km2), located in Southeastern Brazil. Streamflow forecasts were produced using the MGB-IPH hydrological model, using a simple empirical state updating method and using an ensemble of precipitation forecasts generated by several models, with different initial conditions and parameterizations, from several weather forecasting centers. A single deterministic streamflow forecast, based on a quantitative precipitation forecast derived from the optimal combination of several outputs of NWP models was used as a reference to assess the performance of the ensemble streamflow forecasts. Flood forecasts experiments were performed for three rainy seasons (austral summer) between 2008-2011. The results for predictions of dichotomous events, which mean exceeding or not flood

  15. Prediction of Non-Genotoxic Carcinogenicity Based on Genetic Profiles of Short Term Exposure Assays

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Luis Orlando; González-José, Rolando; García, Pilar Peral

    2016-01-01

    Non-genotoxic carcinogens are substances that induce tumorigenesis by non-mutagenic mechanisms and long term rodent bioassays are required to identify them. Recent studies have shown that transcription profiling can be applied to develop early identifiers for long term phenotypes. In this study, we used rat liver expression profiles from the NTP (National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, USA) DrugMatrix Database to construct a gene classifier that can distinguish between non-genotoxic carcinogens and other chemicals. The model was based on short term exposure assays (3 days) and the training was limited to oxidative stressors, peroxisome proliferators and hormone modulators. Validation of the predictor was performed on independent toxicogenomic data (TG-GATEs, Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System, Osaka, Japan). To build our model we performed Random Forests together with a recursive elimination algorithm (VarSelRF). Gene set enrichment analysis was employed for functional interpretation. A total of 770 microarrays comprising 96 different compounds were analyzed and a predictor of 54 genes was built. Prediction accuracy was 0.85 in the training set, 0.87 in the test set and increased with increasing concentration in the validation set: 0.6 at low dose, 0.7 at medium doses and 0.81 at high doses. Pathway analysis revealed gene prominence of cellular respiration, energy production and lipoprotein metabolism. The biggest target of toxicogenomics is accurately predict the toxicity of unknown drugs. In this analysis, we presented a classifier that can predict non-genotoxic carcinogenicity by using short term exposure assays. In this approach, dose level is critical when evaluating chemicals at early time points.

  16. The Short-Term Cooling but Long-Term Global Warming Due to Biomass Burning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2004-08-01

    Biomass burning releases gases (e.g., CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, SO2, C2H6, C2H4, C3H8, C3H6) and aerosol particle components (e.g., black carbon, organic matter, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, H+, Cl-, H2SO4, HSO4-, SO42-, NO3-). To date, the global-scale climate response of controlling emission of these constituents together has not been examined. Here 10-yr global simulations of the climate response of biomass-burning aerosols and short-lived gases are coupled with numerical calculations of the long-term effect of controlling biomass-burning CO2 and CH4 to estimate the net effect of controlling burning over 100 yr. Whereas eliminating biomass-burning particles is calculated to warm temperatures in the short term, this warming may be more than offset after several decades by cooling due to eliminating long-lived CO2, particularly from permanent deforestation. It is also shown analytically that biomass burning always results in CO2 accumulation, even when regrowth fluxes equal emission fluxes and in the presence of fertilization. Further, because burning grassland and cropland yearly, as opposed to every several years, increases CO2, biofuel burning, considered a “renewable” energy source, is only partially renewable, and biomass burning elevates CO2 until it is stopped. Because CO2 from biomass burning is considered recyclable and biomass particles are thought to cool climate, the Kyoto Protocol did not consider biomass-burning controls. If the results here, which apply to a range of scenarios but are subject to uncertainty, are correct, such control may slow global warming, contrary to common perception, and improve human health.


  17. 34 CFR 390.1 - What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... designed for the support of special seminars, institutes, workshops, and other short-term courses in technical matters relating to the vocational, medical, social, and psychological rehabilitation...

  18. 34 CFR 390.1 - What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... designed for the support of special seminars, institutes, workshops, and other short-term courses in technical matters relating to the vocational, medical, social, and psychological rehabilitation...

  19. Circadian Modulation of Short-Term Memory in "Drosophila"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Lisa C.; Roman, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous biological clocks are widespread regulators of behavior and physiology, allowing for a more efficient allocation of efforts and resources over the course of a day. The extent that different processes are regulated by circadian oscillators, however, is not fully understood. We investigated the role of the circadian clock on short-term…

  20. Short- and long-term effects of unemployment on fertility

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Janet; Schwandt, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have been examining the relationship between fertility and unemployment for more than a century. Most studies find that fertility falls with unemployment in the short run, but it is not known whether these negative effects persist, because women simply may postpone childbearing to better economic times. Using more than 140 million US birth records for the period 1975–2010, we analyze both the short- and long-run effects of unemployment on fertility. We follow fixed cohorts of US-born women defined by their own state and year of birth, and relate their fertility to the unemployment rate experienced by each cohort at different ages. We focus on conceptions that result in a live birth. We find that women in their early 20s are most affected by high unemployment rates in the short run and that the negative effects on fertility grow over time. A one percentage point increase in the average unemployment rate experienced between the ages of 20 and 24 reduces the short-run fertility of women in this age range by six conceptions per 1,000 women. When we follow these women to age 40, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate experienced at ages 20–24 leads to an overall loss of 14.2 conceptions. This long-run effect is driven largely by women who remain childless and thus do not have either first births or higher-order births. PMID:25267622

  1. Short- and long-term effects of unemployment on fertility.

    PubMed

    Currie, Janet; Schwandt, Hannes

    2014-10-14

    Scholars have been examining the relationship between fertility and unemployment for more than a century. Most studies find that fertility falls with unemployment in the short run, but it is not known whether these negative effects persist, because women simply may postpone childbearing to better economic times. Using more than 140 million US birth records for the period 1975-2010, we analyze both the short- and long-run effects of unemployment on fertility. We follow fixed cohorts of US-born women defined by their own state and year of birth, and relate their fertility to the unemployment rate experienced by each cohort at different ages. We focus on conceptions that result in a live birth. We find that women in their early 20s are most affected by high unemployment rates in the short run and that the negative effects on fertility grow over time. A one percentage point increase in the average unemployment rate experienced between the ages of 20 and 24 reduces the short-run fertility of women in this age range by six conceptions per 1,000 women. When we follow these women to age 40, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate experienced at ages 20-24 leads to an overall loss of 14.2 conceptions. This long-run effect is driven largely by women who remain childless and thus do not have either first births or higher-order births.

  2. Probabilistic short-term volcanic hazard in phases of unrest: A case study for tephra fallout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva, Jacopo; Costa, Antonio; Sandri, Laura; Macedonio, Giovanni; Marzocchi, Warner

    2014-12-01

    During volcanic crises, volcanologists estimate the impact of possible imminent eruptions usually through deterministic modeling of the effects of one or a few preestablished scenarios. Despite such an approach may bring an important information to the decision makers, the sole use of deterministic scenarios does not allow scientists to properly take into consideration all uncertainties, and it cannot be used to assess quantitatively the risk because the latter unavoidably requires a probabilistic approach. We present a model based on the concept of Bayesian event tree (hereinafter named BET_VH_ST, standing for Bayesian event tree for short-term volcanic hazard), for short-term near-real-time probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis formulated for any potential hazardous phenomenon accompanying an eruption. The specific goal of BET_VH_ST is to produce a quantitative assessment of the probability of exceedance of any potential level of intensity for a given volcanic hazard due to eruptions within restricted time windows (hours to days) in any area surrounding the volcano, accounting for all natural and epistemic uncertainties. BET_VH_ST properly assesses the conditional probability at each level of the event tree accounting for any relevant information derived from the monitoring system, theoretical models, and the past history of the volcano, propagating any relevant epistemic uncertainty underlying these assessments. As an application example of the model, we apply BET_VH_ST to assess short-term volcanic hazard related to tephra loading during Major Emergency Simulation Exercise, a major exercise at Mount Vesuvius that took place from 19 to 23 October 2006, consisting in a blind simulation of Vesuvius reactivation, from the early warning phase up to the final eruption, including the evacuation of a sample of about 2000 people from the area at risk. The results show that BET_VH_ST is able to produce short-term forecasts of the impact of tephra fall during a rapidly

  3. Intelligence as a predictor of outcome in short- and long-term psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Knekt, Paul; Saari, Taru; Lindfors, Olavi

    2014-12-30

    Intelligence has been suggested as a suitability factor for short-term therapy whereas its possible effect on short-term versus long-term therapy still is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the prediction of intelligence on the level of psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial functioning in psychotherapies of different lengths. A total of 251 outpatients from the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, aged 20–46 years, and suffering from mood or anxiety disorders were allocated to two long-term and two short-term therapies. Intelligence was assessed at baseline with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R). Psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial functioning were assessed 5–10 times during a 5-year follow-up using two primary symptom measures (HDRS and HARS) and one primary measure of psychosocial functioning (GAF). Short-term therapy was more effective than long-term therapy during the first year of follow-up. During the second to fourth follow-up year no differences between short- and long-term therapies or the intelligence groups were found. At the fifth follow-up year, however, long-term psychotherapy showed a statistically significantly larger change in all three primary measures compared to short-term therapy among those with higher intelligence. No differences between therapy groups were noted in those with lower intelligence. People with higher intelligence may benefit more from long-term than from short-term psychotherapy. These findings should be confirmed.

  4. Imminent Suicide: The Illusion of Short-Term Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robert I.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of imminent suicide is examined. A search of National Electronic Library for Mental Health, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, OVID and MD Consult databases was conducted using the terms "suicide, imminent." The term "imminent" frequently appears in the mental health literature, finding common usage among clinicians. It is also a legal term…

  5. Quality testing of autoclaved rodent drinking water during short-term and long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Peveler, Jessica L; Crisler, Robin; Hickman, Deb

    2015-06-01

    All animals need clean water to drink. At the authors' animal facility, drinking water for immunocompromised rodents is filtered by reverse osmosis, acidified during bottling and sterilized in an autoclave. Autoclaved water bottles can be stored in unopened autoclave bags for 7 d or in opened bags for 2 d; if not used during that time, they are emptied, cleaned, refilled and sterilized again. The authors wished to determine whether the storage period of 2-7 d was adequate and necessary to ensure the quality of drinking water. They tested water bottles for pH levels and for the presence of adenosine triphosphate as a measure of organic contamination during short-term and long-term storage. The pH of autoclaved drinking water generally remained stable during storage. Furthermore, no instances of organic contamination were detected in autoclaved water bottles stored for up to 22 d in unopened bags and only one instance was detected in bottles stored for up to 119 d in opened bags in a room with individually ventilated cages. On the basis of these findings, the acceptable storage period for autoclaved water bottles in opened bags at the authors' facility was extended to 21 d.

  6. In vivo short-term and long-term host reaction to starch-based scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Santos, T C; Marques, A P; Höring, B; Martins, A R; Tuzlakoglu, K; Castro, A G; van Griensven, M; Reis, R L

    2010-11-01

    The implantation of biomaterials may elicit a host response to this foreign body, and the magnitude of that reaction depends on the host and on the implanted material. The aim of this study was to compare the inflammatory response induced by the implantation of starch-based (SPCL) scaffolds in two implantation rat models: subcutaneous (SC) and intramuscular (IM). Moreover, two methodologies, wet spinning (WS) and fibre-bonding (FB), were used to prepare the scaffolds. The short-term inflammatory/immune host reaction was assessed by SC and IM implantations in rats after 1 and 2 weeks, and the long-term host response was addressed after 8 and 12 weeks of SC implantation of both types of SPCL scaffolds in rats. After each time period, the scaffolds, surrounding tissue and nearby lymph nodes were explanted, and used for histological analysis and molecular biology evaluation. The results showed that SPCL-WS scaffolds seem to induce a slight lower inflammatory/immune reaction in both types of implantation models. Nonetheless, comparing the two models, the IM implantation resulted in a slightly higher inflammatory response than the SC implantation with early activation of the lymph nodes. The overall data suggests a good integration of the materials in the host, independently of the tissue location with a normal progress of the reaction for all the conditions.

  7. Quality testing of autoclaved rodent drinking water during short-term and long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Peveler, Jessica L; Crisler, Robin; Hickman, Deb

    2015-06-01

    All animals need clean water to drink. At the authors' animal facility, drinking water for immunocompromised rodents is filtered by reverse osmosis, acidified during bottling and sterilized in an autoclave. Autoclaved water bottles can be stored in unopened autoclave bags for 7 d or in opened bags for 2 d; if not used during that time, they are emptied, cleaned, refilled and sterilized again. The authors wished to determine whether the storage period of 2-7 d was adequate and necessary to ensure the quality of drinking water. They tested water bottles for pH levels and for the presence of adenosine triphosphate as a measure of organic contamination during short-term and long-term storage. The pH of autoclaved drinking water generally remained stable during storage. Furthermore, no instances of organic contamination were detected in autoclaved water bottles stored for up to 22 d in unopened bags and only one instance was detected in bottles stored for up to 119 d in opened bags in a room with individually ventilated cages. On the basis of these findings, the acceptable storage period for autoclaved water bottles in opened bags at the authors' facility was extended to 21 d. PMID:25989554

  8. Short-term disruption rates and long-term outcomes of a professional parent program.

    PubMed

    Redinger, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    Both traditional and specialized foster care have disruption rates ranging from 36% to 70%. Connecting Children and Families was a professional parent program that provided permanent family placements for children and young adults with significant behavior problems and mental health issues. During the 15 years of the Connecting Children and Families program, the short-term disruption rate was 21%. Long-term positive outcomes (i.e., stability in the family, reunification with birth family, or adoption) occurred for 83% of the children and young adults. This article is a program description of Connecting Children and Families. There were five key elements of this program: (a) The primary treatment was the life itself provided by the professional parents; (b) The parents were paid a significant stipend and they were treated both as professionals and as the parents of the children placed in their home; (c) The program model was one based on continuity of clinical care rather than case management; (d) Treatment interventions were derived from the fields of behaviorism and applied behavior analysis; and (e) The core value of the program was rooted in Wolfensberger's concept of social role valorization. PMID:24205552

  9. Short-term plasticity and long-term potentiation mimicked in single inorganic synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Takeo; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Terabe, Kazuya; Gimzewski, James K.; Aono, Masakazu

    2011-08-01

    Memory is believed to occur in the human brain as a result of two types of synaptic plasticity: short-term plasticity (STP) and long-term potentiation (LTP; refs , , , ). In neuromorphic engineering, emulation of known neural behaviour has proven to be difficult to implement in software because of the highly complex interconnected nature of thought processes. Here we report the discovery of a Ag2S inorganic synapse, which emulates the synaptic functions of both STP and LTP characteristics through the use of input pulse repetition time. The structure known as an atomic switch, operating at critical voltages, stores information as STP with a spontaneous decay of conductance level in response to intermittent input stimuli, whereas frequent stimulation results in a transition to LTP. The Ag2S inorganic synapse has interesting characteristics with analogies to an individual biological synapse, and achieves dynamic memorization in a single device without the need of external preprogramming. A psychological model related to the process of memorizing and forgetting is also demonstrated using the inorganic synapses. Our Ag2S element indicates a breakthrough in mimicking synaptic behaviour essential for the further creation of artificial neural systems that emulate characteristics of human memory.

  10. Short-term memory to long-term memory transition in a nanoscale memristor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting; Jo, Sung-Hyun; Lu, Wei

    2011-09-27

    "Memory" is an essential building block in learning and decision-making in biological systems. Unlike modern semiconductor memory devices, needless to say, human memory is by no means eternal. Yet, forgetfulness is not always a disadvantage since it releases memory storage for more important or more frequently accessed pieces of information and is thought to be necessary for individuals to adapt to new environments. Eventually, only memories that are of significance are transformed from short-term memory into long-term memory through repeated stimulation. In this study, we show experimentally that the retention loss in a nanoscale memristor device bears striking resemblance to memory loss in biological systems. By stimulating the memristor with repeated voltage pulses, we observe an effect analogous to memory transition in biological systems with much improved retention time accompanied by additional structural changes in the memristor. We verify that not only the shape or the total number of stimuli is influential, but also the time interval between stimulation pulses (i.e., the stimulation rate) plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the transition. The memory enhancement and transition of the memristor device was explained from the microscopic picture of impurity redistribution and can be qualitatively described by the same equations governing biological memories.

  11. Short-term and long-term effects of osteoporosis therapies.

    PubMed

    Reid, Ian R

    2015-07-01

    Progress continues to be made in the development of therapeutics for fracture prevention. Bisphosphonates are now available orally and intravenously, often as inexpensive generics, and remain the most widely used interventions for osteoporosis. The major safety concern associated with the use of bisphosphonates is the development of femoral shaft stress fractures and, although rare, this adverse event affords the principal rationale for restricting bisphosphonate therapy to those individuals with femoral T-scores <-2.5, and for providing drug holidays in those individuals requiring therapy for >5 years. Newer antiresorptive therapies, in the form of denosumab and cathepsin K inhibitors, might increase efficacy and possibly circumvent some of the safety concerns associated with bisphosphonate use (for example, gastrointestinal and renal complications). The combination of teriparatide with antiresorptives markedly increases effects on BMD; new anabolic agents are also very promising in this regard. However, whether or not these changes in BMD translate into improved efficacy of fracture prevention remains to be determined. Vitamin D is important for the prevention of osteomalacia, but does not influence BMD or fracture risk in patients not deficient in vitamin D. The balance of risks and benefits of calcium supplementation is contentious, but patients should be encouraged to adhere to a balanced diet aimed at maintaining a healthy body weight. Consideration of a patient's risk of falling, and its mitigation, are also important. In this Review, I summarize the short-term and long-term effects of osteoporosis therapies. PMID:25963272

  12. Need probability effects in animal short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Sargisson, Rebecca J; White, K Geoffrey

    2004-01-30

    Five pigeons performed in a delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) procedure with five delay durations (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 s) mixed within sessions. Contrary to the predictions of need probability theory, discriminability decreased when fewer short than long delays were included in each session. To test whether the decrease in discriminability was due to a decrease in obtained reinforcement at short delays, the number of trials at each delay was held constant and reinforcer probability was increased with increasing delay. This manipulation produced a similar decrease in discriminability as when the frequency of delays was manipulated. It was concluded that the effect of delay frequency on the forgetting function is mediated by the effect of the reinforcer distribution, which influences discriminability by weakening stimulus control.

  13. SHORT-TERM EVOLUTION OF CORONAL HOLE BOUNDARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Krista, Larisza D.; Gallagher, Peter T.; Bloomfield, D. Shaun

    2011-04-20

    The interaction of open and closed field lines at coronal hole (CH) boundaries is widely accepted to be due to interchange magnetic reconnection. To date, it is unclear how the boundaries vary on short timescales and at what velocity this occurs. Here, we describe an automated boundary tracking method used to determine CH boundary displacements on short timescales. The boundary displacements were found to be isotropic and to have typical expansion/contraction speeds of {<=}2 km s{sup -1}, which indicate magnetic reconnection rates of {<=}3 x 10{sup -3}. The observed displacements were used in conjunction with the interchange reconnection model to derive typical diffusion coefficients of {<=}3 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. These results are consistent with an interchange reconnection process in the low corona driven by the random granular motions of open and closed fields in the photosphere.

  14. An Approach toward the Development of a Functional Encoding Model of Short Term Memory during Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, Mary Anne

    1978-01-01

    In a model of the functioning of short term memory, the encoding of information for subsequent storage in long term memory is simulated. In the encoding process, semantically equivalent paragraphs are detected for recombination into a macro information unit. (HOD)

  15. Borderline Personality Symptoms in Short-Term and Long-Term Abstinent Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Nip, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Background Comorbidity of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Substance and Alcohol Use Disorders (SUDs and AUDs is very high. The literature suggests a negative synergy between BPD and SUDs, which may impact an individual’s ability to achieve and maintain remission of either disorder in the face of the other. Methods We examined lifetime and current (past year) BPD symptom counts in three gender- and age-comparable groups: short-term abstinent alcoholics (STA, 6–15 weeks abstinent), long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTA, more than 18 months abstinent), and non-substance-abusing controls (NSAC). Abstinent individuals were recruited primarily from mutual-help recovery networks and about half had comorbid drug dependence. BPD symptoms were obtained using the SCID-II, followed up with questions regarding currency, but did not require that BPD symptoms represent persistent or pervasive behavior such as would meet criteria for BPD diagnosis. Thus our study dealt only with BPD symptoms, not BPD diagnoses. Results Alcoholics had more lifetime and current symptoms for most all BPD criteria than NSAC. In general, STA and LTA did not differ in BPD symptoms, except for a group-by-gender effect for both lifetime and current anger-associated symptoms and for lifetime abandonment-avoidance symptoms. For these cases, there were much higher symptom counts for STA women vs. men, with comparable symptom counts for LTA women vs. men. Conclusions Our results suggest for the most part that BPD symptoms do not prevent the maintenance of recovery in AUD and SUD individuals who have established at least six weeks abstinence within the mutual-help recovery network – in fact the presence of BPD symptoms is the norm. However, we did find difficulty in establishing longer-term abstinence in women with anger-associated symptoms and abandonment avoidance symptoms. PMID:22309234

  16. Incidence of climate on common frog breeding: Long-term and short-term changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, André

    2009-09-01

    In Brittany (northwest France), the climate is showing a trend toward warming. This change is increasingly suspected to have a role in driving amphibian decline, but it is very difficult to determine at what level the climate affects the future of species. Recently, some studies have detected some direct effects on breeding phenology and indirect effects on energy allocation. The present study explores some of these effects on the common frog ( Rana temporaria) from 1984 to 2007. The results show two trends: a long-term change in breeding activities and a short-term influence due to the 2003 climatic anomaly. For the period of study, the start of egg-laying shows a precocity that was correlated with thermal conditions during the preceding 40 days as well as milder springs during the previous year. This degree of precocity is currently the highest found in Europe (+26.6 days). As a result of the 2003 heat wave, the clutch mean fecundity in 2004 was smaller than for other years, the fecundity rates were reduced and abortions were numerous (unlike other years). Moreover, young females were the smallest observed in recent years and some females seemed to exhibit a trade-off between fecundity and growth. Before or after egg-laying, female body condition and mean weight of mature ovules were both lower. The year 2005 appears as a transition period before the recovery in 2006-2007. The results show that climate warming endangers the vital rates of the common frog, while the 2003 climatic events seem more detrimental than the long-term warming trend.

  17. Blue-ice moraines in Antarctica: long-term formation and short-term change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, J.; Dunning, S.; Sugden, D.; Hein, A.; Marrero, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Heritage Range at the southern end of the Ellsworth Mountains lies across the main flow of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) just 50 km from the grounding line of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf. If the long-term record of ice sheet change can be understood from the Blue Ice Moraines (BIM) found along the hills it becomes a critical location to understand the past behaviour of the ice sheet, and therefore, to better understand the future behaviour of WAIS in a warming climate. We present integrated geophysical data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) that helps us understand the long-term formation, and short-term mophological changes of BIMs. BIMs along the front of Patriot Hills (part of the Heritage Range) are associated with katabatic winds enhancing ablation and sublimation to create depressions that are then compensated for by ice-flow from the main trunk glacier at right angles to the main flow direction. This ice flow brings basal debris from the trunk glacier that can reside for long-periods of time rather than being removed by the dominant mountain parallel ice-flow. Using GPR we have imaged debris bands from the trunk glacier arriving directly into the lowest BIMs, and also emerging at the ice surface as folded debris bands in the moraine-marginal depressions that do not have a dense enough debris cover to prevent ablation. High resolution elevation models derived from TLS, and a UAV quantify the changing topography associated with this debris arriving into the BIM, and the surface change over a summer melt season. This work was funded by NERC Standard Grant NE/I025840/1

  18. Risk factors and prediction of very short term versus short/intermediate term post-stroke mortality: a data mining approach.

    PubMed

    Easton, Jonathan F; Stephens, Christopher R; Angelova, Maia

    2014-11-01

    Data mining and knowledge discovery as an approach to examining medical data can limit some of the inherent bias in the hypothesis assumptions that can be found in traditional clinical data analysis. In this paper we illustrate the benefits of a data mining inspired approach to statistically analysing a bespoke data set, the academic multicentre randomised control trial, U.K Glucose Insulin in Stroke Trial (GIST-UK), with a view to discovering new insights distinct from the original hypotheses of the trial. We consider post-stroke mortality prediction as a function of days since stroke onset, showing that the time scales that best characterise changes in mortality risk are most naturally defined by examination of the mortality curve. We show that certain risk factors differentiate between very short term and intermediate term mortality. In particular, we show that age is highly relevant for intermediate term risk but not for very short or short term mortality. We suggest that this is due to the concept of frailty. Other risk factors are highlighted across a range of variable types including socio-demographics, past medical histories and admission medication. Using the most statistically significant risk factors we build predictive classification models for very short term and short/intermediate term mortality.

  19. In vivo optical investigation of short term skin water contact and moisturizer application using NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Qassem, M; Kyriacou, P A

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, a number of noninvasive methods and instruments are available to inspect the biophysical properties and effects of various applicants on human skin, providing quantitative measurements and more details regarding the interactions between skin and various products. Such methods include Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), a technique which over the years, has gained quite a reputation in being able to accurately determine moisture levels and water contents due to its sensitivity to hydrogen bonding. This paper reports preliminary results of an in vivo study carried out on the skin of a small number of human participants, investigating the optical response of human skin after direct short-term contact with water followed by application of a moisturizer, using a highly advanced spectrophotometer in the region of 900-2100 nm, and equipped with a reflectance fibre optic probe. Results obtained here certainly raise some questions regarding the optical characteristics of different skin types and the influence of frequent moisturizer use, as well as the varying response between different water bands in the NIR region. Future work will focus on gaining more knowledge about these, in order to further improve optical skin measurements, and hopefully support the design and development of a portable and/or miniaturized optical device that could provide reliable, accurate and fast skin hydration readings in real time.

  20. Neural network prediction of short-term motions of mobile objects in noisy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Ahmed Y.; Zhu, Quiming

    1993-09-01

    The prediction of the trajectory of mobile objects is important in many robotics applications like robot motion planning and collision avoidance. In most cases, the measurements, on which predictions are based, are subject to noise and errors. This paper presents a neural network based approach for the prediction of short-term motions of mobile objects. We studied the effect of white additive noise and gaussian noise on the prediction accuracy. An adaptive continued learning strategy is used to reduce the prediction error and accurately track the mobile objects. An empirical study was conducted to determine the architectural features of the network (number of layers and number of neurons in each layer) and the learning parameters (learning rate, momentum factor and convergence criterion) that minimize the mean squared prediction error giving an acceptable time response. The mean squared error, and the average time performance of the network (number of learning steps before convergence) are used as performance criteria. The network results are compared with those obtained from a linear regression algorithm. The neural network outperformed the linear regression in accurately predicting swiftly changing motion patterns.

  1. In vivo optical investigation of short term skin water contact and moisturizer application using NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Qassem, M; Kyriacou, P A

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, a number of noninvasive methods and instruments are available to inspect the biophysical properties and effects of various applicants on human skin, providing quantitative measurements and more details regarding the interactions between skin and various products. Such methods include Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), a technique which over the years, has gained quite a reputation in being able to accurately determine moisture levels and water contents due to its sensitivity to hydrogen bonding. This paper reports preliminary results of an in vivo study carried out on the skin of a small number of human participants, investigating the optical response of human skin after direct short-term contact with water followed by application of a moisturizer, using a highly advanced spectrophotometer in the region of 900-2100 nm, and equipped with a reflectance fibre optic probe. Results obtained here certainly raise some questions regarding the optical characteristics of different skin types and the influence of frequent moisturizer use, as well as the varying response between different water bands in the NIR region. Future work will focus on gaining more knowledge about these, in order to further improve optical skin measurements, and hopefully support the design and development of a portable and/or miniaturized optical device that could provide reliable, accurate and fast skin hydration readings in real time. PMID:24110207

  2. Genomic Models of Short-Term Exposure Accurately Predict Long-Term Chemical Carcinogenicity and Identify Putative Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Gusenleitner, Daniel; Auerbach, Scott S.; Melia, Tisha; Gómez, Harold F.; Sherr, David H.; Monti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite an overall decrease in incidence of and mortality from cancer, about 40% of Americans will be diagnosed with the disease in their lifetime, and around 20% will die of it. Current approaches to test carcinogenic chemicals adopt the 2-year rodent bioassay, which is costly and time-consuming. As a result, fewer than 2% of the chemicals on the market have actually been tested. However, evidence accumulated to date suggests that gene expression profiles from model organisms exposed to chemical compounds reflect underlying mechanisms of action, and that these toxicogenomic models could be used in the prediction of chemical carcinogenicity. Results In this study, we used a rat-based microarray dataset from the NTP DrugMatrix Database to test the ability of toxicogenomics to model carcinogenicity. We analyzed 1,221 gene-expression profiles obtained from rats treated with 127 well-characterized compounds, including genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. We built a classifier that predicts a chemical's carcinogenic potential with an AUC of 0.78, and validated it on an independent dataset from the Japanese Toxicogenomics Project consisting of 2,065 profiles from 72 compounds. Finally, we identified differentially expressed genes associated with chemical carcinogenesis, and developed novel data-driven approaches for the molecular characterization of the response to chemical stressors. Conclusion Here, we validate a toxicogenomic approach to predict carcinogenicity and provide strong evidence that, with a larger set of compounds, we should be able to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the predictions. We found that the prediction of carcinogenicity is tissue-dependent and that the results also confirm and expand upon previous studies implicating DNA damage, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and regenerative pathology in the response to carcinogen exposure. PMID:25058030

  3. Short-term neurocognitive outcomes following anterior temporal lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Philip S; Pardini, Jamie; Hendrickson, Rick; Destefino, Vincent; Popescu, Alexandra; Ghearing, Gena; Antony, Arun; Pan, Jullie; Bagic, Anto; Wagner, Danielle; Richardson, R Mark

    2016-09-01

    Changes in cognitive function are a well established risk of anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL). Deficits in verbal memory are a common postoperative finding, though a small proportion of patients may improve. Postoperative evaluation typically occurs after six to 12months. Patients may benefit from earlier evaluation to identify potential needs; however, the results of a formal neuropsychological assessment at an early postoperative stage are not described in the literature. We compared pre- and postoperative cognitive function for 28 right ATL and 23 left ATL patients using repeated measures ANOVA. Changes in cognitive function were compared to ILAE seizure outcome. The mean time to postoperative neuropsychological testing was 11.1weeks (SD=6.7weeks). There was a side×surgery interaction for the verbal tasks: immediate memory recall (F(1,33)=20.68, p<0.001), short delay recall (F(1,29)=4.99, p=0.03), long delay recall (F(1,33)=10.36, p=0.003), recognition (F(1,33)=5.69, p=0.02), and naming (F(1,37)=15.86, p<0.001). This indicated that the left ATL group had a significant decrement in verbal memory following surgery, while the right ATL group experienced a small but significant improvement. For the right ATL group, there was a positive correlation between ILAE outcome and improvement in immediate recall (r=-0.62, p=0.02) and long delay recall (r=-0.57, p=0.03). There was no similar finding for the left ATL group. This study demonstrates that short-interval follow-up is effective in elucidating postoperative cognitive changes. Right ATL was associated with improvement in verbal memory, while left ATL resulted in a decrement in performance. Improvement in the right ATL group was related to improved seizure outcome. Short-interval follow-up may lend itself to the identification of patients who could benefit from early intervention. PMID:27474963

  4. Three-dimensional accurate detection of lung emphysema in rats using ultra-short and zero echo time MRI.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Andrea; Tibiletti, Marta; Kjørstad, Åsmund; Birk, Gerald; Schad, Lothar R; Stierstorfer, Birgit; Rasche, Volker; Stiller, Detlef

    2015-11-01

    Emphysema is a life-threatening pathology that causes irreversible destruction of alveolar walls. In vivo imaging techniques play a fundamental role in the early non-invasive pre-clinical and clinical detection and longitudinal follow-up of this pathology. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using high resolution radial three-dimensional (3D) zero echo time (ZTE) and 3D ultra-short echo time (UTE) MRI to accurately detect lung pathomorphological changes in a rodent model of emphysema.Porcine pancreas elastase (PPE) was intratracheally administered to the rats to produce the emphysematous changes. 3D ZTE MRI, low and high definition 3D UTE MRI and micro-computed tomography images were acquired 4 weeks after the PPE challenge. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were measured in PPE-treated and control rats. T2* values were computed from low definition 3D UTE MRI. Histomorphometric measurements were made after euthanizing the animals. Both ZTE and UTE MR images showed a significant decrease in the SNR measured in PPE-treated lungs compared with controls, due to the pathomorphological changes taking place in the challenged lungs. A significant decrease in T2* values in PPE-challenged animals compared with controls was measured using UTE MRI. Histomorphometric measurements showed a significant increase in the mean linear intercept in PPE-treated lungs. UTE yielded significantly higher SNR compared with ZTE (14% and 30% higher in PPE-treated and non-PPE-treated lungs, respectively).This study showed that optimized 3D radial UTE and ZTE MRI can provide lung images of excellent quality, with high isotropic spatial resolution (400 µm) and SNR in parenchymal tissue (>25) and negligible motion artifacts in freely breathing animals. These techniques were shown to be useful non-invasive instruments to accurately and reliably detect the pathomorphological alterations taking place in emphysematous lungs, without incurring the risks of cumulative radiation

  5. 14 CFR 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. 1214.809 Section 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE... short-term call-up and accelerated launch provisions of the Shuttle policy normally are not offered...

  6. 14 CFR 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. 1214.809 Section 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE... short-term call-up and accelerated launch provisions of the Shuttle policy normally are not offered...

  7. 14 CFR 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. 1214.809 Section 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE... short-term call-up and accelerated launch provisions of the Shuttle policy normally are not offered...

  8. 14 CFR § 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. § 1214.809 Section § 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.809 Short-term call-up and accelerated...

  9. 14 CFR 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. 1214.809 Section 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE... short-term call-up and accelerated launch provisions of the Shuttle policy normally are not offered...

  10. Short-Term Volunteer Teachers in Rural China: Challenges and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Huiquan; Shang, Xinyuan

    2011-01-01

    The brain-drain caused by imbalanced economic development has produced a lack of qualified teachers in rural China. Short-term volunteer teaching has emerged as a response. Despite the popularity of such programs, little systematic data have been gathered regarding their strengths and weaknesses. A short-term volunteer teaching program was…

  11. 25 CFR 20.504 - What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance How Child Assistance Funds Can Be Used § 20.504 What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for? You, the social... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What short-term homemaker services can Child...

  12. 25 CFR 20.504 - What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance How Child Assistance Funds Can Be Used § 20.504 What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for? You, the social... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What short-term homemaker services can Child...

  13. 25 CFR 20.504 - What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance How Child Assistance Funds Can Be Used § 20.504 What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for? You, the social... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What short-term homemaker services can Child...

  14. 25 CFR 20.504 - What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance How Child Assistance Funds Can Be Used § 20.504 What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for? You, the social... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What short-term homemaker services can Child...

  15. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term supported housing includes facilities to provide temporary shelter to eligible individuals as well as...

  16. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de facto transfer leasing...) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangement in which the licensee retains de jure control of the license while de facto control of the leased spectrum...

  17. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de... any of the included services) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer... the leased spectrum is transferred to the spectrum lessee for the duration of the spectrum...

  18. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de... any of the included services) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer... the leased spectrum is transferred to the spectrum lessee for the duration of the spectrum...

  19. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de... any of the included services) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer... the leased spectrum is transferred to the spectrum lessee for the duration of the spectrum...

  20. Short-Term Memory for Order but Not for Item Information Is Impaired in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachmann, Wibke M.; Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; Woumans, Evy; Duyck, Wouter; Job, Remo

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that people with dyslexia experience difficulties with the learning of serial order information during the transition from short-to long-term memory (Szmalec et al. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition" 37(5): 1270-1279, 2011). At the same time, models of short-term memory…

  1. Exploring Developmental Differences in Visual Short-Term Memory and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Su Yin; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    Although visuospatial short-term memory tasks have been found to engage more executive resources than do their phonological counterparts, it remains unclear whether this is due to intrinsic differences between the tasks or differences in participants' experience with them. The authors found 11-year-olds' performances on both visual short-term and…

  2. How Emotional Pictures Influence Visuospatial Binding in Short-Term Memory in Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Celine; Leroy, Nicolas; Favre, Emilie; Laurent, Bernard; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the prediction that emotion can facilitate short-term memory. Nevertheless, emotion also recruits attention to process information, thereby disrupting short-term memory when tasks involve high attentional resources. In this way, we aimed to determine whether there is a differential influence of emotional information on…

  3. Effect of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs on Students' Cultural Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapp, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The number of U.S. students studying abroad has been growing, particularly those participating in short-term trips. However, literature on the effect of these short-term trips is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess quantitatively the effect on bachelor students' cross-cultural adaptability using a pre-post design. Significant changes…

  4. The Role of Short Term Synaptic Plasticity in Temporal Coding of Neuronal Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasekaran, Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Short term synaptic plasticity is a phenomenon which is commonly found in the central nervous system. It could contribute to functions of signal processing namely, temporal integration and coincidence detection by modulating the input synaptic strength. This dissertation has two parts. First, we study the effects of short term synaptic plasticity…

  5. The Role of Short-Term Memory in the Comprehension of Written Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnison, J.

    Current research on information processing suggests that short term memory plays a central role in the sorting and manipulation of text information during reading. Because an entire text cannot be processed simultaneously, successive "chunks" or units of information enter the short term memory where they are compared to the reader's previous…

  6. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  7. Phonological Short-Term and Working Memory in Bilinguals' Native and Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine bilinguals' phonological short-term and working memory performance in their native/first (L1) and second (L2) languages. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in both Korean (L1) and English (L2). Short-term memory (STM) was measured via a nonword repetition task, where participants repeated…

  8. Community in a Hurry: Social Contracts and Social Covenants in Short-Term ESL Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Rob A.

    2009-01-01

    Like many adult ESL instructors, the author has felt firsthand the challenges of creating community in short-term courses. Through his experience, he has noticed that in order to successfully build community in short-term ESL courses, teachers need to lay a foundation for social contracts and social covenants from the first day of the course and…

  9. Libraries and Data: Short-Term Developments, Long-Term Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, A.

    2009-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of emerging practices in libraries related to data curation and management since 1993, when the era of stable, centralized nodes of scientific information first began to give way to one characterized by networked webs of digital data, communications, and services. In the last decade, libraries have begun to articulate the roles they can play as partners in cyberinfrastructure. One factor shaping recent developments is the encouragement given by some research funding agencies to integrating library-archival perspectives into major initiatives for building cyberinfrastructure. As a result, a hierarchy of data roles for libraries is emerging today, in which a small number of research libraries are working as first-tier partners in distributed data infrastructure initiatives. Meanwhile, a second tier of research libraries is defining and providing local researchers with "data services." A third tier of university and college libraries is focusing on an educational role, promoting "data literacy" as an essential part of the information toolkit of 21st century students. The longer-term prospects for libraries playing sustained and significant roles in data management and curation remain under construction and subject to debate, given that the challenges of selecting, describing, and preserving data for reuse are complex, particularly given the compressed timescale over which these challenges have emerged. The vitality and diversity of these short-term developments suggest however that cyberinfrastructure could have as transformative an impact on the practices of libraries as on the practices of science. For example, data sets promise to become a far more dominant unit of scientific communication, and many data sets will be accompanied by a dynamically changing context of translations, annotations, analyses, visualizations, summaries, and linkages. For libraries, these developments are a reminder that "information" is not a fixed good but

  10. Is early nutrition related to short-term health and long-term outcome?

    PubMed

    Szajewska, Hania; Makrides, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the literature concerning the effects of administering (1) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), (2) probiotics and/or (3) prebiotics to preterm infants. Clinically relevant, short- and long-term efficacy outcomes, such as those related to a reduced risk of disease, as well as outcomes related to safety, were sought. MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library literature searches performed in September 2010 were limited to randomized controlled trials, their systematic reviews or meta-analyses. LCPUFA supplementation, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), of infant formula for preterm infants has consistently demonstrated better visual development of preterm infants compared with unsupplemented formulas. There is increasing evidence to suggest that LCPUFA supplementation for preterm infants is also related to improvements in more global measures of development, without any adverse effects. It is, however, important to note that the DHA doses tested in the infant formula interventions for preterm infants have been rather conservative. Newer studies comparing dietary DHA concentrations that match in utero accumulation rates with dietary DHA concentrations typical in the milk of women consuming little fish or in supplemented infant formulas demonstrate that these higher DHA doses are related to improvements in domains of cognitive development. Although further work is needed to better understand the optimal DHA requirements of preterm infants, it is clear that a dietary source of DHA is important to support neurodevelopment. To date, the most promising application of probiotics in preterm infants is the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis by the administration of certain probiotics. Many other benefits of administering probiotics and/or prebiotics to preterm infants are, however, largely unproven. Efficacy and safety should be established for each probiotic and/or prebiotic product. Further research should specify strain-specific outcomes

  11. Short and long-term cosmesis of cervical thyroidectomy scars.

    PubMed

    Dordea, M; Aspinall, S R

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiple surgical approaches to the thyroid gland have been described via cervical or extracervical routes. Improved cosmesis, patient satisfaction, reduced pain (procedure dependent) and early discharge have all been reported for minimally invasive approaches with similar safety profiles and long-term outcomes to conventional surgery. This review summarises the current evidence base for improved cosmesis with minimally invasive cervical approaches to the thyroid gland compared with conventional surgery. Methods A systematic review was undertaken. The MEDLINE(®), Embase™ and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant articles. Results A total of 57 papers thyroid papers were identified. Of those, 20 reported some form of cosmetic outcome assessment. There were 6 randomised controlled trials with 412 patients (evidence level 2B), 7 cohort studies with 3,073 patients (level 3B) and 7 non-comparative case series with 1,575 patients (level 4). There was significant heterogeneity between studies in terms of wound closure technique, timing of scar assessment and scar assessment scales (validated and non-validated). Most studies performed early scar assessments, some using non-validated scar assessment tools. Conclusions Assessment of cosmesis is complex and requires rigorous methodology. Evidence from healing/remodelling studies suggests scar maturation is a long-term process. This calls into question the value of early scar assessment. Current evidence does not support minimally invasive surgical approaches to the thyroid gland if improved long-term cosmesis is the goal. PMID:26688393

  12. Biliary extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy: short-term and long-term observations in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Vergunst, H; Terpstra, O T; Brakel, K; Nijs, H G; Laméris, J S; ten Kate, F J; Schröder, F H

    1993-08-01

    The short- and long-term effects of biliary extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) using an electromagnetic lithotriptor were investigated in 26 pigs. After implantation of single human gallstones into their gallbladders, all but 4 control pigs were subjected to 4,000 or 8,000 shock waves and killed one day (n = 9), one week (n = 7), or one year (n = 6) thereafter. Post-ESWL, no abnormalities of chest radiographs or laboratory tests were detected. Apart from focal injury of the gallbladder and liver, in 4 out of 9 pigs subpleural pulmonary hemorrhages were found one day post-ESWL. However, tissue damage was largely reversed within one week and after one year only small hepatic scars persisted as permanent damage. Stone fragmentation occurred in 19 (86%) out of 22 pigs, and was adequate (fragments < or = 5 mm) in 9 (41%) pigs. Tissue damage and stone fragmentation after 4,000 as compared with 8,000 shock waves were not significantly different. These data warrant further evaluation of this lithotriptor in human studies.

  13. Short-term and medium-term health effects of 9/11.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Sharon E; Friedman, Stephen; Galea, Sandro; Nair, Hemanth P; Eros-Sarnyai, Monika; Stellman, Steven D; Hon, Jeffrey; Greene, Carolyn M

    2011-09-01

    The New York City terrorist attacks on Sept 11, 2001 (9/11), killed nearly 2800 people and thousands more had subsequent health problems. In this Review of health effects in the short and medium terms, strong evidence is provided for associations between experiencing or witnessing events related to 9/11 and post-traumatic stress disorder and respiratory illness, with a correlation between prolonged, intense exposure and increased overall illness and disability. Rescue and recovery workers, especially those who arrived early at the World Trade Center site or worked for longer periods, were more likely to develop respiratory illness than were other exposed groups. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder included proximity to the site on 9/11, living or working in lower Manhattan, rescue or recovery work at the World Trade Center site, event-related loss of spouse, and low social support. Investigators note associations between 9/11 exposures and additional disorders, such as depression and substance use; however, for some health problems association with exposures related to 9/11 is unclear. PMID:21890057

  14. Modeling anaerobic bioreactor landfills in methanogenic phase: long term and short term behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gholamifard, Shabnam; Eymard, Robert; Duquennoi, Christian

    2008-12-01

    We have developed a mathematical model to simulate the behavior of real bioreactor landfills in the anaerobic methanogenic phase. This coupled model is composed of a two-phase flow and a biological model based on Darcy's law and Monod's model, respectively. This model considers bacterial activity and biological behavior as a function of temperature and makes it possible to study the thermo-biological behavior of bioreactor landfills with temperature changes. In this model we consider different effects of saturation on solid waste degradation. These effects consist of increasing hydrolysis with saturation and also decreasing the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and activating the methanogenic biomass. This paper presents first the mathematical coupled model and the numerical methods used to solve the conservation equations. The numerical model is then used to simulate two bioreactor landfills. This paper presents the results of long and short (with leachate recirculation) term numerical simulations comparing them with site results. Finally results as well as advantages and drawbacks of the model are discussed. The results show that the mathematical model is able to reproduce the hydro-thermo-biological behavior of a bioreactor landfill in different conditions, with and without leachate recirculation, and leads to a better understanding of important thermal and biological parameters.

  15. Short term precursors of Strombolian explosions at Yasur volcano (Vanuatu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, Jean; Métaxian, Jean-Philippe; Garaebiti, Esline

    2016-03-01

    The seismic wavefield associated with Strombolian activity is usually dominated by explosion quakes (EQs), tremor, and various signals generated by surface phenomena. Looking at the seismicity recorded at Yasur volcano in 2008, we found that beside the transient events which occur simultaneously with surface explosions, the seismicity includes events related to a deeper process. These long period (LP) events form a family of similar events located below the southeastern part of the crater rim at a depth of about 700-1200 m below the summit. They are commonly followed by EQs with a variable delay. The examination of about 20,000 LP-EQ sequences at several stations near the summit shows that interevent delays follow distributions peaked around 11-12 s. This short delay compared to the relatively great source depth of the LPs favors a causal relationship linked to pressure transfer rather than gas slug propagation after nucleation at the LP source.

  16. Short- and long-term memory: differential involvement of neurotransmitter systems and signal transduction cascades.

    PubMed

    Vianna, M R; Izquierdo, L A; Barros, D M; Walz, R; Medina, J H; Izquierdo, I

    2000-09-01

    Since William James (1890) first distinguished primary from secondary memory, equivalent to short- and long-term memory, respectively, it has been assumed that short-term memory processes are in charge of cognition while long-term memory is being consolidated. From those days a major question has been whether short-term memory is merely a initial phase of long-term memory, or a separate phenomena. Recent experiments have shown that many treatments with specific molecular actions given into the hippocampus and related brain areas after one-trial avoidance learning can effectively cancel short-term memory without affecting long-term memory formation. This shows that short-term memory and long-term memory involve separate mechanisms and are independently processed. Other treatments, however, influence both memory types similarly, suggesting links between both at the receptor and at the post-receptor level, which should not be surprising as they both deal with nearly the same sensorimotor representations. This review examines recent advances in short- and long-term memory mechanisms based on the effect of intra-hippocampal infusion of drugs acting upon neurotransmitter and signal transduction systems on both memory types.

  17. Short-term memory for pictures seen once or twice.

    PubMed

    Martini, Paolo; Maljkovic, Vera

    2009-06-01

    The present study is concerned with the effects of exposure time, repetition, spacing and lag on old/new recognition memory for generic visual scenes presented in a RSVP paradigm. Early memory studies with verbal material found that knowledge of total exposure time at study is sufficient to accurately predict memory performance at test (the Total Time Hypothesis), irrespective of number of repetitions, spacing or lag. However, other studies have disputed such simple dependence of memory strength on total study time, demonstrating super-additive facilitatory effects of spacing and lag, as well as inhibitory effects, such as the Ranschburg effect, Repetition Blindness and the Attentional Blink. In the experimental conditions of the present study we find no evidence of either facilitatory or inhibitory effects: recognition memory for pictures in RSVP supports the Total Time Hypothesis. The data are consistent with an Unequal-Variance Signal Detection Theory model of memory that assumes the average strength and the variance of the familiarity of pictures both increase with total study time. The main conclusion is that the growth of visual scene familiarity with temporal exposure and repetition is a stochastically independent process.

  18. Development and application of a short- /long-term composited drought index in the upper Huaihe River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, M.; Li, Q.; Lu, G.; Wang, H.; Li, P.

    2015-06-01

    Accurate and reliable drought monitoring is of primary importance for drought mitigation and reduction of social-ecological vulnerability. The aim of the paper was to propose a short-term/long-term composited drought index (CDI) which could be widely used for drought monitoring and early warning in China. In the study, the upper Huaihe River basin above the Xixian gauge station, which has been hit by severe droughts frequently in recent decades, was selected as the case study site. The short-term CDI was developed by the Principle Component Analysis of the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI), the 1- and 3-month Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Z Index (ZIND), the Soil Moisture Index (SMI) with the long-term CDI being formulated by use of the self-calibrating Palmer Hydrology Drought Index (sc-PHDI), the 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month SPEI, the Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI), the SMI. The sc-PDSI, the PHDI, the ZIND, the SPEI on a monthly time scale were calculated based on the monthly air temperature and precipitation, and the monthly SMI and SSI were computed based on the simulated soil moisture and runoff by the distributed Xinanjiang model. The thresholds of the short-term/long-term CDI were determined according to frequency statistics of different drought indices. Finally, the feasibility of the two CDIs was investigated against the scPDSI, the SPEI and the historical drought records. The results revealed that the short-term/long-term CDI could capture the onset, severity, persistence of drought events very well with the former being better at identifying the dynamic evolution of drought condition while the latter better at judging the changing trend of drought over a long time period.

  19. Computational classifiers for predicting the short-term course of Multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of clinical, imaging and motor evoked potentials (MEP) for predicting the short-term prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods We obtained clinical data, MRI and MEP from a prospective cohort of 51 patients and 20 matched controls followed for two years. Clinical end-points recorded were: 1) expanded disability status scale (EDSS), 2) disability progression, and 3) new relapses. We constructed computational classifiers (Bayesian, random decision-trees, simple logistic-linear regression-and neural networks) and calculated their accuracy by means of a 10-fold cross-validation method. We also validated our findings with a second cohort of 96 MS patients from a second center. Results We found that disability at baseline, grey matter volume and MEP were the variables that better correlated with clinical end-points, although their diagnostic accuracy was low. However, classifiers combining the most informative variables, namely baseline disability (EDSS), MRI lesion load and central motor conduction time (CMCT), were much more accurate in predicting future disability. Using the most informative variables (especially EDSS and CMCT) we developed a neural network (NNet) that attained a good performance for predicting the EDSS change. The predictive ability of the neural network was validated in an independent cohort obtaining similar accuracy (80%) for predicting the change in the EDSS two years later. Conclusions The usefulness of clinical variables for predicting the course of MS on an individual basis is limited, despite being associated with the disease course. By training a NNet with the most informative variables we achieved a good accuracy for predicting short-term disability. PMID:21649880

  20. Downstream effect of ramping neural activity through synapses with short-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Ramping neuronal activity has been observed in multiple cortical areas correlated with evidence accumulation processes or timing. In this work we investigate the downstream effect of ramping neuronal activity through synapses that display short-term facilitation (STF) or depression (STD). We obtain an analytical result for a synapse driven by deterministic linear ramping input that exhibits pure STF or STD, and investigate the general case when both STF and STD exist numerically. In neural circuits, the ramping inputs usually have strong fluctuation and each downstream neuron receives converging inputs from many presynaptic neurons. We show that the analytical deterministic solution gives an accurate description of the averaging synaptic activation that a postsynaptic neuron receives in a neural circuit, even when the fluctuation in ramping input is strong. Therefore our work provides insights on the impact of ramping neuronal activity on downstream neurons through synapses displaying short-term plasticity. Specifically, activation of a synapse with STF shows a sublinear increase with time and is insensitive to the slopes of ramping inputs during the initial period, followed by a linear ramping similar to a synapse without STF. Activation of a synapse with STD, on the other hand, develops a local maximum before reaching a steady state, which is independent of the slope of ramping input. For a synapse displaying both STF and STD, increase of the depression time constant from a value much smaller than the facilitation time constant τF to a value much larger than τF leads to a transition from facilitation domination to depression domination. By utilizing STD in the corticostriatal synapses, our work provides an understanding of the saturation of striatal activity as observed for monkeys performing evidence accumulation. Our work also predicts that in the fixed duration version of motion discrimination tasks the stationary state of neuronal activity downstream to the

  1. Sea surface temperature and short term climate predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronache, Constantin

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric processes have a relatively short memory of initial conditions of about two weeks for detailed daily weather prediction. Nevertheless, skilful seasonal forecast is possible in the presence of slow varying boundary conditions (BC) of the atmosphere, such as sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) over large oceanic regions. These conditions typically evolve on a much slower time scale than daily weather events and atmospheric predictability can be increased as long as the future evolution of such BC can be predicted. Given the importance of SSTA in the interaction between the ocean and atmosphere, it is of interest to investigate the nature of temporal persistence of large-scale SSTA in the global ocean. We use the global SSTA and investigate possible sources of predictability at seasonal time scale and its impact in various regions of the ocean. Data used are the NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (SST). We show that: 1) SSTA has a persistence that depends largely on regional location in the global ocean; 2) A given SSTA distribution from a particular month, can have corresponding similar configurations in the past, largely due to the recurrence of ENSO events which affect SSTA distribution over vast regions of the global ocean.

  2. Protecting short-term intravascular ear catheters in healthy rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Francesca; Orchard, Rekha N; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J; Hamilton, Donald L

    2012-01-20

    Researchers may place a catheter in the ear vessel of a rabbit for a short period of time in order to collect repeated blood samples without extensive restraint of the animal. Maintaining such a catheter in a healthy rabbit can be challenging, as the animal may scratch at the ear, removing the catheter or forming a large hematoma that might impede blood sampling. The authors developed a technique for protecting the indwelling catheter by cutting a section of moleskin to the same shape as the ear and gluing it to the surface of the ear and the catheter. They applied this technique to collect multiple blood samples during 12-h periods from nine rabbits in a pharmacokinetics study. Catheters remained patent in five rabbits for 12 h, in two rabbits for 8 h, in one rabbit for 6 h and in one rabbit for 4 h. This technique allowed for collection of repeated blood samples and prevented the rabbits from interfering with the catheter while allowing them to move freely during the sampling period.

  3. Verbal Short-Term Memory Span in Children: Long-Term Modality Dependent Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geva, R.; Eshel, R.; Leitner, Y.; Fattal-Valevski, A.; Harel, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Recent reports showed that children born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at greater risk of experiencing verbal short-term memory span (STM) deficits that may impede their learning capacities at school. It is still unknown whether these deficits are modality dependent. Methods: This long-term, prospective design study…

  4. Transitions between Short-Term and Long-Term Memory in Learning Meaningful Unrelated Paired Associates Using Computer Based Drills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Tzvika Y.; Turnure, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of short-term and long-term memory in learning paired associates focuses on two microcomputer-based instructional design experiments with eleventh and twelfth graders that were modeled after traditional drill and practice routines. Research questions are presented, treatment conditions are explained, and additional research is…

  5. Beyond This Week's Lab: Integrating Long-Term Professional Development with Short-Term Preparation for Science Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Catherine M.; Potter, Wendell H.; Davis, William E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes guidelines used in a teaching assistant development course for the University of California, Davis' physics department, and provides examples of activities that the guidelines inspired. The development course focused on meeting both short-term course preparation goals, and long-term professional development goals. (EV)

  6. The Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Head Start Education and No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano, Dayana; Duenas, Monica; LeBlanc, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore questions about the effects of Head Start. Among these questions are the following: What is Head Start? What are the short-term and long-term effects of Head Start education? Does Head Start meet the expectations of No Child Left Behind (NCLB)? The methodology used to answer the research questions was a…

  7. Short and long term representation of an unfamiliar tone distribution

    PubMed Central

    Diercks, Charlette; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Cuddy, Lola L.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a study conducted to extend our knowledge about the process of gaining a mental representation of music. Several studies, inspired by research on the statistical learning of language, have investigated statistical learning of sequential rules underlying tone sequences. Given that the mental representation of music correlates with distributional properties of music, we tested whether participants are able to abstract distributional information contained in tone sequences to form a mental representation. For this purpose, we created an unfamiliar music genre defined by an underlying tone distribution, to which 40 participants were exposed. Our stimuli allowed us to differentiate between sensitivity to the distributional properties contained in test stimuli and long term representation of the distributional properties of the music genre overall. Using a probe tone paradigm and a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task, we show that listeners are able to abstract distributional properties of music through mere exposure into a long term representation of music. This lends support to the idea that statistical learning is involved in the process of gaining musical knowledge. PMID:27635355

  8. Short and long term representation of an unfamiliar tone distribution.

    PubMed

    Cui, Anja X; Diercks, Charlette; Troje, Nikolaus F; Cuddy, Lola L

    2016-01-01

    We report on a study conducted to extend our knowledge about the process of gaining a mental representation of music. Several studies, inspired by research on the statistical learning of language, have investigated statistical learning of sequential rules underlying tone sequences. Given that the mental representation of music correlates with distributional properties of music, we tested whether participants are able to abstract distributional information contained in tone sequences to form a mental representation. For this purpose, we created an unfamiliar music genre defined by an underlying tone distribution, to which 40 participants were exposed. Our stimuli allowed us to differentiate between sensitivity to the distributional properties contained in test stimuli and long term representation of the distributional properties of the music genre overall. Using a probe tone paradigm and a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task, we show that listeners are able to abstract distributional properties of music through mere exposure into a long term representation of music. This lends support to the idea that statistical learning is involved in the process of gaining musical knowledge. PMID:27635355

  9. Short and long term representation of an unfamiliar tone distribution

    PubMed Central

    Diercks, Charlette; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Cuddy, Lola L.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a study conducted to extend our knowledge about the process of gaining a mental representation of music. Several studies, inspired by research on the statistical learning of language, have investigated statistical learning of sequential rules underlying tone sequences. Given that the mental representation of music correlates with distributional properties of music, we tested whether participants are able to abstract distributional information contained in tone sequences to form a mental representation. For this purpose, we created an unfamiliar music genre defined by an underlying tone distribution, to which 40 participants were exposed. Our stimuli allowed us to differentiate between sensitivity to the distributional properties contained in test stimuli and long term representation of the distributional properties of the music genre overall. Using a probe tone paradigm and a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task, we show that listeners are able to abstract distributional properties of music through mere exposure into a long term representation of music. This lends support to the idea that statistical learning is involved in the process of gaining musical knowledge.

  10. Genetic deletion of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons impairs hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Le Barillier, Léa; Léger, Lucienne; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice; Malleret, Gaël; Salin, Paul-Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive role of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons, a neuronal population located in the mammalian postero-lateral hypothalamus sending projections to all cortical areas, remains poorly understood. Mainly activated during paradoxical sleep (PS), MCH neurons have been implicated in sleep regulation. The genetic deletion of the only known MCH receptor in rodent leads to an impairment of hippocampal dependent forms of memory and to an alteration of hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. By using MCH/ataxin3 mice, a genetic model characterized by a selective deletion of MCH neurons in the adult, we investigated the role of MCH neurons in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. MCH/ataxin3 mice exhibited a deficit in the early part of both long-term potentiation and depression in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) was diminished while synaptic depression induced by repetitive stimulation was enhanced suggesting an alteration of pre-synaptic forms of short-term plasticity in these mice. Behaviorally, MCH/ataxin3 mice spent more time and showed a higher level of hesitation as compared to their controls in performing a short-term memory T-maze task, displayed retardation in acquiring a reference memory task in a Morris water maze, and showed a habituation deficit in an open field task. Deletion of MCH neurons could thus alter spatial short-term memory by impairing short-term plasticity in the hippocampus. Altogether, these findings could provide a cellular mechanism by which PS may facilitate memory encoding. Via MCH neuron activation, PS could prepare the day's learning by increasing and modulating short-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. PMID:25808129

  11. Genetic deletion of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons impairs hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Le Barillier, Léa; Léger, Lucienne; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice; Malleret, Gaël; Salin, Paul-Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive role of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons, a neuronal population located in the mammalian postero-lateral hypothalamus sending projections to all cortical areas, remains poorly understood. Mainly activated during paradoxical sleep (PS), MCH neurons have been implicated in sleep regulation. The genetic deletion of the only known MCH receptor in rodent leads to an impairment of hippocampal dependent forms of memory and to an alteration of hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. By using MCH/ataxin3 mice, a genetic model characterized by a selective deletion of MCH neurons in the adult, we investigated the role of MCH neurons in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. MCH/ataxin3 mice exhibited a deficit in the early part of both long-term potentiation and depression in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) was diminished while synaptic depression induced by repetitive stimulation was enhanced suggesting an alteration of pre-synaptic forms of short-term plasticity in these mice. Behaviorally, MCH/ataxin3 mice spent more time and showed a higher level of hesitation as compared to their controls in performing a short-term memory T-maze task, displayed retardation in acquiring a reference memory task in a Morris water maze, and showed a habituation deficit in an open field task. Deletion of MCH neurons could thus alter spatial short-term memory by impairing short-term plasticity in the hippocampus. Altogether, these findings could provide a cellular mechanism by which PS may facilitate memory encoding. Via MCH neuron activation, PS could prepare the day's learning by increasing and modulating short-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

  12. Questioning short-term memory and its measurement: Why digit span measures long-term associative learning.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2015-11-01

    Traditional accounts of verbal short-term memory explain differences in performance for different types of verbal material by reference to inherent characteristics of the verbal items making up memory sequences. The role of previous experience with sequences of different types is ostensibly controlled for either by deliberate exclusion or by presenting multiple trials constructed from different random permutations. We cast doubt on this general approach in a detailed analysis of the basis for the robust finding that short-term memory for digit sequences is superior to that for other sequences of verbal material. Specifically, we show across four experiments that this advantage is not due to inherent characteristics of digits as verbal items, nor are individual digits within sequences better remembered than other types of individual verbal items. Rather, the advantage for digit sequences stems from the increased frequency, compared to other verbal material, with which digits appear in random sequences in natural language, and furthermore, relatively frequent digit sequences support better short-term serial recall than less frequent ones. We also provide corpus-based computational support for the argument that performance in a short-term memory setting is a function of basic associative learning processes operating on the linguistic experience of the rememberer. The experimental and computational results raise questions not only about the role played by measurement of digit span in cognition generally, but also about the way in which long-term memory processes impact on short-term memory functioning.

  13. Music Memory Following Short-term Practice and Its Relationship with the Sight-reading Abilities of Professional Pianists.

    PubMed

    Aiba, Eriko; Matsui, Toshie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the ability to sight-read and the ability to memorize a score using a behavioral experiment. By measuring the amount of memorization following short-term practice, we examined whether better sight-readers not only estimate forthcoming notes but also memorize musical structures and phrases with more practice. Eleven pianists performed the music first by sight-reading. After a 20-minute practice, the participants were asked to perform from memory without any advance notice. The number of mistakes was used as an index of performance. There were no correlations in the numbers of mistakes between sight-reading and memory trial performance. Some pianists memorized almost the entire score, while others hardly remembered it despite demonstrating almost completely accurate performance just before memory trial performance. However, judging from the participants' responses to a questionnaire regarding their practice strategies, we found auditory memory was helpful for memorizing music following short-term practice.

  14. [Analysis Methods of Short-term Non-linear Heart Rate Variability and Their Application in Clinical Medicine].

    PubMed

    Chi, Xianglin; Zhou, Jianhua; Shi, Ping; Liu, Chengyu

    2016-02-01

    The linear analysis for heart rate variability (HRV), including time domain method, frequency domain method and time-frequency analysis, has reached a lot of consensus. The non-linear analysis has also been widely applied in biomedical and clinical researches. However, for non-linear HRV analysis, especially for short-term non-linear HRV analysis, controversy still exists, and a unified standard and conclusion has not been formed. This paper reviews and discusses three short-term non-linear HRV analysis methods (fractal dimension, entropy and complexity) and their principles, progresses and problems in clinical application in detail, in order to provide a reference for accurate application in clinical medicine.

  15. Music Memory Following Short-term Practice and Its Relationship with the Sight-reading Abilities of Professional Pianists.

    PubMed

    Aiba, Eriko; Matsui, Toshie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the ability to sight-read and the ability to memorize a score using a behavioral experiment. By measuring the amount of memorization following short-term practice, we examined whether better sight-readers not only estimate forthcoming notes but also memorize musical structures and phrases with more practice. Eleven pianists performed the music first by sight-reading. After a 20-minute practice, the participants were asked to perform from memory without any advance notice. The number of mistakes was used as an index of performance. There were no correlations in the numbers of mistakes between sight-reading and memory trial performance. Some pianists memorized almost the entire score, while others hardly remembered it despite demonstrating almost completely accurate performance just before memory trial performance. However, judging from the participants' responses to a questionnaire regarding their practice strategies, we found auditory memory was helpful for memorizing music following short-term practice. PMID:27242576

  16. Music Memory Following Short-term Practice and Its Relationship with the Sight-reading Abilities of Professional Pianists

    PubMed Central

    Aiba, Eriko; Matsui, Toshie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the ability to sight-read and the ability to memorize a score using a behavioral experiment. By measuring the amount of memorization following short-term practice, we examined whether better sight-readers not only estimate forthcoming notes but also memorize musical structures and phrases with more practice. Eleven pianists performed the music first by sight-reading. After a 20-minute practice, the participants were asked to perform from memory without any advance notice. The number of mistakes was used as an index of performance. There were no correlations in the numbers of mistakes between sight-reading and memory trial performance. Some pianists memorized almost the entire score, while others hardly remembered it despite demonstrating almost completely accurate performance just before memory trial performance. However, judging from the participants’ responses to a questionnaire regarding their practice strategies, we found auditory memory was helpful for memorizing music following short-term practice. PMID:27242576

  17. Superheavies: Short-Term Experiments and Far-Reaching Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrebaev, V. I.; Karpov, A. V.; Mishustin, I. N.; Greiner, Walter

    Low values of the fusion cross sections and very short half-lives of nuclei with Z>120 put obstacles in synthesis of new elements. However the fusion reactions of medium mass projectiles with different actinide targets still can be used for the production of the not-yet-synthesized SH nuclei. The gap of unknown SH nuclei, located between the isotopes which were produced earlier in the cold and hot fusion reactions, could be filled in fusion reactions of ^{48}Ca with available lighter isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm. Cross sections for the production of these nuclei are predicted to be rather large, and the corresponding experiments can be easily performed at existing facilities. The use of heavier actinide targets give us a chance to produce more neutron enriched SH isotopes. Moreover, for the first time, a narrow pathway is found to the middle of the island of stability owing to possible β ^+ decay of SH isotopes which can be formed in ordinary fusion reactions of stable nuclei. Multi-nucleon transfer processes at near barrier collisions of heavy (and very heavy, U-like) ions seem to be quite realistic reaction mechanism allowing us to produce new neutron enriched heavy nuclei located in the unexplored upper part of the nuclear map. Neutron capture reactions can be also used for the production of the long-living neutron rich SH nuclei. Strong neutron fluxes might be provided by pulsed nuclear reactors and by nuclear explosions in laboratory conditions and by supernova explosions in nature. All these possibilities are discussed in the chapter.

  18. Can a Short Term of Repeated Ejaculations Affect Seminal Parameters?

    PubMed Central

    Mayorga-Torres, Jose Manuel; Agarwal, Ashok; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Cadavid, Angela; Cardona-Maya, Walter Dario

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of four repeated ejaculations on the same day at two-hour intervals on conventional and functional semen parameters. Methods: Three healthy men (32±3.6 years) donated the first semen samples after 3–4 days of sexual abstinence followed by three subsequent samples on the same day at two-hour interval each. Semen samples were processed and analyzed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 guidelines. Furthermore, intracellular reactive oxygen (ROS) production, sperm DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial function were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results: An overall decreasing trend was noted in the conventional semen parameters at second, third and fourth evaluations after two hours of abstinence in comparison to first evaluation after 3–4 days of abstinence. The statistical comparison of the conventional semen parameters at fourth evaluation after 2 hr of abstinence revealed significant reduction (p<0.05) in the parameters of concentration, total sperm count and total motile sperm count at fourth evaluation. The functional parameter of intracellular ROS production showed a decreasing trend with each subsequent evaluation, the difference being significant (p<0.05) at fourth evaluation in comparison to first evaluation. An increasing trend was noted for DNA fragmentation index (DFI), although it remained within acceptable levels (<29%). The ΔΨm high permatozoa and the integrity of the plasma membrane remained stable throughout the evaluations. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate the potential use of additional semen samples with repeated ejaculations at short abstinence times in assisted reproduction procedures particularly from severe oligospermic men. PMID:27478772

  19. Long-term consequences of a short-term hypergravity load in a snail model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynova, Marina G.; Shabelnikov, Sergej V.; Bystrova, Olga A.

    2015-07-01

    Here we focused on the dynamic processes in the snail at different time after short-term hypergravity load (STHL) by monitoring the state of neuroendocrine and immune systems, the nucleic acid synthesis levels in the atrial cells, and the behaviour of the atrial granular cells (GCs). We observed that immediately after centrifugation (14 g for 15 min) in the snail haemolymph concentration of dopamine and noradrenaline (measured by high-performance liquid chromatography) and the number of circulating haemocytes and their proliferative activity (estimated by the direct cell counting and [3H]thymidine incorporation, respectively) increased significantly, whereas the concentration of adrenaline decreased. Twenty-four hours after STHL, the levels of catecholamines and haemocytes returned to their control values. In the atrial epicardial and endothelial cells, a notable drop of transcription activity (evaluated by [3H]uridine autoradiography) from the baseline in the immediate post-STHL period was followed by its gradual increase reaching a maximum at the day 5 and subsequent decrease to control value by the day 10. In endothelial cells, DNA-synthesizing activity (evaluated by [3H]thymidine autoradiography) equal to zero before and just after STHL, increased significantly at the day 5, and decreased by the day 10. The atrial GCs underwent total degranulation. Formed as a result small ungranulated cells exhibited DNA synthesis. Afterwards, most probably, the GCs divided and regranulated. One month after STHL the GC population had been restored. Overall, STHL has triggered an immediate reaction of the neuroendocrine and immune systems and initiated long-lasting processes at a cellular level, which included alterations in activity of nucleic acid syntheses in the epicardial and endothelial cells and remodelling of the GC population in the atrium.

  20. Impact of total pancreatectomy: short- and long-term assessment

    PubMed Central

    Barbier, Louise; Jamal, Wisam; Dokmak, Safi; Aussilhou, Béatrice; Corcos, Olivier; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Belghiti, Jacques; Sauvanet, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim was to assess the outcome of a total pancreatectomy (TP). Methods From 1993 to 2010, 56 patients underwent an elective TP for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (n = 42), endocrine tumours (n = 6), adenocarcinoma (n = 5), metastases (n = 2) and chronic pancreatitis (n = 1). Morbidity and survival were analysed. Long-term survivors were assessed prospectively using quality-of-life (QoL) questionnaires. Results Five patients developed gastric venous congestion intra-operatively. Post-operative morbidity and mortality rates were 45% and 3.6%, respectively. An anastomotic ulcer occurred in seven patients, but none after proton pump inhibitor therapy. There were five inappropriate TPs according to definitive pathological examination. Overall 3- and 5-year survival rates were 62% and 55% respectively; five deaths were related to TP (two postoperative deaths, one hypoglycaemia, one ketoacidosis and one anastomotic ulcer). Prospective evaluation of 25 patients found that 14 had been readmitted for diabetes and that all had hypoglycaemia within the past month. The glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was 7.8% (6.3–10.3). Fifteen patients experienced weight loss. The QLQ-C30 questionnaire showed a decrease in QoL predominantly because of fatigue and diarrhoea, and the QLQ-PAN26 showed an impact on bowel habit, flatulence and eating-related items. Discussion Morbidity and mortality rates of TP are acceptable, although diabetes- and TP-related mortality still occurs. Endocrine and exocrine insufficiency impacts on the long-term quality of life. PMID:23458647

  1. Episodic Short-Term Recognition Requires Encoding into Visual Working Memory: Evidence from Probe Recognition after Letter Report

    PubMed Central

    Poth, Christian H.; Schneider, Werner X.

    2016-01-01

    Human vision is organized in discrete processing episodes (e.g., eye fixations or task-steps). Object information must be transmitted across episodes to enable episodic short-term recognition: recognizing whether a current object has been seen in a previous episode. We ask whether episodic short-term recognition presupposes that objects have been encoded into capacity-limited visual working memory (VWM), which retains visual information for report. Alternatively, it could rely on the activation of visual features or categories that occurs before encoding into VWM. We assessed the dependence of episodic short-term recognition on VWM by a new paradigm combining letter report and probe recognition. Participants viewed displays of 10 letters and reported as many as possible after a retention interval (whole report). Next, participants viewed a probe letter and indicated whether it had been one of the 10 letters (probe recognition). In Experiment 1, probe recognition was more accurate for letters that had been encoded into VWM (reported letters) compared with non-encoded letters (non-reported letters). Interestingly, those letters that participants reported in their whole report had been near to one another within the letter displays. This suggests that the encoding into VWM proceeded in a spatially clustered manner. In Experiment 2, participants reported only one of 10 letters (partial report) and probes either referred to this letter, to letters that had been near to it, or far from it. Probe recognition was more accurate for near than for far letters, although none of these letters had to be reported. These findings indicate that episodic short-term recognition is constrained to a small number of simultaneously presented objects that have been encoded into VWM. PMID:27713722

  2. A Master Equation Approach to Modeling Short-term Behaviors of the Stock Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Conan; Yang, Xiaoxiang; Mazilu, Irina

    2015-03-01

    Short term fluctuations in stock prices are highly random, due to the multitude of external factors acting on the price determination process. While long-term economic factors such as inflation and revenue growth rate affect short-term price fluctuation, it is difficult to obtain the complete set of information and uncertainties associated with a given period of time. Instead, we propose a simpler short-term model based on only prior price averages and extrema. In this paper, we take a master equation under the random walk hypothesis and fit parameters based on AAPL stock price data over the past ten years. We report results for small system sizes and for the short term average price. These results may lead to a general closed-form solution to this particular master equation.

  3. Improvements in short-term forecasting of geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Ramkumar; Reiff, Patricia

    2012-06-01

    We have improved our space weather forecasting algorithms to now predict Dst and AE in addition to Kp for up to 6 h of forecast times. These predictions can be accessed in real time at http://mms.rice.edu/realtime/forecast.html. In addition, in the event of an ongoing or imminent activity, e-mail "alerts" based on key discriminator levels have been going out to our subscribers since October 2003. The neural network-based algorithms utilize ACE data to generate full 1, 3, and 6 h ahead predictions of these indices from the Boyle index, an empirical approximation that estimates the Earth's polar cap potential using solar wind parameters. Our models yield correlation coefficients of over 0.88, 0.86, and 0.83 for 1 h predictions of Kp, Dst, and AE, respectively, and 0.86, 0.84, and 0.80 when predicting the same but 3 h ahead. Our 6 h ahead predictions, however, have slightly higher uncertainties. Furthermore, the paper also tests other solar wind functions—the Newell driver, the Borovsky control function, and adding solar wind pressure term to the Boyle index—for their ability to predict geomagnetic activity.

  4. Global recycling services for short and long term risk reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, M.; Grygiel, J.M.; Drevon, C.; Lelievre, F.; Lesage, M.; Vincent, O.

    2013-07-01

    New schemes are being developed by AREVA in order to provide global solutions for safe and non-proliferating management of used fuels, thereby significantly contributing to overall risks reduction and sustainable nuclear development. Utilities are thereby provided with a service through which they will be able to send their used fuels and only get returned vitrified and compacted waste, the only waste remaining after reprocessing. This waste is stable, standard and has demonstrated capability for very long term interim storage. They are provided as well with associated facilities and all necessary services for storage in a demonstrated safely manner. Recycled fuels, in particular MOX, would be used either in existing LWRs or in a very limited number of full MOX reactors (like the EPR reactor), located in selected countries, that will recycle MOX so as to downgrade the isotopic quality of the Pu inventories in a significant manner. Reprocessed uranium also can be recycled. These schemes, on top of offering demonstrated operational advantages and a responsible approach, result into optimized economics for all shareholders of the scheme, as part of reactor financing (under Opex or Capex form) will be secured thanks to the value of the recycled flows. It also increases fuel cost predictability as recycled fuel is not subject to market fluctuations as much and allows, in a limited span of time, for clear risk mitigation. (authors)

  5. Control group response variability in short-term toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.C.; Shimp, C.; Wang, Q.; Shukla, R.; Fulk, F.

    1995-12-31

    The US EPA`s National Reference Toxicant Database (NRTDB) has afforded an excellent opportunity to examine and document variability in responses within control groups (i.e. zero concentration of the toxicant.) The NRTDB has compiled acute and chronic reference toxicant test results for eight species and currently contains results for 32 laboratories and generally eight to ten tests for a species within each laboratory. The Ceriodaphnia dubia Survival and Reproduction test and the Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) Survival and Growth test are the most frequently represented chronic tests with 331 and 144 sets of test data, respectively. For this presentation, Ceriodaphnia dubia reproduction data, expressed as total numbers of young in the test period, and fathead minnow survival and growth data were analyzed using a variance components model. The information regarding the control population is useful in examining the sources of inter and intralaboratory variability of chronic testing. In addition, this control population response variability information will be valuable for characterizing what can be termed as ``practically equivalent responses`` between a control and an effluent. The preliminary analysis indicates considerable between-test variability; however, this variability is not consistent across laboratories. Results of further exploration on this issue will be presented.

  6. Short-term memory for faces: ageing and the serial position effect.

    PubMed

    Bruyer, R; Vanberten, M

    1998-08-01

    Properties of short-term memory for faces (Exp. 1) were investigated in 40 young and 30 elderly persons and compared with short-term memory for non-verbal shapes (Exp. 2) with 30 new persons in a young group and an elderly one. Young subjects displayed a U-shaped curve for both kinds of stimuli, and elderly subjects displayed a U-shaped curve, but the recency effect was abolished for faces (in one condition). This suggests a possible specific short-term store for faces.

  7. Short-term hot hardness characteristics of rolling-element steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Short-term hot hardness studies were performed with five vacuum-melted steels at temperatures from 294 to 887 K (70 to 1140 F). Based upon a minimum Rockwell C hardness of 58, the temperature limitation on all materials studied was dependent on the initial room temperature hardness and the tempering temperature of each material. For the same room temperature hardness, the short-term hot hardness characteristics were identical and independent of material composition. An equation was developed to predict the short-term hardness at temperature as a function of initial room temperature hardness for AISI 52100, as well as the high-speed tool steels.

  8. A short term quality control tool for biodegradable microspheres.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Susan; Faraj, Jabar A; Dorati, Rossella; DeLuca, Patrick P

    2014-06-01

    Accelerated in vitro release testing methodology has been developed as an indicator of product performance to be used as a discriminatory quality control (QC) technique for the release of clinical and commercial batches of biodegradable microspheres. While product performance of biodegradable microspheres can be verified by in vivo and/or in vitro experiments, such evaluation can be particularly challenging because of slow polymer degradation, resulting in extended study times, labor, and expense. Three batches of Leuprolide poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres having varying morphology (process variants having different particle size and specific surface area) were manufactured by the solvent extraction/evaporation technique. Tests involving in vitro release, polymer degradation and hydration of the microspheres were performed on the three batches at 55°C. In vitro peptide release at 55°C was analyzed using a previously derived modification of the Weibull function termed the modified Weibull equation (MWE). Experimental observations and data analysis confirm excellent reproducibility studies within and between batches of the microsphere formulations demonstrating the predictability of the accelerated experiments at 55°C. The accelerated test method was also successfully able to distinguish the in vitro product performance between the three batches having varying morphology (process variants), indicating that it is a suitable QC tool to discriminate product or process variants in clinical or commercial batches of microspheres. Additionally, data analysis utilized the MWE to further quantify the differences obtained from the accelerated in vitro product performance test between process variants, thereby enhancing the discriminatory power of the accelerated methodology at 55°C. PMID:24519488

  9. A short term quality control tool for biodegradable microspheres.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Susan; Faraj, Jabar A; Dorati, Rossella; DeLuca, Patrick P

    2014-06-01

    Accelerated in vitro release testing methodology has been developed as an indicator of product performance to be used as a discriminatory quality control (QC) technique for the release of clinical and commercial batches of biodegradable microspheres. While product performance of biodegradable microspheres can be verified by in vivo and/or in vitro experiments, such evaluation can be particularly challenging because of slow polymer degradation, resulting in extended study times, labor, and expense. Three batches of Leuprolide poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres having varying morphology (process variants having different particle size and specific surface area) were manufactured by the solvent extraction/evaporation technique. Tests involving in vitro release, polymer degradation and hydration of the microspheres were performed on the three batches at 55°C. In vitro peptide release at 55°C was analyzed using a previously derived modification of the Weibull function termed the modified Weibull equation (MWE). Experimental observations and data analysis confirm excellent reproducibility studies within and between batches of the microsphere formulations demonstrating the predictability of the accelerated experiments at 55°C. The accelerated test method was also successfully able to distinguish the in vitro product performance between the three batches having varying morphology (process variants), indicating that it is a suitable QC tool to discriminate product or process variants in clinical or commercial batches of microspheres. Additionally, data analysis utilized the MWE to further quantify the differences obtained from the accelerated in vitro product performance test between process variants, thereby enhancing the discriminatory power of the accelerated methodology at 55°C.

  10. The Relationships among Verbal Short-Term Memory, Phonological Awareness, and New Word Learning: Evidence from Typical Development and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…

  11. Implicit short- and long-term memory direct our gaze in visual search.

    PubMed

    Kruijne, Wouter; Meeter, Martijn

    2016-04-01

    Visual attention is strongly affected by the past: both by recent experience and by long-term regularities in the environment that are encoded in and retrieved from memory. In visual search, intertrial repetition of targets causes speeded response times (short-term priming). Similarly, targets that are presented more often than others may facilitate search, even long after it is no longer present (long-term priming). In this study, we investigate whether such short-term priming and long-term priming depend on dissociable mechanisms. By recording eye movements while participants searched for one of two conjunction targets, we explored at what stages of visual search different forms of priming manifest. We found both long- and short- term priming effects. Long-term priming persisted long after the bias was present, and was again found even in participants who were unaware of a color bias. Short- and long-term priming affected the same stage of the task; both biased eye movements towards targets with the primed color, already starting with the first eye movement. Neither form of priming affected the response phase of a trial, but response repetition did. The results strongly suggest that both long- and short-term memory can implicitly modulate feedforward visual processing.

  12. PSTAR: Primary and secondary terms analysis and renormalization: A unified approach to building energy simulations and short-term monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Subbarao, K.

    1988-09-01

    This report presents a unified method of hourly simulation of a building and analysis of performance data. The method is called Primary and Secondary Terms Analysis and Renormalization (PSTAR). In the PSTAR method, renormalized parameters are introduced for the primary terms such that the renormalized energy balance equation is best satisfied in the least squares sense, hence, the name PSTAR. PSTAR allows extraction of building characteristics from short-term tests on a small number of data channels. These can be used for long-term performance prediction (''ratings''), diagnostics, and control of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems (HVAC), comparison of design versus actual performance, etc. By combining realistic building models, simple test procedures, and analysis involving linear equations, PSTAR provides a powerful tool for analyzing building energy as well as testing and monitoring. It forms the basis for the Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM) project at SERI.

  13. Short-term gains, long-term pains: how cues about state aid learning in dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Gureckis, Todd M; Love, Bradley C

    2009-12-01

    Successful investors seeking returns, animals foraging for food, and pilots controlling aircraft all must take into account how their current decisions will impact their future standing. One challenge facing decision makers is that options that appear attractive in the short-term may not turn out best in the long run. In this paper, we explore human learning in a dynamic decision making task which places short- and long-term rewards in conflict. Our goal in these studies was to evaluate how people's mental representation of a task affects their ability to discover an optimal decision strategy. We find that perceptual cues that readily align with the underlying state of the task environment help people overcome the impulsive appeal of short-term rewards. Our experimental manipulations, predictions, and analyses are motivated by current work in reinforcement learning which details how learners value delayed outcomes in sequential tasks and the importance that "state" identification plays in effective learning.

  14. Short-term gains, long-term pains: how cues about state aid learning in dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Gureckis, Todd M; Love, Bradley C

    2009-12-01

    Successful investors seeking returns, animals foraging for food, and pilots controlling aircraft all must take into account how their current decisions will impact their future standing. One challenge facing decision makers is that options that appear attractive in the short-term may not turn out best in the long run. In this paper, we explore human learning in a dynamic decision making task which places short- and long-term rewards in conflict. Our goal in these studies was to evaluate how people's mental representation of a task affects their ability to discover an optimal decision strategy. We find that perceptual cues that readily align with the underlying state of the task environment help people overcome the impulsive appeal of short-term rewards. Our experimental manipulations, predictions, and analyses are motivated by current work in reinforcement learning which details how learners value delayed outcomes in sequential tasks and the importance that "state" identification plays in effective learning. PMID:19427635

  15. Fuzzy-neural network based short term peak and average load forecasting (STPA LF) system with network security

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, S.K.; Agrawal, A.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper an attempt is made to forecast load using fuzzy neural network (FNN) for an integrated power system. Here, the proposed system uses a two stage FNN for a short term peak and average load forecasting (STPALF). The first stage FNN deals with the load forecasting and the second stage algorithm can be worked independently for network security. This technique is used to forecast load accurately on week days as well as holidays, weekends and some special occasions considering historical data of load and weather information and also take necessary control action for network security.

  16. Short-Term Behavioral Intervention with Delinquent Families: Impact on Family Process and Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, James F.; Parsons, Bruce V.

    1973-01-01

    Based on prior family interaction studies and a systems conceptualization of deviant behavior, a specific, short-term behaviorally oriented family intervention program designed to increase family reciprocity, clarity of communication, and contingency contracting was developed for delinquent teenagers. (Author)

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Motor Gasoline Consumption Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The motor gasoline consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of total U.S. consumption of motor gasolien based on estimates of vehicle miles traveled and average vehicle fuel economy.

  18. Short-term feed deprivation alters immune status of surface mucosa in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting) is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causat...

  19. 41 CFR 101-39.203 - Obtaining motor vehicles for short-term use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management... Fleet Management System (IFMS). Short-term use vehicles may be provided through Military...

  20. 41 CFR 101-39.203 - Obtaining motor vehicles for short-term use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management... Fleet Management System (IFMS). Short-term use vehicles may be provided through Military...

  1. 41 CFR 101-39.203 - Obtaining motor vehicles for short-term use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management... Fleet Management System (IFMS). Short-term use vehicles may be provided through Military...

  2. 41 CFR 101-39.203 - Obtaining motor vehicles for short-term use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management... Fleet Management System (IFMS). Short-term use vehicles may be provided through Military...

  3. Proactive Interference and Directed Forgetting in Short-Term Motor Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burwitz, Leslie

    1974-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the effect of instructions to forget prior motor learning and the results were relevant to the understanding of short-term motor memory (STMM) proactive interference (PI). (Author/RK)

  4. Gummed-up memory: chewing gum impairs short-term recall.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity. Experiment 3 demonstrated that manual tapping produces a similar pattern of impairment to that of chewing gum. These results clearly qualify the assertion that chewing gum improves short-term memory. They also pose a problem for short-term memory theories asserting that forgetting is based on domain-specific interference given that chewing does not interfere with verbal memory any more than tapping. It is suggested that tapping and chewing reduce the general capacity to process sequences. PMID:22150606

  5. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Product Prices Module

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The petroleum products price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. average wholesale and retail price forecasts for motor gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, and jet fuel.

  7. Residential Short-Term Camping for Children With Behavior Problems: A Behavior Modification Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Harve E.

    1973-01-01

    A short-term camping program promoted significant gains in behavior and in academic adjustment for children with social and school problems. Followup work was found essential to sustain the progress. (ST)

  8. Short-term effects of air temperature on plasma metabolite concentrations in patients undergoing cardiac cattheterization.

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown associations between air temperature and cardiovascular health outcomes. Metabolic dysregulation might also play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease.OBJECTIVES: To investigate short-term temperature effects on metabol...

  9. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Propane Price Model

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential propane price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 Census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Heating Oil Price Model

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential heating oil price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  11. International short-term medical service trips: guidelines from the literature and perspectives from the field.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Erica; Doocy, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    The increasing interest in practising medicine overseas has outpaced research conducted to evaluate its effectiveness and the development of guidelines from evidence-based best practices. Short-term medical teams regularly travel to provide medical care, yet there is little research on the impact or practices of these missions. This study assessed current practices and challenges of short-term medical service teams, using questionnaire-based interviews of 40 participants in recent medical service trips. Study results and a review of recommendations in peer-reviewed journals were used to develop guidelines for international short-term medical trips in relation to mission, collaboration, education and capacity building, provider qualifications, appropriate donations, and cultural sensitivity and understanding. Guidelines that inform models, approaches, best practices and minimum standards for short-term medical service trips should be adopted so that improved and sustainable outcomes can be consistently achieved.

  12. Short-Term Study Abroad: Culture and the Path of Least Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmons, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    American universities are decreasing the length of study abroad programs in an effort to send more students abroad. Recent publications find that "short-term" programs struggle to increase participants' cultural understanding. However, these research findings fail to offer an explanation as to why shorter programs are falling short. This…

  13. Weather factors in the short-term forecasting of daily ambulance calls.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ho-Ting; Lai, Poh-Chin

    2014-07-01

    The daily ambulance demand for Hong Kong is rising, and it has been shown that weather factors (temperature and humidity) play a role in the demand for ambulance services. This study aimed at developing short-term forecasting models of daily ambulance calls using the 7-day weather forecast data as predictors. We employed the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method to analyze over 1.3 million cases of emergency attendance in May 2006 through April 2009 and the 7-day weather forecast data for the same period. Our results showed that the ARIMA model could offer reasonably accurate forecasts of daily ambulance calls at 1-7 days ahead of time and with improved accuracy by including weather factors. Specifically, the inclusion of average temperature alone in our ARIMA model improved the predictability of the 1-day forecast when compared to that of a simple ARIMA model (8.8% decrease in the root mean square error, RMSE=53 vs 58). The improvement in the 7-day forecast with average temperature as a predictor was more pronounced, with a 10% drop in prediction error (RMSE=62 vs 69). These findings suggested that weather forecast data can improve the 1- to 7-day forecasts of daily ambulance demand. As weather forecast data are readily accessible from Hong Kong Observatory's official website, there is virtually no cost to including them in the ARIMA models, which yield better prediction for forward planning and deployment of ambulance manpower.

  14. A clustering-based fuzzy wavelet neural network model for short-term load forecasting.

    PubMed

    Kodogiannis, Vassilis S; Amina, Mahdi; Petrounias, Ilias

    2013-10-01

    Load forecasting is a critical element of power system operation, involving prediction of the future level of demand to serve as the basis for supply and demand planning. This paper presents the development of a novel clustering-based fuzzy wavelet neural network (CB-FWNN) model and validates its prediction on the short-term electric load forecasting of the Power System of the Greek Island of Crete. The proposed model is obtained from the traditional Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy system by replacing the THEN part of fuzzy rules with a "multiplication" wavelet neural network (MWNN). Multidimensional Gaussian type of activation functions have been used in the IF part of the fuzzyrules. A Fuzzy Subtractive Clustering scheme is employed as a pre-processing technique to find out the initial set and adequate number of clusters and ultimately the number of multiplication nodes in MWNN, while Gaussian Mixture Models with the Expectation Maximization algorithm are utilized for the definition of the multidimensional Gaussians. The results corresponding to the minimum and maximum power load indicate that the proposed load forecasting model provides significantly accurate forecasts, compared to conventional neural networks models.

  15. A review of the effects of lunch on adults' short-term cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Müller, Katrin; Libuda, Lars; Terschlüsen, Anna Maria; Kersting, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Because of widespread irregular lunch consumption by both children and adults, information on the effects of lunch on short-term cognitive functioning is relevant to public health. In September 2012, a MEDLINE search was conducted for studies in which the effects of lunch on cognitive performance were examined. Eleven experimental studies published from 1981 to 1996 were found and evaluated; all involved adults. In three studies, the effects of lunch and lunch skipping were compared; the remaining studies involved a determination of the effects of lunch size and lunch composition. Results of studies in which lunch was compared with no lunch indicate that lunch leads to potential impairment of some aspects of cognitive functioning in the early afternoon. Lunch size may influence cognitive functioning, with impairment more likely to occur after a large lunch than a small lunch. Furthermore, in comparison with low-fat lunches, high-fat lunches seem to result in slower but more accurate responses to some cognitive tasks. However, these suggestions must be viewed with caution, as they are based on only a few studies and are not thoroughly supported by high-quality evidence. In addition, results obtained with adults are not applicable to children. Thus, the potential effects of lunch need further examination in children and adults. PMID:24472166

  16. The strength of attentional biases reduces as visual short-term memory load increases.

    PubMed

    Shimi, A; Astle, D E

    2013-07-01

    Despite our visual system receiving irrelevant input that competes with task-relevant signals, we are able to pursue our perceptual goals. Attention enhances our visual processing by biasing the processing of the input that is relevant to the task at hand. The top-down signals enabling these biases are therefore important for regulating lower level sensory mechanisms. In three experiments, we examined whether we apply similar biases to successfully maintain information in visual short-term memory (VSTM). We presented participants with targets alongside distracters and we graded their perceptual similarity to vary the extent to which they competed. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that the more items held in VSTM before the onset of the distracters, the more perceptually distinct the distracters needed to be for participants to retain the target accurately. Experiment 3 extended these behavioral findings by demonstrating that the perceptual similarity between target and distracters exerted a significantly greater effect on occipital alpha amplitudes, depending on the number of items already held in VSTM. The trade-off between VSTM load and target-distracter competition suggests that VSTM and perceptual competition share a partially overlapping mechanism, namely top-down inputs into sensory areas.

  17. A clustering-based fuzzy wavelet neural network model for short-term load forecasting.

    PubMed

    Kodogiannis, Vassilis S; Amina, Mahdi; Petrounias, Ilias

    2013-10-01

    Load forecasting is a critical element of power system operation, involving prediction of the future level of demand to serve as the basis for supply and demand planning. This paper presents the development of a novel clustering-based fuzzy wavelet neural network (CB-FWNN) model and validates its prediction on the short-term electric load forecasting of the Power System of the Greek Island of Crete. The proposed model is obtained from the traditional Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy system by replacing the THEN part of fuzzy rules with a "multiplication" wavelet neural network (MWNN). Multidimensional Gaussian type of activation functions have been used in the IF part of the fuzzyrules. A Fuzzy Subtractive Clustering scheme is employed as a pre-processing technique to find out the initial set and adequate number of clusters and ultimately the number of multiplication nodes in MWNN, while Gaussian Mixture Models with the Expectation Maximization algorithm are utilized for the definition of the multidimensional Gaussians. The results corresponding to the minimum and maximum power load indicate that the proposed load forecasting model provides significantly accurate forecasts, compared to conventional neural networks models. PMID:23924415

  18. Weather factors in the short-term forecasting of daily ambulance calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ho-Ting; Lai, Poh-Chin

    2013-03-01

    The daily ambulance demand for Hong Kong is rising, and it has been shown that weather factors (temperature and humidity) play a role in the demand for ambulance services. This study aimed at developing short-term forecasting models of daily ambulance calls using the 7-day weather forecast data as predictors. We employed the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method to analyze over 1.3 million cases of emergency attendance in May 2006 through April 2009 and the 7-day weather forecast data for the same period. Our results showed that the ARIMA model could offer reasonably accurate forecasts of daily ambulance calls at 1-7 days ahead of time and with improved accuracy by including weather factors. Specifically, the inclusion of average temperature alone in our ARIMA model improved the predictability of the 1-day forecast when compared to that of a simple ARIMA model (8.8 % decrease in the root mean square error, RMSE = 53 vs 58). The improvement in the 7-day forecast with average temperature as a predictor was more pronounced, with a 10 % drop in prediction error (RMSE = 62 vs 69). These findings suggested that weather forecast data can improve the 1- to 7-day forecasts of daily ambulance demand. As weather forecast data are readily accessible from Hong Kong Observatory's official website, there is virtually no cost to including them in the ARIMA models, which yield better prediction for forward planning and deployment of ambulance manpower.

  19. Weather factors in the short-term forecasting of daily ambulance calls.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ho-Ting; Lai, Poh-Chin

    2014-07-01

    The daily ambulance demand for Hong Kong is rising, and it has been shown that weather factors (temperature and humidity) play a role in the demand for ambulance services. This study aimed at developing short-term forecasting models of daily ambulance calls using the 7-day weather forecast data as predictors. We employed the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method to analyze over 1.3 million cases of emergency attendance in May 2006 through April 2009 and the 7-day weather forecast data for the same period. Our results showed that the ARIMA model could offer reasonably accurate forecasts of daily ambulance calls at 1-7 days ahead of time and with improved accuracy by including weather factors. Specifically, the inclusion of average temperature alone in our ARIMA model improved the predictability of the 1-day forecast when compared to that of a simple ARIMA model (8.8% decrease in the root mean square error, RMSE=53 vs 58). The improvement in the 7-day forecast with average temperature as a predictor was more pronounced, with a 10% drop in prediction error (RMSE=62 vs 69). These findings suggested that weather forecast data can improve the 1- to 7-day forecasts of daily ambulance demand. As weather forecast data are readily accessible from Hong Kong Observatory's official website, there is virtually no cost to including them in the ARIMA models, which yield better prediction for forward planning and deployment of ambulance manpower. PMID:23456448

  20. Weather factors in the short-term forecasting of daily ambulance calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ho-Ting; Lai, Poh-Chin

    2014-07-01

    The daily ambulance demand for Hong Kong is rising, and it has been shown that weather factors (temperature and humidity) play a role in the demand for ambulance services. This study aimed at developing short-term forecasting models of daily ambulance calls using the 7-day weather forecast data as predictors. We employed the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method to analyze over 1.3 million cases of emergency attendance in May 2006 through April 2009 and the 7-day weather forecast data for the same period. Our results showed that the ARIMA model could offer reasonably accurate forecasts of daily ambulance calls at 1-7 days ahead of time and with improved accuracy by including weather factors. Specifically, the inclusion of average temperature alone in our ARIMA model improved the predictability of the 1-day forecast when compared to that of a simple ARIMA model (8.8 % decrease in the root mean square error, RMSE = 53 vs 58). The improvement in the 7-day forecast with average temperature as a predictor was more pronounced, with a 10 % drop in prediction error (RMSE = 62 vs 69). These findings suggested that weather forecast data can improve the 1- to 7-day forecasts of daily ambulance demand. As weather forecast data are readily accessible from Hong Kong Observatory's official website, there is virtually no cost to including them in the ARIMA models, which yield better prediction for forward planning and deployment of ambulance manpower.

  1. Short-term fasting alters cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Laureen A; Achterbergh, Roos; de Vries, Emmely M; van Nierop, F Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R; Boelen, Anita; Romijn, Johannes A; Mathôt, Ron A A

    2015-06-01

    Experimental studies indicate that short-term fasting alters drug metabolism. However, the effects of short-term fasting on drug metabolism in humans need further investigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term fasting (36 h) on P450-mediated drug metabolism. In a randomized crossover study design, nine healthy subjects ingested a cocktail consisting of five P450-specific probe drugs [caffeine (CYP1A2), S-warfarin (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), metoprolol (CYP2D6), and midazolam (CYP3A4)] on two occasions (control study after an overnight fast and after 36 h of fasting). Blood samples were drawn for pharmacokinetic analysis using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. In addition, we studied in Wistar rats the effects of short-term fasting on hepatic mRNA expression of P450 isoforms corresponding with the five studied P450 enzymes in humans. In the healthy subjects, short-term fasting increased oral caffeine clearance by 20% (P = 0.03) and decreased oral S-warfarin clearance by 25% (P < 0.001). In rats, short-term fasting increased mRNA expression of the orthologs of human CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 (P < 0.05), and decreased the mRNA expression of the ortholog of CYP2C9 (P < 0.001) compared with the postabsorptive state. These results demonstrate that short-term fasting alters cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in a nonuniform pattern. Therefore, short-term fasting is another factor affecting cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in humans.

  2. Short-Term Sleep Deprivation Stimulates Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Rats Following Global Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Oumei; Li, Rong; Zhao, Lei; Yu, Lijuan; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jia; Chen, Beibei; Yang, Junqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation (SD) plays a complex role in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Recent studies indicate that short-term SD can affect the extent of ischemic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term SD could stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCIR). Methods One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, GCIR and short-term SD groups based on different durations of SD; the short-term SD group was randomly divided into three subgroups: the GCIR+6hSD*3d-treated, GCIR+12hSD-treated and GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated groups. The GCIR rat model was induced via the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hemorrhagic hypotension. The rats were sleep-deprived starting at 48 h following GCIR. A Morris water maze test was used to assess learning and memory ability; cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed via 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), respectively, at 14 and 28 d; the expression of hippocampal BDNF was measured after 7 d. Results The different durations of short-term SD designed in our experiment exhibited improvement in cognitive function as well as increased hippocampal BDNF expression. Additionally, the short-term SD groups also showed an increased number of BrdU- and BrdU/NSE-positive cells compared with the GCIR group. Of the three short-term SD groups, the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated group experienced the most substantial beneficial effects. Conclusions Short-term SD, especially the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated method, stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of rats that undergo GCIR, and BDNF may be an underlying mechanism in this process. PMID:26039740

  3. Short-term nuclear annual power production simulation documentation (SNAPPS). Task 15

    SciTech Connect

    Andress, D.

    1985-09-01

    Short-Term Nuclear Annual Power Production Simulation (SNAPPS) is a FORTRAN computer program that projects the short-term monthly and annual generation of electricity by the nation's nuclear reactors. SNAPPS develops a power supply curve (histograms) for each individual reactor and then tallies its monthly and annual electricity production. The SNAPPS input requirements include reactor characteristics, cycle parameters, and scheduled outage data. This report contains the documentation for the program.

  4. CF6-6D engine short-term performance deterioration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, W. H.; Paas, J. E.; Smith, J. J.; Wulf, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Studies conducted as part of the NASA-Lewis CF6 jet engine diagnostics program are summarized. An 82-engine sample of DC-10-10 aircraft engine checkout data that were gathered to define the extent and magnitude of CF6-6D short term performance deterioration were analyzed. These data are substantiated by the performance testing and analytical teardown of CF6-6D short term deterioration engine serial number (ESN) 451507.

  5. Insensitivity of visual short-term memory to irrelevant visual information.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Jackie; Kemps, Eva; Werniers, Yves; May, Jon; Szmalec, Arnaud

    2002-07-01

    Several authors have hypothesized that visuo-spatial working memory is functionally analogous to verbal working memory. Irrelevant background speech impairs verbal short-term memory. We investigated whether irrelevant visual information has an analogous effect on visual short-term memory, using a dynamic visual noise (DVN) technique known to disrupt visual imagery (Quinn & McConnell, 1996b). Experiment I replicated the effect of DVN on pegword imagery. Experiments 2 and 3 showed no effect of DVN on recall of static matrix patterns, despite a significant effect of a concurrent spatial tapping task. Experiment 4 showed no effect of DVN on encoding or maintenance of arrays of matrix patterns, despite testing memory by a recognition procedure to encourage visual rather than spatial processing. Serial position curves showed a one-item recency effect typical of visual short-term memory. Experiment 5 showed no effect of DVN on short-term recognition of Chinese characters, despite effects of visual similarity and a concurrent colour memory task that confirmed visual processing of the characters. We conclude that irrelevant visual noise does not impair visual short-term memory. Visual working memory may not be functionally analogous to verbal working memory, and different cognitive processes may underlie visual short-term memory and visual imagery.

  6. [Short-term memory characteristics of vibration intensity tactile perception on human wrist].

    PubMed

    Hao, Fei; Chen, Li-Juan; Lu, Wei; Song, Ai-Guo

    2014-12-25

    In this study, a recall experiment and a recognition experiment were designed to assess the human wrist's short-term memory characteristics of tactile perception on vibration intensity, by using a novel homemade vibrotactile display device based on the spatiotemporal combination vibration of multiple micro vibration motors as a test device. Based on the obtained experimental data, the short-term memory span, recognition accuracy and reaction time of vibration intensity were analyzed. From the experimental results, some important conclusions can be made: (1) The average short-term memory span of tactile perception on vibration intensity is 3 ± 1 items; (2) The greater difference between two adjacent discrete intensities of vibrotactile stimulation is defined, the better average short-term memory span human wrist gets; (3) There is an obvious difference of the average short-term memory span on vibration intensity between the male and female; (4) The mechanism of information extraction in short-term memory of vibrotactile display is to traverse the scanning process by comparison; (5) The recognition accuracy and reaction time performance of vibrotactile display compares unfavourably with that of visual and auditory. The results from this study are important for designing vibrotactile display coding scheme. PMID:25516517

  7. Evaluation of methods for short-term marking of domestic dogs for rabies control.

    PubMed

    Conan, Anne; Kent, Alice; Koman, Kim; Konink, Simone; Knobel, Darryn

    2015-09-01

    Rabies transmitted by domestic dogs is a serious yet neglected public health threat in many underserved communities in Africa and Asia. Achieving 70% vaccination coverage in dog populations through annual mass vaccination campaigns is an effective means of controlling the disease in these communities. Evaluating the extent to which this target coverage is achieved requires either accurate pre-campaign estimates of the dog population size or accurate estimates of the coverage attained by conducting post-vaccination surveys. Short-term marking of dogs by applying visible marks may be useful to achieve these estimates, but will be affected by the performance of the marking methods. We evaluated the longevity and visibility of two readily-available livestock marking methods applied to owned, free roaming dogs. We applied two types of marks (spray and crayon) with three different colours (red, blue and green) to each of 21 dogs and compared the time of persistence of the marks over several weeks. Two independent observers assessed the visibility and colour of the marks. Each dog was observed over 8-37 days (median: 28 days). Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and semi-parametric log-rank tests were performed separately for both observers. Spray marks remained visible significantly longer (median of 24 days for both observers) compared with crayon marks (medians of 10 and 13 days). After 10 days, 90% of spray marks were still visible, compared with only 46% of crayon marks. Visibility of marks was reduced in darker-coloured dogs. Colours of marks were frequently misclassified, and agreement between observers on the colours of the marks was low (Cohen's kappa coefficient=0.27). The livestock marker spray can effectively be used to mark dogs that are physically restrained, for example during vaccination campaigns. Resight surveys should be conducted within a short a time as possible after marking; however, our results suggest that loss of marks will not have a significant

  8. The effect of visual similarity on short-term memory for spatial location: implications for the capacity of visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Walker, P; Hitch, G J; Duroe, S

    1993-08-01

    Evidence from the recency effect suggests that visual short-term memory is limited to preserving information about a single pattern. Three experiments explored the capacity of visual short-term memory using a task which involved presenting a series of patterns in a random spatio-temporal sequence and probing memory for the spatial location of one of them. Experiment 1 used sequences of quasi-random block patterns which were either visually similar or dissimilar. Serial position curves showed a single-item recency effect. However, there was also a deleterious effect of visual similarity for the earlier patterns, indicating that visual short-term memory was supporting their retention. Experiment 2 showed that performance was unaffected by articulatory suppression, confirming that phonological coding is not an important factor in the localisation task. Experiment 3 switched to letter stimuli and, because of the known tendency for this type of stimulus to be phonologically recoded, required articulatory suppression. Letters were shown in a customised form in sequences which were either visually similar or visually dissimilar. The results replicated experiment 1 in showing restricted recency combined with an effect of visual similarity extending across earlier list items. When the same letters were shown in standard form, the recency effect remained but the similarity effect disappeared, ruling out possible interpretations in terms of semantic as well as phonological coding. It is concluded that the recency effect gives a misleading indication of the capacity of visual short-term memory. The visual similarity effect suggests that it is capable of supporting the retention of several patterns.

  9. Development of group climate in short- and long-term psychodynamic group psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bakali, Jan Vegard; Wilberg, Theresa; Klungsøyr, Ole; Lorentzen, Steinar

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the development of group climate using the Engaged, Conflict, and Avoiding subscales of the Group Climate Questionnaire-Short Version (GCQ-S) in a sample of 145 patients attending either short- (20 sessions) or long-term (80 sessions) psychodynamic group psychotherapy. Linear mixed models were used to compare changes in group climate over time. Engaged developed along similar lines in the two psychotherapy formats. During the first 18 sessions, conflict and avoidance decreased toward the termination of the short-term groups, in contrast to an increase in this still-early stage of the long-term groups. When compared according to the stages of therapy (early, middle, late), a low-high-low pattern for conflict and avoidance emerged in both psychotherapy formats, with a stronger decrease toward termination in long-term groups. This finding can be seen as reflecting an accelerated progress of development within the short-term groups, and a delayed but strengthened process in the long-term groups. Review of empirical studies indicated that most theories of group development have a relatively narrow range of validity, but the parallel pattern of group climate found in this study across early, middle, and late stages for short- and long-term groups suggests that the perspective of developmental stages is still important to both group process theory and clinical practice.

  10. Effect of macronutrient composition on short-term food intake and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Bellissimo, Nick; Akhavan, Tina

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the role of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term food intake (FI) and weight loss. The effects of macronutrient composition on short-term FI will be reviewed first, followed by a brief examination of longer-term clinical trials that vary in effects of dietary macronutrient composition on weight loss. The objectives were: 1) to examine the effect of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term FI, 2) to determine whether some macronutrient sources suppress FI beyond their provision of energy, 3) to assess the combined effects of macronutrients on FI and glycemic response, and 4) to determine whether knowledge of the effect of macronutrients on short-term FI has led to greater success in spontaneous weight loss, adherence to energy-restricted diets, and better weight maintenance after weight loss. Although knowledge of macronutrient composition on short-term FI regulation has advanced our understanding of the role of diet composition on energy balance, it has yet to lead to greater success in long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. It is clear from this review that many approaches based on manipulating dietary macronutrient composition can help people lose weight as long as they follow the diets. However, only by evaluating the interaction between the physiologic systems that govern FI and body weight may the benefits of dietary macronutrient composition be fully realized.

  11. Facilitative Effects of Forgetting from Short-Term Memory on Growth of Long-Term Memory in Retardates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperber, Richard D.

    1976-01-01

    Competing explanations of the beneficial effect of spacing in retardate discrimination learning were tested. Results are inconsistent with consolidation and rehearsal theories but support the prediction of the Geber, Greenfield, and House spacing model that forgetting from short-term memory facilities retardate learning. (Author/SB)

  12. Development of Short-term Molecular Thresholds to Predict Long-term Mouse Liver Tumor Outcomes: Phthalate Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short-term molecular profiles are a central component of strategies to model health effects of environmental chemicals. In this study, a 7 day mouse assay was used to evaluate transcriptomic and proliferative responses in the liver for a hepatocarcinogenic phthalate, di (2-ethylh...

  13. The Effects of Storytelling and Pretend Play on Cognitive Processes, Short-Term and Long-Term Narrative Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sook-Yi

    1999-01-01

    Examined effects of storytelling and pretend play on short- and long-term narrative recall in preschoolers. Found that: (1) storytelling and pretend play affected cognitive variables; (2) differences between storytelling and pretend play in facilitating narrative recall were significant; (3) encoding ability exceeded ability to make inferences;…

  14. Short-Term Gains, Long-Term Pains: How Cues about State Aid Learning in Dynamic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gureckis, Todd M.; Love, Bradley C.

    2009-01-01

    Successful investors seeking returns, animals foraging for food, and pilots controlling aircraft all must take into account how their current decisions will impact their future standing. One challenge facing decision makers is that options that appear attractive in the short-term may not turn out best in the long run. In this paper, we explore…

  15. The High Cost "of" Convenience: Satisfying Short-Term Needs Erodes Long-Term Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Dian P.

    2015-01-01

    Novel ways of thinking often come from the cross-pollination of language from other professions. The term "satisficing" is one such term and is a powerful construct that fuses two concepts, satisfy and suffice, together to explain something new. Satisficing describes the often-paradoxical results that plague decision making. Depending on…

  16. Short-Term Secondments: An Examination of the Experience of an Occupational Transition in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Paquita; And Others

    This project explored the activities and attitudes of Scottish teachers (N=50) on secondment to a variety of different bodies. The term "secondment" refers to the short-term assignment of a professional person from one institution to another, involving new forms of accountability and professional commitment. Three types of secondments were…

  17. The Impact of Short-Term Economic Fluctuations on Kindergarten Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    For some 5-year-olds, delayed kindergarten enrollment may result in long-term academic benefits. Although waiting an additional year allows for further development prior to the start of formal education, the economic costs of the next best alternatives can be significant. This study examines the impact of short-term economic fluctuations on a…

  18. The Demise of Short-Term Memory Revisited: Empirical and Computational Investigations of Recency Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davelaar,Eddy J.; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan; Ashkenazi, Amir; Haarmann, Henk J.; Usher, Marius

    2005-01-01

    In the single-store model of memory, the enhanced recall for the last items in a free-recall task (i.e., the recency effect) is understood to reflect a general property of memory rather than a separate short-term store. This interpretation is supported by the finding of a long-term recency effect under conditions that eliminate the contribution…

  19. Language and Short-Term Memory: The Role of Perceptual-Motor Affordance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macken, Bill; Taylor, John C.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2014-01-01

    The advantage for real words over nonwords in serial recall--the "lexicality effect"--is typically attributed to support for item-level phonology, either via redintegration, whereby partially degraded short-term traces are "cleaned up" via support from long-term representations of the phonological material or via the more…

  20. Evaluating the Impact of Supplemental Instruction on Short- and Long-Term Retention of Course Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Jodi; Lumpkin, Amber G.; Seemann, Eric A.; Bell, Diana Calhoun

    2012-01-01

    Findings from prior research in various content domains have indicated that Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) attendees earned higher final grades than non-attendees. However, what makes PASS effective remains unknown; for example, PASS could improve short-term retention but hinder long-term maintenance of course content given that some methods…

  1. Order Short-Term Memory Capacity Predicts Nonword Reading and Spelling in First and Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binamé, Florence; Poncelet, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of short-term memory (STM) distinguish between item information, which reflects the temporary activation of long-term representations stored in the language system, and serial-order information, which is encoded in a specific representational system that is independent of the language network. Some studies examining the…

  2. Conceptual short-term memory (CSTM) supports core claims of Christiansen and Chater.

    PubMed

    Potter, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of words or pictured scenes provides evidence for a large-capacity conceptual short-term memory (CSTM) that momentarily provides rich associated material from long-term memory, permitting rapid chunking (Potter 1993; 2009; 2012). In perception of scenes as well as language comprehension, we make use of knowledge that briefly exceeds the supposed limits of working memory.

  3. Operationalizing the assessment and management of violence risk in the short-term.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Michael; Logan, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Assessing risk of violence in the short term is crucial for managing and preventing violence, especially in institutions such as psychiatric units and prisons. Despite a lack of consensus on the definition of "short term", a number of recent tools and guidelines have been developed to aid short-term clinical decision-making. Whereas the supporting evidence for the new tools is impressive, limitations remain in terms of the focus on prediction, limited consideration of strengths, and poor integration with formulation and risk management. The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) is a brief clinical guide for the dynamic assessment of risks, strengths and treatability. It focuses on short-term risks and the characteristics of the individual that, if changed, might lead to an increase or decrease in risk. The START has the potential to operationalize the structured professional judgment (SPJ) approach in order to inform the evaluation of multiple risk domains relevant to everyday psychiatric clinical practice. However, explicit guidance on integrating risk assessment, formulation and management is limited in the START and this paper describes the SPJ approach, reviews recent developments in approaches to risk, and considers how the START can be used to inform SPJ approaches and link risk assessment, formulation, and management. PMID:22753147

  4. Operationalizing the assessment and management of violence risk in the short-term.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Michael; Logan, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Assessing risk of violence in the short term is crucial for managing and preventing violence, especially in institutions such as psychiatric units and prisons. Despite a lack of consensus on the definition of "short term", a number of recent tools and guidelines have been developed to aid short-term clinical decision-making. Whereas the supporting evidence for the new tools is impressive, limitations remain in terms of the focus on prediction, limited consideration of strengths, and poor integration with formulation and risk management. The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) is a brief clinical guide for the dynamic assessment of risks, strengths and treatability. It focuses on short-term risks and the characteristics of the individual that, if changed, might lead to an increase or decrease in risk. The START has the potential to operationalize the structured professional judgment (SPJ) approach in order to inform the evaluation of multiple risk domains relevant to everyday psychiatric clinical practice. However, explicit guidance on integrating risk assessment, formulation and management is limited in the START and this paper describes the SPJ approach, reviews recent developments in approaches to risk, and considers how the START can be used to inform SPJ approaches and link risk assessment, formulation, and management.

  5. Short-Term EEG Spectral Pattern as a Single Event in EEG Phenomenology

    PubMed Central

    Fingelkurts, Al. A; Fingelkurts, An. A

    2010-01-01

    Spectral decomposition, to this day, still remains the main analytical paradigm for the analysis of EEG oscillations. However, conventional spectral analysis assesses the mean characteristics of the EEG power spectra averaged out over extended periods of time and/or broad frequency bands, thus resulting in a “static” picture which cannot reflect adequately the underlying neurodynamic. A relatively new promising area in the study of EEG is based on reducing the signal to elementary short-term spectra of various types in accordance with the number of types of EEG stationary segments instead of using averaged power spectrum for the whole EEG. It is suggested that the various perceptual and cognitive operations associated with a mental or behavioural condition constitute a single distinguishable neurophysiological state with a distinct and reliable spectral pattern. In this case, one type of short-term spectral pattern may be considered as a single event in EEG phenomenology. To support this assumption the following issues are considered in detail: (a) the relations between local EEG short-term spectral pattern of particular type and the actual state of the neurons in underlying network and a volume conduction; (b) relationship between morphology of EEG short-term spectral pattern and the state of the underlying neurodynamical system i.e. neuronal assembly; (c) relation of different spectral pattern components to a distinct physiological mechanism; (d) relation of different spectral pattern components to different functional significance; (e) developmental changes of spectral pattern components; (f) heredity of the variance in the individual spectral pattern and its components; (g) intra-individual stability of the sets of EEG short-term spectral patterns and their percent ratio; (h) discrete dynamics of EEG short-term spectral patterns. Functional relevance (consistency) of EEG short-term spectral patterns in accordance with the changes of brain functional state

  6. Short-term and long-term clinostat and vibration-induced biochemical changes in dwarf marigold stems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1983-01-01

    Stems of 21-day dwarf marigold plants cultivated on the clinostat were compared with plants cultivated on vertical axis rotators ('vibrational controls') and stationary controls for long-term changes in cell wall composition. Stems of 21-day plants grown under stationary conditions and subsequently exposed to the clinostat for 24 hours were also analyzed. Among the long-term markers, calcium, lignin, and protein-bound hemicellulose (possibly cell wall glycoprotein) clearly differentiated the effects of vibration from those of the clinostat. Short-term differential responses included rate of ethylene production, nastic movement and peroxidase activity of the cell wall, but not of the protoplast.

  7. Short-term and long-term clinostat and vibration-induced biochemical changes in dwarf Marigold stems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    Stems of 21-day dwarf Marigold plants cultivated on the clinostat were compared with plants cultivated on vertical axis rotators (``vibrational controls'') and stationary controls for long-term changes in cell wall composition. Stems of 21-day plants grown under stationary conditions and subsequently exposed to the clinostat for 24 hours were also analyzed. Among the long-term markers, calcium, lignin, and protein-bound hemicellulose (possibly cell wall glycoprotein) clearly differentiated the effects of vibration from those of the clinostat. Short-term differential responses included rate of ethylene production, nastic movement and peroxidase activity of the cell wall, but not of the protoplast.

  8. Short and long-term strategies to facilitate aerial exposure in a galaxiid.

    PubMed

    Magellan, K; Pinchuck, S; Swartz, E R

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated two potential strategies to survive short and longer-term aerial exposure in a galaxiid. This scaleless fish possesses cutaneous pores that dilated in the short-term (15 min-3 h) but contracted over longer periods (15 h) out of water, suggesting that these organs are used to cope with shorter durations of air exposure. Pores on the abdominal surface showed the greatest variation while those on the operculum surface hardly changed. Conversely, thickening of the epithelial layer of secondary gill lamellae showed a slower increase but persisted in an approximately linear fashion over the duration of this study, indicating that this is a strategy that facilitates longer-term aerial exposure. Thus, this species has the capacity to accommodate both short and long-term exposure to air.

  9. Improving the uncertainty on short-term radon measurements using PADC detector.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M F; Moss, G R; Fews, A P; Henshaw, D L

    2014-07-01

    Radon measurements over a short-term period of a few days have proven a popular choice with the general public, despite the issue that the radon concentration can vary significantly over time and longer periods of integration are recommended. Performing short-term radon measurements using a Poly Allyl Diglycol Carbonate (PADC) detector would see a larger contribution from the statistical error associated with the measurements than for longer term measurements. This motivated the investigation to improve the uncertainty on short-term measurements by utilising a new formulation of high-sensitivity PADC and also by investigating the effect of increasing the scan area and extending the measurement time by just a few days.

  10. Short-term load forecasting using neural network for future smart grid application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zennamo, Joseph Anthony, III

    Short-term load forecasting of power system has been a classic problem for a long time. Not merely it has been researched extensively and intensively, but also a variety of forecasting methods has been raised. This thesis outlines some aspects and functions of smart meter. It also presents different policies and current statuses as well as future projects and objectives of SG development in several countries. Then the thesis compares main aspects about latest products of smart meter from different companies. Lastly, three types of prediction models are established in MATLAB to emulate the functions of smart grid in the short-term load forecasting, and then their results are compared and analyzed in terms of accuracy. For this thesis, more variables such as dew point temperature are used in the Neural Network model to achieve more accuracy for better short-term load forecasting results.

  11. Short term integrative meditation improves resting alpha activity and stroop performance.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yaxin; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Tang, Rongxiang; Posner, Michael I

    2014-12-01

    Our previous research showed that short term meditation training reduces the time to resolve conflict in the flanker task. Studies also show that resting alpha increases with long term meditation practice. The aim of this study is to determine whether short term meditation training both increases resting alpha activity and reduces the time to resolve conflict in the Stroop task and whether these two effects are related. Forty-three Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned an experiment group given 5 days meditation training using integrative body-mind training (IBMT) and a relaxation training control. After training, only the IBMT group showed decreased conflict reaction time (RT), and increased resting mean alpha power. Moreover, the higher the enhancement of resting alpha power, the stronger the improvement of conflict RT. The results indicate that short term meditation diffusely enhances alpha and improves the ability to deal with conflict and moreover these two effects are positively related.

  12. The octopus vertical lobe modulates short-term learning rate and uses LTP to acquire long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Shomrat, Tal; Zarrella, Ilaria; Fiorito, Graziano; Hochner, Binyamin

    2008-03-11

    Analyzing the processes and neuronal circuitry involved in complex behaviors in phylogenetically remote species can help us understand the evolution and function of these systems. Cephalopods, with their vertebrate-like behaviors but much simpler brains, are ideal for such an analysis. The vertical lobe (VL) of Octopus vulgaris is a pivotal brain station in its learning and memory system. To examine the organization of the learning and memory circuitry and to test whether the LTP that we discovered in the VL is involved in behavioral learning, we tetanized the VL to induce a global synaptic enhancement of the VL pathway. The effects of tetanization on learning and memory of a passive avoidance task were compared to those of transecting the same pathway. Tetanization accelerated and transection slowed short-term learning to avoid attacking a negatively reinforced object. However, both treatments impaired long-term recall the next day. Our results suggest that the learning and memory system in the octopus, as in mammals [9], is separated into short- and long-term memory sites. In the octopus, the two memory sites are not independent; the VL, which mediates long-term memory acquisition through LTP, also modulates the circuitry controlling behavior and short-term learning.

  13. Short-term and long-term outcomes following DOTS-based treatment for tuberculosis patients in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Kouanda, S.; Nikiéma, L.; Ouédraogo, G.; Tiendrébeogo, S.; Sondo, B.; Greenwell, F.; Salomon, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was initiated in Burkina Faso’s National Tuberculosis Programme to confirm successful treatment results within 3 months of completing treatment and to characterise longer-term outcomes 12–24 months after completion. The sample (n = 278) included 91 patients who had completed treatment 0–3 months earlier (‘short-term’ sample) and 187 patients who had completed treatment 12–24 months earlier (‘long-term’ sample). All sputum specimens from the short-term sample were confirmed as negative. In the long-term sample, among 154 patients with available information, 13 (8%) had died, 24 were not traced, and 117 (76%) were interviewed and had sputum examinations, of which 2 (2%) were smear-positive. Recording of successful treatment outcomes shows good validity. PMID:26392942

  14. Association between Early Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms and Current Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and…

  15. A Long-Term Experimental Study Demonstrates the Costs of Begging That Were Not Found over the Short Term

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Manuel; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Carra, Laura G.; Medina-Molina, Eloy; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Martín-Gálvez, David

    2014-01-01

    Parent–offspring conflict theory predicts that begging behaviour could escalate continuously over evolutionary time if it is not prevented by costliness of begging displays. Three main potential physiological costs have been proposed: growth, immunological and metabolic costs. However, empirical evidence on this subject remains elusive because published results are often contradictory. In this study, we test for the existence of these three potential physiological costs of begging in house sparrow (Passer domesticus) nestlings by stimulating a group of nestlings to beg for longer and another group for shorter periods than in natural conditions. All nestlings were fed with the same quantity of food. Our study involves a long-term experimental treatment for begging studies (five consecutive days). Long-term studies frequently provide clearer results than short-term studies and, sometimes, relevant information not reported by the latter ones. Our long-term experiment shows (i) a clear effect on the immune response even since the first measurement (6 hours), but it was higher during the second (long-term) than during the first (short-term) test; (ii) evidence of a growth cost of begging in house sparrow nestlings not previously found by other studies; (iii) body condition was affected by our experimental manipulation only after 48 hour; (iv) a metabolic cost of begging never previously shown in any species, and (v) for the first time, it has shown a simultaneous effect of the three potential physiological costs of begging: immunocompetence, growth, and metabolism. This implies first, that a multilevel trade-off can occur between begging and all physiological costs and, second, that a lack of support in a short-term experiment for the existence of a tested cost of begging does not mean absence of that cost, because it can be found in a long-term experiment. PMID:25372280

  16. Perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work: a qualitative study in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Green, Tyler; Green, Heidi; Scandlyn, Jean; Kestler, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background Each year medical providers from wealthy countries participate in short-term medical volunteer work in resource-poor countries. Various authors have raised concern that such work has the potential to be harmful to recipient communities; however, the social science and medical literature contains little research into the perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work from the perspective of members of recipient communities. This exploratory study examines the perception of short-term medical volunteer work in Guatemala among groups of actors affected by or participating in these programs. Methods The researchers conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 72 individuals, including Guatemalan healthcare providers and health authorities, foreign medical providers, non-medical personnel working on health projects, and Guatemalan parents of children treated by a short-term volunteer group. Detailed notes and summaries of these interviews were uploaded, coded and annotated using Atlas.ti (Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin) to identify recurrent themes from the interviews. Results Informants commonly identified a need for increased access to medical services in Guatemala, and many believed that short-term medical volunteers are in a position to offer improved access to medical care in the communities where they serve. Informants most frequently cited appropriate patient selection and attention to payment systems as the best means to avoid creating dependence on foreign aid. The most frequent suggestion to improve short-term medical volunteer work was coordination with and respect for local Guatemalan healthcare providers and their communities, as insufficient understanding of the country's existing healthcare resources and needs may result in perceived harm to the recipient community. Conclusion The perceived impact of short-term medical volunteer projects in Guatemala is highly variable and dependent upon the individual project. In this

  17. Short-term memory for order but not for item information is impaired in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Hachmann, Wibke M; Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; Woumans, Evy; Duyck, Wouter; Job, Remo

    2014-07-01

    Recent findings suggest that people with dyslexia experience difficulties with the learning of serial order information during the transition from short- to long-term memory (Szmalec et al. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition 37(5): 1270-1279, 2011). At the same time, models of short-term memory increasingly incorporate a distinction of order and item processing (Majerus et al. Cognition 107: 395-419, 2008). The current study is aimed to investigate whether serial order processing deficiencies in dyslexia can be traced back to a selective impairment of short-term memory for serial order and whether this impairment also affects processing beyond the verbal domain. A sample of 26 adults with dyslexia and a group of age and IQ-matched controls participated in a 2 × 2 × 2 experiment in which we assessed short-term recognition performance for order and item information, using both verbal and nonverbal material. Our findings indicate that, irrespective of the type of material, participants with dyslexia recalled the individual items with the same accuracy as the matched control group, whereas the ability to recognize the serial order in which those items were presented appeared to be affected in the dyslexia group. We conclude that dyslexia is characterized by a selective impairment of short-term memory for serial order, but not for item information, and discuss the integration of these findings into current theoretical views on dyslexia and its associated dysfunctions.

  18. Forecasting the Short-Term Passenger Flow on High-Speed Railway with Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Mei-Quan; Li, Xia-Miao; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Fu, Yan-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Short-term passenger flow forecasting is an important component of transportation systems. The forecasting result can be applied to support transportation system operation and management such as operation planning and revenue management. In this paper, a divide-and-conquer method based on neural network and origin-destination (OD) matrix estimation is developed to forecast the short-term passenger flow in high-speed railway system. There are three steps in the forecasting method. Firstly, the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station are obtained from historical passenger flow data, which are OD matrices in this paper. Secondly, short-term passenger flow forecasting of the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station based on neural network is realized. At last, the OD matrices in short-term time are obtained with an OD matrix estimation method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed divide-and-conquer method performs well in forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway. PMID:25544838

  19. Short-Term Desensitization of Muscarinic K+ Current in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Shingo; Inanobe, Atsushi; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) rapidly increases cardiac K+ currents (IKACh) by activating muscarinic K+ (KACh) channels followed by a gradual amplitude decrease within seconds. This phenomenon is called short-term desensitization and its precise mechanism and physiological role are still unclear. We constructed a mathematical model for IKACh to examine the conditions required to reconstitute short-term desensitization. Two conditions were crucial: two distinct muscarinic receptors (m2Rs) with different affinities for ACh, which conferred an IKACh response over a wide range of ACh concentrations, and two distinct KACh channels with different affinities for the G-protein βγ subunits, which contributed to reconstitution of the temporal behavior of IKACh. Under these conditions, the model quantitatively reproduced several unique properties of short-term desensitization observed in myocytes: 1), the peak and quasi-steady states with 0.01–100 μM [ACh]; 2), effects of ACh preperfusion; and 3), recovery from short-term desensitization. In the presence of 10 μM ACh, the IKACh model conferred recurring spontaneous firing after asystole of 8.9 s and 10.7 s for the Demir and Kurata sinoatrial node models, respectively. Therefore, two different populations of KACh channels and m2Rs may participate in short-term desensitization of IKACh in native myocytes, and may be responsible for vagal escape at nodal cells. PMID:24048003

  20. Depletion of Serotonin Selectively Impairs Short-Term Memory without Affecting Long-Term Memory in Odor Learning in the Terrestrial Slug "Limax Valentianus"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa, Tomofumi; Kirino, Yutaka; Watanabe, Satoshi; Shirahata, Takaaki; Tsunoda, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial slug "Limax" is able to acquire short-term and long-term memories during aversive odor-taste associative learning. We investigated the effect of the selective serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) on memory. Behavioral studies indicated that 5,7-DHT impaired short-term memory but not long-term memory. HPLC…