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Sample records for accurate situation assessment

  1. Situations in 140 Characters: Assessing Real-World Situations on Twitter.

    PubMed

    Serfass, David G; Sherman, Ryne A

    2015-01-01

    Over 20 million Tweets were used to study the psychological characteristics of real-world situations over the course of two weeks. Models for automatically and accurately scoring individual Tweets on the DIAMONDS dimensions of situations were developed. Stable daily and weekly fluctuations in the situations that people experience were identified. Predicted temporal trends were found, providing validation for this new method of situation assessment. On weekdays, Duty peaks in the midmorning and declines steadily thereafter while Sociality peeks in the evening. Negativity is highest during the workweek and lowest on the weekends. pOsitivity shows the opposite pattern. Additionally, gender and locational differences in the situations shared on Twitter are explored. Females share both more emotionally charged (pOsitive and Negative) situations, while no differences were found in the amount of Duty experienced by males and females. Differences in the situations shared from Rural and Urban areas were not found. Future applications of assessing situations using social media are discussed.

  2. Getting a Picture that Is Both Accurate and Stable: Situation Models and Epistemic Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Sascha; Richter, Tobias; Hoever, Inga

    2008-01-01

    Text comprehension entails the construction of a situation model that prepares individuals for situated action. In order to meet this function, situation model representations are required to be both accurate and stable. We propose a framework according to which comprehenders rely on epistemic validation to prevent inaccurate information from…

  3. Situated Assessment: Limitations and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreth, Melinda; Crawford, Mary Ann; Taylor, Marcy; Brockman, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    We present some key findings of a four-year, two-phase writing assessment project at Central Michigan University: Phase One (2002), a survey of faculty members (n=115) and subsequent focus groups (n=14) and Phase Two (2005), an evaluation of two samples of student writing (n=635 and 632). Major findings of Phase One reported here include the…

  4. Situations in 140 Characters: Assessing Real-World Situations on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Serfass, David G.; Sherman, Ryne A.

    2015-01-01

    Over 20 million Tweets were used to study the psychological characteristics of real-world situations over the course of two weeks. Models for automatically and accurately scoring individual Tweets on the DIAMONDS dimensions of situations were developed. Stable daily and weekly fluctuations in the situations that people experience were identified. Predicted temporal trends were found, providing validation for this new method of situation assessment. On weekdays, Duty peaks in the midmorning and declines steadily thereafter while Sociality peeks in the evening. Negativity is highest during the workweek and lowest on the weekends. pOsitivity shows the opposite pattern. Additionally, gender and locational differences in the situations shared on Twitter are explored. Females share both more emotionally charged (pOsitive and Negative) situations, while no differences were found in the amount of Duty experienced by males and females. Differences in the situations shared from Rural and Urban areas were not found. Future applications of assessing situations using social media are discussed. PMID:26566125

  5. Situation assessment in the Paladin tactical decision generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.; Arbuckle, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Paladin is a real-time tactical decision generator for air combat engagements. Paladin uses specialized knowledge-based systems and other Artificial Intelligence (AI) programming techniques to address the modern air combat environment and agile aircraft in a clear and concise manner. Paladin is designed to provide insight into both the tactical benefits and the costs of enhanced agility. The system was developed using the Lisp programming language on a specialized AI workstation. Paladin utilizes a set of air combat rules, an active throttle controller, and a situation assessment module that have been implemented as a set of highly specialized knowledge-based systems. The situation assessment module was developed to determine the tactical mode of operation (aggressive, defensive, neutral, evasive, or disengagement) used by Paladin at each decision point in the air combat engagement. Paladin uses the situation assessment module; the situationally dependent modes of operation to more accurately represent the complex decision-making process of human pilots. This allows Paladin to adapt its tactics to the current situation and improves system performance. Discussed here are the details of Paladin's situation assessment and modes of operation. The results of simulation testing showing the error introduced into the situation assessment module due to estimation errors in positional and geometric data for the opponent aircraft are presented. Implementation issues for real-time performance are discussed and several solutions are presented, including Paladin's use of an inference engine designed for real-time execution.

  6. Assessing communicative intents: a situated pragmatics approach.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, L E

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of communicative intents is described as it has developed over time, beginning with J.L. Austin's work published in 1975. Recommendations for best practice are offered in which a situated approach is advocated. Key elements of this approach are a focus on contextual variables and open-ended, rather than list-oriented, assessments of range of intents. It is argued that intents must be assessed relative to the environment, with documentation of environmental variables such as barriers to communicative opportunity. Further, caution is urged in using lists of intents as the sole guide to analysis, because such lists serve to limit awareness of individual differences and multifunctionality of utterances.

  7. Unattended ground sensor situation assessment workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppesen, D.; Trellue, R.

    1997-04-01

    Effective utilization of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) in a theater reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition, and kill assessment environment requires that a human operator be able to interpret, and collectively assess, the significance of real time data obtained from UGS emplacements over large geographical regions of interest. The products of this UGS data interpretation and assessment activity can then be used in the decision support process for command level evaluation of appropriate courses of action. Advancements in both sensor hardware technology and in software systems and processing technology have enabled the development of practical real time situation assessment capabilities based upon information from unattended ground sensors. A decision support workstation that employs rule-based expert system processing of reports from unattended ground sensors is described. The primary goal of this development activity is to produce a suite of software to track vehicles using data from unattended ground sensors. The situational assessment products from this system have stand-alone utility, but are also intended to provide cueing support for overhead sensors and supplementary feeds to all-source fusion centers. The conceptual framework, developmental architecture, and demonstration field tests of the system are described.

  8. The Use of Structured Imagery and Dispositional Measurement to Assess Situational Use of Mindfulness Skills

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jonathan C.; Bach, Patricia A.; Cassisi, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    The recent proliferation of studies on mindfulness produced varying theoretical models, each based in part on how mindfulness is assessed. These models agree, however, that mindfulness encompasses moment-to-moment or situational experiences. Incongruence between dispositional and situational assessment would be problematic for theory and empirical research. In particular, it remains to be established whether situational measurement is an accurate method for mindfulness assessment and whether dispositional measures are able to accurately detect mindfulness skills in various situations. The association between dispositional and situational mindfulness processes (i.e., situational attention awareness and emotion acceptance) was examined in two studies. In Study 1 (N = 148), independent groups who reported high and low levels of dispositional mindfulness skills were compared on a continuous measure of situational mindfulness skills. In Study 2 (N = 317), dispositional mindfulness questionnaires were used to predict situational use of mindfulness skills. Results suggest not only that situational measures accurately detect use of mindfulness skills, but also that dispositional measures can predict one’s use of situational mindfulness skills. Findings from both studies were consistent across both positive and negative situations. Moreover, neither neuroticism nor extraversion was shown to have a moderating effect on the relationship between dispositional and situational use of mindfulness skills. The implications of these findings for clinical practice and future investigations pertaining to measurement validity in this area are discussed. PMID:23936175

  9. The use of structured imagery and dispositional measurement to assess situational use of mindfulness skills.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan C; Bach, Patricia A; Cassisi, Jeffrey E

    2013-01-01

    The recent proliferation of studies on mindfulness produced varying theoretical models, each based in part on how mindfulness is assessed. These models agree, however, that mindfulness encompasses moment-to-moment or situational experiences. Incongruence between dispositional and situational assessment would be problematic for theory and empirical research. In particular, it remains to be established whether situational measurement is an accurate method for mindfulness assessment and whether dispositional measures are able to accurately detect mindfulness skills in various situations. The association between dispositional and situational mindfulness processes (i.e., situational attention awareness and emotion acceptance) was examined in two studies. In Study 1 (N = 148), independent groups who reported high and low levels of dispositional mindfulness skills were compared on a continuous measure of situational mindfulness skills. In Study 2 (N = 317), dispositional mindfulness questionnaires were used to predict situational use of mindfulness skills. Results suggest not only that situational measures accurately detect use of mindfulness skills, but also that dispositional measures can predict one's use of situational mindfulness skills. Findings from both studies were consistent across both positive and negative situations. Moreover, neither neuroticism nor extraversion was shown to have a moderating effect on the relationship between dispositional and situational use of mindfulness skills. The implications of these findings for clinical practice and future investigations pertaining to measurement validity in this area are discussed. PMID:23936175

  10. Dynamic situation assessment and prediction (DSAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisti, Alex F.

    2003-09-01

    The face of war has changed. We no longer have the luxury of planning campaigns against a known enemy operating under a well-understood doctrine, using conventional weapons and rules of engagement; all in a well-charted region. Instead, today's Air Force faces new, unforeseen enemies, asymmetric combat situations and unconventional warfare (Chem/Bio, co-location of military assets near civilian facilities, etc.). At the same time, the emergence of new Air Force doctrinal notions (e.g., Global Strike Task Force, Effects-Based Operations, the desire to minimize or eliminate any collateral damage, etc.)- while propounding the benefits that can be expected with the adoption of such concepts - also impose many new technical and operational challenges. Furthermore, future mission/battle commanders will need to assimilate a tremendous glut of available information, and still be expected to make quick-response decisions - and to quantify the effects of those decisions - all in the face of uncertainty. All these factors translate to the need for dramatic improvements in the way we plan, rehearse, execute and dynamically assess the status of military campaigns. This paper addresses these crucial and revolutionary requirements through the pursuit of a new simulation paradigm that allows a user to perform real-time dynamic situation assessment and prediction.

  11. Data Quality Assessment for Maritime Situation Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iphar, C.; Napoli, A.; Ray, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) initially designed to ensure maritime security through continuous position reports has been progressively used for many extended objectives. In particular it supports a global monitoring of the maritime domain for various purposes like safety and security but also traffic management, logistics or protection of strategic areas, etc. In this monitoring, data errors, misuse, irregular behaviours at sea, malfeasance mechanisms and bad navigation practices have inevitably emerged either by inattentiveness or voluntary actions in order to circumvent, alter or exploit such a system in the interests of offenders. This paper introduces the AIS system and presents vulnerabilities and data quality assessment for decision making in maritime situational awareness cases. The principles of a novel methodological approach for modelling, analysing and detecting these data errors and falsification are introduced.

  12. What's Normal? Accurately and Efficiently Assessing Menstrual Function.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Darcie M; Beharry, Meera S

    2015-09-01

    Many young women are unsure of what constitutes normal menses. By asking focused questions, pediatric providers can quickly and accurately assess menstrual function and dispel anxiety and myths. In this article, we review signs and symptoms of normal versus pathologic menstrual functioning and provide suggestions to improve menstrual history taking.

  13. Can blind persons accurately assess body size from the voice?

    PubMed

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    Vocal tract resonances provide reliable information about a speaker's body size that human listeners use for biosocial judgements as well as speech recognition. Although humans can accurately assess men's relative body size from the voice alone, how this ability is acquired remains unknown. In this study, we test the prediction that accurate voice-based size estimation is possible without prior audiovisual experience linking low frequencies to large bodies. Ninety-one healthy congenitally or early blind, late blind and sighted adults (aged 20-65) participated in the study. On the basis of vowel sounds alone, participants assessed the relative body sizes of male pairs of varying heights. Accuracy of voice-based body size assessments significantly exceeded chance and did not differ among participants who were sighted, or congenitally blind or who had lost their sight later in life. Accuracy increased significantly with relative differences in physical height between men, suggesting that both blind and sighted participants used reliable vocal cues to size (i.e. vocal tract resonances). Our findings demonstrate that prior visual experience is not necessary for accurate body size estimation. This capacity, integral to both nonverbal communication and speech perception, may be present at birth or may generalize from broader cross-modal correspondences. PMID:27095264

  14. Accurate assessment and identification of naturally occurring cellular cobalamins

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Luciana; Axhemi, Armend; Glushchenko, Alla V.; Moreira, Edward S.; Brasch, Nicola E.; Jacobsen, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of cobalamin profiles in human serum, cells, and tissues may have clinical diagnostic value. However, non-alkyl forms of cobalamin undergo β-axial ligand exchange reactions during extraction, which leads to inaccurate profiles having little or no diagnostic value. Methods Experiments were designed to: 1) assess β-axial ligand exchange chemistry during the extraction and isolation of cobalamins from cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells, human foreskin fibroblasts, and human hepatoma HepG2 cells, and 2) to establish extraction conditions that would provide a more accurate assessment of endogenous forms containing both exchangeable and non-exchangeable β-axial ligands. Results The cobalamin profile of cells grown in the presence of [57Co]-cyanocobalamin as a source of vitamin B12 shows that the following derivatives are present: [57Co]-aquacobalamin, [57Co]-glutathionylcobalamin, [57Co]-sulfitocobalamin, [57Co]-cyanocobalamin, [57Co]-adenosylcobalamin, [57Co]-methylcobalamin, as well as other yet unidentified corrinoids. When the extraction is performed in the presence of excess cold aquacobalamin acting as a scavenger cobalamin (i.e., “cold trapping”), the recovery of both [57Co]-glutathionylcobalamin and [57Co]-sulfitocobalamin decreases to low but consistent levels. In contrast, the [57Co]-nitrocobalamin observed in extracts prepared without excess aquacobalamin is undetectable in extracts prepared with cold trapping. Conclusions This demonstrates that β-ligand exchange occurs with non-covalently bound β-ligands. The exception to this observation is cyanocobalamin with a non-covalent but non-exchangeable− CNT group. It is now possible to obtain accurate profiles of cellular cobalamins. PMID:18973458

  15. PORTENT: predator aware situation assessment for wireless sensor network surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghataoura, D. S.; Yang, Y.; Mitchell, J. E.; Matich, G. E.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed predator aware situation assessment system (PORTENT) to model and detect potential events occurring within an uncertain environment. PORTENT draws inspiration from how the mammalian brain detects and makes rational decisions through assessing fragmented signals of threat, within uncertainty, at different speeds. PORTENT represents the faster system using standard signal detection theory and the slower more accurate system as the integration of sensory data over time, until a certain level of confidence is reached. We also consider strategies to how both these systems could be combined optimally, to enhance PORTENT situation assessment performance. Our experimental simulations to verify the PORTENT concept demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach.

  16. The Neglected Situation: Assessment Performance and Interaction in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Informed by Goffman's influential essay on "The neglected situation" this paper examines the contextual and interactive dimensions of performance in large-scale educational assessments. The paper applies Goffman's participation framework and associated theory in linguistic anthropology to examine how testing situations are framed and…

  17. A Situative Response to the Conundrum of Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    While formative assessment is popular, it is difficult to evaluate and improve. In some settings, it may actually reduce disciplinary learning by competing with other more productive activities, making those activities less engaging, and narrowing curricular goals. Situative approaches to educational assessment offer a solution by (a) blurring the…

  18. Geographical Education and the Environment: Assessment Situations from Cartographic Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gonzalez, Monica Rodriguez

    2007-01-01

    Even though the appearance and spread of new technologies offer considerable challenges in the design of far reaching and complex pre-test and assessment situations which are in keeping with the trends of teaching and learning, the thematic map is still an insuperable document to value either integral training or academic performance of future…

  19. Context recognition and situation assessment in autonomous mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavnai, Arie

    1993-05-01

    The capability to recognize the operating context and to assess the situation in real-time is needed, if a high functionality autonomous mobile robot has to react properly and effectively to continuously changing situations and events, either external or internal, while the robot is performing its assigned tasks. A new approach and architecture for context recognition and situation assessment module (CORSA) is presented in this paper. CORSA is a multi-level information processing module which consists of adaptive decision and classification algorithms. It performs dynamic mapping from the data space to the context space, and dynamically decides on the context class. Learning mechanism is employed to update the decision variables so as to minimize the probability of misclassification. CORSA is embedded within the Mission Manager module of the intelligent autonomous hyper-controller (IAHC) of the mobile robot. The information regarding operating context, events and situation is then communicated to other modules of the IAHC where it is used to: (a) select the appropriate action strategy; (b) support the processes to arbitration and conflict resolution between reflexive behaviors and reasoning-driven behaviors; (c) predict future events and situations; and (d) determine criteria and priorities for planning, replanning, and decision making.

  20. Situated learning methodologies and assessment in civil engineering structures education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertz, Michael Davis

    This thesis describes an overarching study of civil engineering undergraduate structural education through student performance in recalling and applying basic structural engineering knowledge, and the viability of alternative situated learning environments for more effectively supporting the learning of this knowledge. To properly ground this study, a thorough investigation of related work in assessment, cognitive science, educational technology, and design education was completed, with connections and applications to civil engineering education highlighted. The experimental work of the thesis is organized into three parts: an assessment of civil engineering undergraduates' fundamental structural engineering knowledge and abilities; the development and testing of a software support environment for situated learning, the Civil Engineering Learning Library (CELL); and, the implementation and evaluation of the design studio, a pedagogical model for situated learning in the classroom. The results of the assessment study indicate that civil engineering seniors (and also students earlier in the curriculum) have difficulty retaining and applying basic knowledge of structural behavior, especially doing so in a flexible fashion in design situations. The survey also suggests that visualization plays an important role in understanding structural behavior. Tests with the CELL system show that a cognitively-flexible multimedia environment can support structural learning, but were inconclusive about whether the computer-based system helped the students to learn better than conventional classroom lecture. Two trial implementations of the design studio indicate that the studio model can serve as a powerful situated learning environment, and that it can be scaled up to reasonable class sizes. Significant requirements are associated with this model, however, primarily in faculty involvement, but also in physical resources and student time. In addition to these conclusions about the

  1. Hybrid methodology for situation assessment model development within an air operations center domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Stephen; Gonsalves, Paul; Call, Catherine

    2007-04-01

    Within the dynamic environment of an Air Operations Center (AOC), effective decision-making is highly dependent on timely and accurate situation assessment. In previous research efforts the capabilities and potential of a Bayesian belief network (BN) model-based approach to support situation assessment have been demonstrated. In our own prior research, we have presented and formalized a hybrid process for situation assessment model development that seeks to ameliorate specific concerns and drawbacks associated with using a BN-based model construct. Specifically, our hybrid methodology addresses the significant knowledge acquisition requirements and the associated subjective nature of using subject matter experts (SMEs) for model development. Our methodology consists of two distinct functional elements: an off-line mechanism for rapid construction of a Bayesian belief network (BN) library of situation assessment models tailored to different situations and derived from knowledge elicitation with SMEs; and an on-line machine-learning-based mechanism to learn, tune, or adapt BN model parameters and structure. The adaptation supports the ability to adjust the models over time to respond to novel situations not initially available or anticipated during initial model construction, thus ensuring that the models continue to meet the dynamic requirements of performing the situation assessment function within dynamic application environments such as an AOC. In this paper, we apply and demonstrate the hybrid approach within the specific context of an AOC-based air campaign monitoring scenario. We detail both the initial knowledge elicitation and subsequent machine learning phases of the model development process, as well as demonstrate model performance within an operational context.

  2. Identification and assessment of problematic interpersonal situations for urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Farrell, A D; Ampy, L A; Meyer, A L

    1998-10-01

    Identified and developed a scale to assess problematic interpersonal situations among urban adolescents. In Study 1, problematic situations were identified by focus groups of 6th graders (N = 43). Their relevance was verified in Study 2 by assessing their reported frequency and difficulty in a sample of 6th graders (N = 457) that included mostly African American youth from low-income families. Scales representing 3 dimensions, peer provocation, perceived injustice, and environmental stressors were verified by confirmatory factor analyses. In Study 3, the internal consistency and structure of these scales were cross-validated in a sample of 7th graders (N = 459). All 3 scales were correlated with self-reported violent behavior, drug use, and anxiety and uniquely accounted for 11% to 19% of the variance. These findings have implications for identifying youth at risk for emotional and behavioral problems and for designing more relevant interventions. PMID:9789189

  3. Methodological Consequences of Situation Specificity: Biases in Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Patry, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    Social research is plagued by many biases. Most of them are due to situation specificity of social behavior and can be explained using a theory of situation specificity. The historical background of situation specificity in personality social psychology research is briefly sketched, then a theory of situation specificity is presented in detail, with as centerpiece the relationship between the behavior and its outcome which can be described as either “the more, the better” or “not too much and not too little.” This theory is applied to reliability and validity of assessments in social research. The distinction between “maximum performance” and “typical performance” is shown to correspond to the two behavior-outcome relations. For maximum performance, issues of reliability and validity are much easier to be solved, whereas typical performance is sensitive to biases, as predicted by the theory. Finally, it is suggested that biases in social research are not just systematic error, but represent relevant features to be explained just as other behavior, and that the respective theories should be integrated into a theory system. PMID:21713072

  4. Increasing Accurate Preference Assessment Implementation through Pyramidal Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Sacha T.; St. Peter, Claire C.; Tetreault, Allison S.

    2012-01-01

    Preference assessments directly evaluate items that may serve as reinforcers, and their implementation is an important skill for individuals who work with children. This study examined the effectiveness of pyramidal training on teachers' implementation of preference assessments. During Experiment 1, 3 special education teachers taught 6 trainees…

  5. Intelligent situation assessment and response aiding in flight emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudlicka, Eva; Corker, Kevin; Cramer, Nichael; Young, David; Baron, Sheldon

    1989-01-01

    A knowledge-based pilot aiding system which performs situation assessment and response aiding is described. The system uses a causal model of the flight domain to both simulate the effects of identified failures on flight and to derive responses during emergencies. The model represents information at two levels of abstraction: Boolean, which simply states whether a subsystem or aircraft component is normal or abnormal, and qualitative, which expresses the subsystem or component status as one of several qualitative values, such as increasing, decreasing, or stable.

  6. Internal Medicine Residents Do Not Accurately Assess Their Medical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Roger; Panda, Mukta; Desbiens, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Background: Medical knowledge is essential for appropriate patient care; however, the accuracy of internal medicine (IM) residents' assessment of their medical knowledge is unknown. Methods: IM residents predicted their overall percentile performance 1 week (on average) before and after taking the in-training exam (ITE), an objective and well…

  7. SATORI: Situation Assessment Through the Re-creation of Incidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Mark D.; Duke, Duane A.

    1993-07-01

    A system was developed that graphically re-creates the radar data recorded at En Route air traffic control (ATC) facilities. Each facility records data sent to the displays associated with the airspace under its control on a System Analysis Report (SAR) tape. SATORI (Situation Assessment Through Re-creation of Incidents) overlays the SAR data on the appropriate sector maps using map data from the Adaptation Control Environmental System (ACES) database. The analog switch display settings of the plan view display (PVD) are not recorded; however, subroutines were written for SATORI that allow the display to be set up with the settings reported to have been used by a given controller. In addition, SATORI has the capability to display the high and low weather intensity that was displayed on a given PVD. All software routines written for SATORI use Open Systems Foundation (OSF) technology. Similar data to those available from En Route facilities are recorded at Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) facilities and should allow for the development of a re-creation tool much like the one discussed. Once SATORI is developed and evaluated, it will be possible to accomplish the goals of evaluating system designs, over-the-shoulder appraisals, training outcomes, procedures, airspace design, and measuring controller performance. Not only will the capabilities and features of SATORI provide those interested in air traffic with a valuable tool for assessing the dynamics of the air traffic situation, but additionally, and more importantly, the Agency will be in a better position to bring about effective change in future ATC systems.

  8. Animal Cruelty Motivations: Assessing Demographic and Situational Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E.

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have examined childhood and adolescent animal cruelty motives. Using a sample of 261 inmates surveyed at both medium and maximum security prisons in a southern state, the present study examined the impact of demographic attributes and situational factors relating specifically to a range of animal cruelty motivations. Almost half of the…

  9. Assessment of Anomalous Erotic Preferences in Situational Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Kurt

    1976-01-01

    Sometimes the main reason for situational impotence is a gross anomaly in a patient's erotic preferences. An overview on nonverbal diagnostic methods is presented, and one of them, the phallometric test, is described in more detail, including a discussion of its limitations. (Author)

  10. A comparison of neuropsychological and situational assessment for predicting employability after closed head injury.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, J M; Hayden, M E; Paulman, R G

    2000-08-01

    The relationships among neuropsychological assessment, situational assessment, and judgments of future employability in 127 survivors of moderate to severe closed head injury were evaluated. Participants received a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and a situational vocational evaluation. Two groups were created, based on employment recommendation from the situational evaluation. A seven-factor model was found to account for the preponderance of variance within the neuropsychological battery used, and one factor was predictive of group assignment from situational assessment. However, the present data reinforce the predominance of findings in the literature that indicate that, in general, no individual neuropsychological test can be used to predict vocational performance in more environmentally relevant environments. Exceptions to this "rule" may occur when comparisons between results of formal neuropsychological tests and situational evaluation are limited to very simple, very circumscribed, and/or very well-defined functions. Thus, situational assessment is seen as a critical adjunct to neuropsychological assessment in making "real-world" predictions. The particular situational assessment used in this study was internally valid, an important finding given the importance of situational assessment in ecologically valid predictions.

  11. Human Factors for Situation Assessment in Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Guttromson, Ross T.; Schur, Anne; Greitzer, Frank L.; Paget, Mia L.

    2007-08-08

    Executive Summary Despite advances in technology, power system operators must assimilate overwhelming amounts of data to keep the grid operating. Analyses of recent blackouts have clearly demonstrated the need to enhance the operator’s situation awareness (SA). The long-term objective of this research is to integrate valuable technologies into the grid operator environment that support decision making under normal and abnormal operating conditions and remove non-technical barriers to enable the optimum use of these technologies by individuals working alone and as a team. More specifically, the research aims to identify methods and principles to increase SA of grid operators in the context of system conditions that are representative or common across many operating entities and develop operationally relevant experimental methods for studying technologies and operational practices which contribute to SA. With increasing complexity and interconnectivity of the grid, the scope and complexity of situation awareness have grown. New paradigms are needed to guide research and tool development aimed to enhance and improve operations. In reviewing related research, operating practices, systems, and tools, the present study established a taxonomy that provides a perspective on research and development surrounding power grid situation awareness and clarifies the field of human factors/SA for grid operations. Information sources that we used to identify critical factors underlying SA included interviews with experienced operational personnel, available historical summaries and transcripts of abnormal conditions and outages (e.g., the August 14, 2003 blackout), scientific literature, and operational policies/procedures and other documentation. Our analysis of August 2003 blackout transcripts and interviews adopted a different perspective than previous analyses of this material, and we complemented this analysis with additional interviews. Based on our analysis and a broad

  12. Cross-Layer Damage Assessment for Cyber Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Jia, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Shengzhi; Xiong, Xi; Jhi, Yoon-Chan; Bai, Kun; Li, Jason

    Damage assessment plays a very important role in securing enterprise networks and systems. Gaining good awareness about the effects and impact of cyber attack actions would enable security officers to make the right cyber defense decisions and take the right cyber defense actions. A good number of damage assessment techniques have been proposed in the literature, but they typically focus on a single abstraction level (of the software system in concern). As a result, existing damage assessment techniques and tools are still very limited in satisfying the needs of comprehensive damage assessment which should not result in any “blind spots”.

  13. Assessment of the world food situation-present and future.

    PubMed

    Almeida, S; Baytelman, D; Chonchol, J; Collins, J; George, S; Vieira, L A; Marc von der Weid, J

    1975-01-01

    The widespread bad harvests of 1972 in various regions of the world, the consequent reduction in grain reserves, the rapid rise in food prices almost everywhere and its impact on inflation, all have served to draw renewed attention to the problem of hunger which affects millions of human beings in the world today. During the 1974 United Nations World Food Conference many important matters relating to this problem were debated: the creation of international grain reserves; problems concerning world trade of foodstuffs; the current difficulties with certain key agricultural production factors, such as fertilizers; the necessity for organizing a worldwide information system on the situation; and prospects of various harvests and threats of famine in underdeveloped countries. It is often the case that discussion of the hunger problem does not correspond to the gravity of the crisis; true causes of the present situation are not examined, and measures are not adopted that will once and for all--for the first time--abolish hunger. In view of the prospect that the real issues are often ignored, the Transnational Institute provides this analysis in an attempt to clarify what must be done to abolish hunger in the belief that this is within the reach of humanity when and if we are determined to end the irrationalities of the present economic system and the relations of domination which some individuals and countries seek to continue.

  14. NUMERICAL ASSESSMENT OF 131I DEPOSITED IN THYROID FOR NON-STANDARD SITUATIONS.

    PubMed

    Moraleda, M; Gómez-Ros, J M

    2016-09-01

    At the CIEMAT whole-body counter, a low-energy germanium detector is used for the in vivo assessment of (131)I activity in thyroid, mainly for the individual monitoring programmes of workers. The detector is calibrated with a cylindrical neck phantom made of polymethyl methacrylate that mimics the neck of an adult, containing a vial with a radioactive solution. For an accurate activity assessment, it is necessary to perform the calibration of the detector with phantoms that closely reproduce the anatomy of a real person. Nevertheless, it is not affordable to count on a variety of physical phantoms covering the different anatomical characteristics that could be found over the whole population, including children. An alternative approach to face this situation is offered by the numerical calibration procedure based on Monte Carlo calculations in conjunction with realistic voxel phantoms. A series of computational voxel phantoms of different ages and dimensions have been used in this work to simulate an internal contamination of the thyroid and to estimate the response of the detector for measurements involving individuals whose anatomical characteristics differ from the reference adult man. PMID:26705352

  15. Teachers' Professional Judgement in Assessment: A Cognitive Act and a Socially Situated Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allal, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of teachers' professional judgement in the area of summative assessment. It adopts a situated perspective on assessment practices in classroom and school settings. The study is based on interviews with 10 sixth-grade teachers and on the assessment documents they used when determining end-of-term grades in students'…

  16. The accurate assessment of small-angle X-ray scattering data

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Thomas D.; Luft, Joseph R.; Carter, Lester G.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M.; Martel, Anne; Snell, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    A set of quantitative techniques is suggested for assessing SAXS data quality. These are applied in the form of a script, SAXStats, to a test set of 27 proteins, showing that these techniques are more sensitive than manual assessment of data quality. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) has grown in popularity in recent times with the advent of bright synchrotron X-ray sources, powerful computational resources and algorithms enabling the calculation of increasingly complex models. However, the lack of standardized data-quality metrics presents difficulties for the growing user community in accurately assessing the quality of experimental SAXS data. Here, a series of metrics to quantitatively describe SAXS data in an objective manner using statistical evaluations are defined. These metrics are applied to identify the effects of radiation damage, concentration dependence and interparticle interactions on SAXS data from a set of 27 previously described targets for which high-resolution structures have been determined via X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The studies show that these metrics are sufficient to characterize SAXS data quality on a small sample set with statistical rigor and sensitivity similar to or better than manual analysis. The development of data-quality analysis strategies such as these initial efforts is needed to enable the accurate and unbiased assessment of SAXS data quality.

  17. Palliative care in India: Situation assessment and future scope.

    PubMed

    Kar, S S; Subitha, L; Iswarya, S

    2015-01-01

    Palliative care is an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problems associated with life-threatening illness, through prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification, assessment and treatment of pain, and other problems - physical, psychosocial, and spiritual. It is estimated that in India the total number of people who need palliative care is likely to be 5.4 million people a year. Though palliative care services have been in existence for many years, India ranks at the bottom of the Quality of Death index in overall score. However there has been steady progress in the past few years through community-owned palliative care services. One of the key objectives of the National Programme for prevention and control of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and stroke is to establish and develop capacity for palliative and rehabilitative care. Community models for the provision of home-based palliative care is possible by involving community caregivers and volunteers supervised by nurses trained in palliative care. Training of medical officers and health care professionals, and sensitization of the public through awareness campaigns are vital to improve the scope and coverage of palliative care. Process of translating palliative care plan into action requires strong leadership, competent management, political support and integration across all levels of care.

  18. Using fatty acids to fingerprint biofilm communities: a means to quickly and accurately assess stream quality.

    PubMed

    DeForest, Jared L; Drerup, Samuel A; Vis, Morgan L

    2016-05-01

    The assessment of lotic ecosystem quality plays an essential role to help determine the extent of environmental stress and the effectiveness of restoration activities. Methods that incorporate biological properties are considered ideal because they provide direct assessment of the end goal of a vigorous biological community. Our primary objective was to use biofilm lipids to develop an accurate biomonitoring tool that requires little expertise and time to facilitate assessment. A model was created of fatty acid biomarkers most associated with predetermined stream quality classification, exceptional warm water habitat (EWH), warm water habitat (WWH), and limited resource (LR-AMD), and validated along a gradient of known stream qualities. The fatty acid fingerprint of the biofilm community was statistically different (P = 0.03) and was generally unique to recognized stream quality. One striking difference was essential fatty acids (DHA, EPA, and ARA) were absent from LR-AMD and only recovered from WWH and EWH, 45 % more in EWH than WWH. Independently testing the model along a stream quality gradient, this model correctly categorized six of the seven sites, with no match due to low sample biomass. These results provide compelling evidence that biofilm fatty acid analysis can be a sensitive, accurate, and cost-effective biomonitoring tool. We conceive of future studies expanding this research to more in-depth studies of remediation efforts, determining the applicable geographic area for the method and the addition of multiple stressors with the possibility of distinguishing among stressors.

  19. Home Circadian Phase Assessments with Measures of Compliance Yield Accurate Dim Light Melatonin Onsets

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Helen J.; Wyatt, James K.; Park, Margaret; Fogg, Louis F.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: There is a need for the accurate assessment of circadian phase outside of the clinic/laboratory, particularly with the gold standard dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). We tested a novel kit designed to assist in saliva sampling at home for later determination of the DLMO. The home kit includes objective measures of compliance to the requirements for dim light and half-hourly saliva sampling. Design: Participants were randomized to one of two 10-day protocols. Each protocol consisted of two back-to-back home and laboratory phase assessments in counterbalanced order, separated by a 5-day break. Setting: Laboratory or participants' homes. Participants: Thirty-five healthy adults, age 21–62 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Most participants received at least one 30-sec epoch of light > 50 lux during the home phase assessments (average light intensity 4.5 lux), but on average for < 9 min of the required 8.5 h. Most participants collected every saliva sample within 5 min of the scheduled time. Ninety-two percent of home DLMOs were not affected by light > 50 lux or sampling errors. There was no significant difference between the home and laboratory DLMOs (P > 0.05); on average the home DLMOs occurred 9.6 min before the laboratory DLMOs. The home DLMOs were highly correlated with the laboratory DLMOs (r = 0.91, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Participants were reasonably compliant to the home phase assessment procedures. The good agreement between the home and laboratory dim light melatonin onsets (DLMOs) demonstrates that including objective measures of light exposure and sample timing during home saliva sampling can lead to accurate home DLMOs. Clinical Trial Registration: Circadian Phase Assessments at Home, http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01487252, NCT01487252. Citation: Burgess HJ, Wyatt JK, Park M, Fogg LF. Home circadian phase assessments with measures of compliance yield accurate dim light melatonin onsets. SLEEP 2015;38(6):889–897

  20. Accurate assessment of Congo basin forest carbon stocks requires forest type specific assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moonen, Pieter C. J.; Van Ballaert, Siege; Verbist, Bruno; Boyemba, Faustin; Muys, Bart

    2014-05-01

    carbon stocks despite poorer physical and chemical soil properties. Soil organic carbon stocks (0-100cm) did not significantly differ between forest types and were estimated at 109 ± 35 Mg C ha-1. Our results confirm recent findings of significantly lower carbon stocks in the Central Congo Basin as compared to the outer regions and of the importance of local tree height-diameter relationships for accurate carbon stock estimations.

  1. An Assessment of the Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Situation in the United States. Volume II: Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    InterAmerica Research Associates, Washington, DC.

    An immediate assessment of the migrant and seasonal farmworker situation was conducted between August 1975 and January 1976. The assessment described the elements affecting these farmworkers; discussed current and projected changes in migration patterns; analyzed the effects of inflation and of changes in agricultural demand and production on…

  2. The accurate assessment of small-angle X-ray scattering data

    DOE PAGES

    Grant, Thomas D.; Luft, Joseph R.; Carter, Lester G.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M.; Martel, Anne; Snell, Edward H.

    2015-01-23

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) has grown in popularity in recent times with the advent of bright synchrotron X-ray sources, powerful computational resources and algorithms enabling the calculation of increasingly complex models. However, the lack of standardized data-quality metrics presents difficulties for the growing user community in accurately assessing the quality of experimental SAXS data. Here, a series of metrics to quantitatively describe SAXS data in an objective manner using statistical evaluations are defined. These metrics are applied to identify the effects of radiation damage, concentration dependence and interparticle interactions on SAXS data from a set of 27 previously described targetsmore » for which high-resolution structures have been determined via X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Studies show that these metrics are sufficient to characterize SAXS data quality on a small sample set with statistical rigor and sensitivity similar to or better than manual analysis. The development of data-quality analysis strategies such as these initial efforts is needed to enable the accurate and unbiased assessment of SAXS data quality.« less

  3. The accurate assessment of small-angle X-ray scattering data

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Thomas D.; Luft, Joseph R.; Carter, Lester G.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M.; Martel, Anne; Snell, Edward H.

    2015-01-23

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) has grown in popularity in recent times with the advent of bright synchrotron X-ray sources, powerful computational resources and algorithms enabling the calculation of increasingly complex models. However, the lack of standardized data-quality metrics presents difficulties for the growing user community in accurately assessing the quality of experimental SAXS data. Here, a series of metrics to quantitatively describe SAXS data in an objective manner using statistical evaluations are defined. These metrics are applied to identify the effects of radiation damage, concentration dependence and interparticle interactions on SAXS data from a set of 27 previously described targets for which high-resolution structures have been determined via X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Studies show that these metrics are sufficient to characterize SAXS data quality on a small sample set with statistical rigor and sensitivity similar to or better than manual analysis. The development of data-quality analysis strategies such as these initial efforts is needed to enable the accurate and unbiased assessment of SAXS data quality.

  4. The Space Situational Assessment Report to Improve Public Awareness in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Zebing; Wei, Xiangwang; Wang, Tao

    For improvement of public awareness of the impact of space activities in China, a Space Situational Assessment Report 2013 will be issued in March 2014. More than ten Chinese main medium are invited for a special press conference. The Space Situational Assessment Report aims to introduce international space activities to Chinese public, and provide a common, comprehensive knowledge base to support the development of national policies and international security cooperation of outer space. The full report organizes international space activities until 2013 according to three parts those are Foundations, Strategies and Environment, including nine chapters, such as Space laws and policies; Space facility and equipment; Institutions and Human Resource; Military space, Civil space and Commercial space; Natural space environment; Space situational awareness, etc. A kind of Space Situational Assessment Index System is presented as a globally-focused analytic framework that defines, measures, and ranks national space activity. To use for a variety of public themes, different assessment indexes are constituted by scores of individual qualitative and quantitative metrics based on the Index System. Three research organizaitons of space sciences and technologies collaborated on the Space Situational Assessment Report. It is a scholarly and ungovernmental work.

  5. [Health situation assessment by primary care workers based on geographic information systems].

    PubMed

    Ritter, Fernando; Rosa, Roger dos Santos; Flores, Rui

    2013-12-01

    Primary healthcare has made little use of information systems to assess the population's health situation due to the difficulty in understanding the reports. Generic definitions of actions are common, based on empirical observations. The current study aimed to evaluate whether the introduction of georeferenced indicators can serve to better identify individuals' health situation, which would help planning actions by health teams. Healthcare workers from eight teams answered a questionnaire at three different moments: the first, before reading the information system's reports; the second after reading; and the third after using georeferencing. The results showed a significant difference in the classification of the health situation using georeferencing when compared to the previous moments (p < 0.05). Georeferencing facilitated analysis of the health situation, fostering better monitoring of work processes. Finally, use of the data points to rationalization of actions and possible upgrading of healthcare. The study suggests the use of georeferencing in the work agenda to become an effective tool for orienting actions.

  6. Long maximal incremental tests accurately assess aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men.

    PubMed

    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Capodaglio, Paolo; Brunani, Amelia; Fanari, Paolo; Salvadori, Alberto; Malatesta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min) (STest) and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min) (LTest)] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2) without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2) completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1) and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO) reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and peak heart rate (HRpeak) of each test. There were no significant differences in [Formula: see text] (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1) and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm) between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between [Formula: see text] (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001) and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001) during both tests. [Formula: see text] and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity.

  7. The Utility of Situational Theory of Publics for Assessing Public Response to a Disaster Prediction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Anne Marie

    1998-01-01

    Examines the utility of public-relations theory, specifically situational theory of publics, for assessing response to the New Madrid earthquake prediction. Finds that high personalized risk was associated with high constraint recognition regardless of belief in the prediction. Suggests development of more effective messages for communicating with…

  8. Anchored Instruction and Anchored Assessment: An Ecological Approach to Measuring Situated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.

    Anchored instruction and anchored assessment are described and illustrated through a mathematics problem from the Jasper problem solving series developed at Vanderbilt University in Nashville (Tennessee). Anchored instruction is instruction situated in a context complex enough to provide meaning and reasons for why information is useful. Problems…

  9. The Risky Situation: A Procedure for Assessing the Father-Child Activation Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Daniel; Bigras, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Initial validation data are presented for the Risky Situation (RS), a 20-minute observational procedure designed to assess the father-child activation relationship with children aged 12-18 months. The coding grid, which is simple and easy to use, allows parent-child dyads to be classified into three categories and provides an activation score. By…

  10. New Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Their Use for an Accurate Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    TAUTU, Oana-Florentina; DARABONT, Roxana; ONCIUL, Sebastian; DEACONU, Alexandru; COMANESCU, Ioana; ANDREI, Radu Dan; DRAGOESCU, Bogdan; CINTEZA, Mircea; DOROBANTU, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the predictive value of new cardiovascular (CV) risk factors for CV risk assessment in the adult Romanian hypertensive (HT) population. Methods: Hypertensive adults aged between 40-65 years of age, identified in national representative SEPHAR II survey were evaluated by anthropometric, BP and arterial stiffness measurements: aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao), aortic augmentation index (AIXao), revers time (RT) and central systolic blood pressure (SBPao), 12 lead ECGs and laboratory workup. Values above the 4th quartile of mean SBP' standard deviation (s.d.) defined increased BP variability. Log(TG/HDL-cholesterol) defined atherogenic index of plasma (AIP). Serum uric acid levels above 5.70 mg/dl for women and 7.0 mg/dl for males defined hyperuricemia (HUA). CV risk was assessed based on SCORE chart for high CV risk countries. Binary logistic regression using a stepwise likelihood ratio method (adjustments for major confounders and colliniarity analysis) was used in order to validate predictors of high and very high CV risk class. Results: The mean SBP value of the study group was 148.46±19.61 mmHg. Over forty percent of hypertensives had a high and very high CV risk. Predictors of high/very high CV risk category validated by regression analysis were: increased visit-to-visit BP variability (OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.67-3.73), PWVao (OR: 1.12; 95%CI: 1.02-1.22), RT (OR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.93-0.98), SBPao (OR: 1.01; 95%CI: 1.01-1.03) and AIP (OR: 7.08; 95%CI: 3.91-12.82). Conclusion: The results of our study suggests that the new CV risk factors such as increased BP variability, arterial stiffness indices and AIP are useful tools for a more accurate identification of hypertensives patients at high and very high CV risk. PMID:25705267

  11. A Statistical Method for Assessing Peptide Identification Confidence in Accurate Mass and Time Tag Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, Jeffrey R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Slysz, Gordon W.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Karpievitch, Yuliya V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Dabney, Alan R.

    2011-07-15

    High-throughput proteomics is rapidly evolving to require high mass measurement accuracy for a variety of different applications. Increased mass measurement accuracy in bottom-up proteomics specifically allows for an improved ability to distinguish and characterize detected MS features, which may in turn be identified by, e.g., matching to entries in a database for both precursor and fragmentation mass identification methods. Many tools exist with which to score the identification of peptides from LC-MS/MS measurements or to assess matches to an accurate mass and time (AMT) tag database, but these two calculations remain distinctly unrelated. Here we present a statistical method, Statistical Tools for AMT tag Confidence (STAC), which extends our previous work incorporating prior probabilities of correct sequence identification from LC-MS/MS, as well as the quality with which LC-MS features match AMT tags, to evaluate peptide identification confidence. Compared to existing tools, we are able to obtain significantly more high-confidence peptide identifications at a given false discovery rate and additionally assign confidence estimates to individual peptide identifications. Freely available software implementations of STAC are available in both command line and as a Windows graphical application.

  12. Algal productivity modeling: a step toward accurate assessments of full-scale algal cultivation.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Quentin; Chambonnière, Paul; Shilton, Andy; Guizard, Guillaume; Guieysse, Benoit

    2015-05-01

    A new biomass productivity model was parameterized for Chlorella vulgaris using short-term (<30 min) oxygen productivities from algal microcosms exposed to 6 light intensities (20-420 W/m(2)) and 6 temperatures (5-42 °C). The model was then validated against experimental biomass productivities recorded in bench-scale photobioreactors operated under 4 light intensities (30.6-74.3 W/m(2)) and 4 temperatures (10-30 °C), yielding an accuracy of ± 15% over 163 days of cultivation. This modeling approach addresses major challenges associated with the accurate prediction of algal productivity at full-scale. Firstly, while most prior modeling approaches have only considered the impact of light intensity on algal productivity, the model herein validated also accounts for the critical impact of temperature. Secondly, this study validates a theoretical approach to convert short-term oxygen productivities into long-term biomass productivities. Thirdly, the experimental methodology used has the practical advantage of only requiring one day of experimental work for complete model parameterization. The validation of this new modeling approach is therefore an important step for refining feasibility assessments of algae biotechnologies.

  13. Algal productivity modeling: a step toward accurate assessments of full-scale algal cultivation.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Quentin; Chambonnière, Paul; Shilton, Andy; Guizard, Guillaume; Guieysse, Benoit

    2015-05-01

    A new biomass productivity model was parameterized for Chlorella vulgaris using short-term (<30 min) oxygen productivities from algal microcosms exposed to 6 light intensities (20-420 W/m(2)) and 6 temperatures (5-42 °C). The model was then validated against experimental biomass productivities recorded in bench-scale photobioreactors operated under 4 light intensities (30.6-74.3 W/m(2)) and 4 temperatures (10-30 °C), yielding an accuracy of ± 15% over 163 days of cultivation. This modeling approach addresses major challenges associated with the accurate prediction of algal productivity at full-scale. Firstly, while most prior modeling approaches have only considered the impact of light intensity on algal productivity, the model herein validated also accounts for the critical impact of temperature. Secondly, this study validates a theoretical approach to convert short-term oxygen productivities into long-term biomass productivities. Thirdly, the experimental methodology used has the practical advantage of only requiring one day of experimental work for complete model parameterization. The validation of this new modeling approach is therefore an important step for refining feasibility assessments of algae biotechnologies. PMID:25502920

  14. Accurate assessment of mass, models and resolution by small-angle scattering

    PubMed Central

    Rambo, Robert P.; Tainer, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Modern small angle scattering (SAS) experiments with X-rays or neutrons provide a comprehensive, resolution-limited observation of the thermodynamic state. However, methods for evaluating mass and validating SAS based models and resolution have been inadequate. Here, we define the volume-of-correlation, Vc: a SAS invariant derived from the scattered intensities that is specific to the structural state of the particle, yet independent of concentration and the requirements of a compact, folded particle. We show Vc defines a ratio, Qr, that determines the molecular mass of proteins or RNA ranging from 10 to 1,000 kDa. Furthermore, we propose a statistically robust method for assessing model-data agreements (X2free) akin to cross-validation. Our approach prevents over-fitting of the SAS data and can be used with a newly defined metric, Rsas, for quantitative evaluation of resolution. Together, these metrics (Vc, Qr, X2free, and Rsas) provide analytical tools for unbiased and accurate macromolecular structural characterizations in solution. PMID:23619693

  15. Assessment of children's social problem-solving skills in hypothetical and actual conflict situations.

    PubMed

    Vitaro, F; Pelletier, D

    1991-10-01

    This study compared the social problem-solving skills of 57 maladjusted and 57 well adjusted first and second graders in a series of hypothetical and actual provocations. All children were asked how they would react to four video-taped provocations involving same-age peers. They were also exposed to three provocations simulated by a peer-confederate; their verbal and nonverbal behaviors were videotaped. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated that, overall, maladjusted subjects displayed less assertiveness and more verbal and nonverbal aggressive responses to the actual provocations. Conversely, hypothetical situations yielded few between-group differences with respect to verbal strategies. The validity of hypothetical situations is questioned; the importance of actual situations for assessment and intervention purposes is stressed.

  16. THE PICNIC GAME: PRESENTATION OF A SITUATION OF OBSERVATION TO ASSESS FAMILY INTERACTIONS.

    PubMed

    Favez, Nicolas; Frascarolo, France; Grimard, Nathalie

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this article is to present a situation of observation designed for the assessment of family interactions: The PicNic Game (PNG). In this situation, families are invited to play at having a picnic together. This can be done with any number of children, aged from a few weeks to adolescence. A companion assessment tool, the Revised-Picnic Assessment Scale (Re-PAS), allows evaluation of interactions in the family on several dimensions. This article presents the PNG and a preliminary study of the validation of the Re-PAS dimensions in a sample of families (N = 67) with 18-month-old infants and their siblings. The PNG was well-received by the families. Construct validity of the Re-PAS was tested, first against self-reported data by mothers and fathers regarding marital satisfaction, coparenting behavior, and division of household tasks, and then against observed maternal and paternal sensitivity and controlling behaviors assessed during free-play. Results show satisfactory preliminary reliability and validity. Two contrasting cases are presented to illustrate the different interactions highlighted in the PNG. This situation is useful for researchers and clinicians, particularly as a basis for video-feedback work with the family. PMID:27098206

  17. Assessing the Validity and Reliability of the Farsi Version of Inventory Drug-Taking Situations

    PubMed Central

    Pashaei, Tahereh; Razaghi, Omran M; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Tabatabaei, Mahmoud Ghazi; Moeeni, Maryam; Turner, Nigel E; Sharifi, Vandad

    2013-01-01

    Objective Inventory Drug-Taking Situations (IDTS) is a universal instrument used to determine high-risk situations resulting in drug abuse. The aim of this study was to translate this questionnaire to Farsi, and to assess its validity and reliability by applying it to Iranian drug users. Methods As a psychometric study, 300 drug users participated in a treatment program in National Center of Addiction Studies filled in a version of Inventory of Drug Taking Situations. We assessed face and content validity, internal consistency, and reliability based on the completed questionnaires, using test-retest method and confirmatory factor analysis. Results Internal consistency analysis confirmed that all subscales of IDTS were reliable (Cronbach alpha was ranging from 0.7 to 0.81). Analyses indicated that each of the subscales was unifactorial; however, unpleasant emotions had a second eigenvalue that was nearly large enough to be a second factor. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the fit of the data to the original version of IDTS. Based on goodness of fit indices, we found that all factors were fitted (χ2/df = 1.43, GFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.038). The test-retest reliability was satisfactory(r > 0.6). Conclusion The Farsi version of Inventory of Drug Taking Situations was shown to be a valid and reliable instrument to apply in clinical and research settings in Iran. PMID:24130606

  18. Is photometry an accurate and reliable method to assess boar semen concentration?

    PubMed

    Camus, A; Camugli, S; Lévêque, C; Schmitt, E; Staub, C

    2011-02-01

    Sperm concentration assessment is a key point to insure appropriate sperm number per dose in species subjected to artificial insemination (AI). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of two commercially available photometers, AccuCell™ and AccuRead™ pre-calibrated for boar semen in comparison to UltiMate™ boar version 12.3D, NucleoCounter SP100 and Thoma hemacytometer. For each type of instrument, concentration was measured on 34 boar semen samples in quadruplicate and agreement between measurements and instruments were evaluated. Accuracy for both photometers was illustrated by mean of percentage differences to the general mean. It was -0.6% and 0.5% for Accucell™ and Accuread™ respectively, no significant differences were found between instrument and mean of measurement among all equipment. Repeatability for both photometers was 1.8% and 3.2% for AccuCell™ and AccuRead™ respectively. Low differences were observed between instruments (confidence interval 3%) except when hemacytometer was used as a reference. Even though hemacytometer is considered worldwide as the gold standard, it is the more variable instrument (confidence interval 7.1%). The conclusion is that routine photometry measures of raw semen concentration are reliable, accurate and precise using AccuRead™ or AccuCell™. There are multiple steps in semen processing that can induce sperm loss and therefore increase differences between theoretical and real sperm numbers in doses. Potential biases that depend on the workflow but not on the initial photometric measure of semen concentration are discussed.

  19. Multimodal Quantitative Phase Imaging with Digital Holographic Microscopy Accurately Assesses Intestinal Inflammation and Epithelial Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Philipp; Brückner, Markus; Ketelhut, Steffi; Heidemann, Jan; Kemper, Björn; Bettenworth, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease, i.e., Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis, has significantly increased over the last decade. The etiology of IBD remains unknown and current therapeutic strategies are based on the unspecific suppression of the immune system. The development of treatments that specifically target intestinal inflammation and epithelial wound healing could significantly improve management of IBD, however this requires accurate detection of inflammatory changes. Currently, potential drug candidates are usually evaluated using animal models in vivo or with cell culture based techniques in vitro. Histological examination usually requires the cells or tissues of interest to be stained, which may alter the sample characteristics and furthermore, the interpretation of findings can vary by investigator expertise. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM), based on the detection of optical path length delay, allows stain-free quantitative phase contrast imaging. This allows the results to be directly correlated with absolute biophysical parameters. We demonstrate how measurement of changes in tissue density with DHM, based on refractive index measurement, can quantify inflammatory alterations, without staining, in different layers of colonic tissue specimens from mice and humans with colitis. Additionally, we demonstrate continuous multimodal label-free monitoring of epithelial wound healing in vitro, possible using DHM through the simple automated determination of the wounded area and simultaneous determination of morphological parameters such as dry mass and layer thickness of migrating cells. In conclusion, DHM represents a valuable, novel and quantitative tool for the assessment of intestinal inflammation with absolute values for parameters possible, simplified quantification of epithelial wound healing in vitro and therefore has high potential for translational diagnostic use. PMID:27685659

  20. Precise and accurate assessment of uncertainties in model parameters from stellar interferometry. Application to stellar diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachaume, Regis; Rabus, Markus; Jordan, Andres

    2015-08-01

    In stellar interferometry, the assumption that the observables can be seen as Gaussian, independent variables is the norm. In particular, neither the optical interferometry FITS (OIFITS) format nor the most popular fitting software in the field, LITpro, offer means to specify a covariance matrix or non-Gaussian uncertainties. Interferometric observables are correlated by construct, though. Also, the calibration by an instrumental transfer function ensures that the resulting observables are not Gaussian, even if uncalibrated ones happened to be so.While analytic frameworks have been published in the past, they are cumbersome and there is no generic implementation available. We propose here a relatively simple way of dealing with correlated errors without the need to extend the OIFITS specification or making some Gaussian assumptions. By repeatedly picking at random which interferograms, which calibrator stars, and which are the errors on their diameters, and performing the data processing on the bootstrapped data, we derive a sampling of p(O), the multivariate probability density function (PDF) of the observables O. The results can be stored in a normal OIFITS file. Then, given a model m with parameters P predicting observables O = m(P), we can estimate the PDF of the model parameters f(P) = p(m(P)) by using a density estimation of the observables' PDF p.With observations repeated over different baselines, on nights several days apart, and with a significant set of calibrators systematic errors are de facto taken into account. We apply the technique to a precise and accurate assessment of stellar diameters obtained at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer with PIONIER.

  1. Real-time network security situation visualization and threat assessment based on semi-Markov process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junhua

    2013-03-01

    To cope with a large amount of data in current sensed environments, decision aid tools should provide their understanding of situations in a time-efficient manner, so there is an increasing need for real-time network security situation awareness and threat assessment. In this study, the state transition model of vulnerability in the network based on semi-Markov process is proposed at first. Once events are triggered by an attacker's action or system response, the current states of the vulnerabilities are known. Then we calculate the transition probabilities of the vulnerability from the current state to security failure state. Furthermore in order to improve accuracy of our algorithms, we adjust the probabilities that they exploit the vulnerability according to the attacker's skill level. In the light of the preconditions and post-conditions of vulnerabilities in the network, attack graph is built to visualize security situation in real time. Subsequently, we predict attack path, recognize attack intention and estimate the impact through analysis of attack graph. These help administrators to insight into intrusion steps, determine security state and assess threat. Finally testing in a network shows that this method is reasonable and feasible, and can undertake tremendous analysis task to facilitate administrators' work.

  2. [Informal caregivers of elderly people in South Tyrol. A qualitative assessment of home care situation].

    PubMed

    Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Mantovan, Franco; Innerhofer, Esther; Götsch, Ingrid; Ploner, Elfriede; Them, Christa

    2009-11-01

    Within the framework of a pilot project in the sanitary district of Bruneck (sanitary establishment of South Tyrol), the concept of care management is being investigated both practically and scientifically for informal caregivers of elderly people in need of care since 2009 the results of the qualitative assessment of the homecare situation. The assessment before the intervention will form the basis for further design and implementation of individual stress-reducing and supportive offers for the informal caregivers. Using a semi structured interview guideline twelve problem-centered interviews with informal caregivers were conducted and analysed according to Mayring's content analysis technique (2007). Informal caregivers are exposed to burdens in social, physical and mental areas. Own resources, family ties and support reduce stress and burdens caused by the homecare situation. The need of individual and continuous support of families and implications for further measures of care management can be deduced from the results. There is a need of support in the areas coping strategies, empowerment and direct stress reduction with regard to the homecare situation through education, training, counselling and the interconnection of social and health services.

  3. An extreme events laboratory to provide network centric collaborative situation assessment and decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panulla, Brian J.; More, Loretta D.; Shumaker, Wade R.; Jones, Michael D.; Hooper, Robert; Vernon, Jeffrey M.; Aungst, Stanley G.

    2009-05-01

    Rapid improvements in communications infrastructure and sophistication of commercial hand-held devices provide a major new source of information for assessing extreme situations such as environmental crises. In particular, ad hoc collections of humans can act as "soft sensors" to augment data collected by traditional sensors in a net-centric environment (in effect, "crowd-sourcing" observational data). A need exists to understand how to task such soft sensors, characterize their performance and fuse the data with traditional data sources. In order to quantitatively study such situations, as well as study distributed decision-making, we have developed an Extreme Events Laboratory (EEL) at The Pennsylvania State University. This facility provides a network-centric, collaborative situation assessment and decision-making capability by supporting experiments involving human observers, distributed decision making and cognition, and crisis management. The EEL spans the information chain from energy detection via sensors, human observations, signal and image processing, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, multi-sensor data fusion, visualization and analytics, and modeling and simulation. The EEL command center combines COTS and custom collaboration tools in innovative ways, providing capabilities such as geo-spatial visualization and dynamic mash-ups of multiple data sources. This paper describes the EEL and several on-going human-in-the-loop experiments aimed at understanding the new collective observation and analysis landscape.

  4. EpiCaster: An Integrated Web Application For Situation Assessment and Forecasting of Global Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Deodhar, Suruchi; Bisset, Keith; Chen, Jiangzhuo; Barrett, Chris; Wilson, Mandy; Marathe, Madhav

    2016-01-01

    Public health decision makers need access to high resolution situation assessment tools for understanding the extent of various epidemics in different regions of the world. In addition, they need insights into the future course of epidemics by way of forecasts. Such forecasts are essential for planning the allocation of limited resources and for implementing several policy-level and behavioral intervention strategies. The need for such forecasting systems became evident in the wake of the recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa. We have developed EpiCaster, an integrated Web application for situation assessment and forecasting of various epidemics, such as Flu and Ebola, that are prevalent in different regions of the world. Using EpiCaster, users can assess the magnitude and severity of different epidemics at highly resolved spatio-temporal levels. EpiCaster provides time-varying heat maps and graphical plots to view trends in the disease dynamics. EpiCaster also allows users to visualize data gathered through surveillance mechanisms, such as Google Flu Trends (GFT) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The forecasts provided by EpiCaster are generated using different epidemiological models, and the users can select the models through the interface to filter the corresponding forecasts. EpiCaster also allows the users to study epidemic propagation in the presence of a number of intervention strategies specific to certain diseases. Here we describe the modeling techniques, methodologies and computational infrastructure that EpiCaster relies on to support large-scale predictive analytics for situation assessment and forecasting of global epidemics. PMID:27796009

  5. Reading Assessment Methods for Middle-School Students: An Investigation of Reading Comprehension Rate and Maze Accurate Response Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Andrea D.; Henning, Jaime B.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Sheeley, Wesley; Shoemaker, Larissa; Reynolds, Jennifer R.; Moch, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the validity of four different aloud reading comprehension assessment measures: Maze, comprehension questions, Maze accurate response rate (MARR), and reading comprehension rate (RCR). The criterion measures used in this study were the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III ACH) Broad Reading…

  6. Assessing socially situated participation: a way of integrating communication and social assessment approaches.

    PubMed

    Duchan, J F

    2000-01-01

    We have long treated communication and social assessment as related but separate domains. Theorizing by George Herbert Mead on "the social self" offers an alternative to this conceptual separation and a means of evaluating children's social interaction, social participation, and communication simultaneously. This article describes Mead's thinking and presents a framework for assessing children's social reciprocity, interactive stances, and role participation as they participate in everyday life contexts.

  7. Empirical evaluation of the Process Overview Measure for assessing situation awareness in process plants.

    PubMed

    Lau, Nathan; Jamieson, Greg A; Skraaning, Gyrd

    2016-03-01

    The Process Overview Measure is a query-based measure developed to assess operator situation awareness (SA) from monitoring process plants. A companion paper describes how the measure has been developed according to process plant properties and operator cognitive work. The Process Overview Measure demonstrated practicality, sensitivity, validity and reliability in two full-scope simulator experiments investigating dramatically different operational concepts. Practicality was assessed based on qualitative feedback of participants and researchers. The Process Overview Measure demonstrated sensitivity and validity by revealing significant effects of experimental manipulations that corroborated with other empirical results. The measure also demonstrated adequate inter-rater reliability and practicality for measuring SA in full-scope simulator settings based on data collected on process experts. Thus, full-scope simulator studies can employ the Process Overview Measure to reveal the impact of new control room technology and operational concepts on monitoring process plants. Practitioner Summary: The Process Overview Measure is a query-based measure that demonstrated practicality, sensitivity, validity and reliability for assessing operator situation awareness (SA) from monitoring process plants in representative settings.

  8. The dynamic appraisal of situational aggression: an instrument to assess risk for imminent aggression in psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Ogloff, James R P; Daffern, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Considerable research has attempted to delineate the demographic and clinical characteristics of high-risk psychiatric patients and identify salient modifiable aspects of aggression prone environments. Recently, there has also been increased interest in the development and testing of structured schemes for the assessment of risk for aggression within inpatient psychiatric settings. Although some of these methods show acceptable predictive validity, their ability to inform day-to-day treatment and management decisions is limited. The current research was designed to identify existing and novel risk factors that would assist staff to identify and manage the risk for aggression in psychiatric inpatient populations. Results showed that assessments supported by structured risk measures were more accurate than unaided clinical judgements based only on nurses' clinical experience and knowledge of the patient alone. Seven test items emerged that were maximally effective at identifying acute psychiatric patients at risk for engaging in inpatient violence within 24 hours; these items have been combined in the development of the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression. Empirical analyses and clinical experience support the efficacy of the instrument in assisting clinical staff in the identification and management of inpatient aggression.

  9. A statistical method for assessing peptide identification confidence in accurate mass and time tag proteomics.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jeffrey R; Adkins, Joshua N; Slysz, Gordon W; Monroe, Matthew E; Purvine, Samuel O; Karpievitch, Yuliya V; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Dabney, Alan R

    2011-08-15

    Current algorithms for quantifying peptide identification confidence in the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach assume that the AMT tags themselves have been correctly identified. However, there is uncertainty in the identification of AMT tags, because this is based on matching LC-MS/MS fragmentation spectra to peptide sequences. In this paper, we incorporate confidence measures for the AMT tag identifications into the calculation of probabilities for correct matches to an AMT tag database, resulting in a more accurate overall measure of identification confidence for the AMT tag approach. The method is referenced as Statistical Tools for AMT Tag Confidence (STAC). STAC additionally provides a uniqueness probability (UP) to help distinguish between multiple matches to an AMT tag and a method to calculate an overall false discovery rate (FDR). STAC is freely available for download, as both a command line and a Windows graphical application.

  10. The effect of manipulated and accurate assessment feedback on the self-efficacy of dance students.

    PubMed

    García-Dantas, Ana; Quested, Eleanor

    2015-03-01

    Research undertaken with athletes has shown that lower-evaluated feedback is related to low self-efficacy levels. However, the relationship between teacher feedback and self-efficacy has not been studied in the dance setting. In sports or dance contexts, very few studies have manipulated feedback content to examine its impact on performers' self-efficacy in relation to the execution of a specific movement. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to explore the effect of manipulated upper, lower, and accurate grade feedback on changes in dancers' self-efficacy levels for the execution of the "Zapateado" (a flamenco foot movement). Sixty-one students (56 female, 5 male, ages 13 to 22 ± 3.25 years) from a Spanish dance conservatory participated in this experimental study. They were randomly divided into four feedback groups: 1. upper-evaluated, 2. objective and informational, 3. lower-evaluated, and 4. no feedback-control. Participants performed three trials during a 1-hour session and completed questionnaires tapping self-efficacy pre-feedback and post-feedback. After each trial, teachers (who were confederates in the study) were first asked to rate their perception of each dancer's competence level at performing the movement according to conventional criteria (scores from 0 to 10). The results were then manipulated, and students accurate, lower-evaluated, or upper-evaluated scores were given. Those in the accurate feedback group reported positive change in self-efficacy, whereas those in the lower-evaluated group showed no significant change in self-efficacy during the course of the trial. Findings call into question the common perception among teachers that it can be motivating to provide students with inaccurate feedback that indicates that the students' performance level is much better or much worse than they actually perceive it to be. Self-efficacy appears most likely to increase in students when feedback is accurate. PMID:25741781

  11. The effect of manipulated and accurate assessment feedback on the self-efficacy of dance students.

    PubMed

    García-Dantas, Ana; Quested, Eleanor

    2015-03-01

    Research undertaken with athletes has shown that lower-evaluated feedback is related to low self-efficacy levels. However, the relationship between teacher feedback and self-efficacy has not been studied in the dance setting. In sports or dance contexts, very few studies have manipulated feedback content to examine its impact on performers' self-efficacy in relation to the execution of a specific movement. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to explore the effect of manipulated upper, lower, and accurate grade feedback on changes in dancers' self-efficacy levels for the execution of the "Zapateado" (a flamenco foot movement). Sixty-one students (56 female, 5 male, ages 13 to 22 ± 3.25 years) from a Spanish dance conservatory participated in this experimental study. They were randomly divided into four feedback groups: 1. upper-evaluated, 2. objective and informational, 3. lower-evaluated, and 4. no feedback-control. Participants performed three trials during a 1-hour session and completed questionnaires tapping self-efficacy pre-feedback and post-feedback. After each trial, teachers (who were confederates in the study) were first asked to rate their perception of each dancer's competence level at performing the movement according to conventional criteria (scores from 0 to 10). The results were then manipulated, and students accurate, lower-evaluated, or upper-evaluated scores were given. Those in the accurate feedback group reported positive change in self-efficacy, whereas those in the lower-evaluated group showed no significant change in self-efficacy during the course of the trial. Findings call into question the common perception among teachers that it can be motivating to provide students with inaccurate feedback that indicates that the students' performance level is much better or much worse than they actually perceive it to be. Self-efficacy appears most likely to increase in students when feedback is accurate.

  12. SPECT-OPT multimodal imaging enables accurate evaluation of radiotracers for β-cell mass assessments

    PubMed Central

    Eter, Wael A.; Parween, Saba; Joosten, Lieke; Frielink, Cathelijne; Eriksson, Maria; Brom, Maarten; Ahlgren, Ulf; Gotthardt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has become a promising experimental approach to monitor changes in β-cell mass (BCM) during diabetes progression. SPECT imaging of pancreatic islets is most commonly cross-validated by stereological analysis of histological pancreatic sections after insulin staining. Typically, stereological methods do not accurately determine the total β-cell volume, which is inconvenient when correlating total pancreatic tracer uptake with BCM. Alternative methods are therefore warranted to cross-validate β-cell imaging using radiotracers. In this study, we introduce multimodal SPECT - optical projection tomography (OPT) imaging as an accurate approach to cross-validate radionuclide-based imaging of β-cells. Uptake of a promising radiotracer for β-cell imaging by SPECT, 111In-exendin-3, was measured by ex vivo-SPECT and cross evaluated by 3D quantitative OPT imaging as well as with histology within healthy and alloxan-treated Brown Norway rat pancreata. SPECT signal was in excellent linear correlation with OPT data as compared to histology. While histological determination of islet spatial distribution was challenging, SPECT and OPT revealed similar distribution patterns of 111In-exendin-3 and insulin positive β-cell volumes between different pancreatic lobes, both visually and quantitatively. We propose ex vivo SPECT-OPT multimodal imaging as a highly accurate strategy for validating the performance of β-cell radiotracers. PMID:27080529

  13. How to Achieve Accurate Peer Assessment for High Value Written Assignments in a Senior Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Daniel; Yankulov, Krassimir; Crerar, Alison; Ritchie, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    The psychometric measures of accuracy, reliability and validity of peer assessment are critical qualities for its use as a supplement to instructor grading. In this study, we seek to determine which factors related to peer review are the most influential on these psychometric measures, with a primary focus on the accuracy of peer assessment or how…

  14. Self- and peer assessment may not be an accurate measure of PBL tutorial process

    PubMed Central

    Machado, José Lúcio Martins; Machado, Valéria Menezes Peixeiro; Grec, Waldir; Bollela, Valdes Roberto; Vieira, Joaquim Edson

    2008-01-01

    Background Universidade Cidade de São Paulo adopted a problem-based learning (PBL) strategy as the predominant method for teaching and learning medicine. Self-, peer- and tutor marks of the educational process are taken into account as part of the final grade, which also includes assessment of content. This study compared the different perspectives (and grades) of evaluators during tutorials with first year medical students, from 2004 to 2007 (n = 349), from seven semesters. Methods The tutorial evaluation method was comprised of the students' self assessment (SA) (10%), tutor assessment (TA) (80%) and peer assessment (PA) (10%) to calculate a final educational process grade for each tutorial. We compared these three grades from each tutorial for seven semesters using ANOVA and a post hoc test. Results A total of 349 students participated with 199 (57%) women and 150 (42%) men. The SA and PA scores were consistently greater than the TA scores. Moreover, the SA and PA groups did not show statistical difference in any semester evaluated, while both differed from tutor assessment in all semesters (Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn's test). The Spearman rank order showed significant (p < 0.0001) and positive correlation for the SA and PA groups (r = 0.806); this was not observed when we compared TA with PA (r = 0.456) or TA with SA (r = 0.376). Conclusion Peer- and self-assessment marks might be reliable but not valid for PBL tutorial process, especially if these assessments are used for summative assessment, composing the final grade. This article suggests reconsideration of the use of summative assessment for self-evaluation in PBL tutorials. PMID:19038048

  15. A correlative imaging based methodology for accurate quantitative assessment of bone formation in additive manufactured implants.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hua; Todd, Naomi M; Devlin-Mullin, Aine; Poologasundarampillai, Gowsihan; Kim, Taek Bo; Madi, Kamel; Cartmell, Sarah; Mitchell, Christopher A; Jones, Julian R; Lee, Peter D

    2016-06-01

    A correlative imaging methodology was developed to accurately quantify bone formation in the complex lattice structure of additive manufactured implants. Micro computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometry were combined, integrating the best features from both, while demonstrating the limitations of each imaging modality. This semi-automatic methodology registered each modality using a coarse graining technique to speed the registration of 2D histology sections to high resolution 3D μCT datasets. Once registered, histomorphometric qualitative and quantitative bone descriptors were directly correlated to 3D quantitative bone descriptors, such as bone ingrowth and bone contact. The correlative imaging allowed the significant volumetric shrinkage of histology sections to be quantified for the first time (~15 %). This technique demonstrated the importance of location of the histological section, demonstrating that up to a 30 % offset can be introduced. The results were used to quantitatively demonstrate the effectiveness of 3D printed titanium lattice implants.

  16. Gastrointestinal campylobacteriosis in industrialised countries: comparison of the disease situation with salmonellosis, and microbiological contamination assessment.

    PubMed

    Laroche, M; Magras, C

    2013-12-01

    The science-based assessment of foodborne zoonotic risk is used to evaluate the public health impact of a hazard and to guide public decision-making on control measures. Key information for the hazard characterisation and microbiological contamination assessment phases of risk assessment may be obtained from the collection and structured statistical analysis of international data. This approach was used for the hazard characterisation phase of a risk assessment of gastrointestinal campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis in 30 industrialised countries over the period 2005-2009. The results showed an overall increase in the annual ratio campylobacteriosis/salmonellosis (R(moy) > 2), despite significant differences among countries (P < 0.0001). For countries with complete data over 20 years, the results showed significantly higher exposure to campylobacteriosis among certain population segments (men, children under 5 years of age and adults aged between 20 and 30), as well as in summer. A number of paired factors (Campylobacter species/animal species-meat type) are observed in this consumer exposure. However, the overall rate of bacterial transfer in meat supply chains varies widely, with far lower values for cattle (0.16) and pigs (0.24) than for poultry (0.60) and chickens (1.17). A lack of harmonised epidemiological data on the contamination status of foodstuffs (frequency, level, site, and species) further hampers the accurate identification of critical points of contamination and of the spread of the hazard throughout the food chain. PMID:24761724

  17. The value of situational judgement tests for assessing non-academic attributes in dental selection.

    PubMed

    Taylor, N; Mehra, S; Elley, K; Patterson, F; Cousans, F

    2016-06-10

    Situational judgement tests (SJTs) have been shown to be reliable and valid tools for assessing non-academic attributes across numerous healthcare professions. However, within the context of selection into dental foundation training (DFT) in the UK the introduction of an SJT is relatively new. This expert opinion highlights four key considerations regarding the DFT SJT in order to inform further debate amongst researchers and stakeholders. We clarify that SJTs measure non-academic attributes important for success in dental training, and that their context and content must be updated regularly to ensure their relevance, realism and fairness to current applicants. We outline that SJTs are efficient and cost-effective for high volume selection in the long term, in comparison to face-to-face interviews. Finally we summarise the value of practice material being available for high-stakes SJTs, such as the DFT SJT. Implications for practice are discussed throughout. PMID:27283558

  18. Accurate calculation of binding energies for molecular clusters - Assessment of different models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Joachim; Fiedler, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    In this work we test different strategies to compute high-level benchmark energies for medium-sized molecular clusters. We use the incremental scheme to obtain CCSD(T)/CBS energies for our test set and carefully validate the accuracy for binding energies by statistical measures. The local errors of the incremental scheme are <1 kJ/mol. Since they are smaller than the basis set errors, we obtain higher total accuracy due to the applicability of larger basis sets. The final CCSD(T)/CBS benchmark values are ΔE = - 278.01 kJ/mol for (H2O)10, ΔE = - 221.64 kJ/mol for (HF)10, ΔE = - 45.63 kJ/mol for (CH4)10, ΔE = - 19.52 kJ/mol for (H2)20 and ΔE = - 7.38 kJ/mol for (H2)10 . Furthermore we test state-of-the-art wave-function-based and DFT methods. Our benchmark data will be very useful for critical validations of new methods. We find focal-point-methods for estimating CCSD(T)/CBS energies to be highly accurate and efficient. For foQ-i3CCSD(T)-MP2/TZ we get a mean error of 0.34 kJ/mol and a standard deviation of 0.39 kJ/mol.

  19. Assessing temporal flux of plant hormones in stored processing potatoes using high definition accurate mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ordaz-Ortiz, José Juan; Foukaraki, Sofia; Terry, Leon Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormones are important molecules which at low concentration can regulate various physiological processes. Mass spectrometry has become a powerful technique for the quantification of multiple classes of plant hormones because of its high sensitivity and selectivity. We developed a new ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography–full-scan high-definition accurate mass spectrometry method, for simultaneous determination of abscisic acid and four metabolites phaseic acid, dihydrophaseic acid, 7′-hydroxy-abscisic acid and abscisic acid glucose ester, cytokinins zeatin, zeatin riboside, gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7) and indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid. We measured the amount of plant hormones in the flesh and skin of two processing potato cvs. Sylvana and Russet Burbank stored for up to 30 weeks at 6 °C under ambient air conditions. Herein, we report for the first time that abscisic acid glucose ester seems to accumulate in the skin of potato tubers throughout storage time. The method achieved a lowest limit of detection of 0.22 ng g−1 of dry weight and a limit of quantification of 0.74 ng g−1 dry weight (zeatin riboside), and was able to recover, detect and quantify a total of 12 plant hormones spiked on flesh and skin of potato tubers. In addition, the mass accuracy for all compounds (<5 ppm) was evaluated. PMID:26504563

  20. Chromatography paper as a low-cost medium for accurate spectrophotometric assessment of blood hemoglobin concentration.

    PubMed

    Bond, Meaghan; Elguea, Carlos; Yan, Jasper S; Pawlowski, Michal; Williams, Jessica; Wahed, Amer; Oden, Maria; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2013-06-21

    Anemia affects a quarter of the world's population, and a lack of appropriate diagnostic tools often prevents treatment in low-resource settings. Though the HemoCue 201+ is an appropriate device for diagnosing anemia in low-resource settings, the high cost of disposables ($0.99 per test in Malawi) limits its availability. We investigated using spectrophotometric measurement of blood spotted on chromatography paper as a low-cost (<$0.01 per test) alternative to HemoCue cuvettes. For this evaluation, donor blood was diluted with plasma to simulate anemia, a micropipette spotted blood on paper, and a bench-top spectrophotometer validated the approach before the development of a low-cost reader. We optimized impregnating paper with chemicals to lyse red blood cells, paper type, drying time, wavelengths measured, and sensitivity to variations in volume of blood, and we validated our approach using patient samples. Lysing the blood cells with sodium deoxycholate dried in Whatman Chr4 chromatography paper gave repeatable results, and the absorbance difference between 528 nm and 656 nm was stable over time in measurements taken up to 10 min after sample preparation. The method was insensitive to the amount of blood spotted on the paper over the range of 5 μL to 25 μL. We created a low-cost, handheld reader to measure the transmission of paper cuvettes at these optimal wavelengths. Training and validating our method with patient samples on both the spectrometer and the handheld reader showed that both devices are accurate to within 2 g dL(-1) of the HemoCue device for 98% and 95% of samples, respectively.

  1. A Cost-Benefit and Accurate Method for Assessing Microalbuminuria: Single versus Frequent Urine Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hemmati, Roholla; Gharipour, Mojgan; Khosravi, Alireza; Jozan, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to answer the question whether a single testing for microalbuminuria results in a reliable conclusion leading costs saving. Methods. This current cross-sectional study included a total of 126 consecutive persons. Microalbuminuria was assessed by collection of two fasting random urine specimens on arrival to the clinic as well as one week later in the morning. Results. In overall, 17 out of 126 participants suffered from microalbuminuria that, among them, 12 subjects were also diagnosed as microalbuminuria once assessing this factor with a sensitivity of 70.6%, a specificity of 100%, a PPV of 100%, a NPV of 95.6%, and an accuracy of 96.0%. The measured sensitivity, specificity, PVV, NPV, and accuracy in hypertensive patients were 73.3%, 100%, 100%, 94.8%, and 95.5%, respectively. Also, these rates in nonhypertensive groups were 50.0%, 100%, 100%, 97.3%, and 97.4%, respectively. According to the ROC curve analysis, a single measurement of UACR had a high value for discriminating defected from normal renal function state (c = 0.989). Urinary albumin concentration in a single measurement had also high discriminative value for diagnosis of damaged kidney (c = 0.995). Conclusion. The single testing of both UACR and urine albumin level rather frequent testing leads to high diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy as well as high predictive values in total population and also in hypertensive subgroups. PMID:24455207

  2. Issues of Structure and Issues of Scale in Assessment from a Situative/Sociocultural Perspective. CSE Technical Report 668

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    A situated/sociocultural (SC) view of assessment "emphasizes questions about the quality of students' participation in activities of inquiry and sense-making, and considers assessment practices as integral components of the general systems of activity in which they occur" (Greeno, Collins, & Resnick, 1997, p. 36). This presentation addresses two…

  3. Seismic hazard and risk assessment for large Romanian dams situated in the Moldavian Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Popescu, Emilia; Otilia Placinta, Anica; Petruta Constantin, Angela; Toma Danila, Dragos; Borleanu, Felix; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Moldoveanu, Traian

    2016-04-01

    Besides periodical technical inspections, the monitoring and the surveillance of dams' related structures and infrastructures, there are some more seismic specific requirements towards dams' safety. The most important one is the seismic risk assessment that can be accomplished by rating the dams into seismic risk classes using the theory of Bureau and Ballentine (2002), and Bureau (2003), taking into account the maximum expected peak ground motions at the dams site - values obtained using probabilistic hazard assessment approaches (Moldovan et al., 2008), the structures vulnerability and the downstream risk characteristics (human, economical, historic and cultural heritage, etc) in the areas that might be flooded in the case of a dam failure. Probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH), vulnerability and risk studies for dams situated in the Moldavian Platform, starting from Izvorul Muntelui Dam, down on Bistrita and following on Siret River and theirs affluent will be realized. The most vulnerable dams will be studied in detail and flooding maps will be drawn to find the most exposed downstream localities both for risk assessment studies and warnings. GIS maps that clearly indicate areas that are potentially flooded are enough for these studies, thus giving information on the number of inhabitants and goods that may be destroyed. Geospatial servers included topography is sufficient to achieve them, all other further studies are not necessary for downstream risk assessment. The results will consist of local and regional seismic information, dams specific characteristics and locations, seismic hazard maps and risk classes, for all dams sites (for more than 30 dams), inundation maps (for the most vulnerable dams from the region) and possible affected localities. The studies realized in this paper have as final goal to provide the local emergency services with warnings of a potential dam failure and ensuing flood as a result of an large earthquake occurrence, allowing further

  4. Can script concordance testing be used in nursing education to accurately assess clinical reasoning skills?

    PubMed

    Dawson, Tyia; Comer, Linda; Kossick, Mark A; Neubrander, Judy

    2014-05-01

    The Script Concordance Test (SCT) has been used successfully in medical schools to assess clinical reasoning in medical students, but it has not been widely used in nursing education. The purpose of this study was to provide additional evidence of the validity and reliability of the SCT in evaluating clinical reasoning in nursing students by replicating a previous study. The test was administered to 48 first-year Bachelor of Science in Nursing students. A scoring grid was developed using the aggregate scores method based on the modal responses of 13 panel members. The reliability of the scores was measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the scores of the students and the panel were compared using a t test. The difference between the panel's and the students' scores was statistically significant, and the reliability of the scores is high. The SCT provides a reliable, standardized, and easy-to-administer method of evaluating clinical reasoning in nursing students.

  5. Accurate assessment of the biodegradation of cationic surfactants in activated sludge reactors (OECD TG 303A).

    PubMed

    Geerts, Roy; van Ginkel, Cornelis G; Plugge, Caroline M

    2015-08-01

    The continuous-fed activated sludge test (OECD TG 303A) was used to predict the removal of cationic surfactants from wastewater in activated sludge plants. However, a method to differentiate between adsorption and biodegradation is not provided in these guidelines. Assessment of removal by biodegradation was possible with analysis of the surfactant present in mixed liquid suspended solids in combination with a simple equation. This equation was derived from the mass balance of the activated sludge unit in steady state. The removal by biodegradation of decylamine, tetradecylamine, octadecylamine, dioctadecylmethylamine and dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride that have different capacities to adsorb was >99.9%, >99.9%, 98.2%, 94.2%, and 69.0%, respectively. The total removal of all five cationic surfactants from the influent was ≥98.8%. The removal of octadecylamine spiked at different influent concentrations indicated first order kinetics. PMID:25913361

  6. Quick, Accurate, Smart: 3D Computer Vision Technology Helps Assessing Confined Animals’ Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Calderara, Simone; Pistocchi, Simone; Cucchiara, Rita; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Messori, Stefano; Ferri, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video) can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers. The outburst of new video technology and computer image processing gives the basis for promising solutions. In this pilot study, we present a new prototype software able to automatically infer the behaviour of dogs housed in kennels from 3D visual data and through structured machine learning frameworks. Depth information acquired through 3D features, body part detection and training are the key elements that allow the machine to recognise postures, trajectories inside the kennel and patterns of movement that can be later labelled at convenience. The main innovation of the software is its ability to automatically cluster frequently observed temporal patterns of movement without any pre-set ethogram. Conversely, when common patterns are defined through training, a deviation from normal behaviour in time or between individuals could be assessed. The software accuracy in correctly detecting the dogs’ behaviour was checked through a validation process. An automatic behaviour recognition system, independent from human subjectivity, could add scientific knowledge on animals’ quality of life in confinement as well as saving time and resources. This 3D framework was designed to be invariant to the dog’s shape and size and could be extended to farm, laboratory and zoo quadrupeds in artificial housing. The computer vision technique applied to this software is innovative in non

  7. Quick, Accurate, Smart: 3D Computer Vision Technology Helps Assessing Confined Animals' Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Shanis; Calderara, Simone; Pistocchi, Simone; Cucchiara, Rita; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Messori, Stefano; Ferri, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video) can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers. The outburst of new video technology and computer image processing gives the basis for promising solutions. In this pilot study, we present a new prototype software able to automatically infer the behaviour of dogs housed in kennels from 3D visual data and through structured machine learning frameworks. Depth information acquired through 3D features, body part detection and training are the key elements that allow the machine to recognise postures, trajectories inside the kennel and patterns of movement that can be later labelled at convenience. The main innovation of the software is its ability to automatically cluster frequently observed temporal patterns of movement without any pre-set ethogram. Conversely, when common patterns are defined through training, a deviation from normal behaviour in time or between individuals could be assessed. The software accuracy in correctly detecting the dogs' behaviour was checked through a validation process. An automatic behaviour recognition system, independent from human subjectivity, could add scientific knowledge on animals' quality of life in confinement as well as saving time and resources. This 3D framework was designed to be invariant to the dog's shape and size and could be extended to farm, laboratory and zoo quadrupeds in artificial housing. The computer vision technique applied to this software is innovative in non

  8. Quick, Accurate, Smart: 3D Computer Vision Technology Helps Assessing Confined Animals' Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Shanis; Calderara, Simone; Pistocchi, Simone; Cucchiara, Rita; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Messori, Stefano; Ferri, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video) can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers. The outburst of new video technology and computer image processing gives the basis for promising solutions. In this pilot study, we present a new prototype software able to automatically infer the behaviour of dogs housed in kennels from 3D visual data and through structured machine learning frameworks. Depth information acquired through 3D features, body part detection and training are the key elements that allow the machine to recognise postures, trajectories inside the kennel and patterns of movement that can be later labelled at convenience. The main innovation of the software is its ability to automatically cluster frequently observed temporal patterns of movement without any pre-set ethogram. Conversely, when common patterns are defined through training, a deviation from normal behaviour in time or between individuals could be assessed. The software accuracy in correctly detecting the dogs' behaviour was checked through a validation process. An automatic behaviour recognition system, independent from human subjectivity, could add scientific knowledge on animals' quality of life in confinement as well as saving time and resources. This 3D framework was designed to be invariant to the dog's shape and size and could be extended to farm, laboratory and zoo quadrupeds in artificial housing. The computer vision technique applied to this software is innovative in non

  9. Assessing the viability of situationally driven segmentation opportunities in the health care market.

    PubMed

    Gehrt, K C; Pinto, M B

    1993-01-01

    The impact of situational factors has typically been investigated in the context of goods marketing. Very few studies have investigated the influence of situational factors on services marketing. This study demonstrates the importance of situational influence on services marketing by delineating a consumer-based, situationally characterized competitive market structure for health care services. The competitive structure of the health care market is delineated in terms of the similarity/substitutability of the three-factor, situational characterizations of ten health care alternatives. The general marketing implications of the market-structure delineation procedure and the health care-specific implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. Evaluating the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to Assess the Bond between Dogs and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rehn, Therese; McGowan, Ragen T. S.; Keeling, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) is increasingly being used to study attachment between dogs and humans. It has been developed from the Ainsworth Strange Situation Procedure, which is used extensively to investigate attachment between children and their parents. In this experiment, 12 female beagle dogs were tested in two treatments to identify possible order effects in the test, a potential weakness in the SSP. In one treatment (FS), dogs participated together with a ‘familiar person’ and a ‘stranger’. In a control treatment (SS), the same dogs participated together with two unfamiliar people, ‘stranger A’ and ‘stranger B’. Comparisons were made between episodes within as well as between treatments. As predicted in FS, dogs explored more in the presence of the familiar person than the stranger. Importantly, they also explored more in the presence of stranger A (who appeared in the same order as the familiar person and followed the same procedure) than stranger B in SS. Furthermore, comparisons between treatments, where a familiar person was present in FS and stranger A was present in SS, showed no differences in exploration. In combination, these results indicate that the effect of a familiar person on dogs' exploratory behaviour, a key feature when assessing secure attachment styles, could not be tested reliably due to the order in which the familiar person and the stranger appear. It is proposed that in the future only counterbalanced versions of the SSP are used. Alternatively, since dogs reliably initiated more contact with the familiar person compared to the strangers, it is suggested that future studies on attachment in dogs towards humans should focus either on the behaviour of the dog in those episodes of the SSP when the person returns, or on reunion behaviour in other studies, specially designed to address dog-human interactions at this time. PMID:23437277

  11. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to Identify Common Smoking Situations Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Cerrada, Christian Jules; Ra, Chaelin Karen; Shin, Hee-Sung; Dzubur, Eldin; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    The present study provides detailed contextual information about smoking habits among young Korean American smokers with the goal of characterizing situations where they are most at risk for smoking. Relevant situational factors included location, social context, concurrent activities, time of day, affective states, and food and beverage consumption. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) over 7 days, participants (N = 78) were instructed to respond to smoking prompts (n = 2614) and non-smoking prompts (n = 2136) randomly scheduled throughout the day. At each prompt, participants completed a short survey about immediate contextual factors. We used multilevel models to evaluate the association between contextual factors and smoking and further explored the distribution of smoking locations and concurrent activities across each social context and reason for smoking. Compared to non-smoking events, smoking events were associated with being outside, the presence of Korean friends, socializing, consuming alcohol, and experiencing more stress relative to one's average stress level (all ps < .01). Further analyses involving only smoking events showed that when participants smoked alone, they were most commonly at home (50 %) and most often studying/working (28 %). When smoking with Korean friends, participants were most often outside (38 %) and socializing (54 %). When smoking to reduce craving, participants were most often at home (39 %) and studying/working (25 %). To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide detailed descriptions of real-time smoking contexts among young Korean American smokers. Information with this level of granularity is needed to develop effective just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) for smoking cessation. PMID:27476588

  12. Accurate assessment of the impact of salmon farming on benthic sediment enrichment using foraminiferal metabarcoding.

    PubMed

    Pochon, X; Wood, S A; Keeley, N B; Lejzerowicz, F; Esling, P; Drew, J; Pawlowski, J

    2015-11-15

    Assessing the environmental impact of salmon farms on benthic systems is traditionally undertaken using biotic indices derived from microscopic analyses of macrobenthic infaunal (MI) communities. In this study, we tested the applicability of using foraminiferal-specific high-throughput sequencing (HTS) metabarcoding for monitoring these habitats. Sediment samples and physico-chemical data were collected along an enrichment gradient radiating out from three Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) farms in New Zealand. HTS of environmental DNA and RNA (eDNA/eRNA) resulted in 1,875,300 sequences that clustered into 349 Operational Taxonomic Units. Strong correlations were observed among various biotic indices calculated from MI data and normalized fourth-root transformed HTS data. Correlations were stronger using eRNA compared to eDNA data. Quantile regression spline analyses identified 12 key foraminiferal taxa that have potential to be used as bioindicator species. This study demonstrates the huge potential for using this method for biomonitoring of fish-farming and other marine industrial activities. PMID:26337228

  13. Use of human in vitro skin models for accurate and ethical risk assessment: metabolic considerations.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Nicola J; Edwards, Robert J; Fritsche, Ellen; Goebel, Carsten; Aeby, Pierre; Scheel, Julia; Reisinger, Kerstin; Ouédraogo, Gladys; Duche, Daniel; Eilstein, Joan; Latil, Alain; Kenny, Julia; Moore, Claire; Kuehnl, Jochen; Barroso, Joao; Fautz, Rolf; Pfuhler, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    Several human skin models employing primary cells and immortalized cell lines used as monocultures or combined to produce reconstituted 3D skin constructs have been developed. Furthermore, these models have been included in European genotoxicity and sensitization/irritation assay validation projects. In order to help interpret data, Cosmetics Europe (formerly COLIPA) facilitated research projects that measured a variety of defined phase I and II enzyme activities and created a complete proteomic profile of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in native human skin and compared them with data obtained from a number of in vitro models of human skin. Here, we have summarized our findings on the current knowledge of the metabolic capacity of native human skin and in vitro models and made an overall assessment of the metabolic capacity from gene expression, proteomic expression, and substrate metabolism data. The known low expression and function of phase I enzymes in native whole skin were reflected in the in vitro models. Some XMEs in whole skin were not detected in in vitro models and vice versa, and some major hepatic XMEs such as cytochrome P450-monooxygenases were absent or measured only at very low levels in the skin. Conversely, despite varying mRNA and protein levels of phase II enzymes, functional activity of glutathione S-transferases, N-acetyltransferase 1, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases were all readily measurable in whole skin and in vitro skin models at activity levels similar to those measured in the liver. These projects have enabled a better understanding of the contribution of XMEs to toxicity endpoints. PMID:23539547

  14. Situation Awareness and Levels of Automation: Empirical Assessment of Levels of Automation in the Commercial Cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.; Schutte, Paul C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report has been prepared to closeout a NASA grant to Mississippi State University (MSU) for research into situation awareness (SA) and automation in the advanced commercial aircraft cockpit. The grant was divided into two obligations including $60,000 for the period from May 11, 2000 to December 25, 2000. The information presented in this report summarizes work completed through this obligation. It also details work to be completed with the balance of the current obligation and unobligated funds amounting to $50,043, which are to be granted to North Carolina State University for completion of the research project from July 31, 2000 to May 10, 2001. This research was to involve investigation of a broad spectrum of degrees of automation of complex systems on human-machine performance and SA. The work was to empirically assess the effect of theoretical levels of automation (LOAs) described in a taxonomy developed by Endsley & Kaber (1999) on naive and experienced subject performance and SA in simulated flight tasks. The study was to be conducted in the context of a realistic simulation of aircraft flight control. The objective of this work was to identify LOAs that effectively integrate humans and machines under normal operating conditions and failure modes. In general, the work was to provide insight into the design of automation in the commercial aircraft cockpit. Both laboratory and field investigations were to be conducted. At this point in time, a high-fidelity flight simulator of the McDonald Douglas (MD) 11 aircraft has been completed. The simulator integrates a reconfigurable flight simulator developed by the Georgia Institute of Technology and stand-alone simulations of MD-11 autoflight systems developed at MSU. Use of the simulator has been integrated into a study plan for the laboratory research and it is expected that the simulator will also be used in the field study with actual commercial pilots. In addition to the flight simulator, an electronic

  15. Implementing Integrated Catchment Management in the upper Limpopo River basin: A situational assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwenge Kahinda, J.; Meissner, R.; Engelbrecht, F. A.

    2016-06-01

    A three-phase study was initiated as a way to promote Integrated Catchment Management approaches in the Limpopo River basin. This paper presents the situational assessment, which should enable De Beers to understand how their Venetia Mine operations are located within a broader and highly dynamic socio-economic and ecohydrological landscape as it pertains to water risks. The second phase, Risk assessment, aims to develop conservation interventions in the identified areas; the third phase will develop mechanisms for implementing water stewardship schemes to mitigate the shared water risks. Analysis of the social-ecological system (hydrological, climatic, ecological, socio-economic and governance systems) of the Limpopo River basin indicates that the institutional arrangement of the Limpopo River basin is neither simple nor effective. The basin is rapidly approaching closure in the sense that almost all of the available supplies of water have already been allocated to existing water users. If the proposed ecological flow requirements were to be met for all of the tributaries, the basin would be 'closed'. On-going and projected land use changes and water resources developments in the upper reaches of the basin, coupled with projected rainfall reductions and temperature increases, and allocation of the flows for the ecological reserve, are likely to further reduce downstream river flows. The coupled increase in temperature and decrease in rainfall is of great concern for everyone in the basin, especially the poorer communities, who rely on rain-fed agriculture for their livelihoods. Increased temperatures also lead to increased evaporation from reservoirs and therefore result in a decrease in water availability. This will lead to increased abstraction of groundwater, especially from alluvial aquifers, and consequently an increase in river transmission losses and a decrease in river flows.

  16. How accurate are we at assessing others’ well-being? The example of welfare assessment in horses

    PubMed Central

    Lesimple, Clémence; Hausberger, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare practitioners such as physicians or nurses often underestimate patients’ well-being impairment (e.g., pain, anxiety) which may lead to undesirable consequences on treatment decisions. Lack of recognition/identification of signals and over-exposure are two reasons invoked, but a combination of factors may be involved. Studying human decoding of animals’ expressions of emotions showed that “identification” to the subject was necessary to decode the other’s internal state. In the present study we wanted to compare caretakers’ reports on the prevalence of stereotypic or abnormal repetitive behaviors, to ethological observations performed by an experienced observer on the same horses in order to test the impact of these different factors. On the first hand, a questionnaire was given hand to hand to the caretakers. On the other hand, the experienced observer spent 18 h observing the horses in each stable. Here we show that caretakers strongly underestimate horses’ expressions of well-being impairment. The caretakers who had a strong concern about their horses’ well-being were also those who reported the more accurately SB/ARB’s prevalence, showing that “identification” to the subject is a primary factor of bad-being signal’s detection. Over-exposure also appeared to be involved as no SB/ARB was reported in stables where most of the horses were performing these abnormal behaviors. Being surrounded by a large population of individuals expressing clear signals of bad-being may change professionals’ perceptions of what are behaviors or expressions of well being. These findings are of primary importance as (1) they illustrate the interest of using human-animal relationships to evaluate humans’ abilities to decode others’ states; (2) they put limitations on questionnaire-based studies of welfare. PMID:24478748

  17. Assessing Attachment Security at Age Three: Q-Sort Home Observations and the MacArthur Strange Situation Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada, German

    2006-01-01

    The construction of developmentally appropriate and valid assessments is central to the study of attachment relationships beyond infancy. A common procedure has been that of validating new measures for older children against strange situation classifications obtained in infancy. Although reasonable, a key criterion against which to validate new…

  18. An Assessment of the Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Situation in the United States. Volume I: Executive Summary and Conclusions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    InterAmerica Research Associates, Washington, DC.

    From August 1975 to January 1976, a study was conducted to provide an assessment of the migrant and seasonal farmworker situation. Inquiry was along the topic divisions of demographics, employment and manpower, housing, education, health, supportive services, economic development, Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) 303 and other…

  19. The Promise of Situated Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Arthur L.

    1993-01-01

    Situated cognition, the concept that learning is integrally situated in everyday activity, enables more accurate understanding of adult learning. Authentic activity, involving situations requiring actual rather than simulated cognitive processes, may be a better basis for adult education. (SK)

  20. Post-event processing in social anxiety disorder after real-life social situations - An ambulatory assessment study.

    PubMed

    Helbig-Lang, Sylvia; von Auer, Maxie; Neubauer, Karolin; Murray, Eileen; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2016-09-01

    Excessive post-mortem processing after social situations, a core symptom of social anxiety disorder (SAD), is thought to contribute to the perpetuation of social anxiety by consolidating negative self-schemata. Empirical findings on actual mechanisms underlying this so-called Post-Event Processing (PEP) are still scarce. The present study sought to identify variables associated with the experience of PEP after real-life social situations in a sample of 49 individuals diagnosed with SAD. Using an ambulatory assessment approach, individuals were asked to report on each distressing social event experienced during one week. A total of 192 events were captured. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that next to trait social anxiety, the type of social situation (performance vs. interaction situations), self-focused attention, safety behavior use, and negative affect predicted levels of PEP after social situations. These findings add to the growing literature that emphasizes the importance of situational factors for the experience of PEP, and highlight potential venues to prevent it.

  1. The application of intraoperative transit time flow measurement to accurately assess anastomotic quality in sequential vein grafting

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Ming-Xin; Li, Hai-Tao; Li, Jing-Xing; Song, Wei; Huang, Xin-Sheng; Gu, Cheng-Xiong

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Intraoperative transit time flow measurement (TTFM) is widely used to assess anastomotic quality in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, in sequential vein grafting, the flow characteristics collected by the conventional TTFM method are usually associated with total graft flow and might not accurately indicate the quality of every distal anastomosis in a sequential graft. The purpose of our study was to examine a new TTFM method that could assess the quality of each distal anastomosis in a sequential graft more reliably than the conventional TTFM approach. METHODS Two TTFM methods were tested in 84 patients who underwent sequential saphenous off-pump CABG in Beijing An Zhen Hospital between April and August 2012. In the conventional TTFM method, normal blood flow in the sequential graft was maintained during the measurement, and the flow probe was placed a few centimetres above the anastomosis to be evaluated. In the new method, blood flow in the sequential graft was temporarily reduced during the measurement by placing an atraumatic bulldog clamp at the graft a few centimetres distal to the anastomosis to be evaluated, while the position of the flow probe remained the same as in the conventional method. This new TTFM method was named the flow reduction TTFM. Graft flow parameters measured by both methods were compared. RESULTS Compared with the conventional TTFM, the flow reduction TTFM resulted in significantly lower mean graft blood flow (P < 0.05); in contrast, yielded significantly higher pulsatility index (P < 0.05). Diastolic filling was not significantly different between the two methods and was >50% in both cases. Interestingly, the flow reduction TTFM identified two defective middle distal anastomoses that the conventional TTFM failed to detect. Graft flows near the defective distal anastomoses were improved substantially after revision. CONCLUSIONS In this study, we found that temporary reduction of graft flow during TTFM seemed to

  2. PET optimization for improved assessment and accurate quantification of {sup 90}Y-microsphere biodistribution after radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Martí-Climent, Josep M. Prieto, Elena; Elosúa, César; Rodríguez-Fraile, Macarena; Domínguez-Prado, Inés; Vigil, Carmen; García-Velloso, María J.; Arbizu, Javier; Peñuelas, Iván; Richter, José A.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: {sup 90}Y-microspheres are widely used for the radioembolization of metastatic liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma and there is a growing interest for imaging {sup 90}Y-microspheres with PET. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of a current generation PET/CT scanner for {sup 90}Y imaging and to optimize the PET protocol to improve the assessment and the quantification of {sup 90}Y-microsphere biodistribution after radioembolization. Methods: Data were acquired on a Biograph mCT-TrueV scanner with time of flight (TOF) and point spread function (PSF) modeling. Spatial resolution was measured with a{sup 90}Y point source. Sensitivity was evaluated using the NEMA 70 cm line source filled with {sup 90}Y. To evaluate the count rate performance, {sup 90}Y vials with activity ranging from 3.64 to 0.035 GBq were measured in the center of the field of view (CFOV). The energy spectrum was evaluated. Image quality with different reconstructions was studied using the Jaszczak phantom containing six hollow spheres (diameters: 31.3, 28.1, 21.8, 16.1, 13.3, and 10.5 mm), filled with a 207 kBq/ml {sup 90}Y concentration and a 5:1 sphere-to-background ratio. Acquisition time was adjusted to simulate the quality of a realistic clinical PET acquisition of a patient treated with SIR-Spheres{sup ®}. The developed methodology was applied to ten patients after SIR-Spheres{sup ®} treatment acquiring a 10 min per bed PET. Results: The energy spectrum showed the{sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung radiation. The {sup 90}Y transverse resolution, with filtered backprojection reconstruction, was 4.5 mm in the CFOV and degraded to 5.0 mm at 10 cm off-axis. {sup 90}Y absolute sensitivity was 0.40 kcps/MBq in the center of the field of view. Tendency of true and random rates as a function of the {sup 90}Y activity could be accurately described using linear and quadratic models, respectively. Phantom studies demonstrated that, due to low count statistics in {sup 90}Y PET

  3. Can Community Health Workers Report Accurately on Births and Deaths? Results of Field Assessments in Ethiopia, Malawi and Mali

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Romesh; Amouzou, Agbessi; Munos, Melinda; Marsh, Andrew; Hazel, Elizabeth; Victora, Cesar; Black, Robert; Bryce, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most low-income countries lack complete and accurate vital registration systems. As a result, measures of under-five mortality rates rely mostly on household surveys. In collaboration with partners in Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, and Mali, we assessed the completeness and accuracy of reporting of births and deaths by community-based health workers, and the accuracy of annualized under-five mortality rate estimates derived from these data. Here we report on results from Ethiopia, Malawi and Mali. Method In all three countries, community health workers (CHWs) were trained, equipped and supported to report pregnancies, births and deaths within defined geographic areas over a period of at least fifteen months. In-country institutions collected these data every month. At each study site, we administered a full birth history (FBH) or full pregnancy history (FPH), to women of reproductive age via a census of households in Mali and via household surveys in Ethiopia and Malawi. Using these FBHs/FPHs as a validation data source, we assessed the completeness of the counts of births and deaths and the accuracy of under-five, infant, and neonatal mortality rates from the community-based method against the retrospective FBH/FPH for rolling twelve-month periods. For each method we calculated total cost, average annual cost per 1,000 population, and average cost per vital event reported. Results On average, CHWs submitted monthly vital event reports for over 95 percent of catchment areas in Ethiopia and Malawi, and for 100 percent of catchment areas in Mali. The completeness of vital events reporting by CHWs varied: we estimated that 30%-90% of annualized expected births (i.e. the number of births estimated using a FPH) were documented by CHWs and 22%-91% of annualized expected under-five deaths were documented by CHWs. Resulting annualized under-five mortality rates based on the CHW vital events reporting were, on average, under-estimated by 28% in Ethiopia, 32% in

  4. Sewage sludge toxicity assessment using earthworm Eisenia fetida: can biochemical and histopathological analysis provide fast and accurate insight?

    PubMed

    Babić, S; Barišić, J; Malev, O; Klobučar, G; Popović, N Topić; Strunjak-Perović, I; Krasnići, N; Čož-Rakovac, R; Klobučar, R Sauerborn

    2016-06-01

    Sewage sludge (SS) is a complex organic by-product of wastewater treatment plants. Deposition of large amounts of SS can increase the risk of soil contamination. Therefore, there is an increasing need for fast and accurate assessment of SS toxic potential. Toxic effects of SS were tested on earthworm Eisenia fetida tissue, at the subcellular and biochemical level. Earthworms were exposed to depot sludge (DS) concentration ratio of 30 or 70 %, to undiluted and to 100 and 10 times diluted active sludge (AS). The exposure to DS lasted for 24/48 h (acute exposure), 96 h (semi-acute exposure) and 7/14/28 days (sub-chronic exposure) and 48 h for AS. Toxic effects were tested by the measurements of multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR) activity and lipid peroxidation levels, as well as the observation of morphological alterations and behavioural changes. Biochemical markers confirmed the presence of MXR inhibitors in the tested AS and DS and highlighted the presence of SS-induced oxidative stress. The MXR inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentration in the whole earthworm's body were higher after the exposition to lower concentration of the DS. Furthermore, histopathological changes revealed damage to earthworm body wall tissue layers as well as to the epithelial and chloragogen cells in the typhlosole region. These changes were proportional to SS concentration in tested soils and to exposure duration. Obtained results may contribute to the understanding of SS-induced toxic effects on terrestrial invertebrates exposed through soil contact and to identify defence mechanisms of earthworms. PMID:26971513

  5. Assessment of RT-qPCR normalization strategies for accurate quantification of extracellular microRNAs in murine serum.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Thomas C; Coenen-Stass, Anna M L; Wood, Matthew J A

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are under investigation as minimally-invasive biomarkers for a wide range of disease conditions. We have recently shown in a mouse model of the progressive muscle-wasting condition Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) that a set of highly elevated serum miRNAs reflects the regenerative status of muscle. These miRNAs are promising biomarkers for monitoring DMD disease progression and the response to experimental therapies. The gold standard miRNA detection methodology is Reverse Transcriptase-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR), which typically exhibits high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. Accurate determination of miRNA levels is affected by RT-qPCR normalization method and therefore selection of the optimal strategy is of critical importance. Serum miRNA abundance was measured by RT-qPCR array in 14 week old mice, and by individual RT-qPCR assays in a time course experiment spanning 48 weeks. Here we utilize these two datasets to assess the validity of three miRNA normalization strategies (a) normalization to the average of all Cq values from array experiments, (b) normalization to a stably expressed endogenous reference miRNA, and (c) normalization to an external spike-in synthetic oligonucleotide. Normalization approaches based on endogenous control miRNAs result in an under-estimation of miRNA levels by a factor of ∼2. An increase in total RNA and total miRNA was observed in dystrophic serum which may account for this systematic bias. We conclude that the optimal strategy for this model system is to normalize to a synthetic spike-in control oligonucleotide.

  6. Assessment of Spatial Unevenness of Road Accidents Severity as Instrument of Preventive Protection from Emergency Situations in Road Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, A.; Petrova, D.

    2016-08-01

    Emergency situations in road complex are road traffic accidents (RA) with severe consequences. These are incidents connected with the death and injury of large number of people. The most common reasons for this are the collision of three or more cars, the collision of buses with trains at railroad crossings, the fall of the buses in the mountain gorge, and other similar cases. Is it possible to predict such events? How to build a preventive protection against such emergencies? We have to understand that emergencies in a road complex are qualitative expression of the quantitative processes that characterize the general state of road safety in the region. In this regard, at the level of state monitoring of emergency situations it is important to understand in general - in which region the situation is more complicated and in which is more favorable. This knowledge helps to more efficiently reallocate resources intended to solve the problems of road safety provision. The consequence of this is improvement of the quality of preventive protection from the emergencies in the road complex. The article presents quantitative values of severity of accidents in the Russian Federation regions and the Pareto chart distribution of cumulates of the accident severity for the Russian Federation. On the basis of the complex assessment of the spatial non-uniformity of the accident severity results it offers two important recommendations, implementation of which will alleviate the issue of formation of emergency situations in the road of the Russian Federation on the basis of the complex assessment of the spatial nonuniformity of the accident severity results.

  7. [Assessment of modern radioecological situation at nuclear explosion "Chagan" (Balapan Site, Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan)].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T I; Maĭstrenko, T A; Geras'kin, S A; Belykh, E S; Umarov, M A; Sergeeva, I Iu; Sergeev, V Iu

    2008-01-01

    Results on estimation of modern radioecological situation at nuclear explosion "Chagan" based on large-scale cartographic studies (1:25000) of a test area (4 km2) are presented. Maximum gamma-irradiation doses were observed at bulk of ground surrounded a crater and at radioactive fall-outs extended to the North-East and to the SouthWest from the crater. Based on data on artificial radionuclide specific activity most part of soil samples were attributed to radioactive wastes according to IAEA (1996) and OSPORB (1999). Natural decrease of soil radioactivity up to safety level due to 60Co, 137Cs, 90Sr, 152Eu, 154Eu radioactive decay and 241Am accumulation-decay will not take place within the next 60 years at the studied area.

  8. Topic Negotiation in Peer Group Oral Assessment Situations: A Conversation Analytic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Zhengdong; Davison, Chris; Hamp-Lyons, Liz

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the production of topical talk in peer collaborative negotiation in an interactive assessment innovation context. The ability to stay on topic, to move from topic to topic and to introduce new topics appropriately is at the core of communicative competence. Applying conversation analysis (CA), we describe and analyze how one…

  9. Situational Specificity Makes the Difference in Assessment of Youth Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Paul A.; Steinberg, Carrie M.; Angelo, Lauren E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we examine the ability of contextual information to enhance assessment of behavior problems in schools. Capitalizing on the multisituational structure of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents, exploratory and confirmatory analyses with a representative national sample (N = 1,400, ages 5-17 years) revealed three unique…

  10. An Experimental Study on Situated and Dynamic Learning Assessment (SDLA) Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Zeng-Han

    2010-01-01

    The current supplementary web based English learning in Taiwan provides online learning resources and gives assessments at the end of each lesson to evaluate learners' online learning results. Based on the testing results, instructors may adjust their in-class instructional method to focus on the students' weaknesses. For the average classroom…

  11. [Present situation and research task on the assessment of psychological effects caused by low-frequency noise].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Wind power generation is one of the good solutions to ensuring a clean and sustainable energy source. In recent years, therefore, many facilities for wind power generation have been constructed in Japan. In contrast to its advantage, however, residents in some areas near a wind power generation site have complained that their well-being has been disturbed by noise from wind turbines. Wind turbines generate low-frequency noise, which can lead to adverse psychological effects such as annoyance. In Japan, the method of assessing appropriately the adverse effects caused by low-frequency noise has not been established. In this article, the characteristics and effects of low-frequency noise are outlined, and the present situation and research task on the assessment of psychological effects of low-frequency noise from wind turbines are presented.

  12. The Utility of Maze Accurate Response Rate in Assessing Reading Comprehension in Upper Elementary and Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCane-Bowling, Sara J.; Strait, Andrea D.; Guess, Pamela E.; Wiedo, Jennifer R.; Muncie, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the predictive utility of five formative reading measures: words correct per minute, number of comprehension questions correct, reading comprehension rate, number of maze correct responses, and maze accurate response rate (MARR). Broad Reading cluster scores obtained via the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Achievement…

  13. Towards a conceptual model of motorcyclists' Risk Awareness: a comparative study of riding experience effect on hazard detection and situational criticality assessment.

    PubMed

    Bellet, Thierry; Banet, Aurélie

    2012-11-01

    This research investigates risk awareness abilities among different populations of motorcyclists. Risk awareness is defined here as an extension of the Situational Awareness theory applied to critical driving situations. This study is more particularly focused on two main cognitive abilities supporting risk awareness: hazard detection, corresponding to riders' skill to perceive critical event occurring in the road environment and to identify it as a threat, and situational criticality assessment, corresponding to a subjective assessment of the accident risk. From this theoretical framework, the aim is to compare motorcyclists' performances in risk awareness according to their experience in motorcycling. Four populations of motorcyclists are investigated: Professional (Policemen), Experienced riders, Novices, and Beginners. Method implemented is based of a set of 25 video sequences of driving situations presenting a risk of collision. Participants' task was firstly to stop the video film if they detect a hazard. Then, at the end of each sequence, they have also to assess the criticality of the driving situation as a whole, with a Likert scale (from 0 to 100% of criticality). Results obtained show that cognitive abilities in both (i) hazard detection and (ii) situational criticality assessment depend of the riding experience, and are learnt from two different timing. On one side, Professional and Experienced riders obtained better results than Novices and Beginners for hazard perception (i.e. shortest reaction time). In terms of situational criticality assessment, Beginners underestimate the situational risk and seem overconfident in their abilities to manage the situational risk, against Novices, Professional and Experienced riders, who have better competences in criticality assessment. From these empirical results, a conceptual model of motorcyclists' Risk Awareness is proposed.

  14. Risk assessment for large Romanian dams situated on Bistrita and Siret Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Petruta Constantin, Angela; Popescu, Emilia; Toma-Danila, Dragos; Otilia Placinta, Anica

    2015-04-01

    The work will present an ongoing national Project that have as final goal to provide the local emergency services with warnings of a potential dam failure and ensuing flood as a result of a large earthquake occurrence, allowing further public training for evacuation. Probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH), vulnerability and risk studies in 6 counties from Moldova region including Izvorul Muntelui Dam, down on Bistrita and following on Siret River and theirs affluent will be accomplished during the project. A number of 5 large dams (the most vulnerable) will be studied in detail and flooding maps will be drawn to find the most exposed downstream localities both for risk assessment studies and warnings. The results will consist in local and regional seismic information, dams specific characteristics and locations, seismic hazard maps and risk classes, for all dams sites (for more than 30 dams), inundation maps (for the most vulnerable 5 dams from the region) and possible affected localities. The maps will provide the best available estimate of the general location and extent of dam failure inundation areas and will tell if a specific location lies within a dam failure inundation zone. Besides periodical technical inspections, the monitoring and the surveillance of dams' related structures and infrastructures, there are some more seismic specific requirements towards dams' safety. The most important one is the seismic risk assessment that can be accomplished by rating the dams into seismic risk classes using the theory of Bureau and Ballentine (2002), and Bureau (2003), taking into account the maximum expected peak ground motions at the dams site. In this paper we will obtain the ground motion parameters in the dams locations using probabilistic hazard assessment techniques, the structures vulnerability and the downstream risk characteristics (human, economical, historic and cultural heritage, etc) in the areas that might be flooded in the case of a dam failure, and will

  15. Assessment of Ecological and Seismological Situations In The Geothermal Area of Tbilisi By Hydrodynamic Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelidze, T.; Buntebarth, G.; Melikadze, G.; Kumsiashvili, G.; Bendukidze, G.

    : Botanical Garden (B.G.), Lisi (L.) and Varketili (V.). It is evident that the regime of natural thermal water is influenced by many factors: exogenous (precipitation, atmo- spheric pressure, tides) and endogenous (earthquakes, creep, tectonic strain impacts). In the reporting period, several seismic and meteorological events happened which allow to judge of connections between thermal fields. The strain-sensitivity of wells using slug-test data and the response of water level to the exogenous impacts confirm 1 the closeness of responses of Lisi and Balneological boreholes and partial deviation of response of Oil production area. In the period of observation, several local earthquakes occurred in the region (Tbilisi-12.2000; 2.2001 etc.). The hydrodynamical precursors of these earthquakes have been recorded in all three wells. The response of aquifers to the strain impact which was caused by the earthquakes, confirms the hydrodynamical connection of Balneological and Oil production area. It means that a reckless exploita- tion of the Oil deposit can strongly decrease the fluid ressure in the Balneological well and can even cause the depletion of the Balneological resort and the Lisi thermal water deposit. The obtained results demonstrate big potential of the applied network of hy- drodynamical monitoring. It allows not only the recognition of short-term precursory phenomena of earthquakes but also operates as a monitor of environmental situation of the Tbilisi region. 2

  16. Aggregate versus Individual-Level Sexual Behavior Assessment: How Much Detail Is Needed to Accurately Estimate HIV/STI Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Galletly, Carol L.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Raymond, H. Fisher; Chesson, Harrell W.

    2010-01-01

    The sexual behaviors of HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention intervention participants can be assessed on a partner-by-partner basis: in aggregate (i.e., total numbers of sex acts, collapsed across partners) or using a combination of these two methods (e.g., assessing five partners in detail and any remaining partners in aggregate).…

  17. FDTD assessment of human exposure to electromagnetic fields from WiFi and bluetooth devices in some operating situations.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Búrdalo, M; Martín, A; Sanchis, A; Villar, R

    2009-02-01

    In this work, the numerical dosimetry in human exposure to the electromagnetic fields from antennas of wireless devices, such as those of wireless local area networks (WLAN) access points or phone and computer peripherals with Bluetooth antennas, is analyzed with the objective of assessing guidelines compliance. Several geometrical configurations are considered to simulate possible exposure situations of a person to the fields from WLAN or Bluetooth antennas operating at 2400 MHz. The exposure to radiation from two sources of different frequencies when using a 1800 MHz GSM mobile phone connected via Bluetooth with a hands-free car kit is also considered. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to calculate electric and magnetic field values in the vicinity of the antennas and specific absorption rates (SAR) in a high-resolution model of the human head and torso, to be compared with the limits from the guidelines (reference levels and basic restrictions, respectively). Results show that the exposure levels in worst-case situations studied are lower than those obtained when analyzing the exposure to mobile phones, as could be expected because of the low power of the signals and the distance between the human and the antennas, with both field and SAR values being far below the limits established by the guidelines, even when considering the combined exposure to both a GSM and a Bluetooth antenna.

  18. Using Situational Leadership To Reach the Whole Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carder, Linda; And Others

    Librarians providing individual information instruction need to be able to quickly and accurately assess the student's level of experience and ability and to offer the correct balance between support and challenge. Paul Hersey's Situational Leadership Model can provide librarians with a cognitive framework for assessment; it helps the instructor…

  19. The validity of interpersonal skills assessment via situational judgment tests for predicting academic success and job performance.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Filip; Sackett, Paul R

    2012-03-01

    This study provides conceptual and empirical arguments why an assessment of applicants' procedural knowledge about interpersonal behavior via a video-based situational judgment test might be valid for academic and postacademic success criteria. Four cohorts of medical students (N = 723) were followed from admission to employment. Procedural knowledge about interpersonal behavior at the time of admission was valid for both internship performance (7 years later) and job performance (9 years later) and showed incremental validity over cognitive factors. Mediation analyses supported the conceptual link between procedural knowledge about interpersonal behavior, translating that knowledge into actual interpersonal behavior in internships, and showing that behavior on the job. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  20. A comprehensive situation assessment of injection practices in primary health care hospitals in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding injection practices is crucial for evidence-based development of intervention initiatives. This study explored the extent of injection use and injection safety practices in primary care hospitals in Bangladesh. Methods The study employed both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The methods used were - a retrospective audit of prescriptions (n = 4320), focus group discussions (six with 43 participants), in-depth interviews (n = 38) with a range service providers, and systematic observation of the activities of injection providers (n = 120), waste handlers (n = 48) and hospital facilities (n = 24). Quantitative and qualitative data were assessed with statistical and thematic analysis, respectively, and then combined. Results As many as 78% of our study sample (n = 4230) received an injection. The most commonly prescribed injections (n = 3354) including antibiotics (78.3%), IV fluids (38.6%), analgesics/pain killers (29.4%), vitamins (26.7%), and anti-histamines (18.5%). Further, 43.7% (n = 1145) of the prescribed antibiotics (n = 2626) were given to treat diarrhea and 42.3% (n = 600) of IV fluids (n = 1295) were used to manage general weakness conditions. Nearly one-third (29.8%; n = 36/120) of injection providers reported needle-stick injuries in the last 6 months with highest incidences in Rajshahi division followed by Dhaka division. Disposal of injection needles, syringes and other materials was not done properly in 83.5% (n = 20/24) of the facilities. Health providers' safety concerns were not addressed properly; only 23% (n = 28/120) of the health providers and 4.2% (n = 2/48) of the waste handlers were fully immunized against Hepatitis B virus. Moreover, 73% (n = 87/120) of the injection providers and 90% (n = 43/48) of the waste handlers were not trained in injection safety practices and infection prevention. Qualitative data further confirmed that both providers and patients preferred injections, believing that they

  1. A simple and accurate grading system for orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the assessment of post-transplant renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Zaki, S.K.; Bretan, P.N.; Go, R.T.; Rehm, P.K.; Streem, S.B.; Novick, A.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Orthoiodohippurate renal scanning has proved to be a reliable, noninvasive method for the evaluation and followup of renal allograft function. However, a standardized system for grading renal function with this test is not available. We propose a simple grading system to distinguish the different functional phases of hippurate scanning in renal transplant recipients. This grading system was studied in 138 patients who were evaluated 1 week after renal transplantation. There was a significant correlation between the isotope renographic functional grade and clinical correlates of allograft function such as the serum creatinine level (p = 0.0001), blood urea nitrogen level (p = 0.0001), urine output (p = 0.005) and need for hemodialysis (p = 0.007). We recommend this grading system as a simple and accurate method to interpret orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the evaluation and followup of renal allograft recipients.

  2. Incentives Increase Participation in Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination Clinics and Methods of Coverage Estimation Are Assessed to Be Accurate

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Melissa; Czupryna, Anna; Bigambo, Machunde; Mzimbiri, Imam; Powell, George; Gwakisa, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this study we show that incentives (dog collars and owner wristbands) are effective at increasing owner participation in mass dog rabies vaccination clinics and we conclude that household questionnaire surveys and the mark-re-sight (transect survey) method for estimating post-vaccination coverage are accurate when all dogs, including puppies, are included. Incentives were distributed during central-point rabies vaccination clinics in northern Tanzania to quantify their effect on owner participation. In villages where incentives were handed out participation increased, with an average of 34 more dogs being vaccinated. Through economies of scale, this represents a reduction in the cost-per-dog of $0.47. This represents the price-threshold under which the cost of the incentive used must fall to be economically viable. Additionally, vaccination coverage levels were determined in ten villages through the gold-standard village-wide census technique, as well as through two cheaper and quicker methods (randomized household questionnaire and the transect survey). Cost data were also collected. Both non-gold standard methods were found to be accurate when puppies were included in the calculations, although the transect survey and the household questionnaire survey over- and under-estimated the coverage respectively. Given that additional demographic data can be collected through the household questionnaire survey, and that its estimate of coverage is more conservative, we recommend this method. Despite the use of incentives the average vaccination coverage was below the 70% threshold for eliminating rabies. We discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to improve coverage. Given recent international targets to eliminate rabies, this study provides valuable and timely data to help improve mass dog vaccination programs in Africa and elsewhere. PMID:26633821

  3. Incentives Increase Participation in Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination Clinics and Methods of Coverage Estimation Are Assessed to Be Accurate.

    PubMed

    Minyoo, Abel B; Steinmetz, Melissa; Czupryna, Anna; Bigambo, Machunde; Mzimbiri, Imam; Powell, George; Gwakisa, Paul; Lankester, Felix

    2015-12-01

    In this study we show that incentives (dog collars and owner wristbands) are effective at increasing owner participation in mass dog rabies vaccination clinics and we conclude that household questionnaire surveys and the mark-re-sight (transect survey) method for estimating post-vaccination coverage are accurate when all dogs, including puppies, are included. Incentives were distributed during central-point rabies vaccination clinics in northern Tanzania to quantify their effect on owner participation. In villages where incentives were handed out participation increased, with an average of 34 more dogs being vaccinated. Through economies of scale, this represents a reduction in the cost-per-dog of $0.47. This represents the price-threshold under which the cost of the incentive used must fall to be economically viable. Additionally, vaccination coverage levels were determined in ten villages through the gold-standard village-wide census technique, as well as through two cheaper and quicker methods (randomized household questionnaire and the transect survey). Cost data were also collected. Both non-gold standard methods were found to be accurate when puppies were included in the calculations, although the transect survey and the household questionnaire survey over- and under-estimated the coverage respectively. Given that additional demographic data can be collected through the household questionnaire survey, and that its estimate of coverage is more conservative, we recommend this method. Despite the use of incentives the average vaccination coverage was below the 70% threshold for eliminating rabies. We discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to improve coverage. Given recent international targets to eliminate rabies, this study provides valuable and timely data to help improve mass dog vaccination programs in Africa and elsewhere.

  4. Feasibility study for image guided kidney surgery: assessment of required intraoperative surface for accurate image to physical space registrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benincasa, Anne B.; Clements, Logan W.; Herrell, S. Duke; Chang, Sam S.; Cookson, Michael S.; Galloway, Robert L.

    2006-03-01

    Currently, the removal of kidney tumor masses uses only direct or laparoscopic visualizations, resulting in prolonged procedure and recovery times and reduced clear margin. Applying current image guided surgery (IGS) techniques, as those used in liver cases, to kidney resections (nephrectomies) presents a number of complications. Most notably is the limited field of view of the intraoperative kidney surface, which constrains the ability to obtain a surface delineation that is geometrically descriptive enough to drive a surface-based registration. Two different phantom orientations were used to model the laparoscopic and traditional partial nephrectomy views. For the laparoscopic view, fiducial point sets were compiled from a CT image volume using anatomical features such as the renal artery and vein. For the traditional view, markers attached to the phantom set-up were used for fiducials and targets. The fiducial points were used to perform a point-based registration, which then served as a guide for the surface-based registration. Laser range scanner (LRS) obtained surfaces were registered to each phantom surface using a rigid iterative closest point algorithm. Subsets of each phantom's LRS surface were used in a robustness test to determine the predictability of their registrations to transform the entire surface. Results from both orientations suggest that about half of the kidney's surface needs to be obtained intraoperatively for accurate registrations between the image surface and the LRS surface, suggesting the obtained kidney surfaces were geometrically descriptive enough to perform accurate registrations. This preliminary work paves the way for further development of kidney IGS systems.

  5. Incentives Increase Participation in Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination Clinics and Methods of Coverage Estimation Are Assessed to Be Accurate.

    PubMed

    Minyoo, Abel B; Steinmetz, Melissa; Czupryna, Anna; Bigambo, Machunde; Mzimbiri, Imam; Powell, George; Gwakisa, Paul; Lankester, Felix

    2015-12-01

    In this study we show that incentives (dog collars and owner wristbands) are effective at increasing owner participation in mass dog rabies vaccination clinics and we conclude that household questionnaire surveys and the mark-re-sight (transect survey) method for estimating post-vaccination coverage are accurate when all dogs, including puppies, are included. Incentives were distributed during central-point rabies vaccination clinics in northern Tanzania to quantify their effect on owner participation. In villages where incentives were handed out participation increased, with an average of 34 more dogs being vaccinated. Through economies of scale, this represents a reduction in the cost-per-dog of $0.47. This represents the price-threshold under which the cost of the incentive used must fall to be economically viable. Additionally, vaccination coverage levels were determined in ten villages through the gold-standard village-wide census technique, as well as through two cheaper and quicker methods (randomized household questionnaire and the transect survey). Cost data were also collected. Both non-gold standard methods were found to be accurate when puppies were included in the calculations, although the transect survey and the household questionnaire survey over- and under-estimated the coverage respectively. Given that additional demographic data can be collected through the household questionnaire survey, and that its estimate of coverage is more conservative, we recommend this method. Despite the use of incentives the average vaccination coverage was below the 70% threshold for eliminating rabies. We discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to improve coverage. Given recent international targets to eliminate rabies, this study provides valuable and timely data to help improve mass dog vaccination programs in Africa and elsewhere. PMID:26633821

  6. The Development of Multiple-Choice Items Consistent with the AP Chemistry Curriculum Framework to More Accurately Assess Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domyancich, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions are an important part of large-scale summative assessments, such as the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam. However, past AP chemistry exam items often lacked the ability to test conceptual understanding and higher-order cognitive skills. The redesigned AP chemistry exam shows a distinctive shift in item types toward…

  7. Just How Accurate are Your Probabilistic Forecasts? Improving Forecast Quality Assessment in the Presence of Sampling Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, T. H.; Sharma, A.; Marshall, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Use of ensemble forecasts as a means of characterising predictive uncertainty has become increasingly common in hydrological and meteorological forecasting. The needs to characterize ensemble forecast quality has encouraged the development of reliable verification tools. Most of the metrics used currently are related to the Brier score, first proposed in 1950. However, the Brier score and its alterations including the decomposition of the Brier score, as well as the Ranked Probability Score, have paid little attention to the difference in the characteristics of the forecasted and sampled probability distributions. This difference, or the error in the probability distribution, can lead to a bias in all existing metrics derived from the Brier score. Similar biases arise where the second moment is different to that observed, or when the observations are scarce and hence difficult to characterise. Therefore, this study suggests simple and reliable measures for the first and second moment bias of the forecasted ensemble and in addition, approaches to analytically estimate the sampling uncertainty of the proposed measures. The proposed approaches are tested through synthetically generated hydrologic forecasts and observations, as well as seasonal forecasts of the El Nino Southern Oscillation issued by the International research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI-ENSO). The results show that the estimated uncertainty range of the first and second moment bias can accurately represent the sampling error under most circumstances in a real forecasting system.

  8. Establishment of an x-ray standard calibration curve by conventional dicentric analysis as prerequisite for accurate radiation dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Beinke, Christina; Braselmann, Herbert; Meineke, Viktor

    2010-02-01

    The dicentric assay was established to carry out cytogenetic biodosimetry after suspected radiation overexposure, including a comprehensive documentation system to record the processing of the specimen, all data, results, and stored information. As an essential prerequisite for retrospective radiation dose assessment, a dose-response curve for dicentric induction by in vitro x-ray irradiation of peripheral blood samples was produced. The accelerating potential was 240 kV (maximum photon energy: 240 keV). A total of 8,377 first-division metaphases of four healthy volunteers were analyzed after exposure to doses ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 Gy at a dose rate of 1.0 Gy min. The background level of aberrations at 0-dose was determined by the analysis of 14,522 first-division metaphases obtained from unirradiated blood samples of 10 healthy volunteers. The dose-response relationship follows a linear-quadratic equation, Y = c + alphaD + betaD, with the coefficients c = 0.0005 +/- 0.0002, alpha = 0.043 +/- 0.006, and beta = 0.063 +/- 0.004. The technical competence and the quality of the calibration curve were assessed by determination of the dose prediction accuracy in an in vitro experiment simulating whole-body exposures within a range of 0.2 to 2.0 Gy. Dose estimations were derived by scoring up to 500-1,000 metaphase spreads or more (full estimation mode) and by evaluating only 50 metaphase spreads (triage mode) per subject. The triage mode was applied by performing manifold evaluations of the full estimation data in order to test the robustness of the curve for triage purposes and to assess possible variations among the estimated doses referring to a single exposure and preparation.

  9. The importance of tissue handling of surgically removed breast cancer for an accurate assessment of the Ki-67 index

    PubMed Central

    Arima, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Reiki; Osako, Tomofumi; Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Fujisue, Mamiko; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Masahiro; Tashima, Rumiko; Toyozumi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Aim Insufficient attention for the Ki-67 immunohistochemistry has been given to the importance of tissue handling for surgical breast cancer specimens. We sought to investigate the effect of fixation status on the Ki-67. Methods We examined the effect of fixative, time to and duration of fixation using surgical specimens, and finally, compared the paired Ki-67 index in the tumour between core needle and surgical specimen. Results The Ki-67 was significantly higher when 10% neutral buffered formalin was used (p=0.0276). Insufficient fixation caused a drastic reduction in the Ki-67 index (p=0.0177), but not significant in oestrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Sixteen hours delayed time to fixation also caused a reduction of the Ki-67 (p=0.0284), but not significant in ER. Prolonged fixation significantly led to a gradual reduction in the Ki-67 in a time-dependent manner, but not in both ER and HER2. Finally, cutting the tumour before fixation improved fixation status and consequently caused an increased level of the Ki-67 index (p=0.0181), which resulted in a strong correlation of the Ki-67 between core needle and surgical specimen (r=0.8595). Conclusions Tissue handling of surgical specimen is critical for assessing the Ki-67 compared with ER and HER2. We should pay more attention to tissue fixation status for the standard assessment of the Ki-67 index. PMID:26420767

  10. Communicating HIV Status in Sexual Interactions: Assessing Social Cognitive Constructs, Situational Factors, and Individual Characteristics Among South African MSM

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vasu; Kaighobadi, Farnaz; Nel, Dawie; Sandfort, Theo

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed whether social cognitive constructs, situational factors, and individual characteristics were associated with communicating HIV status and whether communication was related to sexual risk behavior. A quota-sampling method stratified by age, race, and township was used to recruit 300 men who have sex with men to participate in a community-based survey in Pretoria in 2008. Participants reported characteristics of their last sexual encounter involving anal sex, including whether they or their partner had communicated their HIV status. Fifty-nine percent of participants reported that they or their partner had communicated their HIV status. HIV communication self-efficacy (aOR = 1.2, 95 % CI: 1.04–1.68), being with a steady partner (aOR = 0.36, 95 % CI: 0.19–0.67), and being Black (versus White; aOR = 0.08, 95 % CI: 0.03–0.27) were independently associated with communicating HIV status. Communicating HIV status was not associated with unprotected anal intercourse. HIV communication self-efficacy increases men’s likelihood of communicating HIV status. Being with a steady partner and being Black reduces that likelihood. Communication about HIV status did not lead to safer sex. PMID:23065127

  11. The role of situation assessment and flight experience in pilots' decisions to continue visual flight rules flight into adverse weather.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, Douglas A; Goh, Juliana; O'Hare, David

    2002-01-01

    Visual flight rules (VFR) flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) is a major safety hazard in general aviation. In this study we examined pilots' decisions to continue or divert from a VFR flight into IMC during a dynamic simulation of a cross-country flight. Pilots encountered IMC either early or later into the flight, and the amount of time and distance pilots flew into the adverse weather prior to diverting was recorded. Results revealed that pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather earlier in the flight flew longer into the weather prior to diverting and had more optimistic estimates of weather conditions than did pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather later in the flight. Both the time and distance traveled into the weather prior to diverting were negatively correlated with pilots' previous flight experience. These findings suggest that VFR flight into IMC may be attributable, at least in part, to poor situation assessment and experience rather than to motivational judgment that induces risk-taking behavior as more time and effort are invested in a flight. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of interventions that focus on improving weather evaluation skills in addition to addressing risk-taking attitudes.

  12. Are skinfold-based models accurate and suitable for assessing changes in body composition in highly trained athletes?

    PubMed

    Silva, Analiza M; Fields, David A; Quitério, Ana L; Sardinha, Luís B

    2009-09-01

    This study was designed to assess the usefulness of skinfold (SKF) equations developed by Jackson and Pollock (JP) and by Evans (Ev) in tracking body composition changes (relative fat mass [%FM], absolute fat mass [FM], and fat-free mass [FFM]) of elite male judo athletes before a competition using a 4-compartment (4C) model as the reference method. A total of 18 male, top-level (age: 22.6 +/- 2.9 yr) athletes were evaluated at baseline (weight: 73.4 +/- 7.9 kg; %FM4C: 7.0 +/- 3.3%; FM4C: 5.1 +/- 2.6 kg; and FFM4C: 68.3 +/- 7.3 kg) and before a competition (weight: 72.7 +/- 7.5 kg; %FM4C: 6.5 +/- 3.4%; FM4C: 4.8 +/- 2.6 kg; and FFM4C: 67.9 +/- 7.1 kg). Measures of body density assessed by air displacement plethysmography, bone mineral content by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and total-body water by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy were used to estimate 4C model %FM, FM, and FFM. Seven SKF site models using both JP and Ev were used to estimate %FM, FM, and FFM along with the simplified Ev3SKF site. Changes in %FM, FM, and FFM were not significantly different from the 4C model. The regression model for the SKF in question and the reference method did not differ from the line of identity in estimating changes in %FM, FM, and FFM. The limits of agreement were similar, ranging from -3.4 to 3.6 for %FM, -2.7 to 2.5 kg for FM, and -2.5 to 2.7 kg for FFM. Considering the similar performance of both 7SKF- and 3SKF-based equations compared with the criterion method, these data indicate that either the 7- or 3-site SFK models are not valid to detect %FM, FM, and FFM changes of highly trained athletes. These results highlighted the inaccuracy of anthropometric models in tracking desired changes in body composition of elite male judo athletes before a competition.

  13. Comparison of Methodologies to Detect Low Levels of Hemolysis in Serum for Accurate Assessment of Serum microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jaynish S.; Soon, Patsy S.; Marsh, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs have emerged as powerful regulators of many biological processes, and their expression in many cancer tissues has been shown to correlate with clinical parameters such as cancer type and prognosis. Present in a variety of biological fluids, microRNAs have been described as a ‘gold mine’ of potential noninvasive biomarkers. Release of microRNA content of blood cells upon hemolysis dramatically alters the microRNA profile in blood, potentially affecting levels of a significant number of proposed biomarker microRNAs and, consequently, accuracy of serum or plasma-based tests. Several methods to detect low levels of hemolysis have been proposed; however, a direct comparison assessing their sensitivities is currently lacking. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivities of four methods to detect hemolysis in serum (listed in the order of sensitivity): measurement of hemoglobin using a Coulter® AcT diff™ Analyzer, visual inspection, the absorbance of hemoglobin measured by spectrophotometry at 414 nm and the ratio of red blood cell-enriched miR-451a to the reference microRNA miR-23a-3p. The miR ratio detected hemolysis down to approximately 0.001%, whereas the Coulter® AcT diff™ Analyzer was unable to detect hemolysis lower than 1%. The spectrophotometric method could detect down to 0.004% hemolysis, and correlated with the miR ratio. Analysis of hemolysis in a cohort of 86 serum samples from cancer patients and healthy controls showed that 31 of 86 (36%) were predicted by the miR ratio to be hemolyzed, whereas only 8 of these samples (9%) showed visible pink discoloration. Using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses, we identified absorbance cutoffs of 0.072 and 0.3 that could identify samples with low and high levels of hemolysis, respectively. Overall, this study will assist researchers in the selection of appropriate methodologies to test for hemolysis in serum samples prior to quantifying expression of microRNAs. PMID:27054342

  14. Uncertainty Reasoning for Service-Based Situational Awareness Information on the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinkel, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate situational assessment is key to any decision maker and especially crucial in military command and control, air traffic control, and complex system decision making. Endsley described three dependent levels of situational awareness, (1) perception, (2) understanding, and (3) projection. This research was focused on Endsley's…

  15. Rapid and accurate species and genomic species identification and exhaustive population diversity assessment of Agrobacterium spp. using recA-based PCR.

    PubMed

    Shams, M; Vial, L; Chapulliot, D; Nesme, X; Lavire, C

    2013-07-01

    Agrobacteria are common soil bacteria that interact with plants as commensals, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria or alternatively as pathogens. Indigenous agrobacterial populations are composites, generally with several species and/or genomic species and several strains per species. We thus developed a recA-based PCR approach to accurately identify and specifically detect agrobacteria at various taxonomic levels. Specific primers were designed for all species and/or genomic species of Agrobacterium presently known, including 11 genomic species of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens complex (G1-G9, G13 and G14, among which only G2, G4, G8 and G14 still received a Latin epithet: pusense, radiobacter, fabrum and nepotum, respectively), A. larrymoorei, A. rubi, R. skierniewicense, A. sp. 1650, and A. vitis, and for the close relative Allorhizobium undicola. Specific primers were also designed for superior taxa, Agrobacterium spp. and Rhizobiaceace. Primer specificities were assessed with target and non-target pure culture DNAs as well as with DNAs extracted from composite agrobacterial communities. In addition, we showed that the amplicon cloning-sequencing approach used with Agrobacterium-specific or Rhizobiaceae-specific primers is a way to assess the agrobacterial diversity of an indigenous agrobacterial population. Hence, the agrobacterium-specific primers designed in the present study enabled the first accurate and rapid identification of all species and/or genomic species of Agrobacterium, as well as their direct detection in environmental samples.

  16. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — an assessment of the present situation in the world: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    A consultative meeting was convened by the World Health Organization in Geneva on 22-25 November 1983 to assess the present situation of AIDS (the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in the world and to encourage collaboration between the different nations affected by this disease. AIDS was first reported in the USA in 1981, but probably existed there as early as 1978. Soon after its recognition in the USA, similar cases were identified in other areas of the world. In most western European countries and Canada, the epidemiological pattern is very similar to that in the United States, the majority of cases being in homosexual men. In other areas such as equatorial Africa and the Caribbean, the pattern seems to be different with no identifiable risk factors for the majority of cases. The disease is manifested by opportunistic infections and/or selected malignancies, with apparent differences in the clinical presentation between the cases in North America and Europe, on the one hand, and those in the tropics. To date there is no treatment that has significantly improved the underlying cellular immune deficiency, and the mortality is very high. The etiology of AIDS is unknown, but the epidemiological pattern is most consistent with its being caused by a transmissible agent; retroviruses come on top of the list of candidate agents. Despite the unknown etiology and the lack of laboratory diagnostic tests, sufficient information is available to permit health authorities to make recommendations that may reduce appreciably the incidence of the disease. AIDS is an important health problem in a number of countries and has international implications. Collaborative laboratory, epidemiological and clinical research between countries is needed to accelerate control efforts. In the meantime, WHO will coordinate exchange of information among countries. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:6331905

  17. Assessment of gas chromatography time-of-flight accurate mass spectrometry for identification of volatile and semi-volatile compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, M; Rodríguez, I; Ramil, M; Cela, R; Sulaiman, S A; Gan, S H

    2014-11-01

    The performance of gas chromatography (GC) combined with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) system for the determination of volatile and semi-volatile compounds in honey samples is evaluated. After headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of samples, the accurate mass capabilities of the above system were evaluated for compounds identification. Accurate scan electron impact (EI) MS spectra allowed discriminating compounds displaying the same nominal masses, but having different empirical formulae. Moreover, the use of a mass window with a width of 0.005 Da provided highly specific chromatograms for selected ions, avoiding the contribution of interferences to their peak areas. Additional information derived from positive chemical ionization (PCI) MS spectra and ion product scan MS/MS spectra permitted confirming the identity of novel compounds. The above possibilities are illustrated with examples of honey aroma compounds, belonging to different chemical classes and containing different elements in their molecules. Examples of compounds whose structures could not be described are also provided. Overall, 84 compounds, from a total of 89 species, could be identified in 19 honey samples from 3 different geographic areas in the world. The suitability of responses measured for selected ions, corresponding to above species, for authentication purposes is assessed through principal components analysis. PMID:25127626

  18. Accurate and easy-to-use assessment of contiguous DNA methylation sites based on proportion competitive quantitative-PCR and lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Cheng, Nan; Huang, Kunlun; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Chenguang; Xu, Yuancong; Zhu, Longjiao; Du, Dan; Luo, Yunbo

    2016-06-15

    Many types of diagnostic technologies have been reported for DNA methylation, but they require a standard curve for quantification or only show moderate accuracy. Moreover, most technologies have difficulty providing information on the level of methylation at specific contiguous multi-sites, not to mention easy-to-use detection to eliminate labor-intensive procedures. We have addressed these limitations and report here a cascade strategy that combines proportion competitive quantitative PCR (PCQ-PCR) and lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor (LFNAB), resulting in accurate and easy-to-use assessment. The P16 gene with specific multi-methylated sites, a well-studied tumor suppressor gene, was used as the target DNA sequence model. First, PCQ-PCR provided amplification products with an accurate proportion of multi-methylated sites following the principle of proportionality, and double-labeled duplex DNA was synthesized. Then, a LFNAB strategy was further employed for amplified signal detection via immune affinity recognition, and the exact level of site-specific methylation could be determined by the relative intensity of the test line and internal reference line. This combination resulted in all recoveries being greater than 94%, which are pretty satisfactory recoveries in DNA methylation assessment. Moreover, the developed cascades show significantly high usability as a simple, sensitive, and low-cost tool. Therefore, as a universal platform for sensing systems for the detection of contiguous multi-sites of DNA methylation without external standards and expensive instrumentation, this PCQ-PCR-LFNAB cascade method shows great promise for the point-of-care diagnosis of cancer risk and therapeutics.

  19. Situating emotional experience.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the "default mode" network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life.

  20. Situating emotional experience

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional

  1. Projective-Cognitive Assessment of Thoughts and Feelings and Their Relationship to Adaptive Behavior in a Dental Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, W. Michael, III; Cholera, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Examined the interrelationships among coping statements, a self-report measure of anxiety, and maladaptive overt behavior in a dental situation. Subjects were 23 adolescents. Found that as disruptive "in-chair" overt behavior increased, so did the percentage of coping statements; as self-report levels of anxiety increased, the percentage of coping…

  2. The Situation of Children in Iraq: An Assessment Based on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hijab, Nadia

    In accordance with UNICEF mandates requiring a situation analysis prior to preparing a new country program, this report examines causes and linkages between problems affecting women and children in Iraq, identifies necessary actions to realize the rights of women and children, and contributes to the country program strategy for priority…

  3. Problems of the complex assessment of radiobioecological situation and public health in uranium-extraction regions of Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Kazymbet, P K; Seisebaev, A T

    2002-01-01

    In the article was considered main direction in investigation and methodological approach in the estimations of radiobioecological situation and condition health of population in the uranium-extraction regions of Kazakhstan. Elimination of consequences of uranium extraction in Kazakhstan is only possible with a broad scientific cooperation and combined resources and man-power from Kazakhstan, from former Soviet Union countries and from other countries.

  4. Somatic Mutation Allelic Ratio Test Using ddPCR (SMART-ddPCR): An Accurate Method for Assessment of Preferential Allelic Imbalance in Tumor DNA

    PubMed Central

    de Smith, Adam J.; Walsh, Kyle M.; Hansen, Helen M.; Endicott, Alyson A.; Wiencke, John K.; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which heritable genetic variants can affect tumor development has yet to be fully elucidated. Tumor selection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) risk alleles, a phenomenon called preferential allelic imbalance (PAI), has been demonstrated in some cancer types. We developed a novel application of digital PCR termed Somatic Mutation Allelic Ratio Test using Droplet Digital PCR (SMART-ddPCR) for accurate assessment of tumor PAI, and have applied this method to test the hypothesis that heritable SNPs associated with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may demonstrate tumor PAI. These SNPs are located at CDKN2A (rs3731217) and IKZF1 (rs4132601), genes frequently lost in ALL, and at CEBPE (rs2239633), ARID5B (rs7089424), PIP4K2A (rs10764338), and GATA3 (rs3824662), genes located on chromosomes gained in high-hyperdiploid ALL. We established thresholds of AI using constitutional DNA from SNP heterozygotes, and subsequently measured allelic copy number in tumor DNA from 19–142 heterozygote samples per SNP locus. We did not find significant tumor PAI at these loci, though CDKN2A and IKZF1 SNPs showed a trend towards preferential selection of the risk allele (p = 0.17 and p = 0.23, respectively). Using a genomic copy number control ddPCR assay, we investigated somatic copy number alterations (SCNA) underlying AI at CDKN2A and IKZF1, revealing a complex range of alterations including homozygous and hemizygous deletions and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, with varying degrees of clonality. Copy number estimates from ddPCR showed high agreement with those from multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assays. We demonstrate that SMART-ddPCR is a highly accurate method for investigation of tumor PAI and for assessment of the somatic alterations underlying AI. Furthermore, analysis of publicly available data from The Cancer Genome Atlas identified 16 recurrent SCNA loci that contain heritable cancer risk SNPs associated with a

  5. Situating Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  6. The status of and future research into Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: the need of accurate diagnosis, objective assessment, and acknowledging biological and clinical subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Twisk, Frank N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Although Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) are used interchangeably, the diagnostic criteria define two distinct clinical entities. Cognitive impairment, (muscle) weakness, circulatory disturbances, marked variability of symptoms, and, above all, post-exertional malaise: a long-lasting increase of symptoms after a minor exertion, are distinctive symptoms of ME. This latter phenomenon separates ME, a neuro-immune illness, from chronic fatigue (syndrome), other disorders and deconditioning. The introduction of the label, but more importantly the diagnostic criteria for CFS have generated much confusion, mostly because chronic fatigue is a subjective and ambiguous notion. CFS was redefined in 1994 into unexplained (persistent or relapsing) chronic fatigue, accompanied by at least four out of eight symptoms, e.g., headaches and unrefreshing sleep. Most of the research into ME and/or CFS in the last decades was based upon the multivalent CFS criteria, which define a heterogeneous patient group. Due to the fact that fatigue and other symptoms are non-discriminative, subjective experiences, research has been hampered. Various authors have questioned the physiological nature of the symptoms and qualified ME/CFS as somatization. However, various typical symptoms can be assessed objectively using standardized methods. Despite subjective and unclear criteria and measures, research has observed specific abnormalities in ME/CFS repetitively, e.g., immunological abnormalities, oxidative and nitrosative stress, neurological anomalies, circulatory deficits and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, to improve future research standards and patient care, it is crucial that patients with post-exertional malaise (ME) and patients without this odd phenomenon are acknowledged as separate clinical entities that the diagnosis of ME and CFS in research and clinical practice is based upon accurate criteria and an objective assessment of characteristic symptoms

  7. The assessment of the impact of aviation NOx on ozone and other radiative forcing responses - The importance of representing cruise altitudes accurately

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowron, A.; Lee, D. S.; De León, R. R.

    2013-08-01

    is recommended that future formulations of aircraft NOx emissions focus efforts on the detailed and accurate placement of emissions at cruise altitudes to reduce the uncertainty in future assessments of aviation NOx impacts.

  8. Validity and reliability of pressure-measurement insoles for vertical ground reaction force assessment in field situations.

    PubMed

    Koch, Markus; Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Ernst, Michael; Knardahl, Stein; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of pressure-measurement insoles (medilogic® insoles) when measuring vertical ground reaction forces in field situations. Various weights were applied to and removed from the insoles in static mechanical tests. The force values measured simultaneously by the insoles and force plates were compared for 15 subjects simulating work activities. Reliability testing during the static mechanical tests yielded an average interclass correlation coefficient of 0.998. Static loads led to a creeping pattern of the output force signal. An individual load response could be observed for each insole. The average root mean square error between the insoles and force plates ranged from 6.6% to 17.7% in standing, walking, lifting and catching trials and was 142.3% in kneeling trials. The results show that the use of insoles may be an acceptable method for measuring vertical ground reaction forces in field studies, except for kneeling positions.

  9. Situated Learning in Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theories of learning such as Wenger and Lave's situated learning have been suggested as alternatives to cognitive theories of learning like constructivism. This article examines situated learning within the context of computer science (CS) education. Situated learning accurately describes some CS communities like open-source software…

  10. A multidisciplinary approach of workload assessment in real-job situations: investigation in the field of aerospace activities.

    PubMed

    Mélan, Claudine; Cascino, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    The present contribution presents two field studies combining tools and methods from cognitive psychology and from occupational psychology in order to perform a thorough investigation of workload in employees. Cognitive load theory proposes to distinguish different load categories of working memory, in a context of instruction. Intrinsic load is inherent to the task, extraneous load refers to components of a learning environment that may be modified to reduce total load, and germane load enables schemas construction and thus efficient learning. We showed previously that this theoretical framework may be successfully extended to working memory tasks in non-instructional designs. Other theoretical models, issued from the field of occupational psychology, account for an individual's perception of work demands or requirements in the context of different psychosocial features of the (work) environment. Combining these approaches is difficult as workload assessment by job-perception questionnaires explore an individual's overall job-perception over a large time-period, whereas cognitive load investigations in working memory tasks are typically performed within short time-periods. We proposed an original methodology enabling investigation of workload and load factors in a comparable time-frame. We report two field studies investigating workload on different shift-phases and between work-shifts, with two custom-made tools. The first one enabled workload assessment by manipulating intrinsic load (task difficulty) and extraneous load (time pressure) in a working-memory task. The second tool was a questionnaire based on the theoretical concepts of work-demands, control, and psychosocial support. Two additional dimensions suspected to contribute to job-perception, i.e., work-family conflicts and availability of human and technical resources were also explored. Results of workload assessments were discussed in light of operators' alertness and job-performance.

  11. A multidisciplinary approach of workload assessment in real-job situations: investigation in the field of aerospace activities.

    PubMed

    Mélan, Claudine; Cascino, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    The present contribution presents two field studies combining tools and methods from cognitive psychology and from occupational psychology in order to perform a thorough investigation of workload in employees. Cognitive load theory proposes to distinguish different load categories of working memory, in a context of instruction. Intrinsic load is inherent to the task, extraneous load refers to components of a learning environment that may be modified to reduce total load, and germane load enables schemas construction and thus efficient learning. We showed previously that this theoretical framework may be successfully extended to working memory tasks in non-instructional designs. Other theoretical models, issued from the field of occupational psychology, account for an individual's perception of work demands or requirements in the context of different psychosocial features of the (work) environment. Combining these approaches is difficult as workload assessment by job-perception questionnaires explore an individual's overall job-perception over a large time-period, whereas cognitive load investigations in working memory tasks are typically performed within short time-periods. We proposed an original methodology enabling investigation of workload and load factors in a comparable time-frame. We report two field studies investigating workload on different shift-phases and between work-shifts, with two custom-made tools. The first one enabled workload assessment by manipulating intrinsic load (task difficulty) and extraneous load (time pressure) in a working-memory task. The second tool was a questionnaire based on the theoretical concepts of work-demands, control, and psychosocial support. Two additional dimensions suspected to contribute to job-perception, i.e., work-family conflicts and availability of human and technical resources were also explored. Results of workload assessments were discussed in light of operators' alertness and job-performance. PMID:25232346

  12. A multidisciplinary approach of workload assessment in real-job situations: investigation in the field of aerospace activities

    PubMed Central

    Mélan, Claudine; Cascino, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    The present contribution presents two field studies combining tools and methods from cognitive psychology and from occupational psychology in order to perform a thorough investigation of workload in employees. Cognitive load theory proposes to distinguish different load categories of working memory, in a context of instruction. Intrinsic load is inherent to the task, extraneous load refers to components of a learning environment that may be modified to reduce total load, and germane load enables schemas construction and thus efficient learning. We showed previously that this theoretical framework may be successfully extended to working memory tasks in non-instructional designs. Other theoretical models, issued from the field of occupational psychology, account for an individual’s perception of work demands or requirements in the context of different psychosocial features of the (work) environment. Combining these approaches is difficult as workload assessment by job-perception questionnaires explore an individual’s overall job-perception over a large time-period, whereas cognitive load investigations in working memory tasks are typically performed within short time-periods. We proposed an original methodology enabling investigation of workload and load factors in a comparable time-frame. We report two field studies investigating workload on different shift-phases and between work-shifts, with two custom-made tools. The first one enabled workload assessment by manipulating intrinsic load (task difficulty) and extraneous load (time pressure) in a working-memory task. The second tool was a questionnaire based on the theoretical concepts of work-demands, control, and psychosocial support. Two additional dimensions suspected to contribute to job-perception, i.e., work–family conflicts and availability of human and technical resources were also explored. Results of workload assessments were discussed in light of operators’ alertness and job-performance. PMID

  13. A Risk Assessment Approach to Manage Inundation of Elseya albagula Nests in Impounded Waters: A Win-Win Situation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougall, A. J.; Espinoza, T.; Hollier, C.; Limpus, D. J.; Limpus, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    A risk assessment process was used to trial the impact of potential new operating rules on the frequency of nest inundation for the White-throated snapping turtle, Elseya albagula, in the impounded waters of the Burnett River, Queensland, Australia. The proposed operating rules would increase the barrage storage level during the turtle nesting season (May-July) and then would be allowed to reduce to a lower level for incubation for the rest of the year. These proposed operating rules reduce rates of nest inundation by altering water levels in the Ben Anderson Barrage impoundment of the Burnett River. The rules operate throughout the turtle reproductive period and concomitantly improve stability of littoral habitat and fishway operation. Additionally, the proposed rules are expected to have positive socio-economic benefits within the region. While regulated water resources will inherently have a number of negative environmental implications, these potential new operating rules have the capacity to benefit the environment while managing resources in a more sustainable manner. The operating rules have now been enacted in subordinate legislation and require the operator to maintain water levels to minimize turtle nest inundation.

  14. A risk assessment approach to manage inundation of Elseya albagula nests in impounded waters: a win-win situation?

    PubMed

    McDougall, A J; Espinoza, T; Hollier, C; Limpus, D J; Limpus, C J

    2015-03-01

    A risk assessment process was used to trial the impact of potential new operating rules on the frequency of nest inundation for the White-throated snapping turtle, Elseya albagula, in the impounded waters of the Burnett River, Queensland, Australia. The proposed operating rules would increase the barrage storage level during the turtle nesting season (May-July) and then would be allowed to reduce to a lower level for incubation for the rest of the year. These proposed operating rules reduce rates of nest inundation by altering water levels in the Ben Anderson Barrage impoundment of the Burnett River. The rules operate throughout the turtle reproductive period and concomitantly improve stability of littoral habitat and fishway operation. Additionally, the proposed rules are expected to have positive socio-economic benefits within the region. While regulated water resources will inherently have a number of negative environmental implications, these potential new operating rules have the capacity to benefit the environment while managing resources in a more sustainable manner. The operating rules have now been enacted in subordinate legislation and require the operator to maintain water levels to minimize turtle nest inundation. PMID:25432451

  15. Situated Cognition: Describing the Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altalib, Hasan

    This paper presents an overview of the theory of situated cognition by providing its origin, a listing of its main principles and then discussing in detail the principles of, authentic learning environments, legitimate peripheral participation, and assessment. It also provides two examples of the application of situated cognition principles. The…

  16. Developing a situational judgment test blueprint for assessing the non-cognitive skills of applicants to the University of Utah School of Medicine, the United States

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The situational judgment test (SJT) shows promise for assessing the non-cognitive skills of medical school applicants, but has only been used in Europe. Since the admissions processes and education levels of applicants to medical school are different in the United States and in Europe, it is necessary to obtain validity evidence of the SJT based on a sample of United States applicants. Methods: Ninety SJT items were developed and Kane’s validity framework was used to create a test blueprint. A total of 489 applicants selected for assessment/interview day at the University of Utah School of Medicine during the 2014-2015 admissions cycle completed one of five SJTs, which assessed professionalism, coping with pressure, communication, patient focus, and teamwork. Item difficulty, each item’s discrimination index, internal consistency, and the categorization of items by two experts were used to create the test blueprint. Results: The majority of item scores were within an acceptable range of difficulty, as measured by the difficulty index (0.50-0.85) and had fair to good discrimination. However, internal consistency was low for each domain, and 63% of items appeared to assess multiple domains. The concordance of categorization between the two educational experts ranged from 24% to 76% across the five domains. Conclusion: The results of this study will help medical school admissions departments determine how to begin constructing a SJT. Further testing with a more representative sample is needed to determine if the SJT is a useful assessment tool for measuring the non-cognitive skills of medical school applicants. PMID:26582629

  17. Prostate cancer nodal oligometastasis accurately assessed using prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography and confirmed histologically following robotic-assisted lymph node dissection

    PubMed Central

    O’Kane, Dermot B.; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Bolton, Damien M.

    2016-01-01

    We herein present a case of a 76-year-old gentleman, where prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PSMA PET-CT) was used to accurately detect prostate cancer (PCa), pelvic lymph node (LN) metastasis in the setting of biochemical recurrence following definitive treatment for PCa. The positive PSMA PET-CT result was confirmed with histological examination of the involved pelvic LNs following pelvic LN dissection. PMID:27141207

  18. Can Appraisers Rate Work Performance Accurately?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedge, Jerry W.; Laue, Frances J.

    The ability of individuals to make accurate judgments about others is examined and literature on this subject is reviewed. A wide variety of situational factors affects the appraisal of performance. It is generally accepted that the purpose of the appraisal influences the accuracy of the appraiser. The instrumentation, or tools, available to the…

  19. Time management situation assessment (TMSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Michael B.; Ricci, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    TMSA is a concept prototype developed to support NASA Test Directors (NTDs) in schedule execution monitoring during the later stages of a Shuttle countdown. The program detects qualitative and quantitative constraint violations in near real-time. The next version will support incremental rescheduling and reason over a substantially larger number of scheduled events.

  20. Initial management of patients in an emergency situation.

    PubMed

    Dean, Rick; Mulligan, Joe

    Success in first aid is based on the ability to make the most of the resources available and on maintaining the casualty in the best possible condition until specialist help arrives. This article, the second in a series of eight, discusses how to assess and stabilise the casualty's condition and how to manage the emergency situation. Using case examples, it provides a methodical approach to risk assessment for casualties, bystanders and rescuers, as well as ascertaining and providing clear and accurate information for the relevant emergency services.

  1. Youth Offender Care Needs Assessment Tool (YO-CNAT): an actuarial risk assessment tool for predicting problematic child-rearing situations in juvenile offenders on the basis of police records.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2013-12-01

    In the juvenile justice system, much attention is paid to estimating the risk for recidivism among juvenile offenders. However, it is also important to estimate the risk for problematic child-rearing situations (care needs) in juvenile offenders, because these problems are not always related to recidivism. In the present study, an actuarial care needs assessment tool for juvenile offenders, the Youth Offender Care Needs Assessment Tool (YO-CNAT), was developed to predict the probability of (a) a future supervision order imposed by the child welfare agency, (b) a future entitlement to care indicated by the youth care agency, and (c) future incidents involving child abuse, domestic violence, and/or sexual norm trespassing behavior at the juvenile's address. The YO-CNAT has been developed for use by the police and is based solely on information available in police registration systems. It is designed to assist a police officer without clinical expertise in making a quick assessment of the risk for problematic child-rearing situations. The YO-CNAT was developed on a sample of 1,955 juvenile offenders and was validated on another sample of 2,045 juvenile offenders. The predictive validity (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve) scores ranged between .70 (for predicting future entitlement to care) and .75 (for predicting future worrisome incidents at the juvenile's address); therefore, the predictive accuracy of the test scores of the YO-CNAT was sufficient to justify its use as a screening instrument for the police in deciding to refer a juvenile offender to the youth care agency for further assessment into care needs.

  2. Youth Offender Care Needs Assessment Tool (YO-CNAT): an actuarial risk assessment tool for predicting problematic child-rearing situations in juvenile offenders on the basis of police records.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2013-12-01

    In the juvenile justice system, much attention is paid to estimating the risk for recidivism among juvenile offenders. However, it is also important to estimate the risk for problematic child-rearing situations (care needs) in juvenile offenders, because these problems are not always related to recidivism. In the present study, an actuarial care needs assessment tool for juvenile offenders, the Youth Offender Care Needs Assessment Tool (YO-CNAT), was developed to predict the probability of (a) a future supervision order imposed by the child welfare agency, (b) a future entitlement to care indicated by the youth care agency, and (c) future incidents involving child abuse, domestic violence, and/or sexual norm trespassing behavior at the juvenile's address. The YO-CNAT has been developed for use by the police and is based solely on information available in police registration systems. It is designed to assist a police officer without clinical expertise in making a quick assessment of the risk for problematic child-rearing situations. The YO-CNAT was developed on a sample of 1,955 juvenile offenders and was validated on another sample of 2,045 juvenile offenders. The predictive validity (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve) scores ranged between .70 (for predicting future entitlement to care) and .75 (for predicting future worrisome incidents at the juvenile's address); therefore, the predictive accuracy of the test scores of the YO-CNAT was sufficient to justify its use as a screening instrument for the police in deciding to refer a juvenile offender to the youth care agency for further assessment into care needs. PMID:23815118

  3. A Framework for the Comparative Assessment of Neuronal Spike Sorting Algorithms towards More Accurate Off-Line and On-Line Microelectrode Arrays Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Regalia, Giulia; Coelli, Stefania; Biffi, Emilia; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal spike sorting algorithms are designed to retrieve neuronal network activity on a single-cell level from extracellular multiunit recordings with Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs). In typical analysis of MEA data, one spike sorting algorithm is applied indiscriminately to all electrode signals. However, this approach neglects the dependency of algorithms' performances on the neuronal signals properties at each channel, which require data-centric methods. Moreover, sorting is commonly performed off-line, which is time and memory consuming and prevents researchers from having an immediate glance at ongoing experiments. The aim of this work is to provide a versatile framework to support the evaluation and comparison of different spike classification algorithms suitable for both off-line and on-line analysis. We incorporated different spike sorting "building blocks" into a Matlab-based software, including 4 feature extraction methods, 3 feature clustering methods, and 1 template matching classifier. The framework was validated by applying different algorithms on simulated and real signals from neuronal cultures coupled to MEAs. Moreover, the system has been proven effective in running on-line analysis on a standard desktop computer, after the selection of the most suitable sorting methods. This work provides a useful and versatile instrument for a supported comparison of different options for spike sorting towards more accurate off-line and on-line MEA data analysis. PMID:27239191

  4. A Framework for the Comparative Assessment of Neuronal Spike Sorting Algorithms towards More Accurate Off-Line and On-Line Microelectrode Arrays Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal spike sorting algorithms are designed to retrieve neuronal network activity on a single-cell level from extracellular multiunit recordings with Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs). In typical analysis of MEA data, one spike sorting algorithm is applied indiscriminately to all electrode signals. However, this approach neglects the dependency of algorithms' performances on the neuronal signals properties at each channel, which require data-centric methods. Moreover, sorting is commonly performed off-line, which is time and memory consuming and prevents researchers from having an immediate glance at ongoing experiments. The aim of this work is to provide a versatile framework to support the evaluation and comparison of different spike classification algorithms suitable for both off-line and on-line analysis. We incorporated different spike sorting “building blocks” into a Matlab-based software, including 4 feature extraction methods, 3 feature clustering methods, and 1 template matching classifier. The framework was validated by applying different algorithms on simulated and real signals from neuronal cultures coupled to MEAs. Moreover, the system has been proven effective in running on-line analysis on a standard desktop computer, after the selection of the most suitable sorting methods. This work provides a useful and versatile instrument for a supported comparison of different options for spike sorting towards more accurate off-line and on-line MEA data analysis. PMID:27239191

  5. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianwei; Jiang, Chenghua; Tan, Duxun; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hanzhi; Wang, Zhaoxin; Yang, Beilei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion. PMID:27597958

  6. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianwei; Tan, Duxun; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hanzhi; Yang, Beilei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion.

  7. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianwei; Tan, Duxun; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hanzhi; Yang, Beilei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion. PMID:27597958

  8. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  9. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  10. Accurate documentation and wound measurement.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Sylvie

    This article, part 4 in a series on wound management, addresses the sometimes routine yet crucial task of documentation. Clear and accurate records of a wound enable its progress to be determined so the appropriate treatment can be applied. Thorough records mean any practitioner picking up a patient's notes will know when the wound was last checked, how it looked and what dressing and/or treatment was applied, ensuring continuity of care. Documenting every assessment also has legal implications, demonstrating due consideration and care of the patient and the rationale for any treatment carried out. Part 5 in the series discusses wound dressing characteristics and selection.

  11. Accurate and Accidental Empathy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Michael

    The author offers two controversial criticisms of what are rapidly becoming standard assessment procedures for the measurement of empathic skill. First, he asserts that assessment procedures which attend exclusively to the accuracy with which subjects are able to characterize other people's feelings provide little or no useful information about…

  12. Metabolic changes assessed by MRS accurately reflect brain function during drug-induced epilepsy in mice in contrast to fMRI-based hemodynamic readouts.

    PubMed

    Seuwen, Aline; Schroeter, Aileen; Grandjean, Joanes; Rudin, Markus

    2015-10-15

    Functional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) enables the non-invasive assessment of neural activity by measuring signals arising from endogenous metabolites in a time resolved manner. Proof-of-principle of this approach has been demonstrated in humans and rats; yet functional 1H-MRS has not been applied in mice so far, although it would be of considerable interest given the many genetically engineered models of neurological disorders established in this species only. Mouse 1H-MRS is challenging as the high demands on spatial resolution typically result in long data acquisition times not commensurable with functional studies. Here, we propose an approach based on spectroscopic imaging in combination with the acquisition of the free induction decay to maximize signal intensity. Highly resolved metabolite maps have been recorded from mouse brain with 12 min temporal resolution. This enabled monitoring of metabolic changes following the administration of bicuculline, a GABA-A receptor antagonist. Changes in levels of metabolites involved in energy metabolism (lactate and phosphocreatine) and neurotransmitters (glutamate) were investigated in a region-dependent manner and shown to scale with the bicuculline dose. GABAergic inhibition induced spectral changes characteristic for increased neurotransmitter turnover and oxidative stress. In contrast to metabolic readouts, BOLD and CBV fMRI responses did not scale with the bicuculline dose indicative of the failure of neurovascular coupling. Nevertheless fMRI measurements supported the notion of increased oxidative stress revealed by functional MRS. Hence, the combined analysis of metabolic and hemodynamic changes in response to stimulation provides complementary insight into processes associated with neural activity.

  13. Metabolic changes assessed by MRS accurately reflect brain function during drug-induced epilepsy in mice in contrast to fMRI-based hemodynamic readouts.

    PubMed

    Seuwen, Aline; Schroeter, Aileen; Grandjean, Joanes; Rudin, Markus

    2015-10-15

    Functional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) enables the non-invasive assessment of neural activity by measuring signals arising from endogenous metabolites in a time resolved manner. Proof-of-principle of this approach has been demonstrated in humans and rats; yet functional 1H-MRS has not been applied in mice so far, although it would be of considerable interest given the many genetically engineered models of neurological disorders established in this species only. Mouse 1H-MRS is challenging as the high demands on spatial resolution typically result in long data acquisition times not commensurable with functional studies. Here, we propose an approach based on spectroscopic imaging in combination with the acquisition of the free induction decay to maximize signal intensity. Highly resolved metabolite maps have been recorded from mouse brain with 12 min temporal resolution. This enabled monitoring of metabolic changes following the administration of bicuculline, a GABA-A receptor antagonist. Changes in levels of metabolites involved in energy metabolism (lactate and phosphocreatine) and neurotransmitters (glutamate) were investigated in a region-dependent manner and shown to scale with the bicuculline dose. GABAergic inhibition induced spectral changes characteristic for increased neurotransmitter turnover and oxidative stress. In contrast to metabolic readouts, BOLD and CBV fMRI responses did not scale with the bicuculline dose indicative of the failure of neurovascular coupling. Nevertheless fMRI measurements supported the notion of increased oxidative stress revealed by functional MRS. Hence, the combined analysis of metabolic and hemodynamic changes in response to stimulation provides complementary insight into processes associated with neural activity. PMID:26166624

  14. Situated Learning in Computer Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2004-06-01

    Sociocultural theories of learning such as Wenger and Lave's situated learning have been suggested as alternatives to cognitive theories of learning like constructivism. This article examines situated learning within the context of computer science (CS) education. Situated learning accurately describes some CS communities like open-source software development, but it is not directly applicable to other CS communities, especially those that deal with non-CS application areas. Nevertheless, situated learning can inform CS education by analyzing debates on curriculum and pedagogy within this framework. CS educators should closely examine professional CS communities of practice and design educational activities to model the actual activities of those communities.

  15. Staging of the axilla in breast cancer: accurate in vivo assessment using positron emission tomography with 2-(fluorine-18)-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, I C; Ogston, K N; Whitford, P; Smith, F W; Sharp, P; Norton, M; Miller, I D; Ah-See, A K; Heys, S D; Jibril, J A; Eremin, O

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) to determine noninvasively axillary lymph node status in patients with breast cancer. BACKGROUND: The presence of axillary lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor in women with breast cancer. It signifies the presence of occult metastatic disease and indicates the need for adjuvant therapy. The only reliable way in which this important prognostic information may be obtained is by performing axillary dissection, which may be associated with significant complications and delay in discharge from the hospital. PET with 18F-FDG can visualize primary cancers in the breast and metastatic tumor deposits. METHODS: Fifty patients with untreated breast cancer had clinical examination of their axilla performed (graded as positive or negative), followed by PET of the axilla and midthorax. PET data were analyzed blindly and graded as positive or negative, depending on the presence or absence of axillary nodal metastases. Cytopathologic assessment of the axillary nodes was carried out within 1 week of PET, by fine-needle aspiration cytology in 5 patients and axillary dissection in 45; the excised specimens were examined by a single pathologist. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity of PET in 50 patients was 90% and the specificity was 97%. Clinical examination of the same patients had an overall sensitivity of 57% and a specificity of 90%. In the 24 patients with locally advanced breast cancer (T3, T4, TxN2), PET had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 100%. In T1 tumors (seven patients), the sensitivity and specificity were 100%. PET had a high predictive value (>90%) and accuracy (94%) in staging the axilla. CONCLUSIONS: PET is a sensitive and specific method of staging the axilla in patients with breast cancer. It may obviate the need for axillary surgery in women with small primary tumors, define the women likely to benefit from axillary

  16. Sizing Up the Situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Hailstorm damage to the Space Shuttle's External Tank inspired a NASA innovation with extensive photography applications. In order to measure the defects caused by the storm, Kennedy Space Center used telephoto lenses to zoom in on the tank and view the damage clearly. However, since there was no reference object in the image, the engineers could not determine the scale of the damage. In photographic situations similar to this, an object, such as a ruler, is placed within the field of view. This allows a person to look at a photograph and have a visual indication of the scale of the objects in it. In the External Tank situation, however, this procedure was not possible. As a solution, Kennedy developed the Scaling and Measurement Device for Photographic Images, which provides a non-intrusive means of adding a scale to a photograph. In addition to meeting Kennedy's needs, scaling images is extremely important in crime and accident scene investigations, oil and chemical tank monitoring, and aerial photography. The innovation consists of a tool that attaches directly to a camera or charge coupled device using a standard screw. Two lasers fitted to the device provide parallel beams that are set 1 inch apart. These lasers enable the device to project a pattern into the field of view. When a photograph is taken, the image of the laser pattern appears, along with the image of the object under investigation, allowing the viewer quantifiable information as to the size of the object. The laser beams are accurate to approximately 200 feet. Windows-based software was developed to work with the scaling device tool. The software provides further techniques to measure objects in photographs and digital images. By using the software, any object in the image can be measured diagonally, vertically, and horizontally. The device and its software enable the user to determine two-dimensional measurements within a photograph.

  17. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  18. Accurate Assessment--Compelling Evidence for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Regina T.; Anderson, Ludmila; Martin, Nancy R.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a public health concern not just because of its growing prevalence but also for its serious and lasting health consequences. Though height and weight measures are easy to obtain and New Hampshire Head Start sites measure height and weight of their enrollees, there are numerous challenges related to accurate…

  19. Effects of Mathematics Content Knowledge on Pre-School Teachers' Performance: A Video-Based Assessment of Perception and Planning Abilities in Informal Learning Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunekacke, Simone; Jenßen, Lars; Blömeke, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the relation of pre-school teachers' mathematics content knowledge and their performance--how they perceive mathematical learning situations and whether they are able to plan adequate actions that foster children's learning--in the informal settings of pre-schools. It thus addresses a serious gap in teacher research that has…

  20. Accurate Optical Reference Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, N.

    2006-08-01

    Current and near future all-sky astrometric catalogs on the ICRF are reviewed with the emphasis on reference star data at optical wavelengths for user applications. The standard error of a Hipparcos Catalogue star position is now about 15 mas per coordinate. For the Tycho-2 data it is typically 20 to 100 mas, depending on magnitude. The USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC) observing program was completed in 2004 and reductions toward the final UCAC3 release are in progress. This all-sky reference catalogue will have positional errors of 15 to 70 mas for stars in the 10 to 16 mag range, with a high degree of completeness. Proper motions for the about 60 million UCAC stars will be derived by combining UCAC astrometry with available early epoch data, including yet unpublished scans of the complete set of AGK2, Hamburg Zone astrograph and USNO Black Birch programs. Accurate positional and proper motion data are combined in the Naval Observatory Merged Astrometric Dataset (NOMAD) which includes Hipparcos, Tycho-2, UCAC2, USNO-B1, NPM+SPM plate scan data for astrometry, and is supplemented by multi-band optical photometry as well as 2MASS near infrared photometry. The Milli-Arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (MAPS) mission is currently being planned at USNO. This is a micro-satellite to obtain 1 mas positions, parallaxes, and 1 mas/yr proper motions for all bright stars down to about 15th magnitude. This program will be supplemented by a ground-based program to reach 18th magnitude on the 5 mas level.

  1. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  2. Agoraphobia: A Situational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Austin; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Agoraphobia patients answered a questionnaire describing anxiety-producing situations. Home environment was associated with supportive company. Situations requiring patients to venture out alone were most anxiety-producing. The overriding importance of a significant other suggests treatment implications. (JAC)

  3. Dynamics of Situation Definition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Dongseop; Moro, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Situation definition is the process and product of actors' interpretive activities toward a given situation. By reviewing a number of psychological studies conducted in experimental settings, we found that the studies have only explicated a part of the situation definition process and have neglected its dynamic aspects. We need to focus on the…

  4. The NHLBI-Sponsored Consortium for preclinicAl assESsment of cARdioprotective Therapies (CAESAR): A New Paradigm for Rigorous, Accurate, and Reproducible Evaluation of Putative Infarct-Sparing Interventions in Mice, Rabbits, and Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Steven P.; Tang, Xian-Liang; Guo, Yiru; Steenbergen, Charles; Lefer, David J.; Kukreja, Rakesh C.; Kong, Maiying; Li, Qianhong; Bhushan, Shashi; Zhu, Xiaoping; Du, Junjie; Nong, Yibing; Stowers, Heather L.; Kondo, Kazuhisa; Hunt, Gregory N.; Goodchild, Traci T.; Orr, Adam; Chang, Carlos C.; Ockaili, Ramzi; Salloum, Fadi N.; Bolli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Despite four decades of intense effort and substantial financial investment, the cardioprotection field has failed to deliver a single drug that effectively reduces myocardial infarct size in patients. A major reason is insufficient rigor and reproducibility in preclinical studies. Objective To develop a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT)-like infrastructure to conduct rigorous and reproducible preclinical evaluation of cardioprotective therapies. Methods and Results With NHLBI support, we established the Consortium for preclinicAl assESsment of cARdioprotective therapies (CAESAR), based on the principles of randomization, investigator blinding, a priori sample size determination and exclusion criteria, appropriate statistical analyses, and assessment of reproducibility. To validate CAESAR, we tested the ability of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) to reduce infarct size in three species (at two sites/species): mice (n=22-25/group), rabbits (n=11-12/group), and pigs (n=13/group). During this validation phase, i) we established protocols that gave similar results between Centers and confirmed that IPC significantly reduced infarct size in all species, and ii) we successfully established a multi-center structure to support CAESAR’s operations, including two surgical Centers for each species, a Pathology Core (to assess infarct size), a Biomarker Core (to measure plasma cardiac troponin levels), and a Data Coordinating Center – all with the oversight of an external Protocol Review and Monitoring Committee. Conclusions CAESAR is operational, generates reproducible results, can detect cardioprotection, and provides a mechanism for assessing potential infarct-sparing therapies with a level of rigor analogous to multicenter RCTs. This is a revolutionary new approach to cardioprotection. Importantly, we provide state-of-the-art, detailed protocols (“CAESAR protocols”) for measuring infarct size in mice, rabbits, and pigs in a manner that is

  5. Leap of Faith: Does serum luteinizing hormone always accurately reflect central reproductive neuroendocrine activity?

    PubMed Central

    Moenter, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Function of the central aspects of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis has been assessed in a number of ways including direct measurements of hypothalamic output and indirect measures using gonadotropin release from the pituitary as a bioassay for reproductive neuroendocrine activity. Here, methods for monitoring these various parameters are briefly reviewed and then examples presented of both concordance and discrepancy between central and peripheral measurements, with a focus on situations in which elevated GnRH neurosecretion is not reflected accurately by pituitary luteinizing hormone release. Implications for interpretation of gonadotropin data are discussed. PMID:26278916

  6. The explosion at institute: modeling and analyzing the situation awareness factor.

    PubMed

    Naderpour, Mohsen; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan

    2014-12-01

    In 2008 a runaway chemical reaction caused an explosion at a methomyl unit in West Virginia, USA, killing two employees, injuring eight people, evacuating more than 40,000 residents adjacent to the facility, disrupting traffic on a nearby highway and causing significant business loss and interruption. Although the accident was formally investigated, the role of the situation awareness (SA) factor, i.e., a correct understanding of the situation, and appropriate models to maintain SA, remain unexplained. This paper extracts details of abnormal situations within the methomyl unit and models them into a situational network using dynamic Bayesian networks. A fuzzy logic system is used to resemble the operator's thinking when confronted with these abnormal situations. The combined situational network and fuzzy logic system make it possible for the operator to assess such situations dynamically to achieve accurate SA. The findings show that the proposed structure provides a useful graphical model that facilitates the inclusion of prior background knowledge and the updating of this knowledge when new information is available from monitoring systems. PMID:25247552

  7. The explosion at institute: modeling and analyzing the situation awareness factor.

    PubMed

    Naderpour, Mohsen; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan

    2014-12-01

    In 2008 a runaway chemical reaction caused an explosion at a methomyl unit in West Virginia, USA, killing two employees, injuring eight people, evacuating more than 40,000 residents adjacent to the facility, disrupting traffic on a nearby highway and causing significant business loss and interruption. Although the accident was formally investigated, the role of the situation awareness (SA) factor, i.e., a correct understanding of the situation, and appropriate models to maintain SA, remain unexplained. This paper extracts details of abnormal situations within the methomyl unit and models them into a situational network using dynamic Bayesian networks. A fuzzy logic system is used to resemble the operator's thinking when confronted with these abnormal situations. The combined situational network and fuzzy logic system make it possible for the operator to assess such situations dynamically to achieve accurate SA. The findings show that the proposed structure provides a useful graphical model that facilitates the inclusion of prior background knowledge and the updating of this knowledge when new information is available from monitoring systems.

  8. A schema-based model of situation awareness: Implications for measuring situation awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fracker, Martin L.

    1988-01-01

    Measures of pilot situation awareness (SA) are needed in order to know whether new concepts in display design help pilots keep track of rapidly changing tactical situations. In order to measure SA, a theory of situation assessment is needed. Such a theory is summarized, encompassing both a definition of SA and a model of situation assessment. SA is defined as the pilot's knowledge about a zone of interest at a given level of abstraction. Pilots develop this knowledge by sampling data from the environment and matching the sampled data to knowledge structures stored in long-term memory. Matched knowledge structures then provide the pilot's assessment of the situation and serve to guide his attention. A number of cognitive biases that result from the knowledge matching process are discussed, as are implications for partial report measures of situation awareness.

  9. The Rhetorical Situation Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garret, Mary; Xiao, Xiaosui

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and redefines a concept known as the "rhetorical situation" through an examination of the political discourse of China during the 19th-century Opium Wars. Arrives at three alterations to the "rhetorical situation" concerning the role of the audience, the role of the culture's discourse tradition, and the interactive and organic nature of…

  10. Situation Report--Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in Colombia are presented in this situation report. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background covers ethnic groups, language, religion, economy, communication/education, medical/social welfare, and…

  11. Application of a plume model for decision makers' situation awareness during an outdoor airborne HAZMAT release.

    PubMed

    Meris, Ronald G; Barbera, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    In a large-scale outdoor, airborne, hazardous materials (HAZMAT) incident, such as ruptured chlorine rail cars during a train derailment, the local Incident Commanders and HAZMAT emergency responders must obtain accurate information quickly to assess the situation and act promptly and appropriately. HAZMAT responders must have a clear understanding of key information and how to integrate it into timely and effective decisions for action planning. This study examined the use of HAZMAT plume modeling as a decision support tool during incident action planning in this type of extreme HAZMAT incident. The concept of situation awareness as presented by Endsley's dynamic situation awareness model contains three levels: perception, comprehension, and projection. It was used to examine the actions of incident managers related to adequate data acquisition, current situational understanding, and accurate situation projection. Scientists and engineers have created software to simulate and predict HAZMAT plume behavior, the projected hazard impact areas, and the associated health effects. Incorporating the use of HAZMAT plume projection modeling into an incident action plan may be a complex process. The present analysis used a mixed qualitative and quantitative methodological approach and examined the use and limitations of a "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" process that can be integrated into the incident action planning cycle. HAZMAT response experts were interviewed using a computer-based simulation. One of the research conclusions indicated the "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" is a critical function so that an individual/team can be tasked with continually updating the hazard plume model with evolving data, promoting more accurate situation awareness.

  12. Application of a plume model for decision makers' situation awareness during an outdoor airborne HAZMAT release.

    PubMed

    Meris, Ronald G; Barbera, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    In a large-scale outdoor, airborne, hazardous materials (HAZMAT) incident, such as ruptured chlorine rail cars during a train derailment, the local Incident Commanders and HAZMAT emergency responders must obtain accurate information quickly to assess the situation and act promptly and appropriately. HAZMAT responders must have a clear understanding of key information and how to integrate it into timely and effective decisions for action planning. This study examined the use of HAZMAT plume modeling as a decision support tool during incident action planning in this type of extreme HAZMAT incident. The concept of situation awareness as presented by Endsley's dynamic situation awareness model contains three levels: perception, comprehension, and projection. It was used to examine the actions of incident managers related to adequate data acquisition, current situational understanding, and accurate situation projection. Scientists and engineers have created software to simulate and predict HAZMAT plume behavior, the projected hazard impact areas, and the associated health effects. Incorporating the use of HAZMAT plume projection modeling into an incident action plan may be a complex process. The present analysis used a mixed qualitative and quantitative methodological approach and examined the use and limitations of a "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" process that can be integrated into the incident action planning cycle. HAZMAT response experts were interviewed using a computer-based simulation. One of the research conclusions indicated the "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" is a critical function so that an individual/team can be tasked with continually updating the hazard plume model with evolving data, promoting more accurate situation awareness. PMID:25350360

  13. Using Television for Teaching a Second Language Through Dramatized Every Day Situations; An Assessment of Effects on Active Speech and On Understanding Dialogues Presented by Other Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidhar, Hava

    A series of experiments explored the use of television in Israel to teach English to Hebrew-Speaking students. The emphasis of the experiments was on assessing the ways in which television can be used to fulfill specific tasks in language instruction that are not easily fulfilled by the classroom teachers. Ninth graders were divided into two…

  14. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  15. NNLOPS accurate associated HW production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astill, William; Bizon, Wojciech; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2016-06-01

    We present a next-to-next-to-leading order accurate description of associated HW production consistently matched to a parton shower. The method is based on reweighting events obtained with the HW plus one jet NLO accurate calculation implemented in POWHEG, extended with the MiNLO procedure, to reproduce NNLO accurate Born distributions. Since the Born kinematics is more complex than the cases treated before, we use a parametrization of the Collins-Soper angles to reduce the number of variables required for the reweighting. We present phenomenological results at 13 TeV, with cuts suggested by the Higgs Cross section Working Group.

  16. Individual and Situational Influences on Men's Responses to Dating and Social Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Tim; Yeater, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    This study employed multilevel modeling to evaluate individual and situational influences on men's responses to hypothetical dating and social situations. Three hundred and fifty college men completed measures assessing their propensity for sexual aggression and provided written responses to 10 written vignettes, each of which was followed by four…

  17. Situation of linkage between sexual and reproductive health and HIV-related policies in Islamic Republic of Iran – a rapid assessment in 2011–2

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Ghobad; Khoshravesh, Sahar; Hosseiny, Mozhgan

    2015-01-01

    The number of sexual transmission of HIV is increasing globally. Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) issues and HIV/AIDS related problems are rooted in common grounds such as poverty, gender inequality, and social exclusion. As a result, international health organizations have suggested the integration of SRH services with HIV/AIDS services as a strategy to control HIV and to improve people’s access to SRH services. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between reproductive health and HIV/AIDS services at policy-making level in Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI). This study was conducted in 2011–2 and was a rapid assessment based on guidelines provided by the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Family Health International Association, and some other international organizations. In this rapid assessment we used different methods such as a review of literature and documents, visiting and interviewing professionals and experts in family health and HIV/AIDS programs, and experts working in some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Overall, based on the results obtained in this study, in most cases there was not much linkage between HIV/AIDS policies and SRH policies in Iran. Since integration of HIV/AIDS services and SRH services is recommended as a model and an appropriate response to HIV epidemics worldwide, likewise to control the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Iran it is required to integrate HIV/AIDS and SRH services at all levels, particularly at the policy-making level. PMID:25774370

  18. Understanding existing exposure situations.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J-F

    2016-06-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 removed the distinction between practices and interventions, and introduced three types of exposure situation: existing, planned, and emergency. It also emphasised the optimisation principle in connection with individual dose restrictions for all controllable exposure situations. Existing exposure situations are those resulting from sources, natural or man-made, that already exist when a decision on control has to be taken. They have common features to be taken into account when implementing general recommendations, such as: the source may be difficult to control; all exposures cannot be anticipated; protective actions can only be implemented after characterisation of the exposure situation; time may be needed to reduce exposure below the reference level; levels of exposure are highly dependent on individual behaviour and present a wide spread of individual dose distribution; exposures at work may be adventitious and not considered as occupational exposure; there is generally no potential for accident; many stakeholders have to be involved; and many factors need to be considered. ICRP is currently developing a series of reports related to the practical implementation of Publication 103 to various existing exposure situations, including exposure from radon, exposure from cosmic radiation in aviation, exposure from processes using naturally occurring radioactive material, and exposure from contaminated sites due to past activities. PMID:26975365

  19. Personalizing situation awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Linn Marks; Powell, James E; Roman, Jorge R; Martinez, Mark L B; Mane, Ketan K

    2009-01-01

    Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.

  20. [Standardization of measurement of catalytic activity concentration of enzymes--current situation regarding the external quality assessment program provided by the Japan Medical Association].

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Masato

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the catalytic activity concentration of enzymes has been standardized using a traceability chain, consisting a reference measurement system for enzyme catalytic activity and reference standard-JSCC enzyme. The Japan Medical Association (JMA) has provided an external quality assessment (EQA) survey program for clinical laboratory testing. More than 3,100 clinical laboratories participated in 2008. The EQA program indicated that standardization of the measurement of the catalytic activity concentration of enzymes has been completed for AST, ALT, LD, ALP, gammaGT, and CK in more than 90% laboratories, and for Amy and ChE in nearly 80% of laboratories. Because such a large survey program must use artificial specimens, a matrix effect cannot be avoided, especially in dry chemistry. However, the bias produced by a matrix effect usually has a predictable tendency: it can be corrected. Next, after standardization of the measurement of the catalytic activity concentration of enzymes, we should develop and use common reference intervals. On completing the standardization, we can make standard medical decisions using reference measurement systems and rules.

  1. Situational theory of leadership.

    PubMed

    Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T

    1989-11-01

    The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services.

  2. Visual function assessment in simulated real-life situations in patients with age-related macular degeneration compared to normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Barteselli, G; Gomez, M L; Doede, A L; Chhablani, J; Gutstein, W; Bartsch, D-U; Dustin, L; Azen, S P; Freeman, W R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate visual function variations in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compared to normal eyes under different light/contrast conditions using a time-dependent visual acuity testing instrument, the Central Vision Analyzer (CVA). Methods Overall, 37 AMD eyes and 35 normal eyes were consecutively tested with the CVA after assessing best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) using ETDRS charts. The CVA established visual thresholds for three mesopic environments (M1 (high contrast), M2 (medium contrast), and M3 (low contrast)) and three backlight-glare environments (G1 (high contrast, equivalent to ETDRS), G2 (medium contrast), and G3 (low contrast)) under timed conditions. Vision drop across environments was calculated, and repeatability of visual scores was determined. Results BCVA significantly reduced with decreasing contrast in all eyes. M1 scores for BCVA were greater than M2 and M3 (P<0.001); G1 scores were greater than G2 and G3 (P<0.01). BCVA dropped more in AMD eyes than in normal eyes between M1 and M2 (P=0.002) and between M1 and M3 (P=0.003). In AMD eyes, BCVA was better using ETDRS charts compared to G1 (P<0.001). The drop in visual function between ETDRS and G1 was greater in AMD eyes compared to normal eyes (P=0.004). Standard deviations of test–retest ranged from 0.100 to 0.139 logMAR. Conclusion The CVA allowed analysis of the visual complaints that AMD patients experience with different lighting/contrast time-dependent conditions. BCVA changed significantly under different lighting/contrast conditions in all eyes, however, AMD eyes were more affected by contrast reduction than normal eyes. In AMD eyes, timed conditions using the CVA led to worse BCVA compared to non-timed ETDRS charts. PMID:25081294

  3. Accurately Mapping M31's Microlensing Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin

    2004-07-01

    We propose to augment an existing microlensing survey of M31 with source identifications provided by a modest amount of ACS {and WFPC2 parallel} observations to yield an accurate measurement of the masses responsible for microlensing in M31, and presumably much of its dark matter. The main benefit of these data is the determination of the physical {or "einstein"} timescale of each microlensing event, rather than an effective {"FWHM"} timescale, allowing masses to be determined more than twice as accurately as without HST data. The einstein timescale is the ratio of the lensing cross-sectional radius and relative velocities. Velocities are known from kinematics, and the cross-section is directly proportional to the {unknown} lensing mass. We cannot easily measure these quantities without knowing the amplification, hence the baseline magnitude, which requires the resolution of HST to find the source star. This makes a crucial difference because M31 lens m ass determinations can be more accurate than those towards the Magellanic Clouds through our Galaxy's halo {for the same number of microlensing events} due to the better constrained geometry in the M31 microlensing situation. Furthermore, our larger survey, just completed, should yield at least 100 M31 microlensing events, more than any Magellanic survey. A small amount of ACS+WFPC2 imaging will deliver the potential of this large database {about 350 nights}. For the whole survey {and a delta-function mass distribution} the mass error should approach only about 15%, or about 6% error in slope for a power-law distribution. These results will better allow us to pinpoint the lens halo fraction, and the shape of the halo lens spatial distribution, and allow generalization/comparison of the nature of halo dark matter in spiral galaxies. In addition, we will be able to establish the baseline magnitude for about 50, 000 variable stars, as well as measure an unprecedentedly deta iled color-magnitude diagram and luminosity

  4. Texas Irrigation Situation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The irrigation situation in Texas is an interaction between hydrology and water policies. In 2012, according to National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) four High Plains counties, Gainesville, Yoakum, Terry and Cochran, accounted for approximately 60% of the 150,000 acres of peanut productio...

  5. Situated clinical cognition.

    PubMed

    Timpka, T

    1995-10-01

    The features characterizing study of clinical cognition in situ are formulated as: Re-cognition of context, culture, history and affect. Socializing and phenomenalistic elements are again included in the research agenda. Interest for representations: an analysis level is reserved for the symbols, rules and images relevant to define in models of clinical cognition. De-emphasis on computer modeling: investigations focus on the 'functional systems' in which computers are involved. Rootedness in classical philosophical problems: issues concerning situated clinical cognition are connected to the width of available theoretical literature. Belief in interdisciplinary studies: productive interactions between the new and traditional disciplines is anticipated, implying that new shared methods have to be developed. When scientific perspectives are broadened, a new balance has to be found between the relevance of the subject of study and methodological rigor. The situated clinical cognition framework is to allow for moving between models, theories, and perspectives, as it does not presuppose a singular model of clinical thinking.

  6. Profitable capitation requires accurate costing.

    PubMed

    West, D A; Hicks, L L; Balas, E A; West, T D

    1996-01-01

    In the name of costing accuracy, nurses are asked to track inventory use on per treatment basis when more significant costs, such as general overhead and nursing salaries, are usually allocated to patients or treatments on an average cost basis. Accurate treatment costing and financial viability require analysis of all resources actually consumed in treatment delivery, including nursing services and inventory. More precise costing information enables more profitable decisions as is demonstrated by comparing the ratio-of-cost-to-treatment method (aggregate costing) with alternative activity-based costing methods (ABC). Nurses must participate in this costing process to assure that capitation bids are based upon accurate costs rather than simple averages. PMID:8788799

  7. Accurate density functional thermochemistry for larger molecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavachari, K.; Stefanov, B. B.; Curtiss, L. A.; Lucent Tech.

    1997-06-20

    Density functional methods are combined with isodesmic bond separation reaction energies to yield accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules. Seven different density functionals are assessed for the evaluation of heats of formation, Delta H 0 (298 K), for a test set of 40 molecules composed of H, C, O and N. The use of bond separation energies results in a dramatic improvement in the accuracy of all the density functionals. The B3-LYP functional has the smallest mean absolute deviation from experiment (1.5 kcal mol/f).

  8. Cooperative analysis expert situation assessment research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccown, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    For the past few decades, Rome Air Development Center (RADC) has been conducting research in Artificial Intelligence (AI). When the recent advances in hardware technology made many AI techniques practical, the Intelligence and Reconnaissance Directorate of RADC initiated an applications program entitled Knowledge Based Intelligence Systems (KBIS). The goal of the program is the development of a generic Intelligent Analyst System, an open machine with the framework for intelligence analysis, natural language processing, and man-machine interface techniques, needing only the specific problem domain knowledge to be operationally useful. The development of KBIS is described.

  9. Putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: evidence from intercultural multimedia SJTs.

    PubMed

    Rockstuhl, Thomas; Ang, Soon; Ng, Kok-Yee; Lievens, Filip; Van Dyne, Linn

    2015-03-01

    Although the term situational judgment test (SJT) implies judging situations, existing SJTs focus more on judging the effectiveness of different response options (i.e., response judgment) and less on how people perceive and interpret situations (i.e., situational judgment). We expand the traditional SJT paradigm and propose that adding explicit assessments of situational judgment to SJTs will provide incremental information beyond that provided by response judgment. We test this hypothesis across 4 studies using intercultural multimedia SJTs. Study 1 uses verbal protocol analysis to discover the situational judgments people make when responding to SJT items. Study 2 shows situational judgment predicts time-lagged, peer-rated task performance and interpersonal citizenship among undergraduate seniors over and above response judgment and other established predictors. Study 3 shows providing situational judgment did not affect the predictive validity of response judgment. Study 4 replicates Study 2 in a working adult sample. We discuss implications for SJT theory as well as the practical implications of putting judging situations back into SJTs. PMID:25285384

  10. Putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: evidence from intercultural multimedia SJTs.

    PubMed

    Rockstuhl, Thomas; Ang, Soon; Ng, Kok-Yee; Lievens, Filip; Van Dyne, Linn

    2015-03-01

    Although the term situational judgment test (SJT) implies judging situations, existing SJTs focus more on judging the effectiveness of different response options (i.e., response judgment) and less on how people perceive and interpret situations (i.e., situational judgment). We expand the traditional SJT paradigm and propose that adding explicit assessments of situational judgment to SJTs will provide incremental information beyond that provided by response judgment. We test this hypothesis across 4 studies using intercultural multimedia SJTs. Study 1 uses verbal protocol analysis to discover the situational judgments people make when responding to SJT items. Study 2 shows situational judgment predicts time-lagged, peer-rated task performance and interpersonal citizenship among undergraduate seniors over and above response judgment and other established predictors. Study 3 shows providing situational judgment did not affect the predictive validity of response judgment. Study 4 replicates Study 2 in a working adult sample. We discuss implications for SJT theory as well as the practical implications of putting judging situations back into SJTs.

  11. Gestalt operating room display design for perioperative team situation awareness.

    PubMed

    Lai, Fuji; Spitz, Gabriel; Brzezinski, Philip

    2006-01-01

    The perioperative environment is a complex, high risk environment that requires real-time coordination by all perioperative team members and accurate, up-to-date information for situation assessment and decision-making. There is the need for a "Gestalt" holistic awareness of the perioperative environment to enable synthesis and contextualization of the salient information such as: patient information, case and procedure information, staff information, operative site view, physiological data, resource availability. One potential approach is to augment the medical toolkit with a large screen wall display that integrates and makes accessible information that currently resides in different data systems and care providers. The objectives are to promote safe workflows, team coordination and communication, and to enable diagnosis, anticipation of events, and information flow from upstream to downstream care providers. We used the human factors engineering design process to design and develop a display that provides a common operational picture for shared virtual perioperative team situation awareness to enhance patient safety. PMID:16404062

  12. Graphical arterial blood gas visualization tool supports rapid and accurate data interpretation.

    PubMed

    Doig, Alexa K; Albert, Robert W; Syroid, Noah D; Moon, Shaun; Agutter, Jim A

    2011-04-01

    A visualization tool that integrates numeric information from an arterial blood gas report with novel graphics was designed for the purpose of promoting rapid and accurate interpretation of acid-base data. A study compared data interpretation performance when arterial blood gas results were presented in a traditional numerical list versus the graphical visualization tool. Critical-care nurses (n = 15) and nursing students (n = 15) were significantly more accurate identifying acid-base states and assessing trends in acid-base data when using the graphical visualization tool. Critical-care nurses and nursing students using traditional numerical data had an average accuracy of 69% and 74%, respectively. Using the visualization tool, average accuracy improved to 83% for critical-care nurses and 93% for nursing students. Analysis of response times demonstrated that the visualization tool might help nurses overcome the "speed/accuracy trade-off" during high-stress situations when rapid decisions must be rendered. Perceived mental workload was significantly reduced for nursing students when they used the graphical visualization tool. In this study, the effects of implementing the graphical visualization were greater for nursing students than for critical-care nurses, which may indicate that the experienced nurses needed more training and use of the new technology prior to testing to show similar gains. Results of the objective and subjective evaluations support the integration of this graphical visualization tool into clinical environments that require accurate and timely interpretation of arterial blood gas data.

  13. The depressive situation

    PubMed Central

    A. Jacobs, Kerrin

    2013-01-01

    From a naturalistic perspective on mental illness, depression is often described in terms of biological dysfunctions, while a normative perspective emphasizes the lived experience of depression as a harmful condition. The paper relates a conceptual analysis of “depressive situation” to an analysis of the lived experience of depression. As such, it predominantly aims to specify depression as a harmful condition in lights of normative perspective on mental disorder, but partially refers to empirical research, i.e., naturalistic perspective on depression, to exemplarily stress on the methodological merits and limits of relating phenomenological considerations closer to empirical research. The depressive situation is further specified with an examination of the evaluative dynamics by which individuals meaningfully relate to themselves, others and the world. These evaluative dynamics emerge out of the interplay of pre-reflective and reflective processes, which are significantly altered in depression. Such alterations of the evaluative structure are inextricably intertwined with significant distortions of practical sense in depression. From a phenomenological perspective, these distortions of practical sense show in characteristic experiences of evaluative incoherence and impairments of agency. Finally, this paper focuses on an examination of “evaluative incapacity,” which has the integrative potential to capture a range of typical changes of meaningful relatedness that determine the depressive situation. PMID:23882238

  14. Evaluation in a Situated Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary

    1993-01-01

    Examines evaluation in a situated learning context. Topics discussed include a model for evaluation in a computer learning environment; portfolios, including written, electronic, and video formats; summary statistics; diagnosis; reflection and self-assessment; story construction or scenario design; learners as designers of instruction; and…

  15. Measuring Situational Interest in Academic Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Durik, Amanda M.; Conley, AnneMarie M.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Tauer, John M.; Karabenick, Stuart A.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2010-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to develop and validate scores on a new measure appropriate for assessing adolescents' situational interest (SI) across various academic settings. In Study 1 (n = 858), a self-report questionnaire was administered to undergraduates in introductory psychology. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) supported a three-factor…

  16. Intergroup Anxiety: A Person X Situation Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Thomas W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Offers a person X situation approach to the study of intergroup anxiety in which anxiety in intergroup encounters is viewed as a transaction between the individual and the environment. An individual difference measure of intergroup anxiety toward African Americans is developed. Presents studies assessing the scale's reliability and validity.…

  17. Cross-Situational Word Learning in the Right Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dautriche, Isabelle; Chemla, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Upon hearing a novel word, language learners must identify its correct meaning from a diverse set of situationally relevant options. Such referential ambiguity could be reduced through "repetitive" exposure to the novel word across diverging learning situations, a learning mechanism referred to as "cross-situational learning."…

  18. SPLASH: Accurate OH maser positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Andrew; Gomez, Jose F.; Jones, Paul; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James; Dawson, Joanne; Ellingsen, Simon; Breen, Shari; Imai, Hiroshi; Lowe, Vicki; Jones, Courtney

    2013-10-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) 18 cm lines are powerful and versatile probes of diffuse molecular gas, that may trace a largely unstudied component of the Galactic ISM. SPLASH (the Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl) is a large, unbiased and fully-sampled survey of OH emission, absorption and masers in the Galactic Plane that will achieve sensitivities an order of magnitude better than previous work. In this proposal, we request ATCA time to follow up OH maser candidates. This will give us accurate (~10") positions of the masers, which can be compared to other maser positions from HOPS, MMB and MALT-45 and will provide full polarisation measurements towards a sample of OH masers that have not been observed in MAGMO.

  19. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  20. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-03-29

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  1. The situated nature of concepts.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Wenchi; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2006-01-01

    For decades the importance of background situations has been documented across all areas of cognition. Nevertheless, theories of concepts generally ignore background situations, focusing largely on bottom-up, stimulus-based processing. Furthermore, empirical research on concepts typically ignores background situations, not incorporating them into experimental designs. A selective review of relevant literatures demonstrates that concepts are not abstracted out of situations but instead are situated. Background situations constrain conceptual processing in many tasks (e.g., recall, recognition, categorization, lexical decision, color naming, property verification, property generation) across many areas of cognition (e.g., episodic memory, conceptual processing, visual object recognition, language comprehension). A taxonomy of situations is proposed in which grain size, meaningfulness, and tangibility distinguish the cumulative situations that structure cognition hierarchically.

  2. Decoding of Baby Calls: Can Adult Humans Identify the Eliciting Situation from Emotional Vocalizations of Preverbal Infants?

    PubMed

    Lindová, Jitka; Špinka, Marek; Nováková, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Preverbal infants often vocalize in emotionally loaded situations, yet the communicative potential of these vocalizations is not well understood. The aim of our study was to assess how accurately adult listeners extract information about the eliciting situation from infant preverbal vocalizations. Vocalizations of 19 infants aged 5-10 months were recorded in 3 negative (Pain, Isolation, Demand for Food) and 3 positive (Play, Reunion, After Feeding) situations. The recordings were later rated by 333 adult listeners on the scales of emotional valence and intensity. Subsequently, the listeners assigned the eliciting situations in a forced choice task. Listeners were almost perfectly able to discriminate whether a recording came from a negative or a positive situation. Their discrimination may have been based on perceived valence as they consistently assigned higher valence when listening to positive, and lower valence when listening to negative, recordings. Ability to identify the particular situation within the negative or positive realm was substantially weaker, with only three of the six situations being discriminated above chance. The best discriminated situation, Play, was associated with high perceived intensity. The weak qualitative discrimination of negative situations seemed to be based on graded perception of negative recordings, from the most intense and unpleasant (assigned to Pain) to the least intense and least unpleasant (assigned to Demand for Food). Parenthood and younger age, but not gender of listeners, had weak positive effects on the accuracy of judgments. Our results indicate that adults almost flawlessly distinguish positive and negative infant sounds, but are rather inaccurate regarding identification of the specific needs of the infant and may normally employ other sensory channels to gain this information.

  3. Instructional Design for Situated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the design of situated learning and the ecological psychology of situated cognition. Topics addressed include the teacher's role; teacher training; anchored instruction; transfer skills; the meaning of learning; apprenticeships; and the Jasper Series, a macrocontext designed to investigate the issues of situated learning. (46 references)…

  4. Simulation, situated conceptualization, and prediction.

    PubMed

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2009-05-12

    Based on accumulating evidence, simulation appears to be a basic computational mechanism in the brain that supports a broad spectrum of processes from perception to social cognition. Further evidence suggests that simulation is typically situated, with the situated character of experience in the environment being reflected in the situated character of the representations that underlie simulation. A basic architecture is sketched of how the brain implements situated simulation. Within this framework, simulators implement the concepts that underlie knowledge, and situated conceptualizations capture patterns of multi-modal simulation associated with frequently experienced situations. A pattern completion inference mechanism uses current perception to activate situated conceptualizations that produce predictions via simulations on relevant modalities. Empirical findings from perception, action, working memory, conceptual processing, language and social cognition illustrate how this framework produces the extensive prediction that characterizes natural intelligence.

  5. Solutions for Hot Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    From the company that brought the world an integral heating and cooling food service system after originally developing it for NASA's Apollo Program, comes yet another orbital offshoot: a product that can be as thin as paper and as strong as steel. Nextel Ceramic Textiles and Composites from 3M Company offer space-age protection and innovative solutions for hot situations, ranging from NASA to NASCAR. With superior thermal protection, Nextel fabrics, tape, and sleevings outperform other high temperature textiles such as aramids, carbon, glass, and quartz, permitting engineers and manufacturers to handle applications up to 2,500 F (1,371 C). The stiffness and strength of Nextel Continuous Ceramic Fibers make them a great match for improving the rigidity of aluminum in metal matrix composites. Moreover, the fibers demonstrate low shrinkage at operating temperatures, which allow for the manufacturing of a dimensionally stable product. These novel fibers also offer excellent chemical resistance, low thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, low porosity, and unique electrical properties.

  6. Important Nearby Galaxies without Accurate Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) and its offspring programs (e.g., THINGS, HERACLES, KINGFISH) have resulted in a fundamental change in our view of star formation and the ISM in galaxies, and together they represent the most complete multi-wavelength data set yet assembled for a large sample of nearby galaxies. These great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the goal of understanding the interstellar medium, the star formation process, and, more generally, galactic evolution at the present epoch. Nearby galaxies provide the basis for which we interpret the distant universe, and the SINGS sample represents the best studied nearby galaxies.Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of galaxies. Surprisingly, many of the SINGS spiral galaxies have numerous distance estimates resulting in confusion. We can rectify this situation for 8 of the SINGS spiral galaxies within 10 Mpc at a very low cost through measurements of the tip of the red giant branch. The proposed observations will provide an accuracy of better than 0.1 in distance modulus. Our sample includes such well known galaxies as M51 (the Whirlpool), M63 (the Sunflower), M104 (the Sombrero), and M74 (the archetypal grand design spiral).We are also proposing coordinated parallel WFC3 UV observations of the central regions of the galaxies, rich with high-mass UV-bright stars. As a secondary science goal we will compare the resolved UV stellar populations with integrated UV emission measurements used in calibrating star formation rates. Our observations will complement the growing HST UV atlas of high resolution images of nearby galaxies.

  7. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  8. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  9. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  10. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  11. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  12. Accurate pressure gradient calculations in hydrostatic atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, John J.; Mendez-Nunez, Luis R.; Tanrikulu, Saffet

    1987-01-01

    A method for the accurate calculation of the horizontal pressure gradient acceleration in hydrostatic atmospheric models is presented which is especially useful in situations where the isothermal surfaces are not parallel to the vertical coordinate surfaces. The present method is shown to be exact if the potential temperature lapse rate is constant between the vertical pressure integration limits. The technique is applied to both the integration of the hydrostatic equation and the computation of the slope correction term in the horizontal pressure gradient. A fixed vertical grid and a dynamic grid defined by the significant levels in the vertical temperature distribution are employed.

  13. Modeling the situation awareness by the analysis of cognitive process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Wanyan, Xiaoru; Zhuang, Damin

    2014-01-01

    To predict changes of situation awareness (SA) for pilot operating with different display interfaces and tasks, a qualitative analysis and quantitative calculation joint SA model was proposed. Based on the situational awareness model according to the attention allocation built previously, the pilot cognitive process for the situation elements was analyzed according to the ACT-R (Adaptive Control of Thought, Rational) theory, which explained how the SA was produced. To verify the validity of this model, 28 subjects performed an instrument supervision task under different experiment conditions. Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), 10-dimensional Situational Awareness Rating Technique (10-D SART), performance measure and eye movement measure were adopted for evaluating SAs under different conditions. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the changing trend of SA calculated by this model was highly correlated with the experimental results. Therefore the situational awareness model can provide a reference for designing new cockpit display interfaces and help reducing human errors. PMID:25226931

  14. Situational awareness in the commercial aircraft cockpit - A cognitive perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Marilyn J.; Pew, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    A cognitive theory is presented that has relevance for the definition and assessment of situational awareness in the cockpit. The theory asserts that maintenance of situation awareness is a constructive process that demands mental resources in competition with ongoing task performance. Implications of this perspective for assessing and improving situational awareness are discussed. It is concluded that the goal of inserting advanced technology into any system is that it results in an increase in the effectiveness, timeliness, and safety with which the system's activities can be accomplished. The inherent difficulties of the multitask situation are very often compounded by the introduction of automation. To maximize situational awareness, the dynamics and capabilities of such technologies must be designed with thorough respect for the dynamics and capabilities of human information-processing.

  15. Accurate Mass Measurements in Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tao; Belov, Mikhail E.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-08-01

    To understand different aspects of life at the molecular level, one would think that ideally all components of specific processes should be individually isolated and studied in details. Reductionist approaches, i.e., studying one biological event at a one-gene or one-protein-at-a-time basis, indeed have made significant contributions to our understanding of many basic facts of biology. However, these individual “building blocks” can not be visualized as a comprehensive “model” of the life of cells, tissues, and organisms, without using more integrative approaches.1,2 For example, the emerging field of “systems biology” aims to quantify all of the components of a biological system to assess their interactions and to integrate diverse types of information obtainable from this system into models that could explain and predict behaviors.3-6 Recent breakthroughs in genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics are making this daunting task a reality.7-14 Proteomics, the systematic study of the entire complement of proteins expressed by an organism, tissue, or cell under a specific set of conditions at a specific time (i.e., the proteome), has become an essential enabling component of systems biology. While the genome of an organism may be considered static over short timescales, the expression of that genome as the actual gene products (i.e., mRNAs and proteins) is a dynamic event that is constantly changing due to the influence of environmental and physiological conditions. Exclusive monitoring of the transcriptomes can be carried out using high-throughput cDNA microarray analysis,15-17 however the measured mRNA levels do not necessarily correlate strongly with the corresponding abundances of proteins,18-20 The actual amount of functional proteins can be altered significantly and become independent of mRNA levels as a result of post-translational modifications (PTMs),21 alternative splicing,22,23 and protein turnover.24,25 Moreover, the functions of expressed

  16. Eso's Situation in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    the purpose to do science and not to participate in polemics or litigations. For this reason, ESO has until now been silent in these matters, but we have now become obliged to make our opinion known". The ESO representative also made it clear, that "ESO does not question the rights of the claimants to recur to the Chilean Tribunals which must decide on the matter of ownership, and that ESO cannot be party to this lawsuit". He added that "ESO fully trusts that the Chilean Government will do whatever is necessary to defend the immunity of ESO". THE CURRENT SITUATION During the past few days, declarations from high officials at the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs have been made which clearly confirm ESO's immunity of jurisdiction from Chilean Courts. The same opinion has been ventured by Chilean experts in international law, quoted in various Chilean newspapers. On Friday, February 17, the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose M. Insulza, made a similar, very eloquent statement. ESO welcomes these articulate expressions that support its official position and trusts that the current situation will be speedily resolved by the competent Chilean authorities, so that the construction work at Paranal will not be stopped. During the past three decades, ESO's presence in Chile has been characterised by good relations to all sides. The development of astronomy in Chile during the past decades has reached such a level that it will now benefit from a new quality of cooperation. In addition to its past and numerous services to Chilean astronomy, ESO has recently considered to establish a "guaranteed" observing time for astronomers from this country, both at La Silla and the future VLT observatory on Paranal. With a proposed 10 percent quota for the VLT, Chilean astronomers will in fact have free access to the equivalent of 40 percent of one 8.2-metre telescope; the associated, not insignificant cost is entirely carried by ESO. ESO has also considered to incorporate

  17. Biology-inspired Architecture for Situation Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Lodding, Kenneth N.; Olariu, Stephan; Wilson, Larry; Xin, Chunsheng

    2006-01-01

    Situation Management is a rapidly developing science combining new techniques for data collection with advanced methods of data fusion to facilitate the process leading to correct decisions prescribing action. Current research focuses on reducing increasing amounts of diverse data to knowledge used by decision makers and on reducing time between observations, decisions and actions. No new technology is more promising for increasing the diversity and fidelity of observations than sensor networks. However, current research on sensor networks concentrates on a centralized network architecture. We believe this trend will not realize the full potential of situation management. We propose a new architecture modeled after biological ecosystems where motes are autonomous and intelligent, yet cooperate with local neighborhoods. Providing a layered approach, they sense and act independently when possible, and cooperate with neighborhoods when necessary. The combination of their local actions results in global effects. While situation management research is currently dominated by military applications, advances envisioned for industrial and business applications have similar requirements. NASA has requirements for intelligent and autonomous systems in future missions that can benefit from advances in situation management. We describe requirements for the Integrated Vehicle Health Management program where our biology-inspired architecture provides a layered approach and decisions can be made at the proper level to improve safety, reduce costs, and improve efficiency in making diagnostic and prognostic assessments of the structural integrity, aerodynamic characteristics, and operation of aircraft.

  18. Situation exploration in a persistent surveillance system with multidimensional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad S.

    2013-03-01

    There is an emerging need for fusing hard and soft sensor data in an efficient surveillance system to provide accurate estimation of situation awareness. These mostly abstract, multi-dimensional and multi-sensor data pose a great challenge to the user in performing analysis of multi-threaded events efficiently and cohesively. To address this concern an interactive Visual Analytics (VA) application is developed for rapid assessment and evaluation of different hypotheses based on context-sensitive ontology spawn from taxonomies describing human/human and human/vehicle/object interactions. A methodology is described here for generating relevant ontology in a Persistent Surveillance System (PSS) and demonstrates how they can be utilized in the context of PSS to track and identify group activities pertaining to potential threats. The proposed VA system allows for visual analysis of raw data as well as metadata that have spatiotemporal representation and content-based implications. Additionally in this paper, a technique for rapid search of tagged information contingent to ranking and confidence is explained for analysis of multi-dimensional data. Lastly the issue of uncertainty associated with processing and interpretation of heterogeneous data is also addressed.

  19. Assessing Genome-Wide Statistical Significance for Large p Small n Problems

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Guoqing; Vidyashankar, Anand N.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing genome-wide statistical significance is an important issue in genetic studies. We describe a new resampling approach for determining the appropriate thresholds for statistical significance. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach accurately controls the genome-wide type I error rate even under the large p small n situations. PMID:23666935

  20. Assessing genome-wide statistical significance for large p small n problems.

    PubMed

    Diao, Guoqing; Vidyashankar, Anand N

    2013-07-01

    Assessing genome-wide statistical significance is an important issue in genetic studies. We describe a new resampling approach for determining the appropriate thresholds for statistical significance. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach accurately controls the genome-wide type I error rate even under the large p small n situations.

  1. Assessing the Dimensionality of Item Response Matrices with Small Sample Sizes and Short Test Lengths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Champlain, Andre; Gessaroli, Marc E.

    The use of indices and statistics based on nonlinear factor analysis (NLFA) has become increasingly popular as a means of assessing the dimensionality of an item response matrix. Although the indices and statistics currently available to the practitioner have been shown to be useful and accurate in many testing situations, few studies have…

  2. The Language Situation in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoud, Mohamed

    2001-01-01

    Describes the current language situation in Tunisia while maintaining a historical perspective that is helpful in understanding how language-related changes have come about, and a prospective view that may illuminate future developments. (Author/VWL)

  3. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. Data Sources: CINAHL (1982–2002), MEDLINE (1990–2001), SPORT Discus (1949–2002), ERIC (1966–2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. Data Synthesis: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. Conclusions/Recommendations: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession. PMID:12937555

  4. Situation Awareness and Workload Measures for SAFOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe; Hart, Sandra G.; Allen, Ed (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The present research was conducted in support of the NASA Safe All-Weather Flight Operations for Rotorcraft (SAFOR) program. The purpose of the work was to investigate the utility of two measurement tools developed by the British Defense Evaluation Research Agency. These tools were a subjective workload assessment scale, the DRA Workload Scale (DRAWS), and a situation awareness measurement tool in which the crews self-evaluation of performance is compared against actual performance. These two measurement tools were evaluated in the context of a test of an innovative approach to alerting the crew by way of a helmet mounted display. The DRAWS was found to be usable, but it offered no advantages over extant scales, and it had only limited resolution. The performance self-evaluation metric of situation awareness was found to be highly effective.

  5. Biosimilars in Dermatology: Current Situation (Part I).

    PubMed

    Puig, L; Carretero, G; Daudén, E; Ferrándiz, C; Marrón, S E; Martorell, A; Pérez-Suárez, B; Rodriguez-Cerdeira, C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Velasco, M

    2015-09-01

    The first biosimilar version of a biologic agent used to treat psoriasis (infliximab) entered the Spanish market on February 16 of this year, and more biosimilars can be expected to follow in the coming months and years. Logically, this new situation will have economic repercussions and alter prescribing patterns among dermatologists. In this article, we review regulatory issues related to the approval of biosimilars, with a particular focus on the situation in the European Union. We will examine analytical characterization studies and special considerations for clinical trials with biosimilars, and also look at several somewhat contentious issues, such as the extrapolation of indications, interchangeability, and automatic substitution. Finally, we will review the biosimilars with indications for psoriasis currently in the clinical development pipeline and assess their potential to offer comparable efficacy and safety to the reference product while contributing to the sustainability of the public health care system.

  6. Effect of situation on mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Maas, A Janneke B M; Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A

    2013-02-01

    Research has shown that the early parent-infant relationship is of critical importance for children's developmental outcomes. While the effect of different settings on mother-infant interactive behavior is well studied, only few researchers systematically examined the effect of situational variables on mother-infant interaction. In the present study the effect of situational variables within the home setting on the quality of mother-infant interaction at 6 months was examined as well as the consistency in the quality of behaviors of mother and infant across these situations. During a home visit 292 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in three different situations (i.e., free play, face-to-face play, and diaper change). Interactive behaviors of mother and infant were assessed with the NICHD global ratings scales. Results showed substantial effects of situation on the interactive behavior of the mother-infant dyad. Despite the observed situational effects maternal sensitivity to non-distress, intrusiveness, stimulation of development, and positive regard and all five infant behavioral scales remained stable across the different situations. Insight into situational effects within the home setting on the quality of mother-infant interactive behavior may assist researchers to make well-informed decisions about measuring the parent-infant interaction in one or more specific situations. PMID:23261788

  7. Individual and situational influences on men's responses to dating and social situations.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Tim; Yeater, Elizabeth A

    2011-06-01

    This study employed multilevel modeling to evaluate individual and situational influences on men's responses to hypothetical dating and social situations. Three hundred and fifty college men completed measures assessing their propensity for sexual aggression and provided written responses to 10 written vignettes, each of which was followed by four statements provided by women that varied in their degree of effectiveness in decreasing victimization risk. Rape-supportive attitudes, poor heterosocial perception, earlier age of first sexual experience, and number of lifetime sexual partners were significant predictors of sexually aggressive responses. The presence of alcohol use, social isolation, relationship intimacy, and less effective responses from the woman involved also were significant predictors of sexually aggressive responses. Certain individual risk factors (i.e., poor heterosocial perception, rape-supportive attitudes) showed a stronger relationship to sexually aggressive responses in the context of situational risk factors (i.e., alcohol use, isolation). These findings indicate the importance of assessing both individual and situational influences on men's risk for engaging in sexually aggressive behavior. PMID:20587456

  8. [Hard to accurately determine the age of children seeking asylum].

    PubMed

    Hjern, Anders; Ascher, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Many unaccompanied asylum seeking young people in Europe lack documents proving their age. X rays of the wrist and wisdom teeth are often used by European migration authorities to assess age in this situation. The large inter-individual differences in physical maturation during adolescence create such large margins of error for these methods that their informative value is very limited. The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare should reconsider its previous position on these methods and examine the possibility to include psychosocial methods in these age assessment procedures. PMID:26461513

  9. Accurate paleointensities - the multi-method approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, Lennart

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of models describing rapid changes in the geomagnetic field over the past millennia critically depends on the availability of reliable paleointensity estimates. Over the past decade methods to derive paleointensities from lavas (the only recorder of the geomagnetic field that is available all over the globe and through geologic times) have seen significant improvements and various alternative techniques were proposed. The 'classical' Thellier-style approach was optimized and selection criteria were defined in the 'Standard Paleointensity Definitions' (Paterson et al, 2014). The Multispecimen approach was validated and the importance of additional tests and criteria to assess Multispecimen results must be emphasized. Recently, a non-heating, relative paleointensity technique was proposed -the pseudo-Thellier protocol- which shows great potential in both accuracy and efficiency, but currently lacks a solid theoretical underpinning. Here I present work using all three of the aforementioned paleointensity methods on suites of young lavas taken from the volcanic islands of Hawaii, La Palma, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and Terceira. Many of the sampled cooling units are <100 years old, the actual field strength at the time of cooling is therefore reasonably well known. Rather intuitively, flows that produce coherent results from two or more different paleointensity methods yield the most accurate estimates of the paleofield. Furthermore, the results for some flows pass the selection criteria for one method, but fail in other techniques. Scrutinizing and combing all acceptable results yielded reliable paleointensity estimates for 60-70% of all sampled cooling units - an exceptionally high success rate. This 'multi-method paleointensity approach' therefore has high potential to provide the much-needed paleointensities to improve geomagnetic field models for the Holocene.

  10. Accurate Thermal Conductivities from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbogno, Christian

    2015-03-01

    In spite of significant research efforts, a first-principles determination of the thermal conductivity at high temperatures has remained elusive. On the one hand, Boltzmann transport techniques that include anharmonic effects in the nuclear dynamics only perturbatively become inaccurate or inapplicable under such conditions. On the other hand, non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) methods suffer from enormous finite-size artifacts in the computationally feasible supercells, which prevent an accurate extrapolation to the bulk limit of the thermal conductivity. In this work, we overcome this limitation by performing ab initio MD simulations in thermodynamic equilibrium that account for all orders of anharmonicity. The thermal conductivity is then assessed from the auto-correlation function of the heat flux using the Green-Kubo formalism. Foremost, we discuss the fundamental theory underlying a first-principles definition of the heat flux using the virial theorem. We validate our approach and in particular the techniques developed to overcome finite time and size effects, e.g., by inspecting silicon, the thermal conductivity of which is particularly challenging to converge. Furthermore, we use this framework to investigate the thermal conductivity of ZrO2, which is known for its high degree of anharmonicity. Our calculations shed light on the heat resistance mechanism active in this material, which eventually allows us to discuss how the thermal conductivity can be controlled by doping and co-doping. This work has been performed in collaboration with R. Ramprasad (University of Connecticut), C. G. Levi and C. G. Van de Walle (University of California Santa Barbara).

  11. Reactivity of Tic Observation Procedures to Situation and Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piacentini, John; Himle, Michael B.; Chang, Susanna; Baruch, David E.; Buzzella, Brian A.; Pearlman, Amanda; Woods, Douglas W.

    2006-01-01

    Tic frequency was assessed and compared across home and clinic as well as three experimentally-manipulated situations in order to assess the phenomenon of tic reactivity. Forty-three youngsters with chronic tic disorder recruited from two geographically-distinct sites were videotaped over three weekly laboratory visits under each of the following…

  12. Rapid and accurate evaluation of the quality of commercial organic fertilizers using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang; Huang, Chichao; Qian, Jian; Xiao, Jian; Li, Huan; Wen, Yongli; He, Xinhua; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    The composting industry has been growing rapidly in China because of a boom in the animal industry. Therefore, a rapid and accurate assessment of the quality of commercial organic fertilizers is of the utmost importance. In this study, a novel technique that combines near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with partial least squares (PLS) analysis is developed for rapidly and accurately assessing commercial organic fertilizers quality. A total of 104 commercial organic fertilizers were collected from full-scale compost factories in Jiangsu Province, east China. In general, the NIR-PLS technique showed accurate predictions of the total organic matter, water soluble organic nitrogen, pH, and germination index; less accurate results of the moisture, total nitrogen, and electrical conductivity; and the least accurate results for water soluble organic carbon. Our results suggested the combined NIR-PLS technique could be applied as a valuable tool to rapidly and accurately assess the quality of commercial organic fertilizers. PMID:24586313

  13. Rapid and accurate evaluation of the quality of commercial organic fertilizers using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang; Huang, Chichao; Qian, Jian; Xiao, Jian; Li, Huan; Wen, Yongli; He, Xinhua; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    The composting industry has been growing rapidly in China because of a boom in the animal industry. Therefore, a rapid and accurate assessment of the quality of commercial organic fertilizers is of the utmost importance. In this study, a novel technique that combines near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with partial least squares (PLS) analysis is developed for rapidly and accurately assessing commercial organic fertilizers quality. A total of 104 commercial organic fertilizers were collected from full-scale compost factories in Jiangsu Province, east China. In general, the NIR-PLS technique showed accurate predictions of the total organic matter, water soluble organic nitrogen, pH, and germination index; less accurate results of the moisture, total nitrogen, and electrical conductivity; and the least accurate results for water soluble organic carbon. Our results suggested the combined NIR-PLS technique could be applied as a valuable tool to rapidly and accurately assess the quality of commercial organic fertilizers.

  14. Rapid and Accurate Evaluation of the Quality of Commercial Organic Fertilizers Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chang; Huang, Chichao; Qian, Jian; Xiao, Jian; Li, Huan; Wen, Yongli; He, Xinhua; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    The composting industry has been growing rapidly in China because of a boom in the animal industry. Therefore, a rapid and accurate assessment of the quality of commercial organic fertilizers is of the utmost importance. In this study, a novel technique that combines near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with partial least squares (PLS) analysis is developed for rapidly and accurately assessing commercial organic fertilizers quality. A total of 104 commercial organic fertilizers were collected from full-scale compost factories in Jiangsu Province, east China. In general, the NIR-PLS technique showed accurate predictions of the total organic matter, water soluble organic nitrogen, pH, and germination index; less accurate results of the moisture, total nitrogen, and electrical conductivity; and the least accurate results for water soluble organic carbon. Our results suggested the combined NIR-PLS technique could be applied as a valuable tool to rapidly and accurately assess the quality of commercial organic fertilizers. PMID:24586313

  15. Accurately measuring dynamic coefficient of friction in ultraform finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Dennis; Echaves, Samantha; Pidgeon, Brendan; Travis, Nathan; Ellis, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    UltraForm Finishing (UFF) is a deterministic sub-aperture computer numerically controlled grinding and polishing platform designed by OptiPro Systems. UFF is used to grind and polish a variety of optics from simple spherical to fully freeform, and numerous materials from glasses to optical ceramics. The UFF system consists of an abrasive belt around a compliant wheel that rotates and contacts the part to remove material. This work aims to accurately measure the dynamic coefficient of friction (μ), how it changes as a function of belt wear, and how this ultimately affects material removal rates. The coefficient of friction has been examined in terms of contact mechanics and Preston's equation to determine accurate material removal rates. By accurately predicting changes in μ, polishing iterations can be more accurately predicted, reducing the total number of iterations required to meet specifications. We have established an experimental apparatus that can accurately measure μ by measuring triaxial forces during translating loading conditions or while manufacturing the removal spots used to calculate material removal rates. Using this system, we will demonstrate μ measurements for UFF belts during different states of their lifecycle and assess the material removal function from spot diagrams as a function of wear. Ultimately, we will use this system for qualifying belt-wheel-material combinations to develop a spot-morphing model to better predict instantaneous material removal functions.

  16. Ways of probing situated concepts.

    PubMed

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J

    2010-02-01

    Two ways of eliciting conceptual content have been to instruct participants to list the intrinsic properties that concept exemplars possess or to report any thoughts that come to mind about the concept. It has been argued that the open, unconstrained probe is better able to elicit the situational information that concepts contain. We evaluated this proposal in two experiments comparing the two probes with regard to the content that they yield for object concepts at the superordinate and basic levels. The results showed that the open probe was better able to elicit situated conceptual knowledge and point out differences in the representations of superordinate and basic concepts.

  17. Evaluation of a Computational Model of Situational Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdick, Mark D.; Shively, R. Jay; Rutkewski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the use of the psychological construct of situational awareness (SA) assists researchers in creating a flight environment that is safer and more predictable, its true potential remains untapped until a valid means of predicting SA a priori becomes available. Previous work proposed a computational model of SA (CSA) that sought to Fill that void. The current line of research is aimed at validating that model. The results show that the model accurately predicted SA in a piloted simulation.

  18. Personality-situation transactions from adolescence to old age.

    PubMed

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2016-05-01

    People presumably choose and create their daily environments according to their personality. Prior research shows that, for example, more extraverted people engage more often in social situations, and more conscientious people engage more often in work-related activities compared with less extraverted or less conscientious people, respectively. The current study examined such personality-situation transactions in people's daily life. Based on the assumption that older people know themselves and their personality better than younger people, we investigated whether momentary and proximate personality-situation associations (i.e., changing from 1 type of situation into another) increase with older age. Three-hundred and 78 people aged 14 to 82 years described their Big Five traits and took part in a 3-week experience-sampling phase. Using mobile-phone based assessments in daily life, participants reported on average 55 times on their momentary situation. Multilevel modeling results showed that personality-situation associations varied with the age of participants. Some of the "established" personality-situation associations, such as for extraversion and time spent with friends or conscientiousness and time spent with work activities, were only observed in adolescence and young adulthood. In contrast, other personality-situation associations appeared only in late adulthood, such as for openness and time spent with friends. Yet most personality-situation associations did not vary significantly with people's age. In addition, personality traits predicted maintaining or entering personality-congruent situations. The latter results point to the active role of personality in shaping one's environment. The findings imply that some personality-situation transactions may be largely similarly across the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26167797

  19. Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.

  20. Situated Cognition and Learning Environments: Roles, Structures, and Implications for Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jeong-Im; Hannafin, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Examines the theoretical underpinnings of situation cognition and derives implications for the design of situated learning environments. Highlights include a discussion of the four basic issues of the conceptual framework of situation cognition; these include the role of content, context, facilitation, and assessment. A table summarizes the…

  1. Situated Learning: Conceptualization and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Lakshmi; Johnson, Norman; Junglas, Iris; Ives, Blake

    2010-01-01

    A focus on the interaction between cognitive schemas and context in situ has been suggested as fundamental in organizational decision making and information interpretation. Past research suggests that the situation and the social interaction that occur during learning at the cognitive level consist of factors that affect the process, but the…

  2. The Language Situation in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    This monograph examines the language situation in Cameroon, a Central African country where fewer than 20 million people speak close to 250 languages. Specifically, the monograph addresses the issues of language use and spread, language policy and planning, and language maintenance and prospects. The study is divided into five parts. The…

  3. Situating Knowledges as Coalition Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    In this essay Maureen Ford examines a selection of situated knowledges discourses in order to make explicit their attention to political effects. She contends, first, that the "epistemic public(s)" constituted through these discourses are multiple, interactive, performative, and layered, and further that they are explicitly political in ways that…

  4. The Language Situation in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terborg, Roland; Landa, Laura Garcia; Moore, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    This monograph will cover the language situation in Mexico; a linguistically very complex country with 62 recognised indigenous languages, the "de facto" official language, Spanish, and some immigrant languages of lesser importance. Throughout the monograph, we will concentrate on three distinct challenges which we consider relevant for Mexican…

  5. Increasing Space Situational Awareness for NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, Daniel J. G. J.; Eggl, Siegfried; Thuillot, William

    2015-05-01

    Over the past years, Europe has strengthened its commitment to foster space situational awareness. Apart from the current efforts in tracking space weather, artificial satellites and space debris, Near Earth Asteroid threat assessment is a key task. NEOshield has been part of this European effort. We will give an overview over national projects and European programs with French participation such as PoDET, ESTERS, FRIPON, NEOShield, Gaia-FUN-SSO and Stardust. Future plans regarding Near Earth Object threat assessment and mitigation are described. The role of the IMCCE in this framework is discussed using the example of the post mitigation impact risk analyis of Gravity Tractor and Kinetic Impactor based asteroid deflection demonstration mission designs.

  6. [The expertise situation as pathoplastic factor].

    PubMed

    Barolin, G S; Schmid, H; Cziudaj, E

    1991-01-01

    Underlying attitudes of apprehension or desire have an essential pathoplastic function, especially in the situation of medical assessment. The functionality of symptoms and complaints requires a diagnostic approach which is not oriented simply towards the "exclusion of organic causes". Interaction between somatogenic and psychogenic factors is by far more common than sheer functionality. Although widely neglected in our medical teaching and literature, these problems are not confined to the mere assessment of temporary or permanent invalidity, but are of great importance for the entire medical sphere, including manifestations and course of a disease, therapeutic success etc. In Austria, the population of foreign workers is in a special position due to socio-economic preconditions, partly due to short-sighted policy devoid of psycho-hygienic considerations. This situation requires thorough analysis free of emotions, which should lead to the development of sensible, although in some respects belated, measures. The latest economical recession has revealed several faulty courses of development in our system of social and health insurance, which needs revision urgently lest it should collapse. In this respect, the medical profession is called upon to contribute to a necessary curtailment of excessive misuse within a system that has become inflexible during the past decades, thereby endangering the valuable achievements of social medicine.

  7. Accurate Gene Expression-Based Biodosimetry Using a Minimal Set of Human Gene Transcripts

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, James D.; Joiner, Michael C.; Thomas, Robert A.; Grever, William E.; Bakhmutsky, Marina V.; Chinkhota, Chantelle N.; Smolinski, Joseph M.; Divine, George W.; Auner, Gregory W.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Rapid and reliable methods for conducting biological dosimetry are a necessity in the event of a large-scale nuclear event. Conventional biodosimetry methods lack the speed, portability, ease of use, and low cost required for triaging numerous victims. Here we address this need by showing that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a small number of gene transcripts can provide accurate and rapid dosimetry. The low cost and relative ease of PCR compared with existing dosimetry methods suggest that this approach may be useful in mass-casualty triage situations. Methods and Materials: Human peripheral blood from 60 adult donors was acutely exposed to cobalt-60 gamma rays at doses of 0 (control) to 10 Gy. mRNA expression levels of 121 selected genes were obtained 0.5, 1, and 2 days after exposure by reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR. Optimal dosimetry at each time point was obtained by stepwise regression of dose received against individual gene transcript expression levels. Results: Only 3 to 4 different gene transcripts, ASTN2, CDKN1A, GDF15, and ATM, are needed to explain ≥0.87 of the variance (R{sup 2}). Receiver-operator characteristics, a measure of sensitivity and specificity, of 0.98 for these statistical models were achieved at each time point. Conclusions: The actual and predicted radiation doses agree very closely up to 6 Gy. Dosimetry at 8 and 10 Gy shows some effect of saturation, thereby slightly diminishing the ability to quantify higher exposures. Analyses of these gene transcripts may be advantageous for use in a field-portable device designed to assess exposures in mass casualty situations or in clinical radiation emergencies.

  8. The consequences of using advanced physical assessment skills in medical and surgical nursing: A hermeneutic pragmatic study

    PubMed Central

    Zambas, Shelaine I.; Smythe, Elizabeth A.; Koziol-Mclain, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to explore the consequences of the nurse's use of advanced assessment skills on medical and surgical wards. Background Appropriate, accurate, and timely assessment by nurses is the cornerstone of maintaining patient safety in hospitals. The inclusion of “advanced” physical assessment skills such as auscultation, palpation, and percussion is thought to better prepare nurses for complex patient presentations within a wide range of clinical situations. Design This qualitative study used a hermeneutic pragmatic approach. Method Unstructured interviews were conducted with five experienced medical and surgical nurses to obtain 13 detailed narratives of assessment practice. Narratives were analyzed using Van Manen's six-step approach to identify the consequences of the nurse's use of advanced assessment skills. Results The consequences of using advanced assessment skills include looking for more, challenging interpretations, and perseverance. The use of advanced assessment skills directs what the nurse looks for, what she sees, interpretation of the findings, and her response. It is the interpretation of what is seen, heard, or felt within the full context of the patient situation, which is the advanced skill. Conclusion Advanced assessment skill is the means to an accurate interpretation of the clinical situation and contributes to appropriate diagnosis and medical management in complex patient situations. Relevance to clinical practice The nurse's use of advanced assessment skills enables her to contribute to diagnostic reasoning within the acute medical and surgical setting. PMID:27607193

  9. Caregiver Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Assessment is a critical step in determining appropriate support services. This article discusses "caregiver assessment," a systematic process of gathering information to describe a caregiving situation. Caregiver assessment identifies the particular problems, needs, resources, and strengths of the family caregiver and approaches issues from the…

  10. Modified chemiluminescent NO analyzer accurately measures NOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Installation of molybdenum nitric oxide (NO)-to-higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) converter in chemiluminescent gas analyzer and use of air purge allow accurate measurements of NOx in exhaust gases containing as much as thirty percent carbon monoxide (CO). Measurements using conventional analyzer are highly inaccurate for NOx if as little as five percent CO is present. In modified analyzer, molybdenum has high tolerance to CO, and air purge substantially quenches NOx destruction. In test, modified chemiluminescent analyzer accurately measured NO and NOx concentrations for over 4 months with no denegration in performance.

  11. Space Situational Awareness Data Processing Scalability Utilizing Google Cloud Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenly, D.; Duncan, M.; Wysack, J.; Flores, F.

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is a fundamental and critical component of current space operations. The term SSA encompasses the awareness, understanding and predictability of all objects in space. As the population of orbital space objects and debris increases, the number of collision avoidance maneuvers grows and prompts the need for accurate and timely process measures. The SSA mission continually evolves to near real-time assessment and analysis demanding the need for higher processing capabilities. By conventional methods, meeting these demands requires the integration of new hardware to keep pace with the growing complexity of maneuver planning algorithms. SpaceNav has implemented a highly scalable architecture that will track satellites and debris by utilizing powerful virtual machines on the Google Cloud Platform. SpaceNav algorithms for processing CDMs outpace conventional means. A robust processing environment for tracking data, collision avoidance maneuvers and various other aspects of SSA can be created and deleted on demand. Migrating SpaceNav tools and algorithms into the Google Cloud Platform will be discussed and the trials and tribulations involved. Information will be shared on how and why certain cloud products were used as well as integration techniques that were implemented. Key items to be presented are: 1.Scientific algorithms and SpaceNav tools integrated into a scalable architecture a) Maneuver Planning b) Parallel Processing c) Monte Carlo Simulations d) Optimization Algorithms e) SW Application Development/Integration into the Google Cloud Platform 2. Compute Engine Processing a) Application Engine Automated Processing b) Performance testing and Performance Scalability c) Cloud MySQL databases and Database Scalability d) Cloud Data Storage e) Redundancy and Availability

  12. Objective Situation Awareness Measurement Based on Performance Self-Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe

    1998-01-01

    The research was conducted in support of the NASA Safe All-Weather Flight Operations for Rotorcraft (SAFOR) program. The purpose of the work was to investigate the utility of two measurement tools developed by the British Defense Evaluation Research Agency. These tools were a subjective workload assessment scale, the DRA Workload Scale and a situation awareness measurement tool. The situation awareness tool uses a comparison of the crew's self-evaluation of performance against actual performance in order to determine what information the crew attended to during the performance. These two measurement tools were evaluated in the context of a test of innovative approach to alerting the crew by way of a helmet mounted display. The situation assessment data are reported here. The performance self-evaluation metric of situation awareness was found to be highly effective. It was used to evaluate situation awareness on a tank reconnaissance task, a tactical navigation task, and a stylized task used to evaluated handling qualities. Using the self-evaluation metric, it was possible to evaluate situation awareness, without exact knowledge the relevant information in some cases and to identify information to which the crew attended or failed to attend in others.

  13. Are South African Speech-Language Therapists adequately equipped to assess English Additional Language (EAL) speakers who are from an indigenous linguistic and cultural background? A profile and exploration of the current situation.

    PubMed

    Mdladlo, Thandeka; Flack, Penelope; Joubert, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a survey conducted on Speech-Language Therapists (SLTs) regarding current practices in the assessment of English Additional Language (EAL) speakers in South Africa. It forms part of the rationale for a broader (PhD) study that critiques the use of assessment instruments on EAL speakers from an indigenous linguistic and cultural background. This article discusses an aspect of the broader research and presents the background, method, findings, discussion and implications of the survey. The results of this survey highlight the challenges of human and material resources to, and the dominance of English in, the profession in South Africa. The findings contribute to understanding critical factors for acquiring reliable and valid assessment results with diverse populations, particularly the implications from a cultural and linguistic perspective. PMID:27247254

  14. Improved Conjunction Analysis via Collaborative Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T.; Vallado, D.; Chan, J.; Buckwalter, B.

    With recent events such as the Chinese ASAT test in 2007 and the USA 193 intercept in 2008, many satellite operators are becoming increasingly aware of the potential threat to their satellites as the result of orbital debris or even other satellites. However, to be successful at conjunction monitoring and collision avoidance requires accurate orbital information for as many space objects (payloads, dead satellites, rocket bodies, and debris) as possible. Given the current capabilities of the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN), approximately 18,500 objects are now being tracked and orbital data (in the form of two-line element sets) is available to satellite operators for 11,750 of them (as of 2008 September 1). The capability to automatically process this orbital data to look for close conjunctions and provide that information to satellite operators via the Internet has been continuously available on CelesTrak, in the form of Satellite Orbital Conjunction Reports Assessing Threatening Encounters in Space (SOCRATES), since May 2004. Those reports are used by many operators as one way to keep apprised of these potential threats. However, the two-line element sets (TLEs) are generated using non-cooperative tracking via the SSN's network of radar and optical sensors. As a result, the relatively low accuracy of the data results in a large number of false alarms that satellite operators must routinely deal with. Yet, satellite operators typically perform orbit maintenance for their own satellites, using active ranging and GPS systems. These data are often an order of magnitude more accurate than those available using TLEs. When combined (in the form of ephemerides) with maneuver planning information, the ability to maintain predictive awareness increases significantly. And when satellite operators share this data, the improved space situational awareness, particularly in the crowded geosynchronous belt, can be dramatic and the number of false alarms can be reduced

  15. Review of game theory applications for situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Game theoretical methods have been used for spectral awareness, space situational awareness (SSA), cyber situational awareness (CSA), and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance situation awareness (ISA). Each of these cases, awareness is supported by sensor estimation for assessment and the situation is determined from the actions of multiple players. Game theory assumes rational actors in a defined scenario; however, variations in social, cultural and behavioral factors include the dynamic nature of the context. In a dynamic data-driven application system (DDDAS), modeling must include both the measurements but also how models are used by different actors with different priorities. In this paper, we highlight the applications of game theory by reviewing the literature to determine the current state of the art and future needs. Future developments would include building towards knowledge awareness with information technology (e.g., data aggregation, access, indexing); multiscale analysis (e.g., space, time, and frequency), and software methods (e.g., architectures, cloud computing, protocols).

  16. Accurate pointing of tungsten welding electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegelmeier, P.

    1971-01-01

    Thoriated-tungsten is pointed accurately and quickly by using sodium nitrite. Point produced is smooth and no effort is necessary to hold the tungsten rod concentric. The chemically produced point can be used several times longer than ground points. This method reduces time and cost of preparing tungsten electrodes.

  17. An exploration of the applicability of situational segmentation in the health care market: development of a situational taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Gehrt, K C; Pinto, M B

    1990-01-01

    Competition in the health care market has intensified in recent years. Health care providers are increasingly adopting innovative marketing techniques to secure their positions in the marketplace. This paper examines an innovative marketing technique, situational segmentation, and assesses its applicability to the health care market. Situational segmentation has proven useful in many consumer goods markets but has received little attention in the context of health care marketing. A two-stage research process is used to develop a taxonomy of situational factors pertinent to health care choice. In stage one, focus group interviews are used to gather information which is instrumental to questionnaire development. In stage two, the responses of 151 subjects to a 51 item questionnaire are factor analyzed. The results demonstrate that situational segmentation is a viable strategy in the health care market.

  18. Flight Crew Task Management in Non-Normal Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    1996-01-01

    Task management (TM) is always performed on the flight deck, although not always explicitly, consistently, or rigorously. Nowhere is TM as important as it is in dealing with non-normal situations. The objective of this study was to analyze pilot TM behavior for non-normal situations. Specifically, the study observed pilots performance in a full workload environment in order to discern their TM strategies. This study identified four different TM prioritization and allocation strategies: Aviate-Navigate-Communicate-Manage Systems; Perceived Severity; Procedure Based; and Event/Interrupt Driven. Subjects used these strategies to manage their personal workload and to schedule monitoring and assessment of the situation. The Perceived Severity strategy for personal workload management combined with the Aviate-Navigate-Communicate-Manage Systems strategy for monitoring and assessing appeared to be the most effective (fewest errors and fastest response times) in responding to the novel system failure used in this study.

  19. Feedback about More Accurate versus Less Accurate Trials: Differential Effects on Self-Confidence and Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected by feedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On Day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of…

  20. Biosimilars in Dermatology: Current Situation (Part II).

    PubMed

    Puig, L; Carretero, G; Daudén, E; Ferrándiz, C; Marrón, S E; Martorell, A; Pérez-Suárez, B; Rodriguez-Cerdeira, C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Velasco, M

    2015-09-01

    The first biosimilar version of a biologic agent used to treat psoriasis (infliximab) entered the Spanish market on February 16 of this year, and more biosimilars can be expected to follow in the coming months and years. Logically, this new situation will have economic repercussions and alter prescribing patterns among dermatologists. In this second part of the review, we will look at several somewhat contentious issues, such as the extrapolation of indications, interchangeability, and automatic substitution. We will also review the biosimilars with indications for psoriasis currently in the clinical development pipeline and assess their potential to offer comparable efficacy and safety to the reference product while contributing to the sustainability of the public health care system.

  1. Situation Awareness and Levels of Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.

    1999-01-01

    During the first year of this project, a taxonomy of theoretical levels of automation (LOAs) was applied to the advanced commercial aircraft by categorizing actual modes of McDonald Douglas MD-11 autoflight system operation in terms of the taxonomy. As well, high LOAs included in the taxonomy (e.g., supervisory control) were modeled in the context of MD-11 autoflight systems through development of a virtual flight simulator. The flight simulator was an integration of a re-configurable simulator developed by the Georgia Institute Technology and new software prototypes of autoflight system modules found in the MD-11 cockpit. In addition to this work, a version of the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) was developed for application to commercial piloting tasks. A software package was developed to deliver the SAGAT and was integrated with the virtual flight simulator.

  2. Feedback about more accurate versus less accurate trials: differential effects on self-confidence and activation.

    PubMed

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-06-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected byfeedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of two conditions: one group received feedback on the most accurate trials, whereas another group received feedback on the least accurate trials. On day 2, participants completed an anxiety questionnaire and performed a retention test. Shin conductance level, as a measure of arousal, was determined. The results indicated that feedback about more accurate trials resulted in more effective learning as well as increased self-confidence. Also, activation was a predictor of performance. PMID:22808705

  3. Using the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression with mental health inpatients: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Lantta, Tella; Kontio, Raija; Daffern, Michael; Adams, Clive E; Välimäki, Maritta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to explore the acceptability of Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression (DASA) from the perspective of patients, its actual use by mental health nurses, and the predictive validity of the DASA instrument. Methods A feasibility study design incorporating quantitative and qualitative components was used. The study was conducted in three mental health inpatient units at three hospitals in southern Finland. Quantitative data were used to explore demand (nurses’ actual use of the DASA), limited efficacy (predictive validity), and acceptability (measured through patients’ participation in the project). Qualitative data were collected to enhance the understanding of acceptability by describing patients’ perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of the DASA. Results Nurses used the DASA for most patient assessments. The predictive validity of the DASA was outstanding or excellent, depending on the type of aggression predicted, although the patient recruitment ratio was low. Patients reported both strengths and weaknesses of the DASA, providing complementary information regarding the instrument’s acceptability and clinical application. Conclusion The DASA accurately predicts inpatient aggression. The patients’ preferences and concerns regarding risk assessment have been noted. More patient involvement in risk assessment research and violence prevention efforts is required. PMID:27175069

  4. A traffic situation analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidla, Oliver; Rosner, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The observation and monitoring of traffic with smart visions systems for the purpose of improving traffic safety has a big potential. For example embedded vision systems built into vehicles can be used as early warning systems, or stationary camera systems can modify the switching frequency of signals at intersections. Today the automated analysis of traffic situations is still in its infancy - the patterns of vehicle motion and pedestrian flow in an urban environment are too complex to be fully understood by a vision system. We present steps towards such a traffic monitoring system which is designed to detect potentially dangerous traffic situations, especially incidents in which the interaction of pedestrians and vehicles might develop into safety critical encounters. The proposed system is field-tested at a real pedestrian crossing in the City of Vienna for the duration of one year. It consists of a cluster of 3 smart cameras, each of which is built from a very compact PC hardware system in an outdoor capable housing. Two cameras run vehicle detection software including license plate detection and recognition, one camera runs a complex pedestrian detection and tracking module based on the HOG detection principle. As a supplement, all 3 cameras use additional optical flow computation in a low-resolution video stream in order to estimate the motion path and speed of objects. This work describes the foundation for all 3 different object detection modalities (pedestrians, vehi1cles, license plates), and explains the system setup and its design.

  5. Steps towards a situational ethic.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, P J

    1978-08-01

    The Australian Royal Commission on Human Relationships summarized the problems of adolescents and family planning by declaring there is a level of teenage sexual activity that cannot be ignored. Young single people have a low rate of effective contraception. Teenagers suffer a very high proportion of unwanted pregnancies and abortions. Placing the ethical questions in a contemporary social context enables society to face the issues in a practical, realistic fashion. Historically preserved traditions, like the taboo against premarital sex, are and will continue to be important in the bonding of families, individuals, and societies. A situational ethic applies to changes in the social fabric and addresses them. Society has changed from rural to urban, from agrarian to technological, from literacy to mass media, from superstitious knowledge of reproduction to scientific methods of birth control. The realities of change should be faced with a sense of ethics that is grounded in tradition and adjusted to the needs of the actual situation which is that too many teenagers have too many unwanted pregnancies. They can be helped.

  6. Two highly accurate methods for pitch calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniel, K.; Härtig, F.; Osawa, S.; Sato, O.

    2009-11-01

    Among profiles, helix and tooth thickness pitch is one of the most important parameters of an involute gear measurement evaluation. In principle, coordinate measuring machines (CMM) and CNC-controlled gear measuring machines as a variant of a CMM are suited for these kinds of gear measurements. Now the Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) and the German national metrology institute the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have each developed independently highly accurate pitch calibration methods applicable to CMM or gear measuring machines. Both calibration methods are based on the so-called closure technique which allows the separation of the systematic errors of the measurement device and the errors of the gear. For the verification of both calibration methods, NMIJ/AIST and PTB performed measurements on a specially designed pitch artifact. The comparison of the results shows that both methods can be used for highly accurate calibrations of pitch standards.

  7. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  8. Accurate Guitar Tuning by Cochlear Implant Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  9. Preparation and accurate measurement of pure ozone.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Christof; Simone, Daniela; Guinet, Mickaël

    2011-03-01

    Preparation of high purity ozone as well as precise and accurate measurement of its pressure are metrological requirements that are difficult to meet due to ozone decomposition occurring in pressure sensors. The most stable and precise transducer heads are heated and, therefore, prone to accelerated ozone decomposition, limiting measurement accuracy and compromising purity. Here, we describe a vacuum system and a method for ozone production, suitable to accurately determine the pressure of pure ozone by avoiding the problem of decomposition. We use an inert gas in a particularly designed buffer volume and can thus achieve high measurement accuracy and negligible degradation of ozone with purities of 99.8% or better. The high degree of purity is ensured by comprehensive compositional analyses of ozone samples. The method may also be applied to other reactive gases. PMID:21456766

  10. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  11. Accurate modeling of parallel scientific computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Townsend, James C.

    1988-01-01

    Scientific codes are usually parallelized by partitioning a grid among processors. To achieve top performance it is necessary to partition the grid so as to balance workload and minimize communication/synchronization costs. This problem is particularly acute when the grid is irregular, changes over the course of the computation, and is not known until load time. Critical mapping and remapping decisions rest on the ability to accurately predict performance, given a description of a grid and its partition. This paper discusses one approach to this problem, and illustrates its use on a one-dimensional fluids code. The models constructed are shown to be accurate, and are used to find optimal remapping schedules.

  12. Line gas sampling system ensures accurate analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Tremendous changes in the natural gas business have resulted in new approaches to the way natural gas is measured. Electronic flow measurement has altered the business forever, with developments in instrumentation and a new sensitivity to the importance of proper natural gas sampling techniques. This paper reports that YZ Industries Inc., Snyder, Texas, combined its 40 years of sampling experience with the latest in microprocessor-based technology to develop the KynaPak 2000 series, the first on-line natural gas sampling system that is both compact and extremely accurate. This means the composition of the sampled gas must be representative of the whole and related to flow. If so, relative measurement and sampling techniques are married, gas volumes are accurately accounted for and adjustments to composition can be made.

  13. Accurate mask model for advanced nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zine El Abidine, Nacer; Sundermann, Frank; Yesilada, Emek; Ndiaye, El Hadji Omar; Mishra, Kushlendra; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Toublan, Olivier; Schanen, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    Standard OPC models consist of a physical optical model and an empirical resist model. The resist model compensates the optical model imprecision on top of modeling resist development. The optical model imprecision may result from mask topography effects and real mask information including mask ebeam writing and mask process contributions. For advanced technology nodes, significant progress has been made to model mask topography to improve optical model accuracy. However, mask information is difficult to decorrelate from standard OPC model. Our goal is to establish an accurate mask model through a dedicated calibration exercise. In this paper, we present a flow to calibrate an accurate mask enabling its implementation. The study covers the different effects that should be embedded in the mask model as well as the experiment required to model them.

  14. The Role of Situational Authenticity in English Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jim Yee Him

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the extent to which situational authenticity has been implemented in three commercial ELT textbook series in Hong Kong, which are designed to reflect the local sociolinguistic setting. The analysis involved the quantification and categorization of both written and spoken texts in the textbooks. The results of this analysis were…

  15. Androgyny and Sex Role Perception in Television Situation Comedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetmore, Edward Jay

    The interrelationships among perceived sex role of self, sex roles of parents and friends, and sex roles of television-situation-comedy characters were investigated by this study. Individual preferences for characters in four TV programs--"All in the Family,""Rhoda,""Mary Tyler Moore," and "The Bob Newhart Show"--were also assessed. Seventy Lewis…

  16. Accurate maser positions for MALT-45

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Christopher; Bains, Indra; Voronkov, Maxim; Lo, Nadia; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Burton, Michael; Brooks, Kate; Green, James; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Ellingsen, Simon; Urquhart, James; Morgan, Larry; Rowell, Gavin; Walsh, Andrew; Loenen, Edo; Baan, Willem; Hill, Tracey; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Peretto, Nicolas; Jackson, James; Lowe, Vicki; Longmore, Steven

    2013-10-01

    MALT-45 is an untargeted survey, mapping the Galactic plane in CS (1-0), Class I methanol masers, SiO masers and thermal emission, and high frequency continuum emission. After obtaining images from the survey, a number of masers were detected, but without accurate positions. This project seeks to resolve each maser and its environment, with the ultimate goal of placing the Class I methanol maser into a timeline of high mass star formation.

  17. Accurate maser positions for MALT-45

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Christopher; Bains, Indra; Voronkov, Maxim; Lo, Nadia; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Burton, Michael; Brooks, Kate; Green, James; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Ellingsen, Simon; Urquhart, James; Morgan, Larry; Rowell, Gavin; Walsh, Andrew; Loenen, Edo; Baan, Willem; Hill, Tracey; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Peretto, Nicolas; Jackson, James; Lowe, Vicki; Longmore, Steven

    2013-04-01

    MALT-45 is an untargeted survey, mapping the Galactic plane in CS (1-0), Class I methanol masers, SiO masers and thermal emission, and high frequency continuum emission. After obtaining images from the survey, a number of masers were detected, but without accurate positions. This project seeks to resolve each maser and its environment, with the ultimate goal of placing the Class I methanol maser into a timeline of high mass star formation.

  18. Accurate Molecular Polarizabilities Based on Continuum Electrostatics

    PubMed Central

    Truchon, Jean-François; Nicholls, Anthony; Iftimie, Radu I.; Roux, Benoît; Bayly, Christopher I.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach for representing the intramolecular polarizability as a continuum dielectric is introduced to account for molecular electronic polarization. It is shown, using a finite-difference solution to the Poisson equation, that the Electronic Polarization from Internal Continuum (EPIC) model yields accurate gas-phase molecular polarizability tensors for a test set of 98 challenging molecules composed of heteroaromatics, alkanes and diatomics. The electronic polarization originates from a high intramolecular dielectric that produces polarizabilities consistent with B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ and experimental values when surrounded by vacuum dielectric. In contrast to other approaches to model electronic polarization, this simple model avoids the polarizability catastrophe and accurately calculates molecular anisotropy with the use of very few fitted parameters and without resorting to auxiliary sites or anisotropic atomic centers. On average, the unsigned error in the average polarizability and anisotropy compared to B3LYP are 2% and 5%, respectively. The correlation between the polarizability components from B3LYP and this approach lead to a R2 of 0.990 and a slope of 0.999. Even the F2 anisotropy, shown to be a difficult case for existing polarizability models, can be reproduced within 2% error. In addition to providing new parameters for a rapid method directly applicable to the calculation of polarizabilities, this work extends the widely used Poisson equation to areas where accurate molecular polarizabilities matter. PMID:23646034

  19. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R; Holmes, William M

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models. PMID:27111139

  20. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Holmes, William M.

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models.

  1. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R; Holmes, William M

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models.

  2. High resolution DEM from Tandem-X interferometry: an accurate tool to characterize volcanic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albino, Fabien; Kervyn, Francois

    2013-04-01

    Tandem-X mission was launched by the German agency (DLR) in June 2010. It is a new generation high resolution SAR sensor mainly dedicated to topographic applications. For the purpose of our researches focused on the study of the volcano-tectonic activity in the Kivu Rift area, a set of Tandem-X bistatic radar images were used to produce a high resolution InSAR DEM of the Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP). The VVP is part of the Western branch of the African rift, situated at the boundary between D.R. Congo, Rwanda and Uganda. It has two highly active volcanoes, Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira. A first task concerns the quantitative assessment of the vertical accuracy that can be achieved with these new data. The new DEMs are compared to other space borne datasets (SRTM, ASTER) but also to field measurements given by differential GPS. Multi-temporal radar acquisitions allow us to produce several DEM of the same area. This appeared to be very useful in the context of an active volcanic context where new geomorphological features (faults, fissures, volcanic cones and lava flows) appear continuously through time. For example, since the year 2000, time of the SRTM acquisition, we had one eruption at Nyiragongo (2002) and six eruptions at Nyamulagira (2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2010 and 2011) which all induce large changes in the landscape with the emplacement of new lava fields and scoria cones. From our repetitive Tandem-X DEM production, we have a tool to identify and also quantify in term of size and volume all the topographic changes relative to this past volcanic activity. These parameters are high value information to improve the understanding of the Virunga volcanoes; the accurate estimation of erupted volume and knowledge of structural features associated to past eruptions are key parameters to understand the volcanic system, to ameliorate the hazard assessment, and finally contribute to risk mitigation in a densely populated area.

  3. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  4. Space Situational Awareness Architecture Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, D.

    2013-09-01

    Vast amounts of Space Situational data are collected each day. Net-Centric approaches are being developed to expose this data. The need to shift from our closed legacy systems to an open scalable architecture has begun through the JMS efforts. Cloud computing/Big Data concepts are also desired to store and process this data. Architecture insights will be provided to highlight how these apparently competing concepts can work together to provide a robust system of systems. Key items that will be covered include: 1) An overview of the "As-Is" system of JMS and Web Services 2) Definition of "Cloud Computing" and "Big Data" 3) Vision of To-Be SSA system of systems 4) Benefits of future approach 5) Path forward Governance and Oversight

  5. Task-oriented situation recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Alexander; Fischer, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    From the advances in computer vision methods for the detection, tracking and recognition of objects in video streams, new opportunities for video surveillance arise: In the future, automated video surveillance systems will be able to detect critical situations early enough to enable an operator to take preventive actions, instead of using video material merely for forensic investigations. However, problems such as limited computational resources, privacy regulations and a constant change in potential threads have to be addressed by a practical automated video surveillance system. In this paper, we show how these problems can be addressed using a task-oriented approach. The system architecture of the task-oriented video surveillance system NEST and an algorithm for the detection of abnormal behavior as part of the system are presented and illustrated for the surveillance of guests inside a video-monitored building.

  6. The refugee situation in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, D

    1985-01-01

    This statement by Dennis Gallagher, Director of the Refugee Policy Group, discusses the refugee situation in Thailand. Laotians have been entering Thailand in increasing numbers; some 86,000 Laotians are now in Thailand whereas there were 67,000 in November, 1983. The time is well past for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the Thai government to initiate screening for new arrivals from Laos to determine whether or not they are refugees. The question needs to be examined as to what national interest and humanitarian obligation Thailand has to afford safe havens for refugees and others from Indochina. While the Thai government does not want the Khmer resistance to be crippled, it also must be concerned that providing the resistance with a base of operations of Thai territory could invite attack by the Vietnamese. Refugee resettlement alone has not and cannot resolve the refugee problem in Thailand; a more comprehensive approach is required. In areas where there is a substantial number of Indochinese who are unlikely to be resettled, projects need to be developed and funded that contribute to a more productive life for them and, preferably, for the broader region in which they reside. It is important that modification of policies occur within a comprehensive framework rather than on a piecemeal basis. Encouraging the Thais to accept supporting self-reliance projects will not happen if commitments to resettlement are not sustained. That the refugee situation in Thailand is complex and is constantly evolving argues for policies that permit more options for addressing it. PMID:12178936

  7. Obstacles to Understanding Cognitions As Situated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, David; Whitson, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the current state of situated cognition theory. Points to underlying issues that remain to be clarified in order for the substantive differences between situative and cognitive approaches to be appreciated. (MMU)

  8. Diagnosing Educational Leadership Problems: A Situational Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Philip E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Discusses Situational Leadership Theory, a conceptual framework that can help managers improve their performance by varying their leadership style in various situations to fit the needs and capabilities of their subordinates. (JG)

  9. DNA barcode data accurately assign higher spider taxa

    PubMed Central

    Coddington, Jonathan A.; Agnarsson, Ingi; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Čandek, Klemen; Driskell, Amy; Frick, Holger; Gregorič, Matjaž; Kostanjšek, Rok; Kropf, Christian; Kweskin, Matthew; Lokovšek, Tjaša; Pipan, Miha; Vidergar, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The use of unique DNA sequences as a method for taxonomic identification is no longer fundamentally controversial, even though debate continues on the best markers, methods, and technology to use. Although both existing databanks such as GenBank and BOLD, as well as reference taxonomies, are imperfect, in best case scenarios “barcodes” (whether single or multiple, organelle or nuclear, loci) clearly are an increasingly fast and inexpensive method of identification, especially as compared to manual identification of unknowns by increasingly rare expert taxonomists. Because most species on Earth are undescribed, a complete reference database at the species level is impractical in the near term. The question therefore arises whether unidentified species can, using DNA barcodes, be accurately assigned to more inclusive groups such as genera and families—taxonomic ranks of putatively monophyletic groups for which the global inventory is more complete and stable. We used a carefully chosen test library of CO1 sequences from 49 families, 313 genera, and 816 species of spiders to assess the accuracy of genus and family-level assignment. We used BLAST queries of each sequence against the entire library and got the top ten hits. The percent sequence identity was reported from these hits (PIdent, range 75–100%). Accurate assignment of higher taxa (PIdent above which errors totaled less than 5%) occurred for genera at PIdent values >95 and families at PIdent values ≥ 91, suggesting these as heuristic thresholds for accurate generic and familial identifications in spiders. Accuracy of identification increases with numbers of species/genus and genera/family in the library; above five genera per family and fifteen species per genus all higher taxon assignments were correct. We propose that using percent sequence identity between conventional barcode sequences may be a feasible and reasonably accurate method to identify animals to family/genus. However, the quality of

  10. DNA barcode data accurately assign higher spider taxa.

    PubMed

    Coddington, Jonathan A; Agnarsson, Ingi; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Čandek, Klemen; Driskell, Amy; Frick, Holger; Gregorič, Matjaž; Kostanjšek, Rok; Kropf, Christian; Kweskin, Matthew; Lokovšek, Tjaša; Pipan, Miha; Vidergar, Nina; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    The use of unique DNA sequences as a method for taxonomic identification is no longer fundamentally controversial, even though debate continues on the best markers, methods, and technology to use. Although both existing databanks such as GenBank and BOLD, as well as reference taxonomies, are imperfect, in best case scenarios "barcodes" (whether single or multiple, organelle or nuclear, loci) clearly are an increasingly fast and inexpensive method of identification, especially as compared to manual identification of unknowns by increasingly rare expert taxonomists. Because most species on Earth are undescribed, a complete reference database at the species level is impractical in the near term. The question therefore arises whether unidentified species can, using DNA barcodes, be accurately assigned to more inclusive groups such as genera and families-taxonomic ranks of putatively monophyletic groups for which the global inventory is more complete and stable. We used a carefully chosen test library of CO1 sequences from 49 families, 313 genera, and 816 species of spiders to assess the accuracy of genus and family-level assignment. We used BLAST queries of each sequence against the entire library and got the top ten hits. The percent sequence identity was reported from these hits (PIdent, range 75-100%). Accurate assignment of higher taxa (PIdent above which errors totaled less than 5%) occurred for genera at PIdent values >95 and families at PIdent values ≥ 91, suggesting these as heuristic thresholds for accurate generic and familial identifications in spiders. Accuracy of identification increases with numbers of species/genus and genera/family in the library; above five genera per family and fifteen species per genus all higher taxon assignments were correct. We propose that using percent sequence identity between conventional barcode sequences may be a feasible and reasonably accurate method to identify animals to family/genus. However, the quality of the

  11. Accurate upwind methods for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of piecewise linear methods for the numerical solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics is presented. These methods are uniformly second-order accurate, and can be considered as extensions of Godunov's scheme. With an appropriate definition of monotonicity preservation for the case of linear convection, it can be shown that they preserve monotonicity. Similar to Van Leer's MUSCL scheme, they consist of two key steps: a reconstruction step followed by an upwind step. For the reconstruction step, a monotonicity constraint that preserves uniform second-order accuracy is introduced. Computational efficiency is enhanced by devising a criterion that detects the 'smooth' part of the data where the constraint is redundant. The concept and coding of the constraint are simplified by the use of the median function. A slope steepening technique, which has no effect at smooth regions and can resolve a contact discontinuity in four cells, is described. As for the upwind step, existing and new methods are applied in a manner slightly different from those in the literature. These methods are derived by approximating the Euler equations via linearization and diagonalization. At a 'smooth' interface, Harten, Lax, and Van Leer's one intermediate state model is employed. A modification for this model that can resolve contact discontinuities is presented. Near a discontinuity, either this modified model or a more accurate one, namely, Roe's flux-difference splitting. is used. The current presentation of Roe's method, via the conceptually simple flux-vector splitting, not only establishes a connection between the two splittings, but also leads to an admissibility correction with no conditional statement, and an efficient approximation to Osher's approximate Riemann solver. These reconstruction and upwind steps result in schemes that are uniformly second-order accurate and economical at smooth regions, and yield high resolution at discontinuities.

  12. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  13. Managing Situation Awareness on the Flight Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Connell, Linda (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Awareness is required of the plane, the path and the people, both now and in the future. The steps to situation awareness are to monitor and evaluate the current situation. Anticipate the future to stay ahead of the airplane and consider contingencies, having a plan for 'what if situations. Continually update and modify the plan and share it with all crew members.

  14. Dimensions of Compliance-Gaining Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Michael J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Tested a seven-factor model of situation perception to develop a set of valid and reliable situation perception factors for use in compliance-gaining research. (Factors included personal benefits, intimacy, rights, resistance, dominance, situation apprehension, and relational consequences.) Found that the model fit the data well and was superior…

  15. Mathematical Situations of Play and Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Rose

    2013-01-01

    The mathematical situations of play and exploration introduced here have been developed as an empirical research instrument for the longitudinal study "erStMaL" (early Steps in Mathematics Learning). They are designed as situations that allow children and a guiding adult to construct situation-related knowledge in common dialogue…

  16. School and Situated Knowledge: Travel or Tourism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damarin, Suzanne K.

    1993-01-01

    Examines issues related to situated cognition and learning, both in the classroom and in the world. Topics discussed include educational theories; the situated nature of knowledge; the perception of experts; and the role of technology in situated learning, including virtual reality, hypertext, and telecommunications. (26 references) (LRW)

  17. Situational and affective risk situations of relapse and the quality of implementation intentions in an e-health smoking relapse prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Elfeddali, Iman; Bolman, Catherine; de Vries, Hein

    2013-06-01

    The quality of coping plans made to deal with personal smoking related risk situations and the relation between plan quality (PQ) and continued smoking abstinence (CA) were assessed. The respondents (N = 563) were smokers who had made a coping planning assignment in the experimental conditions of a larger randomized controlled trial. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The specificity of the plans made was related to short and long-term CA and was significantly lower for plans made to deal with situational situations. More research on how to foster specificity and target the difficulties that quitters have with specifying plans for affective situations is required.

  18. The first accurate description of an aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2006-12-01

    As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

  19. New law requires 'medically accurate' lesson plans.

    PubMed

    1999-09-17

    The California Legislature has passed a bill requiring all textbooks and materials used to teach about AIDS be medically accurate and objective. Statements made within the curriculum must be supported by research conducted in compliance with scientific methods, and published in peer-reviewed journals. Some of the current lesson plans were found to contain scientifically unsupported and biased information. In addition, the bill requires material to be "free of racial, ethnic, or gender biases." The legislation is supported by a wide range of interests, but opposed by the California Right to Life Education Fund, because they believe it discredits abstinence-only material.

  20. New law requires 'medically accurate' lesson plans.

    PubMed

    1999-09-17

    The California Legislature has passed a bill requiring all textbooks and materials used to teach about AIDS be medically accurate and objective. Statements made within the curriculum must be supported by research conducted in compliance with scientific methods, and published in peer-reviewed journals. Some of the current lesson plans were found to contain scientifically unsupported and biased information. In addition, the bill requires material to be "free of racial, ethnic, or gender biases." The legislation is supported by a wide range of interests, but opposed by the California Right to Life Education Fund, because they believe it discredits abstinence-only material. PMID:11366835

  1. Universality: Accurate Checks in Dyson's Hierarchical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godina, J. J.; Meurice, Y.; Oktay, M. B.

    2003-06-01

    In this talk we present high-accuracy calculations of the susceptibility near βc for Dyson's hierarchical model in D = 3. Using linear fitting, we estimate the leading (γ) and subleading (Δ) exponents. Independent estimates are obtained by calculating the first two eigenvalues of the linearized renormalization group transformation. We found γ = 1.29914073 ± 10 -8 and, Δ = 0.4259469 ± 10-7 independently of the choice of local integration measure (Ising or Landau-Ginzburg). After a suitable rescaling, the approximate fixed points for a large class of local measure coincide accurately with a fixed point constructed by Koch and Wittwer.

  2. Can a surgeon drill accurately at a specified angle?

    PubMed Central

    Brioschi, Valentina; Cook, Jodie; Arthurs, Gareth I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether a surgeon can drill accurately a specified angle and whether surgeon experience, task repetition, drill bit size and perceived difficulty influence drilling angle accuracy. Methods The sample population consisted of final-year students (n=25), non-specialist veterinarians (n=22) and board-certified orthopaedic surgeons (n=8). Each participant drilled a hole twice in a horizontal oak plank at 30°, 45°, 60°, 80°, 85° and 90° angles with either a 2.5  or a 3.5 mm drill bit. Participants then rated the perceived difficulty to drill each angle. The true angle of each hole was measured using a digital goniometer. Results Greater drilling accuracy was achieved at angles closer to 90°. An error of ≤±4° was achieved by 84.5 per cent of participants drilling a 90° angle compared with approximately 20 per cent of participants drilling a 30–45° angle. There was no effect of surgeon experience, task repetition or drill bit size on the mean error for intended versus achieved angle. Increased perception of difficulty was associated with the more acute angles and decreased accuracy, but not experience level. Clinical significance This study shows that surgeon ability to drill accurately (within ±4° error) is limited, particularly at angles ≤60°. In situations where drill angle is critical, use of computer-assisted navigation or custom-made drill guides may be preferable. PMID:27547423

  3. Coordinated machine learning and decision support for situation awareness.

    PubMed

    Brannon, N G; Seiffertt, J E; Draelos, T J; Wunsch, D C

    2009-04-01

    Domains such as force protection require an effective decision maker to maintain a high level of situation awareness. A system that combines humans with neural networks is a desirable approach. Furthermore, it is advantageous for the calculation engine to operate in three learning modes: supervised for initial training and known updating, reinforcement for online operational improvement, and unsupervised in the absence of all external signaling. An Adaptive Resonance Theory based architecture capable of seamlessly switching among the three types of learning is discussed that can be used to help optimize the decision making of a human operator in such a scenario. This is followed by a situation assessment module.

  4. Mobile Health Systems that Optimize Resources in Emergency Response Situations.

    PubMed

    Massey, Tammara; Gao, Tia

    2010-11-13

    During mass casualty incidents, a large number of patients need to be triaged accurately in order to save the maximum number of lives. Recently portable health systems have been developed that can gather patient's vital signs and wireless transmit this information to a central location for analysis. This research introduces a methodology to improve triage in mass casualty incidents by combining statistical optimization techniques with mobile health systems to manage resources using evidence based data. We combine data collected during a field test with data of patient's vital signs to simulate how mobile health systems can optimize resources in emergency response situations.

  5. Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.

  6. Accurate basis set truncation for wavefunction embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Taylor A.; Goodpaster, Jason D.; Manby, Frederick R.; Miller, Thomas F.

    2013-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally exact framework for performing embedded subsystem electronic structure calculations, including DFT-in-DFT and wavefunction theory-in-DFT descriptions. In the interest of efficiency, it is desirable to truncate the atomic orbital basis set in which the subsystem calculation is performed, thus avoiding high-order scaling with respect to the size of the MO virtual space. In this study, we extend a recently introduced projection-based embedding method [F. R. Manby, M. Stella, J. D. Goodpaster, and T. F. Miller III, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2564 (2012)], 10.1021/ct300544e to allow for the systematic and accurate truncation of the embedded subsystem basis set. The approach is applied to both covalently and non-covalently bound test cases, including water clusters and polypeptide chains, and it is demonstrated that errors associated with basis set truncation are controllable to well within chemical accuracy. Furthermore, we show that this approach allows for switching between accurate projection-based embedding and DFT embedding with approximate kinetic energy (KE) functionals; in this sense, the approach provides a means of systematically improving upon the use of approximate KE functionals in DFT embedding.

  7. Accurate determination of characteristic relative permeability curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Michael H.; Benson, Sally M.

    2015-09-01

    A recently developed technique to accurately characterize sub-core scale heterogeneity is applied to investigate the factors responsible for flowrate-dependent effective relative permeability curves measured on core samples in the laboratory. The dependency of laboratory measured relative permeability on flowrate has long been both supported and challenged by a number of investigators. Studies have shown that this apparent flowrate dependency is a result of both sub-core scale heterogeneity and outlet boundary effects. However this has only been demonstrated numerically for highly simplified models of porous media. In this paper, flowrate dependency of effective relative permeability is demonstrated using two rock cores, a Berea Sandstone and a heterogeneous sandstone from the Otway Basin Pilot Project in Australia. Numerical simulations of steady-state coreflooding experiments are conducted at a number of injection rates using a single set of input characteristic relative permeability curves. Effective relative permeability is then calculated from the simulation data using standard interpretation methods for calculating relative permeability from steady-state tests. Results show that simplified approaches may be used to determine flowrate-independent characteristic relative permeability provided flow rate is sufficiently high, and the core heterogeneity is relatively low. It is also shown that characteristic relative permeability can be determined at any typical flowrate, and even for geologically complex models, when using accurate three-dimensional models.

  8. How Accurately can we Calculate Thermal Systems?

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D; Blomquist, R N; Dean, C; Heinrichs, D; Kalugin, M A; Lee, M; Lee, Y; MacFarlan, R; Nagaya, Y; Trkov, A

    2004-04-20

    I would like to determine how accurately a variety of neutron transport code packages (code and cross section libraries) can calculate simple integral parameters, such as K{sub eff}, for systems that are sensitive to thermal neutron scattering. Since we will only consider theoretical systems, we cannot really determine absolute accuracy compared to any real system. Therefore rather than accuracy, it would be more precise to say that I would like to determine the spread in answers that we obtain from a variety of code packages. This spread should serve as an excellent indicator of how accurately we can really model and calculate such systems today. Hopefully, eventually this will lead to improvements in both our codes and the thermal scattering models that they use in the future. In order to accomplish this I propose a number of extremely simple systems that involve thermal neutron scattering that can be easily modeled and calculated by a variety of neutron transport codes. These are theoretical systems designed to emphasize the effects of thermal scattering, since that is what we are interested in studying. I have attempted to keep these systems very simple, and yet at the same time they include most, if not all, of the important thermal scattering effects encountered in a large, water-moderated, uranium fueled thermal system, i.e., our typical thermal reactors.

  9. Accurate Stellar Parameters for Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, John Michael; Fischer, Debra; Basu, Sarbani; Valenti, Jeff A.

    2015-01-01

    A large impedement to our understanding of planet formation is obtaining a clear picture of planet radii and densities. Although determining precise ratios between planet and stellar host are relatively easy, determining accurate stellar parameters is still a difficult and costly undertaking. High resolution spectral analysis has traditionally yielded precise values for some stellar parameters but stars in common between catalogs from different authors or analyzed using different techniques often show offsets far in excess of their uncertainties. Most analyses now use some external constraint, when available, to break observed degeneracies between surface gravity, effective temperature, and metallicity which can otherwise lead to correlated errors in results. However, these external constraints are impossible to obtain for all stars and can require more costly observations than the initial high resolution spectra. We demonstrate that these discrepencies can be mitigated by use of a larger line list that has carefully tuned atomic line data. We use an iterative modeling technique that does not require external constraints. We compare the surface gravity obtained with our spectral synthesis modeling to asteroseismically determined values for 42 Kepler stars. Our analysis agrees well with only a 0.048 dex offset and an rms scatter of 0.05 dex. Such accurate stellar gravities can reduce the primary source of uncertainty in radii by almost an order of magnitude over unconstrained spectral analysis.

  10. Situation Change: Stability and Change of Situation Variables between and within Persons

    PubMed Central

    Rauthmann, John F.; Sherman, Ryne A.

    2016-01-01

    When, how, and why situations flow into one another is important for understanding dynamic personality processes, but the topic of situation change has traditionally been a thorny issue in personality/social psychology. We explore conceptual and methodological issues in research on situation change: (1) What is situation change, which variables could we measure, and how can situation change be methodologically captured and analyzed (at between- and within-person levels)? (2) Which person-situation transaction mechanisms (situation management strategies) could entail stability and change of situations in daily life? (3) How do single or repeated instances of situation change impact short-, middle-, and long-term outcomes (e.g., intra- and interpersonal adjustment)? Besides laying out a research program for situation change, we present preliminary data from participants who wore mini-video cameras recording their situations so that they could be rated later in the lab. We demonstrate rater consensus on when situations change, mean-level changes of situation characteristics across situations, similarity of situation characteristics across adjacent situations, and inter-individual differences in intra-individual situation change in change networks. PMID:26779068

  11. Increasing situational awareness using smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boddhu, Sanjay K.; Williams, Robert L.; Wasser, Edward; Kode, Niranjan

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the United States Armed Services and various law enforcement agencies have shown increasing interest in evaluating the feasibility of using smartphones and hand-held devices as part of the standard gear for its personnel, who are actively engaged on battlefield or in crime-prone areas. The primary motive driving analysis efforts to employ smartphone-based technologies is the prospect of the increased "Situational Awareness" achievable thru a digitally connected network of armed personnel. Personnel would be equipped with customized smart applications that use the device's sensors (GPS, camera, compass, etc...) to sense the hostile environments as well as enabling them to perform collaborative tasks to effectively complete a given mission. In this vein, as part of the Summer At The Edge (SATE) program, a group of student interns under the guidance of mentors from Qbase and AFRL, have employed smartphones and built three smart applications to tackle three real-world scenarios: PinPoint, IStream, and Cooperative GPS. This paper provides implementation details for these prototype applications, along with the supporting visualization and sensor cloud platforms and discusses results obtained from field testing of the same. Further, the paper concludes by providing the implications of the present work and insights into future work.

  12. Synthesis of Survey Questions That Accurately Discriminate the Elements of the TPACK Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaikaran-Doe, Seeta; Doe, Peter Edward

    2015-01-01

    A number of validated survey instruments for assessing technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) do not accurately discriminate between the seven elements of the TPACK framework particularly technological content knowledge (TCK) and technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK). By posing simple questions that assess technological,…

  13. Highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-12-30

    Disclosed is a highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine, comprising a revolute joint, comprising a circular encoder wheel, having an axis of rotation; a plurality of marks disposed around at least a portion of the circumference of the encoder wheel; bearing means for supporting the encoder wheel, while permitting free rotation of the encoder wheel about the wheel's axis of rotation; and a sensor, rigidly attached to the bearing means, for detecting the motion of at least some of the marks as the encoder wheel rotates; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the encoder wheel, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the sensor, for converting the output of the sensor into a set of cylindrical coordinates representing the position of the probe tip relative to a reference cylindrical coordinate system.

  14. Practical aspects of spatially high accurate methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, Andrew G.; Mitchell, Curtis R.; Walters, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The computational qualities of high order spatially accurate methods for the finite volume solution of the Euler equations are presented. Two dimensional essentially non-oscillatory (ENO), k-exact, and 'dimension by dimension' ENO reconstruction operators are discussed and compared in terms of reconstruction and solution accuracy, computational cost and oscillatory behavior in supersonic flows with shocks. Inherent steady state convergence difficulties are demonstrated for adaptive stencil algorithms. An exact solution to the heat equation is used to determine reconstruction error, and the computational intensity is reflected in operation counts. Standard MUSCL differencing is included for comparison. Numerical experiments presented include the Ringleb flow for numerical accuracy and a shock reflection problem. A vortex-shock interaction demonstrates the ability of the ENO scheme to excel in simulating unsteady high-frequency flow physics.

  15. Toward Accurate and Quantitative Comparative Metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Nayfach, Stephen; Pollard, Katherine S

    2016-08-25

    Shotgun metagenomics and computational analysis are used to compare the taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities. Leveraging this approach to understand roles of microbes in human biology and other environments requires quantitative data summaries whose values are comparable across samples and studies. Comparability is currently hampered by the use of abundance statistics that do not estimate a meaningful parameter of the microbial community and biases introduced by experimental protocols and data-cleaning approaches. Addressing these challenges, along with improving study design, data access, metadata standardization, and analysis tools, will enable accurate comparative metagenomics. We envision a future in which microbiome studies are replicable and new metagenomes are easily and rapidly integrated with existing data. Only then can the potential of metagenomics for predictive ecological modeling, well-powered association studies, and effective microbiome medicine be fully realized. PMID:27565341

  16. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperaes in the range of about 1800.degree. to 2700.degree. C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  17. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  18. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  19. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception.

  20. Accurate Thermal Stresses for Beams: Normal Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Pilkey, Walter D.

    2003-01-01

    Formulations for a general theory of thermoelasticity to generate accurate thermal stresses for structural members of aeronautical vehicles were developed in 1954 by Boley. The formulation also provides three normal stresses and a shear stress along the entire length of the beam. The Poisson effect of the lateral and transverse normal stresses on a thermally loaded beam is taken into account in this theory by employing an Airy stress function. The Airy stress function enables the reduction of the three-dimensional thermal stress problem to a two-dimensional one. Numerical results from the general theory of thermoelasticity are compared to those obtained from strength of materials. It is concluded that the theory of thermoelasticity for prismatic beams proposed in this paper can be used instead of strength of materials when precise stress results are desired.

  1. Accurate Thermal Stresses for Beams: Normal Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Pilkey, Walter D.

    2002-01-01

    Formulations for a general theory of thermoelasticity to generate accurate thermal stresses for structural members of aeronautical vehicles were developed in 1954 by Boley. The formulation also provides three normal stresses and a shear stress along the entire length of the beam. The Poisson effect of the lateral and transverse normal stresses on a thermally loaded beam is taken into account in this theory by employing an Airy stress function. The Airy stress function enables the reduction of the three-dimensional thermal stress problem to a two-dimensional one. Numerical results from the general theory of thermoelasticity are compared to those obtained from strength of materials. It is concluded that the theory of thermoelasticity for prismatic beams proposed in this paper can be used instead of strength of materials when precise stress results are desired.

  2. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception. PMID:24549293

  3. Accurate Telescope Mount Positioning with MEMS Accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, L.; Jaskó, A.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the advantages and challenges of applying microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (MEMS accelerometers) in order to attain precise, accurate, and stateless positioning of telescope mounts. This provides a completely independent method from other forms of electronic, optical, mechanical or magnetic feedback or real-time astrometry. Our goal is to reach the subarcminute range which is considerably smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. Here we present how this subarcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors and we also detail how our procedures can be extended in order to attain even finer measurements. In addition, our paper discusses how can a complete system design be implemented in order to be a part of a telescope control system.

  4. Toward Accurate and Quantitative Comparative Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Nayfach, Stephen; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Shotgun metagenomics and computational analysis are used to compare the taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities. Leveraging this approach to understand roles of microbes in human biology and other environments requires quantitative data summaries whose values are comparable across samples and studies. Comparability is currently hampered by the use of abundance statistics that do not estimate a meaningful parameter of the microbial community and biases introduced by experimental protocols and data-cleaning approaches. Addressing these challenges, along with improving study design, data access, metadata standardization, and analysis tools, will enable accurate comparative metagenomics. We envision a future in which microbiome studies are replicable and new metagenomes are easily and rapidly integrated with existing data. Only then can the potential of metagenomics for predictive ecological modeling, well-powered association studies, and effective microbiome medicine be fully realized. PMID:27565341

  5. The importance of accurate atmospheric modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Dylan; Schroeder, John; Liang, Pang

    2014-11-01

    This paper will focus on the effect of atmospheric conditions on EO sensor performance using computer models. We have shown the importance of accurately modeling atmospheric effects for predicting the performance of an EO sensor. A simple example will demonstrated how real conditions for several sites in China will significantly impact on image correction, hyperspectral imaging, and remote sensing. The current state-of-the-art model for computing atmospheric transmission and radiance is, MODTRAN® 5, developed by the US Air Force Research Laboratory and Spectral Science, Inc. Research by the US Air Force, Navy and Army resulted in the public release of LOWTRAN 2 in the early 1970's. Subsequent releases of LOWTRAN and MODTRAN® have continued until the present. Please verify that (1) all pages are present, (2) all figures are correct, (3) all fonts and special characters are correct, and (4) all text and figures fit within the red margin lines shown on this review document. Complete formatting information is available at http://SPIE.org/manuscripts Return to the Manage Active Submissions page at http://spie.org/submissions/tasks.aspx and approve or disapprove this submission. Your manuscript will not be published without this approval. Please contact author_help@spie.org with any questions or concerns. The paper will demonstrate the importance of using validated models and local measured meteorological, atmospheric and aerosol conditions to accurately simulate the atmospheric transmission and radiance. Frequently default conditions are used which can produce errors of as much as 75% in these values. This can have significant impact on remote sensing applications.

  6. Accurate Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The NRAO Green Bank Telescope routinely observes at wavelengths from 3 mm to 1 m. As with all mm-wave telescopes, observing conditions depend upon the variable atmospheric water content. The site provides over 100 days/yr when opacities are low enough for good observing at 3 mm, but winds on the open-air structure reduce the time suitable for 3-mm observing where pointing is critical. Thus, to maximum productivity the observing wavelength needs to match weather conditions. For 6 years the telescope has used a dynamic scheduling system (recently upgraded; www.gb.nrao.edu/DSS) that requires accurate multi-day forecasts for winds and opacities. Since opacity forecasts are not provided by the National Weather Services (NWS), I have developed an automated system that takes available forecasts, derives forecasted opacities, and deploys the results on the web in user-friendly graphical overviews (www.gb.nrao.edu/ rmaddale/Weather). The system relies on the "North American Mesoscale" models, which are updated by the NWS every 6 hrs, have a 12 km horizontal resolution, 1 hr temporal resolution, run to 84 hrs, and have 60 vertical layers that extend to 20 km. Each forecast consists of a time series of ground conditions, cloud coverage, etc, and, most importantly, temperature, pressure, humidity as a function of height. I use the Liebe's MWP model (Radio Science, 20, 1069, 1985) to determine the absorption in each layer for each hour for 30 observing wavelengths. Radiative transfer provides, for each hour and wavelength, the total opacity and the radio brightness of the atmosphere, which contributes substantially at some wavelengths to Tsys and the observational noise. Comparisons of measured and forecasted Tsys at 22.2 and 44 GHz imply that the forecasted opacities are good to about 0.01 Nepers, which is sufficient for forecasting and accurate calibration. Reliability is high out to 2 days and degrades slowly for longer-range forecasts.

  7. The high cost of accurate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Kathleen M; Weber, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    Many business thinkers believe it's the role of senior managers to scan the external environment to monitor contingencies and constraints, and to use that precise knowledge to modify the company's strategy and design. As these thinkers see it, managers need accurate and abundant information to carry out that role. According to that logic, it makes sense to invest heavily in systems for collecting and organizing competitive information. Another school of pundits contends that, since today's complex information often isn't precise anyway, it's not worth going overboard with such investments. In other words, it's not the accuracy and abundance of information that should matter most to top executives--rather, it's how that information is interpreted. After all, the role of senior managers isn't just to make decisions; it's to set direction and motivate others in the face of ambiguities and conflicting demands. Top executives must interpret information and communicate those interpretations--they must manage meaning more than they must manage information. So which of these competing views is the right one? Research conducted by academics Sutcliffe and Weber found that how accurate senior executives are about their competitive environments is indeed less important for strategy and corresponding organizational changes than the way in which they interpret information about their environments. Investments in shaping those interpretations, therefore, may create a more durable competitive advantage than investments in obtaining and organizing more information. And what kinds of interpretations are most closely linked with high performance? Their research suggests that high performers respond positively to opportunities, yet they aren't overconfident in their abilities to take advantage of those opportunities.

  8. A Study of User's Acceptance on Situational Mashups in Situational Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Angus F. M.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Liaw, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Situational awareness and mashups are two key factors influencing the success of situational language teaching. However, traditional situational language teaching cannot smoothly conduct relevant learning activities in changing learning context. This study developed a situational mashups system for detecting users' context and proposed a research…

  9. Approaching system equilibrium with accurate or not accurate feedback information in a two-route system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-mei; Xie, Dong-fan; Li, Qi

    2015-02-01

    With the development of intelligent transport system, advanced information feedback strategies have been developed to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the capacity. However, previous strategies provide accurate information to travelers and our simulation results show that accurate information brings negative effects, especially in delay case. Because travelers prefer to the best condition route with accurate information, and delayed information cannot reflect current traffic condition but past. Then travelers make wrong routing decisions, causing the decrease of the capacity and the increase of oscillations and the system deviating from the equilibrium. To avoid the negative effect, bounded rationality is taken into account by introducing a boundedly rational threshold BR. When difference between two routes is less than the BR, routes have equal probability to be chosen. The bounded rationality is helpful to improve the efficiency in terms of capacity, oscillation and the gap deviating from the system equilibrium.

  10. Enhanced Collaboration for Space Situational Awareness via Proxy Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picciano, P.; Schurr, N.

    2012-09-01

    The call for dynamic partnerships demanded in the US. Space Policy confronts two formidable challenges. The first is evident in the lack of the adoption of technical innovations that could substantially enhance collaboration. The second category, and perhaps a greater impediment, involves organizational and social constraints that minimize information sharing. Compounding the technical challenges, the organizational barriers to collaboration present a different problem set. There is a culture in the space domain that predisposes most stakeholders to guard their information. Most owner/operators are reluctant to share asset data, whether experiencing an anomaly or just providing status updates. This is unfortunate, because the owner/operators generally have the most accurate and timely data pertaining to their satellite. Comprehensive Space Situational Awareness (SSA) requires the marshaling of disparate mission critical elements. The mission threads reliant on SSA are complex and often require analysis from a diverse team of experts with sophisticated systems and tools that may be dispersed across multiple entities including military, commercial, and public interests. Two significant trends are likely to further perpetuate this state of affairs: 1) the space environment continues to be more congested, contested, and competitive, and 2) further pressures to increase SSA Sharing with a greater number of stakeholders throughout the world. The challenge of delivering the right information to the right people, while protecting national security and privacy interests, is in need of an innovative solution. Our approach, entitled Space Collaboration via an Agent Network (SCAN), enables proxy software agents to represent stakeholders (as individuals and organizations) to enhance collaboration among various agency producers and consumers of space information The SCAN agent network will facilitate collaboration by identifying opportunities to collaborate, as well as optimize

  11. Accurate masses for dispersion-supported galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joe; Martinez, Gregory D.; Bullock, James S.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Geha, Marla; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Simon, Joshua D.; Avedo, Frank F.

    2010-08-01

    We derive an accurate mass estimator for dispersion-supported stellar systems and demonstrate its validity by analysing resolved line-of-sight velocity data for globular clusters, dwarf galaxies and elliptical galaxies. Specifically, by manipulating the spherical Jeans equation we show that the mass enclosed within the 3D deprojected half-light radius r1/2 can be determined with only mild assumptions about the spatial variation of the stellar velocity dispersion anisotropy as long as the projected velocity dispersion profile is fairly flat near the half-light radius, as is typically observed. We find M1/2 = 3 G-1< σ2los > r1/2 ~= 4 G-1< σ2los > Re, where < σ2los > is the luminosity-weighted square of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion and Re is the 2D projected half-light radius. While deceptively familiar in form, this formula is not the virial theorem, which cannot be used to determine accurate masses unless the radial profile of the total mass is known a priori. We utilize this finding to show that all of the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies (MW dSphs) are consistent with having formed within a halo of a mass of approximately 3 × 109 Msolar, assuming a Λ cold dark matter cosmology. The faintest MW dSphs seem to have formed in dark matter haloes that are at least as massive as those of the brightest MW dSphs, despite the almost five orders of magnitude spread in luminosity between them. We expand our analysis to the full range of observed dispersion-supported stellar systems and examine their dynamical I-band mass-to-light ratios ΥI1/2. The ΥI1/2 versus M1/2 relation for dispersion-supported galaxies follows a U shape, with a broad minimum near ΥI1/2 ~= 3 that spans dwarf elliptical galaxies to normal ellipticals, a steep rise to ΥI1/2 ~= 3200 for ultra-faint dSphs and a more shallow rise to ΥI1/2 ~= 800 for galaxy cluster spheroids.

  12. Improving the Quality of Home Visitation: An Exploratory Study of Difficult Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCroy, Craig Winston; Whitaker, Kate

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to use an ecological assessment model to obtain a better understanding of difficult situations that home visitors confront when implementing home visitation services. Method: A mixed method study was used which included conducting focus groups to identify specific situations faced by home visitors…

  13. The Role of Teachers in Facilitating Situational Interest in an Active-Learning Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotgans, Jerome I.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2011-01-01

    The study sought to explore whether interactional teacher characteristics such as social congruence, subject-matter expertise, and cognitive congruence increase situational interest in students. Correlational and path analyses were conducted on a sample of 498 polytechnic students to assess potential differences in situational interest based on…

  14. Effects of Situated Mobile Learning Approach on Learning Motivation and Performance of EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chester S. J.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Su, Addison Y. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a 5-step vocabulary learning (FSVL) strategy and a mobile learning tool in a situational English vocabulary learning environment and assessed their effects on the learning motivation and performance of English as a foreign language (EFL) students in a situational English vocabulary learning environment. Overall, 80 EFL…

  15. Social Perception of Rape: How Rape Myth Acceptance Modulates the Influence of Situational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Bettina; Moya, Miguel; Megias, Jesus

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the role of rape myth acceptance (RMA) and situational factors in the perception of three different rape scenarios (date rape, marital rape, and stranger rape). One hundred and eighty-two psychology undergraduates were asked to emit four judgements about each rape situation: victim responsibility, perpetrator responsibility,…

  16. Nutrition situation in metro Manila.

    PubMed

    Florentino, R F; Villavieja, G M; Boquecosa, J P; Bacos, F F

    1992-01-01

    . There is therefore an "urban bias" of food supply to Metro Manila, that is, there is a much higher demand capacity for Metro Manila to draw food supply because of its higher income level and bigger population. The impact of this situation in terms of nutrition and food supply in the rural areas should be carefully examined so as not to put the rural areas in extreme disadvantage. FNRI nutrition surveys have shown that dietary energy inadequacy remains rampant in Metro Manila, while protein continues to be a marginal problem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1342756

  17. [Setting up situated learning in vascular rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Mathe, Nathalie; Lascoux, Léa; Puchault, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    A pedagogical tool as well as a concept, situated learning describes the skills used in a situation in a given context, structuring the reflection, analysis and choice of nursing procedures, based on theoretical knowledge, know-how and interpersonal skills. A vascular rehabilitation team has chosen to formalise two situations from among the most common care procedures carried out in the department: the changing of complex dressings and ensuring the personal hygiene and comfort of a dependent patient with skin wounds.

  18. Fast and Accurate Circuit Design Automation through Hierarchical Model Switching.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Linh; Tagkopoulos, Ilias

    2015-08-21

    In computer-aided biological design, the trifecta of characterized part libraries, accurate models and optimal design parameters is crucial for producing reliable designs. As the number of parts and model complexity increase, however, it becomes exponentially more difficult for any optimization method to search the solution space, hence creating a trade-off that hampers efficient design. To address this issue, we present a hierarchical computer-aided design architecture that uses a two-step approach for biological design. First, a simple model of low computational complexity is used to predict circuit behavior and assess candidate circuit branches through branch-and-bound methods. Then, a complex, nonlinear circuit model is used for a fine-grained search of the reduced solution space, thus achieving more accurate results. Evaluation with a benchmark of 11 circuits and a library of 102 experimental designs with known characterization parameters demonstrates a speed-up of 3 orders of magnitude when compared to other design methods that provide optimality guarantees.

  19. Accurate lineshape spectroscopy and the Boltzmann constant

    PubMed Central

    Truong, G.-W.; Anstie, J. D.; May, E. F.; Stace, T. M.; Luiten, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopy has an illustrious history delivering serendipitous discoveries and providing a stringent testbed for new physical predictions, including applications from trace materials detection, to understanding the atmospheres of stars and planets, and even constraining cosmological models. Reaching fundamental-noise limits permits optimal extraction of spectroscopic information from an absorption measurement. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-limited spectrometer that delivers high-precision measurements of the absorption lineshape. These measurements yield a very accurate measurement of the excited-state (6P1/2) hyperfine splitting in Cs, and reveals a breakdown in the well-known Voigt spectral profile. We develop a theoretical model that accounts for this breakdown, explaining the observations to within the shot-noise limit. Our model enables us to infer the thermal velocity dispersion of the Cs vapour with an uncertainty of 35 p.p.m. within an hour. This allows us to determine a value for Boltzmann's constant with a precision of 6 p.p.m., and an uncertainty of 71 p.p.m. PMID:26465085

  20. Accurate free energy calculation along optimized paths.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changjun; Xiao, Yi

    2010-05-01

    The path-based methods of free energy calculation, such as thermodynamic integration and free energy perturbation, are simple in theory, but difficult in practice because in most cases smooth paths do not exist, especially for large molecules. In this article, we present a novel method to build the transition path of a peptide. We use harmonic potentials to restrain its nonhydrogen atom dihedrals in the initial state and set the equilibrium angles of the potentials as those in the final state. Through a series of steps of geometrical optimization, we can construct a smooth and short path from the initial state to the final state. This path can be used to calculate free energy difference. To validate this method, we apply it to a small 10-ALA peptide and find that the calculated free energy changes in helix-helix and helix-hairpin transitions are both self-convergent and cross-convergent. We also calculate the free energy differences between different stable states of beta-hairpin trpzip2, and the results show that this method is more efficient than the conventional molecular dynamics method in accurate free energy calculation.

  1. Accurate SHAPE-directed RNA structure determination

    PubMed Central

    Deigan, Katherine E.; Li, Tian W.; Mathews, David H.; Weeks, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    Almost all RNAs can fold to form extensive base-paired secondary structures. Many of these structures then modulate numerous fundamental elements of gene expression. Deducing these structure–function relationships requires that it be possible to predict RNA secondary structures accurately. However, RNA secondary structure prediction for large RNAs, such that a single predicted structure for a single sequence reliably represents the correct structure, has remained an unsolved problem. Here, we demonstrate that quantitative, nucleotide-resolution information from a SHAPE experiment can be interpreted as a pseudo-free energy change term and used to determine RNA secondary structure with high accuracy. Free energy minimization, by using SHAPE pseudo-free energies, in conjunction with nearest neighbor parameters, predicts the secondary structure of deproteinized Escherichia coli 16S rRNA (>1,300 nt) and a set of smaller RNAs (75–155 nt) with accuracies of up to 96–100%, which are comparable to the best accuracies achievable by comparative sequence analysis. PMID:19109441

  2. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10-12 at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, and T2 has been determined. For the ground state of H2 the estimated precision is 3 × 10-7 cm-1, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.

  3. Fast and Provably Accurate Bilateral Filtering.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Kunal N; Dabhade, Swapnil D

    2016-06-01

    The bilateral filter is a non-linear filter that uses a range filter along with a spatial filter to perform edge-preserving smoothing of images. A direct computation of the bilateral filter requires O(S) operations per pixel, where S is the size of the support of the spatial filter. In this paper, we present a fast and provably accurate algorithm for approximating the bilateral filter when the range kernel is Gaussian. In particular, for box and Gaussian spatial filters, the proposed algorithm can cut down the complexity to O(1) per pixel for any arbitrary S . The algorithm has a simple implementation involving N+1 spatial filterings, where N is the approximation order. We give a detailed analysis of the filtering accuracy that can be achieved by the proposed approximation in relation to the target bilateral filter. This allows us to estimate the order N required to obtain a given accuracy. We also present comprehensive numerical results to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is competitive with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of speed and accuracy. PMID:27093722

  4. Accurate, reliable prototype earth horizon sensor head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F.; Cohen, H.

    1973-01-01

    The design and performance is described of an accurate and reliable prototype earth sensor head (ARPESH). The ARPESH employs a detection logic 'locator' concept and horizon sensor mechanization which should lead to high accuracy horizon sensing that is minimally degraded by spatial or temporal variations in sensing attitude from a satellite in orbit around the earth at altitudes in the 500 km environ 1,2. An accuracy of horizon location to within 0.7 km has been predicted, independent of meteorological conditions. This corresponds to an error of 0.015 deg-at 500 km altitude. Laboratory evaluation of the sensor indicates that this accuracy is achieved. First, the basic operating principles of ARPESH are described; next, detailed design and construction data is presented and then performance of the sensor under laboratory conditions in which the sensor is installed in a simulator that permits it to scan over a blackbody source against background representing the earth space interface for various equivalent plant temperatures.

  5. Fast and Accurate Exhaled Breath Ammonia Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Solga, Steven F.; Mudalel, Matthew L.; Spacek, Lisa A.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations. PMID:24962141

  6. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-14

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10{sup −12} at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H{sub 2}, HD, HT, D{sub 2}, DT, and T{sub 2} has been determined. For the ground state of H{sub 2} the estimated precision is 3 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup −1}, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.

  7. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule.

    PubMed

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-14

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10(-12) at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, and T2 has been determined. For the ground state of H2 the estimated precision is 3 × 10(-7) cm(-1), which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels. PMID:25494728

  8. MEMS accelerometers in accurate mount positioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, László; Pál, András.; Jaskó, Attila

    2014-07-01

    In order to attain precise, accurate and stateless positioning of telescope mounts we apply microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (also known as MEMS accelerometers). In common practice, feedback from the mount position is provided by electronic, optical or magneto-mechanical systems or via real-time astrometric solution based on the acquired images. Hence, MEMS-based systems are completely independent from these mechanisms. Our goal is to investigate the advantages and challenges of applying such devices and to reach the sub-arcminute range { that is well smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. We present how this sub-arcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors. Basically, these sensors yield raw output within an accuracy of a few degrees. We show what kind of calibration procedures could exploit spherical and cylindrical constraints between accelerometer output channels in order to achieve the previously mentioned accuracy level. We also demonstrate how can our implementation be inserted in a telescope control system. Although this attainable precision is less than both the resolution of telescope mount drive mechanics and the accuracy of astrometric solutions, the independent nature of attitude determination could significantly increase the reliability of autonomous or remotely operated astronomical observations.

  9. Cyber situational awareness and differential hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Anurag; Tebben, Dan

    2012-06-01

    The advent of cyber threats has created a need for a new network planning, design, architecture, operations, control, situational awareness, management, and maintenance paradigms. Primary considerations include the ability to assess cyber attack resiliency of the network, and rapidly detect, isolate, and operate during deliberate simultaneous attacks against the network nodes and links. Legacy network planning relied on automatic protection of a network in the event of a single fault or a very few simultaneous faults in mesh networks, but in the future it must be augmented to include improved network resiliency and vulnerability awareness to cyber attacks. Ability to design a resilient network requires the development of methods to define, and quantify the network resiliency to attacks, and to be able to develop new optimization strategies for maintaining operations in the midst of these newly emerging cyber threats. Ways to quantify resiliency, and its use in visualizing cyber vulnerability awareness and in identifying node or link criticality, are presented in the current work, as well as a methodology of differential network hardening based on the criticality profile of cyber network components.

  10. Situational awareness of a coordinated cyber attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael

    2005-03-01

    As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.

  11. SOPROLIFE System: An Accurate Diagnostic Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeitouny, Mona; Feghali, Mireille; Nasr, Assaad; Abou-Samra, Philippe; Saleh, Nadine; Bourgeois, Denis; Farge, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate a light-emitting diode fluorescence tool, the SOPROLIFE light-induced fluorescence evaluator, and compare it to the international caries detection and assessment system-II (ICDAS-II) in the detection of occlusal caries. Methods. A total of 219 permanent posterior teeth in 21 subjects, with age ranging from 15 to 65 years, were examined. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was computed to assess the reliability between the two diagnostic methods. Results. The results showed a high reliability between the two methods (ICC = 0.92; IC = 0.901–0.940; P < 0.001). The SOPROLIFE blue fluorescence mode had a high sensitivity (87%) and a high specificity (99%) when compared to ICDAS-II. Conclusion. Compared to the most used visual method in the diagnosis of occlusal caries lesions, the finding from this study suggests that SOPROLIFE can be used as a reproducible and reliable assessment tool. At a cut-off point, categorizing noncarious lesions and visual change in enamel, SOPROLIFE shows a high sensitivity and specificity. We can conclude that financially ICDAS is better than SOPROLIFE. However SOPROLIFE is easier for clinicians since it is a simple evaluation of images. Finally in terms of efficiency SOPROLIFE is not superior to ICDAS but tends to be equivalent with the same advantages. PMID:25401161

  12. Computer aided differential diagnosis in emergency situations (CADDIES) system

    SciTech Connect

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-03-01

    This report presents an idea for a portable computerized differential diagnosis tool that could be utilized by a health care provider during an emergency situation. This radio frequency, networked, menu driven system would analyze various patient assessment parameters and make recommendations regarding possible diagnoses/treatment options outside the scope of suspicion of the health care provider. This system would serve as a repository for initial epidemiological data and assist the health care provider with spotting emerging trends.

  13. Precise and accurate isotopic measurements using multiple-collector ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarède, F.; Telouk, Philippe; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Boyet, Maud; Agranier, Arnaud; Nelson, Bruce

    2004-06-01

    measurements are shown to be part of a single population. Second-order corrections seem to be able to improve the precision on 143Nd/ 144Nd measurements. Finally, after discussing a number of potential pitfalls, such as the consequence of peak shape, correlations introduced by counting statistics, and the effect of memory on double-spike methods, we describe an optimal strategy for high-precision and accurate measurements by MC-ICPMS, which involves the repetitive calibration of cup efficiencies and rigorous assessment of mass bias combined with standard-sample bracketing. We suggest that, when these simple guidelines are followed, MC-ICPMS is capable of producing isotopic data precise and accurate to better than 15 ppm.

  14. [Current malaria situation in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Amangel'diev, K A

    2001-01-01

    Malaria is one of the main health problems facing most developing countries having a hot climate. It is a problem in Turkmenistan. The country is situated in Central Asia, north of the Kopetdag mountains, between the Caspian Sea to the west and the Amu-Darya river to the east. Turkmenistan stretches for a distance of 1,100 km from west to east and 650 km from north to south. It borders Kazakhstan in the north, Uzbekistan in the east and north-east, Iran in the south, and Afghanistan in the south-east. Seven malaria vector species are found in Turkmenistan, the main ones being Anopheles superpictus, An. pulcherrimus, and An. martinius. The potentially endemic area consists of the floodplains of the Tejen and Murgab rivers, with a long chain of reservoirs built along them. In 1980 most cases of imported malaria were recorded in military personnel who had returned from service in Afghanistan. In the past years, only tertian (Plasmodium vivax) malaria has been recorded and there have been no death from malaria over that period. In the Serkhetabad (Gushgi) district there are currently 5 active foci of malaria infection, with a population of 22,000 people. In 1999, forty nine cases of P. vivax malaria were recorded in Turkmenistan. Of them, 36 cases, including 4 children under 14 years were diagnosed for the first time while 13 were relapses. There were 88 fewer cases than those in the previous year (by a factor of 2.8). There were 17 more cases of imported malaria than those in 1998 (by a factor of 1.7), most of which occurred in the foci of malaria infection (Serkhetabad, Tagtabazar, and Kerki districts), in the city of Ashkhabat and in Lebap, Dashkhovuz and Akhal Regions. The emergence of indigenous malaria in the border areas was due to the importation of the disease at intervals by infected mosquitoes flying in from neighbouring countries (e.g. Afghanistan), the lack of drugs to treat the first cases and the lack of alternative insecticides. Most patients suffer

  15. [Current malaria situation in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Amangel'diev, K A

    2001-01-01

    Malaria is one of the main health problems facing most developing countries having a hot climate. It is a problem in Turkmenistan. The country is situated in Central Asia, north of the Kopetdag mountains, between the Caspian Sea to the west and the Amu-Darya river to the east. Turkmenistan stretches for a distance of 1,100 km from west to east and 650 km from north to south. It borders Kazakhstan in the north, Uzbekistan in the east and north-east, Iran in the south, and Afghanistan in the south-east. Seven malaria vector species are found in Turkmenistan, the main ones being Anopheles superpictus, An. pulcherrimus, and An. martinius. The potentially endemic area consists of the floodplains of the Tejen and Murgab rivers, with a long chain of reservoirs built along them. In 1980 most cases of imported malaria were recorded in military personnel who had returned from service in Afghanistan. In the past years, only tertian (Plasmodium vivax) malaria has been recorded and there have been no death from malaria over that period. In the Serkhetabad (Gushgi) district there are currently 5 active foci of malaria infection, with a population of 22,000 people. In 1999, forty nine cases of P. vivax malaria were recorded in Turkmenistan. Of them, 36 cases, including 4 children under 14 years were diagnosed for the first time while 13 were relapses. There were 88 fewer cases than those in the previous year (by a factor of 2.8). There were 17 more cases of imported malaria than those in 1998 (by a factor of 1.7), most of which occurred in the foci of malaria infection (Serkhetabad, Tagtabazar, and Kerki districts), in the city of Ashkhabat and in Lebap, Dashkhovuz and Akhal Regions. The emergence of indigenous malaria in the border areas was due to the importation of the disease at intervals by infected mosquitoes flying in from neighbouring countries (e.g. Afghanistan), the lack of drugs to treat the first cases and the lack of alternative insecticides. Most patients suffer

  16. Environmental Monitoring for Situation Assessment using Mobile and Fixed Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This project was co-led by Dr. Sheila McIlraith and Prof. Richard Fikes. Substantial research results and published papers describing those results were produced in multiple technology areas, including the following: 1) Monitoring a Complex Physical System using a Hybrid Dynamic Bayes Net; 2) A Formal Theory of Testing for Dynamical Systems; 3) Diagnosing Hybrid Systems Using a Bayesian Model Selection Approach.

  17. Maps for Planning, Situation Assessment and Mission Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. M.; MacLeod, I. S.

    Maps are familiar objects that need little introduction. By strict definition, a map is a diagrammatic representation of the spatial environment - for example, the Earth's surface, the stars or parts thereof. The techniques of map-making, or cartography, are basically concerned with reducing the spatial characteristics of large surface areas to a form that makes them observable. Cartography has been considered as both a science and an art. As an art form and craft tradition with printed maps, cartography traditionally has sought to address aesthetic criteria for human appreciation and visual attractiveness, in addition to considerations of functional utility.

  18. Multisource evidence fusion for cyber-situation assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabata, Bikash; Ornes, Chester

    2006-04-01

    Novel methods of detecting cyber attacks on networks have been developed that are able to detect an increasing diverse variety of malicious cyber-events. However, this has only resulted in additional information burden on the network analyst. The integration of the distributed evidence from multiple sources is missing or ad-hoc at best. Only with the fusion of the multi-source evidence can we reason at a higher semantic level to detect and identify attacks and attackers. Further, integration at a higher semantic level will reduce the cognitive load on the security offcer and will make it possible for reasonable responses. This paper presents an overview of the D-Force system that uses a Bayesian Evidential Framework for fusing the multi-source evidence in a network to detect and recognize attacks. Attack hypothesis are generated as a result of evidence at the different network and host sensors. The hypotheses are verified or denied with additional evidence. Based on our initial experiments and tests the D-Force system promises to be a powerful tool in the information security offcers arsenal.

  19. Towards Accurate Application Characterization for Exascale (APEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Simon David

    2015-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been engaged in hardware and software codesign activities for a number of years, indeed, it might be argued that prototyping of clusters as far back as the CPLANT machines and many large capability resources including ASCI Red and RedStorm were examples of codesigned solutions. As the research supporting our codesign activities has moved closer to investigating on-node runtime behavior a nature hunger has grown for detailed analysis of both hardware and algorithm performance from the perspective of low-level operations. The Application Characterization for Exascale (APEX) LDRD was a project concieved of addressing some of these concerns. Primarily the research was to intended to focus on generating accurate and reproducible low-level performance metrics using tools that could scale to production-class code bases. Along side this research was an advocacy and analysis role associated with evaluating tools for production use, working with leading industry vendors to develop and refine solutions required by our code teams and to directly engage with production code developers to form a context for the application analysis and a bridge to the research community within Sandia. On each of these accounts significant progress has been made, particularly, as this report will cover, in the low-level analysis of operations for important classes of algorithms. This report summarizes the development of a collection of tools under the APEX research program and leaves to other SAND and L2 milestone reports the description of codesign progress with Sandia’s production users/developers.

  20. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Battum, L. J.; Huizenga, H.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Heukelom, S.

    2016-01-01

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner’s transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner’s optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  1. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry.

    PubMed

    van Battum, L J; Huizenga, H; Verdaasdonk, R M; Heukelom, S

    2016-01-21

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner's transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner's optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  2. Situating Cognition: Knowledge and Power in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansman, Catherine A.; Wilson, Arthur L.

    Although adult education as a field has shown interest in theories of situated cognition, it has misappropriated some of its central concepts. Proponents of situated cognition posit that learning is not something that happens in independent isolation, or just inside the head, but instead is shaped by the context, culture, and tools of the learning…

  3. Artificial Experience: Situation Awareness Training in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Janine E.

    2011-01-01

    The quasi-experimental research study developed and tested an education process to reduce and trap medication errors. The study was framed by Endsley's (1995a) model of situation awareness in dynamic decision making. Situation awareness improvement strategies were practiced during high-fidelity clinical simulations. Harmful medication errors occur…

  4. Leadership in Sport: The Situational Leadership Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    Situational leadership theory suggests that to reach maximum leadership effectiveness, the leader must adapt his/her behavior to different situations. For athletic coaches, this means that the amount of direction provided for students should increase or decrease according to the students' maturity levels. Applications of the theory are discussed.…

  5. Situated Researcher Reflections and Professional Learning Journeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Some key theoretical aspects of the author's recently completed Doctor of Education thesis regarding teacher professional development were situativity theory, communities of practice and being a situated reflective practitioner. With the hard work now over, she comments on these aspects and their continuing relevance. She describes how she was…

  6. 36 CFR 800.12 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency situations. 800.12... HISTORIC PROPERTIES The section 106 Process § 800.12 Emergency situations. (a) Agency procedures. The... into account during operations which respond to a disaster or emergency declared by the President,...

  7. Investigating Situational Interest in Primary Science Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukomies, Anni; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Pupils' interest has been one of the major concerns in science education research because it can be seen as a gateway to more personalised forms of interest and motivation. However, methods to investigate situational interest in science teaching and learning are not broadly examined. This study compares the pupils' observed situational interest…

  8. Situating Gendered Learning in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to situate the concept of gendered learning in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the results of two closely related, qualitative studies of apprenticeship learning in two major industrial companies in Denmark. Findings: The paper finds that the creation of a situated-gendered…

  9. A review of the world cannabis situation.

    PubMed

    Leggett, T

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis is the world's most widely cultivated and consumed illicit drug, but there remain major gaps in our understanding of global cannabis markets. For example, it appears that premium sinsemilla cannabis, often produced indoors in consumer countries, has become more potent in recent years and that its market share is also growing in some areas. This may be leading to greater localization of cannabis markets. It may also be responsible for the increase in the proportion of cannabis users in treatment populations at the international level. Assessing the extent and impact of this trend, however, is hampered both by a lack of international standards on issues such as terminology and by unanswered research questions. In order to arrive at accurate global estimates of the extent of production, there is a need for more scientific data on cannabis yields. On the demand side, more information is required on the question of cannabis dosage and volumes used by both occasional and regular users. Cannabis is not a uniform drug: the impact of using cannabis of differing potencies and chemical compositions needs to be researched. While issues concerning cannabis have been evaluated many times in the past, it remains a highly adaptable plant and, consequently, a dynamic drug, requiring constant reassessment.

  10. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  11. Accurate deterministic solutions for the classic Boltzmann shock profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yubei

    The Boltzmann equation or Boltzmann transport equation is a classical kinetic equation devised by Ludwig Boltzmann in 1872. It is regarded as a fundamental law in rarefied gas dynamics. Rather than using macroscopic quantities such as density, temperature, and pressure to describe the underlying physics, the Boltzmann equation uses a distribution function in phase space to describe the physical system, and all the macroscopic quantities are weighted averages of the distribution function. The information contained in the Boltzmann equation is surprisingly rich, and the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics can be derived from it using series expansions. Moreover, the Boltzmann equation can reach regimes far from the capabilities of fluid dynamical equations, such as the realm of rarefied gases---the topic of this thesis. Although the Boltzmann equation is very powerful, it is extremely difficult to solve in most situations. Thus the only hope is to solve it numerically. But soon one finds that even a numerical simulation of the equation is extremely difficult, due to both the complex and high-dimensional integral in the collision operator, and the hyperbolic phase-space advection terms. For this reason, until few years ago most numerical simulations had to rely on Monte Carlo techniques. In this thesis I will present a new and robust numerical scheme to compute direct deterministic solutions of the Boltzmann equation, and I will use it to explore some classical gas-dynamical problems. In particular, I will study in detail one of the most famous and intrinsically nonlinear problems in rarefied gas dynamics, namely the accurate determination of the Boltzmann shock profile for a gas of hard spheres.

  12. Accurate theoretical chemistry with coupled pair models.

    PubMed

    Neese, Frank; Hansen, Andreas; Wennmohs, Frank; Grimme, Stefan

    2009-05-19

    Quantum chemistry has found its way into the everyday work of many experimental chemists. Calculations can predict the outcome of chemical reactions, afford insight into reaction mechanisms, and be used to interpret structure and bonding in molecules. Thus, contemporary theory offers tremendous opportunities in experimental chemical research. However, even with present-day computers and algorithms, we cannot solve the many particle Schrodinger equation exactly; inevitably some error is introduced in approximating the solutions of this equation. Thus, the accuracy of quantum chemical calculations is of critical importance. The affordable accuracy depends on molecular size and particularly on the total number of atoms: for orientation, ethanol has 9 atoms, aspirin 21 atoms, morphine 40 atoms, sildenafil 63 atoms, paclitaxel 113 atoms, insulin nearly 800 atoms, and quaternary hemoglobin almost 12,000 atoms. Currently, molecules with up to approximately 10 atoms can be very accurately studied by coupled cluster (CC) theory, approximately 100 atoms with second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), approximately 1000 atoms with density functional theory (DFT), and beyond that number with semiempirical quantum chemistry and force-field methods. The overwhelming majority of present-day calculations in the 100-atom range use DFT. Although these methods have been very successful in quantum chemistry, they do not offer a well-defined hierarchy of calculations that allows one to systematically converge to the correct answer. Recently a number of rather spectacular failures of DFT methods have been found-even for seemingly simple systems such as hydrocarbons, fueling renewed interest in wave function-based methods that incorporate the relevant physics of electron correlation in a more systematic way. Thus, it would be highly desirable to fill the gap between 10 and 100 atoms with highly correlated ab initio methods. We have found that one of the earliest (and now

  13. The independent effects of personality and situations on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Ryne A; Rauthmann, John F; Brown, Nicolas A; Serfass, David G; Jones, Ashley Bell

    2015-11-01

    The joint influence of persons and situations on behavior has long been posited by personality and social psychological theory (Funder, 2006; Lewin, 1951). However, a lack of tools for real-time behavioral and situation assessment has left direct investigations of this sort immobilized. This study combines recent advances in situation assessment and experience sampling methodology to examine the simultaneous effects of personality traits and situation characteristics on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion in N = 210 participants. The results support an additive model such that both personality traits and situation characteristics independently predict real-time expressions of behavior and emotion. These results have implications for several prominent theoretical perspectives in personality, including both trait and cognitive theories.

  14. [Why an accurate diet for employees].

    PubMed

    Baccolo, T P; Gagliardi, D; Marchetti, M R

    2010-01-01

    A study leaded in 2005 by the ILO on diet habits in different countries pointed out that poor diet at the workplace (leading to malnutrition or overweight and obesity) costs up to 20% & in lost productivity. Obesity is a major cause for absenteeism and can modify physiologic and immune responses to neurotoxins and chemical agents. Obese subjects show a higher risk to develop cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, due to exposure to vibrations, etc; quite often these workers are discriminated, are more sensitive to work-related stress and might experience a reduced self-esteem. Obesity can cause relevant working handicaps linked to reduction of agility, to early fatigue and to difficulties in identifying and use of suitable PPE. As a consequence, obese workers show a higher rate of work accidents and may receive some restrictions in the fitness assessment carried out by the occupational health physician during periodical examinations. PMID:21438227

  15. A quick accurate model of nozzle backflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuharski, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Backflow from nozzles is a major source of contamination on spacecraft. If the craft contains any exposed high voltages, the neutral density produced by the nozzles in the vicinity of the craft needs to be known in order to assess the possibility of Paschen breakdown or the probability of sheath ionization around a region of the craft that collects electrons for the plasma. A model for backflow has been developed for incorporation into the Environment-Power System Analysis Tool (EPSAT) which quickly estimates both the magnitude of the backflow and the species makeup of the flow. By combining the backflow model with the Simons (1972) model for continuum flow it is possible to quickly estimate the density of each species from a nozzle at any position in space. The model requires only a few physical parameters of the nozzle and the gas as inputs and is therefore ideal for engineering applications.

  16. Situation-orientated recognition of tactical patterns in volleyball.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Jörg M; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I

    2007-10-01

    One important factor for effective operations in team sports is the team tactical behaviour. Many suggestions about appropriate players' positions in different attack or defence situations have been made. The aims of this study were to develop a classification of offensive and defensive behaviours and to identify team-specific tactical patterns in international women's volleyball. Both the classification and identification of tactical patterns is done by means of a hierarchical cluster analysis. Clusters are formed on the basis of similarities in the players' positions on the court. Time continuous data of the movements, including the start and end points during a pass from the setter, are analysed. Results show team-specific patterns of defensive moves with assessment rates of up to 80%. Furthermore, the recognition of match situations illustrates a clear classification of attack and defence situations and even within different defence conditions (approximately 100%). Thus, this approach to team tactical analysis yields classifications of selected offensive and defensive strategies as well as an identification of tactical patterns of different national teams in standardized situations. The results lead us to question training concepts that assume a team-independent optimal strategy with respect to the players' positions in team sports. PMID:17786687

  17. The impact of situational factors on health care preferences: exploring the prospect of situationally based segmentation.

    PubMed

    Gehrt, K C; Pinto, M B

    1991-06-01

    Health care marketing research has examined the relationship between health care utilization and (1) client demographic characteristics and (2) service characteristics. The impact of situational factors on health care utilization has received limited attention. The authors find that the influence of situational factors in the health care market is substantial and suggest some preliminary situational segmentation strategies.

  18. Parental Discipline Behaviors, Subjective Parental Situation Perceptions and Objective Characteristics of Discipline Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerris, Jan R. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    In this attempt to explain parental discipline behaviors from an interactionist viewpoint that includes person and situation factors, the relationship of parental discipline behaviors to situation-specific feelings and cognitions and objective situational characteristics were examined. Data obtained from 300 families included (1) social…

  19. Cerebral cortical activity associated with non-experts' most accurate motor performance.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Ford; Godwin, Maurice M; Goel, Paras; Rehm, Jared; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Hunt, Carly A; Miller, Matthew W

    2014-10-01

    This study's specific aim was to determine if non-experts' most accurate motor performance is associated with verbal-analytic- and working memory-related cerebral cortical activity during motor preparation. To assess this, EEG was recorded from non-expert golfers executing putts; EEG spectral power and coherence were calculated for the epoch preceding putt execution; and spectral power and coherence for the five most accurate putts were contrasted with that for the five least accurate. Results revealed marked power in the theta frequency bandwidth at all cerebral cortical regions for the most accurate putts relative to the least accurate, and considerable power in the low-beta frequency bandwidth at the left temporal region for the most accurate compared to the least. As theta power is associated with working memory and low-beta power at the left temporal region with verbal analysis, results suggest non-experts' most accurate motor performance is associated with verbal-analytic- and working memory-related cerebral cortical activity during motor preparation. PMID:25058623

  20. Towards an ethical theory in disaster situations.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Health Care professionals working in disaster situations have to face urgent choices which diverge from their normal deontological ethos and are more utilitarian. Such is the triage system used to choose whom to treat. Instead of entering a crisis these professionals should be thought that ethics is not harmonizable to all situations and that there are situations in which saving as many lives as possible mean sacrificing others. This calls for defining a perimeter zone in which such choices occur, and a time frame (a space-time niche) in which it ought to be considered ethical and legitimate to use such value laden choices.

  1. Towards an ethical theory in disaster situations.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Health Care professionals working in disaster situations have to face urgent choices which diverge from their normal deontological ethos and are more utilitarian. Such is the triage system used to choose whom to treat. Instead of entering a crisis these professionals should be thought that ethics is not harmonizable to all situations and that there are situations in which saving as many lives as possible mean sacrificing others. This calls for defining a perimeter zone in which such choices occur, and a time frame (a space-time niche) in which it ought to be considered ethical and legitimate to use such value laden choices. PMID:25028162

  2. Retinal Connectomics: Towards Complete, Accurate Networks

    PubMed Central

    Marc, Robert E.; Jones, Bryan W.; Watt, Carl B.; Anderson, James R.; Sigulinsky, Crystal; Lauritzen, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Connectomics is a strategy for mapping complex neural networks based on high-speed automated electron optical imaging, computational assembly of neural data volumes, web-based navigational tools to explore 1012–1015 byte (terabyte to petabyte) image volumes, and annotation and markup tools to convert images into rich networks with cellular metadata. These collections of network data and associated metadata, analyzed using tools from graph theory and classification theory, can be merged with classical systems theory, giving a more completely parameterized view of how biologic information processing systems are implemented in retina and brain. Networks have two separable features: topology and connection attributes. The first findings from connectomics strongly validate the idea that the topologies complete retinal networks are far more complex than the simple schematics that emerged from classical anatomy. In particular, connectomics has permitted an aggressive refactoring of the retinal inner plexiform layer, demonstrating that network function cannot be simply inferred from stratification; exposing the complex geometric rules for inserting different cells into a shared network; revealing unexpected bidirectional signaling pathways between mammalian rod and cone systems; documenting selective feedforward systems, novel candidate signaling architectures, new coupling motifs, and the highly complex architecture of the mammalian AII amacrine cell. This is but the beginning, as the underlying principles of connectomics are readily transferrable to non-neural cell complexes and provide new contexts for assessing intercellular communication. PMID:24016532

  3. How accurate are Scottish cancer registration data?

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, D.; Crichton, J.; Muir, C.

    1994-01-01

    In order to assess the accuracy of Scottish cancer registration data, a random sample of 2,200 registrations, attributed to the year 1990, was generated. Relevant medical records were available for review in 2,021 (92%) cases. Registration details were reabstracted from available records and compared with data in the registry. Discrepancies in identifying items of data (surname, forename, sex and date of birth) were found in 3.5% of cases. Most were trivial and would not disturb record linkage. Discrepancy rates of 7.1% in post code of residence at the time of diagnosis (excluding differences arising through boundary changes), 11.0% in anniversary date (excluding differences of 6 weeks or less), 7.7% in histological verification status, 5.4% in ICD-9 site codes (the first three digits) and 14.5% in ICD-O morphology codes (excluding 'inferred' morphology codes) were recorded. Overall, serious discrepancies were judged to have occurred in 2.8% of cases. In many respects, therefore, Scottish cancer registration data show a high level of accuracy that compares favourably to the reported accuracy of the few other cancer registries undertaking such analyses. PMID:7947104

  4. Accurate restoration of DNA sequences. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    The primary of this project are the development of (1) a general stochastic model for DNA sequencing errors (2) algorithms to restore the original DNA sequence and (3) statistical methods to assess the accuracy of this restoration. A secondary objective is to develop new algorithms for fragment assembly. Initially a stochastic model that assumes errors are independent and uniformly distributed will be developed. Generalizations of the basic model will be developed to account for (1) decay of accuracy along fragments, (2) variable error rates among fragments, (3) sequence dependent errors (e.g. homopolymeric, runs), and (4) strand--specific systematic errors (e.g. compressions). The emphasis of this project will be the development of a theoretical basis for determining sequence accuracy. However, new algorithms are proposed and these will be implemented as software (in the C programming language). This software will be tested using real and simulated data. It will be modular in design and will be made available for distribution to the scientific community.

  5. Retinal connectomics: towards complete, accurate networks.

    PubMed

    Marc, Robert E; Jones, Bryan W; Watt, Carl B; Anderson, James R; Sigulinsky, Crystal; Lauritzen, Scott

    2013-11-01

    Connectomics is a strategy for mapping complex neural networks based on high-speed automated electron optical imaging, computational assembly of neural data volumes, web-based navigational tools to explore 10(12)-10(15) byte (terabyte to petabyte) image volumes, and annotation and markup tools to convert images into rich networks with cellular metadata. These collections of network data and associated metadata, analyzed using tools from graph theory and classification theory, can be merged with classical systems theory, giving a more completely parameterized view of how biologic information processing systems are implemented in retina and brain. Networks have two separable features: topology and connection attributes. The first findings from connectomics strongly validate the idea that the topologies of complete retinal networks are far more complex than the simple schematics that emerged from classical anatomy. In particular, connectomics has permitted an aggressive refactoring of the retinal inner plexiform layer, demonstrating that network function cannot be simply inferred from stratification; exposing the complex geometric rules for inserting different cells into a shared network; revealing unexpected bidirectional signaling pathways between mammalian rod and cone systems; documenting selective feedforward systems, novel candidate signaling architectures, new coupling motifs, and the highly complex architecture of the mammalian AII amacrine cell. This is but the beginning, as the underlying principles of connectomics are readily transferrable to non-neural cell complexes and provide new contexts for assessing intercellular communication. PMID:24016532

  6. 77 FR 3800 - Accurate NDE & Inspection, LLC; Confirmatory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Accurate NDE & Inspection, LLC; Confirmatory Order In the Matter of Accurate NDE & Docket: 150... request ADR with the NRC in an attempt to resolve issues associated with this matter. In response, on August 9, 2011, Accurate NDE requested ADR to resolve this matter with the NRC. On September 28,...

  7. Population variability complicates the accurate detection of climate change responses.

    PubMed

    McCain, Christy; Szewczyk, Tim; Bracy Knight, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    The rush to assess species' responses to anthropogenic climate change (CC) has underestimated the importance of interannual population variability (PV). Researchers assume sampling rigor alone will lead to an accurate detection of response regardless of the underlying population fluctuations of the species under consideration. Using population simulations across a realistic, empirically based gradient in PV, we show that moderate to high PV can lead to opposite and biased conclusions about CC responses. Between pre- and post-CC sampling bouts of modeled populations as in resurvey studies, there is: (i) A 50% probability of erroneously detecting the opposite trend in population abundance change and nearly zero probability of detecting no change. (ii) Across multiple years of sampling, it is nearly impossible to accurately detect any directional shift in population sizes with even moderate PV. (iii) There is up to 50% probability of detecting a population extirpation when the species is present, but in very low natural abundances. (iv) Under scenarios of moderate to high PV across a species' range or at the range edges, there is a bias toward erroneous detection of range shifts or contractions. Essentially, the frequency and magnitude of population peaks and troughs greatly impact the accuracy of our CC response measurements. Species with moderate to high PV (many small vertebrates, invertebrates, and annual plants) may be inaccurate 'canaries in the coal mine' for CC without pertinent demographic analyses and additional repeat sampling. Variation in PV may explain some idiosyncrasies in CC responses detected so far and urgently needs more careful consideration in design and analysis of CC responses.

  8. Practical Schemes for Accurate Forces in Quantum Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Moroni, S; Saccani, S; Filippi, C

    2014-11-11

    While the computation of interatomic forces has become a well-established practice within variational Monte Carlo (VMC), the use of the more accurate Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method is still largely limited to the computation of total energies on structures obtained at a lower level of theory. Algorithms to compute exact DMC forces have been proposed in the past, and one such scheme is also put forward in this work, but remain rather impractical due to their high computational cost. As a practical route to DMC forces, we therefore revisit here an approximate method, originally developed in the context of correlated sampling and named here the Variational Drift-Diffusion (VD) approach. We thoroughly investigate its accuracy by checking the consistency between the approximate VD force and the derivative of the DMC potential energy surface for the SiH and C2 molecules and employ a wide range of wave functions optimized in VMC to assess its robustness against the choice of trial function. We find that, for all but the poorest wave function, the discrepancy between force and energy is very small over all interatomic distances, affecting the equilibrium bond length obtained with the VD forces by less than 0.004 au. Furthermore, when the VMC forces are approximate due to the use of a partially optimized wave function, the DMC forces have smaller errors and always lead to an equilibrium distance in better agreement with the experimental value. We also show that the cost of computing the VD forces is only slightly larger than the cost of calculating the DMC energy. Therefore, the VD approximation represents a robust and efficient approach to compute accurate DMC forces, superior to the VMC counterparts.

  9. Distributed Pedestrian Detection Alerts Based on Data Fusion with Accurate Localization

    PubMed Central

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided. PMID:24008284

  10. Distributed pedestrian detection alerts based on data fusion with accurate localization.

    PubMed

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided.

  11. A streamlined software environment for situated skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Sophia T.; Slack, Marc G.; Miller, David P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper documents a powerful set of software tools used for developing situated skills. These situated skills form the reactive level of a three-tiered intelligent agent architecture. The architecture is designed to allow these skills to be manipulated by a task level engine which is monitoring the current situation and selecting skills necessary for the current task. The idea is to coordinate the dynamic activations and deactivations of these situated skills in order to configure the reactive layer for the task at hand. The heart of the skills environment is a data flow mechanism which pipelines the currently active skills for execution. A front end graphical interface serves as a debugging facility during skill development and testing. We are able to integrate skills developed in different languages into the skills environment. The power of the skills environment lies in the amount of time it saves for the programmer to develop code for the reactive layer of a robot.

  12. Decision-making situations in health care.

    PubMed

    Murdach, A D

    1995-08-01

    Social workers in health care settings are constantly required to make clinical decisions about patient care and treatment. Although much attention has been devoted to the normative or ethical aspects of decision making in such settings, little attention has been given to the typical situational aspects of decisions social workers must make in health care. This article discusses four types of clinical decision situations--operational, strategic, authoritative, and crisis--and presents a model to assist in analyzing their components and requirements. Case vignettes drawn from practice experience illustrate each type of decision-making situation. The article concludes that knowledge of the situational aspects of practice decision making can be helpful to practitioners by enabling them to sort out courses of action and intervention.

  13. Electrochemical situation in corrosion-mechanical cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, L.N.; Kalinkov, A.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the electrochemical situation in corrosion cracks is determined by the electromotive force of local galvanic cells at the crack tip and the polarization resistance of anodic processes.

  14. Decoupling, situated cognition and immersion in art.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Situated cognition seems incompatible with strong decoupling, where representations are deployed in the absence of their targets and are not oriented toward physical action. Yet, in art consumption, the epitome of a strongly decoupled cognitive process, the artwork is a physical part of the environment and partly controls the perception of its target by the audience, leading to immersion. Hence, art consumption combines strong decoupling with situated cognition.

  15. Improved Conjunction Analysis via Collaborative Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T. S.; Vallado, D.; Chan, J.; Buckwalter, B.

    2009-03-01

    Satellite operators are becoming increasingly aware of the threat of on-orbit collisions—between satellites or with orbital debris. Successful conjunction monitoring and collision avoidance activities require accurate orbital information for as many space objects as possible. Current sources of orbital data are of low fidelity, as a result of how those data are generated, and are of limited value to conjunction analysis. However, satellite operators have much better data for their own satellites. When that data is shared among operators, overall space situational awareness can be significantly improved. This paper will demonstrate the potential improvements and discuss an operational implementation— SOCRATES-GEO—which uses operator data to improve conjunction monitoring.

  16. Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R.; Ek, Asa; Akselsson, Roland

    2007-01-01

    In high-risk environments such as air traffic control, leadership on different levels plays a certain role in establishing, promoting, and maintaining a good safety culture. The current study aimed to investigate how leadership styles, leadership style adaptability, and over and under task leadership behavior differed across situations, operative conditions, leadership structures, and working tasks in an air traffic control setting. Study locations were two air traffic control centers in Sweden with different operational conditions and leadership structures, and an administrative air traffic management unit. Leadership was measured with a questionnaire based on Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD; Blanchard, Zigarmi & Zigarmi, 2003; Hersey & Blanchard, 1988). The results showed that the situation had strong impact on the leadership in which the leadership behavior was more relationship oriented in Success and Group situations than in Hardship and Individual situations. The leadership adaptability was further superior in Success and Individual situations compared with Hardship and Group situations. Operational conditions, leadership structures and working tasks were, on the other hand, not associated with leadership behavior.

  17. The World at 7:00: Comparing the Experience of Situations Across 20 Countries.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Esther; Baranski, Erica; Todd, Elysia; Bastian, Brock; Bronin, Igor; Ivanova, Christina; Cheng, Joey T; de Kock, François S; Denissen, Jaap J A; Gallardo-Pujol, David; Halama, Peter; Han, Gyuseog Q; Bae, Jaechang; Moon, Jungsoon; Hong, Ryan Y; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Izdebski, Paweł; Lundmann, Lars; Penke, Lars; Perugini, Marco; Costantini, Giulio; Rauthmann, John; Ziegler, Matthias; Realo, Anu; Elme, Liisalotte; Sato, Tatsuya; Kawamoto, Shizuka; Szarota, Piotr; Tracy, Jessica L; van Aken, Marcel A G; Yang, Yu; Funder, David C

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to quantitatively compare everyday situational experience around the world. Local collaborators recruited 5,447 members of college communities in 20 countries, who provided data via a Web site in 14 languages. Using the 89 items of the Riverside Situational Q-sort (RSQ), participants described the situation they experienced the previous evening at 7:00 p.m. Correlations among the average situational profiles of each country ranged from r = .73 to r = .95; the typical situation was described as largely pleasant. Most similar were the United States/Canada; least similar were South Korea/Denmark. Japan had the most homogenous situational experience; South Korea, the least. The 15 RSQ items varying the most across countries described relatively negative aspects of situational experience; the 15 least varying items were more positive. Further analyses correlated RSQ items with national scores on six value dimensions, the Big Five traits, economic output, and population. Individualism, Neuroticism, Openness, and Gross Domestic Product yielded more significant correlations than expected by chance. Psychological research traditionally has paid more attention to the assessment of persons than of situations, a discrepancy that extends to cross-cultural psychology. The present study demonstrates how cultures vary in situational experience in psychologically meaningful ways. PMID:25808415

  18. Emotion recognition from congruent and incongruent emotional expressions and situational cues in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Tell, Dina; Davidson, Denise

    2015-04-01

    In this research, the emotion recognition abilities of children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children were compared. When facial expressions and situational cues of emotion were congruent, accuracy in recognizing emotions was good for both children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children. When presented with facial expressions incongruent with situational cues, children with autism spectrum disorder relied more on facial cues than situational cues, whereas typically developing children relied more on situational cues. The exception was fear. When presented with incongruent information (i.e. a smiling boy surrounded by a swarm of bees), most children based their response on the situation and indicated that the boy felt scared. While the majority of typically developing children commented on the disparity between facial expressions and situational cues, children with autism spectrum disorder did not mention the conflicting cues. Although typically developing children were more accurate in recognizing emotion with situational cues, children with autism spectrum disorder were still adequate at identifying emotion from situational cues alone. These findings suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder show an understanding of simple emotions in prototypical situations, but may prefer facial expressions when facial expressions and situational cues are incongruent. Reasons for these findings are discussed. PMID:24852752

  19. Emotion recognition from congruent and incongruent emotional expressions and situational cues in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Tell, Dina; Davidson, Denise

    2015-04-01

    In this research, the emotion recognition abilities of children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children were compared. When facial expressions and situational cues of emotion were congruent, accuracy in recognizing emotions was good for both children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children. When presented with facial expressions incongruent with situational cues, children with autism spectrum disorder relied more on facial cues than situational cues, whereas typically developing children relied more on situational cues. The exception was fear. When presented with incongruent information (i.e. a smiling boy surrounded by a swarm of bees), most children based their response on the situation and indicated that the boy felt scared. While the majority of typically developing children commented on the disparity between facial expressions and situational cues, children with autism spectrum disorder did not mention the conflicting cues. Although typically developing children were more accurate in recognizing emotion with situational cues, children with autism spectrum disorder were still adequate at identifying emotion from situational cues alone. These findings suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder show an understanding of simple emotions in prototypical situations, but may prefer facial expressions when facial expressions and situational cues are incongruent. Reasons for these findings are discussed.

  20. Two Types of Motor Strategy for Accurate Dart Throwing

    PubMed Central

    Nasu, Daiki; Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Kadota, Koji

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether expert dart players utilize hand trajectory patterns that can compensate for the inherent variability in their release timing. In this study, we compared the timing error and hand trajectory patterns of expert players with those of novices. Eight experts and eight novices each made 60 dart throws, aiming at the bull’s-eye. The movements of the dart and index finger were captured using seven 480-Hz cameras. The data were interpolated using a cubic spline function and analyzed by the millisecond. The estimated vertical errors on the dartboard were calculated as a time-series by using the state variables of the index finger (position, velocity, and direction of motion). This time-series error represents the hand trajectory pattern. Two variables assessing the performance outcome in the vertical plane and two variables related to the timing control were quantified on the basis of the time-series error. The results revealed two typical types of motor strategies in the expert group. The timing error of some experts was similar to that of novices; however, these experts had a longer window of time in which to release an accurately thrown dart. These subjects selected hand trajectory patterns that could compensate for the timing error. Other experts did not select the complementary hand trajectories, but greatly reduced their error in release timing. PMID:24533102

  1. How complete and accurate is meningococcal disease notification?

    PubMed

    Breen, E; Ghebrehewet, S; Regan, M; Thomson, A P J

    2004-12-01

    Effective public health control of meningococcal disease (meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia) is dependent on complete, accurate and speedy notification. Using capture-recapture techniques this study assesses the completeness, accuracy and timeliness of meningococcal notification in a health authority. The completeness of meningococcal disease notification was 94.8% (95% confidence interval 93.2% to 96.2%); 91.2% of cases in 2001 were notified within 24 hours of diagnosis, but 28.0% of notifications in 2001 were false positives. Clinical staff need to be aware of the public health implications of a notification of meningococcal disease, and of failure of, or delay in notification. Incomplete or delayed notification not only leads to inaccurate data collection but also means that important public health measures may not be taken. A clinical diagnosis of meningococcal disease should be carefully considered between the clinician and the consultant in communicable disease control (CCDC). Otherwise, prophylaxis may be given unnecessarily, disease incidence inflated, and the benefits of control measures underestimated. Consultants in communicable disease control (CCDCs), in conjunction with clinical staff, should de-notify meningococcal disease if the diagnosis changes.

  2. Towards Accurate Molecular Modeling of Plastic Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantawansri, T. L.; Andzelm, J.; Taylor, D.; Byrd, E.; Rice, B.

    2010-03-01

    There is substantial interest in identifying the controlling factors that influence the susceptibility of polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) to accidental initiation. Numerous Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of PBXs using the COMPASS force field have been reported in recent years, where the validity of the force field in modeling the solid EM fill has been judged solely on its ability to reproduce lattice parameters, which is an insufficient metric. Performance of the COMPASS force field in modeling EMs and the polymeric binder has been assessed by calculating structural, thermal, and mechanical properties, where only fair agreement with experimental data is obtained. We performed MD simulations using the COMPASS force field for the polymer binder hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene and five EMs: cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetra-azacyclo-octane, 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexantirohexaazazisowurzitane, 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-benzenetriamine, and pentaerythritol tetranitate. Predicted EM crystallographic and molecular structural parameters, as well as calculated properties for the binder will be compared with experimental results for different simulation conditions. We also present novel simulation protocols, which improve agreement between experimental and computation results thus leading to the accurate modeling of PBXs.

  3. Accurate dispensing system for single oocytes using air ejection

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Sun, Yiling; Ohsumi, Chisato; Arai, Fumihito

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a new approach to increase the success rate of single-oocyte dispensing and investigate the subsequent viability of the dispensed oocytes. We used a pair of capacitance sensors placed in a microfluidic chip to detect the oocyte, and custom-designed a special buffer zone in the microchannel to decelerate the flow velocity and reduce the hydraulic pressure acting on the oocyte. In the buffer zone, a semicircular bay, formed by equally spaced micro-pillars, is used to stop the oocyte at the dispensing nozzle hole. Finally, the oocyte is ejected by airflow to the culture array. The novel feature of the developed microfluidic system is that the extraordinary improvement in success rate is accompanied by a lack of change in oocyte survival rate (as assessed by a comparison of survival rates before and after the dispensing procedure). By using this device, we achieved a highly accurate single-oocyte dispensing process with a success rate of 100%. The oocyte survival rate is approximately 70%, regardless of whether or not the oocyte is dispensed. The newly proposed system has the advantages of high operation speed and potential usage for two-dimensional micropatterning. PMID:24404076

  4. Two types of motor strategy for accurate dart throwing.

    PubMed

    Nasu, Daiki; Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Kadota, Koji

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether expert dart players utilize hand trajectory patterns that can compensate for the inherent variability in their release timing. In this study, we compared the timing error and hand trajectory patterns of expert players with those of novices. Eight experts and eight novices each made 60 dart throws, aiming at the bull's-eye. The movements of the dart and index finger were captured using seven 480-Hz cameras. The data were interpolated using a cubic spline function and analyzed by the millisecond. The estimated vertical errors on the dartboard were calculated as a time-series by using the state variables of the index finger (position, velocity, and direction of motion). This time-series error represents the hand trajectory pattern. Two variables assessing the performance outcome in the vertical plane and two variables related to the timing control were quantified on the basis of the time-series error. The results revealed two typical types of motor strategies in the expert group. The timing error of some experts was similar to that of novices; however, these experts had a longer window of time in which to release an accurately thrown dart. These subjects selected hand trajectory patterns that could compensate for the timing error. Other experts did not select the complementary hand trajectories, but greatly reduced their error in release timing. PMID:24533102

  5. Situational determinants of use and treatment outcomes in marijuana dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Claire E; Stephens, Robert S; Walker, Denise D; Roffman, Roger A

    2014-03-01

    Research and theory strongly support the importance of situational determinants of substance use as targets for intervention, but few studies have systematically examined situational use characteristics in marijuana dependent adults. The present study describes situational use of marijuana in a population of 87 marijuana dependent adults and reports relationships with outcomes of treatment. Use in negative affective situations was independently associated with psychological distress, maladaptive coping strategies, lower self-efficacy, and poorer outcomes post-treatment. The findings were consistent with research on using drugs to cope with negative affect providing evidence of convergence between two different methods of assessing high risk situations for substance use. The results support continued emphasis on coping with negative affect as a target in treatments for marijuana dependence.

  6. Escape from an effortful situation1

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L. Keith

    1968-01-01

    This experiment investigated the tendency to escape from a situation requiring effortful responding. Five human subjects responded in a situation where the response mechanism required 20-lb force to operate; responses were reinforced according to a variable-interval schedule. A subject escaped from this situation by emitting a vocal response which produced a 60-sec “easy period”. During the easy period the reinforcement contingency was switched to a response mechanism requiring 1 lb to operate. It was found that: (1) Escape responding could be conditioned and maintained by producing the easy period; the easy period did not maintain escape responding when the force requirement in the normal situation was equated with it. (2) The rate of escape responding was a function of the magnitude of the force normally required. (3) When easy periods were scheduled after fixed ratios, pausing from the end of the previous easy period to the first escape response was noted. It was concluded that a situation requiring high-force responding is a negative reinforcer. The pattern of fixed-ratio responding suggests that this reinforcer produces typical schedule control in human subjects. PMID:5749186

  7. Working memory, situation models, and synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Gibson, Bradley S; McNerney, M Windy

    2014-01-01

    Research on language comprehension suggests a strong relationship between working memory span measures and language comprehension. However, there is also evidence that this relationship weakens at higher levels of comprehension, such as the situation model level. The current study explored this relationship by comparing 10 grapheme-color synesthetes who have additional color experiences when they read words that begin with different letters and 48 normal controls on a number of tests of complex working memory capacity and processing at the situation model level. On all tests of working memory capacity, the synesthetes outperformed the controls. Importantly, there was no carryover benefit for the synesthetes for processing at the situation model level. This reinforces the idea that although some aspects of language comprehension are related to working memory span scores, this applies less directly to situation model levels. This suggests that theories of working memory must take into account this limitation, and the working memory processes that are involved in situation model construction and processing must be derived.

  8. Working memory, situation models, and synesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Gibson, Bradley S.; McNerney, M. Windy

    2013-03-04

    Research on language comprehension suggests a strong relationship between working memory span measures and language comprehension. However, there is also evidence that this relationship weakens at higher levels of comprehension, such as the situation model level. The current study explored this relationship by comparing 10 grapheme–color synesthetes who have additional color experiences when they read words that begin with different letters and 48 normal controls on a number of tests of complex working memory capacity and processing at the situation model level. On all tests of working memory capacity, the synesthetes outperformed the controls. Importantly, there was no carryover benefit for the synesthetes for processing at the situation model level. This reinforces the idea that although some aspects of language comprehension are related to working memory span scores, this applies less directly to situation model levels. As a result, this suggests that theories of working memory must take into account this limitation, and the working memory processes that are involved in situation model construction and processing must be derived.

  9. Working memory, situation models, and synesthesia

    DOE PAGES

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Gibson, Bradley S.; McNerney, M. Windy

    2013-03-04

    Research on language comprehension suggests a strong relationship between working memory span measures and language comprehension. However, there is also evidence that this relationship weakens at higher levels of comprehension, such as the situation model level. The current study explored this relationship by comparing 10 grapheme–color synesthetes who have additional color experiences when they read words that begin with different letters and 48 normal controls on a number of tests of complex working memory capacity and processing at the situation model level. On all tests of working memory capacity, the synesthetes outperformed the controls. Importantly, there was no carryover benefitmore » for the synesthetes for processing at the situation model level. This reinforces the idea that although some aspects of language comprehension are related to working memory span scores, this applies less directly to situation model levels. As a result, this suggests that theories of working memory must take into account this limitation, and the working memory processes that are involved in situation model construction and processing must be derived.« less

  10. Working memory, situation models, and synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Gibson, Bradley S; McNerney, M Windy

    2014-01-01

    Research on language comprehension suggests a strong relationship between working memory span measures and language comprehension. However, there is also evidence that this relationship weakens at higher levels of comprehension, such as the situation model level. The current study explored this relationship by comparing 10 grapheme-color synesthetes who have additional color experiences when they read words that begin with different letters and 48 normal controls on a number of tests of complex working memory capacity and processing at the situation model level. On all tests of working memory capacity, the synesthetes outperformed the controls. Importantly, there was no carryover benefit for the synesthetes for processing at the situation model level. This reinforces the idea that although some aspects of language comprehension are related to working memory span scores, this applies less directly to situation model levels. This suggests that theories of working memory must take into account this limitation, and the working memory processes that are involved in situation model construction and processing must be derived. PMID:25588274

  11. Preschoolers' Social Information Processing and Early School Success: The Challenging Situations Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Way, Erin; Kalb, Sara C.; Warren-Khot, Heather K.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a larger longitudinal project on the assessment of preschoolers' social-emotional development, children's social information processing (SIP) responses to unambiguous hypothetical situations of peer provocation were assessed for 298 four-year-olds from Head Start and private childcare settings. Measurement focused on emotions…

  12. Factor Structure of the Restricted Academic Situation Scale: Implications for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karama, Sherif; Amor, Leila Ben; Grizenko, Natalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Lageix, Philippe; Baron, Chantal; Schwartz, George; Joober, Ridha

    2009-01-01

    Background: To study the factor structure of the Restricted Academic Situation Scale (RASS), a psychometric tool used to assess behavior in children with ADHD, 117 boys and 21 girls meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV") criteria for ADHD and aged between 6 and 12 years were recruited. Assessments were…

  13. Stress Responses and Decision Making in Child Protection Workers Faced with High Conflict Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Vicki R.; Regehr, Cheryl; Shlonsky, Aron; Bogo, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The assessment of children at risk of abuse and neglect is a critical societal function performed by child protection workers in situations of acute stress and conflict. Despite efforts to improve the reliability of risk assessments through standardized measures, available tools continue to rely on subjective judgment. The goal of…

  14. Accurate description of calcium solvation in concentrated aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2014-07-17

    Calcium is one of the biologically most important ions; however, its accurate description by classical molecular dynamics simulations is complicated by strong electrostatic and polarization interactions with surroundings due to its divalent nature. Here, we explore the recently suggested approach for effectively accounting for polarization effects via ionic charge rescaling and develop a new and accurate parametrization of the calcium dication. Comparison to neutron scattering and viscosity measurements demonstrates that our model allows for an accurate description of concentrated aqueous calcium chloride solutions. The present model should find broad use in efficient and accurate modeling of calcium in aqueous environments, such as those encountered in biological and technological applications.

  15. Economic Assessment: A Model for Assessing Ability to Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Patricia; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the client's ability to pay is the cornerstone to fee collections in any service organization. York County Counseling Services implemented a new method of fee assessment and collection based on the principles of providing a service worth paying for, accurate assessment of ability to pay, and a budget-payment system. (Author)

  16. Thin slices of child personality: Perceptual, situational, and behavioral contributions.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Kushner, Shauna C; Rule, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether thin-slice ratings of child personality serve as a resource-efficient and theoretically valid measurement of child personality traits. We extended theoretical work on the observability, perceptual accuracy, and situational consistency of childhood personality traits by examining intersource and interjudge agreement, cross-situational consistency, and convergent, divergent, and predictive validity of thin-slice ratings. Forty-five unacquainted independent coders rated 326 children's (ages 8-12) personality in 1 of 15 thin-slice behavioral scenarios (i.e., 3 raters per slice, for over 14,000 independent thin-slice ratings). Mothers, fathers, and children rated children's personality, psychopathology, and competence. We found robust evidence for correlations between thin-slice and mother/father ratings of child personality, within- and across-task consistency of thin-slice ratings, and convergent and divergent validity with psychopathology and competence. Surprisingly, thin-slice ratings were more consistent across situations in this child sample than previously found for adults. Taken together, these results suggest that thin slices are a valid and reliable measure to assess child personality, offering a useful method of measurement beyond questionnaires, helping to address novel questions of personality perception and consistency in childhood.

  17. Human-computer interaction in multitask situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Human-computer interaction in multitask decisionmaking situations is considered, and it is proposed that humans and computers have overlapping responsibilities. Queueing theory is employed to model this dynamic approach to the allocation of responsibility between human and computer. Results of simulation experiments are used to illustrate the effects of several system variables including number of tasks, mean time between arrivals of action-evoking events, human-computer speed mismatch, probability of computer error, probability of human error, and the level of feedback between human and computer. Current experimental efforts are discussed and the practical issues involved in designing human-computer systems for multitask situations are considered.

  18. Extending the use of familiar microswitches to difficult daily situations: two case evaluations.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, G E; Singh, N N; O'Reilly, M F; Campodonico, F; Scalini, L; Oliva, D

    2003-06-01

    This study assessed the possibility of successfully extending the use of familiar microswitches by two adults with multiple disabilities to a difficult, standing-with-support situation. Analysis showed that the introduction of the familiar microswitches into this situation increased the participants' constructive engagement; they had repeated contacts with the microswitch systems and activated them fairly consistently. For one of the participants, improvement also occurred in terms of mood (smiling) and standing time. PMID:12831272

  19. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the revised Home Situations Questionnaire for autism spectrum disorder: The Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Monali; Aman, Michael G; Lecavalier, Luc; Smith, Tristram; Johnson, Cynthia; Swiezy, Naomi; McCracken, James T; King, Bryan; McDougle, Christopher J; Bearss, Karen; Deng, Yanhong; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Previously, we adapted the Home Situations Questionnaire to measure behavioral non-compliance in everyday settings in children with pervasive developmental disorders. In this study, we further revised this instrument for use in autism spectrum disorder and examined its psychometric properties (referred to as the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder). To cover a broader range of situations and improve reliability, we prepared seven new items describing situations in which children with autism spectrum disorder might display non-compliance. Parents completed ratings of 242 children with autism spectrum disorder with accompanying disruptive behaviors (ages 4-14 years) participating in one of two randomized clinical trials. Results from an exploratory factor analysis indicated that the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder consists of two 12-item factors: Socially Inflexible (α = 0.84) and Demand Specific (α = 0.89). One-to-two-week test-retest reliability was statistically significant for all scored items and also for subscale totals. The pattern of correspondence between the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder and parent-rated problem behavior, clinician-rated repetitive behavior, adaptive behavior, and IQ provided evidence for concurrent and divergent validity of the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder. Overall, the results suggest that the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder is an adequate measure for assessing non-compliance in a variety of situations in this population, and use of its two subscales will likely provide a more refined interpretation of ratings.

  20. Affective and inflammatory responses among orchestra musicians in performance situation.

    PubMed

    Pilger, Alexander; Haslacher, Helmuth; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Perkmann, Thomas; Böhm, Karl; Budinsky, Alexandra; Girard, Angelika; Klien, Katharina; Jordakieva, Galateja; Pezawas, Lukas; Wagner, Oswald; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Winker, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that mental challenge under controlled experimental conditions is associated with elevations in inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, relatively little work has been done on the effects of 'naturalistic' stressors on acute changes in inflammatory markers. The present study examined whether perceived arousal, valence and dominance in musicians are associated with pro-inflammatory and oxidative responses to a concert situation. Blood and salivary samples obtained from 48 members of a symphony orchestra on the day of rehearsal (i.e., control situation) and on the following day of premiere concert (i.e., test situation) were used to determine changes in salivary cortisol, pro-inflammatory markers (plasma myeloperoxidase, serum CRP, plasma IL-6), oxidative stress markers (paraoxonase1 activity and malondialdehyde), and homocysteine, a risk factor for vascular disease. Results of regression analyses showed a significant trend to increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) response in individuals with low valence score. Both affective states, valence and arousal, were identified as significant predictors of cortisol response during concert. In addition, control levels of plasma malondialdehyde were positively correlated with differences in IL-6 levels between premiere and rehearsal (r=.38, p=.012), pointing to higher oxidative stress in individuals with pronounced IL-6 response. Our results indicate that stress of public performance leads to increased concentrations of plasma MPO (20%), IL-6 (27%) and salivary cortisol (44%) in musicians. The decreasing effect of pleasantness on the MPO response was highly pronounced in non-smokers (r=-.60, p<.001), suggesting a significant role of emotional valence in stress-induced secretion of MPO. Additional studies are needed to assess the generalizability of these findings to other 'naturalistic' stress situations. PMID:24513877

  1. Affective and inflammatory responses among orchestra musicians in performance situation.

    PubMed

    Pilger, Alexander; Haslacher, Helmuth; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Perkmann, Thomas; Böhm, Karl; Budinsky, Alexandra; Girard, Angelika; Klien, Katharina; Jordakieva, Galateja; Pezawas, Lukas; Wagner, Oswald; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Winker, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that mental challenge under controlled experimental conditions is associated with elevations in inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, relatively little work has been done on the effects of 'naturalistic' stressors on acute changes in inflammatory markers. The present study examined whether perceived arousal, valence and dominance in musicians are associated with pro-inflammatory and oxidative responses to a concert situation. Blood and salivary samples obtained from 48 members of a symphony orchestra on the day of rehearsal (i.e., control situation) and on the following day of premiere concert (i.e., test situation) were used to determine changes in salivary cortisol, pro-inflammatory markers (plasma myeloperoxidase, serum CRP, plasma IL-6), oxidative stress markers (paraoxonase1 activity and malondialdehyde), and homocysteine, a risk factor for vascular disease. Results of regression analyses showed a significant trend to increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) response in individuals with low valence score. Both affective states, valence and arousal, were identified as significant predictors of cortisol response during concert. In addition, control levels of plasma malondialdehyde were positively correlated with differences in IL-6 levels between premiere and rehearsal (r=.38, p=.012), pointing to higher oxidative stress in individuals with pronounced IL-6 response. Our results indicate that stress of public performance leads to increased concentrations of plasma MPO (20%), IL-6 (27%) and salivary cortisol (44%) in musicians. The decreasing effect of pleasantness on the MPO response was highly pronounced in non-smokers (r=-.60, p<.001), suggesting a significant role of emotional valence in stress-induced secretion of MPO. Additional studies are needed to assess the generalizability of these findings to other 'naturalistic' stress situations.

  2. Is Three-Dimensional Soft Tissue Prediction by Software Accurate?

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki-Uk; Hong, Jongrak

    2015-11-01

    The authors assessed whether virtual surgery, performed with a soft tissue prediction program, could correctly simulate the actual surgical outcome, focusing on soft tissue movement. Preoperative and postoperative computed tomography (CT) data for 29 patients, who had undergone orthognathic surgery, were obtained and analyzed using the Simplant Pro software. The program made a predicted soft tissue image (A) based on presurgical CT data. After the operation, we obtained actual postoperative CT data and an actual soft tissue image (B) was generated. Finally, the 2 images (A and B) were superimposed and analyzed differences between the A and B. Results were grouped in 2 classes: absolute values and vector values. In the absolute values, the left mouth corner was the most significant error point (2.36 mm). The right mouth corner (2.28 mm), labrale inferius (2.08 mm), and the pogonion (2.03 mm) also had significant errors. In vector values, prediction of the right-left side had a left-sided tendency, the superior-inferior had a superior tendency, and the anterior-posterior showed an anterior tendency. As a result, with this program, the position of points tended to be located more left, anterior, and superior than the "real" situation. There is a need to improve the prediction accuracy for soft tissue images. Such software is particularly valuable in predicting craniofacial soft tissues landmarks, such as the pronasale. With this software, landmark positions were most inaccurate in terms of anterior-posterior predictions.

  3. Objective evaluation of situation awareness for dynamic decision makers in teleoperations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endsley, Mica R.

    1991-01-01

    Situation awareness, a current mental mode of the environment, is critical to the ability of operators to perform complex and dynamic tasks. This should be particularly true for teleoperators, who are separated from the situation they need to be aware of. The design of the man-machine interface must be guided by the goal of maintaining and enhancing situation awareness. The objective of this work has been to build a foundation upon which research in the area can proceed. A model of dynamic human decision making which is inclusive of situation awareness will be presented, along with a definition of situation awareness. A method for measuring situation awareness will also be presented as a tool for evaluating design concepts. The Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) is an objective measure of situation awareness originally developed for the fighter cockpit environment. The results of SAGAT validation efforts will be presented. Implications of this research for teleoperators and other operators of dynamic systems will be discussed.

  4. Tube dimpling tool assures accurate dip-brazed joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Heisman, R. M.

    1968-01-01

    Portable, hand-held dimpling tool assures accurate brazed joints between tubes of different diameters. Prior to brazing, the tool performs precise dimpling and nipple forming and also provides control and accurate measuring of the height of nipples and depth of dimples so formed.

  5. 31 CFR 205.24 - How are accurate estimates maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are accurate estimates maintained... Treasury-State Agreement § 205.24 How are accurate estimates maintained? (a) If a State has knowledge that an estimate does not reasonably correspond to the State's cash needs for a Federal assistance...

  6. 78 FR 34604 - Submitting Complete and Accurate Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 Submitting Complete and Accurate Information AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... accurate information as would a licensee or an applicant for a license.'' DATES: Submit comments by August... may submit comments by any of the following methods (unless this document describes a different...

  7. [Situational low self-esteem in pregnant women: an analysis of accuracy].

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Joyce Carolle Bezerra; de Sousa, Vanessa Emille Carvalho; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the accuracy of defining characteristics of Situational low self-esteem we developed a cross-sectional study, with 52 pregnant women assisted in a family centre. The NANDA-I taxonomy was used as well as the Rosenberg's scale. The diagnosis was present in 32.7% of the sample and all characteristics presented statistical significance, except "Reports verbally situational challenge to its own value". The characteristics "Indecisive behavior" and "Helplessness expressions" had 82.35% of sensitivity. On the other hand, the characteristics "Expression of feelings of worthlessness" and "Reports verbally situational challenge to its own value" were the more specific, with 94.29% of specificity. These results can contribute with the nursing practice because the identification of accurate characteristics is essential to a secure inference.

  8. Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Conventional schooling too often ignores the influence of school culture on what is learned in school. Knowledge is situated, being in part a product of the activity, context, and culture in which it is developed and used; this is known as cognitive apprenticeship. Implications for understanding learning and teaching are discussed. (Author/BJV)

  9. Mathematical and Pedagogical Understanding as Situated Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mousley, Judith A.

    2003-01-01

    One mathematics lesson was planned by two Grade 2 teachers together. Their separate teaching of it was videotaped, and each teacher was interviewed before and after her lesson. The "same" lesson resulted in different sets of worthwhile learning outcomes. In this research report, the notion of situated cognition is used as a tool for analysis of…

  10. Experiences with the Situation Approach in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Jurgen

    This paper relates the experiences of an early childhood professor from the Freie University of Berlin on a trip through East Asia to provide advice and assistance on the situational approach to preschool education. Impressions of the sociopolitical and educational environment and needs of Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, and…

  11. Situation Report [--Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and Philippines].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This is a series of four situation reports prepared by the International Planned Parenthood Federation for informational and consultative purposes. The countries reported on are Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and the Philippines. Some of the latest statistical figures for each country are listed. They are area, population and growth rate, birth, death,…

  12. 36 CFR 215.10 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES § 215.10 Emergency... Deputy Chief for National Forest System and to the Regional Foresters. Persons acting in these positions... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emergency situations....

  13. 36 CFR 215.10 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES § 215.10 Emergency... Deputy Chief for National Forest System and to the Regional Foresters. Persons acting in these positions... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emergency situations....

  14. 36 CFR 215.10 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES § 215.10 Emergency... Deputy Chief for National Forest System and to the Regional Foresters. Persons acting in these positions... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency situations....

  15. 36 CFR 215.10 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES § 215.10 Emergency... Deputy Chief for National Forest System and to the Regional Foresters. Persons acting in these positions... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency situations....

  16. 36 CFR 215.10 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES § 215.10 Emergency... Deputy Chief for National Forest System and to the Regional Foresters. Persons acting in these positions... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emergency situations....

  17. 20 CFR 404.1058 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special situations. 404.1058 Section 404.1058 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... basic pay (as defined by paragraph (3) of this section). (d) Payments to volunteers and...

  18. Function of Infant Crying in Stranger Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Colleen S. W.; Jennings, Kay D.

    This study investigated infant crying as a form of communication, with fear considered only one of many possible motivating emotions. Crying, along with fretting and withdrawal, are the major ways infants have to indicate that they desire to change the present situation. Subjects were 91 white, middle class infants whose mothers wete their primary…

  19. [Situated learning for the construction of knowledge].

    PubMed

    Maury-Zing, Céline

    2012-11-01

    The way in which knowledge is learned is a key element at the heart of the learning system. Situated learning can help the trainer to guide the student in his or her learning in action. It encourages the student as well as the professional to question their way of and their desire for learning together.

  20. Situated Language Learning: Concept, Significance and Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a shift in language learning from the "acquisition" metaphor to the "participation" metaphor. This involves viewing learners as active constructors of knowledge who can collaborate together to create meaningful language learning situations and contextualised practices. Thus, this worksheet aims at exploring…

  1. A Situated Model of Creative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    This article puts forward a situated model of creative learning. Most educational studies on creativity tend to concentrate on explaining the relation between teaching and creativity while keeping learning as a secondary concept. However, it has been stated that it is likely that teaching creatively leads to creative learning, suggesting that…

  2. Faculty Development Using the Situational Leadership Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaner, Michael C.

    1995-01-01

    The situational leadership model developed by Hersey and Blanchard is described, and the task-specific model is then applied to the four primary tasks of college faculty--teaching, research, community service, and institutional service. The model combines directive and supportive behavior as they are reflected in four distinctive leadership…

  3. A Teacher's Guide to Sticky Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truby, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Handling upset parents, unexpected kid behavior, and touchy school politics are some of the toughest parts of a teacher's job. As such, it never hurts to have an emergency plan or two tucked away and a few tried-and-true strategies one can count on. In this article, the author presents several sticky situations and corresponding solutions for…

  4. Situating the Zone of Proximal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, George E., II; Ketterer, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Social constructivist theory has advanced the notion that distance education is inferior, because effective learning is thought to require immersion in a cognitive apprenticeship under the guidance of a mentor. Effective learning is said to be situated in activity, context, and culture as a collaboration in a community of practice. Administrators…

  5. A Typology of Relapse Promoting Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul

    Outcome data on smoking cessation has emphasized that most people have difficulty not in quitting smoking, but in maintaining cessation. An attempt was made to develop a more meaningful typology of relapse-promoting situations using a sample of 183 exsmokers who called a telephone hotline seeking help to stay away from cigarettes. Two higher order…

  6. Antecedents and Consequences of Situational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A.; Messersmith, Emily E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. Aim: The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI; (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes; and (3) SI as a mediator of…

  7. Situational Marketing: Application for Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Raymond E.; Reed, Rosetta R.

    1995-01-01

    Marketing higher education has been criticized for its consumer (interpreted as student) orientation. An alternative concept, situational marketing, considers the student as one of a number of environmental forces on which the marketing mix focuses. Other forces include funding and regulatory agencies, businesses, alumni, faculty, parents, the…

  8. 48 CFR 5.205 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... interest in potential R&D programs whenever market research does not produce a sufficient number of... PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Synopses of Proposed Contract Actions 5.205 Special situations. (a) Research and... subsequent solicitation. Advanced notices must be entitled “Research and Development Sources Sought”...

  9. The Role of the Situation in Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroom, Victor H.; Jago, Arthur G.

    2007-01-01

    Leadership depends on the situation. Few social scientists would dispute the validity of this statement. But the statement can be interpreted in many different ways, depending, at least in part, on what one means by leadership. This article begins with a definition of leadership and a brief description of 3 historically important theories of…

  10. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  11. 48 CFR 305.205 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... situations. (a) An OPDIV may issue an advance notice, entitled “Research and Development Sources Sought,” in... acquisition method, including whether a set-aside is possible. However, such a notice shall not be used solely... Sources Sought notice. The template for the notice is available on the ASFR/OGAPA/DA Internet Web...

  12. Reflectivity, Reflexivity and Situated Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malthouse, Richard; Roffey-Barentsen, Jodi; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aspect of reflective practice referred to as situated reflective practice. The overarching theory is derived from social theories of structuration and reflexivity. In particular, from Giddens' theory of structuration, which sees social life as an interplay of agency and structure. Discussion of the research reported…

  13. The Language Planning Situation in Malawi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayambazinthu, Edrinnie

    1998-01-01

    Presents a detailed study of the language-planning situation in Malawi, exploring the historical and political processes, as well as current practices of language planning in the country. Discussion reconstructs and demonstrates how sociopolitical change has been perceived in Malawi and how this perception has translated into language planning in…

  14. The Sign Language Situation in Mali

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyst, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This article gives a first overview of the sign language situation in Mali and its capital, Bamako, located in the West African Sahel. Mali is a highly multilingual country with a significant incidence of deafness, for which meningitis appears to be the main cause, coupled with limited access to adequate health care. In comparison to neighboring…

  15. Situated Learning in a Classroom Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitri, Eliza

    2004-01-01

    Situated thought and action are facilitated according to specific children, negotiated among classroom community members, and placed in a specific place and time. Through action research, the author worked for about a year with a group of 15 elementary school children between the ages of 7 and 10, during a Cub Scout program in Lefkosia, Cyprus.…

  16. Reading as Situated Language: A Sociocognitive Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, James Paul

    2001-01-01

    Situates reading within a broad perspective that integrates work on cognition, language, social interaction, society, and culture. Argues that reading and writing cannot be separated from speaking, listening, and interacting, on the one hand, or using language to think about and act on the world, on the other. Introduces "social languages" as a…

  17. [Drawing with children in situations of war].

    PubMed

    Dozio, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    In situations of conflict, children are subjected to or witness acts of violence and traumatic events. In the care systems put in place in this context, drawing is an effective means of enabling children to express their emotions and favours a process of restoration.

  18. 29 CFR 778.314 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special situations. 778.314 Section 778.314 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Special...

  19. Evaluating Business School Undergraduates' Situation Analytical Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Ghee-Soon

    2002-01-01

    An instrument to test students' ability to analyze business situations was administered to 120 undergraduates. Level of study, achievement in business curriculum, and stress resilience were associated with test performance. Gender, age, family income, and high school results were not related to performance. (Contains 44 references.) (SK)

  20. Situated Learning in an Australian Surf Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The article examines learning and identity formation for young people in an Australian surf club. Drawing on Lave and Wenger's notion of situated learning, it identifies how membership in the surf club from an early age involves highly significant and meaningful learning and identity formation, where learning is co-constructed with other members…

  1. Accurate modeling and reconstruction of three-dimensional percolating filamentary microstructures from two-dimensional micrographs via dilation-erosion method

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, En-Yu; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Jing, Tao; Torquato, Salvatore; Jiao, Yang

    2014-03-01

    Heterogeneous materials are ubiquitous in nature and synthetic situations and have a wide range of important engineering applications. Accurate modeling and reconstructing three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of topologically complex materials from limited morphological information such as a two-dimensional (2D) micrograph is crucial to the assessment and prediction of effective material properties and performance under extreme conditions. Here, we extend a recently developed dilation–erosion method and employ the Yeong–Torquato stochastic reconstruction procedure to model and generate 3D austenitic–ferritic cast duplex stainless steel microstructure containing percolating filamentary ferrite phase from 2D optical micrographs of the material sample. Specifically, the ferrite phase is dilated to produce a modified target 2D microstructure and the resulting 3D reconstruction is eroded to recover the percolating ferrite filaments. The dilation–erosion reconstruction is compared with the actual 3D microstructure, obtained from serial sectioning (polishing), as well as the standard stochastic reconstructions incorporating topological connectedness information. The fact that the former can achieve the same level of accuracy as the latter suggests that the dilation–erosion procedure is tantamount to incorporating appreciably more topological and geometrical information into the reconstruction while being much more computationally efficient. - Highlights: • Spatial correlation functions used to characterize filamentary ferrite phase • Clustering information assessed from 3D experimental structure via serial sectioning • Stochastic reconstruction used to generate 3D virtual structure 2D micrograph • Dilation–erosion method to improve accuracy of 3D reconstruction.

  2. Assessing Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Most educators are familiar with instances of authentic assessment of "content" within the disciplines or of authentic assessment of "discipline-specific skills." In such authentic assessments, students apply the knowledge and skills of the discipline to situations or tasks that replicate real world challenges. The measurement of skills is…

  3. Engineering thinking in emergency situations: A new nuclear safety concept.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Franck; Travadel, Sébastien

    2014-11-01

    The lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident have focused on preventive measures designed to protect nuclear reactors, and crisis management plans. Although there is still no end in sight to the accident that occurred on March 11, 2011, how engineers have handled the aftermath offers new insight into the capacity of organizations to adapt in situations that far exceed the scope of safety standards based on probabilistic risk assessment and on the comprehensive identification of disaster scenarios. Ongoing crises in which conventional resources are lacking, but societal expectations are high, call for "engineering thinking in emergency situations." This is a new concept that emphasizes adaptability and resilience within organizations-such as the ability to create temporary new organizational structures; to quickly switch from a normal state to an innovative mode; and to integrate a social dimension into engineering activities. In the future, nuclear safety oversight authorities should assess the ability of plant operators to create and implement effective engineering strategies on the fly, and should require that operators demonstrate the capability for resilience in the aftermath of an accident.

  4. Engineering thinking in emergency situations: A new nuclear safety concept

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Franck; Travadel, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    The lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident have focused on preventive measures designed to protect nuclear reactors, and crisis management plans. Although there is still no end in sight to the accident that occurred on March 11, 2011, how engineers have handled the aftermath offers new insight into the capacity of organizations to adapt in situations that far exceed the scope of safety standards based on probabilistic risk assessment and on the comprehensive identification of disaster scenarios. Ongoing crises in which conventional resources are lacking, but societal expectations are high, call for “engineering thinking in emergency situations.” This is a new concept that emphasizes adaptability and resilience within organizations—such as the ability to create temporary new organizational structures; to quickly switch from a normal state to an innovative mode; and to integrate a social dimension into engineering activities. In the future, nuclear safety oversight authorities should assess the ability of plant operators to create and implement effective engineering strategies on the fly, and should require that operators demonstrate the capability for resilience in the aftermath of an accident. PMID:25419015

  5. Engineering thinking in emergency situations: A new nuclear safety concept.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Franck; Travadel, Sébastien

    2014-11-01

    The lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident have focused on preventive measures designed to protect nuclear reactors, and crisis management plans. Although there is still no end in sight to the accident that occurred on March 11, 2011, how engineers have handled the aftermath offers new insight into the capacity of organizations to adapt in situations that far exceed the scope of safety standards based on probabilistic risk assessment and on the comprehensive identification of disaster scenarios. Ongoing crises in which conventional resources are lacking, but societal expectations are high, call for "engineering thinking in emergency situations." This is a new concept that emphasizes adaptability and resilience within organizations-such as the ability to create temporary new organizational structures; to quickly switch from a normal state to an innovative mode; and to integrate a social dimension into engineering activities. In the future, nuclear safety oversight authorities should assess the ability of plant operators to create and implement effective engineering strategies on the fly, and should require that operators demonstrate the capability for resilience in the aftermath of an accident. PMID:25419015

  6. A general and accurate approach for computing the statistical power of the transmission disequilibrium test for complex disease genes.

    PubMed

    Chen, W M; Deng, H W

    2001-07-01

    Transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) is a nuclear family-based analysis that can test linkage in the presence of association. It has gained extensive attention in theoretical investigation and in practical application; in both cases, the accuracy and generality of the power computation of the TDT are crucial. Despite extensive investigations, previous approaches for computing the statistical power of the TDT are neither accurate nor general. In this paper, we develop a general and highly accurate approach to analytically compute the power of the TDT. We compare the results from our approach with those from several other recent papers, all against the results obtained from computer simulations. We show that the results computed from our approach are more accurate than or at least the same as those from other approaches. More importantly, our approach can handle various situations, which include (1) families that consist of one or more children and that have any configuration of affected and nonaffected sibs; (2) families ascertained through the affection status of parent(s); (3) any mixed sample with different types of families in (1) and (2); (4) the marker locus is not a disease susceptibility locus; and (5) existence of allelic heterogeneity. We implement this approach in a user-friendly computer program: TDT Power Calculator. Its applications are demonstrated. The approach and the program developed here should be significant for theoreticians to accurately investigate the statistical power of the TDT in various situations, and for empirical geneticists to plan efficient studies using the TDT.

  7. Do Canadian collegiate hockey players accurately perceive body composition changes after unmonitored training and diet?

    PubMed

    Prokop, Neal W; Duncan, Lindsay R; Andersen, Ross E

    2015-10-01

    Collegiate athletes often use nutritional programs and supplements to elicit body composition changes in muscle or fat. It is unknown if athletes can accurately perceive their fluctuations in body composition, yet their understanding may help them make more accurate interpretations regarding the success of potential nutrition or exercise regimens. The purpose of this study was to investigate if collegiate hockey players could accurately perceive a change in body composition during a 3-month period within their regular season, in which no predetermined nutritional or exercise program was provided. Twenty-four male Canadian collegiate hockey players completed preseason and midseason body composition assessments using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Immediately before the midseason scan, players attempted to accurately match their perceived fluctuation in composition, with predetermined categorical ranges of relative body composition and strength. Two-thirds of players and one-half of players accurately perceived changes in arm-lean and arm-fat tissue, respectively. Approximately two-thirds of players did not accurately perceive gains or losses of lean or fat tissue within their leg and overall body. Although some athletes partially detected changes in the lean and fat tissue of particular regions, the vast majority of players cannot detect the type, or amount of tissue gained and lost across the overall body. Body composition assessments, rather than an athlete's perceptions, should be used to help interpret the success of a sport nutrition or exercise program. Athletes should be aware that physiologic adaptations might take place unnoticed, which could affect the acceptance and adherence of nutrition or exercise interventions. PMID:26394260

  8. The Current Situation of Field Experience in a Five-Year Science Teacher Education Program in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faikhamta, Chatree; Jantarakantee, Ekgapoom; Roadrangka, Vantipa

    2011-01-01

    This research explored the current situation in managing the field experience of a five-year science teacher education program in one university in Thailand. A number of methods were used to assess field experience situation: (1) a questionnaire on the perceptions of pre-service science teachers of field experience management; (2) participant…

  9. Relations between Behavior Problems in Classroom Social and Learning Situations and Peer Social Competence in Head Start and Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Dominguez, Ximena; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Rouse, Heather L.; Fantuzzo, John W.

    2010-01-01

    The relations between early emotional and behavioral problems in classroom situations and peer social competence were examined for a representative sample of urban Head Start children. Behavior problems were assessed within the context of routine peer, teacher, and structured learning classroom situations early in the preschool year. Two path…

  10. ACCURATE CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH-DEGREE MODES USING MDI OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Korzennik, S. G.; Rabello-Soares, M. C.; Schou, J.; Larson, T. P.

    2013-08-01

    We present the first accurate characterization of high-degree modes, derived using the best Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) full-disk full-resolution data set available. A 90 day long time series of full-disk 2 arcsec pixel{sup -1} resolution Dopplergrams was acquired in 2001, thanks to the high rate telemetry provided by the Deep Space Network. These Dopplergrams were spatially decomposed using our best estimate of the image scale and the known components of MDI's image distortion. A multi-taper power spectrum estimator was used to generate power spectra for all degrees and all azimuthal orders, up to l = 1000. We used a large number of tapers to reduce the realization noise, since at high degrees the individual modes blend into ridges and thus there is no reason to preserve a high spectral resolution. These power spectra were fitted for all degrees and all azimuthal orders, between l = 100 and l = 1000, and for all the orders with substantial amplitude. This fitting generated in excess of 5.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} individual estimates of ridge frequencies, line widths, amplitudes, and asymmetries (singlets), corresponding to some 5700 multiplets (l, n). Fitting at high degrees generates ridge characteristics, characteristics that do not correspond to the underlying mode characteristics. We used a sophisticated forward modeling to recover the best possible estimate of the underlying mode characteristics (mode frequencies, as well as line widths, amplitudes, and asymmetries). We describe in detail this modeling and its validation. The modeling has been extensively reviewed and refined, by including an iterative process to improve its input parameters to better match the observations. Also, the contribution of the leakage matrix on the accuracy of the procedure has been carefully assessed. We present the derived set of corrected mode characteristics, which includes not only frequencies, but line widths, asymmetries, and amplitudes. We present and discuss

  11. Pleasure in decision-making situations

    PubMed Central

    Cabanac, Michel; Guillaume, Jacqueline; Balasko, Marta; Fleury, Adriana

    2002-01-01

    Background This study explores the role of pleasure in decision making. Results In Experiment 1, 12 subjects were presented with a questionnaire containing 46 items taken from the literature. Twenty-three items described a situation where a decision should be made and ended with a suggested solution. The other items served as filler items. The subjects were requested not to make a decision but to rate the pleasure or displeasure they experienced when reading the situation described in the item. The subjects' ratings were then compared to the decisions on the same situations made by the other subjects of the studies published by other workers. The ratings of pleasure/displeasure given by our subjects correlated significantly with the choices published by other authors. This result satisfies a necessary condition for pleasure to be the key of the decision making process in theoretical situations. In Experiment 2, a new group of 12 subjects rated their experience of pleasure/displeasure when reading various versions of 50 situations taken from daily life where an ethical decision had to be made (Questionnaire I) including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice test with the 50 situations (Questionnaire II) using the same 200 items and offering the various behaviors. Subjects tended to choose ethical and unethical responses corresponding to their highest pleasure rating within each problem. In all cases the subjects' behavior was higher than chance level, and thus, followed the trend to maximize pleasure. In Experiment 3, 12 subjects reading 50 mathematical short problems followed by correct and incorrect versions of the answer to the problem (Questionnaire III), including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice mathematical test with the 50 problems (Questionnaire IV) using the same 200 items and offering the correct and incorrect answers. In questionnaire IV, subjects tended to choose correct as well as incorrect responses corresponding to their

  12. Satellite situation report, volume 33, number 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Satellite Situation Report is a listing of those satellites (objects) currently in orbit and those which have previously orbited the Earth. Some objects are too small or too far from the Earth's surface to be detected; therefore, the Satellite Situation Report does not include all manmade objects orbiting the Earth. Generally, satellites are classified as follows: (1) Payloads may contain one or more functioning or nonfunctioning experiments. Usually only the owners of the satellites know if the experiments are functioning, and there is no one source which indicates the operational status of all payloads and/or experiments. Payloads are normally the first listed in the Satellite Situation Report, i.e., 1982 087A, unless there are multiple payloads for the launch. In which case, the first objects cataloged are usually all payloads, unless a subsequent payload is later identified after objects other than payloads have been cataloged. (2) Platforms are used to support a payload while it is being placed into orbit. A platform may remain in orbit long after its purpose is served, usually longer than rocket bodies. It is usually the first object identified in the Satellite Situation Report listing after the payload(s), i.e., 1982 087B (when a platform is not used, the first object after the payload(s) is usually the rocket body). (3) Rocket bodies are used to place the payload and platform (if one is used) into orbit. Some launches may have more than one rocket body because of the payload weight or the type of orbit or experiment. Most rocket bodies decay within a short time after the payload (and platform) have achieved orbit. Rocket bodies are usually the third object listed in the Satellite Situation Report after the payload(s), i.e., 1982 087C. (4) Debris in orbit occurs when parts (nose cone shrouds, lens or hatch covers) are separated from the payload, when rocket bodies or payloads disintegrate or explode, or when objects are placed into free space from manned

  13. Quantifying Methane Fluxes Simply and Accurately: The Tracer Dilution Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, Christopher; Crosson, Eric; Green, Roger; Hater, Gary; Dayton, Dave; Lafleur, Rick; Merrill, Ray; Tan, Sze; Thoma, Eben

    2010-05-01

    Methane is an important atmospheric constituent with a wide variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic, including wetlands and other water bodies, permafrost, farms, landfills, and areas with significant petrochemical exploration, drilling, transport, or processing, or refining occurs. Despite its importance to the carbon cycle, its significant impact as a greenhouse gas, and its ubiquity in modern life as a source of energy, its sources and sinks in marine and terrestrial ecosystems are only poorly understood. This is largely because high quality, quantitative measurements of methane fluxes in these different environments have not been available, due both to the lack of robust field-deployable instrumentation as well as to the fact that most significant sources of methane extend over large areas (from 10's to 1,000,000's of square meters) and are heterogeneous emitters - i.e., the methane is not emitted evenly over the area in question. Quantifying the total methane emissions from such sources becomes a tremendous challenge, compounded by the fact that atmospheric transport from emission point to detection point can be highly variable. In this presentation we describe a robust, accurate, and easy-to-deploy technique called the tracer dilution method, in which a known gas (such as acetylene, nitrous oxide, or sulfur hexafluoride) is released in the same vicinity of the methane emissions. Measurements of methane and the tracer gas are then made downwind of the release point, in the so-called far-field, where the area of methane emissions cannot be distinguished from a point source (i.e., the two gas plumes are well-mixed). In this regime, the methane emissions are given by the ratio of the two measured concentrations, multiplied by the known tracer emission rate. The challenges associated with atmospheric variability and heterogeneous methane emissions are handled automatically by the transport and dispersion of the tracer. We present detailed methane flux

  14. Accurate calculation of diffraction-limited encircled and ensquared energy.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Torben B

    2015-09-01

    Mathematical properties of the encircled and ensquared energy functions for the diffraction-limited point-spread function (PSF) are presented. These include power series and a set of linear differential equations that facilitate the accurate calculation of these functions. Asymptotic expressions are derived that provide very accurate estimates for the relative amount of energy in the diffraction PSF that fall outside a square or rectangular large detector. Tables with accurate values of the encircled and ensquared energy functions are also presented. PMID:26368873

  15. The challenge of accurately quantifying future megadrought risk in the American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, Sloan; Mankin, Justin S.

    2016-09-01

    American Southwest (ASW) megadroughts represent decadal-scale periods of dry conditions the near-term risks of which arise from natural low-frequency hydroclimate variability and anthropogenic forcing. A large single-climate-model ensemble indicates that anthropogenic forcing increases near-term ASW megadrought risk by a factor of 100; however, accurate risk assessment remains a challenge. At the global-scale we find that anthropogenic forcing may alter the variability driving megadroughts over 55% of land areas, undermining accurate assessments of their risk. For the remaining areas, current ensembles are too small to characterize megadroughts' driving variability. For example, constraining uncertainty in near-term ASW megadrought risk to 5 percentage points with high confidence requires 287 simulations. Such ensemble sizes are beyond current computational and storage resources, and these limitations suggest that constraining errors in near-term megadrought risk projections with high confidence—even in places where underlying variability is stationary—is not currently possible.

  16. Situation Awareness of Onboard System Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreckenghost, Debra; Thronesbery, Carroll; Hudson, Mary Beth

    2005-01-01

    We have developed intelligent agent software for onboard system autonomy. Our approach is to provide control agents that automate crew and vehicle systems, and operations assistants that aid humans in working with these autonomous systems. We use the 3 Tier control architecture to develop the control agent software that automates system reconfiguration and routine fault management. We use the Distributed Collaboration and Interaction (DCI) System to develop the operations assistants that provide human services, including situation summarization, event notification, activity management, and support for manual commanding of autonomous system. In this paper we describe how the operations assistants aid situation awareness of the autonomous control agents. We also describe our evaluation of the DCI System to support control engineers during a ground test at Johnson Space Center (JSC) of the Post Processing System (PPS) for regenerative water recovery.

  17. The role of the situation in leadership.

    PubMed

    Vroom, Victor H; Jago, Arthur G

    2007-01-01

    Leadership depends on the situation. Few social scientists would dispute the validity of this statement. But the statement can be interpreted in many different ways, depending, at least in part, on what one means by leadership. This article begins with a definition of leadership and a brief description of 3 historically important theories of leadership. The most recent of these, contingency theories, is argued to be most consistent with existing evidence and most relevant to professional practice. The Vroom, Yetton, and Jago contingency models of participation in decision making are described in depth, and their work provides the basis for identifying 3 distinct ways in which situational or contextual variables are relevant to both research on and the practice of leadership.

  18. Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2013-03-01

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

  19. The role of the situation in leadership.

    PubMed

    Vroom, Victor H; Jago, Arthur G

    2007-01-01

    Leadership depends on the situation. Few social scientists would dispute the validity of this statement. But the statement can be interpreted in many different ways, depending, at least in part, on what one means by leadership. This article begins with a definition of leadership and a brief description of 3 historically important theories of leadership. The most recent of these, contingency theories, is argued to be most consistent with existing evidence and most relevant to professional practice. The Vroom, Yetton, and Jago contingency models of participation in decision making are described in depth, and their work provides the basis for identifying 3 distinct ways in which situational or contextual variables are relevant to both research on and the practice of leadership. PMID:17209676

  20. Oceanic Situational Awareness Over the Pacific Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the Pacific Ocean. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the Pacific Corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.