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Sample records for accurate thermal rate

  1. Removing the thermal component from heart rate provides an accurate VO2 estimation in forest work.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Philippe-Antoine; Imbeau, Daniel; Dubeau, Denise; Lebel, Luc; Kolus, Ahmet

    2016-05-01

    Heart rate (HR) was monitored continuously in 41 forest workers performing brushcutting or tree planting work. 10-min seated rest periods were imposed during the workday to estimate the HR thermal component (ΔHRT) per Vogt et al. (1970, 1973). VO2 was measured using a portable gas analyzer during a morning submaximal step-test conducted at the work site, during a work bout over the course of the day (range: 9-74 min), and during an ensuing 10-min rest pause taken at the worksite. The VO2 estimated, from measured HR and from corrected HR (thermal component removed), were compared to VO2 measured during work and rest. Varied levels of HR thermal component (ΔHRTavg range: 0-38 bpm) originating from a wide range of ambient thermal conditions, thermal clothing insulation worn, and physical load exerted during work were observed. Using raw HR significantly overestimated measured work VO2 by 30% on average (range: 1%-64%). 74% of VO2 prediction error variance was explained by the HR thermal component. VO2 estimated from corrected HR, was not statistically different from measured VO2. Work VO2 can be estimated accurately in the presence of thermal stress using Vogt et al.'s method, which can be implemented easily by the practitioner with inexpensive instruments.

  2. Accurate quantum thermal rate constants for the three-dimensional H+H2 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Tae Jun; Light, J. C.

    1989-07-01

    The rate constants for the three-dimensional H+H2 reaction on the Liu-Siegbahn-Truhlar-Horowitz (LSTH) surface are calculated using Pack-Parker hyperspherical (APH) coordinates and a C2v symmetry adapted direct product discrete variable representation (DVR). The C2v symmetry decomposition and the parity decoupling on the basis are performed for the internal coordinate χ. The symmetry decomposition results in a block diagonal representation of the flux and Hamiltonian operators. The multisurface flux is introduced to represent the multichannel reactive flux. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the J=0 internal Hamiltonian are obtained by sequential diagonalization and truncation. The individual symmetry blocks of the flux operator are propagated by the corresponding blocks of the Hamiltonian, and the J=0 rate constant k0(T) is obtained as a sum of the rate constants calculated for each block. k0(T) is compared with the exact k0(T) obtained from thermal averaging of the J=0 reaction probabilities; the errors are within 5%-20% up to T=1500 K. The sequential diagonalization-truncation method reduces the size of the Hamiltonian greatly, but the resulting Hamiltonian matrix still describes the time evolution very accurately. For the J≠0 rate constant calculations, the truncated internal Hamiltonian eigenvector basis is used to construct reduced (JKJ) blocks of the Hamiltonian. The individual (JKJ) blocks are diagonalized neglecting Coriolis coupling and treating the off-diagonal KJ±2 couplings by second order perturbation theory. The full wave function is parity decoupled. The rate constant is obtained as a sum over J of (2J+1)kJ(T). The time evolution of the flux for J≠0 is again very accurately described to give a well converged rate constant.

  3. Computational study of the reactions of methanol with the hydroperoxyl and methyl radicals. 2. Accurate thermal rate constants.

    PubMed

    Alecu, I M; Truhlar, Donald G

    2011-12-29

    Multistructural canonical variational-transition-state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/MT) is employed to calculate thermal rate constants for the abstraction of hydrogen atoms from both positions of methanol by the hydroperoxyl and methyl radicals over the temperature range 100-3000 K. The M08-HX hybrid meta-generalized gradient approximation density functional and M08-HX with specific reaction parameters, both with the maug-cc-pVTZ basis set, were validated in part 1 of this study (Alecu, I. M.; Truhlar, D. G. J. Phys. Chem. A2011, 115, 2811) against highly accurate CCSDT(2)(Q)/CBS calculations for the energetics of these reactions, and they are used here to compute the properties of all stationary points and the energies, gradients, and Hessians of nonstationary points along each considered reaction path. The internal rotations in some of the transition states are found to be highly anharmonic and strongly coupled to each other, and they generate multiple structures (conformations) whose contributions are included in the partition function. It is shown that the previous estimates for these rate constants used to build kinetic models for the combustion of methanol, some of which were based on transition state theory calculations with one-dimensional tunneling corrections and harmonic-oscillator approximations or separable one-dimensional hindered rotor treatments of torsions, are appreciably different than the ones presently calculated using MS-CVT/MT. The rate constants obtained from the best MS-CVT/MT calculations carried out in this study, in which the important effects of corner cutting due to small and large reaction path curvature are captured via a microcanonical optimized multidimensional tunneling (μOMT) treatment, are recommended for future refinement of the kinetic model for methanol combustion. PMID:22059377

  4. How Accurately can we Calculate Thermal Systems?

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D; Blomquist, R N; Dean, C; Heinrichs, D; Kalugin, M A; Lee, M; Lee, Y; MacFarlan, R; Nagaya, Y; Trkov, A

    2004-04-20

    I would like to determine how accurately a variety of neutron transport code packages (code and cross section libraries) can calculate simple integral parameters, such as K{sub eff}, for systems that are sensitive to thermal neutron scattering. Since we will only consider theoretical systems, we cannot really determine absolute accuracy compared to any real system. Therefore rather than accuracy, it would be more precise to say that I would like to determine the spread in answers that we obtain from a variety of code packages. This spread should serve as an excellent indicator of how accurately we can really model and calculate such systems today. Hopefully, eventually this will lead to improvements in both our codes and the thermal scattering models that they use in the future. In order to accomplish this I propose a number of extremely simple systems that involve thermal neutron scattering that can be easily modeled and calculated by a variety of neutron transport codes. These are theoretical systems designed to emphasize the effects of thermal scattering, since that is what we are interested in studying. I have attempted to keep these systems very simple, and yet at the same time they include most, if not all, of the important thermal scattering effects encountered in a large, water-moderated, uranium fueled thermal system, i.e., our typical thermal reactors.

  5. Accurate Thermal Stresses for Beams: Normal Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Pilkey, Walter D.

    2003-01-01

    Formulations for a general theory of thermoelasticity to generate accurate thermal stresses for structural members of aeronautical vehicles were developed in 1954 by Boley. The formulation also provides three normal stresses and a shear stress along the entire length of the beam. The Poisson effect of the lateral and transverse normal stresses on a thermally loaded beam is taken into account in this theory by employing an Airy stress function. The Airy stress function enables the reduction of the three-dimensional thermal stress problem to a two-dimensional one. Numerical results from the general theory of thermoelasticity are compared to those obtained from strength of materials. It is concluded that the theory of thermoelasticity for prismatic beams proposed in this paper can be used instead of strength of materials when precise stress results are desired.

  6. Accurate Thermal Stresses for Beams: Normal Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Pilkey, Walter D.

    2002-01-01

    Formulations for a general theory of thermoelasticity to generate accurate thermal stresses for structural members of aeronautical vehicles were developed in 1954 by Boley. The formulation also provides three normal stresses and a shear stress along the entire length of the beam. The Poisson effect of the lateral and transverse normal stresses on a thermally loaded beam is taken into account in this theory by employing an Airy stress function. The Airy stress function enables the reduction of the three-dimensional thermal stress problem to a two-dimensional one. Numerical results from the general theory of thermoelasticity are compared to those obtained from strength of materials. It is concluded that the theory of thermoelasticity for prismatic beams proposed in this paper can be used instead of strength of materials when precise stress results are desired.

  7. Accurate Thermal Conductivities from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbogno, Christian

    2015-03-01

    In spite of significant research efforts, a first-principles determination of the thermal conductivity at high temperatures has remained elusive. On the one hand, Boltzmann transport techniques that include anharmonic effects in the nuclear dynamics only perturbatively become inaccurate or inapplicable under such conditions. On the other hand, non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) methods suffer from enormous finite-size artifacts in the computationally feasible supercells, which prevent an accurate extrapolation to the bulk limit of the thermal conductivity. In this work, we overcome this limitation by performing ab initio MD simulations in thermodynamic equilibrium that account for all orders of anharmonicity. The thermal conductivity is then assessed from the auto-correlation function of the heat flux using the Green-Kubo formalism. Foremost, we discuss the fundamental theory underlying a first-principles definition of the heat flux using the virial theorem. We validate our approach and in particular the techniques developed to overcome finite time and size effects, e.g., by inspecting silicon, the thermal conductivity of which is particularly challenging to converge. Furthermore, we use this framework to investigate the thermal conductivity of ZrO2, which is known for its high degree of anharmonicity. Our calculations shed light on the heat resistance mechanism active in this material, which eventually allows us to discuss how the thermal conductivity can be controlled by doping and co-doping. This work has been performed in collaboration with R. Ramprasad (University of Connecticut), C. G. Levi and C. G. Van de Walle (University of California Santa Barbara).

  8. Can Appraisers Rate Work Performance Accurately?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedge, Jerry W.; Laue, Frances J.

    The ability of individuals to make accurate judgments about others is examined and literature on this subject is reviewed. A wide variety of situational factors affects the appraisal of performance. It is generally accepted that the purpose of the appraisal influences the accuracy of the appraiser. The instrumentation, or tools, available to the…

  9. Radiometrically accurate thermal imaging in the Landsat program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansing, Jack C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Methods of calibrating Landsat TM thermal IR data have been developed so that the residual error is reduced to 0.9 K (1 standard deviation). Methods for verifying the radiometric performance of TM on orbit and ground calibration methods are discussed. The preliminary design of the enhanced TM for Landsat-6 is considered. A technique for accurately reducing raw data from the Landsat-5 thermal band is described in detail.

  10. Device accurately measures and records low gas-flow rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branum, L. W.

    1966-01-01

    Free-floating piston in a vertical column accurately measures and records low gas-flow rates. The system may be calibrated, using an adjustable flow-rate gas supply, a low pressure gage, and a sequence recorder. From the calibration rates, a nomograph may be made for easy reduction. Temperature correction may be added for further accuracy.

  11. Accurate Development of Thermal Neutron Scattering Cross Section Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Hawari, Ayman; Dunn, Michael

    2014-06-10

    The objective of this project is to develop a holistic (fundamental and accurate) approach for generating thermal neutron scattering cross section libraries for a collection of important enutron moderators and reflectors. The primary components of this approach are the physcial accuracy and completeness of the generated data libraries. Consequently, for the first time, thermal neutron scattering cross section data libraries will be generated that are based on accurate theoretical models, that are carefully benchmarked against experimental and computational data, and that contain complete covariance information that can be used in propagating the data uncertainties through the various components of the nuclear design and execution process. To achieve this objective, computational and experimental investigations will be performed on a carefully selected subset of materials that play a key role in all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  12. Accurate heart rate estimation from camera recording via MUSIC algorithm.

    PubMed

    Fouladi, Seyyed Hamed; Balasingham, Ilangko; Ramstad, Tor Audun; Kansanen, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm to extract heart rate frequency from video camera using the Multiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm. This leads to improved accuracy of the estimated heart rate frequency in cases the performance is limited by the number of samples and frame rate. Monitoring vital signs remotely can be exploited for both non-contact physiological and psychological diagnosis. The color variation recorded by ordinary cameras is used for heart rate monitoring. The orthogonality between signal space and noise space is used to find more accurate heart rate frequency in comparison with traditional methods. It is shown via experimental results that the limitation of previous methods can be overcome by using subspace methods. PMID:26738015

  13. A fast and accurate method for echocardiography strain rate imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Vahid; Sahba, Nima; Hajebi, Nima; Nambakhsh, Mohammad Saleh

    2009-02-01

    Recently Strain and strain rate imaging have proved their superiority with respect to classical motion estimation methods in myocardial evaluation as a novel technique for quantitative analysis of myocardial function. Here in this paper, we propose a novel strain rate imaging algorithm using a new optical flow technique which is more rapid and accurate than the previous correlation-based methods. The new method presumes a spatiotemporal constancy of intensity and Magnitude of the image. Moreover the method makes use of the spline moment in a multiresolution approach. Moreover cardiac central point is obtained using a combination of center of mass and endocardial tracking. It is proved that the proposed method helps overcome the intensity variations of ultrasound texture while preserving the ability of motion estimation technique for different motions and orientations. Evaluation is performed on simulated, phantom (a contractile rubber balloon) and real sequences and proves that this technique is more accurate and faster than the previous methods.

  14. A method for accurate temperature measurement using infrared thermal camera.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Tomoharu; Narushima, Takashi; Yonezawa, Tetsu; Sudo, Takayuki; Okubo, Shuichi; Komatsubara, Shigeyuki; Sasaki, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Takahisa

    2012-08-01

    The temperature distribution on a centre-holed thin foil of molybdenum, used as a sample and heated using a sample-heating holder for electron microscopy, was measured using an infrared thermal camera. The temperature on the heated foil area located near the heating stage of the heating holder is almost equal to the temperature on the heating stage. However, during the measurement of the temperature at the edge of the hole of the foil located farthest from the heating stage, a drop in temperature should be taken into consideration; however, so far, no method has been developed to locally measure the temperature distribution on the heated sample. In this study, a method for the accurate measurement of temperature distribution on heated samples for electron microscopy is discussed.

  15. Accurate transition rates for intercombination lines of singly ionized nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Tayal, S. S.

    2011-01-15

    The transition energies and rates for the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2} {sup 3}P{sub 1,2}-2s2p{sup 3} {sup 5}S{sub 2}{sup o} and 2s{sup 2}2p3s-2s{sup 2}2p3p intercombination transitions have been calculated using term-dependent nonorthogonal orbitals in the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock approach. Several sets of spectroscopic and correlation nonorthogonal functions have been chosen to describe adequately term dependence of wave functions and various correlation corrections. Special attention has been focused on the accurate representation of strong interactions between the 2s2p{sup 3} {sup 1,3}P{sub 1}{sup o} and 2s{sup 2}2p3s {sup 1,3}P{sub 1}{sup o}levels. The relativistic corrections are included through the one-body mass correction, Darwin, and spin-orbit operators and two-body spin-other-orbit and spin-spin operators in the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The importance of core-valence correlation effects has been examined. The accuracy of present transition rates is evaluated by the agreement between the length and velocity formulations combined with the agreement between the calculated and measured transition energies. The present results for transition probabilities, branching fraction, and lifetimes have been compared with previous calculations and experiments.

  16. Basophile: Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves Peptide Identification Rates

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Dong; Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Holman, Jerry D.; Chen, Kan; Liebler, Daniel; Orton, Daniel J.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Chung, Chang Y.; et al

    2013-03-07

    In shotgun proteomics, database search algorithms rely on fragmentation models to predict fragment ions that should be observed for a given peptide sequence. The most widely used strategy (Naive model) is oversimplified, cleaving all peptide bonds with equal probability to produce fragments of all charges below that of the precursor ion. More accurate models, based on fragmentation simulation, are too computationally intensive for on-the-fly use in database search algorithms. We have created an ordinal-regression-based model called Basophile that takes fragment size and basic residue distribution into account when determining the charge retention during CID/higher-energy collision induced dissociation (HCD) of chargedmore » peptides. This model improves the accuracy of predictions by reducing the number of unnecessary fragments that are routinely predicted for highly-charged precursors. Basophile increased the identification rates by 26% (on average) over the Naive model, when analyzing triply-charged precursors from ion trap data. Basophile achieves simplicity and speed by solving the prediction problem with an ordinal regression equation, which can be incorporated into any database search software for shotgun proteomic identification.« less

  17. Basophile: Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves Peptide Identification Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dong; Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Holman, Jerry D.; Chen, Kan; Liebler, Daniel; Orton, Daniel J.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Chung, Chang Y.; Rose, Kristie L.; Tabb, David L.

    2013-03-07

    In shotgun proteomics, database search algorithms rely on fragmentation models to predict fragment ions that should be observed for a given peptide sequence. The most widely used strategy (Naive model) is oversimplified, cleaving all peptide bonds with equal probability to produce fragments of all charges below that of the precursor ion. More accurate models, based on fragmentation simulation, are too computationally intensive for on-the-fly use in database search algorithms. We have created an ordinal-regression-based model called Basophile that takes fragment size and basic residue distribution into account when determining the charge retention during CID/higher-energy collision induced dissociation (HCD) of charged peptides. This model improves the accuracy of predictions by reducing the number of unnecessary fragments that are routinely predicted for highly-charged precursors. Basophile increased the identification rates by 26% (on average) over the Naive model, when analyzing triply-charged precursors from ion trap data. Basophile achieves simplicity and speed by solving the prediction problem with an ordinal regression equation, which can be incorporated into any database search software for shotgun proteomic identification.

  18. Selecting accurate statements from the cognitive interview using confidence ratings.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Wayne T; Higham, Philip A

    2002-03-01

    Participants viewed a videotape of a simulated murder, and their recall (and confidence) was tested 1 week later with the cognitive interview. Results indicated that (a) the subset of statements assigned high confidence was more accurate than the full set of statements; (b) the accuracy benefit was limited to information that forensic experts considered relevant to an investigation, whereas peripheral information showed the opposite pattern; (c) the confidence-accuracy relationship was higher for relevant than for peripheral information; (d) the focused-retrieval phase was associated with a greater proportion of peripheral and a lesser proportion of relevant information than the other phases; and (e) only about 50% of the relevant information was elicited, and most of this was elicited in Phase 1.

  19. Accurately simulating anisotropic thermal conduction on a moving mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Rahul; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Marinacci, Federico; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel implementation of an extremum preserving anisotropic diffusion solver for thermal conduction on the unstructured moving Voronoi mesh of the AREPO code. The method relies on splitting the one-sided facet fluxes into normal and oblique components, with the oblique fluxes being limited such that the total flux is both locally conservative and extremum preserving. The approach makes use of harmonic averaging points and a simple, robust interpolation scheme that works well for strong heterogeneous and anisotropic diffusion problems. Moreover, the required discretization stencil is small. Efficient fully implicit and semi-implicit time integration schemes are also implemented. We perform several numerical tests that evaluate the stability and accuracy of the scheme, including applications such as point explosions with heat conduction and calculations of convective instabilities in conducting plasmas. The new implementation is suitable for studying important astrophysical phenomena, such as the conductive heat transport in galaxy clusters, the evolution of supernova remnants, or the distribution of heat from black hole-driven jets into the intracluster medium.

  20. Developmental instrument supplies accurate attitude and attitude-rate data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Three orthogonal-plane projection provides accuracy of readout of both attitude and attitude-rate information in an easily interpreted, uncluttered arrangement where blind navigation of a moving body is involved. The longitudinal length of the projection is constant, and independent of the pitch and roll attitudes of the moving body.

  1. Consumers have limited assurance that octane ratings are accurate

    SciTech Connect

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1990-06-01

    When closing gasoline, consumers rely on the octane ratings posted at the pumps. However, consumers have little assurance that they are getting the octane that they are paying for. GAO found that octane mislabeling does exist, although the extent of the problem nationwide is unknown. While Congress passes the Petroleum Marketing Practices Act in 1978 to ensure the accuracy of gasoline octane ratings posted nationwide, no federal controls are not in place to monitor the accuracy of octane postings. This report discusses how there is doubt that newer gasoline-alcohol blended fuels are subject to octane posting requirements and concerns in the states that provisions of existing federal law may limit state enforcement efforts.

  2. Quantum instanton approximation for thermal rate constants of chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, William H.; Zhao, Yi; Ceotto, Michele; Yang, Sandy

    2003-07-01

    A quantum mechanical theory for chemical reaction rates is presented which is modeled after the [semiclassical (SC)] instanton approximation. It incorporates the desirable aspects of the instanton picture, which involves only properties of the (SC approximation to the) Boltzmann operator, but corrects its quantitative deficiencies by replacing the SC approximation for the Boltzmann operator by the quantum Boltzmann operator, exp(-βĤ). Since a calculation of the quantum Boltzmann operator is feasible for quite complex molecular systems (by Monte Carlo path integral methods), having an accurate rate theory that involves only the Boltzmann operator could be quite useful. The application of this quantum instanton approximation to several one- and two-dimensional model problems illustrates its potential; e.g., it is able to describe thermal rate constants accurately (˜10-20% error) from high to low temperatures deep in the tunneling regime, and applies equally well to asymmetric and symmetric potentials.

  3. Extracting accurate temperatures of molten basalts from non-contact thermal infrared radiance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanella, N. R.; Ramsey, M. S.; Lee, R.

    2013-12-01

    The eruptive and emplacement temperature of a lava flow relates important information on parameters such as the composition, rheology, and emplacement processes. It can also serve as a critical input into flow cooling and propagation models used for hazard prediction. One of the most common ways to determine temperatures of active lava flows is to use non-contact thermal infrared (TIR) measurements, either from ground-based radiometers and cameras or air and space-based remote sensing instruments. These temperature measurements assume a fixed value for the lava emissivity in order to solve the Planck Equation for temperature. The research presented here examines the possibility of variable emissivity in a material's molten state and the effect it has on deriving accurate surface temperature. Emplacement of a pahoehoe lava lobe at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii was captured with high spatial resolution/high frame rate TIR video in order to study this phenomenon. The data show the appearance of molten lava at a breakout point until it cools to form a glassy crust that begins to fold. Emissivity was adjusted sequentially along linear transects from a starting value of 1.0 to lower values until the TIR temperature matched the known temperature measured with a thermocouple. Below an emissivity of ~0.89, temperatures of the molten lava rose above the known lava temperature. This value suggests a decrease in emissivity with a change of state and is likely due to changes in the atomic bond structure of the melt. We have also recently completed the first ever calibrated laboratory-based emissivity measurements of molten basalts, and these high spectral resolution data confirm the field-based estimates. In contrast to rhyolites, basalts appear to display a less dramatic change between their glassy and molten spectra due to their higher melting and glass transition temperatures and the quick formation time of the crust. Therefore, the change in emissivity for molten rhyolite could

  4. Reading Assessment Methods for Middle-School Students: An Investigation of Reading Comprehension Rate and Maze Accurate Response Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Andrea D.; Henning, Jaime B.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Sheeley, Wesley; Shoemaker, Larissa; Reynolds, Jennifer R.; Moch, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the validity of four different aloud reading comprehension assessment measures: Maze, comprehension questions, Maze accurate response rate (MARR), and reading comprehension rate (RCR). The criterion measures used in this study were the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III ACH) Broad Reading…

  5. Accurate calculation of conductive conductances in complex geometries for spacecrafts thermal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmendia, Iñaki; Anglada, Eva; Vallejo, Haritz; Seco, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    The thermal subsystem of spacecrafts and payloads is always designed with the help of Thermal Mathematical Models. In the case of the Thermal Lumped Parameter (TLP) method, the non-linear system of equations that is created is solved to calculate the temperature distribution and the heat power that goes between nodes. The accuracy of the results depends largely on the appropriate calculation of the conductive and radiative conductances. Several established methods for the determination of conductive conductances exist but they present some limitations for complex geometries. Two new methods are proposed in this paper to calculate accurately these conductive conductances: The Extended Far Field method and the Mid-Section method. Both are based on a finite element calculation but while the Extended Far Field method uses the calculation of node mean temperatures, the Mid-Section method is based on assuming specific temperature values. They are compared with traditionally used methods showing the advantages of these two new methods.

  6. Accurate determination of the temperature dependent thermalization coefficient (Q) in InAs/AlAsSb quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaielpour, Hamidreza; Tang, Jinfeng; Whiteside, Vincent R.; Vijeyaragunathan, Sangeetha; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Sellers, Ian R.

    2015-03-01

    We present an investigation of hot carriers in InAs/AlAsSb quantum wells as a practical candidate for a hot carrier solar cell absorber. The thermalization coefficient (Q) of the sample is investigated using continuous wave photoluminescence (PL). The Q is accurately determined through transfer matrix calculations of the absorption, analysis of the power density, penetration depth, diffusion, and recombination rates using a combination of simulation and empirical methods. A precise measurement of laser spot size is important in order to determine the absorbed power density. Simulations were performed based on our PL geometry in order to calculate the excitation spot size, which was compared with experiment by measurements using variable diameter pinholes to determine beam radius. Here, these techniques are described, in addition to, the temperature dependent hot carrier dynamics and phonon mediated thermalization coefficient for the InAs/AlAsSb quantum well structure.

  7. Accurate modeling of high-repetition rate ultrashort pulse amplification in optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Robert; Zeil, Peter; Malmström, Mikael; Laurell, Fredrik; Pasiskevicius, Valdas

    2016-10-01

    A numerical model for amplification of ultrashort pulses with high repetition rates in fiber amplifiers is presented. The pulse propagation is modeled by jointly solving the steady-state rate equations and the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which allows accurate treatment of nonlinear and dispersive effects whilst considering arbitrary spatial and spectral gain dependencies. Comparison of data acquired by using the developed model and experimental results prove to be in good agreement.

  8. Accurate modeling of high-repetition rate ultrashort pulse amplification in optical fibers

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Robert; Zeil, Peter; Malmström, Mikael; Laurell, Fredrik; Pasiskevicius, Valdas

    2016-01-01

    A numerical model for amplification of ultrashort pulses with high repetition rates in fiber amplifiers is presented. The pulse propagation is modeled by jointly solving the steady-state rate equations and the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which allows accurate treatment of nonlinear and dispersive effects whilst considering arbitrary spatial and spectral gain dependencies. Comparison of data acquired by using the developed model and experimental results prove to be in good agreement. PMID:27713496

  9. Reconstructing accurate ToF-SIMS depth profiles for organic materials with differential sputter rates

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Adam J.; Graham, Daniel J.; Castner, David G.

    2015-01-01

    To properly process and reconstruct 3D ToF-SIMS data from systems such as multi-component polymers, drug delivery scaffolds, cells and tissues, it is important to understand the sputtering behavior of the sample. Modern cluster sources enable efficient and stable sputtering of many organics materials. However, not all materials sputter at the same rate and few studies have explored how different sputter rates may distort reconstructed depth profiles of multicomponent materials. In this study spun-cast bilayer polymer films of polystyrene and PMMA are used as model systems to optimize methods for the reconstruction of depth profiles in systems exhibiting different sputter rates between components. Transforming the bilayer depth profile from sputter time to depth using a single sputter rate fails to account for sputter rate variations during the profile. This leads to inaccurate apparent layer thicknesses and interfacial positions, as well as the appearance of continued sputtering into the substrate. Applying measured single component sputter rates to the bilayer films with a step change in sputter rate at the interfaces yields more accurate film thickness and interface positions. The transformation can be further improved by applying a linear sputter rate transition across the interface, thus modeling the sputter rate changes seen in polymer blends. This more closely reflects the expected sputtering behavior. This study highlights the need for both accurate evaluation of component sputter rates and the careful conversion of sputter time to depth, if accurate 3D reconstructions of complex multi-component organic and biological samples are to be achieved. The effects of errors in sputter rate determination are also explored. PMID:26185799

  10. Heat exchangers: Selection, rating, and thermal design

    SciTech Connect

    Kakac, S.; Liu, H.

    1998-01-01

    This book takes a systematic approach to the subject, focusing on the selection, design, rating, and operational challenges of various types of heat exchangers. Written by well-known authors in the field of heat transfer, this book covers all the most commonly used types of heat exchangers, including condensers and evaporators. The text begins with the classification of the different types of heat exchangers and discusses methods for their sizing and rating. Single phase forced convection correlations in ducts and pressure drop and pumping power analysis are also covered. A chapter is devoted to the special problem of fouling. Thermal design methods and processes, including designs for condensers and evaporators, complete this thorough introduction to the subject. The appendix provides information on the thermophysical properties of fluids, including the new refrigerants. Every topic features worked examples to illustrate the methods and procedures presented, and additional problems are included at the end of each chapter, with examples to be used as a student design project. An instructor's manual is available, including complete solutions to selected problems in the text. The contents include: classification of heat exchangers; basic design methods of heat exchangers; forced convection correlations for single-phase side of heat exchangers; heat exchanger pressure drop and pumping power; fouling of heat exchangers; double-pipe heat exchangers; design correlations for condensers and evaporators; shell-and-tube heat exchangers; compact heat exchangers; gasketed-plate heat exchangers; and condensers and evaporators.

  11. Universal parametrization of thermal photon rates in hadronic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffernan, Matthew; Hohler, Paul; Rapp, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) radiation off strongly interacting matter created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions (HICs) encodes information on the high-temperature phases of nuclear matter. Microscopic calculations of thermal EM emission rates are usually rather involved and not readily accessible to broad applications in models of the fireball evolution which are required to compare with experimental data. An accurate and universal parametrization of the microscopic calculations is thus key to honing the theory behind the EM spectra. Here we provide such a parametrization for photon emission rates from hadronic matter, including the contributions from in-medium ρ mesons (which incorporate effects from baryons and antibaryons), as well as bremsstrahlung from π π scattering. Individual parametrizations for each contribution are numerically determined through nested fitting functions for photon energies from 0.2 to 5 GeV in chemically equilibrated matter of temperatures 100-180 MeV and baryon chemical potentials 0-400 MeV. Special care is taken to extent the parametrizations to chemical off-equilibrium as encountered in HICs after chemical freeze-out. This provides a functional description of thermal photon rates within a 20% variation of the microscopically calculated values.

  12. Highly accurate moving object detection in variable bit rate video-based traffic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Bo-Hao

    2013-12-01

    Automated motion detection, which segments moving objects from video streams, is the key technology of intelligent transportation systems for traffic management. Traffic surveillance systems use video communication over real-world networks with limited bandwidth, which frequently suffers because of either network congestion or unstable bandwidth. Evidence supporting these problems abounds in publications about wireless video communication. Thus, to effectively perform the arduous task of motion detection over a network with unstable bandwidth, a process by which bit-rate is allocated to match the available network bandwidth is necessitated. This process is accomplished by the rate control scheme. This paper presents a new motion detection approach that is based on the cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC) through artificial neural networks to completely and accurately detect moving objects in both high and low bit-rate video streams. The proposed approach is consisted of a probabilistic background generation (PBG) module and a moving object detection (MOD) module. To ensure that the properties of variable bit-rate video streams are accommodated, the proposed PBG module effectively produces a probabilistic background model through an unsupervised learning process over variable bit-rate video streams. Next, the MOD module, which is based on the CMAC network, completely and accurately detects moving objects in both low and high bit-rate video streams by implementing two procedures: 1) a block selection procedure and 2) an object detection procedure. The detection results show that our proposed approach is capable of performing with higher efficacy when compared with the results produced by other state-of-the-art approaches in variable bit-rate video streams over real-world limited bandwidth networks. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations support this claim; for instance, the proposed approach achieves Similarity and F1 accuracy rates that are 76

  13. Highly accurate moving object detection in variable bit rate video-based traffic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Bo-Hao

    2013-12-01

    Automated motion detection, which segments moving objects from video streams, is the key technology of intelligent transportation systems for traffic management. Traffic surveillance systems use video communication over real-world networks with limited bandwidth, which frequently suffers because of either network congestion or unstable bandwidth. Evidence supporting these problems abounds in publications about wireless video communication. Thus, to effectively perform the arduous task of motion detection over a network with unstable bandwidth, a process by which bit-rate is allocated to match the available network bandwidth is necessitated. This process is accomplished by the rate control scheme. This paper presents a new motion detection approach that is based on the cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC) through artificial neural networks to completely and accurately detect moving objects in both high and low bit-rate video streams. The proposed approach is consisted of a probabilistic background generation (PBG) module and a moving object detection (MOD) module. To ensure that the properties of variable bit-rate video streams are accommodated, the proposed PBG module effectively produces a probabilistic background model through an unsupervised learning process over variable bit-rate video streams. Next, the MOD module, which is based on the CMAC network, completely and accurately detects moving objects in both low and high bit-rate video streams by implementing two procedures: 1) a block selection procedure and 2) an object detection procedure. The detection results show that our proposed approach is capable of performing with higher efficacy when compared with the results produced by other state-of-the-art approaches in variable bit-rate video streams over real-world limited bandwidth networks. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations support this claim; for instance, the proposed approach achieves Similarity and F1 accuracy rates that are 76

  14. Accurate label-free reaction kinetics determination using initial rate heat measurements.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Kourosh Honarmand; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Jacobs, Denise; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2015-01-01

    Accurate label-free methods or assays to obtain the initial reaction rates have significant importance in fundamental studies of enzymes and in application-oriented high throughput screening of enzyme activity. Here we introduce a label-free approach for obtaining initial rates of enzyme activity from heat measurements, which we name initial rate calorimetry (IrCal). This approach is based on our new finding that the data recorded by isothermal titration calorimetry for the early stages of a reaction, which have been widely ignored, are correlated to the initial rates. Application of the IrCal approach to various enzymes led to accurate enzyme kinetics parameters as compared to spectroscopic methods and enabled enzyme kinetic studies with natural substrate, e.g. proteases with protein substrates. Because heat is a label-free property of almost all reactions, the IrCal approach holds promise in fundamental studies of various enzymes and in use of calorimetry for high throughput screening of enzyme activity.

  15. Accurate label-free reaction kinetics determination using initial rate heat measurements

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Kourosh Honarmand; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Jacobs, Denise; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate label-free methods or assays to obtain the initial reaction rates have significant importance in fundamental studies of enzymes and in application-oriented high throughput screening of enzyme activity. Here we introduce a label-free approach for obtaining initial rates of enzyme activity from heat measurements, which we name initial rate calorimetry (IrCal). This approach is based on our new finding that the data recorded by isothermal titration calorimetry for the early stages of a reaction, which have been widely ignored, are correlated to the initial rates. Application of the IrCal approach to various enzymes led to accurate enzyme kinetics parameters as compared to spectroscopic methods and enabled enzyme kinetic studies with natural substrate, e.g. proteases with protein substrates. Because heat is a label-free property of almost all reactions, the IrCal approach holds promise in fundamental studies of various enzymes and in use of calorimetry for high throughput screening of enzyme activity. PMID:26574737

  16. A 5-trial adjusting delay discounting task: Accurate discount rates in less than 60 seconds

    PubMed Central

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who discount delayed rewards at a high rate are more likely to engage in substance abuse, overeating, or problem gambling. Findings such as these suggest the value of methods to obtain an accurate and fast measurement of discount rate that can be easily deployed in variety of settings. In the present study, we developed and evaluated the 5-trial adjusting delay task, a novel method of obtaining discount rate in less than one minute. We hypothesized that discount rates from the 5-trial adjusting delay task would be similar and correlated with discount rates from a lengthier task we have used previously, and that four known effects relating to delay discounting would be replicable with this novel task. To test these hypotheses, the 5-trial adjusting delay task was administered to 111 college students six times to obtain discount rates for six different commodities, along with a lengthier adjusting amount discounting task. We found that discount rates were similar and correlated between the 5-trial adjusting delay task and the adjusting amount task. Each of the four known effects relating to delay discounting was replicated with the 5-trial adjusting delay task to varying degrees. First, discount rates were inversely correlated with amount. Second, discount rates between past and future outcomes were correlated. Third, discount rates were greater for consumable rewards than with money, although we did not control for amount in this comparison. Fourth, discount rates were lower when zero amounts opposing the chosen time point were explicitly described. Results indicate that the 5-trial adjusting delay task is a viable, rapid method to assess discount rate. PMID:24708144

  17. Properties of Solar Thermal Fuels by Accurate Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saritas, Kayahan; Ataca, Can; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2014-03-01

    Efficient utilization of the sun as a renewable and clean energy source is one of the major goals of this century due to increasing energy demand and environmental impact. Solar thermal fuels are materials that capture and store the sun's energy in the form of chemical bonds, which can then be released as heat on demand and charged again. Previous work on solar thermal fuels faced challenges related to the cyclability of the fuel over time, as well as the need for higher energy densities. Recently, it was shown that by templating photoswitches onto carbon nanostructures, both high energy density as well as high stability can be achieved. In this work, we explore alternative molecules to azobenzene in such a nano-templated system. We employ the highly accurate quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method to predict the energy storage potential for each molecule. Our calculations show that in many cases the level of accuracy provided by density functional theory (DFT) is sufficient. However, in some cases, such as dihydroazulene, the drastic change in conjugation upon light absorption causes the DFT predictions to be inconsistent and incorrect. For this case, we compare our QMC results for the geometric structure, band gap and reaction enthalpy with different DFT functionals.

  18. Material interactions with the low earth orbital environment Accurate reaction rate measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, J. T.; Leger, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between spacecraft surfaces and atomic oxygen within the low earth orbital (LEO) environment have been observed and measured during Space Shuttle flights over the past 3 yr. The results of these experiments have demonstrated that interaction rates for many materials proposed for spacecraft applications are high and that protective coatings must be developed to enable long-lived operation of spacecraft structures in the LEO environment. A flight experiment discussed herein uses the Space Shuttle as an orbiting exposure laboratory to obtain accurate reaction rate measurements for materials typically used in spacecraft construction. An ion-neutral mass spectrometer, installed in the Orbiter cargo bay, will measure diurnal ambient oxygen densities while material samples are exposed at low altitude (222 km) to the orbital environment. From in situ atomic oxygen density information and postflight material recession measurements, accurate reaction rates can be derived to update the Space Station materials interaction data base. Additionally, gases evolved from a limited number of material surfaces subjected to direct oxygen impingement will be identified using the mass spectrometer. These measurements will aid in mechanistic definitions of chemical reactions which cause atom-surface interactions and in validating results of upcoming degradation studies conducted in ground-based neutral beam laboratories.

  19. Integrating metabolic performance, thermal tolerance, and plasticity enables for more accurate predictions on species vulnerability to acute and chronic effects of global warming.

    PubMed

    Magozzi, Sarah; Calosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Predicting species vulnerability to global warming requires a comprehensive, mechanistic understanding of sublethal and lethal thermal tolerances. To date, however, most studies investigating species physiological responses to increasing temperature have focused on the underlying physiological traits of either acute or chronic tolerance in isolation. Here we propose an integrative, synthetic approach including the investigation of multiple physiological traits (metabolic performance and thermal tolerance), and their plasticity, to provide more accurate and balanced predictions on species and assemblage vulnerability to both acute and chronic effects of global warming. We applied this approach to more accurately elucidate relative species vulnerability to warming within an assemblage of six caridean prawns occurring in the same geographic, hence macroclimatic, region, but living in different thermal habitats. Prawns were exposed to four incubation temperatures (10, 15, 20 and 25 °C) for 7 days, their metabolic rates and upper thermal limits were measured, and plasticity was calculated according to the concept of Reaction Norms, as well as Q10 for metabolism. Compared to species occupying narrower/more stable thermal niches, species inhabiting broader/more variable thermal environments (including the invasive Palaemon macrodactylus) are likely to be less vulnerable to extreme acute thermal events as a result of their higher upper thermal limits. Nevertheless, they may be at greater risk from chronic exposure to warming due to the greater metabolic costs they incur. Indeed, a trade-off between acute and chronic tolerance was apparent in the assemblage investigated. However, the invasive species P. macrodactylus represents an exception to this pattern, showing elevated thermal limits and plasticity of these limits, as well as a high metabolic control. In general, integrating multiple proxies for species physiological acute and chronic responses to increasing

  20. Monitoring of cache miss rates for accurate dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Leo C.; Poellabauer, Christian; Schwan, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    Modern mobile processors offer dynamic voltage and frequency scaling, which can be used to reduce the energy requirements of embedded and real-time applications by exploiting idle CPU resources, while still maintaining all applications' real-time characteristics. However, accurate predictions of task run-times are key to computing the frequencies and voltages that ensure that all tasks' real-time constraints are met. Past work has used feedback-based approaches, where applications' past CPU utilizations are used to predict future CPU requirements. Inaccurate predictions in these approaches can lead to missed deadlines, less than expected energy savings, or large overheads due to frequent voltage and frequency changes. Previous solutions ignore other `indicators' of future CPU requirements, such as the frequency of I/O operations, memory accesses, or interrupts. This paper addresses this shortcoming for memory-intensive applications, where measured task run-times and cache miss rates are used as feedback for accurate run-time predictions. Cache miss rates indicate the frequency of memory accesses and enable us to derive the latencies introduced by these operations. The results shown in this paper indicate improvements in the number of deadlines met and the amount of energy saved.

  1. Monitoring of cache miss rates for accurate dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Leo C.; Poellabauer, Christian; Schwan, Karsten

    2004-12-01

    Modern mobile processors offer dynamic voltage and frequency scaling, which can be used to reduce the energy requirements of embedded and real-time applications by exploiting idle CPU resources, while still maintaining all applications' real-time characteristics. However, accurate predictions of task run-times are key to computing the frequencies and voltages that ensure that all tasks' real-time constraints are met. Past work has used feedback-based approaches, where applications' past CPU utilizations are used to predict future CPU requirements. Inaccurate predictions in these approaches can lead to missed deadlines, less than expected energy savings, or large overheads due to frequent voltage and frequency changes. Previous solutions ignore other `indicators' of future CPU requirements, such as the frequency of I/O operations, memory accesses, or interrupts. This paper addresses this shortcoming for memory-intensive applications, where measured task run-times and cache miss rates are used as feedback for accurate run-time predictions. Cache miss rates indicate the frequency of memory accesses and enable us to derive the latencies introduced by these operations. The results shown in this paper indicate improvements in the number of deadlines met and the amount of energy saved.

  2. A Simple Dewar/Cryostat for Thermally Equilibrating Samples at Known Temperatures for Accurate Cryogenic Luminescence Measurements.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Phoebe G; Jagow, Devin M; Portune, Cameron M; Kenney, John W

    2016-01-01

    The design and operation of a simple liquid nitrogen Dewar/cryostat apparatus based upon a small fused silica optical Dewar, a thermocouple assembly, and a CCD spectrograph are described. The experiments for which this Dewar/cryostat is designed require fast sample loading, fast sample freezing, fast alignment of the sample, accurate and stable sample temperatures, and small size and portability of the Dewar/cryostat cryogenic unit. When coupled with the fast data acquisition rates of the CCD spectrograph, this Dewar/cryostat is capable of supporting cryogenic luminescence spectroscopic measurements on luminescent samples at a series of known, stable temperatures in the 77-300 K range. A temperature-dependent study of the oxygen quenching of luminescence in a rhodium(III) transition metal complex is presented as an example of the type of investigation possible with this Dewar/cryostat. In the context of this apparatus, a stable temperature for cryogenic spectroscopy means a luminescent sample that is thermally equilibrated with either liquid nitrogen or gaseous nitrogen at a known measureable temperature that does not vary (ΔT < 0.1 K) during the short time scale (~1-10 sec) of the spectroscopic measurement by the CCD. The Dewar/cryostat works by taking advantage of the positive thermal gradient dT/dh that develops above liquid nitrogen level in the Dewar where h is the height of the sample above the liquid nitrogen level. The slow evaporation of the liquid nitrogen results in a slow increase in h over several hours and a consequent slow increase in the sample temperature T over this time period. A quickly acquired luminescence spectrum effectively catches the sample at a constant, thermally equilibrated temperature. PMID:27501355

  3. Lattice constraints on the thermal photon rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiglieri, J.; Kaczmarek, O.; Laine, M.; Meyer, F.

    2016-07-01

    We estimate the photon production rate from an SU(3) plasma at temperatures of about 1.1 Tc and 1.3 Tc . Lattice results for the vector current correlator at spatial momenta k ˜(2 -6 )T are extrapolated to the continuum limit and analyzed with the help of a polynomial interpolation for the corresponding spectral function, which vanishes at zero frequency and matches to high-precision perturbative results at large invariant masses. For small invariant masses the interpolation is compared with the next-to-leading-order (NLO) weak-coupling result, hydrodynamics, and a holographic model. At vanishing invariant mass we extract the photon rate which for k ≳3 T is found to be close to the NLO weak-coupling prediction. For k ≲2 T uncertainties remain large but the photon rate is likely to fall below the NLO prediction, in accordance with the onset of a strongly interacting behavior characteristic of the hydrodynamic regime.

  4. Thermal Acclimation of Heart Rates in Reptilian Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wei-Guo; Ye, Hua; Zhao, Bo; Warner, Daniel A.; Shine, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In many reptiles, the thermal regimes experienced by eggs in natural nests vary as a function of ambient weather and location, and this variation has important impacts on patterns of embryonic development. Recent advances in non-invasive measurement of embryonic heart rates allow us to answer a long-standing puzzle in reptilian developmental biology: Do the metabolic and developmental rates of embryos acclimate to local incubation regimes, as occurs for metabolic acclimation by post-hatching reptiles? Based on a strong correlation between embryonic heart rate and oxygen consumption, we used heart rates as a measure of metabolic rate. We demonstrate acclimation of heart rates relative to temperature in embryos of one turtle, one snake and one lizard species that oviposit in relatively deep nests, but found no acclimation in another lizard species that uses shallow (and hence, highly thermally variable) nests. Embryonic thermal acclimation thus is widespread, but not ubiquitous, within reptiles. PMID:21179473

  5. Rates of fluvio-thermal erosion on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguirre-Puente, J.; Costard, Francois M.; Posado-Cano, R.

    1993-01-01

    In order to get some ideas about the order of magnitude of fluvio-thermal recession rate, a mathematical thermal model for Martian outflow channels is proposed. This model corresponds to a system undergoing a permanent thermal regime where the surface temperature is constant and equal to the phase change temperature (due to the immediate removal of melted materials). This is an ablation model. For its application, estimations of the heat transfer coefficient h and thermal flux q are necessary. Determination of these coefficients needs the calculation of dimensionless numbers (Reynolds, Prandtl, and Nusselt), and the consideration of turbulent regime of the flow.

  6. Accurate Visual Heading Estimation at High Rotation Rate Without Oculomotor or Static-Depth Cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S.; Perrone, John A.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    It has been claimed that either oculomotor or static depth cues provide the signals about self-rotation necessary approx.-1 deg/s. We tested this hypothesis by simulating self-motion along a curved path with the eyes fixed in the head (plus or minus 16 deg/s of rotation). Curvilinear motion offers two advantages: 1) heading remains constant in retinotopic coordinates, and 2) there is no visual-oculomotor conflict (both actual and simulated eye position remain stationary). We simulated 400 ms of rotation combined with 16 m/s of translation at fixed angles with respect to gaze towards two vertical planes of random dots initially 12 and 24 m away, with a field of view of 45 degrees. Four subjects were asked to fixate a central cross and to respond whether they were translating to the left or right of straight-ahead gaze. From the psychometric curves, heading bias (mean) and precision (semi-interquartile) were derived. The mean bias over 2-5 runs was 3.0, 4.0, -2.0, -0.4 deg for the first author and three naive subjects, respectively (positive indicating towards the rotation direction). The mean precision was 2.0, 1.9, 3.1, 1.6 deg. respectively. The ability of observers to make relatively accurate and precise heading judgments, despite the large rotational flow component, refutes the view that extra-flow-field information is necessary for human visual heading estimation at high rotation rates. Our results support models that process combined translational/rotational flow to estimate heading, but should not be construed to suggest that other cues do not play an important role when they are available to the observer.

  7. Three dimensional printing as an effective method of producing anatomically accurate models for studies in thermal ecology.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charles M; Francis, Gamal R

    2015-07-01

    Hollow copper models painted to match the reflectance of the animal subject are standard in thermal ecology research. While the copper electroplating process results in accurate models, it is relatively time consuming, uses caustic chemicals, and the models are often anatomically imprecise. Although the decreasing cost of 3D printing can potentially allow the reproduction of highly accurate models, the thermal performance of 3D printed models has not been evaluated. We compared the cost, accuracy, and performance of both copper and 3D printed lizard models and found that the performance of the models were statistically identical in both open and closed habitats. We also find that 3D models are more standard, lighter, durable, and inexpensive, than the copper electroformed models. PMID:25965016

  8. The Utility of Maze Accurate Response Rate in Assessing Reading Comprehension in Upper Elementary and Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCane-Bowling, Sara J.; Strait, Andrea D.; Guess, Pamela E.; Wiedo, Jennifer R.; Muncie, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the predictive utility of five formative reading measures: words correct per minute, number of comprehension questions correct, reading comprehension rate, number of maze correct responses, and maze accurate response rate (MARR). Broad Reading cluster scores obtained via the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Achievement…

  9. Towards more accurate molecular dynamics calculation of thermal conductivity: Case study of GaN bulk crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X. W.; Aubry, S.; Jones, R. E.; Greenstein, A.; Schelling, P. K.

    2009-03-01

    Significant differences exist among literature for thermal conductivity of various systems computed using molecular dynamics simulation. In some cases, unphysical results, for example, negative thermal conductivity, have been found. Using GaN as an example case and the direct nonequilibrium method, extensive molecular dynamics simulations and Monte Carlo analysis of the results have been carried out to quantify the uncertainty level of the molecular dynamics methods and to identify the conditions that can yield sufficiently accurate calculations of thermal conductivity. We found that the errors of the calculations are mainly due to the statistical thermal fluctuations. Extrapolating results to the limit of an infinite-size system tend to magnify the errors and occasionally lead to unphysical results. The error in bulk estimates can be reduced by performing longer time averages using properly selected systems over a range of sample lengths. If the errors in the conductivity estimates associated with each of the sample lengths are kept below a certain threshold, the likelihood of obtaining unphysical bulk values becomes insignificant. Using a Monte Carlo approach developed here, we have determined the probability distributions for the bulk thermal conductivities obtained using the direct method. We also have observed a nonlinear effect that can become a source of significant errors. For the extremely accurate results presented here, we predict a [0001] GaN thermal conductivity of 185W/Km at 300 K, 102W/Km at 500 K, and 74W/Km at 800 K. Using the insights obtained in the work, we have achieved a corresponding error level (standard deviation) for the bulk (infinite sample length) GaN thermal conductivity of less than 10W/Km , 5W/Km , and 15W/Km at 300 K, 500 K, and 800 K, respectively.

  10. Thermal /Soret/ diffusion effects on interfacial mass transport rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that thermal (Soret) diffusion significantly alters convective mass transport rates and important transition temperatures in highly nonisothermal flow systems involving the transport of 'heavy' species (vapors or particles). Introduction of the Soret transport term is shown to result in mass transfer effects similar to those of 'suction' and a homogeneous chemical 'sink'. It is pointed out that this analogy provides a simple method of correlating and predicting thermal diffusion effects in the abovementioned systems.

  11. High heating rate thermal desorption for molecular surface sampling

    DOEpatents

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-03-29

    A method for analyzing a sample having at least one analyte includes the step of heating the sample at a rate of at least 10.sup.6 K/s to thermally desorb at least one analyte from the sample. The desorbed analyte is collected. The analyte can then be analyzed.

  12. Carbon monoxide oxidation rates computed for automobile thermal reactor conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokaw, R. S.; Bittker, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation rates in thermal reactors for exhaust manifolds are computed by integrating differential equations for system of twenty-nine reversible chemical reactions. Reactors are noncatalytic replacements for conventional exhaust manifolds and are a system for reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in automobile exhausts.

  13. Can Raters with Reduced Job Descriptive Information Provide Accurate Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Ratings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Lee; Harvey, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Job-naive raters provided with job descriptive information made Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) ratings which were validated against ratings of job analysts who were also job content experts. None of the reduced job descriptive information conditions enabled job-naive raters to obtain either acceptable levels of convergent validity with…

  14. High- and low-pressure pneumotachometers measure respiration rates accurately in adverse environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fagot, R. J.; Mc Donald, R. T.; Roman, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    Respiration-rate transducers in the form of pneumotachometers measure respiration rates of pilots operating high performance research aircraft. In each low pressure or high pressure oxygen system a sensor is placed in series with the pilots oxygen supply line to detect gas flow accompanying respiration.

  15. A rapid and accurate method for calculation of stratospheric photolysis rates with molecular scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boughner, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    A method for calculating the photodissociation rates needed for photochemical modeling of the stratosphere, which includes the effects of molecular scattering, is described. The procedure is based on Sokolov's method of averaging functional correction. The radiation model and approximations used to calculate the radiation field are examined. The approximated diffuse fields and photolysis rates are compared with exact data. It is observed that the approximate solutions differ from the exact result by 10 percent or less at altitudes above 15 km; the photolysis rates differ from the exact rates by less than 5 percent for altitudes above 10 km and all zenith angles, and by less than 1 percent for altitudes above 15 km.

  16. Accurate reading comprehension rate as an indicator of broad reading in students in first, second, and third grades.

    PubMed

    Ciancio, Dennis; Thompson, Kelly; Schall, Megan; Skinner, Christopher; Foorman, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between reading comprehension rate measures and broad reading skill development was examined using data from approximately 1425 students (grades 1-3). Students read 3 passages, from a pool of 30, and answered open-ended comprehension questions. Accurate reading comprehension rate (ARCR) was calculated by dividing the percentage of questions answered correctly (%QC) by seconds required to read the passage. Across all 30 passages, ARCR and its two components, %QC correct and time spent reading (1/seconds spent reading the passage), were significantly correlated with broad reading scores, with %QC resulting in the lowest correlations. Two sequential regressions supported previous findings which suggest that ARCR measures consistently produced meaningful incremental increases beyond %QC in the amount of variance explained in broad reading skill; however, ARCR produced small or no incremental increases beyond reading time. Discussion focuses on the importance of the measure of reading time embedded in brief accurate reading rate measures and directions for future research.

  17. Separating arterial and venous-related components of photoplethysmographic signals for accurate extraction of oxygen saturation and respiratory rate.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Rasoul; Nourani, Mehrdad

    2015-05-01

    We propose an algorithm for separating arterial and venous-related signals using second-order statistics of red and infrared signals in a blind source separation technique. The separated arterial signal is used to compute accurate arterial oxygen saturation. We have also introduced an algorithm for extracting the respiratory pattern from the extracted venous-related signal. In addition to real-time monitoring, respiratory rate is also extracted. Our experimental results from multiple subjects show that the proposed separation technique is extremely useful for extracting accurate arterial oxygen saturation and respiratory rate. Specifically, the breathing rate is extracted with average root mean square deviation of 1.89 and average mean difference of -0.69. PMID:25055387

  18. Electric rate structures for thermal energy storage evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D R; Garrett, S M; Sedgewick, J M

    1991-05-01

    Future electric rate structures are critical to thermal energy storage (TES) technologies that are specifically designed to take advantage of electric energy costs that vary depending on the magnitude, duration, and timing of power demand (e.g., cool storage). In fact, rate structure characteristics may affect the TES system design and operating approach as well as economic feasibility. The objective of this study, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, was to define reference electric utility rate structures to be used in technical assessments of TES technologies. Electric rate structures were characterized for residential, commercial and industrial sectors. A range of conditions for several alternative rate structures was identified for each sector to capture the variability of likely conditions. Individual rate structure characteristics include demand charges and energy charges applicable during different months of the year, days of the week, and hours of the day. 7 refs., 21 tabs.

  19. Evaluation of Instrumentation and Dynamic Thermal Ratings for Overhead Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, A.

    2013-01-31

    In 2010, a project was initiated through a partnership between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the New York Power Authority (NYPA) to evaluate EPRI's rating technology and instrumentation that can be used to monitor the thermal states of transmission lines and provide the required real-time data for real-time rating calculations. The project included the installation and maintenance of various instruments at three 230 kV line sites in northern New York. The instruments were monitored, and data collection and rating calculations were performed for about a three year period.

  20. Theory of bi-molecular association dynamics in 2D for accurate model and experimental parameterization of binding rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogurtcu, Osman N.; Johnson, Margaret E.

    2015-08-01

    The dynamics of association between diffusing and reacting molecular species are routinely quantified using simple rate-equation kinetics that assume both well-mixed concentrations of species and a single rate constant for parameterizing the binding rate. In two-dimensions (2D), however, even when systems are well-mixed, the assumption of a single characteristic rate constant for describing association is not generally accurate, due to the properties of diffusional searching in dimensions d ≤ 2. Establishing rigorous bounds for discriminating between 2D reactive systems that will be accurately described by rate equations with a single rate constant, and those that will not, is critical for both modeling and experimentally parameterizing binding reactions restricted to surfaces such as cellular membranes. We show here that in regimes of intrinsic reaction rate (ka) and diffusion (D) parameters ka/D > 0.05, a single rate constant cannot be fit to the dynamics of concentrations of associating species independently of the initial conditions. Instead, a more sophisticated multi-parametric description than rate-equations is necessary to robustly characterize bimolecular reactions from experiment. Our quantitative bounds derive from our new analysis of 2D rate-behavior predicted from Smoluchowski theory. Using a recently developed single particle reaction-diffusion algorithm we extend here to 2D, we are able to test and validate the predictions of Smoluchowski theory and several other theories of reversible reaction dynamics in 2D for the first time. Finally, our results also mean that simulations of reactive systems in 2D using rate equations must be undertaken with caution when reactions have ka/D > 0.05, regardless of the simulation volume. We introduce here a simple formula for an adaptive concentration dependent rate constant for these chemical kinetics simulations which improves on existing formulas to better capture non-equilibrium reaction dynamics from dilute

  1. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy With Modified Injection Technique: High Visualization Rate and Accurate Staging.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Cong, Bin-Bin; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Yang, Guo-Ren; Liu, Yan-Bing; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns because of the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes (IMSLN) with the traditional radiotracer injection technique. In this study, various injection techniques were evaluated in term of the IMSLN visualization rate, and the impact of IM-SLNB on the diagnostic and prognostic value were analyzed.Clinically, axillary lymph nodes (ALN) negative patients (n = 407) were divided into group A (traditional peritumoral intraparenchymal injection) and group B (modified periareolar intraparenchymal injection). Group B was then separated into group B1 (low volume) and group B2 (high volume) according to the injection volume. Clinically, ALN-positive patients (n = 63) were managed as group B2. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed for patients with IMSLN visualized.The IMSLN visualization rate was significantly higher in group B than that in group A (71.1% versus 15.5%, P < 0.001), whereas the axillary sentinel lymph nodes were reliably identified in both groups (98.9% versus 98.3%, P = 0.712). With high injection volume, group B2 was found to have higher IMSLN visualization rate than group B1 (75.1% versus 45.8%, P < 0.001). The IMSLN metastasis rate was only 8.1% (12/149) in clinically ALN-negative patients with successful IM-SLNB, and adjuvant treatment was altered in a small proportion. The IMSLN visualization rate was 69.8% (44/63) in clinically ALN-positive patients with the IMSLN metastasis rate up to 20.5% (9/44), and individual radiotherapy strategy could be guided with the IM-SLNB results.The modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasound guidance) significantly improved the IMSLN visualization rate, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. Internal mammary

  2. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy With Modified Injection Technique: High Visualization Rate and Accurate Staging.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Cong, Bin-Bin; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Yang, Guo-Ren; Liu, Yan-Bing; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns because of the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes (IMSLN) with the traditional radiotracer injection technique. In this study, various injection techniques were evaluated in term of the IMSLN visualization rate, and the impact of IM-SLNB on the diagnostic and prognostic value were analyzed.Clinically, axillary lymph nodes (ALN) negative patients (n = 407) were divided into group A (traditional peritumoral intraparenchymal injection) and group B (modified periareolar intraparenchymal injection). Group B was then separated into group B1 (low volume) and group B2 (high volume) according to the injection volume. Clinically, ALN-positive patients (n = 63) were managed as group B2. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed for patients with IMSLN visualized.The IMSLN visualization rate was significantly higher in group B than that in group A (71.1% versus 15.5%, P < 0.001), whereas the axillary sentinel lymph nodes were reliably identified in both groups (98.9% versus 98.3%, P = 0.712). With high injection volume, group B2 was found to have higher IMSLN visualization rate than group B1 (75.1% versus 45.8%, P < 0.001). The IMSLN metastasis rate was only 8.1% (12/149) in clinically ALN-negative patients with successful IM-SLNB, and adjuvant treatment was altered in a small proportion. The IMSLN visualization rate was 69.8% (44/63) in clinically ALN-positive patients with the IMSLN metastasis rate up to 20.5% (9/44), and individual radiotherapy strategy could be guided with the IM-SLNB results.The modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasound guidance) significantly improved the IMSLN visualization rate, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. Internal mammary

  3. An accurate retrieval of leaf water content from mid to thermal infrared spectra using continuous wavelet analysis.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Saleem; Skidmore, Andrew K; Naeem, Mohammad; Schlerf, Martin

    2012-10-15

    Leaf water content determines plant health, vitality, photosynthetic efficiency and is an important indicator of drought assessment. The retrieval of leaf water content from the visible to shortwave infrared spectra is well known. Here for the first time, we estimated leaf water content from the mid to thermal infrared (2.5-14.0 μm) spectra, based on continuous wavelet analysis. The dataset comprised 394 spectra from nine plant species, with different water contents achieved through progressive drying. To identify the spectral feature most sensitive to the variations in leaf water content, first the Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR) spectra were transformed into a wavelet power scalogram, and then linear relations were established between the wavelet power scalogram and leaf water content. The six individual wavelet features identified in the mid infrared yielded high correlations with leaf water content (R(2)=0.86 maximum, 0.83 minimum), as well as low RMSE (minimum 8.56%, maximum 9.27%). The combination of four wavelet features produced the most accurate model (R(2)=0.88, RMSE=8.00%). The models were consistent in terms of accuracy estimation for both calibration and validation datasets, indicating that leaf water content can be accurately retrieved from the mid to thermal infrared domain of the electromagnetic radiation.

  4. Thermal Conductivities in Solids from First Principles: Accurate Computations and Rapid Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbogno, Christian; Scheffler, Matthias

    In spite of significant research efforts, a first-principles determination of the thermal conductivity κ at high temperatures has remained elusive. Boltzmann transport techniques that account for anharmonicity perturbatively become inaccurate under such conditions. Ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) techniques using the Green-Kubo (GK) formalism capture the full anharmonicity, but can become prohibitively costly to converge in time and size. We developed a formalism that accelerates such GK simulations by several orders of magnitude and that thus enables its application within the limited time and length scales accessible in ab initio MD. For this purpose, we determine the effective harmonic potential occurring during the MD, the associated temperature-dependent phonon properties and lifetimes. Interpolation in reciprocal and frequency space then allows to extrapolate to the macroscopic scale. For both force-field and ab initio MD, we validate this approach by computing κ for Si and ZrO2, two materials known for their particularly harmonic and anharmonic character. Eventually, we demonstrate how these techniques facilitate reasonable estimates of κ from existing MD calculations at virtually no additional computational cost.

  5. Thermal Imaging of Earth for Accurate Pointing of Deep-Space Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Gerardo; Lee, Shinhak

    2005-01-01

    A report discusses a proposal to use thermal (long-wavelength infrared) images of the Earth, as seen from spacecraft at interplanetary distances, for pointing antennas and telescopes toward the Earth for Ka-band and optical communications. The purpose is to overcome two limitations of using visible images: (1) at large Earth phase angles, the light from the Earth is too faint; and (2) performance is degraded by large albedo variations associated with weather changes. In particular, it is proposed to use images in the wavelength band of 8 to 13 m, wherein the appearance of the Earth is substantially independent of the Earth phase angle and emissivity variations are small. The report addresses tracking requirements for optical and Ka-band communications, selection of the wavelength band, available signal level versus phase angle, background noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Tracking errors are estimated for several conceptual systems employing currently available infrared image sensors. It is found that at Mars range, it should be possible to locate the centroid of the Earth image within a noise equivalent angle (a random angular error) between 10 and 150 nanoradians at a bias error of no more than 80 nanoradians

  6. The use of permeation tube device and the development of empirical formula for accurate permeation rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the accuracy of permeation tube (PT) devices using a calibration gas generator system to measure permeation rate (PR) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Calibration gas standards of benzene, toluene, and m-xylene (BTX) were produced from...

  7. Thermal fission rates with temperature dependent fission barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yi; Pei, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    Background: The fission processes of thermal excited nuclei are conventionally studied by statistical models which rely on inputs of phenomenological level densities and potential barriers. Therefore the microscopic descriptions of spontaneous fission and induced fission are very desirable for a unified understanding of various fission processes. Purpose: We propose to study the fission rates, at both low and high temperatures, with microscopically calculated temperature-dependent fission barriers and collective mass parameters. Methods: The fission barriers are calculated by the finite-temperature Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+BCS method. The mass parameters are calculated by the temperature-dependent cranking approximation. The thermal fission rates can be obtained by the imaginary free energy approach at all temperatures, in which fission barriers are naturally temperature dependent. The fission at low temperatures can be described mainly as a barrier-tunneling process. While the fission at high temperatures has to incorporate the reflection above barriers. Results: Our results of spontaneous fission rates reasonably agree with other studies and experiments. The temperature dependencies of fission barrier heights and curvatures have been discussed. The temperature dependent behaviors of mass parameters have also been discussed. The thermal fission rates from low to high temperatures with a smooth connection have been given by different approaches. Conclusions: Since the temperature dependencies of fission barrier heights and curvatures, and the mass parameters can vary rapidly for different nuclei, the microscopic descriptions of thermal fission rates are very valuable. Our studies without free parameters provide a consistent picture to study various fissions such as that in fast-neutron reactors, astrophysical environments, and fusion reactions for superheavy nuclei.

  8. Accurate measurements of cross-plane thermal conductivity of thin films by dual-frequency time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Puqing; Huang, Bin; Koh, Yee Kan

    2016-07-01

    Accurate measurements of the cross-plane thermal conductivity Λcross of a high-thermal-conductivity thin film on a low-thermal-conductivity (Λs) substrate (e.g., Λcross/Λs > 20) are challenging, due to the low thermal resistance of the thin film compared with that of the substrate. In principle, Λcross could be measured by time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), using a high modulation frequency fh and a large laser spot size. However, with one TDTR measurement at fh, the uncertainty of the TDTR measurement is usually high due to low sensitivity of TDTR signals to Λcross and high sensitivity to the thickness hAl of Al transducer deposited on the sample for TDTR measurements. We observe that in most TDTR measurements, the sensitivity to hAl only depends weakly on the modulation frequency f. Thus, we performed an additional TDTR measurement at a low modulation frequency f0, such that the sensitivity to hAl is comparable but the sensitivity to Λcross is near zero. We then analyze the ratio of the TDTR signals at fh to that at f0, and thus significantly improve the accuracy of our Λcross measurements. As a demonstration of the dual-frequency approach, we measured the cross-plane thermal conductivity of a 400-nm-thick nickel-iron alloy film and a 3-μm-thick Cu film, both with an accuracy of ∼10%. The dual-frequency TDTR approach is useful for future studies of thin films. PMID:27475589

  9. Accurate measurements of cross-plane thermal conductivity of thin films by dual-frequency time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Puqing; Huang, Bin; Koh, Yee Kan

    2016-07-01

    Accurate measurements of the cross-plane thermal conductivity Λcross of a high-thermal-conductivity thin film on a low-thermal-conductivity (Λs) substrate (e.g., Λcross/Λs > 20) are challenging, due to the low thermal resistance of the thin film compared with that of the substrate. In principle, Λcross could be measured by time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), using a high modulation frequency fh and a large laser spot size. However, with one TDTR measurement at fh, the uncertainty of the TDTR measurement is usually high due to low sensitivity of TDTR signals to Λcross and high sensitivity to the thickness hAl of Al transducer deposited on the sample for TDTR measurements. We observe that in most TDTR measurements, the sensitivity to hAl only depends weakly on the modulation frequency f. Thus, we performed an additional TDTR measurement at a low modulation frequency f0, such that the sensitivity to hAl is comparable but the sensitivity to Λcross is near zero. We then analyze the ratio of the TDTR signals at fh to that at f0, and thus significantly improve the accuracy of our Λcross measurements. As a demonstration of the dual-frequency approach, we measured the cross-plane thermal conductivity of a 400-nm-thick nickel-iron alloy film and a 3-μm-thick Cu film, both with an accuracy of ∼10%. The dual-frequency TDTR approach is useful for future studies of thin films.

  10. Accurate measurements of cross-plane thermal conductivity of thin films by dual-frequency time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Puqing; Huang, Bin; Koh, Yee Kan

    2016-07-01

    Accurate measurements of the cross-plane thermal conductivity Λcross of a high-thermal-conductivity thin film on a low-thermal-conductivity (Λs) substrate (e.g., Λcross/Λs > 20) are challenging, due to the low thermal resistance of the thin film compared with that of the substrate. In principle, Λcross could be measured by time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), using a high modulation frequency fh and a large laser spot size. However, with one TDTR measurement at fh, the uncertainty of the TDTR measurement is usually high due to low sensitivity of TDTR signals to Λcross and high sensitivity to the thickness hAl of Al transducer deposited on the sample for TDTR measurements. We observe that in most TDTR measurements, the sensitivity to hAl only depends weakly on the modulation frequency f. Thus, we performed an additional TDTR measurement at a low modulation frequency f0, such that the sensitivity to hAl is comparable but the sensitivity to Λcross is near zero. We then analyze the ratio of the TDTR signals at fh to that at f0, and thus significantly improve the accuracy of our Λcross measurements. As a demonstration of the dual-frequency approach, we measured the cross-plane thermal conductivity of a 400-nm-thick nickel-iron alloy film and a 3-μm-thick Cu film, both with an accuracy of ˜10%. The dual-frequency TDTR approach is useful for future studies of thin films.

  11. Accurate analytical modelling of cosmic ray induced failure rates of power semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Friedhelm D.

    2009-06-01

    A new, simple and efficient approach is presented to conduct estimations of the cosmic ray induced failure rate for high voltage silicon power devices early in the design phase. This allows combining common design issues such as device losses and safe operating area with the constraints imposed by the reliability to result in a better and overall more efficient design methodology. Starting from an experimental and theoretical background brought forth a few yeas ago [Kabza H et al. Cosmic radiation as a cause for power device failure and possible countermeasures. In: Proceedings of the sixth international symposium on power semiconductor devices and IC's, Davos, Switzerland; 1994. p. 9-12, Zeller HR. Cosmic ray induced breakdown in high voltage semiconductor devices, microscopic model and possible countermeasures. In: Proceedings of the sixth international symposium on power semiconductor devices and IC's, Davos, Switzerland; 1994. p. 339-40, and Matsuda H et al. Analysis of GTO failure mode during d.c. blocking. In: Proceedings of the sixth international symposium on power semiconductor devices and IC's, Davos, Switzerland; 1994. p. 221-5], an exact solution of the failure rate integral is derived and presented in a form which lends itself to be combined with the results available from commercial semiconductor simulation tools. Hence, failure rate integrals can be obtained with relative ease for realistic two- and even three-dimensional semiconductor geometries. Two case studies relating to IGBT cell design and planar junction termination layout demonstrate the purpose of the method.

  12. Growth and development rates have different thermal responses.

    PubMed

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Woodward, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Growth and development rates are fundamental to all living organisms. In a warming world, it is important to determine how these rates will respond to increasing temperatures. It is often assumed that the thermal responses of physiological rates are coupled to metabolic rate and thus have the same temperature dependence. However, the existence of the temperature-size rule suggests that intraspecific growth and development are decoupled. Decoupling of these rates would have important consequences for individual species and ecosystems, yet this has not been tested systematically across a range of species. We conducted an analysis on growth and development rate data compiled from the literature for a well-studied group, marine pelagic copepods, and use an information-theoretic approach to test which equations best describe these rates. Growth and development rates were best characterized by models with significantly different parameters: development has stronger temperature dependence than does growth across all life stages. As such, it is incorrect to assume that these rates have the same temperature dependence. We used the best-fit models for these rates to predict changes in organism mass in response to temperature. These predictions follow a concave relationship, which complicates attempts to model the impacts of increasing global temperatures on species body size.

  13. Beyond Thermal Performance Curves: Modeling Time-Dependent Effects of Thermal Stress on Ectotherm Growth Rates.

    PubMed

    Kingsolver, Joel G; Woods, H Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Thermal performance curves have been widely used to model the ecological responses of ectotherms to variable thermal environments and climate change. Such models ignore the effects of time dependence-the temporal pattern and duration of temperature exposure-on performance. We developed and solved a simple mathematical model for growth rate of ectotherms, combining thermal performance curves for ingestion rate with the temporal dynamics of gene expression and protein production in response to high temperatures to predict temporal patterns of growth rate in constant and diurnally fluctuating temperatures. We used the model to explore the effects of heat shock proteins on larval growth rates of Manduca sexta. The model correctly captures two empirical patterns for larval growth rate: first, maximal growth rate and optimal temperature decline with increasing duration of temperature exposure; second, mean growth rates decline with time in diurnally fluctuating temperatures at higher mean temperatures. These qualitative results apply broadly to cases where proteins or other molecules produced in response to high temperatures reduce growth rates. We discuss some of the critical assumptions and predictions of the model and suggest potential extensions and alternatives. Incorporating time-dependent effects will be essential for making more realistic predictions about the physiological and ecological consequences of temperature fluctuations and climate change. PMID:26913942

  14. Benchmark calculations of thermal reaction rates. I - Quantal scattering theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, David C.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.

    1991-01-01

    The thermal rate coefficient for the prototype reaction H + H2 yields H2 + H with zero total angular momentum is calculated by summing, averaging, and numerically integrating state-to-state reaction probabilities calculated by time-independent quantum-mechanical scattering theory. The results are very carefully converged with respect to all numerical parameters in order to provide high-precision benchmark results for confirming the accuracy of new methods and testing their efficiency.

  15. A flux monitoring method for easy and accurate flow rate measurement in pressure-driven flows.

    PubMed

    Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Ybert, Christophe; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2012-03-01

    We propose a low-cost and versatile method to measure flow rate in microfluidic channels under pressure-driven flows, thereby providing a simple characterization of the hydrodynamic permeability of the system. The technique is inspired by the current monitoring method usually employed to characterize electro-osmotic flows, and makes use of the measurement of the time-dependent electric resistance inside the channel associated with a moving salt front. We have successfully tested the method in a micrometer-size channel, as well as in a complex microfluidic channel with a varying cross-section, demonstrating its ability in detecting internal shape variations.

  16. Control Circuitry Using Electronic Emulation of a Synchro Signal for Accurate Control of Position and Rate of Rotation for Shafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention herein disclosed is a digital circuit which emulates a synchro signal in a synchro-resolver follower system for precise control of shaft position and rotation at very low rotational rates. The subject invention replaces the synchro and drive motor in a synchroresolver follower system with a digital and analog synchro emulation circuit for generating the resolver control signal. The synchro emulation circuit includes amplitude modulation means to provide relatively high frequency resolver excitation signals for accurate resolver response even with very low shaft rotation rates.

  17. Control circuitry using electronic emulation of a synchro signal for accurate control of position and rate of rotation for shafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention disclosed is a digital circuit which emulates a synchro signal in a synchro-resolver follower system for precise control of shaft position and rotation at very low rotational rates. The invention replaces the synchro and drive motor in a synchro-resolver follower system with a digital and analog synchro emulation circuit for generating the resolver control signal. The synchro emulation circuit includes amplitude modulation means to provide relatively high frequency resolver excitation signals for accurate resolver response even with very low shaft rotation rates.

  18. Tuning-free controller to accurately regulate flow rates in a microfluidic network.

    PubMed

    Heo, Young Jin; Kang, Junsu; Kim, Min Jun; Chung, Wan Kyun

    2016-01-01

    We describe a control algorithm that can improve accuracy and stability of flow regulation in a microfluidic network that uses a conventional pressure pump system. The algorithm enables simultaneous and independent control of fluid flows in multiple micro-channels of a microfluidic network, but does not require any model parameters or tuning process. We investigate robustness and optimality of the proposed control algorithm and those are verified by simulations and experiments. In addition, the control algorithm is compared with a conventional PID controller to show that the proposed control algorithm resolves critical problems induced by the PID control. The capability of the control algorithm can be used not only in high-precision flow regulation in the presence of disturbance, but in some useful functions for lab-on-a-chip devices such as regulation of volumetric flow rate, interface position control of two laminar flows, valveless flow switching, droplet generation and particle manipulation. We demonstrate those functions and also suggest further potential biological applications which can be accomplished by the proposed control framework. PMID:26987587

  19. Tuning-free controller to accurately regulate flow rates in a microfluidic network

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Young Jin; Kang, Junsu; Kim, Min Jun; Chung, Wan Kyun

    2016-01-01

    We describe a control algorithm that can improve accuracy and stability of flow regulation in a microfluidic network that uses a conventional pressure pump system. The algorithm enables simultaneous and independent control of fluid flows in multiple micro-channels of a microfluidic network, but does not require any model parameters or tuning process. We investigate robustness and optimality of the proposed control algorithm and those are verified by simulations and experiments. In addition, the control algorithm is compared with a conventional PID controller to show that the proposed control algorithm resolves critical problems induced by the PID control. The capability of the control algorithm can be used not only in high-precision flow regulation in the presence of disturbance, but in some useful functions for lab-on-a-chip devices such as regulation of volumetric flow rate, interface position control of two laminar flows, valveless flow switching, droplet generation and particle manipulation. We demonstrate those functions and also suggest further potential biological applications which can be accomplished by the proposed control framework. PMID:26987587

  20. Low Velocity Difference Thermal Shear Layer Mixing Rate Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Robert H.; Culver, Harry C. M.; Weissbein, Dave; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Current CFD modeling techniques are known to do a poor job of predicting the mixing rate and persistence of slot film flow in co-annular flowing ducts with relatively small velocity differences but large thermal gradients. A co-annular test was devised to empirically determine the mixing rate of slot film flow in a constant area circular duct (D approx. 1ft, L approx. 10ft). The axial rate of wall heat-up is a sensitive measure of the mixing rate of the two flows. The inflow conditions were varied to simulate a variety of conditions characteristic of moderate by-pass ratio engines. A series of air temperature measurements near the duct wall provided a straightforward means to measure the axial temperature distribution and thus infer the mixing rate. This data provides a characterization of the slot film mixing rates encountered in typical jet engine environments. The experimental geometry and entrance conditions, along with the sensitivity of the results as the entrance conditions vary, make this a good test for turbulence models in a regime important to modern air-breathing propulsion research and development.

  1. Heating rate controller for thermally stimulated conductivity and thermoluminescence measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, E. G.; Littlejohn, M. A.; Oakley, E. M.; Hutchby , J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A temperature controller is described which enables the temperature of a sample mounted on a cold finger to be varied linearly with time. Heating rates between 0.5 and 10 K/min can be achieved for temperatures between 90 and 300 K. Provision for terminating the sample heating at any temperature between these extremes is available. The temperature can be held at the terminating temperature or be reduced to the starting temperature in a matter of minutes. The controller has been used for thermally stimulated conductivity measurements and should be useful for thermoluminescence measurements as well.

  2. Test of the quantum instanton approximation for thermal rate constants for some collinear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceotto, Michele; Miller, William H.

    2004-04-01

    Two variants of the recently developed quantum instanton (QI) model for calculating thermal rate constants of chemical reactions are applied to several collinear atom-diatom reactions with various skew angles. The results show that the original QI version of the model is consistently more accurate than the "simplest" quantum instanton version (both being applied here with one "dividing surface") and thus to be preferred. Also, for these examples (as with other earlier applications) the QI results agree well with the correct quantum rates (to within ˜20% or better) for all temperatures >200 K, except for situations where dynamical corrections to transition state theory (i.e., "re-crossing" dynamics) are evident. (Since re-crossing effects are substantially reduced in higher dimensionality, this is not a cause for serious concern.) A procedure is also described which facilitates use of the METROPOLIS algorithm for evaluating all quantities that appear in the QI rate expression by Monte Carlo path integral methods.

  3. Limiting metabolic rate (thermal work limit) as an index of thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Brake, Derrick J; Bates, Graham P

    2002-03-01

    The development of a rational heat stress index called thermal work limit (TWL) is presented. TWL is defined as the limiting (or maximum) sustainable metabolic rate that euhydrated, acclimatized individuals can maintain in a specific thermal environment, within a safe deep body core temperature (< 38.20 degrees C) and sweat rate (< 1.2 kg/hr(-1)). The index has been developed using published experimental studies of human heat transfer, and established heat and moisture transfer equations through clothing. Clothing parameters can be varied and the protocol can be extended to unacclimatized workers. The index is designed specifically for self-paced workers and does not rely on estimation of actual metabolic rates, a process that is difficult and subject to considerable error. The index has been introduced into several large industrial operations located well inside the tropics, resulting in a substantial and sustained fall in the incidence of heat illness. Guidelines for TWL are proposed along with recommended interventions. TWL has application to professionals from both the human and engineering sciences, as it allows not only thermal strain to be evaluated,. but also the productivity decrement due to heat (seen as a reduced sustainable metabolic rate) and the impact of various strategies such as improved local ventilation or refrigeration to be quantitatively assessed.

  4. Observing Volcanic Thermal Anomalies from Space: How Accurate is the Estimation of the Hotspot's Size and Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaksek, K.; Pick, L.; Lombardo, V.; Hort, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring the heat emission from active volcanic features on the basis of infrared satellite images contributes to the volcano's hazard assessment. Because these thermal anomalies only occupy a small fraction (< 1 %) of a typically resolved target pixel (e.g. from Landsat 7, MODIS) the accurate determination of the hotspot's size and temperature is however problematic. Conventionally this is overcome by comparing observations in at least two separate infrared spectral wavebands (Dual-Band method). We investigate the resolution limits of this thermal un-mixing technique by means of a uniquely designed indoor analog experiment. Therein the volcanic feature is simulated by an electrical heating alloy of 0.5 mm diameter installed on a plywood panel of high emissivity. Two thermographic cameras (VarioCam high resolution and ImageIR 8300 by Infratec) record images of the artificial heat source in wavebands comparable to those available from satellite data. These range from the short-wave infrared (1.4-3 µm) over the mid-wave infrared (3-8 µm) to the thermal infrared (8-15 µm). In the conducted experiment the pixel fraction of the hotspot was successively reduced by increasing the camera-to-target distance from 3 m to 35 m. On the basis of an individual target pixel the expected decrease of the hotspot pixel area with distance at a relatively constant wire temperature of around 600 °C was confirmed. The deviation of the hotspot's pixel fraction yielded by the Dual-Band method from the theoretically calculated one was found to be within 20 % up until a target distance of 25 m. This means that a reliable estimation of the hotspot size is only possible if the hotspot is larger than about 3 % of the pixel area, a resolution boundary most remotely sensed volcanic hotspots fall below. Future efforts will focus on the investigation of a resolution limit for the hotspot's temperature by varying the alloy's amperage. Moreover, the un-mixing results for more realistic multi

  5. Necessary Conditions for Accurate, Transient Hot-Wire Measurements of the Apparent Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids are Seldom Satisfied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadis, Konstantinos D.; Tertsinidou, Georgia J.; Assael, Marc J.; Wakeham, William A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper considers the conditions that are necessary to secure accurate measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity of two-phase systems comprising nanoscale particles of one material suspended in a fluid phase of a different material. It is shown that instruments operating according to the transient hot-wire technique can, indeed, produce excellent measurements when a finite element method (FEM) is employed to describe the instrument for the exact geometry of the hot wire. Furthermore, it is shown that an approximate analytic solution can be employed with equal success, over the time range of 0.1 s to 1 s, provided that (a) two wires are employed, so that end effects are canceled, (b) each wire is very thin, less than 30 \\upmu m diameter, so that the line source model and the corresponding corrections are valid, (c) low values of the temperature rise, less than 4 K, are employed in order to minimize the effect of convection on the heat transfer in the time of measurement of 1 s, and (d) insulated wires are employed for measurements in electrically conducting or polar liquids to avoid current leakage or other electrical distortions. According to these criteria, a transient hot-wire instrument has been designed, constructed, and employed for the measurement of the enhancement of the thermal conductivity of water when TiO2 or multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are added. These new results, together with a critical evaluation of other measurements, demonstrate the importance of proper implementation of the technique.

  6. Recommended Thermal Rate Coefficients for the C + H3+ Reaction and Some Astrochemical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vissapragada, Shreyas; Buzard, Cam; Miller, Kenneth A.; O'Connor, Aodh; De Ruette, Nathalie; Urbain, Xavier; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2016-06-01

    We have incorporated our experimentally derived thermal rate coefficients for C + H3+ forming CH+ and CH2+ into a commonly used astrochemical model. We find that the Arrhenius-Kooij equation typically used in chemical models does not accurately fit our data and use instead a more versatile fitting formula. At a temperature of 10 K and a density of 104 cm-3, we find no significant differences in the predicted abundances, but at higher temperatures of 50, 100, and 300 K we find up to factor of 2 changes. Additionally, we find that the relatively small error on our measurements (~15%) significantly reduces the uncertainties on the predicted abundances compared to those obtained using the currently implemented Langevin rate coefficient with its estimated factor of 2 uncertainty.

  7. Accurate Time-Dependent Traveling-Wave Tube Model Developed for Computational Bit-Error-Rate Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenal growth of the satellite communications industry has created a large demand for traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) operating with unprecedented specifications requiring the design and production of many novel devices in record time. To achieve this, the TWT industry heavily relies on computational modeling. However, the TWT industry's computational modeling capabilities need to be improved because there are often discrepancies between measured TWT data and that predicted by conventional two-dimensional helical TWT interaction codes. This limits the analysis and design of novel devices or TWT's with parameters differing from what is conventionally manufactured. In addition, the inaccuracy of current computational tools limits achievable TWT performance because optimized designs require highly accurate models. To address these concerns, a fully three-dimensional, time-dependent, helical TWT interaction model was developed using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell code MAFIA (Solution of MAxwell's equations by the Finite-Integration-Algorithm). The model includes a short section of helical slow-wave circuit with excitation fed by radiofrequency input/output couplers, and an electron beam contained by periodic permanent magnet focusing. A cutaway view of several turns of the three-dimensional helical slow-wave circuit with input/output couplers is shown. This has been shown to be more accurate than conventionally used two-dimensional models. The growth of the communications industry has also imposed a demand for increased data rates for the transmission of large volumes of data. To achieve increased data rates, complex modulation and multiple access techniques are employed requiring minimum distortion of the signal as it is passed through the TWT. Thus, intersymbol interference (ISI) becomes a major consideration, as well as suspected causes such as reflections within the TWT. To experimentally investigate effects of the physical TWT on ISI would be

  8. Nonlinear dynamical effects on reaction rates in thermally fluctuating environments.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Shinnosuke; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2010-07-21

    A framework to calculate the rate constants of condensed phase chemical reactions of manybody systems is presented without relying on the concept of transition state. The theory is based on a framework we developed recently adopting a multidimensional underdamped Langevin equation in the region of a rank-one saddle. The theory provides a reaction coordinate expressed as an analytical nonlinear functional of the position coordinates and velocities of the system (solute), the friction constants, and the random force of the environment (solvent). Up to moderately high temperature, the sign of the reaction coordinate can determine the final destination of the reaction in a thermally fluctuating media, irrespective of what values the other (nonreactive) coordinates may take. In this paper, it is shown that the reaction probability is analytically derived as the probability of the reaction coordinate being positive, and that the integration with the Boltzmann distribution of the initial conditions leads to the exact reaction rate constant when the local equilibrium holds and the quantum effect is negligible. Because of analytical nature of the theory taking into account all nonlinear effects and their combination with fluctuation and dissipation, the theory naturally provides us with the firm mathematical foundation of the origin of the reactivity of the reaction in a fluctuating media.

  9. Nonlinear dynamical effects on reaction rates in thermally fluctuating environments.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Shinnosuke; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2010-07-21

    A framework to calculate the rate constants of condensed phase chemical reactions of manybody systems is presented without relying on the concept of transition state. The theory is based on a framework we developed recently adopting a multidimensional underdamped Langevin equation in the region of a rank-one saddle. The theory provides a reaction coordinate expressed as an analytical nonlinear functional of the position coordinates and velocities of the system (solute), the friction constants, and the random force of the environment (solvent). Up to moderately high temperature, the sign of the reaction coordinate can determine the final destination of the reaction in a thermally fluctuating media, irrespective of what values the other (nonreactive) coordinates may take. In this paper, it is shown that the reaction probability is analytically derived as the probability of the reaction coordinate being positive, and that the integration with the Boltzmann distribution of the initial conditions leads to the exact reaction rate constant when the local equilibrium holds and the quantum effect is negligible. Because of analytical nature of the theory taking into account all nonlinear effects and their combination with fluctuation and dissipation, the theory naturally provides us with the firm mathematical foundation of the origin of the reactivity of the reaction in a fluctuating media. PMID:20544104

  10. Metabolic rate and thermal insulation in albino and hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Mount, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    1. Rates of oxygen consumption of albino and hairless mice were measured in a metabolism chamber during periods of approximately 5 or 24 hr. Rectal temperature was measured before and after each period. The chamber temperatures used were 22, 30 and 32° C for both albino and hairless, and in addition 34 and 36° C for the hairless mice. 2. The mean age and body weight of the albino mice were 102 days and 34·6 g; the corresponding values for the hairless mice were 87 days and 32·8 g. 3. The mean minimum rates of oxygen consumption (ml./kg.min) were 31·0 for the albino and 38·8 for the hairless mouse; the corresponding estimated critical temperatures were in the ranges 30-32° C for the albino mouse and 32-34° C for the hairless mouse. 4. The mean values for core-ambient thermal insulation (° C.m2.hr/kcal) were 0·418 and 0·328 for the albino mouse, and 0·275 and 0·221 for the hairless mouse, at 22 and 30° C respectively in each case. PMID:5097602

  11. Fully Coriolis-coupled quantum studies of the H + O2 (upsilon i = 0-2, j i = 0,1) --> OH + O reaction on an accurate potential energy surface: integral cross sections and rate constants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shi Ying; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Dong Hui; Honvault, Pascal; Xie, Daiqian; Lee, Soo-Y

    2008-01-31

    We present accurate quantum calculations of the integral cross section and rate constant for the H + O2 --> OH + O combustion reaction on a recently developed ab initio potential energy surface using parallelized time-dependent and Chebyshev wavepacket methods. Partial wave contributions up to J = 70 were computed with full Coriolis coupling, which enabled us to obtain the initial state-specified integral cross sections up to 2.0 eV of the collision energy and thermal rate constants up to 3000 K. The integral cross sections show a large reaction threshold due to the quantum endothermicity of the reaction, and they monotonically increase with the collision energy. As a result, the temperature dependence of the rate constant is of the Arrhenius type. In addition, it was found that reactivity is enhanced by reactant vibrational excitation. The calculated thermal rate constant shows a significant improvement over that obtained on the DMBE IV potential, but it still underestimates the experimental consensus.

  12. Accurate ab initio prediction of propagation rate coefficients in free-radical polymerization: Acrylonitrile and vinyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izgorodina, Ekaterina I.; Coote, Michelle L.

    2006-05-01

    A systematic methodology for calculating accurate propagation rate coefficients in free-radical polymerization was designed and tested for vinyl chloride and acrylonitrile polymerization. For small to medium-sized polymer systems, theoretical reaction barriers are calculated using G3(MP2)-RAD. For larger systems, G3(MP2)-RAD barriers can be approximated (to within 1 kJ mol -1) via an ONIOM-based approach in which the core is studied at G3(MP2)-RAD and the substituent effects are modeled with ROMP2/6-311+G(3df,2p). DFT methods (including BLYP, B3LYP, MPWB195, BB1K and MPWB1K) failed to reproduce the correct trends in the reaction barriers and enthalpies with molecular size, though KMLYP showed some promise as a low cost option for very large systems. Reaction rates are calculated via standard transition state theory in conjunction with the one-dimensional hindered rotor model. The harmonic oscillator approximation was shown to introduce an error of a factor of 2-3, and would be suitable for "order-of-magnitude" estimates. A systematic study of chain length effects indicated that rate coefficients had largely converged to their long chain limit at the dimer radical stage, and the inclusion of the primary substituent of the penultimate unit was sufficient for practical purposes. Solvent effects, as calculated using the COSMO model, were found to be relatively minor. The overall methodology reproduced the available experimental data for both of these monomers within a factor of 2.

  13. Metabolic rate, latitude and thermal stability of roosts, but not phylogeny, affect rewarming rates of bats.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Allyson K; Webber, Quinn M R; Baloun, Dylan E; McGuire, Liam P; Muise, Kristina A; Coté, Damien; Tinkler, Samantha; Willis, Craig K R

    2016-10-01

    Torpor is an adaptation that allows many endotherms to save energy by abandoning the energetic cost of maintaining elevated body temperatures. Although torpor reduces energy consumption, the metabolic heat production required to arouse from torpor is energetically expensive and can impact the overall cost of torpor. The rate at which rewarming occurs can impact the cost of arousal, therefore, factors influencing rewarming rates of heterothermic endotherms could have influenced the evolution of rewarming rates and overall energetic costs of arousal from torpor. Bats are a useful taxon for studies of ecological and behavioral correlates of rewarming rate because of the widespread expression of heterothermy and ecological diversity across the >1200 known species. We used a comparative analysis of 45 bat species to test the hypothesis that ecological, behavioral, and physiological factors affect rewarming rates. We used basal metabolic rate (BMR) as an index of thermogenic capacity, and local climate (i.e., latitude of geographic range), roost stability and maximum colony size as ecological and behavioral predictors of rewarming rate. After controlling for phylogeny, high BMR was associated with rapid rewarming while species that live at higher absolute latitudes and in less thermally stable roosts also rewarmed most rapidly. These patterns suggests that some bat species rely on passive rewarming and social thermoregulation to reduce costs of rewarming, while others might rely on thermogenic capacity to maintain rapid rewarming rates in order to reduce energetic costs of arousal. Our results highlight species-specific traits associated with maintaining positive energy balance in a wide range of climates, while also providing insight into possible mechanisms underlying the evolution of heterothermy in endotherms.

  14. Metabolic rate, latitude and thermal stability of roosts, but not phylogeny, affect rewarming rates of bats.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Allyson K; Webber, Quinn M R; Baloun, Dylan E; McGuire, Liam P; Muise, Kristina A; Coté, Damien; Tinkler, Samantha; Willis, Craig K R

    2016-10-01

    Torpor is an adaptation that allows many endotherms to save energy by abandoning the energetic cost of maintaining elevated body temperatures. Although torpor reduces energy consumption, the metabolic heat production required to arouse from torpor is energetically expensive and can impact the overall cost of torpor. The rate at which rewarming occurs can impact the cost of arousal, therefore, factors influencing rewarming rates of heterothermic endotherms could have influenced the evolution of rewarming rates and overall energetic costs of arousal from torpor. Bats are a useful taxon for studies of ecological and behavioral correlates of rewarming rate because of the widespread expression of heterothermy and ecological diversity across the >1200 known species. We used a comparative analysis of 45 bat species to test the hypothesis that ecological, behavioral, and physiological factors affect rewarming rates. We used basal metabolic rate (BMR) as an index of thermogenic capacity, and local climate (i.e., latitude of geographic range), roost stability and maximum colony size as ecological and behavioral predictors of rewarming rate. After controlling for phylogeny, high BMR was associated with rapid rewarming while species that live at higher absolute latitudes and in less thermally stable roosts also rewarmed most rapidly. These patterns suggests that some bat species rely on passive rewarming and social thermoregulation to reduce costs of rewarming, while others might rely on thermogenic capacity to maintain rapid rewarming rates in order to reduce energetic costs of arousal. Our results highlight species-specific traits associated with maintaining positive energy balance in a wide range of climates, while also providing insight into possible mechanisms underlying the evolution of heterothermy in endotherms. PMID:27317837

  15. Thermal behaviors, nonisothermal decomposition reaction kinetics, thermal safety and burning rates of BTATz-CMDB propellant.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Wang, Bo-Zhou; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Cheng; Hu, Rong-Zu; Ren, Ying-Hui; Xu, Si-Yu; Xu, Kang-Zhen; Ren, Xiao-Ning

    2010-09-15

    The composite modified double base (CMDB) propellants (nos. RB0601 and RB0602) containing 3,6-bis (1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-yl-amino)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (BTATz) without and with the ballistic modifier were prepared and their thermal behaviors, nonisothermal decomposition reaction kinetics, thermal safety and burning rates were investigated. The results show that there are three mass-loss stages in TG curve and two exothermic peaks in DSC curve for the BTATz-CMDB propellant. The first two mass-loss stages occur in succession and the temperature ranges are near apart, and the decomposition peaks of the two stages overlap each other, inducing only one visible exothermic peak appear in DSC curve during 350-550 K. The reaction mechanisms of the main exothermal decomposition processes of RB0601 and RB0602 are all classified as chemical reaction, the mechanism functions are f(alpha)=(1-alpha)(2), and the kinetic equations are dalpha/dt = 10(19.24)(1-alpha)(2)e(-2.32x10(4)/T) and dalpha/dt = 10(20.32)(1-alpha)(2)e(-2.32x10(4)/T). The thermal safety evaluation on the BTATz-CMDB propellants was obtained. With the substitution of 26% RDX by BTATz and with the help of the ballistic modifier in the CMDB propellant formulation, the burning rate can be improved by 89.0% at 8 MPa and 47.1% at 22 MPa, the pressure exponent can be reduced to 0.353 at 14-20 MPa.

  16. Surface hopping, transition state theory, and decoherence. II. Thermal rate constants and detailed balance

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Amber; Subotnik, Joseph E.

    2015-10-07

    We investigate a simple approach to compute a non-adiabatic thermal rate constant using the fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH) dynamics. We study the effects of both decoherence (using our augmented-FSSH (A-FSSH) algorithm) and forbidden hops over a large range of parameters, including high and low friction regimes, and weak and strong electronic coupling regimes. Furthermore, when possible, we benchmark our results against exact hierarchy equations of motion results, where we usually find a maximum error of roughly a factor of two (at reasonably large temperatures). In agreement with Hammes-Schiffer and Tully, we find that a merger of transition state theory and surface hopping can be both accurate and efficient when performed correctly. We further show that detailed balance is followed approximately by A-FSSH dynamics.

  17. Simple Learned Weighted Sums of Inferior Temporal Neuronal Firing Rates Accurately Predict Human Core Object Recognition Performance.

    PubMed

    Majaj, Najib J; Hong, Ha; Solomon, Ethan A; DiCarlo, James J

    2015-09-30

    database of images for evaluating object recognition performance. We used multielectrode arrays to characterize hundreds of neurons in the visual ventral stream of nonhuman primates and measured the object recognition performance of >100 human observers. Remarkably, we found that simple learned weighted sums of firing rates of neurons in monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex accurately predicted human performance. Although previous work led us to expect that IT would outperform V4, we were surprised by the quantitative precision with which simple IT-based linking hypotheses accounted for human behavior. PMID:26424887

  18. Simple Learned Weighted Sums of Inferior Temporal Neuronal Firing Rates Accurately Predict Human Core Object Recognition Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ha; Solomon, Ethan A.; DiCarlo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    database of images for evaluating object recognition performance. We used multielectrode arrays to characterize hundreds of neurons in the visual ventral stream of nonhuman primates and measured the object recognition performance of >100 human observers. Remarkably, we found that simple learned weighted sums of firing rates of neurons in monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex accurately predicted human performance. Although previous work led us to expect that IT would outperform V4, we were surprised by the quantitative precision with which simple IT-based linking hypotheses accounted for human behavior. PMID:26424887

  19. Simple Learned Weighted Sums of Inferior Temporal Neuronal Firing Rates Accurately Predict Human Core Object Recognition Performance.

    PubMed

    Majaj, Najib J; Hong, Ha; Solomon, Ethan A; DiCarlo, James J

    2015-09-30

    database of images for evaluating object recognition performance. We used multielectrode arrays to characterize hundreds of neurons in the visual ventral stream of nonhuman primates and measured the object recognition performance of >100 human observers. Remarkably, we found that simple learned weighted sums of firing rates of neurons in monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex accurately predicted human performance. Although previous work led us to expect that IT would outperform V4, we were surprised by the quantitative precision with which simple IT-based linking hypotheses accounted for human behavior.

  20. A finite rate of innovation algorithm for fast and accurate spike detection from two-photon calcium imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oñativia, Jon; Schultz, Simon R.; Dragotti, Pier Luigi

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Inferring the times of sequences of action potentials (APs) (spike trains) from neurophysiological data is a key problem in computational neuroscience. The detection of APs from two-photon imaging of calcium signals offers certain advantages over traditional electrophysiological approaches, as up to thousands of spatially and immunohistochemically defined neurons can be recorded simultaneously. However, due to noise, dye buffering and the limited sampling rates in common microscopy configurations, accurate detection of APs from calcium time series has proved to be a difficult problem. Approach. Here we introduce a novel approach to the problem making use of finite rate of innovation (FRI) theory (Vetterli et al 2002 IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 50 1417-28). For calcium transients well fit by a single exponential, the problem is reduced to reconstructing a stream of decaying exponentials. Signals made of a combination of exponentially decaying functions with different onset times are a subclass of FRI signals, for which much theory has recently been developed by the signal processing community. Main results. We demonstrate for the first time the use of FRI theory to retrieve the timing of APs from calcium transient time series. The final algorithm is fast, non-iterative and parallelizable. Spike inference can be performed in real-time for a population of neurons and does not require any training phase or learning to initialize parameters. Significance. The algorithm has been tested with both real data (obtained by simultaneous electrophysiology and multiphoton imaging of calcium signals in cerebellar Purkinje cell dendrites), and surrogate data, and outperforms several recently proposed methods for spike train inference from calcium imaging data.

  1. A finite rate of innovation algorithm for fast and accurate spike detection from two-photon calcium imaging

    PubMed Central

    Oñativia, Jon; Schultz, Simon R; Dragotti, Pier Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inferring the times of sequences of action potentials (APs) (spike trains) from neurophysiological data is a key problem in computational neuroscience. The detection of APs from two-photon imaging of calcium signals offers certain advantages over traditional electrophysiological approaches, as up to thousands of spatially and immunohistochemically defined neurons can be recorded simultaneously. However, due to noise, dye buffering and the limited sampling rates in common microscopy configurations, accurate detection of APs from calcium time series has proved to be a difficult problem. Approach Here we introduce a novel approach to the problem making use of finite rate of innovation (FRI) theory (Vetterli et al 2002 IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 50 1417–28). For calcium transients well fit by a single exponential, the problem is reduced to reconstructing a stream of decaying exponentials. Signals made of a combination of exponentially decaying functions with different onset times are a subclass of FRI signals, for which much theory has recently been developed by the signal processing community. Main results We demonstrate for the first time the use of FRI theory to retrieve the timing of APs from calcium transient time series. The final algorithm is fast, non-iterative and parallelizable. Spike inference can be performed in real-time for a population of neurons and does not require any training phase or learning to initialize parameters. Significance The algorithm has been tested with both real data (obtained by simultaneous electrophysiology and multiphoton imaging of calcium signals in cerebellar Purkinje cell dendrites), and surrogate data, and outperforms several recently proposed methods for spike train inference from calcium imaging data. PMID:23860257

  2. Using wavelet analysis to derive seepage rates from thermal records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzhaf, S.; Onderka, M.; Krein, A.; Scheytt, T.

    2012-04-01

    The use of thermal records to detect loosing and gaining reaches of streams and also to determine water fluxes between surface water and groundwater has attracted researchers in hydrological sciences worldwide. This method is attractive due to the high resolution and quality of the temperature data and the relatively low costs of the equipment needed to collect the data in the streambed and therefore is widely applied. Stream water temperature fluctuates on different time scales, with strong diurnal and seasonal fluctuations. When the temperature signal propagates into the aquifer, it is attenuated and shifted in time, where the degree of signal attenuation and its shift are determined by the fluid flow velocity, thermal properties of the sediment matrix, and the frequency of the temperature signal. High-frequency signals (diurnal or smaller) are damped more than low-frequency signals (seasonal or annual). Vertical fluxes can be estimated from the amplitude ratios of temperature oscillations measured between two depths in the stream bed by using the one-dimensional heat transport equation by STALLMAN (1965) when the sediment properties between this two depths are assumed to be homogeneous. However, before this calculations can be performed a time-frequency analysis has to be performed. In contrast to the Fourier transform, which is most common, the use of wavelets allows also to capture non steady-state frequency responses. This, of course, is a huge advantage of the wavelet analysis for hydrological applications as most environmental signals are non steady-state. Wavelet transform decomposes a signal into a time-frequency space and therefore localized intermittent periodicities in the signal can be detected. The wavelet power spectrum that is yielded then allows to separate these different periods, e.g. daily cycles and seasonal signals. To test this method, temperature data that was recorded for a period of 2 years in a stream and its riverbank at a field site in

  3. Exact evaluation of the rates of electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Layden, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    2013-08-15

    Electrostatic decay of Langmuir waves into Langmuir and ion sound waves (L→L′+S) and scattering of Langmuir waves off thermal ions (L+i→L′+i′, also called “nonlinear Landau damping”) are important nonlinear weak-turbulence processes. The rates for these processes depend on the quadratic longitudinal response function α{sup (2)} (or, equivalently, the quadratic longitudinal susceptibility χ{sup (2)}), which describes the second-order response of a plasma to electrostatic wave fields. Previous calculations of these rates for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma have relied upon an approximate form for α{sup (2)} that is valid where two of the wave fields are fast (i.e., v{sub φ}=ω/k≫V{sub e} where ω is the angular frequency, k is the wavenumber, and V{sub e} is the electron thermal speed) and one is slow (v{sub φ}≪V{sub e}). Recently, an exact expression was derived for α{sup (2)} that is valid for any phase speeds of the three waves in an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma. Here, this exact α{sup (2)} is applied to the calculation of the three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions, and the resulting exact rates are compared with the approximate rates. The calculations are performed using previously derived three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay given in terms of a general α{sup (2)}, and newly derived three-dimensional rates for scattering off thermal ions; the scattering rate is derived assuming a Maxwellian ion distribution, and both rates are derived assuming arc distributions for the wave spectra. For most space plasma conditions, the approximate rate is found to be accurate to better than 20%; however, for sufficiently low Langmuir phase speeds (v{sub φ}/V{sub e}≈3) appropriate to some spatial domains of the foreshock regions of planetary bow shocks and type II solar radio bursts, the use of the exact rate may be necessary for accurate calculations. The relative rates of electrostatic decay

  4. Discovery of Spin-Rate-Dependent Asteroid Thermal Inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alan; Drube, Line

    2016-10-01

    Knowledge of the surface thermal inertia of an asteroid can provide insight into surface structure: porous material has a lower thermal inertia than rock. Using WISE/NEOWISE data and our new asteroid thermal-inertia estimator we show that the thermal inertia of main-belt asteroids (MBAs) appears to increase with spin period. Similar behavior is found in the case of thermophysically-modeled thermal inertia values of near-Earth objects (NEOs). We interpret our results in terms of rapidly increasing material density and thermal conductivity with depth, and provide evidence that thermal inertia increases by factors of 10 (MBAs) to 20 (NEOs) within a depth of just 10 cm. On the basis of a picture of depth-dependent thermal inertia our results suggest that, in general, thermal inertia values representative of solid rock are reached some tens of centimeters to meters below the surface in the case of MBAs (the median diameter in our dataset = 24 km). In the case of the much smaller (km-sized) NEOs a thinner porous surface layer is indicated, with large pieces of solid rock possibly existing just a meter or less below the surface. These conclusions are consistent with our understanding from in-situ measurements of the surfaces of the Moon, and a few asteroids, and suggest a very general picture of rapidly changing material properties in the topmost regolith layers of asteroids. Our results have important implications for calculations of the Yarkovsky effect, including its perturbation of the orbits of potentially hazardous objects and those of asteroid family members after the break-up event. Evidence of a rapid increase of thermal inertia with depth is also an important result for studies of the ejecta-enhanced momentum transfer of impacting vehicles ("kinetic impactors") in planetary defense.

  5. Should thermostatted ring polymer molecular dynamics be used to calculate thermal reaction rates?

    SciTech Connect

    Hele, Timothy J. H.; Suleimanov, Yury V.

    2015-08-21

    We apply Thermostatted Ring Polymer Molecular Dynamics (TRPMD), a recently proposed approximate quantum dynamics method, to the computation of thermal reaction rates. Its short-time transition-state theory limit is identical to rigorous quantum transition-state theory, and we find that its long-time limit is independent of the location of the dividing surface. TRPMD rate theory is then applied to one-dimensional model systems, the atom-diatom bimolecular reactions H + H{sub 2}, D + MuH, and F + H{sub 2}, and the prototypical polyatomic reaction H + CH{sub 4}. Above the crossover temperature, the TRPMD rate is virtually invariant to the strength of the friction applied to the internal ring-polymer normal modes, and beneath the crossover temperature the TRPMD rate generally decreases with increasing friction, in agreement with the predictions of Kramers theory. We therefore find that TRPMD is approximately equal to, or less accurate than, ring polymer molecular dynamics for symmetric reactions, and for certain asymmetric systems and friction parameters closer to the quantum result, providing a basis for further assessment of the accuracy of this method.

  6. Test of the quantum instanton approximation for thermal rate constants for some collinear reactions.

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Michele; Miller, William H

    2004-04-01

    Two variants of the recently developed quantum instanton (QI) model for calculating thermal rate constants of chemical reactions are applied to several collinear atom-diatom reactions with various skew angles. The results show that the original QI version of the model is consistently more accurate than the "simplest" quantum instanton version (both being applied here with one "dividing surface") and thus to be preferred. Also, for these examples (as with other earlier applications) the QI results agree well with the correct quantum rates (to within approximately 20% or better) for all temperatures >200 K, except for situations where dynamical corrections to transition state theory (i.e., "re-crossing" dynamics) are evident. (Since re-crossing effects are substantially reduced in higher dimensionality, this is not a cause for serious concern.) A procedure is also described which facilitates use of the METROPOLIS algorithm for evaluating all quantities that appear in the QI rate expression by Monte Carlo path integral methods. PMID:15267524

  7. 48 CFR 1615.406-2 - Certificates of accurate cost or pricing data for community rated carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION... knowledge and belief: (1) The cost or pricing data submitted (or, if not submitted, maintained and... with the requirements of 48 CFR Chapter 16 and the FEHB Program contract and are accurate,...

  8. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: An Accurate Image Simulation Method for High-Order Laue Zone Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Can-Ying; Zeng, Song-Jun; Liu, Hong-Rong; Yang, Qi-Bin

    2008-05-01

    A completely different formulation for simulation of the high order Laue zone (HOLZ) diffractions is derived. It refers to the new method, i.e. the Taylor series (TS) method. To check the validity and accuracy of the TS method, we take polyvinglidene fluoride (PVDF) crystal as an example to calculate the exit wavefunction by the conventional multi-slice (CMS) method and the TS method. The calculated results show that the TS method is much more accurate than the CMS method and is independent of the slice thicknesses. Moreover, the pure first order Laue zone wavefunction by the TS method can reflect the major potential distribution of the first reciprocal plane.

  9. A non-contact method based on multiple signal classification algorithm to reduce the measurement time for accurately heart rate detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechet, P.; Mitran, R.; Munteanu, M.

    2013-08-01

    Non-contact methods for the assessment of vital signs are of great interest for specialists due to the benefits obtained in both medical and special applications, such as those for surveillance, monitoring, and search and rescue. This paper investigates the possibility of implementing a digital processing algorithm based on the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) parametric spectral estimation in order to reduce the observation time needed to accurately measure the heart rate. It demonstrates that, by proper dimensioning the signal subspace, the MUSIC algorithm can be optimized in order to accurately assess the heart rate during an 8-28 s time interval. The validation of the processing algorithm performance was achieved by minimizing the mean error of the heart rate after performing simultaneous comparative measurements on several subjects. In order to calculate the error the reference value of heart rate was measured using a classic measurement system through direct contact.

  10. An accurate derivation of the air dose-rate and the deposition concentration distribution by aerial monitoring in a low level contaminated area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Sugita, Takeshi; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo

    2015-04-01

    Since 2011, MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan) have been conducting aerial monitoring to investigate the distribution of radioactive cesium dispersed into the atmosphere after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), Tokyo Electric Power Company. Distribution maps of the air dose-rate at 1 m above the ground and the radioactive cesium deposition concentration on the ground are prepared using spectrum obtained by aerial monitoring. The radioactive cesium deposition is derived from its dose rate, which is calculated by excluding the dose rate of the background radiation due to natural radionuclides from the air dose-rate at 1 m above the ground. The first step of the current method of calculating the dose rate due to natural radionuclides is calculate the ratio of the total count rate of areas where no radioactive cesium is detected and the count rate of regions with energy levels of 1,400 keV or higher (BG-Index). Next, calculate the air dose rate of radioactive cesium by multiplying the BG-Index and the integrated count rate of 1,400 keV or higher for the area where the radioactive cesium is distributed. In high dose-rate areas, however, the count rate of the 1,365-keV peak of Cs-134, though small, is included in the integrated count rate of 1,400 keV or higher, which could cause an overestimation of the air dose rate of natural radionuclides. We developed a method for accurately evaluating the distribution maps of natural air dose-rate by excluding the effect of radioactive cesium, even in contaminated areas, and obtained the accurate air dose-rate map attributed the radioactive cesium deposition on the ground. Furthermore, the natural dose-rate distribution throughout Japan has been obtained by this method.

  11. 48 CFR 1615.406-2 - Certificate of accurate cost or pricing data for community-rated carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION... Community-Rated Carriers This is to certify that, to the best of my knowledge and belief: (1) The cost or... the ____* FEHB Program rates were developed in accordance with the requirements of 48 CFR Chapter...

  12. How accurately can we measure the hydrogen 2S→1S transition rate from the cosmological data?

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel; Trombetti, Tiziana; Burigana, Carlo E-mail: jkim@nbi.dk E-mail: trombetti@iasfbo.inaf.it

    2012-06-01

    Recent progress in observational cosmology, and especially the forthcoming PLANCK mission data, open new directions in so-called precision cosmology. In this paper we illustrate this statement considering the accuracy of cosmological determination of the two-quanta decay rate of 2s hydrogen atom state. We show that the PLANCK data will allow us to measure this decay rate significantly better than in the laboratory experiments.

  13. A theoretical prediction of hydrogen molecule dissociation-recombination rates including an accurate treatment of internal state nonequilibrium effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.

    1990-01-01

    The dissociation and recombination of H2 over the temperature range 1000-5000 K are calculated in a nonempirical manner. The computation procedure involves the calculation of the state-to-state energy transfer rate coefficients, the solution of the 349 coupled equations which form the master equation, and the determination of the phenomenological rate coefficients. The nonempirical results presented here are in good agreement with experimental data at 1000 and 3000 K.

  14. Time-dependent methods for calculating thermal rate coefficients using flux correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thachuk, Mark; Schatz, George C.

    1992-11-01

    In this paper we study numerical methods for calculating thermal rate coefficients using flux correlation functions, with the goal of determining optimal methods for producing values with a specified accuracy. In all cases we employ grid based methods for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in one mathematical dimension for a simple barrier potential function. The solutions are used to determine the propagator matrix elements needed to evaluate the flux correlation functions. Within this framework, we examine (1) several time-dependent methods for propagating the wave packets, (2) several procedures for evaluating the action of the Hamiltonian on the wave function, (3) the choice of complex time contours for evaluating the rate coefficient expression, (4) alternatives for estimating the initial short-time evolution of the wave packet (which starts as a δ function), (5) quadrature methods for evaluating the spatial and time integrals appearing in the flux correlation function, and (6) special numerical strategies which can dramatically improve the accuracy of the calculation, particularly at low temperatures. We find that several methods yield rate coefficients accurate to 1% or 0.1% using about the same computational effort. These include (a) split-operator time propagators combined with fast-Fourier-transform evaluations of the wave-function derivatives, and (b) the Chebyshev time propagator combined with either an eleventh-order finite-difference or fifth-order spline evaluation of the wave-function derivatives. These finite-difference and spline methods can also be used competitively with the split-operator approach provided that a Crank-Nicholson approximation is utilized in evaluating the action of the kinetic-energy propagator. It was also found that inaccuracies in estimating the initial short-time behavior of the wave function could limit the effectiveness of the more accurate methods. A multigrid approach based on the split

  15. Temperature and flow rate effects on mass median diameters of thermally generated malathion and naled fogs.

    PubMed

    Brown, J R; Chew, V; Melson, R O

    1993-06-01

    The effects of temperature and flow rate on mass median diameters (mmds) of thermally generated aerosol clouds were studied. Number 2 fuel oil alone, undiluted and diluted malathion 91, and undiluted naled were examined. There was a significant flow rate x temperature interaction on the mmds of diluted malathion fogs: i.e., differences among flow rates depended on temperature and vice versa.

  16. Thermal preference, thermal resistance, and metabolic rate of juvenile Chinese pond turtles Mauremys reevesii acclimated to different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Dang, Wei; Geng, Jun; Lu, Hong-Liang

    2015-10-01

    The thermal acclimatory capacity of a particular species may determine its resilience to environmental change. Evaluating the physiological acclimatory responses of economically important species is useful for determining their optimal culture conditions. Here, juvenile Chinese three-keeled pond turtles (Mauremys reevesii) were acclimated to one of three different temperatures (17, 25 or 33°C) for four weeks to assess the effects of thermal acclimation on some physiological traits. Thermal acclimation significantly affected thermal resistance, but not thermal preference, of juvenile M. reevesii. Turtles acclimated to 17°C were less resistant to high temperatures than those acclimated to 25°C and 33°C. However, turtles increased resistance to low temperatures with decreasing acclimation temperature. The acclimation response ratio of the critical thermal minimum (CTMin) was lower than that of the critical thermal maximum (CTMax) for acclimation temperatures between 17 and 25°C, but slightly higher between 25 and 33°C. The thermal resistance range (i.e., the difference between CTMax and CTMin) was widest in turtles acclimated to the intermediate temperature (25°C), and narrowest in those acclimated to low temperature (17°C). The standard metabolic rate increased as body temperature and acclimation temperature increased, and the temperature quotient (Q10) between acclimation temperatures 17 and 25°C was higher than the Q10 between 25 and 33°C. Our results suggest that juvenile M. reevesii may have a greater resistance under mild thermal conditions resembling natural environments, and better physiological performance at relatively warm temperatures.

  17. Measuring the sedimentation rate in a magnetorheological fluid column via thermal conductivity monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Haibin; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Guizhen; Ma, Wentao; Wereley, Norman M.

    2016-05-01

    Measuring sedimentation rate of magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) is of great importance when designing and synthesizing MRFs for engineering applications. A method of characterizing sedimentation rate in an MRF column is proposed utilizing thermal conductivity correlated with particle concentration. A series of MRF samples composed of carbonyl iron particles suspended in silicone oil were prepared, and their concentrations (measured as volume fraction, ∅) and thermal conductivities, k, were tested. A calibration curve was developed to relate particle concentration, ∅, to thermal conductivity, k, using this set of MRF samples with known concentration. The particle concentration, ∅, in the MRF column was then monitored by measuring thermal conductivities (k) at a fixed location and using this calibration relationship. Finally, sedimentation rate in the MRF column was determined by examining how particle concentration varied with time. The sedimentation rate measured in the MRF column was validated using visual observation of mudline (boundary between the topmost clarified fluid zone and MRF below).

  18. Method and apparatus for obtaining enhanced production rate of thermal chemical reactions

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA

    2003-04-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus (vessel) for providing a heat transfer rate from a reaction chamber through a wall to a heat transfer chamber substantially matching a local heat transfer rate of a catalytic thermal chemical reaction. The key to the invention is a thermal distance defined on a cross sectional plane through the vessel inclusive of a heat transfer chamber, reaction chamber and a wall between the chambers. The cross sectional plane is perpendicular to a bulk flow direction of the reactant stream, and the thermal distance is a distance between a coolest position and a hottest position on the cross sectional plane. The thermal distance is of a length wherein the heat transfer rate from the reaction chamber to the heat transfer chamber substantially matches the local heat transfer rate.

  19. Thermal Decomposition Rate of MgCO3 as Representative Carbonate in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micca Longo, G.; Bisceglia, E.; Longo, S.

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the thermal properties of magnesite as a model meteor carbonate material. The decomposition rate is determined and an entry model has been developed including this effect in the determination of the equilibration temperature.

  20. A new monitor for routine thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate monitoring in k0 INAA.

    PubMed

    Koster-Ammerlaan, M J J; Bacchi, M A; Bode, P; De Nadai Fernandes, E A

    2008-12-01

    The Zr-Au set for monitoring the thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate and the epithermal spectrum parameter alpha is not always practicable for routine application of INAA in well-thermalized facilities. An alternative set consisting of Cr, Au and Mo provides values for the thermal neutron fluence rate, f and alpha that are not significantly different from those found via the Zr-Au method and the Cd-covered Zr-method. The IRMM standard SMELS-II was analyzed using the (Au-Cr-Mo) monitor and a good agreement was obtained.

  1. Are Currently Available Wearable Devices for Activity Tracking and Heart Rate Monitoring Accurate, Precise, and Medically Beneficial?

    PubMed Central

    El-Amrawy, Fatema

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The new wave of wireless technologies, fitness trackers, and body sensor devices can have great impact on healthcare systems and the quality of life. However, there have not been enough studies to prove the accuracy and precision of these trackers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and overall performance of seventeen wearable devices currently available compared with direct observation of step counts and heart rate monitoring. Methods Each participant in this study used three accelerometers at a time, running the three corresponding applications of each tracker on an Android or iOS device simultaneously. Each participant was instructed to walk 200, 500, and 1,000 steps. Each set was repeated 40 times. Data was recorded after each trial, and the mean step count, standard deviation, accuracy, and precision were estimated for each tracker. Heart rate was measured by all trackers (if applicable), which support heart rate monitoring, and compared to a positive control, the Onyx Vantage 9590 professional clinical pulse oximeter. Results The accuracy of the tested products ranged between 79.8% and 99.1%, while the coefficient of variation (precision) ranged between 4% and 17.5%. MisFit Shine showed the highest accuracy and precision (along with Qualcomm Toq), while Samsung Gear 2 showed the lowest accuracy, and Jawbone UP showed the lowest precision. However, Xiaomi Mi band showed the best package compared to its price. Conclusions The accuracy and precision of the selected fitness trackers are reasonable and can indicate the average level of activity and thus average energy expenditure. PMID:26618039

  2. Evolution of thermal physiology and growth rate between populations of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis).

    PubMed

    Sinervo, B

    1990-06-01

    Hatchling Sceloporus occidentalis from northern populations (central Oregon) grow more slowly than hatchlings from southern populations (southern California) in nature. In this study, I determine whether this difference in growth rate results from differences in thermal environment and/or in thermoregulatory behavior. To determine the degree to which the thermal environment affects growth rate among populations, I reared hatchings from the northern and southern populations in a cycling thermal regime in one of three experimental treatments differing in access to radiant heat (6, 9, or 12 h radiant heat; remainder of 24 h at 15°C). I also measured the body temperature that each individual voluntarily selected over the course of the daily activity cycle. Growth rate varied positively with duration of access to radiant heat. Within the three treatments, individual growth rate was positively correlated with body temperature. Moreover, the difference in growth rate between the northern and southern populations was due in part to differences in behavior - individuals from northern populations selected lower body temperatures. I found that significant variation in body temperature was associated with family membership, suggesting that thermal physiology has a genetic basis. Moreover, growth rate was correlated with body temperature among families in each population suggesting a genetic correlation underlies the phenotypic correlations. Thus, genetically based variation in thermal physiology contributes to differences in growth rate among individuals within a population as well as to differences among populations. PMID:22160116

  3. A comparison of deflagration rates at elevated pressures and temperatures with thermal explosion results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glascoe, Elizabeth A.; Springer, Harry Keo; Tringe, Joseph; Maienschein, Jon L.

    2012-03-01

    The deflagration rate of HMX-based explosives has previously been correlated with the violence of thermal explosion experiments. In particular, HMX-based materials that experience deconsolidative burning at elevated pressures (i.e. P = 200 - 600 MPa) also produce significantly more violent thermal explosions. We now report deflagration rates at elevated temperatures (i.e. T = 150 - 180C) and moderate pressures (i.e. P = 10 - 100 MPa). These conditions more closely mimic the pressures and temperatures of an explosive shortly after ignition of a thermal explosion. Here, we discuss the deflagration rates of HMX-based explosives at elevated temperatures and their usefulness to predict the thermal explosion violence of the same materials.

  4. Analysis of heart rate control to assess thermal sensitivity responses in Brazilian toads.

    PubMed

    Natali, J E S; Santos, B T; Rodrigues, V H; Chauí-Berlinck, J G

    2015-01-01

    In anurans, changes in ambient temperature influence body temperature and, therefore, energy consumption. These changes ultimately affect energy supply and, consequently, heart rate (HR). Typically, anurans living in different thermal environments have different thermal sensitivities, and these cannot be distinguished by changes in HR. We hypothesized that Rhinella jimi (a toad from a xeric environment that lives in a wide range of temperatures) would have a lower thermal sensitivity regarding cardiac control than R. icterica (originally from a tropical forest environment with a more restricted range of ambient temperatures). Thermal sensitivity was assessed by comparing animals housed at 15° and 25°C. Cardiac control was estimated by heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate complexity (HRC). Differences in HRV between the two temperatures were not significant (P=0.214 for R. icterica and P=0.328 for R. jimi), whereas HRC differences were. All specimens but one R. jimi had a lower HRC at 15°C (all P<0.01). These results indicate that R. jimi has a lower thermal sensitivity and that cardiac control is not completely dependent on the thermal environment because HRC was not consistently different between temperatures in all R. jimi specimens. This result indicates a lack of evolutive trade-offs among temperatures given that heart rate control at 25°C is potentially not a constraint to heart rate control at 15°C.

  5. Analysis of heart rate control to assess thermal sensitivity responses in Brazilian toads.

    PubMed

    Natali, J E S; Santos, B T; Rodrigues, V H; Chauí-Berlinck, J G

    2014-10-24

    In anurans, changes in ambient temperature influence body temperature and, therefore, energy consumption. These changes ultimately affect energy supply and, consequently, heart rate (HR). Typically, anurans living in different thermal environments have different thermal sensitivities, and these cannot be distinguished by changes in HR. We hypothesized that Rhinella jimi (a toad from a xeric environment that lives in a wide range of temperatures) would have a lower thermal sensitivity regarding cardiac control than R. icterica (originally from a tropical forest environment with a more restricted range of ambient temperatures). Thermal sensitivity was assessed by comparing animals housed at 15° and 25°C. Cardiac control was estimated by heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate complexity (HRC). Differences in HRV between the two temperatures were not significant (P=0.214 for R. icterica and P=0.328 for R. jimi), whereas HRC differences were. All specimens but one R. jimi had a lower HRC at 15°C (all P<0.01). These results indicate that R. jimi has a lower thermal sensitivity and that cardiac control is not completely dependent on the thermal environment because HRC was not consistently different between temperatures in all R. jimi specimens. This result indicates a lack of evolutive trade-offs among temperatures given that heart rate control at 25°C is potentially not a constraint to heart rate control at 15°C.

  6. A Multi-Channel Opto-Electronic Sensor to Accurately Monitor Heart Rate against Motion Artefact during Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Abdullah; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Barrett, Laura; Esliger, Dale; Hayes, Matthew; Akbare, Shafique; Achart, Jérôme; Kuoch, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the use of a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor (OEPS) to effectively monitor critical physiological parameters whilst preventing motion artefact as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work was to study how to capture the heart rate (HR) efficiently through a well-constructed OEPS and a 3-axis accelerometer with wireless communication. A protocol was designed to incorporate sitting, standing, walking, running and cycling. The datasets collected from these activities were processed to elaborate sport physiological effects. t-test, Bland-Altman Agreement (BAA), and correlation to evaluate the performance of the OEPS were used against Polar and Mio-Alpha HR monitors. No differences in the HR were found between OEPS, and either Polar or Mio-Alpha (both p > 0.05); a strong correlation was found between Polar and OEPS (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation (SD) 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA) from −17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm. For the Mio-Alpha and OEPS, a strong correlation was found (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 1.63 bpm, SD 8.62 bpm, LOA from −15.27 bpm to +18.58 bpm. These results demonstrate the OEPS to be capable of carrying out real time and remote monitoring of heart rate. PMID:26473860

  7. A multi-channel opto-electronic sensor to accurately monitor heart rate against motion artefact during exercise.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Abdullah; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Barrett, Laura; Esliger, Dale; Hayes, Matthew; Akbare, Shafique; Achart, Jérôme; Kuoch, Sylvain

    2015-10-12

    This study presents the use of a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor (OEPS) to effectively monitor critical physiological parameters whilst preventing motion artefact as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work was to study how to capture the heart rate (HR) efficiently through a well-constructed OEPS and a 3-axis accelerometer with wireless communication. A protocol was designed to incorporate sitting, standing, walking, running and cycling. The datasets collected from these activities were processed to elaborate sport physiological effects. t-test, Bland-Altman Agreement (BAA), and correlation to evaluate the performance of the OEPS were used against Polar and Mio-Alpha HR monitors. No differences in the HR were found between OEPS, and either Polar or Mio-Alpha (both p > 0.05); a strong correlation was found between Polar and OEPS (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation (SD) 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA) from -17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm. For the Mio-Alpha and OEPS, a strong correlation was found (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 1.63 bpm, SD 8.62 bpm, LOA from -15.27 bpm to +18.58 bpm. These results demonstrate the OEPS to be capable of carrying out real time and remote monitoring of heart rate.

  8. Quantum reaction rate from higher derivatives of the thermal flux-flux autocorrelation function at time zero.

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Michele; Yang, Sandy; Miller, William H

    2005-01-22

    A quantum theory of thermal reaction rates is presented which may be viewed as an extension of the recently developed "quantum instanton" (QI) model [W. H. Miller, Y. Zhao, M. Ceotto, and S. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003)]. It is based on using higher derivatives of the flux-flux autocorrelation function C(t) (as given by Miller, Schwartz, and Tromp) at t=0 to construct a short time approximation for C(t). Tests of this theory on 1d and collinear reactions, both symmetric and asymmetric, show it to be more accurate than the original QI model, giving rate constants to approximately 5% for a wide range of temperature. PMID:15740237

  9. Quantum reaction rate from higher derivatives of the thermal flux-flux autocorrelation function at time zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceotto, Michele; Yang, Sandy; Miller, William H.

    2005-01-01

    A quantum theory of thermal reaction rates is presented which may be viewed as an extension of the recently developed "quantum instanton" (QI) model [W. H. Miller, Y. Zhao, M. Ceotto, and S. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003)]. It is based on using higher derivatives of the flux-flux autocorrelation function C(t) (as given by Miller, Schwartz, and Tromp) at t=0 to construct a short time approximation for C(t). Tests of this theory on 1d and collinear reactions, both symmetric and asymmetric, show it to be more accurate than the original QI model, giving rate constants to ˜5% for a wide range of temperature.

  10. Predicting Accurate Electronic Excitation Transfer Rates via Marcus Theory with Boys or Edmiston-Ruedenberg Localized Diabatization

    SciTech Connect

    Subotnik, Joseph E.; Vura-Weis, Josh; Sodt, Alex J.; Ratner, Mark A.

    2010-05-06

    We model the triplet-triplet energy-transfer experiments from the Closs group [Closs, G. L.; et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1988, 110, 2652.] using a combination of Marcus theory and either Boys or Edmiston-Ruedenberg localized diabatization, and we show that relative and absolute rates of electronic excitation transfer may be computed successfully. For the case where both the donor and acceptor occupy equatorial positions on a rigid cyclohexane bridge, we find βcalc = 2.8 per C-C bond, compared with the experimental value βexp = 2.6. This work highlights the power of using localized diabatization methods as a tool for modeling nonequilibrium processes.

  11. Communication: Rate coefficients of the H + CH4 → H2 + CH3 reaction from ring polymer molecular dynamics on a highly accurate potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingyong; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Dong H

    2015-09-14

    The ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) calculations are performed to calculate rate constants for the title reaction on the recently constructed potential energy surface based on permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) neural-network (NN) fitting [J. Li et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204302 (2015)]. By inspecting convergence, 16 beads are used in computing free-energy barriers at 300 K ≤ T ≤ 1000 K, while different numbers of beads are used for transmission coefficients. The present RPMD rates are in excellent agreement with quantum rates computed on the same potential energy surface, as well as with the experimental measurements, demonstrating further that the RPMD is capable of producing accurate rates for polyatomic chemical reactions even at rather low temperatures.

  12. Communication: Rate coefficients of the H + CH4 → H2 + CH3 reaction from ring polymer molecular dynamics on a highly accurate potential energy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingyong; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Dong H.

    2015-09-01

    The ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) calculations are performed to calculate rate constants for the title reaction on the recently constructed potential energy surface based on permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) neural-network (NN) fitting [J. Li et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204302 (2015)]. By inspecting convergence, 16 beads are used in computing free-energy barriers at 300 K ≤ T ≤ 1000 K, while different numbers of beads are used for transmission coefficients. The present RPMD rates are in excellent agreement with quantum rates computed on the same potential energy surface, as well as with the experimental measurements, demonstrating further that the RPMD is capable of producing accurate rates for polyatomic chemical reactions even at rather low temperatures.

  13. Thermal Death Kinetics of Conogethes Punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as Influenced by Heating Rate and Life Stage.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lixia; Du, Yanli; Johnson, Judy A; Wang, Shaojin

    2015-10-01

    Thermal death kinetics of Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different life stages, heating rate, and temperature is essential for developing postharvest treatments to control pests in chestnuts. Using a heating block system (HBS), the most heat-tolerant life stage of C. punctiferalis and the effects of heating rate (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10°C/min) on insect mortality were determined. The thermal death kinetic data of fifth-instar C. punctiferalis were obtained at temperatures between 44 and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C/min. The results showed that the relative heat tolerance of C. punctiferalis was found to be fifth instars>pupae> third instars> eggs. To avoid the enhanced thermal tolerance of C. punctiferalis at low heating rates (0.1 or 0.5°C/min), a high heating rate of 5°C/min was selected to simulate the fast radio frequency heating in chestnuts and further determine the thermal death kinetic data. Thermal death curves of C. punctiferalis followed a 0th-order kinetic reaction model. The minimum exposure time to achieve 100% mortality was 55, 12, 6, and 3 min at 44, 46, 48, and 50°C, respectively. The activation energy for controlling C. punctiferalis was 482.15 kJ/mol with the z value of 4.09°C obtained from the thermal death-time curve. The information provided by thermal death kinetics for C. punctiferalis is useful in developing effective postharvest thermal treatment protocols for disinfesting chestnuts.

  14. Thermal Death Kinetics of Conogethes Punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as Influenced by Heating Rate and Life Stage.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lixia; Du, Yanli; Johnson, Judy A; Wang, Shaojin

    2015-10-01

    Thermal death kinetics of Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different life stages, heating rate, and temperature is essential for developing postharvest treatments to control pests in chestnuts. Using a heating block system (HBS), the most heat-tolerant life stage of C. punctiferalis and the effects of heating rate (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10°C/min) on insect mortality were determined. The thermal death kinetic data of fifth-instar C. punctiferalis were obtained at temperatures between 44 and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C/min. The results showed that the relative heat tolerance of C. punctiferalis was found to be fifth instars>pupae> third instars> eggs. To avoid the enhanced thermal tolerance of C. punctiferalis at low heating rates (0.1 or 0.5°C/min), a high heating rate of 5°C/min was selected to simulate the fast radio frequency heating in chestnuts and further determine the thermal death kinetic data. Thermal death curves of C. punctiferalis followed a 0th-order kinetic reaction model. The minimum exposure time to achieve 100% mortality was 55, 12, 6, and 3 min at 44, 46, 48, and 50°C, respectively. The activation energy for controlling C. punctiferalis was 482.15 kJ/mol with the z value of 4.09°C obtained from the thermal death-time curve. The information provided by thermal death kinetics for C. punctiferalis is useful in developing effective postharvest thermal treatment protocols for disinfesting chestnuts. PMID:26453708

  15. Residual thermal and moisture influences on the strain energy release rate analysis of edge delamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. K.; Raju, I. S.; Garber, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    A laminated plate theory analysis is developed to calculate the strain energy release rate associated with edge delamination growth in a composite laminate. The analysis includes the contribution of residual thermal and moisture stresses to the strain energy released. The strain energy release rate, G, increased when residual thermal effects were combined with applied mechanical strains, but then decreased when increasing moisture content was included. A quasi-three-dimensional finite element analysis indicated identical trends and demonstrated these same trends for the individual strain energy release rate components, G sub I and G sub II, associated with interlaminar tension and shear. An experimental study indicated that for T300/5208 graphite-epoxy composites, the inclusion of residual thermal and moisture stresses did not significantly alter the calculation of interlaminar fracture toughness from strain energy release rate analysis of edge delamination data taken at room temperature, ambient conditions.

  16. Residual thermal and moisture influences on the strain energy release rate analysis of edge delamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. K.; Raju, I. S.; Garber, D. P.

    1986-01-01

    A laminated plate theory analysis is developed to calculate the strain energy release rate associated with edge delamination growth in a composite laminate. The analysis includes the contribution of residual thermal and moisture stresses to the strain energy released. The strain energy release rate, G, increased when residual thermal effects were combined with applied mechanical strains, but then decreased when increasing moisture content was included. A quasi-three-dimensional finite element analysis indicated identical trends and demonstrated these same trends for the individual strain energy release rate components, G sub I and G sub II, associated with interlaminar tension and shear. An experimental study indicated that for T300/5208 graphite-epoxy composites, the inclusion of residual thermal and moisture stresses did not significantly alter the calculation of interlaminar fracture toughness from strain energy release rate analysis of edge delamination data taken at room temperature, ambient conditions.

  17. A rapid heating and cooling rate dilatometer for measuring thermal expansion in dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Twiggs, S W; Searle, J R; Ringle, R D; Fairhurst, C W

    1989-09-01

    Herein we describe a dilatometer that consists of a low-mass infrared furnace for rapid heating or cooling, an optical pyrometer, and a laser interferometer. The dilatometer facilitates observations of thermal expansion at rates comparable with those in dental laboratory practice over the temperature range necessary for comparison of thermal expansion of dental porcelain and alloy. Examples of thermal expansion data obtained at a 600 degrees C/min heating rate on NIST SRM 710 glass and dental porcelain are reported. To a limited extent, thermal expansion data above the glass-transition temperature range of dental porcelain were obtained. A shift of the glass-transition temperature range to higher temperatures was observed for both materials, compared with data obtained at 20 degrees C/min. PMID:2778175

  18. Effects of freezing rates and cryoprotectant on thermal expansion of articular cartilage during freezing process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Sun, H J; Lv, Y; Zou, J C; Lin, B L; Hua, T C

    2013-01-01

    The intact articular cartilage has not yet been successfully preserved at low temperature most likely due to the volume expansion from water to ice during freezing. The objective of this current study focuses on examining thermal expansion behavior of articular cartilage (AC) during freezing from 0 degree C to -100 degree C. Thermo Mechanical Analysis (TMA) was used to investigate the effects of different concentrations of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) (0%, 10%, 30% and 60% v/v) and different freezing rates (1 C/min, 3 C/min and 5 C/min). The results showed that: (1) the inhomogeneous thermal expansion (or contraction) presents due to inhomogeneous water distributions in articular cartilage during freezing, which also may be the most likely reason that the matrix has been damaged in cryopreserved intact articular cartilage; (2) at the phase transition temperature range, the maximum thermal strain change value for 5C/min is approximately 1.45 times than that for 1 C/min, but the maximum thermal expansion coefficient of the later is about six times than that of the former; (3) the thermal expansion coefficient decreases with increasing cooling rate at the unfrozen temperature region, but some opposite results are obtained at the frozen temperature region; (4) the higher the DMSO concentration is, at the phase change temperature region, the smaller the thermal strain change as well as the maximum thermal expansion coefficient are, but DMSO concentration exhibits little effect on the thermal expansion coefficient at both unfrozen and frozen region. Once the DMSO concentration increasing enough, e.g. 60% v/v, the thermal strain decreases linearly and smoothly without any abrupt change due to little or no ice crystal forms (i.e. vitrification) in frozen articular cartilage. This study may improve our understanding of the thermal expansion (or contraction) behavior of cryopreserved articular cartilage and it may be useful for the future study on cryopreservation of intact

  19. Temperature and flow rate effects on mass median diameters of thermally generated malathion and naled fogs.

    PubMed

    Brown, J R; Chew, V; Melson, R O

    1993-06-01

    The effects of temperature and flow rate on mass median diameters (mmds) of thermally generated aerosol clouds were studied. Number 2 fuel oil alone, undiluted and diluted malathion 91, and undiluted naled were examined. There was a significant flow rate x temperature interaction on the mmds of diluted malathion fogs: i.e., differences among flow rates depended on temperature and vice versa. PMID:8350082

  20. Accurate and stable equal-pressure measurements of water vapor transmission rate reaching the 10−6 g m−2 day−1 range

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Yoichiro; Yanase, Takashi; Nagahama, Taro; Yoshida, Hajime; Shimada, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of a gas barrier coating is a critically important parameter for flexible organic device packaging, but its accurate measurement without mechanical stress to ultrathin films has been a significant challenge in instrumental analysis. At the current stage, no reliable results have been reported in the range of 10−6 g m−2 day−1 that is required for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this article, we describe a solution for this difficult, but important measurement, involving enhanced sensitivity by a cold trap, stabilized temperature system, pumped sealing and calibration by a standard conductance element. PMID:27748431

  1. Accurate and stable equal-pressure measurements of water vapor transmission rate reaching the 10‑6 g m‑2 day‑1 range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Yoichiro; Yanase, Takashi; Nagahama, Taro; Yoshida, Hajime; Shimada, Toshihiro

    2016-10-01

    The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of a gas barrier coating is a critically important parameter for flexible organic device packaging, but its accurate measurement without mechanical stress to ultrathin films has been a significant challenge in instrumental analysis. At the current stage, no reliable results have been reported in the range of 10‑6 g m‑2 day‑1 that is required for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this article, we describe a solution for this difficult, but important measurement, involving enhanced sensitivity by a cold trap, stabilized temperature system, pumped sealing and calibration by a standard conductance element.

  2. Effect of warming rate on the critical thermal maxima of crabs, shrimp and fish.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Catarina; Leal, Inês; Mendonça, Vanessa; Flores, Augusto A V

    2015-01-01

    The threat of global warming has prompted numerous recent studies on the thermal tolerance of marine species. A widely used method to determine the upper thermal limit has been the Critical Thermal Maximum (CTMax), a dynamic method, meaning that temperature is increased gradually until a critical point is reached. This method presents several advantages over static methods, however, there is one main issue that hinders interpretation and comparison of CTMax results: the rate at which the temperature is increased. This rate varies widely among published protocols. The aim of the present work was to determine the effect of warming rate on CTMax values, using different animal groups. The influence of the thermal niche occupied by each species (intertidal vs subtidal) and habitat (intertidal vs subtidal) was also investigated. CTMax were estimated at three different rates: 1°Cmin(-1), 1°C30min(-1) and 1°Ch(-1), in two species of crab, Eurypanopeus abbreviatus and Menippe nodifrons, shrimp Palaemon northropi and Hippolyte obliquimanus and fish Bathygobius soporator and Parablennius marmoreus. While there were significant differences in the effect of warming rates for some species, for other species warming rate produced no significant differences (H. obliquimanus and B. soporator). While in some species slower warming rates lead to lower CTMax values (P. northropi and P. marmoreus) in other species the opposite occurred (E. abbreviatus and M. nodifrons). Biological group has a significant effect with crabs' CTMax increasing at slower warming rates, which did not happen for shrimp and fish. Subtidal species presented lower CTMax, at all warming rates tested. This study highlights the importance of estimating CTMax values at realistic rates that species encounter in their environment and thus have an ecological value. PMID:25526650

  3. Assessments of system impacts of spent fuel thermal characteristics and emplacement rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rickertsen, L.D.

    1993-12-31

    Analysis conducted to evaluate the impacts spent fuel thermal characteristics and emplacement rates might have on the thermal conditions in a candidate geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site are reported here. These analyses considered the effect of the current projections for the burnup of the spent fuel, the variability in waste thermal characteristics, and the sequence and location of waste emplacement on the repository temperatures relative to those predicted for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The results show that, for the same conceptual design, the temperatures in the repository would be significantly higher than those considered for the SCP. These results could affect the evaluations of alternative thermal loading strategies for the candidate repository.

  4. Absorbed dose rates in tissue from prompt gamma emissions from near-thermal neutron absorption

    DOE PAGES

    Schwahn, Scott O.

    2015-10-01

    Prompt gamma emission data from the International Atomic Energy Agency s Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis database are analyzed to determine the absorbed dose rates in tissue to be expected when natural elements are exposed in a near-thermal neutron environment.

  5. Determination of the strain rate dependent thermal softening behavior of thermoplastic materials for crash simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Christian; Klein, Jan; Schöngart, Maximilian

    2016-03-01

    Thermoplastic materials are increasingly used as a light weight replacement for metal, especially in automotive applications. Typical examples are frontends and bumpers. The loads on these structures are very often impulsive, for example in a crash situation. A high rate of loading causes a high strain rate in the material which has a major impact on the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials. The stiffness as well as the rigidity of polymers increases to higher strain rates. The increase of the mechanical properties is superimposed at higher rates of loading by another effect which works reducing on stiffness and rigidity, the increase of temperature caused by plastic deformation. The mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials is influenced by temperature opposing to strain rate. The stiffness and rigidity are decreased to higher values of temperature. The effect of thermal softening on thermoplastic materials is investigated at IKV. For this purpose high-speed tensile tests are performed on a blend, consisting of Polybutylenterephthalate (PBT) and Polycarbonate (PC). In preliminary investigations the effects of strain rate on the thermomechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials was studied by different authors. Tensile impact as well as split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests were conducted in combination with high-speed temperature measurement, though, the authors struggled especially with temperature measurement. This paper presents an approach which uses high-speed strain measurement to transpire the link between strain, strain rate and thermal softening as well as the interdependency between strain hardening and thermal softening. The results show a superimposition of strain hardening and thermal softening, which is consistent to preliminary investigations. The advantage of the presented research is that the results can be used to calibrate damage and material models to perform mechanical simulations using Finite Element Analysis.

  6. Non-adiabatic effects within a single thermally averaged potential energy surface: thermal expansion and reaction rates of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Alonso, J L; Castro, A; Clemente-Gallardo, J; Echenique, P; Mazo, J J; Polo, V; Rubio, A; Zueco, D

    2012-12-14

    At non-zero temperature and when a system has low-lying excited electronic states, the ground-state Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down and the low-lying electronic states are involved in any chemical process. In this work, we use a temperature-dependent effective potential for the nuclei which can accommodate the influence of an arbitrary number of electronic states in a simple way, while at the same time producing the correct Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for the electronic part. With the help of this effective potential, we show that thermally activated low-lying electronic states can have a significant effect in molecular properties for which electronic excitations are oftentimes ignored. We study the thermal expansion of the Manganese dimer, Mn(2), where we find that the average bond length experiences a change larger than the present experimental accuracy upon the inclusion of the excited states into the picture. We also show that, when these states are taken into account, reaction-rate constants are modified. In particular, we study the opening of the ozone molecule, O(3), and show that in this case the rate is modified as much as a 20% with respect to the ground-state Born-Oppenheimer prediction.

  7. Pāhoehoe flow cooling, discharge, and coverage rates from thermal image chronometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dehn, Jonathan; Hamilton, Christopher M.; Harris, A. J. L.; Herd, Richard A.; James, M.R.; Lodato, Luigi; Steffke, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Theoretically- and empirically-derived cooling rates for active pāhoehoe lava flows show that surface cooling is controlled by conductive heat loss through a crust that is thickening with the square root of time. The model is based on a linear relationship that links log(time) with surface cooling. This predictable cooling behavior can be used assess the age of recently emplaced sheet flows from their surface temperatures. Using a single thermal image, or image mosaic, this allows quantification of the variation in areal coverage rates and lava discharge rates over 48 hour periods prior to image capture. For pāhoehoe sheet flow at Kīlauea (Hawai`i) this gives coverage rates of 1–5 m2/min at discharge rates of 0.01–0.05 m3/s, increasing to ∼40 m2/min at 0.4–0.5 m3/s. Our thermal chronometry approach represents a quick and easy method of tracking flow advance over a three-day period using a single, thermal snap-shot.

  8. Effect of heating rate on the thermoluminescence and thermal properties of natural ulexite.

    PubMed

    Topaksu, M; Correcher, V; Garcia-Guinea, J; Yüksel, M

    2014-10-31

    Boron-rich compounds are of interest in the nuclear industry because they exhibit a high neutron absorption cross section. The manufacture of these materials involves the application of thermal and chemical treatments. This paper focuses on the study of the effect of the heating rate (HR) in two thermal techniques, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermoluminescence (TL), performed on natural ulexite from Bigadiç-Balıkesir (Turkey). The TL measurements were performed at six different heating rates in the range of 25-240°Cmin(-1). The UV-blue TL emission of natural ulexite shifted toward higher temperatures with increasing heating rate, whereas the intensity decreased. The kinetic parameters of the ulexite (Ea=0.65(9) eV and s=1.22×10(12)s(-1)) were calculated using the variable heating rate method. DTA measurements performed in the range of 0.5-10°Cmin(-1) displayed similar behavior to that of the TL response, despite the differences in technique and HR values. The DTA results indicated that natural ulexite exhibits two endothermic peaks originating from different processes: (i) a phase transition between the pentahydrated ulexite phase and a triple-hydrated phase and (ii) dehydration, dehydroxylation and alkali and earth-alkali self-diffusion processes in the ulexite lattice. The main endothermic peak shifted from 160°C to 250°C as the heating rate was increased.

  9. Efficient quantum-classical method for computing thermal rate constant of recombination: application to ozone formation.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Mikhail V; Babikov, Dmitri

    2012-05-14

    Efficient method is proposed for computing thermal rate constant of recombination reaction that proceeds according to the energy transfer mechanism, when an energized molecule is formed from reactants first, and is stabilized later by collision with quencher. The mixed quantum-classical theory for the collisional energy transfer and the ro-vibrational energy flow [M. Ivanov and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144107 (2011)] is employed to treat the dynamics of molecule + quencher collision. Efficiency is achieved by sampling simultaneously (i) the thermal collision energy, (ii) the impact parameter, and (iii) the incident direction of quencher, as well as (iv) the rotational state of energized molecule. This approach is applied to calculate third-order rate constant of the recombination reaction that forms the (16)O(18)O(16)O isotopomer of ozone. Comparison of the predicted rate vs. experimental result is presented.

  10. A comparison of deflagration rates, at elevated pressures and temperatures, with thermal explosion results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glascoe, Elizabeth; Springer, H. Keo; Tringe, Joseph W.; Maienschein, Jon L.

    2011-06-01

    Previously, the deflagration rate and behavior of HMX-based explosives have been correlated with the violence of thermal explosion experiments. In particular, HMX materials that experience deconsolidative burning at elevated pressures (i.e. P = 200 - 600 MPa) also produce significantly more violent thermal explosions. Recently, we have measured the deflagration rates of HMX-based explosives at elevated temperatures (i.e. T = 150 - 180C) and moderate pressures (i.e. P = 10 - 100 MPa). These conditions more closely mimic the pressure and temperatures of an explosive shortly after ignition of a thermal explosion. We will discuss the deflagration rates of HMX based explosives at elevated temperatures and make comparisons with thermal explosion studies on the same materials. The Joint DoD-DOE Munitions Technology Development Program is acknowledged for funding. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. The effects of low dose rate irradiation and thermal aging on reactor structural alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T. R.; Trybus, C. L.; Cole, J. I.

    As part of the EBR-II reactor materials surveillance program, test samples of fifteen different alloys were placed into EBR-II in 1965. The surveillance (SURV) program was intended to determine property changes in reactor structural materials caused by irradiation and thermal aging. In this work, the effect of low dose rate (approximately 2 × 10 -8 dpa/s) irradiation at 380-410°C and long term thermal aging at 371°C on the properties of 20% cold worked 304 stainless steel, 420 stainless steel, Inconel X750, 304/308 stainless weld material, and 17-4 PH steel are evaluated. Doses of up to 6.8 dpa and thermal aging to 2994 days did not significantly affect the density of these alloys. The strength of 304 SS, X750, 17-4 PH, and 304/308 weld material increased with irradiation. In contrast, the strength of 420 stainless steel decreased with irradiation. Irradiation decreased the impact energy in both Inconel X750 and 17-4 PH steel. Thermal aging decreased the impact energy in 17-4 PH steel and increased the impact energy in Inconel X750. Tensile property comparisons of 304 SURV samples with 304 samples irradiated in EBR-II at a higher dose rate show that the higher dose rate samples had greater increases in strength and greater losses in ductility.

  12. Argon Cluster Sputtering Source for ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling of Insulating Materials: High Sputter Rate and Accurate Interfacial Information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoying; Liu, Bingwen; Zhao, Evan W; Jin, Ke; Du, Yingge; Neeway, James J; Ryan, Joseph V; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Kelvin H L; Hong, Mina; Le Guernic, Solenne; Thevuthasan, Suntharampilai; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

    2015-08-01

    The use of an argon cluster ion sputtering source has been demonstrated to perform superiorly relative to traditional oxygen and cesium ion sputtering sources for ToF-SIMS depth profiling of insulating materials. The superior performance has been attributed to effective alleviation of surface charging. A simulated nuclear waste glass (SON68) and layered hole-perovskite oxide thin films were selected as model systems because of their fundamental and practical significance. Our results show that high sputter rates and accurate interfacial information can be achieved simultaneously for argon cluster sputtering, whereas this is not the case for cesium and oxygen sputtering. Therefore, the implementation of an argon cluster sputtering source can significantly improve the analysis efficiency of insulating materials and, thus, can expand its applications to the study of glass corrosion, perovskite oxide thin film characterization, and many other systems of interest.

  13. First accurate experimental study of Mu reactivity from a state-selected reactant in the gas phase: the Mu + H2{1} reaction rate at 300 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakule, Pavel; Sukhorukov, Oleksandr; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Pratt, Francis; Fleming, Donald; Momose, Takamasa; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Torikai, Eiko

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports on the experimental background and methodology leading to recent results on the first accurate measurement of the reaction rate of the muonium (Mu) atom from a state-selected reactant in the gas phase: the Mu + H2\\{1\\}\\to MuH + H reaction at 300 K, and its comparison with rigorous quantum rate theory, Bakule et al (2012 J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3 2755). Stimulated Raman pumping, induced by 532 nm light from the 2nd harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser, was used to produce H2 in its first vibrational (v = 1) state, H2\\{1\\}, in a single Raman/reaction cell. A pulsed muon beam (from ‘ISIS’, at 50 Hz) matched the 25 Hz repetition rate of the laser, allowing data taking in equal ‘Laser-On/Laser-Off’ modes of operation. The signal to noise was improved by over an order of magnitude in comparison with an earlier proof-of-principle experiment. The success of the present experiment also relied on optimizing the overlap of the laser profile with the extended stopping distribution of the muon beam at 50 bar H2 pressure, in which Monte Carlo simulations played a central role. The rate constant, found from the analysis of three separate measurements, which includes a correction for the loss of {{H}2}\\{1\\} concentration due to collisional relaxation with unpumped H2 during the time of each measurement, is {{k}Mu}\\{1\\} = 9.9[(-1.4)(+1.7)] × 10-13 cm3 s-1 at 300 K. This is in good to excellent agreement with rigorous quantum rate calculations on the complete configuration interaction/Born-Huang surface, as reported earlier by Bakule et al, and which are also briefly commented on herein.

  14. A Laboratory to Demonstrate the Effect of Thermal History on Semicrystalline Polymers Using Rapid Scanning Rate Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badrinarayanan, Prashanth; Kessler, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the effect of thermal history on the thermal properties of semicrystalline polymers is essential for materials scientists and engineers. In this article, we describe a materials science laboratory to demonstrate the effect of parameters such as heating rate and isothermal annealing conditions on the thermal behavior of…

  15. Assessment of remineralization via measurement of dehydration rates with thermal and near-IR reflectance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have demonstrated that the optical changes due to the loss of water from porous lesions can be exploited to assess lesion severity with QLF, thermal and near-IR imaging. Since arrested lesions are less permeable to water due to the highly mineralized surface layer, changes in the rate of water loss can be related to changes in lesion structure. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the rate of water loss correlates with the degree of remineralization and whether that rate can be measured using thermal and near-IR reflectance imaging. Methods Artificial bovine enamel lesions (n=30) were prepared by immersion in a demineralization solution for either 8 and 24 hours and they were subsequently placed in an acidic remineralization solution for different periods. The samples were dehydrated using an air spray for 30 seconds and surfaces were imaged using a thermal camera and an InGaAs camera at 1300–1700 nm wavelengths. Results The area enclosed by the time-temperature curve, Δ Q, from thermal imaging showed significant differences (P<0.05) between the lesion window and other windows. Near-IR reflectance intensity differences, Δ I, before and after dehydration decreased with longer periods of remineralization. Only near-IR reflectance imaging was capable of detecting significant differences (P<0.05) between the different periods of remineralization. Conclusions This study demonstrated that both thermal and near-IR reflectance imaging were suitable for the detection of remineralization in simulated caries lesions and near-IR wavelengths longer than 1400 nm are well suited for the assessment of remineralization. PMID:25862275

  16. Heart Rate Variability in Sleeping Preterm Neonates Exposed to Cool and Warm Thermal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Chardon, Karen; Léké, André; Delanaud, Stéphane; Bach, Véronique; Telliez, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the main cause of postneonatal infant death. Thermal stress is a major risk factor and makes infants more vulnerable to SIDS. Although it has been suggested that thermal stress could lead to SIDS by disrupting autonomic functions, clinical and physiopathological data on this hypothesis are scarce. We evaluated the influence of ambient temperature on autonomic nervous activity during sleep in thirty-four preterm neonates (mean ± SD gestational age: 31.4±1.5 weeks, postmenstrual age: 36.2±0.9 weeks). Heart rate variability was assessed as a function of the sleep stage at three different ambient temperatures (thermoneutrality and warm and cool thermal conditions). An elevated ambient temperature was associated with a higher basal heart rate and lower short- and long-term variability in all sleep stages, together with higher sympathetic activity and lower parasympathetic activity. Our study results showed that modification of the ambient temperature led to significant changes in autonomic nervous system control in sleeping preterm neonates. The latter changes are very similar to those observed in infants at risk of SIDS. Our findings may provide greater insight into the thermally-induced disease mechanisms related to SIDS and may help improve prevention strategies. PMID:23840888

  17. Heart rate variability in sleeping preterm neonates exposed to cool and warm thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Chardon, Karen; Léké, André; Delanaud, Stéphane; Bach, Véronique; Telliez, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the main cause of postneonatal infant death. Thermal stress is a major risk factor and makes infants more vulnerable to SIDS. Although it has been suggested that thermal stress could lead to SIDS by disrupting autonomic functions, clinical and physiopathological data on this hypothesis are scarce. We evaluated the influence of ambient temperature on autonomic nervous activity during sleep in thirty-four preterm neonates (mean ± SD gestational age: 31.4±1.5 weeks, postmenstrual age: 36.2±0.9 weeks). Heart rate variability was assessed as a function of the sleep stage at three different ambient temperatures (thermoneutrality and warm and cool thermal conditions). An elevated ambient temperature was associated with a higher basal heart rate and lower short- and long-term variability in all sleep stages, together with higher sympathetic activity and lower parasympathetic activity. Our study results showed that modification of the ambient temperature led to significant changes in autonomic nervous system control in sleeping preterm neonates. The latter changes are very similar to those observed in infants at risk of SIDS. Our findings may provide greater insight into the thermally-induced disease mechanisms related to SIDS and may help improve prevention strategies. PMID:23840888

  18. Combining DSMC Simulations and ROSINA/COPS Data of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko to Develop a Realistic Empirical Coma Model and to Determine Accurate Production Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, K. C.; Fougere, N.; Bieler, A. M.; Altwegg, K.; Combi, M. R.; Gombosi, T. I.; Huang, Z.; Rubin, M.; Tenishev, V.; Toth, G.; Tzou, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    We have previously published results from the AMPS DSMC (Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator Direct Simulation Monte Carlo) model and its characterization of the neutral coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko through detailed comparison with data collected by the ROSINA/COPS (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis/COmet Pressure Sensor) instrument aboard the Rosetta spacecraft [Bieler, 2015]. Results from these DSMC models have been used to create an empirical model of the near comet coma (<200 km) of comet 67P. The empirical model characterizes the neutral coma in a comet centered, sun fixed reference frame as a function of heliocentric distance, radial distance from the comet, local time and declination. The model is a significant improvement over more simple empirical models, such as the Haser model. While the DSMC results are a more accurate representation of the coma at any given time, the advantage of a mean state, empirical model is the ease and speed of use. One use of such an empirical model is in the calculation of a total cometary coma production rate from the ROSINA/COPS data. The COPS data are in situ measurements of gas density and velocity along the ROSETTA spacecraft track. Converting the measured neutral density into a production rate requires knowledge of the neutral gas distribution in the coma. Our empirical model provides this information and therefore allows us to correct for the spacecraft location to calculate a production rate as a function of heliocentric distance. We will present the full empirical model as well as the calculated neutral production rate for the period of August 2014 - August 2015 (perihelion).

  19. Ring polymer molecular dynamics fast computation of rate coefficients on accurate potential energy surfaces in local configuration space: Application to the abstraction of hydrogen from methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingyong; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Dong H.

    2016-04-01

    To fast and accurately compute rate coefficients of the H/D + CH4 → H2/HD + CH3 reactions, we propose a segmented strategy for fitting suitable potential energy surface (PES), on which ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) simulations are performed. On the basis of recently developed permutation invariant polynomial neural-network approach [J. Li et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204302 (2015)], PESs in local configuration spaces are constructed. In this strategy, global PES is divided into three parts, including asymptotic, intermediate, and interaction parts, along the reaction coordinate. Since less fitting parameters are involved in the local PESs, the computational efficiency for operating the PES routine is largely enhanced by a factor of ˜20, comparing with that for global PES. On interaction part, the RPMD computational time for the transmission coefficient can be further efficiently reduced by cutting off the redundant part of the child trajectories. For H + CH4, good agreements among the present RPMD rates and those from previous simulations as well as experimental results are found. For D + CH4, on the other hand, qualitative agreement between present RPMD and experimental results is predicted.

  20. High-performance TSD bits improve penetration rate. [Thermally Stable Diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.H.; Maurer, W.C. ); Westcott, P.A. )

    1993-04-12

    Optimizing the number, size, and orientation of clutters on thermally stable diamond (TSD) bits increases penetration rate and extends bit life. The use of optimized TSD (also commonly referred to as thermally stable product or TSP) bits on high-power drilling motors can greatly reduce drilling time for harsh-environment wells, such as deep gas wells. The power delivered to the rock governs drilling rate, and at high speed the optimized TSD bits are capable of effectively delivering power to drill the rock. This article reviews a 3-year project to develop advanced thermally stable diamond bits that can operate at a power level 5-10 times greater than that typically delivered by conventional rotary drilling. These bits are designed to operate on advanced drilling motors that drill three to six times faster than rotary drilling. These advanced bits and motors are especially designed for use in slim-hole and horizontal drilling applications. The TSD bit design parameters which were varied during the tests were cutter size, shape, density (number of cutters), and orientation. Drilling tests in limestone, sandstone, marble, and granite blocks showed that these optimized bits drilled many of these rocks at 500-1,000 ft/hr compared to 50-100 ft/hr for conventional rotary drilling. A sensitivity model showed that doubling the rate of penetration significantly reduced the time to drill a well and reduced costs by 13 %.

  1. Crossover behavior of the thermal conductance and Kramers’ transition rate theory

    PubMed Central

    Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Sahu, Subin; Chien, Chih-Chun; Dubi, Yonatan; Zwolak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Kramers’ theory frames chemical reaction rates in solution as reactants overcoming a barrier in the presence of friction and noise. For weak coupling to the solution, the reaction rate is limited by the rate at which the solution can restore equilibrium after a subset of reactants have surmounted the barrier to become products. For strong coupling, there are always sufficiently energetic reactants. However, the solution returns many of the intermediate states back to the reactants before the product fully forms. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal conductance displays an analogous physical response to the friction and noise that drive the heat current through a material or structure. A crossover behavior emerges where the thermal reservoirs dominate the conductance at the extremes and only in the intermediate region are the intrinsic properties of the lattice manifest. Not only does this shed new light on Kramers’ classic turnover problem, this result is significant for the design of devices for thermal management and other applications, as well as the proper simulation of transport at the nanoscale. PMID:26634333

  2. Crossover behavior of the thermal conductance and Kramers’ transition rate theory

    SciTech Connect

    Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Sahu, Subin; Chien, Chih -Chun; Dubi, Yonatan; Zwolak, Michael

    2015-12-04

    Kramers’ theory frames chemical reaction rates in solution as reactants overcoming a barrier in the presence of friction and noise. For weak coupling to the solution, the reaction rate is limited by the rate at which the solution can restore equilibrium after a subset of reactants have surmounted the barrier to become products. For strong coupling, there are always sufficiently energetic reactants. However, the solution returns many of the intermediate states back to the reactants before the product fully forms. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal conductance displays an analogous physical response to the friction and noise that drive the heat current through a material or structure. A crossover behavior emerges where the thermal reservoirs dominate the conductance at the extremes and only in the intermediate region are the intrinsic properties of the lattice manifest. Finally, not only does this shed new light on Kramers’ classic turnover problem, this result is significant for the design of devices for thermal management and other applications, as well as the proper simulation of transport at the nanoscale.

  3. Crossover behavior of the thermal conductance and Kramers' transition rate theory.

    PubMed

    Velizhanin, Kirill A; Sahu, Subin; Chien, Chih-Chun; Dubi, Yonatan; Zwolak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Kramers' theory frames chemical reaction rates in solution as reactants overcoming a barrier in the presence of friction and noise. For weak coupling to the solution, the reaction rate is limited by the rate at which the solution can restore equilibrium after a subset of reactants have surmounted the barrier to become products. For strong coupling, there are always sufficiently energetic reactants. However, the solution returns many of the intermediate states back to the reactants before the product fully forms. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal conductance displays an analogous physical response to the friction and noise that drive the heat current through a material or structure. A crossover behavior emerges where the thermal reservoirs dominate the conductance at the extremes and only in the intermediate region are the intrinsic properties of the lattice manifest. Not only does this shed new light on Kramers' classic turnover problem, this result is significant for the design of devices for thermal management and other applications, as well as the proper simulation of transport at the nanoscale. PMID:26634333

  4. Crossover behavior of the thermal conductance and Kramers’ transition rate theory

    DOE PAGES

    Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Sahu, Subin; Chien, Chih -Chun; Dubi, Yonatan; Zwolak, Michael

    2015-12-04

    Kramers’ theory frames chemical reaction rates in solution as reactants overcoming a barrier in the presence of friction and noise. For weak coupling to the solution, the reaction rate is limited by the rate at which the solution can restore equilibrium after a subset of reactants have surmounted the barrier to become products. For strong coupling, there are always sufficiently energetic reactants. However, the solution returns many of the intermediate states back to the reactants before the product fully forms. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal conductance displays an analogous physical response to the friction and noise that drive themore » heat current through a material or structure. A crossover behavior emerges where the thermal reservoirs dominate the conductance at the extremes and only in the intermediate region are the intrinsic properties of the lattice manifest. Finally, not only does this shed new light on Kramers’ classic turnover problem, this result is significant for the design of devices for thermal management and other applications, as well as the proper simulation of transport at the nanoscale.« less

  5. Crossover behavior of the thermal conductance and Kramers' transition rate theory.

    PubMed

    Velizhanin, Kirill A; Sahu, Subin; Chien, Chih-Chun; Dubi, Yonatan; Zwolak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Kramers' theory frames chemical reaction rates in solution as reactants overcoming a barrier in the presence of friction and noise. For weak coupling to the solution, the reaction rate is limited by the rate at which the solution can restore equilibrium after a subset of reactants have surmounted the barrier to become products. For strong coupling, there are always sufficiently energetic reactants. However, the solution returns many of the intermediate states back to the reactants before the product fully forms. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal conductance displays an analogous physical response to the friction and noise that drive the heat current through a material or structure. A crossover behavior emerges where the thermal reservoirs dominate the conductance at the extremes and only in the intermediate region are the intrinsic properties of the lattice manifest. Not only does this shed new light on Kramers' classic turnover problem, this result is significant for the design of devices for thermal management and other applications, as well as the proper simulation of transport at the nanoscale.

  6. New glycoproteomics software, GlycoPep Evaluator, generates decoy glycopeptides de novo and enables accurate false discovery rate analysis for small data sets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhikai; Su, Xiaomeng; Go, Eden P; Desaire, Heather

    2014-09-16

    Glycoproteins are biologically significant large molecules that participate in numerous cellular activities. In order to obtain site-specific protein glycosylation information, intact glycopeptides, with the glycan attached to the peptide sequence, are characterized by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods such as collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD). While several emerging automated tools are developed, no consensus is present in the field about the best way to determine the reliability of the tools and/or provide the false discovery rate (FDR). A common approach to calculate FDRs for glycopeptide analysis, adopted from the target-decoy strategy in proteomics, employs a decoy database that is created based on the target protein sequence database. Nonetheless, this approach is not optimal in measuring the confidence of N-linked glycopeptide matches, because the glycopeptide data set is considerably smaller compared to that of peptides, and the requirement of a consensus sequence for N-glycosylation further limits the number of possible decoy glycopeptides tested in a database search. To address the need to accurately determine FDRs for automated glycopeptide assignments, we developed GlycoPep Evaluator (GPE), a tool that helps to measure FDRs in identifying glycopeptides without using a decoy database. GPE generates decoy glycopeptides de novo for every target glycopeptide, in a 1:20 target-to-decoy ratio. The decoys, along with target glycopeptides, are scored against the ETD data, from which FDRs can be calculated accurately based on the number of decoy matches and the ratio of the number of targets to decoys, for small data sets. GPE is freely accessible for download and can work with any search engine that interprets ETD data of N-linked glycopeptides. The software is provided at https://desairegroup.ku.edu/research.

  7. Subcutaneous nerve activity is more accurate than the heart rate variability in estimating cardiac sympathetic tone in ambulatory dogs with myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yi-Hsin; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Shen, Changyu; Han, Seongwook; Chen, Lan S.; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background We recently reported that subcutaneous nerve activity (SCNA) can be used to estimate sympathetic tone. Objectives To test the hypothesis that left thoracic SCNA is more accurate than heart rate variability (HRV) in estimating cardiac sympathetic tone in ambulatory dogs with myocardial infarction (MI). Methods We used an implanted radiotransmitter to study left stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA), vagal nerve activity (VNA), and thoracic SCNA in 9 dogs at baseline and up to 8 weeks after MI. HRV was determined based by time-domain, frequency-domain and non-linear analyses. Results The correlation coefficients between integrated SGNA and SCNA averaged 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.41–1.06) at baseline and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.63–1.01) after MI (P<.05 for both). The absolute values of the correlation coefficients were significant larger than that between SGNA and HRV analysis based on time-domain, frequency-domain and non-linear analyses, respectively, at baseline (P<.05 for all) and after MI (P<.05 for all). There was a clear increment of SGNA and SCNA at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after MI, while HRV parameters showed no significant changes. Significant circadian variations were noted in SCNA, SGNA and all HRV parameters at baseline and after MI, respectively. Atrial tachycardia (AT) episodes were invariably preceded by the SCNA and SGNA, which were progressively increased from 120th, 90th, 60th to 30th s before the AT onset. No such changes of HRV parameters were observed before AT onset. Conclusion SCNA is more accurate than HRV in estimating cardiac sympathetic tone in ambulatory dogs with MI. PMID:25778433

  8. Effects of Mass Flow Rate on the Thermal-Flow Characteristics of Microwave CO2 Plasma.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-Ki; Na, Young-Ho; Uhm, Han-Sup; Kim, Youn-Jea

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the thermal-flow characteristics of atmospheric pressure microwave CO2 plasma were numerically investigated by simulation. The electric and gas flow fields in the reaction chamber with a microwave axial injection torch operated at 2.45 GHz were simulated. The microwave launcher had the standard rectangular waveguide WR340 geometry. The simulation was performed by using the COMSOL Multiphysics plasma model with various mass flow rates of CO2. The electric fields, temperature profiles and the density of electrons were graphically depicted for different CO2 inlet mass flow rates. PMID:26413663

  9. Effects of Mass Flow Rate on the Thermal-Flow Characteristics of Microwave CO2 Plasma.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-Ki; Na, Young-Ho; Uhm, Han-Sup; Kim, Youn-Jea

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the thermal-flow characteristics of atmospheric pressure microwave CO2 plasma were numerically investigated by simulation. The electric and gas flow fields in the reaction chamber with a microwave axial injection torch operated at 2.45 GHz were simulated. The microwave launcher had the standard rectangular waveguide WR340 geometry. The simulation was performed by using the COMSOL Multiphysics plasma model with various mass flow rates of CO2. The electric fields, temperature profiles and the density of electrons were graphically depicted for different CO2 inlet mass flow rates.

  10. Thermal conductance and basal metabolic rate are part of a coordinated system for heat transfer regulation

    PubMed Central

    Naya, Daniel E.; Spangenberg, Lucía; Naya, Hugo; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Thermal conductance measures the ease with which heat leaves or enters  an organism's body. Although the analysis of this physiological variable in relation to climatic and ecological factors can be traced to studies by Scholander and colleagues, only small advances have occurred ever since. Here, we analyse the relationship between minimal thermal conductance estimated during summer (Cmin) and several ecological, climatic and geographical factors for 127 rodent species, in order to identify the exogenous factors that have potentially affected the evolution of thermal conductance. In addition, we evaluate whether there is compensation between Cmin and basal metabolic rate (BMR)—in such a way that a scale-invariant ratio between both variables is equal to one—as could be expected from the Scholander–Irving model of heat transfer. Our major findings are (i) annual mean temperature is the best single predictor of mass-independent Cmin. (ii) After controlling for the effect of body mass, there is a strong positive correlation between log10 (Cmin) and log10 (BMR). Further, the slope of this correlation is close to one, indicating an almost perfect compensation between both physiological variables. (iii) Structural equation modelling indicated that Cmin values are adjusted to BMR values and not the other way around. Thus, our results strongly suggest that BMR and thermal conductance integrate a coordinated system for heat regulation in endothermic animals and that summer conductance values are adjusted (in an evolutionary sense) to track changes in BMRs. PMID:23902915

  11. Field Measurements Indicate Unexpected, Serious Underestimation of Mussel Heart Rates and Thermal Tolerance by Laboratory Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tagliarolo, Morgana; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Attempts to predict the response of species to long-term environmental change are generally based on extrapolations from laboratory experiments that inevitably simplify the complex interacting effects that occur in the field. We recorded heart rates of two genetic lineages of the brown mussel Perna perna over a full tidal cycle in-situ at two different sites in order to evaluate the cardiac responses of the two genetic lineages present on the South African coast to temperature and the immersion/emersion cycle. “Robomussel” temperature loggers were used to monitor thermal conditions at the two sites over one year. Comparison with live animals showed that robomussels provided a good estimate of mussel body temperatures. A significant difference in estimated body temperatures was observed between the sites and the results showed that, under natural conditions, temperatures regularly approach or exceed the thermal limits of P. perna identified in the laboratory. The two P. perna lineages showed similar tidal and diel patterns of heart rate, with higher cardiac activity during daytime immersion and minimal values during daytime emersion. Comparison of the heart rates measured in the field with data previously measured in the laboratory indicates that laboratory results seriously underestimate heart rate activity, by as much as 75%, especially during immersion. Unexpectedly, field estimates of body temperatures indicated an ability to tolerate temperatures considered lethal on the basis of laboratory measurements. This suggests that the interaction of abiotic conditions in the field does not necessarily raise vulnerability to high temperatures. PMID:26840775

  12. Thixoforming of Steel: New Tools Conception to Analyse Thermal Exchanges and Strain Rate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cezard, P.; Bigot, R.; Becker, E.; Mathieu, S.; Pierret, J. C.; Rassili, A.

    2007-04-01

    Through different papers, authors shown that the influence of thermal exchanges was a first order parameter on the semi-solid steel behaviour, and certainly for every semi-solid metallic materials. These thermal exchanges hide other parameters effect like, for example, the strain rate influence. This paper tries to determine the influence of these two parameters by using a new extrusion device on a hydraulic press. This new tools conception annihilated the influence of the decrease of the punch speed before stopping and permitted to have a constant speed during the experiment. This work also deals with the homogeneous flow during thixoforming of steel and shows the importance to couple initial temperature of the slug with punch speed. This paper presents different conditions which permitted to have a homogeneous flow by keeping a low load.

  13. Thermal stability of PVC formulations gamma irradiated at different dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda-Facio, A.; Benavides, R.; Martínez-Pardo, M. E.

    2014-04-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) formulated with two different stabilizer systems (Ca/Zn stearates and dibasic lead phthalate) irradiated at 75 kGy at two different dose rates were studied in order to evaluate their effect in thermal stability. Samples were degraded in a TGA instrument at different heating rates and the activation energy (Ea) to dehydrochlorination was calculated using the Arrhenius method in accordance with ASTM E 1641-07. TGA evaluations show that temperature for HCl evolution is higher when increasing heating rate, as well as higher resistance to degradation, for irradiated lead formulations; however, after activation energies calculation the irradiated Ca/Zn formulations are more stable. The controversial results are due to the low initial stability of lead additives in PVC.

  14. A non-rigid point matching method with local topology preservation for accurate bladder dose summation in high dose rate cervical brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haibin; Zhong, Zichun; Liao, Yuliang; Pompoš, Arnold; Hrycushko, Brian; Albuquerque, Kevin; Zhen, Xin; Zhou, Linghong; Gu, Xuejun

    2016-02-01

    GEC-ESTRO guidelines for high dose rate cervical brachytherapy advocate the reporting of the D2cc (the minimum dose received by the maximally exposed 2cc volume) to organs at risk. Due to large interfractional organ motion, reporting of accurate cumulative D2cc over a multifractional course is a non-trivial task requiring deformable image registration and deformable dose summation. To efficiently and accurately describe the point-to-point correspondence of the bladder wall over all treatment fractions while preserving local topologies, we propose a novel graphic processing unit (GPU)-based non-rigid point matching algorithm. This is achieved by introducing local anatomic information into the iterative update of correspondence matrix computation in the ‘thin plate splines-robust point matching’ (TPS-RPM) scheme. The performance of the GPU-based TPS-RPM with local topology preservation algorithm (TPS-RPM-LTP) was evaluated using four numerically simulated synthetic bladders having known deformations, a custom-made porcine bladder phantom embedded with twenty one fiducial markers, and 29 fractional computed tomography (CT) images from seven cervical cancer patients. Results show that TPS-RPM-LTP achieved excellent geometric accuracy with landmark residual distance error (RDE) of 0.7  ±  0.3 mm for the numerical synthetic data with different scales of bladder deformation and structure complexity, and 3.7  ±  1.8 mm and 1.6  ±  0.8 mm for the porcine bladder phantom with large and small deformation, respectively. The RDE accuracy of the urethral orifice landmarks in patient bladders was 3.7  ±  2.1 mm. When compared to the original TPS-RPM, the TPS-RPM-LTP improved landmark matching by reducing landmark RDE by 50  ±  19%, 37  ±  11% and 28  ±  11% for the synthetic, porcine phantom and the patient bladders, respectively. This was achieved with a computational time of less than 15 s in all cases

  15. More accurate determination of the quantity of ice crystallized at low cooling rates in the glycerol and 1,2-propanediol aqueous solutions: comparison with equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Boutron, P

    1984-04-01

    It is generally assumed that when cells are cooled at rates close to those corresponding to the maximum of survival, once supercooling has ceased, above the eutectic melting temperature the extracellular ice is in equilibrium with the residual solution. This did not seem evident to us due to the difficulty of ice crystallization in cryoprotective solutions. The maximum quantities of ice crystallized in glycerol and 1,2-propanediol solutions have been calculated from the area of the solidification and fusion peaks obtained with a Perkin-Elmer DSC-2 differential scanning calorimeter. The accuracy has been improved by several corrections: better defined baseline, thermal variation of the heat of fusion of the ice, heat of solution of the water from its melting with the residual solution. More ice crystallizes in the glycerol than in the 1,2-propanediol solutions, of which the amorphous residue contains about 40 to 55% 1,2-propanediol. The equilibrium values are unknown in the presence of 1,2-propanediol. With glycerol, in our experiments, the maximum is first lower than the equilibrium but approaches it as the concentration increases. It is not completely determined by the colligative properties of the solutes.

  16. Heart rate in Palaemon northropi (Rankin) in relation to acute changes in thermal environment

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, C.J.; Wingard, C.; Kitakis, F. )

    1991-03-15

    The Glass Shrimp (Palaemon northropi), common to shallow water/tide pool environs of Atlantic waters, was examined in a series of experiments whereby the temperature-dependence of steady-state heart rate was assessed after acute, controlled changed in their thermal environment. Collection site, tide pool variations averaged 17.2-31.6C/24 hr. period. Accordingly, steady-state heart rates were determined at 5, 15, 25, and 30C by using both timed, optical recording and impedance methods. Mean values obtained were 88bpm (5C), 181 bpm(15C), 236bpm(25C), and 52bpm(30C). Calculated Q{sub 10} determinations ranged from the limits of 1.3 to 2.1 excluding the highest temperature state used. Specimens used averaged 0.62gm wet body weight, and no significant difference between males and gravid females was found. Additionally, the impedance method employed allowed for more precise rate determinations at high heart rates: at the lower heart rates, there was no difference between optically-timed vs. impedance method. Measurement at 30C characteristically showed a severe depression of heart rate, and high mortality after determinations. It is concluded that in situ field survival of Palaemon northropi may involve a time-dependence and/or other mechanisms whereby upper environmental temperatures may be abated.

  17. Predicting coral bleaching hotspots: the role of regional variability in thermal stress and potential adaptation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teneva, Lida; Karnauskas, Mandy; Logan, Cheryl A.; Bianucci, Laura; Currie, Jock C.; Kleypas, Joan A.

    2012-03-01

    Sea surface temperature fields (1870-2100) forced by CO2-induced climate change under the IPCC SRES A1B CO2 scenario, from three World Climate Research Programme Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (WCRP CMIP3) models (CCSM3, CSIRO MK 3.5, and GFDL CM 2.1), were used to examine how coral sensitivity to thermal stress and rates of adaption affect global projections of coral-reef bleaching. The focus of this study was two-fold, to: (1) assess how the impact of Degree-Heating-Month (DHM) thermal stress threshold choice affects potential bleaching predictions and (2) examine the effect of hypothetical adaptation rates of corals to rising temperature. DHM values were estimated using a conventional threshold of 1°C and a variability-based threshold of 2σ above the climatological maximum Coral adaptation rates were simulated as a function of historical 100-year exposure to maximum annual SSTs with a dynamic rather than static climatological maximum based on the previous 100 years, for a given reef cell. Within CCSM3 simulations, the 1°C threshold predicted later onset of mild bleaching every 5 years for the fraction of reef grid cells where 1°C > 2σ of the climatology time series of annual SST maxima (1961-1990). Alternatively, DHM values using both thresholds, with CSIRO MK 3.5 and GFDL CM 2.1 SSTs, did not produce drastically different onset timing for bleaching every 5 years. Across models, DHMs based on 1°C thermal stress threshold show the most threatened reefs by 2100 could be in the Central and Western Equatorial Pacific, whereas use of the variability-based threshold for DHMs yields the Coral Triangle and parts of Micronesia and Melanesia as bleaching hotspots. Simulations that allow corals to adapt to increases in maximum SST drastically reduce the rates of bleaching. These findings highlight the importance of considering the thermal stress threshold in DHM estimates as well as potential adaptation models in future coral bleaching projections.

  18. Modeling Fluid Resuscitation by Formulating Infusion Rate and Urine Output in Severe Thermal Burn Adult Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qizhi; Li, Wei; Zou, Xin; Dang, Yongming; Wu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Acute burn injuries are among the most devastating forms of trauma and lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Appropriate fluid resuscitation after severe burn, specifically during the first 48 hours following injury, is considered as the single most important therapeutic intervention in burn treatment. Although many formulas have been developed to estimate the required fluid amount in severe burn patients, many lines of evidence showed that patients still receive far more fluid than formulas recommend. Overresuscitation, which is known as “fluid creep,” has emerged as one of the most important problems during the initial period of burn care. If fluid titration can be personalized and automated during the resuscitation phase, more efficient burn care and outcome will be anticipated. In the present study, a dynamic urine output based infusion rate prediction model was developed and validated during the initial 48 hours in severe thermal burn adult patients. The experimental results demonstrated that the developed dynamic fluid resuscitation model might significantly reduce the total fluid volume by accurately predicting hourly urine output and has the potential to aid fluid administration in severe burn patients. PMID:26090415

  19. Thermal-hydraulic analysis for changing feedwater check valve leakage rate testing methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, R.; Harrell, J.

    1996-12-01

    The current design and testing requirements for the feedwater check valves (FWCVs) at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station are established from original licensing requirements that necessitate extremely restrictive air testing with tight allowable leakage limits. As a direct result of these requirements, the original high endurance hard seats in the FWCVs were modified with elastomeric seals to provide a sealing surface capable of meeting the stringent air leakage limits. However, due to the relatively short functional life of the elastomeric seals compared to the hard seats, the overall reliability of the sealing function actually decreased. This degraded performance was exhibited by frequent seal failures and subsequent valve repairs. The original requirements were based on limited analysis and the belief that all of the high energy feedwater vaporized during the LOCA blowdown. These phenomena would have resulted in completely voided feedwater lines and thus a steam environment within the feedwater leak pathway. To challenge these criteria, a comprehensive design basis accident analysis was developed using the RELAP5/MOD3.1 thermal-hydraulic code. Realistic assumptions were used to more accurately model the post-accident fluid conditions within the feedwater system. The results of this analysis demonstrated that no leak path exists through the feedwater lines during the reactor blowdown phase and that sufficient subcooled water remains in various portions of the feedwater piping to form liquid water loop seals that effectively isolate this leak path. These results provided the bases for changing the leak testing requirements of the FWCVs from air to water. The analysis results also established more accurate allowable leakage limits, determined the real effective margins associated with the FWCV safety functions, and led to design changes that improved the overall functional performance of the valves.

  20. Shape memory thermal lag and superelastic rate sensitivity of SMA cellular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Ryan T.; Shaw, John A.; Grummon, David S.

    2013-04-01

    An experimental characterization is presented of the thermo-mechanical response of honeycombs and corrugations made of a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA). Of particular interest are the shape memory cycle, the superelastic response, the shape memory thermal lag and the superelastic rate sensitivity. A series of in-plane compression experiments are presented on fabricated honeycombs and their responses are compared to typical monolithic SMAs, such as NiTi wire. Given local material strain limits, NiTi honeycombs exhibit an order of magnitude increase in recoverable deformation, both in the shape memory effect and superelastic effect. This comes at the cost of a reduced load carrying capacity by two orders of magnitude and a reduced (homogenized) compressive stiffness by four orders of magnitude. Due to their sparse structure and enhanced heat transfer characteristics, SMA honeycombs exhibit less superelastic rate sensitivity by two orders of magnitude while having similar thermal lag to SMA wire. The implications of these scaling results are discussed, including possible new regimes of application of SMAs for reusable energy absorption devices and high stroke actuators.

  1. Mass discharge rate retrieval combining weather radar and thermal camera observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Ripepe, Maurizio; Valade, Sebastien

    2016-08-01

    The mass discharge rate is a key parameter for initializing volcanic ash dispersal models. Commonly used empirical approaches derive the discharge rate by the plume height as estimated by remote sensors. A novel approach based on the combination of weather radar observations and thermal camera imagery is presented here. It is based on radar ash concentration estimation and the retrieval of the vertical exit velocities of the explosive cloud using thermal camera measurements. The applied radar retrieval methodology is taken from a revision of previously presented work. Based on the analysis of four eruption events of the Mount Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy) that occurred in December 2015, the proposed methodology is tested using observations collected by three radar systems (at C and X band) operated by the Italian Department of Civil Protection. The total erupted mass was estimated to be about 9·109 kg and 2.4·109 kg for the first and second events, respectively, while it was about 1.2·109 kg for both the last two episodes. The comparison with empirical approaches based on radar-retrieved plume height shows a reasonably good agreement. Additionally, the comparative analysis of the polarimetric radar measurements provides interesting information on the vertical structure of the ash plume, including the size of the eruption column and the height of the gas thrust region.

  2. Thermal Aggregation of Recombinant Protective Antigen: Aggregate Morphology and Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Belton, Daniel J.; Miller, Aline F.

    2013-01-01

    The thermal aggregation of the biopharmaceutical protein recombinant protective antigen (rPA) has been explored, and the associated kinetics and thermodynamic parameters have been extracted using optical and environmental scanning electron microscopies (ESEMs) and ultraviolet light scattering spectroscopy (UV-LSS). Visual observations and turbidity measurements provided an overall picture of the aggregation process, suggesting a two-step mechanism. Microscopy was used to examine the structure of aggregates, revealing an open morphology formed by the clustering of the microscopic aggregate particles. UV-LSS was used and developed to elucidate the growth rate of these particles, which formed in the first stage of the aggregation process. Their growth rate is observed to be high initially, before falling to converge on a final size that correlates with the ESEM data. The results suggest that the particle growth rate is limited by rPA monomer concentration, and by obtaining data over a range of incubation temperatures, an approach was developed to model the aggregation kinetics and extract the rate constants and the temperature dependence of aggregation. In doing so, we quantified the susceptibility of rPA aggregation under different temperature and environmental conditions and moreover demonstrated a novel use of UV spectrometry to monitor the particle aggregation quantitatively, in situ, in a nondestructive and time-resolved manner. PMID:23476645

  3. Discharge rates of fluid and heat by thermal springs of the Cascade Range, Washington, Oregon, and northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.; Pringle, M.K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Fluid and heat discharge rates of thermal springs of the Cascade Range have been determined using the chloride inventory method. Discharge rates of thermal spring groups range from 1 to 120 L s−1. Most of the fluid (50%) and heat (61%) are discharged from two hot spring groups in northern Oregon. Total discharge from thermal springs in the Cascade Range of California, Oregon, and Washington is about 340 Ls−1, which corresponds to about 8.2×104 kJ s−1 of heat. This does not include hot springs developed on the flanks of Mount St. Helens after the 1980 eruption. The Cascade Range consists of geologically and technically distinct segments; rates of convective heat discharge by the thermal springs in these segments correlate with volcanic rock extrusion rates for the last 2 m. y. In Oregon and Washington, many streams without known thermal or mineral springs in their drainage basins also were sampled for chloride and sodium to detect chemical anomalies that might be associated with previously unknown thermal or mineral waters. Only three chloride anomalies not associated with known thermal or mineral springs were identified in the streams of the Cascade Range.

  4. A Comparison of Real-Time Thermal Rating Systems in the U.S. and the U.K.

    SciTech Connect

    Gentle, Jake P.; Myers, Kurt S.; Bush, Jason W.; West, Isaac J.; Greenwood, David M.; Ingram, Grant L.; Davison, Peter J.; Troffaes, Matthias C.M.

    2014-08-01

    Real-time thermal rating is a smart-grid technology that allows the rating of electrical conductors to be increased based on local weather conditions. Overhead lines are conventionally given a conservative, constant seasonal rating based on seasonal and regional worst case scenarios rather than actual, say, local hourly weather predictions. This paper provides a report of two pioneering schemes-one in the U.S. and one in the U.K.-where real-time thermal ratings have been applied. Thereby, we demonstrate that observing the local weather conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. Second, we critically compare both approaches and discuss their limitations. In doing so, we arrive at novel insights which will inform and improve future real-time thermal rating projects.

  5. What do metabolic rates tell us about thermal niches? Mechanisms driving crayfish distributions along an altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Stoffels, Rick J; Richardson, Adam J; Vogel, Matthew T; Coates, Simon P; Müller, Warren J

    2016-01-01

    Humans are rapidly altering thermal landscapes, so a central challenge to organismal ecologists is to better understand the thermal niches of ectotherms. However, there is much disagreement over how we should go about this. Some ecologists assume that a statistical model of abundance as a function of habitat temperature provides a sufficient approximation of the thermal niche, but ecophysiologists have shown that the relationship between fitness and temperature can be complicated, and have stressed the need to elucidate the causal mechanisms underlying the response of species to thermal change. Towards this end, we studied the distribution of two crayfishes, Euastacus woiwuru and Euastacus armatus, along an altitudinal gradient, and for both species conducted experiments to determine the temperature-dependence of: (1) aerobic scope (the difference between maximum and basal metabolic rate; purported to be a proxy of the thermal niche); and (2) burst locomotor performance (primarily fuelled using anaerobic pathways). E. woiwuru occupied cooler habitats than E. armatus, but we found no difference in aerobic scope between these species. In contrast, locomotor performance curves differed significantly and strongly between species, with peak locomotor performances of E. woiwuru and E. armatus occurring at ~10 and ~18 °C, respectively. Crayfish from different thermal landscapes may have similar aerobic thermal performance curves but different anaerobic thermal performance curves. Our results support a growing body of literature implying different components of ectotherm fitness have different thermal performance curves, and further challenge our understanding of the ecology and evolution of thermal niches. PMID:26440800

  6. What do metabolic rates tell us about thermal niches? Mechanisms driving crayfish distributions along an altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Stoffels, Rick J; Richardson, Adam J; Vogel, Matthew T; Coates, Simon P; Müller, Warren J

    2016-01-01

    Humans are rapidly altering thermal landscapes, so a central challenge to organismal ecologists is to better understand the thermal niches of ectotherms. However, there is much disagreement over how we should go about this. Some ecologists assume that a statistical model of abundance as a function of habitat temperature provides a sufficient approximation of the thermal niche, but ecophysiologists have shown that the relationship between fitness and temperature can be complicated, and have stressed the need to elucidate the causal mechanisms underlying the response of species to thermal change. Towards this end, we studied the distribution of two crayfishes, Euastacus woiwuru and Euastacus armatus, along an altitudinal gradient, and for both species conducted experiments to determine the temperature-dependence of: (1) aerobic scope (the difference between maximum and basal metabolic rate; purported to be a proxy of the thermal niche); and (2) burst locomotor performance (primarily fuelled using anaerobic pathways). E. woiwuru occupied cooler habitats than E. armatus, but we found no difference in aerobic scope between these species. In contrast, locomotor performance curves differed significantly and strongly between species, with peak locomotor performances of E. woiwuru and E. armatus occurring at ~10 and ~18 °C, respectively. Crayfish from different thermal landscapes may have similar aerobic thermal performance curves but different anaerobic thermal performance curves. Our results support a growing body of literature implying different components of ectotherm fitness have different thermal performance curves, and further challenge our understanding of the ecology and evolution of thermal niches.

  7. Integration and software for thermal test of heat rate sensors. [space shuttle external tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.; Shrider, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    A minicomputer controlled radiant test facility is described which was developed and calibrated in an effort to verify analytical thermal models of instrumentation islands installed aboard the space shuttle external tank to measure thermal flight parameters during ascent. Software was provided for the facility as well as for development tests on the SRB actuator tail stock. Additional testing was conducted with the test facility to determine the temperature and heat flux rate and loads required to effect a change of color in the ET tank external paint. This requirement resulted from the review of photographs taken of the ET at separation from the orbiter which showed that 75% of the external tank paint coating had not changed color from its original white color. The paint on the remaining 25% of the tank was either brown or black, indicating that it had degraded due to heating or that the spray on form insulation had receded in these areas. The operational capability of the facility as well as the various tests which were conducted and their results are discussed.

  8. Thermal dilepton rates and electrical conductivity of the QGP from the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Heng-Tong; Kaczmarek, Olaf; Meyer, Florian

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the temperature dependence of the thermal dilepton rate and the electrical conductivity of the gluon plasma at temperatures of 1.1, 1.3, and 1.5 Tc in quenched QCD. Making use of nonperturbatively clover-improved Wilson valence quarks allows for a clean extrapolation of the vector meson correlation function to the continuum limit. We found that the vector correlation function divided by T3 is almost temperature independent in the current temperature window. The spectral functions are obtained by χ2 fitting of phenomenologically inspired Ansätze for the spectral function to the continuum extrapolated correlator data, where the correlations between the data points have been included. Systematic uncertainties arising from varying the Ansätze motivated from strong coupling theory as well as perturbation theory are discussed and estimated. We found that the electrical conductivity of the hot medium, related to the slope of the vector spectral function at zero frequency and momentum, is 0.2 Ce m≲σ /T ≲0.7 Ce m for T =1.1 Tc and 0.2 Ce m≲σ /T ≲0.4 Ce m for the higher temperatures. The dilepton rates and soft photon rates, resulting from the obtained spectral functions, show no significant temperature dependence, either.

  9. Rate equations modeling for hydrogen inventory studies during a real tokamak material thermal cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, X.; Hodille, E.; Ning, N.; Sang, C.; Grisolia, Ch.

    2015-08-01

    Prediction and control of tritium inventory in plasma-facing components (PFCs) is a critical nuclear safety issue for ITER and future fusion devices. This goal can be achieved through rate equations models as presented here. We calibrate our models with thermal desorption spectrometry results to obtain a validated set of material parameters relevant to hydrogen inventory processes in bulk tungsten. The best fits are obtained with two intrinsic trap types, deep and shallow, and an extrinsic trap created by plasma irradiation and plastic deformation of the tungsten matrix associated with blister formation. We then consider a realistic cycle of plasma discharges consisting of 400 s of plasma exposure followed by a resting period of 1000 s, repeating for several hours. This cycle is then closed by a long "overnight" period, thus providing an estimate of the amount of tritium retained in the PFCs after a full day of standard operation.

  10. Ultraviolet radiation effects on the infrared damage rate of a thermal control coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet radiation on the infrared reflectance of ZnO silicone white thermal coatings were investigated. Narrow band ultraviolet radiation for wavelengths in the 2200A to 3500A range by a monochromator and a high pressure, 150-W Eimac xenon lamp. The sample was irradiated while in a vacuum of at least 0.000001 torr, and infrared reflectance was measured in situ with a spectroreflectometer at 19,500A. Reflectance degradation was studied as a function of wavelength, time, intensity, and dose. Damage was wavelength dependent at constant exposure, but no maximum was evident above the shortest wavelength investigated here. The degradation rate at constant intensity was an exponential function of time and varies with intensity.

  11. Crossover behavior of the thermal conductance and Kramers' transition rate theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Subin; Velizhanin, Kirill; Chien, Chih-Chun; Dubi, Yonatan; Zwolak, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Heat transport plays opposing roles in nanotechnology, hindering the miniaturization of electronics on one hand and forming the core of novel heattronic devices on the other. Moreover, heat transport in one-dimensional nanostructures has become a central tool in studying the onset of Fourier's law of heat conduction, a yet unresolved puzzle in theoretical physics. We study the paradigmatic setting of heat transport in one-dimensional systems, a lattice coupled to two heat baths held at different temperatures. Using both numerical and analytical tools, we demonstrate that the heat conductance displays a crossover behavior as the coupling to the thermal reservoirs is tuned. We provide evidence that this behavior is universal by examining harmonic, anharmonic, and disordered systems, and discuss the origin of this effect using an analogy with Kramers' transition state theory for chemical reaction rates. This crossover behavior has important implications in the analysis of numerical results, and suggests a novel way to tune the conductance in nanoscale devices.

  12. Testing a Simple Recipe for Estimating Thermal Hydrodynamic Escape Rates in Primitive Terrestrial Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedson, A. J.; Yung, Y. L.; Chen, P.

    2014-12-01

    During the first billion years of the Sun's history, the emission of ultraviolet and X-ray radiation varied from ~100 to ~6 times greater than its present level. The absorption of this intense radiation in the upper atmospheres of the terrestrial planets is believed to have driven rapid hydrodynamic escape, either in the form of energy-limited escape or transonic blow-off. The calculation of escape rates under these circumstances, and in particular the nature of the correct condition to apply at the upper boundary, depends on whether or not the flow remains subsonic below the exobase. If the flow remains subsonic, the kinetic Jeans equations may be applied at the exobase; otherwise, the radius of the sonic point must be located and then appropriate boundary conditions applied at this radius. This seems to suggest that the full hydrodynamic escape problem needs to be solved iteratively to determine where the sonic radius falls and the type of boundary conditions that should be applied. Such an arduous undertaking is generally impractical for standard application in chemical evolution models or related studies. Fortunately, a much easier but still accurate approach to determining whether the flow remains subsonic below the exobase for a given amount of energy deposition has been provided by Johnson et al. (2013, Ap. J. Lett. 768:L4), who base their results on rigorous Discrete Simulation Monte Carlo models. Their model provides the ratio of the escape rate to the energy-limited value as a function of the total XUV heating. The XUV heating, however, is itself coupled to the escape rate through the radial structure of the upper atmosphere, which can become greatly distended for large heating rates. Here we present a simple recipe for estimating the hydrodynamic escape rate that includes the coupling between the escape rate, the radial structure, and the XUV heating while avoiding the use of demanding numerical calculations. The approach involves an iterative semi

  13. A model to predict the thermal reaction norm for the embryo growth rate from field data.

    PubMed

    Girondot, Marc; Kaska, Yakup

    2014-10-01

    The incubation of eggs is strongly influenced by temperature as observed in all species studied to date. For example, incubation duration, sexual phenotype, growth, and performances in many vertebrate hatchlings are affected by incubation temperature. Yet it is very difficult to predict temperature effect based on the temperature within a field nest, as temperature varies throughout incubation. Previous works used egg incubation at constant temperatures in the laboratory to evaluate the dependency of growtProd. Type: FTPh rate on temperature. However, generating such data is time consuming and not always feasible due to logistical and legislative constraints. This paper therefore presents a methodology to extract the thermal reaction norm for the embryo growth rate directly from a time series of incubation temperatures recorded within natural nests. This methodology was successfully applied to the nests of the marine turtle Caretta caretta incubated on Dalyan Beach in Turkey, although it can also be used for any egg-laying species, with some of its limitations being discussed in the paper. Knowledge about embryo growth patterns is also important when determining the thermosensitive period for species with temperature-dependent sex determination. Indeed, in this case, sexual phenotype is sensitive to temperature only during this window of embryonic development.

  14. Thermal-sprayed, thin-film pyrite cathodes for thermal batteries -- Discharge-rate and temperature studies in single cells

    SciTech Connect

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; DAI,JINXIANG; XIAO,T. DANNY; REISNER,DAVID

    2000-05-25

    Using an optimized thermal-spray process, coherent, dense deposits of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) with good adhesion were formed on 304 stainless steel substrates (current collectors). After leaching with CS{sub 2} to remove residual free sulfur, these served as cathodes in Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal cells. The cells were tested over a temperature range of 450 C to 550 C under baseline loads of 125 and 250 mA/cm{sup 2}, to simulate conditions found in a thermal battery. Cells built with such cathodes outperformed standard cells made with pressed-powder parts. They showed lower interracial resistance and polarization throughout discharge, with higher capacities per mass of pyrite. Post-treatment of the cathodes with Li{sub 2}O coatings at levels of >7% by weight of the pyrite was found to eliminate the voltage transient normally observed for these materials. Results equivalent to those of standard lithiated catholytes were obtained in this manner. The use of plasma-sprayed cathodes allows the use of much thinner cells for thermal batteries since only enough material needs to be deposited as the capacity requirements of a given application demand.

  15. Courtship Song Does Not Increase the Rate of Adaptation to a Thermally Stressful Environment in a Drosophila melanogaster Laboratory Population

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Larry G.; Holland, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Courtship song in D. melanogaster contributes substantially to male mating success through female selection. We used experimental evolution to test whether this display trait is maintained through adaptive female selection because it indicates heritable male quality for thermal stress tolerance. We used non-displaying, outbred populations of D. melanogaster (nub1) mutants and measured their rate of adaptation to a new, thermally stressful environment, relative to wild-type control populations that retained courtship song. This design retains sexually selected conflict in both treatments. Thermal stress should select across genomes for newly beneficial alleles, increasing the available genetic and phenotypic variation and, therefore, the magnitude of female benefit derived from courtship song. Following introduction to the thermally stressful environment, net reproductive rate decreased 50% over four generations, and then increased 19% over the following 16 generations. There were no differences between the treatments. Possible explanations for these results are discussed. PMID:25365209

  16. Rapid estimation of glucosinolate thermal degradation rate constants in leaves of Chinese kale and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) in two seasons.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Kristin; Verkerk, Ruud; Bonnema, Guusje; Dekker, Matthijs

    2012-08-15

    Kinetic modeling was used as a tool to quantitatively estimate glucosinolate thermal degradation rate constants. Literature shows that thermal degradation rates differ in different vegetables. Well-characterized plant material, leaves of broccoli and Chinese kale plants grown in two seasons, was used in the study. It was shown that a first-order reaction is appropriate to model glucosinolate degradation independent from the season. No difference in degradation rate constants of structurally identical glucosinolates was found between broccoli and Chinese kale leaves when grown in the same season. However, glucosinolate degradation rate constants were highly affected by the season (20-80% increase in spring compared to autumn). These results suggest that differences in glucosinolate degradation rate constants can be due to variation in environmental as well as genetic factors. Furthermore, a methodology to estimate rate constants rapidly is provided to enable the analysis of high sample numbers for future studies.

  17. High process yield rates of thermoplastic nanofluidic devices using a hybrid thermal assembly technique.

    PubMed

    Uba, Franklin I; Hu, Bo; Weerakoon-Ratnayake, Kumuditha; Oliver-Calixte, Nyote; Soper, Steven A

    2015-02-21

    Over the past decade, thermoplastics have been used as alternative substrates to glass and Si for microfluidic devices because of the diverse and robust fabrication protocols available for thermoplastics that can generate high production rates of the desired structures at low cost and with high replication fidelity, the extensive array of physiochemical properties they possess, and the simple surface activation strategies that can be employed to tune their surface chemistry appropriate for the intended application. While the advantages of polymer microfluidics are currently being realized, the evolution of thermoplastic-based nanofluidic devices is fraught with challenges. One challenge is assembly of the device, which consists of sealing a cover plate to the patterned fluidic substrate. Typically, channel collapse or substrate dissolution occurs during assembly making the device inoperable resulting in low process yield rates. In this work, we report a low temperature hybrid assembly approach for the generation of functional thermoplastic nanofluidic devices with high process yield rates (>90%) and with a short total assembly time (16 min). The approach involves thermally sealing a high T(g) (glass transition temperature) substrate containing the nanofluidic structures to a cover plate possessing a lower T(g). Nanofluidic devices with critical feature sizes ranging between 25-250 nm were fabricated in a thermoplastic substrate (T(g) = 104 °C) and sealed with a cover plate (T(g) = 75 °C) at a temperature significantly below the T(g) of the substrate. Results obtained from sealing tests revealed that the integrity of the nanochannels remained intact after assembly and devices were useful for fluorescence imaging at high signal-to-noise ratios. The functionality of the assembled devices was demonstrated by studying the stretching and translocation dynamics of dsDNA in the enclosed thermoplastic nanofluidic channels.

  18. High Process Yield Rates of Thermoplastic Nanofluidic Devices using a Hybrid Thermal Assembly Technique

    PubMed Central

    Uba, Franklin I.; Hu, Bo; Weerakoon-Ratnayake, Kumuditha; Oliver-Calixte, Nyote; Soper, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, thermoplastics have been used as alternative substrates to glass and Si for microfluidic devices because of the diverse and robust fabrication protocols available for thermoplastics that can generate high production rates of the desired structures at low cost and with high replication fidelity, the extensive array of physiochemical properties they possess, and the simple surface activation strategies that can be employed to tune their surface chemistry appropriate for the intended application. While the advantages of polymer microfluidics are currently being realized, the evolution of thermoplastic-based nanofluidic devices is fraught with challenges. One challenge is assembly of the device, which consists of sealing a cover plate to the patterned fluidic substrate. Typically, channel collapse or substrate dissolution occurs during assembly making the device inoperable resulting in low process yield rates. In this work, we report a low temperature hybrid assembly approach for the generation of functional thermoplastic nanofluidic devices with high process yield rates (>90%) with a short total assembly time (16 min). The approach involves thermally sealing a high Tg (glass transition temperature) substrate containing the nanofluidic structures to a cover plate possessing a lower Tg. Nanofluidic devices with critical feature sizes ranging between 25 – 250 nm were fabricated in a thermoplastic substrate (Tg = 104°C) and sealed with a cover plate (Tg = 75°C) at a temperature significantly below the Tg of the substrate. Results obtained from sealing tests revealed that the integrity of the nanochannels remained intact after assembly and devices were useful for fluorescence imaging at high signal-to-noise ratios. The functionality of the assembled devices was demonstrated by studying the stretching and translocation dynamics of dsDNA in the enclosed thermoplastic nanofluidic channels. PMID:25511610

  19. Experimental study of the surface thermal signature of gravity currents: application to the assessment of lava flow effusion rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, F.; Kaminski, E.; Tait, S.; Limare, A.

    2011-12-01

    During an effusive volcanic eruption, the crisis management is mainly based on the prediction of lava flows advance and its velocity. As the spreading of lava flows is mainly controlled by its rheology and the eruptive mass flux, the key question is how to evaluate them during the eruption (rather than afterwards.) A relationship between the heat flux lost by the lava at its surface and the eruption rate is likely to exist, based on the first-order argument that higher eruption rates should correspond to larger power radiated by a lava flow. The semi-empirical formula developed by Harris and co-workers (e.g. Harris et al., Bull. Volc. 2007) is currently used to estimate lava flow rate from satellite surveys yielding the surface temperatures and area of the lava flow field. However, this approach is derived from a static thermal budget of the lava flow and does not explicitly model the time-evolution of the surface thermal signal. Here we propose laboratory experiments and theoretical studies of the cooling of a viscous axisymmetric gravity current fed at constant flux rate. We first consider the isoviscous case, for which the spreading is well-know. The experiments using silicon oil and the theoretical model both reveal the establishment of a steady surface thermal structure after a transient time. The steady state is a balance between surface cooling and heat advection in the flow. The radiated heat flux in the steady regime, a few days for a basaltic lava flow, depends mainly on the effusion rate rather than on the viscosity. In this regime, one thermal survey of the radiated power could provide a consistent estimate of the flow rate if the external cooling conditions (wind) are reasonably well constrained. We continue to investigate the relationship between the thermal radiated heat flux and the effusion rate by using in the experiments fluids with temperature-dependent viscosity (glucose syrup) or undergoing solidification while cooling (PEG wax). We observe a

  20. Specific Growth Rate Determines the Sensitivity of Escherichia coli to Thermal, UVA, and Solar Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Berney, Michael; Weilenmann, Hans-Ulrich; Ihssen, Julian; Bassin, Claudio; Egli, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge about the sensitivity of the test organism is essential for the evaluation of any disinfection method. In this work we show that sensitivity of Escherichia coli MG1655 to three physical stresses (mild heat, UVA light, and sunlight) that are relevant in the disinfection of drinking water with solar radiation is determined by the specific growth rate of the culture. Batch- and chemostat-cultivated cells from cultures with similar specific growth rates showed similar stress sensitivities. Generally, fast-growing cells were more sensitive to the stresses than slow-growing cells. For example, slow-growing chemostat-cultivated cells (D = 0.08 h−1) and stationary-phase bacteria from batch culture that were exposed to mild heat had very similar T90 (time until 90% of the population is inactivated) values (T90, chemostat = 2.66 h; T90, batch = 2.62 h), whereas T90 for cells growing at a μ of 0.9 h−1 was 0.2 h. We present evidence that the stress sensitivity of E. coli is correlated with the intracellular level of the alternative sigma factor RpoS. This is also supported by the fact that E. coli rpoS mutant cells were more stress sensitive than the parent strain by factors of 4.9 (mild heat), 5.3 (UVA light), and 4.1 (sunlight). Furthermore, modeling of inactivation curves with GInaFiT revealed that the shape of inactivation curves changed depending on the specific growth rate. Inactivation curves of cells from fast-growing cultures (μ = 1.0 h−1) that were irradiated with UVA light showed a tailing effect, while for slow-growing cultures (μ = 0.3 h−1), inactivation curves with shoulders were obtained. Our findings emphasize the need for accurate reporting of specific growth rates and detailed culture conditions in disinfection studies to allow comparison of data from different studies and laboratories and sound interpretation of the data obtained. PMID:16597961

  1. Effect of organic loading rate on anaerobic digestion of thermally pretreated Scenedesmus sp. biomass.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, C; Sialve, B; Bernet, N; Steyer, J P

    2013-02-01

    Biogas production is one of the means to produce a biofuel from microalgae. Biomass consisting mainly of Scenedesmus sp. was thermally pretreated and optimum pretreatment length (1 h) and temperature (90 °C) was selected. Different chemical composition among batches stored at 4 °C for different lengths of time resulted in organic matter hydrolysis percentages ranging from 3% to 7%. The lower percentages were attributed to cell wall thickening observed during storage for 45 days. The different hydrolysis percentages did not cause differences in anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment of Scenedesmus sp. at 90 °C for 1h increased methane production 2.9 and 3.4-fold at organic loading rates (OLR) of 1 and 2.5 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), respectively. Regardless the OLR, inhibition caused by organic overloading or ammonia toxicity were not detected. Despite enhanced methane production, anaerobic biodegradability of this biomass remained low (32%). Therefore, this microalga is not a suitable feedstock for biogas production unless a more suitable pretreatment can be found. PMID:23247149

  2. Low temperature rate constants for the N + CN → N2 + C reaction: two-dimensional quantum capture calculations on an accurate potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianyi; Guo, Hua; Dawes, Richard

    2012-09-21

    The title reaction is thought to be responsible for the production of molecular nitrogen in interstellar clouds. In this work, we report quantum capture calculations on a new two-dimensional potential energy surface determined by interpolating high-level ab initio data. The low-temperature rate constant calculated using a capture model is quite large and has a positive temperature dependence, in agreement with a recent experiment. The origin of the aforementioned behaviors of the rate constant is analyzed.

  3. Direct quantification of lycopene in products derived from thermally processed tomatoes: optothermal window as a selective, sensitive, and accurate analytical method without the need for preparatory steps.

    PubMed

    Bicanic, Dane; Swarts, Jan; Luterotti, Svjetlana; Pietraperzia, Giangaetano; Dóka, Otto; de Rooij, Hans

    2004-09-01

    The concept of the optothermal window (OW) is proposed as a reliable analytical tool to rapidly determine the concentration of lycopene in a large variety of commercial tomato products in an extremely simple way (the determination is achieved without the need for pretreatment of the sample). The OW is a relative technique as the information is deduced from the calibration curve that relates the OW data (i.e., the product of the absorption coefficient beta and the thermal diffusion length micro) with the lycopene concentration obtained from spectrophotometric measurements. The accuracy of the method has been ascertained with a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.98) between the OW data and results acquired from the same samples by means of the conventional extraction spectrophotometric method. The intrinsic precision of the OW method is quite high (better than 1%), whereas the repeatability of the determination (RSD = 0.4-9.5%, n= 3-10) is comparable to that of spectrophotometry.

  4. Progressive thermal desorption of vapor mixtures from a preconcentrator with a porous metal foam internal architecture and variable thermal ramp rates.

    PubMed

    Grate, Jay W; Anheier, Norman C; Baldwin, David L

    2005-03-15

    A vapor preconcentrator has been designed with the porous polymer (Tenax) packed into a highly porous metal foam to facilitate thermal conductivity and temperature uniformity throughout the bed of the preconcentrator during heating. Vapors were desorbed using linear temperature programming from room temperature to a maximum temperature of 170 or 200 degrees C; the programmed duration of the thermal ramp was varied from 10 to 180 s. The partial separation of vapor mixtures that are thermally desorbed from the preconcentrator has been examined in terms of a metric for resolution, using methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and dimethyl methylphosphonate as a test mixture. Vapors desorbed as a sequence of partially separated overlapping peaks, as observed with a polymer-coated flexural plate wave sensor. It was shown that vapor mixture resolution improved as the total time of the thermal ramp was extended from 30 to 120 s. In this way, the preconcentrator serves to act as a preseparator in addition to its usual functions for sampling, signal modulation, and improving sensitivity. Overlapping peaks were modeled, and peak areas were extracted using an exponentially modified Gaussian model. Peak areas were independent of the thermal ramp rate. Uses of such preconcentrators with multivariate detectors, such as sensor arrays, are discussed.

  5. Progressive Thermal Desorption of Vapor Mixtures from a Preconcentrator with a Porous Metal Foam Internal Architecture and Variable Thermal Ramp Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Anheier, Norman C.; Baldwin, David L.

    2005-03-15

    A vapor preconcentrator has been designed with the porous polymer (Tenax) packed into a highly porous metal foam to facilitate thermal conductivity and temperature uniformity throughout the bed of the preconcentrator during heating. Vapors were desorbed using linear temperature programming from room temperature to a maximum temperature of 170ºC or 200ºC; the programmed duration of the thermal ramp was varied from 10 to 180 seconds. The thermal desorption of vapor mixtures captured on the preconcentrator has been examined in detail, using methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and dimethyl methylphosphonate as a test mixture. Vapors desorbed as a sequence of partially separated overlapping peaks as observed with a polymer-coated flexural plate wave sensor. It was shown that vapor mixture resolution improved as the total time of the thermal ramp was extended from 30 seconds to 120 seconds. In this way the preconcentrator serves to act as a preseparator in addition to its usual functions for sampling, signal modulation, and improving sensitivity. Overlapping peaks were modeled and peak areas were extracted using an exponentially modified Gaussian model. Peak areas were independent of the thermal ramp rate. Uses of such preconcentrators with multivariate detectors such as sensor arrays are discussed.

  6. Progressive thermal desorption of vapor mixtures from a preconcentrator with a porous metal foam internal architecture and variable thermal ramp rates.

    PubMed

    Grate, Jay W; Anheier, Norman C; Baldwin, David L

    2005-03-15

    A vapor preconcentrator has been designed with the porous polymer (Tenax) packed into a highly porous metal foam to facilitate thermal conductivity and temperature uniformity throughout the bed of the preconcentrator during heating. Vapors were desorbed using linear temperature programming from room temperature to a maximum temperature of 170 or 200 degrees C; the programmed duration of the thermal ramp was varied from 10 to 180 s. The partial separation of vapor mixtures that are thermally desorbed from the preconcentrator has been examined in terms of a metric for resolution, using methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and dimethyl methylphosphonate as a test mixture. Vapors desorbed as a sequence of partially separated overlapping peaks, as observed with a polymer-coated flexural plate wave sensor. It was shown that vapor mixture resolution improved as the total time of the thermal ramp was extended from 30 to 120 s. In this way, the preconcentrator serves to act as a preseparator in addition to its usual functions for sampling, signal modulation, and improving sensitivity. Overlapping peaks were modeled, and peak areas were extracted using an exponentially modified Gaussian model. Peak areas were independent of the thermal ramp rate. Uses of such preconcentrators with multivariate detectors, such as sensor arrays, are discussed. PMID:15762598

  7. Strain rate sensitivity of mechanical properties and related thermal activation process in a two-phase {gamma} titanium aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, D.; Wang, Y.; Lin, Y.; Kim, Y.W.

    1997-12-31

    Tensile properties of a two-phase {gamma} titanium aluminide with duplex microstructure are tested under different strain rates from 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} to 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}s{sup {minus}1} at temperature from 1,123 K to 1,273 K. It is found that there exists approximate linear relationship between the flow stresses and the logarithm of the strain rate at different temperatures. The strain rate sensitivity can be explained by thermal activation theory, and dislocation climbing is identified as the rate controlling mechanism.

  8. Adaptive Radiation along a Thermal Gradient: Preliminary Results of Habitat Use and Respiration Rate Divergence among Whitefish Morphs

    PubMed Central

    Kahilainen, Kimmo Kalevi; Patterson, William Paul; Sonninen, Eloni; Harrod, Chris; Kiljunen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive radiation is considered an important mechanism for the development of new species, but very little is known about the role of thermal adaptation during this process. Such adaptation should be especially important in poikilothermic animals that are often subjected to pronounced seasonal temperature variation that directly affects metabolic function. We conducted a preliminary study of individual lifetime thermal habitat use and respiration rates of four whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) morphs (two pelagic, one littoral and one profundal) using stable carbon and oxygen isotope values of otolith carbonate. These morphs, two of which utilized pelagic habitats, one littoral and one profundal recently diverged via adaptive radiation to exploit different major niches in a deep and thermally stratified subarctic lake. We found evidence that the morphs used different thermal niches. The profundal morph had the most distinct thermal niche and consistently occupied the coldest thermal habitat of the lake, whereas differences were less pronounced among the shallow water pelagic and littoral morphs. Our results indicated ontogenetic shifts in thermal niches: juveniles of all whitefish morphs inhabited warmer ambient temperatures than adults. According to sampling of the otolith nucleus, hatching temperatures were higher for benthic compared to pelagic morphs. Estimated respiration rate was the lowest for benthivorous profundal morph, contrasting with the higher values estimated for the other morphs that inhabited shallower and warmer water. These preliminary results suggest that physiological adaptation to different thermal habitats shown by the sympatric morphs may play a significant role in maintaining or strengthening niche segregation and divergence in life-history traits, potentially contributing to reproductive isolation and incipient speciation. PMID:25405979

  9. Adaptation to local thermal regimes by crustose coralline algae does not affect rates of recruitment in coral larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Evenhuis, Christian; Logan, Murray; Motti, Cherie A.

    2015-12-01

    Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are well known for their ability to induce settlement in coral larvae. While their wide distribution spans reefs that differ substantially in temperature regimes, the extent of local adaptation to these regimes and the impact they have on CCA inductive ability are unknown. CCA Porolithon onkodes from Heron (southern) and Lizard (northern) islands on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (separated by 1181 km) were experimentally exposed to acute or prolonged thermal stress events and their thermal tolerance and recruitment capacity determined. A sudden onset bleaching model was developed to determine the health status of CCA based on the rate of change in the CCA live surface area (LSA). The interaction between location and temperature was significant ( F (2,119) = 6.74, p = 0.0017), indicating that thermally driven local adaptation had occurred. The southern population remained healthy after prolonged exposure to 28 °C and exhibited growth compared to the northern population ( p = 0.022), with its optimum temperature determined to be slightly below 28 °C. As expected, at the higher temperatures (30 and 32 °C) the Lizard Island population performed better that those from Heron Island, with an optimum temperature of 30 °C. Lizard Island CCA displayed the lowest bleaching rates at 30 °C, while levels consistently increased with temperature in their southern counterparts. The ability of those CCA deemed thermally tolerant (based on LSA) to induce Acropora millepora larval settlement was then assessed. While spatial differences influenced the health and bleaching levels of P. onkodes during prolonged and acute thermal exposure, thermally tolerant fragments, regardless of location, induced similar rates of coral larval settlement. This confirmed that recent thermal history does not influence the ability of CCA to induce settlement of A. millepora larvae.

  10. Solar thermal drying of apricots: Effect of spectrally-selective cabinet materials on drying rate and quality metrics (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solar thermal (ST) drying is currently not in widespread commercial use due to concerns about slow drying rates and poor product quality. ST dryer cabinets could be constructed from spectrally-selective materials (materials which transmit only certain sunlight wavelength bands), but these types of ...

  11. Argon Cluster Sputtering Source for ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling of Insulating Materials: High Sputter Rate and Accurate Interfacial Information

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaoying; Liu, Bingwen; Zhao, Evan; Jin, Ke; Du, Yingge; Neeway, James J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Hongliang; Hong, Mina; Le Guernic, Solenne; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

    2015-08-01

    For the first time, the use of an argon cluster ion sputtering source has been demonstrated to perform superiorly relative to traditional oxygen and cesium ion sputtering sources for ToF-SIMS depth profiling of insulating materials. The superior performance has been attributed to effective alleviation of surface charging. A simulated nuclear waste glass, SON68, and layered hole-perovskite oxide thin films were selected as model systems due to their fundamental and practical significance. Our study shows that if the size of analysis areas is same, the highest sputter rate of argon cluster sputtering can be 2-3 times faster than the highest sputter rates of oxygen or cesium sputtering. More importantly, high quality data and high sputter rates can be achieved simultaneously for argon cluster sputtering while this is not the case for cesium and oxygen sputtering. Therefore, for deep depth profiling of insulating samples, the measurement efficiency of argon cluster sputtering can be about 6-15 times better than traditional cesium and oxygen sputtering. Moreover, for a SrTiO3/SrCrO3 bi-layer thin film on a SrTiO3 substrate, the true 18O/16O isotopic distribution at the interface is better revealed when using the argon cluster sputtering source. Therefore, the implementation of an argon cluster sputtering source can significantly improve the measurement efficiency of insulating materials, and thus can expand the application of ToF-SIMS to the study of glass corrosion, perovskite oxide thin films, and many other potential systems.

  12. Beyond transition state theory: accurate description of nuclear quantum effects on the rate and equilibrium constants of chemical reactions using Feynman path integrals.

    PubMed

    Vanícek, Jirí

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear tunneling and other nuclear quantum effects have been shown to play a significant role in molecules as large as enzymes even at physiological temperatures. I discuss how these quantum phenomena can be accounted for rigorously using Feynman path integrals in calculations of the equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects as well as of the temperature dependence of the rate constant. Because these calculations are extremely computationally demanding, special attention is devoted to increasing the computational efficiency by orders of magnitude by employing efficient path integral estimators.

  13. Residual thermal and moisture influences on the strain energy release rate analysis of local delaminations from matrix cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. K.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis utilizing laminated plate theory is developed to calculate the strain energy release rate associated with local delaminations originating at off-axis, single ply, matrix cracks in laminates subjected to uniaxial loads. The analysis includes the contribution of residual thermal and moisture stresses to the strain energy released. Examples are calculated for the strain energy release rate associated with local delaminations originating at 90 degrees and angle-ply (non-90 degrees) matrix ply cracks in glass epoxy and graphite epoxy laminates. The solution developed may be used to assess the relative contribution of mechanical, residual thermal, and moisture stresses on the strain energy release rate for local delamination for a variety of layups and materials.

  14. Hotter, Faster: A Thermal Model for the H-Chondrite Parent Body Consistent with Chronology and Cooling Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Bennett, M. E., III

    1995-09-01

    HOTTER, FASTER: A THERMAL MODEL FOR THE H-CHONDRITE PARENT BODY CONSISTENT WITH CHRONOLOGY AND COOLING RATES. H. Y. McSween, Jr. and M. E. Bennett, III, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. Because of the abundant sampling and relatively low shock levels of H chondrites, their thermal histories are more tightly constrained than for other ordinary chondrites; consequently, rigorous models for the thermal evolution of their parent asteroid can be formulated that are not possible for other chondrite groups. A revised thermal model for the H-chondrite parent asteroid [Bennett and McSween], based on heating by decay of 26Al, follows the formulation of [Miyamoto and Fujii] except: the unfounded constraint that the relative volumes of different petrologic types must mimic meteorite fall statistics is removed, a shortened thermal history of 60 Ma [Gopel et al] rather than 100 Ma is adopted, and improved geothermometry constraints and measurements of thermal properties [Yomogida and Matsui] are used. Our new model predicts a parent body of approximately 88 kilometers radius, containing a much larger volumetric proportion (71%) of H6 material than in the previous model, with a high thermal gradient and correspondingly small proportions of H5 and H4 material (together comprising 10%) near the surface. Constraints on chronology and cooling rates from H chondrites are used as independent tests of the model. 26Al heating requires that the body accreted 1.5-3.1 Ma after formation of CAIs to reach the measured peak temperature for H6 chondrites, consistent with the 3.0 + 2.6 Ma estimate from Pb/Pb chronology [Gopel et al]. Times of Pb isotopic closure, relative to CAIs, in H-chondrite phosphates (3-5 Ma for H4, 10-16 Ma for H5, 42-62 Ma for H6, from [Gopel et al]) precisely overlap the thermal model estimates. In particular, the markedly shorter duration of heating for H4-5 chondrites agrees with model predictions. The model also

  15. Is scoring system of computed tomography based metric parameters can accurately predicts shock wave lithotripsy stone-free rates and aid in the development of treatment strategies?

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Yasser Ali; Abdelaziz, Alsayed Saad; Shehab, Mohamed Ahmed; Mohamed, Hazem Abdelsabour Dief; Emara, Absel-Aziz Ali; Elnabtity, Ali Mohamed Ali; Ghanem, Maged Mohammed; ELHelaly, Hesham Abdel Azim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to determine the predicting success of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) using a combination of computed tomography based metric parameters to improve the treatment plan. Patients and Methods: Consecutive 180 patients with symptomatic upper urinary tract calculi 20 mm or less were enrolled in our study underwent extracorporeal SWL were divided into two main groups, according to the stone size, Group A (92 patients with stone ≤10 mm) and Group B (88 patients with stone >10 mm). Both groups were evaluated, according to the skin to stone distance (SSD) and Hounsfield units (≤500, 500–1000 and >1000 HU). Results: Both groups were comparable in baseline data and stone characteristics. About 92.3% of Group A rendered stone-free, whereas 77.2% were stone-free in Group B (P = 0.001). Furthermore, in both group SWL success rates was a significantly higher for stones with lower attenuation <830 HU than with stones >830 HU (P < 0.034). SSD were statistically differences in SWL outcome (P < 0.02). Simultaneous consideration of three parameters stone size, stone attenuation value, and SSD; we found that stone-free rate (SFR) was 100% for stone attenuation value <830 HU for stone <10 mm or >10 mm but total number SWL sessions and shock waves required for the larger stone group were higher than in the smaller group (P < 0.01). Furthermore, SFR was 83.3% and 37.5% for stone <10 mm, mean HU >830, SSD 90 mm and SSD >120 mm, respectively. On the other hand, SFR was 52.6% and 28.57% for stone >10 mm, mean HU >830, SSD <90 mm and SSD >120 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Stone size, stone density (HU), and SSD is simple to calculate and can be reported by radiologists to applying combined score help to augment predictive power of SWL, reduce cost, and improving of treatment strategies. PMID:27141192

  16. Communication: Rate coefficients of the H + CH{sub 4} → H{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} reaction from ring polymer molecular dynamics on a highly accurate potential energy surface

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Qingyong Chen, Jun Zhang, Dong H.

    2015-09-14

    The ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) calculations are performed to calculate rate constants for the title reaction on the recently constructed potential energy surface based on permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) neural-network (NN) fitting [J. Li et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204302 (2015)]. By inspecting convergence, 16 beads are used in computing free-energy barriers at 300 K ≤ T ≤ 1000 K, while different numbers of beads are used for transmission coefficients. The present RPMD rates are in excellent agreement with quantum rates computed on the same potential energy surface, as well as with the experimental measurements, demonstrating further that the RPMD is capable of producing accurate rates for polyatomic chemical reactions even at rather low temperatures.

  17. Compositional variability across Mercury's surface revealed by MESSENGER measurements of variations in thermal neutron count rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peplowski, P. N.; Lawrence, D. J.; Goldsten, J. O.; Nittler, L. R.; Solomon, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements by MESSENGER's Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GRNS) have revealed variations in the flux of thermal neutrons across Mercury's northern hemisphere. These variations are interpreted to originate from spatial variations in surface elemental composition. In particular, the measurements are sensitive to the near-surface abundances of elements that absorb thermal neutrons, including major rock-forming elements such as Fe and Ti, minor elements such as Mn and Cl, and rare-earth elements such as Gd and Sm. We have constructed a map of thermal neutron variability across the surface and compared it with known variations in elemental composition and with the distribution of geologic units. Development of the map included the derivation of the macroscopic thermal neutron absorption cross section across the surface, a quantity whose value and variability provides useful constraints on the formation and geochemical evolution of Mercury's crust. Finally, by combining the thermal neutron measurements with previously reported elemental measurements from the GRNS and MESSENGER's X-Ray Spectrometer, we have derived constraints on the abundances of neutron-absorbing elements, including previously unreported limits for some minor and rare-earth elements.

  18. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  19. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  20. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  1. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  2. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  3. The effects of laser repetition rate on femtosecond laser ablation of dry bone: a thermal and LIBS study.

    PubMed

    Gill, Ruby K; Smith, Zachary J; Lee, Changwon; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the effect of varying laser repetition rate on thermal energy accumulation and dissipation as well as femtosecond Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (fsLIBS) signals, which may help create the framework for clinical translation of femtosecond lasers for surgical procedures. We study the effect of repetition rates on ablation widths, sample temperature, and LIBS signal of bone. SEM images were acquired to quantify the morphology of the ablated volume and fsLIBS was performed to characterize changes in signal intensity and background. We also report for the first time experimentally measured temperature distributions of bone irradiated with femtosecond lasers at repetition rates below and above carbonization conditions. While high repetition rates would allow for faster cutting, heat accumulation exceeds heat dissipation and results in carbonization of the sample. At repetition rates where carbonization occurs, the sample temperature increases to a level that is well above the threshold for irreversible cellular damage. These results highlight the importance of the need for careful selection of the repetition rate for a femtosecond laser surgery procedure to minimize the extent of thermal damage to surrounding tissues and prevent misclassification of tissue by fsLIBS analysis.

  4. Thermal dependence of clearance and metabolic rates in slow- and fast-growing spats of manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, David; Ibarrola, Irrintzi; Navarro, Enrique

    2013-10-01

    Thermal dependence of clearance rate (CR: l h(-1)), standard (SMR: J h(-1)) and routine metabolic rates (RMR: J h(-1)), were analyzed in fast (F)- and slow (S)-growing juveniles of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. Physiological rates were measured at the maintenance temperature (17 °C), and compared with measurements performed at 10 and 24 °C after 16 h and 14 days to analyze acute and acclimated responses, respectively. Metabolic rates (both RMR and SMR) differed significantly between F and S seeds, irrespective of temperature. Mass-specific CRs were not different for F and S seeds but were significantly higher in F clams for rates standardized according to allometric size-scaling rules. Acute thermal dependency of CR was equal for F and S clams: mean Q 10 were ≈3 and 2 in temperature ranges of 10-17 and 17-24 °C, respectively. CR did not change after 2 weeks of acclimation to temperatures. Acute thermal effects on SMR were similar in both groups (Q 10 ≈ 1 and 1.6 in temperature ranges of 10-17 and 17-24 °C, respectively). Large differences between groups were found in the acute thermal dependence of RMR: Q 10 in F clams (≈1.2 and 1.9 at temperature ranges of 10-17 and 17-24 °C, respectively) were similar to those found for SMR (Q 10 = 1.0 and 1.7). In contrast, RMR of S clams exhibited maximum thermal dependence (Q 10 = 3.1) at 10-17 °C and become depressed at higher temperatures (Q 10 = 0.9 at 17-24 °C). A recovery of RMR in S clams was recorded upon acclimation to 24 °C. Contrasting metabolic patterns between fast and slow growers are interpreted as a consequence of differential thermal sensitivity of the fraction of metabolism associated to food processing and assimilation.

  5. An alternative empirical model for the relationship between the bond valence and the thermal expansion rate of chemical bonds.

    PubMed

    Sidey, Vasyl

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between the bond valence s and the thermal expansion rate of chemical bonds (dr/dT) has been closely approximated by using the alternative three-parameter empirical model (dr/dT) = (u + vs)(-1/w), where u, v and w are the refinable parameters. Unlike the s-(dr/dT) model developed by Brown et al. [(1997), Acta Cryst. B53, 750-761], this alternative model can be optimized for particular s-(dr/dT) datasets in the least-squares refinement procedure. For routine calculations of the thermal expansion rates of chemical bonds, the alternative model with the parameters u = -63.9, v = 2581.0 and w = 0.647 can be recommended.

  6. Integrated model of reaction rate equations and thermal energy balance in aerobic bioreactor for food waste decomposition.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu; Isoda, Satoru

    2011-06-01

    The integrated model is composed of two basic parts: one is a reaction rate model of biodegradation in combination with bioenergetics and the other is a thermal engineering model of energy flow and balance in the bioreactor. Integrating these models provides possibility to estimate microbial activity using time course of physicochemical parameters such as bed temperature, bed weight, and/or C02 concentration during decomposition.

  7. Collagen thermal denaturation study for thermal angioplasty based on modified kinetic model: relation between the artery mechanical properties and collagen denaturation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, N.; Hayashi, T.; Kunio, M.; Arai, T.

    2010-02-01

    We have been developing the novel short-term heating angioplasty in which sufficient artery lumen-dilatation was attained with thermal softening of collagen fiber in artery wall. In the present study, we investigated on the relation between the mechanical properties of heated artery and thermal denaturation fractures of arterial collagen in ex vivo. We employed Lumry-Eyring model to estimate temperature- and time-dependent thermal denaturation fractures of arterial collagen fiber during heating. We made a kinetic model of arterial collagen thermal denaturation by adjustment of K and k in this model, those were the equilibrium constant of reversible denaturation and the rate constant of irreversible denaturation. Meanwhile we demonstrated that the change of reduced scattering coefficient of whole artery wall during heating reflected the reversible denaturation of the collagen in artery wall. Based on this phenomenon, the K was determined experimentally by backscattered light intensity measurement (at 633nm) of extracted porcine carotid artery during temperature elevation and descending (25°C-->80°C-->25°C). We employed the value of according to our earlier report in which the time-and temperature- dependent irreversible denaturation amount of the artery collagen fiber that was assessed by the artery birefringence. Then, the time- and temperature- dependent reversible (irreversible) denaturation fraction defined as the reversible ((irreversible) denatured collagen amount) / (total collagen amount) was calculated by the model. Thermo-mechanical analysis of artery wall was performed to compare the arterial mechanical behaviors (softening, shrinkage) during heating with the calculated denaturation fraction with the model. In any artery temperature condition in 70-80°, the irreversible denaturation fraction at which the artery thermal shrinkage started was estimated to be around 20%. On the other hand, the calculated irreversible denaturation fraction remained below

  8. Self-deflagration rates of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). [burning tate, thermal stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, T. L.; Price, C. F.; Zurn, D. E.; Atwood, A. I.; Eisel, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal stability and resistance to impact was investigated for the ingredient TABA. Particular attention was given to determining the use of TABA as a possible alternative ingredient or substitute for HMX in explosives and high energy propellants. The burn rate of TABA was investigated as a function of pressure. It was concluded that the self deflagration rate of TABA is an order of magnitude lower than HMX over the range 2000-15000 psi; TABA will not sustain self deflagration at low pressures (less than or equal to 1500 psi) in the sample configuration and apparatus used.

  9. Thermal sensitivity of metabolic rates and swimming performance in two latitudinally separated populations of cod, Gadus morhua L.

    PubMed

    Sylvestre, Eve-Lyne; Lapointe, Dominique; Dutil, Jean-Denis; Guderley, Helga

    2007-05-01

    Atlantic cod populations live in a wide thermal range and can differ genetically and physiologically. Thermal sensitivity of metabolic capacity and swimming performance may vary along a latitudinal gradient, to facilitate performance in distinct thermal environments. To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared the thermal sensitivity of performance in two cod stocks from the Northwest Atlantic that differ in their thermal experience: Gulf of St Lawrence (GSL) and Bay of Fundy (BF). We first compared the metabolic, physiological and swimming performance after short-term thermal change to that at the acclimation temperature (7 degrees C) for one stock (GSL), before comparing the performance of the two stocks after short-term thermal change. For cod from GSL, standard metabolism (SMR) increased with temperature, while active metabolism (AMR, measured in the critical swimming tests), EMR (metabolic rate after an exhaustive chase protocol), aerobic scope (AS) and critical swimming speeds (U (crit) and U (b-c)) were lower at 3 degrees C than 7 or 11 degrees C. In contrast, anaerobic swimming (sprint and burst-coasts in U (crit) test) was lower at 11 than 7 or 3 degrees C. Factorial AS (AMR SMR(-1)) decreased as temperature rose. Time to exhaustion (chase protocol) was not influenced by temperature. The two stocks differed little in the thermal sensitivities of metabolism or swimming. GSL cod had a higher SMR than BF cod despite similar AMR and AS. This led factorial AS to be significantly higher for the southern stock. Despite these metabolic differences, cod from the two stocks did not differ in their U (crit) speeds. BF cod were better sprinters at both temperatures. Cod from GSL had a lower aerobic cost of swimming at intermediate speeds than those from BF, particularly at low temperature. Only the activity of cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) in white muscle differed between stocks. No enzymatic correlates were found for swimming capacities, but oxygen consumption was best

  10. Thermal acclimation of metabolic rate may be seasonally dependent in the subtropical anuran Latouche's frog (Rana latouchii, Boulenger).

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Mou; Lucy Hou, Ping-Chun

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the lack of metabolic thermal acclimation ability in tropical and subtropical amphibians is dependent on season and investigated the effects of body size, sex, time of day, and season on metabolic rates in Rana latouchii. The males were acclimated at 15 degrees, 20 degrees, and 25 degrees C, and their oxygen consumption was measured at 15 degrees, 20 degrees, 25 degrees, and 30 degrees C in all four seasons, with the exception that we did not measure oxygen consumption at 30 degrees C in winter frogs. We also acclimated the males at 30 degrees C in summer for investigating diel variation of metabolic rate. The females were acclimated at 20 degrees and 25 degrees C, and their oxygen consumption was measured at 15 degrees , 20 degrees , 25 degrees , and 30 degrees C in summer. Our results showed that metabolic rates of R. latouchii differed by time of day, season, and acclimation temperature but did not differ by sex if the results were adjusted for differences in body mass. Summer males exhibited a 26%-48% increase in metabolic rates from the lowest values in the seasons. There was a trend of increased oxygen consumption in cold-acclimated males, but it was significant only at 15 degrees and 25 degrees C in summer, autumn, and winter. These results support the hypothesis that thermal acclimation of metabolism is seasonally dependent, which has not been reported in other tropical and subtropical amphibians.

  11. Temperature acclimation rate of aerobic scope and feeding metabolism in fishes: implications in a thermally extreme future.

    PubMed

    Sandblom, Erik; Gräns, Albin; Axelsson, Michael; Seth, Henrik

    2014-11-01

    Temperature acclimation may offset the increased energy expenditure (standard metabolic rate, SMR) and reduced scope for activity (aerobic scope, AS) predicted to occur with local and global warming in fishes and other ectotherms. Yet, the time course and mechanisms of this process is little understood. Acclimation dynamics of SMR, maximum metabolic rate, AS and the specific dynamic action of feeding (SDA) were determined in shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) after transfer from 10°C to 16°C. SMR increased in the first week by 82% reducing AS to 55% of initial values, while peak postprandial metabolism was initially greater. This meant that the estimated AS during peak SDA approached zero, constraining digestion and leaving little room for additional aerobic processes. After eight weeks at 16°C, SMR was restored, while AS and the estimated AS during peak SDA recovered partly. Collectively, this demonstrated a considerable capacity for metabolic thermal compensation, which should be better incorporated into future models on organismal responses to climate change. A mathematical model based on the empirical data suggested that phenotypes with fast acclimation rates may be favoured by natural selection as the accumulated energetic cost of a slow acclimation rate increases in a warmer future with exacerbated thermal variations. PMID:25232133

  12. Temperature acclimation rate of aerobic scope and feeding metabolism in fishes: implications in a thermally extreme future.

    PubMed

    Sandblom, Erik; Gräns, Albin; Axelsson, Michael; Seth, Henrik

    2014-11-01

    Temperature acclimation may offset the increased energy expenditure (standard metabolic rate, SMR) and reduced scope for activity (aerobic scope, AS) predicted to occur with local and global warming in fishes and other ectotherms. Yet, the time course and mechanisms of this process is little understood. Acclimation dynamics of SMR, maximum metabolic rate, AS and the specific dynamic action of feeding (SDA) were determined in shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) after transfer from 10°C to 16°C. SMR increased in the first week by 82% reducing AS to 55% of initial values, while peak postprandial metabolism was initially greater. This meant that the estimated AS during peak SDA approached zero, constraining digestion and leaving little room for additional aerobic processes. After eight weeks at 16°C, SMR was restored, while AS and the estimated AS during peak SDA recovered partly. Collectively, this demonstrated a considerable capacity for metabolic thermal compensation, which should be better incorporated into future models on organismal responses to climate change. A mathematical model based on the empirical data suggested that phenotypes with fast acclimation rates may be favoured by natural selection as the accumulated energetic cost of a slow acclimation rate increases in a warmer future with exacerbated thermal variations.

  13. Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine Coating for Enhanced Thermal Stability and Rate Performance of Graphite Anodes in Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Hyo; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Lee, Junmin; Jeong, You Kyeong; Choi, Jang Wook; Lee, Hochun

    2016-06-01

    Despite two decades of commercial history, it remains very difficult to simultaneously achieve both high rate capability and thermal stability in the graphite anodes of Li-ion batteries because the stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer, which is essential for thermal stability, impedes facile Li(+) ion transport at the interface. Here, we resolve this longstanding challenge using a mussel-inspired polydopamine (PD) coating via a simple immersion process. The nanometer-thick PD coating layer allows the formation of an SEI layer on the coating surface without perturbing the intrinsic properties of the SEI layer of the graphite anodes. PD-coated graphite exhibits far better performances in cycling test at 60 °C and storage test at 90 °C than bare graphite. The PD-coated graphite also displays superior rate capability during both lithiation and delithiation. As evidenced by surface free energy analysis, the enhanced performance of the PD-coated graphite can be ascribed to the Lewis basicity of the PD, which scavenges harmful hydrofluoric acid and forms an intermediate triple-body complex among a Li(+) ion, solvent molecules, and the PD's basic site. The usefulness of the proposed PD coating can be expanded to various electrodes in rechargeable batteries that suffer from poor thermal stability and interfacial kinetics. PMID:27183170

  14. Method and apparatus for obtaining enhanced production rate of thermal chemical reactions

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Wang, Yong; Wegeng, Robert S.; Gao, Yufei

    2003-09-09

    Reactors and processes are disclosed that can utilize high heat fluxes to obtain fast, steady-state reaction rates. Porous catalysts used in conjunction with microchannel reactors to obtain high rates of heat transfer are also disclosed. Reactors and processes that utilize short contact times, high heat flux and low pressure drop are described. Improved methods of steam reforming are also provided.

  15. On the semiclassical description of quantum coherence in thermal rate constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiong; Wang, Haobin; Miller, William H.

    1998-09-01

    An earlier paper of ours [J. Chem. Phys. 108, 9726 (1998)] used an approximate (linearized) version of the semiclassical initial value representation (SC-IVR) to calculate reactive flux correlation functions for a model of unimolecular isomerization, namely a 1-d double well potential coupled to an infinite set of harmonic oscillators, obtaining excellent agreement with accurate quantum results for this system. Here we analyze this linearized approximation (LA) further, however, and show that it is not capable of describing quantum interference/coherence effects in the longer time recrossing behavior of the isomerization dynamics. (The recrossing effects seen in our earlier work were due to classical mechanics.) To accentuate quantum effects in the recrossing dynamics, the present article considers the double well potential without the harmonic bath, using both the LA and the full SC-IVR. The results of the calculations show that the flux correlation functions given by the LA agrees well with the exact quantum correlation function for times up to ≈ℏβ, meaning that it describes quantum effects in the direct or transition state theory like dynamics accurately. For the longer time recrossing dynamics, however, it agrees with the classical rather than the quantum correlation function, i.e., it does not describe quantum coherence effects on this time scale. The full SC-IVR calculations, however, are in reasonably good agreement with the quantum correlation function for these longer times.

  16. On the semiclassical description of quantum coherence in thermal rate constants

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, X.; Wang, H.; Miller, W.H. |

    1998-09-01

    An earlier paper of ours [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 108}, 9726 (1998)] used an approximate (linearized) version of the semiclassical initial value representation (SC-IVR) to calculate reactive flux correlation functions for a model of unimolecular isomerization, namely a 1-d double well potential coupled to an infinite set of harmonic oscillators, obtaining excellent agreement with accurate quantum results for this system. Here we analyze this linearized approximation (LA) further, however, and show that it is not capable of describing quantum interference/coherence effects in the longer time recrossing behavior of the isomerization dynamics. (The recrossing effects seen in our earlier work were due to classical mechanics.) To accentuate quantum effects in the recrossing dynamics, the present article considers the double well potential without the harmonic bath, using both the LA and the full SC-IVR. The results of the calculations show that the flux correlation functions given by the LA agrees well with the exact quantum correlation function for times up to {approx}{h_bar}{beta}, meaning that it describes quantum effects in the direct or transition state theory like dynamics accurately. For the longer time recrossing dynamics, however, it agrees with the {ital classical} rather than the {ital quantum} correlation function, i.e., it does not describe quantum coherence effects on this time scale. The full SC-IVR calculations, however, are in reasonably good agreement with the quantum correlation function for these longer times. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Testing to determine the vacuum-ultraviolet degradation rate of thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilligan, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Samples of S-13G that had been exposed to the salt air environment of Cape Kennedy, Florida were irradiated with simulated solar ultraviolet radiation after various cleaning treatments. In both of the the tests conducted two of the salt air exposed samples were not cleaned, two were lightly cleaned with water and detergent (i.e. rinsed), and two were vigorously scrubbed. Several other white thermal control coatings were also irradiated. The solar absorptance values of these coatings before and as a result of the ultraviolet irradiation are reported for exposure levels up to approximately 2000 ESH.

  18. A new approach to the correlation of boundary layer mass transfer rates with thermal diffusion and/or variable properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Rosner, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    A rational approach to the correlation of boundary layer mass transport rates, applicable to many commonly encountered laminar flow conditions with thermal diffusion and/or variable properties, is outlined. The correlation scheme builds upon already available constant property blowing/suction solutions by introducing appropriate correction factors to account for the additional ('pseudo' blowing and source) effects identified with variable properties and thermal diffusion. Applications of the scheme to the particular laminar boundary layer mass transfer problems considered herein (alkali and transition metal compound vapor transport) indicates satisfactory accuracy up to effective blowing factors equivalent to about one third of the 'blow off' value. As a useful by-product of the variable property correlation, we extend the heat-mass transfer analogy, for a wide range of Lewis numbers, to include variable property effects.

  19. Experimental and modeling study of thermal rate coefficients and cross sections for electron attachment to C(60).

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Albert A; Friedman, Jeffrey F; Shuman, Nicholas S; Miller, Thomas M; Schaffer, Linda C; Troe, Jürgen

    2010-05-21

    Thermal electron attachment to C(60) has been studied by relative rate measurements in a flowing afterglow Langmuir probe apparatus. The rate coefficients of the attachment k(1) are shown to be close to 10(-6) cm(3) s(-1) with a small negative temperature coefficient. These results supersede measurements from the 1990s which led to much smaller values of k(1) with a large positive temperature coefficient suggesting an activation barrier. Theoretical modeling of k(1) in terms of generalized Vogt-Wannier capture theory shows that k(1) now looks more consistent with measurements of absolute attachment cross sections sigma(at) than before. The comparison of capture theory and experimental rate or cross section data leads to empirical correction factors, accounting for "intramolecular vibrational relaxation" or "electron-phonon coupling," which reduce k(1) below the capture results and which, on a partial wave-selected level, decrease with increasing electron energy.

  20. Experimental and modeling study of thermal rate coefficients and cross sections for electron attachment to C(60).

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Albert A; Friedman, Jeffrey F; Shuman, Nicholas S; Miller, Thomas M; Schaffer, Linda C; Troe, Jürgen

    2010-05-21

    Thermal electron attachment to C(60) has been studied by relative rate measurements in a flowing afterglow Langmuir probe apparatus. The rate coefficients of the attachment k(1) are shown to be close to 10(-6) cm(3) s(-1) with a small negative temperature coefficient. These results supersede measurements from the 1990s which led to much smaller values of k(1) with a large positive temperature coefficient suggesting an activation barrier. Theoretical modeling of k(1) in terms of generalized Vogt-Wannier capture theory shows that k(1) now looks more consistent with measurements of absolute attachment cross sections sigma(at) than before. The comparison of capture theory and experimental rate or cross section data leads to empirical correction factors, accounting for "intramolecular vibrational relaxation" or "electron-phonon coupling," which reduce k(1) below the capture results and which, on a partial wave-selected level, decrease with increasing electron energy. PMID:20499963

  1. Experimental and modeling study of thermal rate coefficients and cross sections for electron attachment to C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viggiano, Albert A.; Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Shuman, Nicholas S.; Miller, Thomas M.; Schaffer, Linda C.; Troe, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Thermal electron attachment to C60 has been studied by relative rate measurements in a flowing afterglow Langmuir probe apparatus. The rate coefficients of the attachment k1 are shown to be close to 10-6 cm3 s-1 with a small negative temperature coefficient. These results supersede measurements from the 1990s which led to much smaller values of k1 with a large positive temperature coefficient suggesting an activation barrier. Theoretical modeling of k1 in terms of generalized Vogt-Wannier capture theory shows that k1 now looks more consistent with measurements of absolute attachment cross sections σat than before. The comparison of capture theory and experimental rate or cross section data leads to empirical correction factors, accounting for "intramolecular vibrational relaxation" or "electron-phonon coupling," which reduce k1 below the capture results and which, on a partial wave-selected level, decrease with increasing electron energy.

  2. Millimeter waves thermally alter the firing rate of the Lymnaea pacemaker neuron

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, S.I.; Kochetkova, N.V.; Ziskin, M.C.; Bolshakov, M.A.

    1997-05-01

    The effects of millimeter waves (mm-waves, 75 GHz) and temperature elevation on the firing rate of the BP-4 pacemaker neuron of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis were studied by using microelectrode techniques. The open end of a rectangular waveguide covered with a thin Teflon film served as a radiator. Specific absorption rates (SARs), measured in physiological solution at the radiator outlet, ranged from 600 to 4,200 W/kg, causing temperature rises from 0.3 to 2.2 C, respectively. Irradiation at an SAR of 4,200 W/kg caused a biphasic change in the firing rate, i.e., a transient decrease in the firing rate followed by a gradual increase to a new level that was 68 {+-} 21% above control. The biphasic changes in the firing rate were reproduced by heating under the condition that the magnitude (2 C) and the rate of temperature rise were equal to those produced by the irradiation. The addition of 0.05 mM of ouabain caused the disappearance of transient responses of the neuron to the irradiation. It was shown that the rate of temperature rise played an important role in the development of a transient neuronal response. The threshold stimulus for a transient response of the BP-4 neutron found in warming experiments was a temperature rise of 0.0025 C/s.

  3. Syneresis rate of cow's, ewe's, and goat's curd. Effect of thermal treatment and ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Calvo, M M; Espinoza, N A

    1999-03-01

    The influences of ultrafiltration (UF), the intensity of heat treatment (70 degrees C for 5 or 30 min) applied to milk prior to UF processing, and species on the syneresis rate of curd from cow's, ewe's, and goat's milk were analyzed. The influence of the species was significant (P < 0.05) in the syneresis rate. The syneresis rate depended significantly on the intensity of the heat treatment applied before UF and the degree of concentration; these two parameters showed significant (P < 0.05) differences in the syneresis rate depending on the species studied. These results could indicate a possible difference in the structure of the curd formed. The differences in the curd structure could be due to the different relative composition of the retentates of the different species as well as the possible effect of the UF process on the physicochemical composition of milk.

  4. Recent advances in thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometery method to eliminate the matrix effect between air and water samples: application to the accurate determination of Henry's law constant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-05-16

    Accurate values for the Henry's law constants are essential to describe the environmental dynamics of a solute, but substantial errors are recognized in many reported data due to practical difficulties in measuring solubility and/or vapor pressure. Despite such awareness, validation of experimental approaches has scarcely been made. An experimental approach based on thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometery (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to concurrently allow the accurate determination of target compounds from the headspace and aqueous samples in closed equilibrated system. The analysis of six aromatics and eight non-aromatic oxygenates was then carried out in a static headspace mode. An estimation of the potential bias and mass balance (i.e., sum of mass measured individually from gas and liquid phases vs. the mass initially added to the system) demonstrates compound-specific phase dependency so that the best results are obtained by aqueous (less soluble aromatics) and headspace analysis (more soluble non-aromatics). Accordingly, we were able to point to the possible sources of biases in previous studies and provide the best estimates for the Henry's constants (Matm(-1)): benzene (0.17), toluene (0.15), p-xylene (0.13), m-xylene (0.13), o-xylene (0.19), styrene (0.27); propionaldehyde (9.26), butyraldehyde (6.19), isovaleraldehyde (2.14), n-valeraldehyde (3.98), methyl ethyl ketone (10.5), methyl isobutyl ketone (3.93), n-butyl acetate (2.41), and isobutyl alcohol (22.2).

  5. Recent advances in thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometery method to eliminate the matrix effect between air and water samples: application to the accurate determination of Henry's law constant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-05-16

    Accurate values for the Henry's law constants are essential to describe the environmental dynamics of a solute, but substantial errors are recognized in many reported data due to practical difficulties in measuring solubility and/or vapor pressure. Despite such awareness, validation of experimental approaches has scarcely been made. An experimental approach based on thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometery (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to concurrently allow the accurate determination of target compounds from the headspace and aqueous samples in closed equilibrated system. The analysis of six aromatics and eight non-aromatic oxygenates was then carried out in a static headspace mode. An estimation of the potential bias and mass balance (i.e., sum of mass measured individually from gas and liquid phases vs. the mass initially added to the system) demonstrates compound-specific phase dependency so that the best results are obtained by aqueous (less soluble aromatics) and headspace analysis (more soluble non-aromatics). Accordingly, we were able to point to the possible sources of biases in previous studies and provide the best estimates for the Henry's constants (Matm(-1)): benzene (0.17), toluene (0.15), p-xylene (0.13), m-xylene (0.13), o-xylene (0.19), styrene (0.27); propionaldehyde (9.26), butyraldehyde (6.19), isovaleraldehyde (2.14), n-valeraldehyde (3.98), methyl ethyl ketone (10.5), methyl isobutyl ketone (3.93), n-butyl acetate (2.41), and isobutyl alcohol (22.2). PMID:24704185

  6. First-order thermal correction to the quadratic response tensor and rate for second harmonic plasma emission

    SciTech Connect

    Layden, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.; Percival, D. J.

    2011-02-15

    Three-wave interactions in plasmas are described, in the framework of kinetic theory, by the quadratic response tensor (QRT). The cold-plasma QRT is a common approximation for interactions between three fast waves. Here, the first-order thermal correction (FOTC) to the cold-plasma QRT is derived for interactions between three fast waves in a warm unmagnetized collisionless plasma, whose particles have an arbitrary isotropic distribution function. The FOTC to the cold-plasma QRT is shown to depend on the second moment of the distribution function, the phase speeds of the waves, and the interaction geometry. Previous calculations of the rate for second harmonic plasma emission (via Langmuir-wave coalescence) assume the cold-plasma QRT. The FOTC to the cold-plasma QRT is used here to calculate the FOTC to the second harmonic emission rate, and its importance is assessed in various physical situations. The FOTC significantly increases the rate when the ratio of the Langmuir phase speed to the electron thermal speed is less than about 3.

  7. Influence of pre-existing topography on downflow lava discharge rates estimated from thermal infrared airborne data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, V.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing thermal data of active lava flows allow the evaluation of effusion rates. This is made possible by a simple formula relating the lava effusion rate to the heat flux radiated per unit time from the surface of the flow. Due to the assumptions of the model, this formula implies that heat flux, surface temperature and lava temperature vary as a function of the flow thickness. These relationships, never verified or validated before, have been used by several authors as a proof of the weakness of the model. Here, multispectral infrared and visible imaging spectrometer (MIVIS) high spatial resolution (5-10 m) thermal data acquired during Etna's 2001 eruption were used to investigate downflow heat flux variations in the lava flow emitted from a vent located at 2100 m a.s.l. A high correlation between the downflow heat flux and the lava flow thickness (measured from a pre-existing digital elevation model) was found. Topography beneath the flow appears to play an important role both in lava emplacement mechanisms and flow dynamics. MIVIS-derived downflow effusion rates are consistent with the law of conservation of mass assessing the reliability of remote sensing techniques.

  8. Nanocalorimetry-coupled time-of-flight mass spectrometry: identifying evolved species during high-rate thermal measurements.

    PubMed

    Yi, Feng; DeLisio, Jeffery B; Zachariah, Michael R; LaVan, David A

    2015-10-01

    We report on measurements integrating a nanocalorimeter sensor into a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) for simultaneous thermal and speciation measurements at high heating rates. The nanocalorimeter sensor was incorporated into the extraction region of the TOFMS system to provide sample heating and thermal information essentially simultaneously with the evolved species identification. This approach can be used to measure chemical reactions and evolved species for a variety of materials. Furthermore, since the calorimetry is conducted within the same proximal volume as ionization and ion extraction, evolved species detected are in a collision-free environment, and thus, the possibility exists to interrogate intermediate and radical species. We present measurements showing the decomposition of ammonium perchlorate, copper oxide nanoparticles, and sodium azotetrazolate. The rapid, controlled, and quantifiable heating rate capabilities of the nanocalorimeter coupled with the 0.1 ms temporal resolution of the TOFMS provides a new measurement capability and insight into high-rate reactions, such as those seen with reactive and energetic materials, and adsorption\\desorption measurements, critical for understanding surface chemistry and accelerating catalyst selection. PMID:26372315

  9. Comparison of calculated and experimental thermal attachment rate constants for SF6 in the temperature range 200-600 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.

    1986-01-01

    Electron-attachment cross sections are calcualted for the process e(-) + SF6 yields SF6(-) in the energy range 1-200 meV. An electron scattering approximation is used in which diatomiclike potential energy curves near the equilibrium SF6 ground state are constructed from recent spectroscopic data. Excellent agreement is found over the entire energy range with experimental attachment cross sections at a temperature of 300 K for s-wave (l = 0) scattering. The same calculation, with appropriate adjustment of the thermal populations, is used to calculate attachment rate constants in the range 50-600 K for both s- and p-wave scattering.

  10. A GEM-based thermal neutron detector for high counting rate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelli Cippo, E.; Croci, G.; Muraro, A.; Menelle, A.; Albani, G.; Cavenago, M.; Cazzaniga, C.; Claps, G.; Grosso, G.; Murtas, F.; Rebai, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.

    2015-10-01

    Among other neutron detector systems proposed as a possible substitute for 3He tubes, GEM-based ones have shown appealing characteristics, when coupled with suitable neutron-converter cathodes. In this paper, we present the results of a GEM-based neutron detector in a high-flux environment (the ORPHÉE reactor in Saclay), especially in terms of maximum rate capability and linearity. Recorded data show that the detector can manage neutron counting rates in the order of 50 × 106 counts/sec cm2 while maintaining a reasonable linearity and with no sign of instability.

  11. Sweating Rates of Dairy and Feedlot Cows in Stressful Thermal Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a portable calorimeter. Measurements were made when cows were in shade and exposed to direct sunlight (120 to 1100 W/m2) under different air velocities (0.1 to 1.8 m/s). The effect of color of hair coat (black and white) on...

  12. Sweating rates of dairy and feedlot cows under stressful thermal environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a portable calorimeter. Measurements were made when cows were in shade and exposed to direct sunlight (120 to 1100 W/m2) under different air velocities (0.1 to 1.8 m/s). The effect of color of hair coat (black and white) on...

  13. Cooling rate effects on thermal, structural, and microstructural properties of bio-hydroxyapatite obtained from bovine bone.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Gutierrez, Cristian F; Palechor-Ocampo, Anderzon F; Londoño-Restrepo, Sandra M; Millán-Malo, Beatriz M; Rodriguez-García, Mario E

    2016-02-01

    This article is focused on the study of cooling rate effects on the thermal, structural, and microstructural properties of hydroxyapatite (HAp) obtained from bovine bone. A three-step process was used to obtain BIO-HAp: hydrothermal, calcinations, and cooling. Calcined samples in a furnace and cooling in air (HAp-CAir), water (HAp-CW), and liquid nitrogen (HAp-CN2), as well as an air cooled sample inside the furnace (HAp-CFAir), were studied. According to this study, the low cooling rate that was achieved for air cooled samples inside the furnace produce single crystal BIO-HAp with better crystalline quality; other samples exhibited polycrystalline structures forming micron and submicron grains. PMID:25952013

  14. Cooling rate effects on thermal, structural, and microstructural properties of bio-hydroxyapatite obtained from bovine bone.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Gutierrez, Cristian F; Palechor-Ocampo, Anderzon F; Londoño-Restrepo, Sandra M; Millán-Malo, Beatriz M; Rodriguez-García, Mario E

    2016-02-01

    This article is focused on the study of cooling rate effects on the thermal, structural, and microstructural properties of hydroxyapatite (HAp) obtained from bovine bone. A three-step process was used to obtain BIO-HAp: hydrothermal, calcinations, and cooling. Calcined samples in a furnace and cooling in air (HAp-CAir), water (HAp-CW), and liquid nitrogen (HAp-CN2), as well as an air cooled sample inside the furnace (HAp-CFAir), were studied. According to this study, the low cooling rate that was achieved for air cooled samples inside the furnace produce single crystal BIO-HAp with better crystalline quality; other samples exhibited polycrystalline structures forming micron and submicron grains.

  15. Metabolic rate and oxidative stress in insects exposed to low temperature thermal fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Lalouette, L; Williams, C M; Hervant, F; Sinclair, B J; Renault, D

    2011-02-01

    Fluctuating temperatures are a predominant feature of the natural environment but their effects on ectotherm physiology are not well-understood. The warm periods of fluctuating thermal regimes (FTRs) provide opportunities for repair leading to increased survival, but there are also indications of negative effects of warm exposure. In this study, we examined respiration and oxidative stress in adult Alphitobius diaperinus exposed to FTRs and to constant low temperatures. We hypothesized that cold exposure will cause oxidative stress and that FTRs would reduce the amount of chill injuries, via activation of the antioxidant system. We measured V˙CO2, activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD), amounts of total (GSHt) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) during cold and warm periods of FTRs. Increased severity of cold exposure caused a decrease in the glutathione pool. SOD levels increased during the recovery period in the more severe FTR. The antioxidant response was sufficient to counter the reactive oxygen species production, as the GSH:GSSG ratio increased. We conclude that cold stress causes oxidative damage in these beetles, and that a warm recovery period activates the antioxidant system allowing repair of cold-induced damage, leading to the increased survival previously noted in beetles exposed to fluctuating versus constant temperatures.

  16. Effects of metabolic rate on thermal responses at different air velocities in -10 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, T T; Gavhed, D; Holmér, I; Rintamäki, H

    2001-04-01

    The effects of exercise intensity on thermoregulatory responses in cold (-10 degrees C) in a 0.2 (still air, NoWi), 1.0 (Wi1), and 5.0 (Wi5) m x s(-1) wind were studied. Eight young and healthy men, preconditioned in thermoneutral (+20 degrees C) environment for 60 min, walked for 60 min on the treadmill at 2.8 km/h with different combinations of wind and exercise intensity. Exercise level was adjusted by changing the inclination of the treadmill between 0 degrees (lower exercise intensity, metabolic rate 124 W x m(-2), LE) and 6 degrees (higher exercise intensity, metabolic rate 195 W x m(-2), HE). Due to exercise increased heat production and circulatory adjustments, the rectal temperature (T(re)), mean skin temperature (Tsk) and mean body temperature (Tb) were significantly higher at the end of HE in comparison to LE in NoWi and Wi1, and T(re) and Tb also in Wi5. Tsk and Tb were significantly decreased by 5.0 m x s(-1) wind in comparison to NoWi and Wi1. The higher exercise intensity was intense enough to diminish peripheral vasoconstriction and consequently the finger skin temperature was significantly higher at the end of HE in comparison to LE in NoWi and Wi1. Mean heat flux from the skin was unaffected by the exercise intensity. At LE oxygen consumption (VO2) was significantly higher in Wi5 than NoWi and Wi1. Heart rate was unaffected by the wind speed. The results suggest that, with studied exercise intensities, produced without changes in walking speed, the metabolic rate is not so important that it should be taken into consideration in the calculation of wind chill index. PMID:11282319

  17. Effects of metabolic rate on thermal responses at different air velocities in -10 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, T T; Gavhed, D; Holmér, I; Rintamäki, H

    2001-04-01

    The effects of exercise intensity on thermoregulatory responses in cold (-10 degrees C) in a 0.2 (still air, NoWi), 1.0 (Wi1), and 5.0 (Wi5) m x s(-1) wind were studied. Eight young and healthy men, preconditioned in thermoneutral (+20 degrees C) environment for 60 min, walked for 60 min on the treadmill at 2.8 km/h with different combinations of wind and exercise intensity. Exercise level was adjusted by changing the inclination of the treadmill between 0 degrees (lower exercise intensity, metabolic rate 124 W x m(-2), LE) and 6 degrees (higher exercise intensity, metabolic rate 195 W x m(-2), HE). Due to exercise increased heat production and circulatory adjustments, the rectal temperature (T(re)), mean skin temperature (Tsk) and mean body temperature (Tb) were significantly higher at the end of HE in comparison to LE in NoWi and Wi1, and T(re) and Tb also in Wi5. Tsk and Tb were significantly decreased by 5.0 m x s(-1) wind in comparison to NoWi and Wi1. The higher exercise intensity was intense enough to diminish peripheral vasoconstriction and consequently the finger skin temperature was significantly higher at the end of HE in comparison to LE in NoWi and Wi1. Mean heat flux from the skin was unaffected by the exercise intensity. At LE oxygen consumption (VO2) was significantly higher in Wi5 than NoWi and Wi1. Heart rate was unaffected by the wind speed. The results suggest that, with studied exercise intensities, produced without changes in walking speed, the metabolic rate is not so important that it should be taken into consideration in the calculation of wind chill index.

  18. Assessing the effusion rate of lava flows from their thermal radiated energy: theoretical study and lab-scale experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, F.; Kaminski, E.; Tait, S.; Limare, A.

    2010-12-01

    A quantitative monitoring of lava flow is required to manage a volcanic crisis, in order to assess where the flow will go, and when will it stop. As the spreading of lava flows is mainly controlled by its rheology and the eruptive mass flux, the key question is how to evaluate them during the eruption (rather than afterwards.) A relationship between the lava flow temperature and the eruption rate is likely to exist, based on the first-order argument that higher eruption rates should correspond to larger energy radiated by a lava flow. The semi-empirical formula developed by Harris and co-workers (e.g. Harris et al., 2007) is used to estimate lava flow rate from satellite observations. However, the complete theoretical bases of this technique, especially its domain of validity, remain to be firmly established. Here we propose a theoretical study of the cooling of a viscous axisymmetric gravity current fed at constant flux rate to investigate whether or not this approach can and/or should be refined and/or modify to better assess flow rates. Our study focuses on the influence of boundary conditions at the surface of the flow, where cooling can occur both by radiation and convection, and at the base of the flow. Dimensionless numbers are introduced to quantify the relative interplay between the model parameters, such as the lava flow rate and the efficiency of the various cooling processes (conduction, convection, radiation.) We obtain that the thermal evolution of the flow can be described as a two-stage evolution. After a transient phase of dynamic cooling, the flow reaches a steady state, characterized by a balance between surface and base cooling and heat advection in the flow, in which the surface temperature structure is constant. The duration of the transient phase and the radiated energy in the steady regime are shown to be a function of the dimensionless numbers. In the case of lava flows, we obtain that the steady state regime is reached after a few days. In

  19. Measurement-based control of a mechanical oscillator at its thermal decoherence rate.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D J; Sudhir, V; Piro, N; Schilling, R; Ghadimi, A; Kippenberg, T J

    2015-08-20

    In real-time quantum feedback protocols, the record of a continuous measurement is used to stabilize a desired quantum state. Recent years have seen successful applications of these protocols in a variety of well-isolated micro-systems, including microwave photons and superconducting qubits. However, stabilizing the quantum state of a tangibly massive object, such as a mechanical oscillator, remains very challenging: the main obstacle is environmental decoherence, which places stringent requirements on the timescale in which the state must be measured. Here we describe a position sensor that is capable of resolving the zero-point motion of a solid-state, 4.3-megahertz nanomechanical oscillator in the timescale of its thermal decoherence, a basic requirement for real-time (Markovian) quantum feedback control tasks, such as ground-state preparation. The sensor is based on evanescent optomechanical coupling to a high-Q microcavity, and achieves an imprecision four orders of magnitude below that at the standard quantum limit for a weak continuous position measurement--a 100-fold improvement over previous reports--while maintaining an imprecision-back-action product that is within a factor of five of the Heisenberg uncertainty limit. As a demonstration of its utility, we use the measurement as an error signal with which to feedback cool the oscillator. Using radiation pressure as an actuator, the oscillator is cold damped with high efficiency: from a cryogenic-bath temperature of 4.4 kelvin to an effective value of 1.1 ± 0.1 millikelvin, corresponding to a mean phonon number of 5.3 ± 0.6 (that is, a ground-state probability of 16 per cent). Our results set a new benchmark for the performance of a linear position sensor, and signal the emergence of mechanical oscillators as practical subjects for measurement-based quantum control.

  20. The Thermal Breadth of Nylanderia fulva (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Is Narrower Than That of Solenopsis invicta at Three Thermal Ramping Rates: 1.0, 0.12, and 0.06°C min-1.

    PubMed

    Bentley, M T; Hahn, D A; Oi, F M

    2016-08-01

    Determining the upper (CTmax) and lower (CTmin) critical thermal limits of invasive ants provides insight into how temperature could shape their distribution, seasonality, and daily activity. Understanding the potential distribution of invasive ants is imperative to improving quarantine and management efforts. Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) (tawny crazy ant) and Solenopsis invicta (Buren) (red imported fire ant) are invasive ants that are established throughout the southeastern United States. Recent studies have found that body size and thermal ramping rate can affect the estimation of critical thermal limits. However, the effects of both variables and their interactions on the thermal limits of N. fulva and S. invicta have not previously been described. Thus, we evaluated the impacts of body size and ramping rate on the critical thermal limits of N. fulva and S. invicta Overall, N. fulva had a narrower thermal breadth than S. invicta (Nf CTmin = 7.3°C and Nf CTmax = 41.3°C vs. Si CTmin = 4.1°C and Si CTmax = 45.3°C). For both species, slower ramping rates resulted in lower CTmax values and ants with smaller head capsules had a narrower thermal breadth than ants with larger head capsules. These data improve our understanding of the critical thermal limits of both species and could be useful for developing predictive models that estimate the future spread of these invasive ants in nonnative ranges.

  1. Comparative Studies of the Density and Thermal Structure and Associated Escape Rates of Pluto and Triton's Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Strobel, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    Both atmospheres of Pluto and Neptune's largest satellite Triton have cold surfaces with similar surface gravities and atmospheric surface pressures. We have updated the Zhu et al. Icarus 228, 301, 2014) model for Pluto's atmosphere by adopting Voigt line profiles in the radiation code with the latest spectral database and extended the model to Triton's atmosphere by including additional parameterized heating due to the magnetospheric electron energy deposition. Various numerical experiments have been conducted to investigate parameter sensitivities on the atmospheric escape rate for an icy planetary body similar to Pluto or Triton. It is found that the escape rate is sensitive to the planetary surface gravity due to a cumulative effect of the density variation with the altitude that significantly changes the atmospheric scale height at the exobase together with the exobase altitude. The atmospheric thermal structure near the exobase is sensitive to the atmospheric escape rate only when it is significantly greater than 1.0e26 molecules per second above which an enhanced escape rate induced by various diabatic energy sources leads to a stronger radial velocity that adiabatically cools the atmosphere to a lower temperature.

  2. An experiment to measure the electron ion thermal equilibration rate in a strongly coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taccetti, J. M.; Shurter, R. P.; Roberts, J. P.; Benage, J. F.; Graden, B.; Haberle, B.; Murillo, M. S.; Vigil, B.; Wysocki, F. J.

    2006-04-01

    We present the most recent results from an experiment aimed at obtaining the temperature equilibration rate between ions and electrons in a strongly coupled plasma by directly measuring the temperature of each component. The plasma is formed by heating a sonic gas jet with a 10 ps laser pulse. The electrons are preferentially heated by the short pulse laser (we are aiming for Te ~ 100 eV), while the ions, after undergoing very rapid (sub-ps timescale) disorder-induced heating, should only reach a temperature of 10-15 eV. This results in a strongly coupled ion plasma with a Γii ~ 3-5. We plan to measure the electron and ion temperatures of the resulting plasma independently during and after heating, using collective Thomson scattering for electrons and a high-resolution x-ray spectrometer for the ions (measuring Doppler-broadened absorption lines). Theory indicates that the equilibration rate could be significantly lower than that given by the usual weakly coupled model (Landau-Spitzer) due to coupled collective modes present in the dense plasma.

  3. Influence of pressurization rate and pressure pulsing on the inactivation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores during pressure-assisted thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Ratphitagsanti, Wannasawat; Ahn, Juhee; Balasubramaniam, V M; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2009-04-01

    Pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP) is an emerging sterilization technology in which a combination of pressure (500 to 700 MPa) and temperature (90 to 120 degrees C) are used to inactivate bacterial spores. The objective of this study was to examine the role of pressurization rate and pressure pulsing in enhancing PATP lethality to the bacterial spore. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TMW 2.479 spore suspensions were prepared in deionized water at three inoculum levels (1.1 x 10(9), 1.4 x 10(8), and 1.3 x 10(6) CFU/ml), treated at two pressurization rates (18.06 and 3.75 MPa/s), and held at 600 MPa and 105 degrees C for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 5 min. Experiments were carried out using custom-fabricated, high-pressure microbial kinetic testing equipment. Single and double pulses with equivalent pressure-holding times (1 to 3 min) were investigated by using the spore suspension containing 1.4 x 10(8) CFU/ml. Spore survivors were enumerated by pour plating, using Trypticase soy agar after incubation at 32 degrees C for 2 days. During short pressure-holding times (< or = 2 min), PATP treatment with the slow pressurization rate provided enhanced spore reduction over that of the fast pressurization rate. However, these differences diminished with extended pressure-holding times. After a 5-min pressure-holding time, B. amyloliquefaciens population decreased about 6 log CFU/ml, regardless of pressurization rate and inoculum level. Double-pulse treatment enhanced PATP spore lethality by approximately 2.4 to 4 log CFU/ml, in comparison to single pulse for a given pressure-holding time. In conclusion, pressure pulsing considerably increases the efficacy of PATP treatment against bacterial spores. Contribution of pressurization rate to PATP spore lethality varies with duration of pressure holding.

  4. Influence of pressurization rate and pressure pulsing on the inactivation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores during pressure-assisted thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Ratphitagsanti, Wannasawat; Ahn, Juhee; Balasubramaniam, V M; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2009-04-01

    Pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP) is an emerging sterilization technology in which a combination of pressure (500 to 700 MPa) and temperature (90 to 120 degrees C) are used to inactivate bacterial spores. The objective of this study was to examine the role of pressurization rate and pressure pulsing in enhancing PATP lethality to the bacterial spore. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TMW 2.479 spore suspensions were prepared in deionized water at three inoculum levels (1.1 x 10(9), 1.4 x 10(8), and 1.3 x 10(6) CFU/ml), treated at two pressurization rates (18.06 and 3.75 MPa/s), and held at 600 MPa and 105 degrees C for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 5 min. Experiments were carried out using custom-fabricated, high-pressure microbial kinetic testing equipment. Single and double pulses with equivalent pressure-holding times (1 to 3 min) were investigated by using the spore suspension containing 1.4 x 10(8) CFU/ml. Spore survivors were enumerated by pour plating, using Trypticase soy agar after incubation at 32 degrees C for 2 days. During short pressure-holding times (< or = 2 min), PATP treatment with the slow pressurization rate provided enhanced spore reduction over that of the fast pressurization rate. However, these differences diminished with extended pressure-holding times. After a 5-min pressure-holding time, B. amyloliquefaciens population decreased about 6 log CFU/ml, regardless of pressurization rate and inoculum level. Double-pulse treatment enhanced PATP spore lethality by approximately 2.4 to 4 log CFU/ml, in comparison to single pulse for a given pressure-holding time. In conclusion, pressure pulsing considerably increases the efficacy of PATP treatment against bacterial spores. Contribution of pressurization rate to PATP spore lethality varies with duration of pressure holding. PMID:19435226

  5. The Neighboring Column Approximation (NCA) - A fast approach for the calculation of 3D thermal heating rates in cloud resolving models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Carolin; Mayer, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Due to computational costs, radiation is usually neglected or solved in plane parallel 1D approximation in today's numerical weather forecast and cloud resolving models. We present a fast and accurate method to calculate 3D heating and cooling rates in the thermal spectral range that can be used in cloud resolving models. The parameterization considers net fluxes across horizontal box boundaries in addition to the top and bottom boundaries. Since the largest heating and cooling rates occur inside the cloud, close to the cloud edge, the method needs in first approximation only the information if a grid box is at the edge of a cloud or not. Therefore, in order to calculate the heating or cooling rates of a specific grid box, only the directly neighboring columns are used. Our so-called Neighboring Column Approximation (NCA) is an analytical consideration of cloud side effects which can be considered a convolution of a 1D radiative transfer result with a kernel or radius of 1 grid-box (5 pt stencil) and which does usually not break the parallelization of a cloud resolving model. The NCA can be easily applied to any cloud resolving model that includes a 1D radiation scheme. Due to the neglect of horizontal transport of radiation further away than one model column, the NCA works best for model resolutions of about 100 m or lager. In this paper we describe the method and show a set of applications of LES cloud field snap shots. Correction terms, gains and restrictions of the NCA are described. Comprehensive comparisons to the 3D Monte Carlo Model MYSTIC and a 1D solution are shown. In realistic cloud fields, the full 3D simulation with MYSTIC shows cooling rates up to -150 K/d (100 m resolution) while the 1D solution shows maximum coolings of only -100 K/d. The NCA is capable of reproducing the larger 3D cooling rates. The spatial distribution of the heating and cooling is improved considerably. Computational costs are only a factor of 1.5-2 higher compared to a 1D

  6. Thermal post-deposition treatment effects on nanocrystalline hydrogenated silicon prepared by PECVD under different hydrogen flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, Sana Ben; Meddeb, Hosny; Daik, Ridha; Othman, Afef Ben; Slama, Sonia Ben; Dimassi, Wissem; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin films were deposited on mono-crystalline silicon substrate by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) under different hydrogen flow rates followed by a thermal treatment in an infrared furnace at different temperature ranging from 300 to 900 °C. The investigated structural, morphological and optoelectronic properties of samples were found to be strongly dependent on the annealing temperature. Raman spectroscopy revealed that nc-Si:H films contain crystalline, amorphous and mixed structures as well. We find that post-deposition thermal treatment may lead to a tendency for structural improvement and a decrease of the disorder in the film network at moderate temperature under 500 °C. As for annealing at higher temperature up to 900 °C induces the recrystallization of the film which is correlated with the grain size and volume fraction in the layer. We demonstrate that high annealing temperature can lead to a decrease of silicon-hydrogen bonds corresponding to a reduction of the amorphous matrix in the layer promoting the formation of covalent Si-Si bonds. The effusion of the hydrogen from the grown film leads to increase its density and therefore induces a decrease in the thickness of the layer. For post-deposition thermal treatment in temperature range under 700 °C, the post-deposition anneal seems to be crucial for obtaining good passivation quality as expressed by a minority carrier lifetime of 17 μs, as it allows a significant reduction in defect states at the layer/substrate interface. While for a temperature higher than 900 °C, the lifetime reduction is obtained because of hydrogen effusion phenomenon, thus a tendency for crystallization in the grown film.

  7. Tailoring the degradation rates of thermally responsive hydrogels designed for soft tissue injection by varying the autocatalytic potential

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yang; Jiang, Hongbin; Ye, Sang-Ho; Yoshizumi, Tomo; Wagner, William R.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to modulate the degradation properties of biomaterials such as thermally responsive hydrogels is desirable when exploring new therapeutic strategies that rely on the temporary presence of a placed scaffold or gel. Here we report a method of manipulating the absorption rate of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) ((poly(NIPAAm)) based hydrogel across a wide range (from 1 d to 5 mo) by small alterations in the composition. Relying upon the autocatalytic effect, the degradation of poly(NIPAAm-co-HEMA-co-MAPLA), (HEMA=2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate; MAPLA=methacrylate-polylactide) was greatly accelerated by adding a fourth monomer methacrylic acid (MAA) at no more than 2 mol% to obtain poly(NIPAAm-co-HEMA-co-MAPLA-co-MAA) (pNHMMj) where j reflects the MAA molar % in the reactant mixture. MAA residue introduction decreased the pH inside the hydrogels and in surrounding buffered solutions. Accelerated degradation positively correlated with MAA content in pNHMMj polymers, putatively by the accelerated cleavage of MAPLA residues to raise the transition temperature of the polymer above body temperature. Physical properties including thermal transition behavior and initial mechanical strength did not vary significantly with MAA content. A rat hindlimb injection model generally reflected the in vitro observation that higher MAA content resulted in more rapid degradation and cellular infiltration. The strategy of tuning the degradation of thermally responsive hydrogels where degradation or solubilization is determined by their polyester components might be applied to other tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications where designed biomaterial degradation behavior is needed. PMID:25890745

  8. Steady slip pulses on faults with rate- and state-dependent friction and multiple thermal weakening mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viesca, R. C.; Garagash, D.

    2012-12-01

    We present solutions for steadily propagating slip pulses whose underlying frictional evolution is dependent on both the rate of slip and the evolution of a state parameter (of a slip-law type), with strong velocity-dependent weakening of friction at high slip rates (via flash heating of asperity contacts). Additional weakening occurs by reduction of the effective normal stress by thermal pressurization of pore fluid within a shear zone of fixed nominal thickness. Such strong dynamic weakening mechanisms allow for rupture of faults under levels of a shear stress much lower than a nominal static strength. For decreasing levels of background shear stress, slip pulses become the favored mode as a critical point is reached where crack-like rupture modes may be inadmissible (Zheng and Rice, BSSA 1998). For even further decreases in shear stress, slip pulses may arrest shortly after nucleation, and our interest in characterizing steady pulse solutions lies partially in this precarious transition. The relative effect of the two thermal weakening mechanisms is determined by the relative size of the slip scales over which the flash heating and thermal pressurization evolve (Dc and Lachenbruch's δ c, respectively). Laboratory measurements of Dc and estimates for δ c indicate that Dc ≤ δ c: i.e., at the tip, weakening occurs as a cascade, which may be partially represented by tip solutions that neglect healing (Garagash and Viesca, AGU FM 2011). Considering the trailing edge, as state evolution of the slip-law type does not provide frictional restrengthening at zero slip velocity, the slip pulse heals asymptotically with distance behind the rupture tip in the absence of thermal pressurization. A robust, effective pulse length can be established in this case by setting a threshold value of the slip velocity. Allowing for TP provides a mechanism for stationary restrengthening and relocking of the fault at the trailing edge (Garagash, JGR 2012). We find relations between

  9. Integrating kinematic and thermal models to quantify magnitude and variability in rates of faulting through the eastern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuarrie, N.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Displacement fields of continental deformation derived from global positional system (GPS) measurements afford an unprecedented view of the last 10-15 years of deformation occurring at plate boundaries. However, this is a geologically instantaneous snapshot of plate motion, and displacement histories over thousands to millions of years are required to address how the lithosphere responds to changes in plate kinematics, or to determine what portion of the modern strain recorded by GPS networks results in permanent deformation. Estimates of fault displacement magnitudes combined with precise age constraints for fault motion can serve as a proxy over geological time scales for GPS measurements. The limiting factor is our ability to precisely document both magnitude and age of faulting. Because of this difficulty in determining the exact age of displacement on individual thrust faults, documented rates of thrusting through the Himalaya are 1) long-term shortening rates, determined by dividing the total amount of shortening by the age of initial motion on the Main Central Thrust (~20×2.0 mm/yr), 2) modern rates calculated via geodesy (19×2.5 mm/yr) or, 3) Quaternary rates (21.5×2 mm/yr). Due to similarities between these long- and short-term shortening rates, a commonly held assumption is that Himalayan shortening rates have remained constant though time. Older than expected cooling ages from the Bhutan Himalaya (3-7 Ma apatite fission track (AFT) ages, and 6-11 Ma zircon helium (ZHe) ages) suggest slower rates of shortening over the last ~10 Myr. To test the assumption of constant shortening rates, we present a coupled kinematic-thermal model that allows us to test the effect of geometry and rates on cooling ages. We propose that the cooling history is a function of the kinematic path that rocks take as they approach the surface, and that the kinematics of deformation are best predicted by a balanced cross-section, which links the surface geometry of structures to a

  10. Identical metabolic rate and thermal conductance in Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) subspecies with contrasting nonbreeding life histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Closely related species or subspecies can exhibit metabolic differences that reflect site-specific environmental conditions. Whether such differences represent fixed traits or flexible adjustments to local conditions, however, is difficult to predict across taxa. The nominate race of Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) exhibits the most northerly nonbreeding distribution of any shorebird in the North Pacific, being common during winter in cold, dark locations as far north as upper Cook Inlet, Alaska (61°N). By contrast, the tschuktschorum subspecies migrates to sites ranging from about 59°N to more benign locations as far south as ~37°N. These distributional extremes exert contrasting energetic demands, and we measured common metabolic parameters in the two subspecies held under identical laboratory conditions to determine whether differences in these parameters are reflected by their nonbreeding life histories. Basal metabolic rate and thermal conductance did not differ between subspecies, and the subspecies had a similar metabolic response to temperatures below their thermoneutral zone. Relatively low thermal conductance values may, however, reflect intrinsic metabolic adaptations to northerly latitudes. In the absence of differences in basic metabolic parameters, the two subspecies’ nonbreeding distributions will likely be more strongly influenced by adaptations to regional variation in ecological factors such as prey density, prey quality, and foraging habitat.

  11. High-rate deposition of abrasion resistant coatings using a dual-source expanding thermal plasma reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaepkens, M.; Selezneva, S.; Moeleker, P.; Iacovangelo, C. D.

    2003-07-01

    A unique high-rate plasma deposition process has been developed to generate abrasion resistant coatings on polymeric substrates. The process relies on the integration of a plurality of individual expanding thermal plasma sources into a multisource setup. In this work, we will discuss the effects of various hardware and process parameters on the performance of a dual-source system that has been used to apply abrasion resistant coatings to polycarbonate substrates. It will be shown that a properly engineered dual-source system can generate transparent organosilicon-based coatings that provide uniform glasslike abrasion resistance across a 30 cm width on substrates that are laterally translated past the dual-source array.

  12. Study of Natural Radioactivity, Radon Exhalation Rate and Radiation Doses in Coal and Flyash Samples from Thermal Power Plants, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Lalit Mohan; Kumar, Mukesh; Sahoo, B. K.; Sapra, B. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    Coal is one of the most important source used for electrical power generation. Its combustion part known as fly ash is used in the manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. Coal and its by-products have significant amounts of radionuclide's including uranium, thorium which is the ultimate source of the radioactive gas radon and thoron respectively. Radiation hazard from airborne emissions of coal-fired power plants have been cited as possible causes of health in environmental. Assessment of the radiation exposure from coal burning is critically dependent on the concentration of radioactive elements in coal and in the fly ash. In the present study, samples of coal and flyash were collected from Rajghat Power Plant and Badarpur Thermal Power Plant, New Delhi, India. Radon exhalation is important parameter for the estimation of radiation risk from various materials. Solis State Nuclear Track Detector based sealed Can Technique (using LR-115 type II) has been used for measurement radon exhalation rate. Also accumulation chamber based Continuous Radon Monitor and Continuous Thoron Monitor have been used for radon masss exhalation and thoron surface exhalation rate respectively. Natural radioactivity has been measured using a low level NaI(Tl) detector based on gamma ray spectrometry.

  13. Thermal and scatter effects on the radiation sensitivity of well chambers used for high dose rate Ir-192 calibrations.

    PubMed

    Podgorsak, M B; DeWerd, L A; Thomadsen, B R; Paliwal, B R

    1992-01-01

    High dose rate (HDR) iridium sources must be calibrated regularly because of the short half-life of Ir-192. High dose rate sources can now be calibrated using a new well-type chamber that allows easy, reproducible source calibrations. The chamber includes a styrofoam insulator that surrounds the source in the well. A study of the radiation sensitivity of the well chamber exposed to an HDR Ir-192 source at two different activities (300 and 230 GBq) revealed that the sensitivity of the chamber varies by as much as 1.1% as the chamber is moved toward a scattering surface. Second, with the styrofoam insulator removed, the air temperature within the ion collecting volume increased during exposure, causing a gradual decrease in chamber sensitivity of 0.15% in 30 min. This temperature increase was caused by heat transfer from radiation emitted by the Ir-192 source, and diminished as the source decayed. However, with the styrofoam insulator around the central aluminum tube in the well, the source cannot heat the collecting volume and thus thermal equilibrium between the ion collecting volume and its environment is maintained throughout an exposure. The radiation sensitivity of the commercial well chamber was found to be constant for exposure times of 30 min.

  14. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate gradient measurements by PADC detectors in LINAC radiotherapy treatments-field

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera, M. T. Barros, H.; Pino, F.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Dávila, J.

    2015-07-23

    LINAC VARIAN 2100 is where energetic electrons produce Bremsstrahlung radiation, with energies above the nucleon binding energy (E≈5.5MeV). This radiation induce (γ,n) and (e,e’n) reactions mainly in the natural tungsten target material (its total photoneutron cross section is about 4000 mb in a energy range from 9-17 MeV). These reactions may occur also in other components of the system (e.g. multi leaf collimator). During radiation treatment the human body may receive an additional dose inside and outside the treated volume produced by the mentioned nuclear reactions. We measured the neutron density at the treatment table using nuclear track detectors (PADC-NTD). These covered by a boron-converter are employed, including a cadmium filter, to determine the ratio between two groups of neutron energy, i.e. thermal and epithermal. The PADC-NTD detectors were exposed to the radiation field at the iso-center during regular operation of the accelerator. Neutron are determined indirectly by the converting reaction {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li the emerging charged particle leave their kinetic energy in the PADC forming a latent nuclear track, enlarged by chemical etching (6N, NaOH, 70°C). Track density provides information on the neutron density through calibration coefficient (∼1.6 10{sup 4} neutrons /track) obtained by a californium source. We report the estimation of the thermal and epithermal neutron field and its gradient for photoneutrons produced in radiotherapy treatments with 18 MV linear accelerators. It was obsered that photoneutron production have higher rate at the iso-center.

  15. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate gradient measurements by PADC detectors in LINAC radiotherapy treatments-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, M. T.; Barros, H.; Pino, F.; Dávila, J.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2015-07-01

    LINAC VARIAN 2100 is where energetic electrons produce Bremsstrahlung radiation, with energies above the nucleon binding energy (E≈5.5MeV). This radiation induce (γ,n) and (e,e'n) reactions mainly in the natural tungsten target material (its total photoneutron cross section is about 4000 mb in a energy range from 9-17 MeV). These reactions may occur also in other components of the system (e.g. multi leaf collimator). During radiation treatment the human body may receive an additional dose inside and outside the treated volume produced by the mentioned nuclear reactions. We measured the neutron density at the treatment table using nuclear track detectors (PADC-NTD). These covered by a boron-converter are employed, including a cadmium filter, to determine the ratio between two groups of neutron energy, i.e. thermal and epithermal. The PADC-NTD detectors were exposed to the radiation field at the iso-center during regular operation of the accelerator. Neutron are determined indirectly by the converting reaction 10B(n,α)7Li the emerging charged particle leave their kinetic energy in the PADC forming a latent nuclear track, enlarged by chemical etching (6N, NaOH, 70°C). Track density provides information on the neutron density through calibration coefficient (˜1.6 104 neutrons /track) obtained by a californium source. We report the estimation of the thermal and epithermal neutron field and its gradient for photoneutrons produced in radiotherapy treatments with 18 MV linear accelerators. It was obsered that photoneutron production have higher rate at the iso-center.

  16. Contrasted thermal regimes do not influence digestion and growth rates in a snake from a temperate climate.

    PubMed

    Michel, Catherine Louise; Bonnet, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Temperature influences almost all life-history traits. For a period of 3 mo, we placed four groups of snakes under four contrasted thermal treatments: (1) a natural regime (NR), based on daily variations (24-h cycle); (2) an accelerated regime (AR), where the thermoperiod fluctuated rapidly (12-h cycle); (3) a slow regime (SR; 48-h cycle); and (4) a cool stable regime (ZR; no fluctuation). The mean temperature, set at 23°C, was identical for the four groups. For the first three groups (NR, AR, SR), ambient temperature fluctuated between 18°C and 28°C. Relative humidity and photoperiod were constant. We recorded feeding success, digestion efficiency, growth rate, activity, and ecdysis events. Differences between groups were expected because of varied exposure to the optimal temperatures, most notably in the ZR group, where the preferred body temperature for digestion (approximately 30°C) would not be reached. Surprisingly, there was no significant effect of the experimental treatment on feeding rate, digestion, body mass increase, and growth rate. Our results do not conform to the paradigm stipulating that maximal body temperature selected by ectotherms necessarily corresponds to the most efficient for resource assimilation and that temperature fluctuations are essential. We propose that increasing the digestive tract's performance through body-temperature elevation trades off against elevated (parasite) energy expenditure from the rest of the body. The main advantage of high body temperatures would be to reduce the amount of time necessary to assimilate prey rather than to improve the net mass gain during digestion.

  17. Utility of birefringence changes due to collagen thermal denaturation rate process analysis: vessel wall temperature estimation for new short term heating balloon angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Kenji; Shimazaki, Natsumi; Gotoh, Maya; Nakatani, Eriko; Arai, Tsunenori

    2007-02-01

    Our photo thermal reaction heating architecture balloon realizes less than 10 s short term heating that can soften vessel wall collagen without damaging surrounding tissue thermally. New thermal balloon angioplasty, photo-thermo dynamic balloon angioplasty (PTDBA) has experimentally shown sufficient opening with 2 atm low pressure dilation and prevention of chronic phase restenosis and acute phase thrombus in vivo. Even though PTDBA has high therapeutic potential, the most efficient heating condition is still under study, because relationship of treatment and thermal dose to vessel wall is not clarified yet. To study and set the most efficient heating condition, we have been working on establishment of temperature history estimation method from our previous experimental results. Heating target of PTDBA, collagen, thermally denatures following rate process. Denaturation is able to be quantified with measured collagen birefringence value. To express the denaturation with equation of rate process, the following ex vivo experiments were performed. Porcine extracted carotid artery was soaked in two different temperature saline baths to enforce constant temperature heating. Higher temperature bath was set to 40 to 80 degree Celsius and soaking duration was 5 to 40 s. Samples were observed by a polarizing microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The birefringence was measured by polarizing microscopic system using Brace-Koehler compensator 1/30 wavelength. The measured birefringence showed temperature dependency and quite fit with the rate process equation. We think vessel wall temperature is able to be estimated using the birefringence changes due to thermal denaturation.

  18. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  19. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  20. Thermal decomposition of solid phase nitromethane under various heating rates and target temperatures based on ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai; Wei, Dong-Qing; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Ji, Guang-Fu

    2014-10-01

    The Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation was applied to study the thermal decomposition of solid phase nitromethane under gradual heating and fast annealing conditions. In gradual heating simulations, we found that, rather than C-N bond cleavage, intermolecular proton transfer is more likely to be the first reaction in the decomposition process. At high temperature, the first reaction in fast annealing simulation is intermolecular proton transfer leading to CH3NOOH and CH2NO2, whereas the initial chemical event at low temperature tends to be a unimolecular C-N bond cleavage, producing CH3 and NO2 fragments. It is the first time to date that the direct rupture of a C-N bond has been reported as the first reaction in solid phase nitromethane. In addition, the fast annealing simulations on a supercell at different temperatures are conducted to validate the effect of simulation cell size on initial reaction mechanisms. The results are in qualitative agreement with the simulations on a unit cell. By analyzing the time evolution of some molecules, we also found that the time of first water molecule formation is clearly sensitive to heating rates and target temperatures when the first reaction is an intermolecular proton transfer. PMID:25234607

  1. Thermal decomposition of solid phase nitromethane under various heating rates and target temperatures based on ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai; Wei, Dong-Qing; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Ji, Guang-Fu

    2014-10-01

    The Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation was applied to study the thermal decomposition of solid phase nitromethane under gradual heating and fast annealing conditions. In gradual heating simulations, we found that, rather than C-N bond cleavage, intermolecular proton transfer is more likely to be the first reaction in the decomposition process. At high temperature, the first reaction in fast annealing simulation is intermolecular proton transfer leading to CH3NOOH and CH2NO2, whereas the initial chemical event at low temperature tends to be a unimolecular C-N bond cleavage, producing CH3 and NO2 fragments. It is the first time to date that the direct rupture of a C-N bond has been reported as the first reaction in solid phase nitromethane. In addition, the fast annealing simulations on a supercell at different temperatures are conducted to validate the effect of simulation cell size on initial reaction mechanisms. The results are in qualitative agreement with the simulations on a unit cell. By analyzing the time evolution of some molecules, we also found that the time of first water molecule formation is clearly sensitive to heating rates and target temperatures when the first reaction is an intermolecular proton transfer.

  2. The interaction among age, thermal acclimation and growth rate in determining muscle metabolic capacities and tissue masses in the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Lavoie, B A; Dubois, N

    1994-11-01

    Thermal acclimation may directly modify muscle metabolic capacities, or may modify them indirectly via effects upon physiological processes such as growth, reproduction or senescence. To evaluate these interacting effects, we examined the influence of thermal acclimation and acclimatization upon muscle metabolic capacities and tissue masses in 1 + stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, in which confounding interactions between temperature and senescense should be absent. Furthermore, we examined the influence of thermal acclimation upon individual growth rate, muscle enzyme levels and tissue masses in 2 + stickleback sampled at the beginning of their final reproductive season. For 1 + stickleback, cold acclimation more than doubles mitochondrial enzyme levels in the axial muscle. Thermal acclimation did not change the condition of 1 + stickleback at feeding levels which could not maintain the condition of 2+ stickleback. Compensatory metabolic responses to temperature were not apparent in field acclimatized 1 + stickleback. The growth rate of 2 + stickleback was markedly affected by temperature: warm-acclimated fish generally lost mass even at very high levels of feeding (up to 78 enchytraid worms per day) while cold-acclimated fish gained mass. This suggests that warm temperatures accelerate the senescence of 2 + stickleback. Generally, muscle enzyme activities increased with growth rate. In axial muscle, the relationships between CS activity and growth rate differed with acclimation temperature. Independent of the influence of growth rate, CS activities were consistently higher in cold- than warm-acclimated 2 + stickleback, suggesting compensatory increases of CS activity with cold acclimation. PMID:24197078

  3. Frequency and duty cycle modulation optimization in minimizing thermal accumulation effect in Z-scan measurement with high-repetition-rate laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahnan Zainal Abidin, Mohd; Noor, Ahmad Shukri Muhammad; Rashid, Suraya Abdul; Adzir Mahdi, Mohd

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the optimization of the chopper frequency and duty cycle in a Z-scan measurement with a 250 MHz high-repetition-rate (HRR) femtosecond laser to minimize the thermal lensing effect due to cumulative heating of the sample. The result shows that such minimization can be achieved by keeping the modulated exposure time on the sample shorter than the thermal diffusivity decay time tc. The minimum chopper frequency fmin is predicted by relating the duty cycle factor F with tc, while maintaining stable peak and valley transmittances, i.e., ΔTp and ΔTv, respectively. Furthermore, a lower fmin is obtained by taking a stable range of the peak-valley difference ΔTpv into consideration. The optimization allows for the low operational modulation frequency of Z-scan measurement with reduced thermal influence, thus enabling simple management of the thermal lensing effect.

  4. On the relation between the activation energy for electron attachment reactions and the size of their thermal rate coefficients.

    PubMed

    Hotop, H; Ruf, M-W; Kopyra, J; Miller, T M; Fabrikant, I I

    2011-02-14

    Rate coefficients k(T) for dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to molecules in many cases exhibit a more or less strong rise with increasing temperature T (the electron temperature T(e) and the molecular temperature T(G) are assumed to be in thermal equilibrium, i.e., T = T(e) = T(G)). This rise is frequently modeled by the Arrhenius equation k(T) = k(A) exp[-E(a)∕(k(B)T)], and an activation energy E(a) is deduced from fits to the experimental data k(T). This behavior reflects the presence of an energy barrier for the anion on its path to the dissociated products. In a recent paper [J. Kopyra, J. Wnorowska, M. Foryś, and I. Szamrej, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 268, 60 (2007)] it was suggested that the size of the rate coefficients for DEA reactions at room temperature exhibits an exponential dependence on the activation energy, i.e., k(E(a); T ≈ 300 K) = k(1) exp[-E(a)∕E(0)]. More recent experimental data for molecules with high barriers [T. M. Miller, J. F. Friedman, L. C. Schaffer, and A. A. Viggiano, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 084302 (2009)] are compatible with such a correlation. We investigate the validity and the possible origin of this dependence by analyzing the results of R-matrix calculations for temperature-dependent rate coefficients of exothermic DEA processes with intermediate barrier toward dissociation. These include results for model systems with systematically varied barrier height as well as results of molecule-specific calculations for CH(3)Cl, CH(3)Br, CF(3)Cl, and CH(2)Cl(2) (activation energies above 0.2 eV) involving appropriate molecular parameters. A comparison of the experimental and theoretical results for the considered class of molecules (halogenated alkanes) supports the idea that the exponential dependence of k(T = 300 K) on the activation energy reflects a general phenomenon associated with Franck-Condon factors for getting from the initial neutral vibrational levels to the dissociating final anion state in a direct DEA process

  5. Impact of Cooling Rate-Induced Recrystallization on High G Mechanical Shock and Thermal Cycling in Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Bieler, Thomas R.; Kim, Choong-Un

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical stability and thermo-mechanical fatigue performance of solder joints with low silver content Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (wt.%) (SAC105) alloy based on different cooling rates are investigated in high G level shock environment and thermal cycling conditions. The cooling rate-controlled samples ranging from 1°C/min to 75°C/min cooling rate, not only show differences in microstructure, where a fine poly-granular microstructure develops in the case of fast cooling versus normal cooling, but also show various shock performances based on the microstructure changes. The fast cooling rate improves the high G shock performance by over 90% compared to the normal cooled SAC105 alloy air-cooling environment commonly used after assembly reflow. The microstructure effect on thermal cycling performance is also discussed, which is analyzed based on the Sn grain orientation, interconnect stability, and solder joint bulk microstructure.

  6. Thermal History of São João Nepomuceno (IVA) Iron Meteorite Inferred from Ganguly's Cooling Rate Model and 57Fe Mössbauer Spectroscopy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, E.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Varela, M. E.

    2016-08-01

    The intracrystalline Fe-Mg distribution in orthopyroxenes, as measured by means of 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and associated to Ganguly’s cooling rate numerical method, are used to infer the thermal history of São João Nepomuceno (IVA) meteorite.

  7. Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-01-01

    A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

  8. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  9. Mathematical description of the kinetics of the thermal degradation of coals over a wide range of rates of heating

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenov, L.N.; Bronshtein, A.P.; Zadorina, E.N.; Zagorets, A.M.; Makarov, G.N.; Polyakov, A.A.; Shlenskii, O.F.

    1981-01-01

    The determination of the most effective regimes for the thermal processing of solid fuels and the control of these processes requires a well-based selection of mathematical models for them. In the reported theoretical study, the question is considered of the possibility of using the traditional equations of chemical kinetics for describing the thermal degradation of the organic matter of coals. Various methods are proposed for the detemination of thermogravimetric curves. 14 refs.

  10. Kinetic parameters, collision rates, energy exchanges and transport coefficients of non-thermal electrons in premixed flames at sub-breakdown electric field strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; El Morsli, Mbark

    2014-01-01

    The effects of an electric field on the collision rates, energy exchanges and transport properties of electrons in premixed flames are investigated via solutions to the Boltzmann kinetic equation. The case of high electric field strength, which results in high-energy, non-thermal electrons, is analysed in detail at sub-breakdown conditions. The rates of inelastic collisions and the energy exchange between electrons and neutrals in the reaction zone of the flame are characterised quantitatively. The analysis includes attachment, ionisation, impact dissociation, and vibrational and electronic excitation processes. Our results suggest that Townsend breakdown occurs for E/N = 140 Td. Vibrational excitation is the dominant process up to breakdown, despite important rates of electronic excitation of CO, CO2 and N2 as well as impact dissociation of O2 being apparent from 50 Td onwards. Ohmic heating in the reaction zone is found to be negligible (less than 2% of peak heat release rate) up to breakdown field strengths for realistic electron densities equal to 1010 cm-3. The observed trends are largely independent of equivalence ratio. In the non-thermal regime, electron transport coefficients are insensitive to mixture composition and approximately constant across the flame, but are highly dependent on the electric field strength. In the thermal limit, kinetic parameters and transport coefficients vary substantially across the flame due to the spatially inhomogeneous concentration of water vapour. A practical approach for identifying the plasma regime (thermal versus non-thermal) in studies of electric field effects on flames is proposed.

  11. Outpacing the Anthropocene: New Constraints for the Rate of Carbon Release at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. D.; Schaller, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) is linked to benthic foraminiferal extinction and excursion taxa in planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils. Previous studies have used integrated bio-magneto-stratigraphies, cycle counting, and extraterrestrial 3He accumulation rates to produce a range of estimates for the duration of the initial onset of the PETM CIE between 750 years to 30 kyr. Durations for the total release time (onset to initiation of recovery) range from 45 to 95 kyr. Uncertainty in the timing of the onset of the PETM CIE prevents the identification of a causal mechanism, and hence understanding the biological responses. Recent work on the Paleocene/Eocene Marlboro Clay has unveiled the presence of regular couplets (~2 cm) expressed in multiple cores and exposures throughout the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Specifically, the Millville and newly recovered Wilson Lake B cores contain 750 and 660 layers through the CIE, respectively. These couplets have corresponding oxygen stable isotope cycles, arguing for a climatic origin. Orbital and millennial periodicities are far too long to explain the ~750 layers identified in the Millville core. Seasonal insolation is the only regular climate cycle that can plausibly account for the observed δ18O amplitudes (~1‰, with some cycles up to 2‰) and layer counts. Seasonal freshwater input can also augment the cyclic oscillations in δ18O, but the majority of the variability is most plausibly ascribed to temperature. Wilson Lake B and Millville have total δ13C excursions of -5 and -4.5‰ respectively, as well as highly expanded sections of the PETM CIE. In the Millville core, high-resolution, bulk stable isotope records show a 3.5‰ δ13C decrease over 12 layers across the PETM CIE onset. Concomitant with this δ13C decrease is a sharp drop in CaCO3. Decreases in both proxies require a large, sudden release of isotopically light carbon. The couplet chronology indicates

  12. Application of Advanced Thermal Hydraulic TRACG Model to Preserve Operating Margins in BWRs at Extended Power Up-rate Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens G. M.; Casillas, Jose L.; Shiralkar, Bharat S.

    2006-07-01

    GE has developed TRACG, a customized BWR version of the TRAC model, for application to BWR analyses. This model was initially applied to special BWR challenges and for benchmarking the official simplified thermal-hydraulic design models. However, in past years extensive additional model development, qualification and application studies have been completed. This development has followed the CSAU methodology, where extensive model evaluation and qualification have been performed to demonstrate the applicability of the model and to quantify the uncertainty in the model parameters as well as in plant parameters and initial conditions. This has then been combined with a statistically based application methodology following the CSAU approach to generate tolerance limits for the critical safety and design parameters. This effort has resulted in application processes that have been reviewed and approved by the US NRC to enable routine application of the TRACG model to the design and licensing analyses and utilize the improved operating margin to optimize the fuel cycle design. These applications have been supported by development of programs that construct specific plant and problem base-decks that utilize BWR plant characteristics and system databases to standardize and streamline the application to several plants. The application of the TRACG model in Transient and LOCA analyses has assisted in allowing similar power peaking at higher power density conditions for BWRs. Also, the application of the TRACG model in Stability analyses has assisted in preserving the setpoints of stability monitoring systems to avoid margin loss for high power density applications. TRACG is being used for analysis of ATWS events. It has been used to support the development of emergency procedure guidelines, and it is currently being used to demonstrate that the suppression pool temperature limits can be met for up-rated conditions. Finally, the application of the TRACG model in Faulted Load

  13. Role of microstructure and thermal transport in determining the rate of hot spot growth in aluminized PBX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Kaushik; Chaudhuri, Santanu

    The mechanisms of initiation and propagation of a hot spot in non-ideal explosives with aluminum additives are poorly understood due to greater complexity introduced by the different thermal and mechanical behavior of the components. In aluminized composites such as PBXN-109, the binder, RDX and Aluminum phases have been studied separately. However, not much is known about deflection of hot spots in the microstructured composite. Especially, the role of adhesion, debonding and thermal conductivity of binder phase is critical in moderating the sensitivity of such interfaces. Using reactive molecular dynamics simulations, the primary binder interfaces in PBXN-109 was investigated. Depending on the temperature of the growing hot spot reaching an RDX or Al/Al2O3 grain, the thermal conductivity and viscoplastic behavior of the binder interface determine the attenuation of reaction front and thermal shock leading the hot spot. Different mechanisms like melt-dispersion and failure of oxide layer for the release of Al in the hot spot regions remain underexplored to connect the chemistry to the microstructure. Although Al/Al2O3/RDX and Al/Al2O3/HTPB interfaces are chemically stable, the hot spot melts the AlxOy layers and create shear bands in aluminum domain due to thermomechanical strain created due to different thermal environment. In a shock-compressed microstructure without voids, the cohesive interaction and chemical composition of such interfaces for different phases of RDX will be presented.

  14. Accurate maser positions for MALT-45

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Christopher; Bains, Indra; Voronkov, Maxim; Lo, Nadia; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Burton, Michael; Brooks, Kate; Green, James; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Ellingsen, Simon; Urquhart, James; Morgan, Larry; Rowell, Gavin; Walsh, Andrew; Loenen, Edo; Baan, Willem; Hill, Tracey; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Peretto, Nicolas; Jackson, James; Lowe, Vicki; Longmore, Steven

    2013-10-01

    MALT-45 is an untargeted survey, mapping the Galactic plane in CS (1-0), Class I methanol masers, SiO masers and thermal emission, and high frequency continuum emission. After obtaining images from the survey, a number of masers were detected, but without accurate positions. This project seeks to resolve each maser and its environment, with the ultimate goal of placing the Class I methanol maser into a timeline of high mass star formation.

  15. Accurate maser positions for MALT-45

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Christopher; Bains, Indra; Voronkov, Maxim; Lo, Nadia; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Burton, Michael; Brooks, Kate; Green, James; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Ellingsen, Simon; Urquhart, James; Morgan, Larry; Rowell, Gavin; Walsh, Andrew; Loenen, Edo; Baan, Willem; Hill, Tracey; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Peretto, Nicolas; Jackson, James; Lowe, Vicki; Longmore, Steven

    2013-04-01

    MALT-45 is an untargeted survey, mapping the Galactic plane in CS (1-0), Class I methanol masers, SiO masers and thermal emission, and high frequency continuum emission. After obtaining images from the survey, a number of masers were detected, but without accurate positions. This project seeks to resolve each maser and its environment, with the ultimate goal of placing the Class I methanol maser into a timeline of high mass star formation.

  16. Accurate Optical Reference Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, N.

    2006-08-01

    Current and near future all-sky astrometric catalogs on the ICRF are reviewed with the emphasis on reference star data at optical wavelengths for user applications. The standard error of a Hipparcos Catalogue star position is now about 15 mas per coordinate. For the Tycho-2 data it is typically 20 to 100 mas, depending on magnitude. The USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC) observing program was completed in 2004 and reductions toward the final UCAC3 release are in progress. This all-sky reference catalogue will have positional errors of 15 to 70 mas for stars in the 10 to 16 mag range, with a high degree of completeness. Proper motions for the about 60 million UCAC stars will be derived by combining UCAC astrometry with available early epoch data, including yet unpublished scans of the complete set of AGK2, Hamburg Zone astrograph and USNO Black Birch programs. Accurate positional and proper motion data are combined in the Naval Observatory Merged Astrometric Dataset (NOMAD) which includes Hipparcos, Tycho-2, UCAC2, USNO-B1, NPM+SPM plate scan data for astrometry, and is supplemented by multi-band optical photometry as well as 2MASS near infrared photometry. The Milli-Arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (MAPS) mission is currently being planned at USNO. This is a micro-satellite to obtain 1 mas positions, parallaxes, and 1 mas/yr proper motions for all bright stars down to about 15th magnitude. This program will be supplemented by a ground-based program to reach 18th magnitude on the 5 mas level.

  17. Liquid-circulating garment controls thermal balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetz, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data and mathematical model of human thermoregulatory system have been used to investigate use of liquid-circulatory garment (LCG) to control thermal balance. Model proved useful as accurate simulator of such variables as sweat rate, skin temperature, core temperature, and radiative, evaporative, and LCG heat loss.

  18. A review of reaction rates and thermodynamic and transport properties for the 11-species air model for chemical and thermal nonequilibrium calculations to 30000 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Roop N.; Yos, Jerrold M.; Thompson, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Reaction rate coefficients and thermodynamic and transport properties are provided for the 11-species air model which can be used for analyzing flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium. Such flows will likely occur around currently planned and future hypersonic vehicles. Guidelines for determining the state of the surrounding environment are provided. Approximate and more exact formulas are provided for computing the properties of partially ionized air mixtures in such environments.

  19. A thermal-capillary mechanism for a growth rate limit in edge-defined film-fed growth of silicon sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P. D.; Ettouney, H. M.; Brown, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Capillarity, acting to set the shape of the melt/gas interfaces, and heat transfer can interact to cause limits to steady-state growth of thin silicon sheets by the Edge-Defined Film-Fed Growth (EFG) method. A finite-element/Newton solution method for a two-dimensional thermal-capillary model of EFG is used to show that limiting values of pull rate exist beyond which steady-state growth is impossible. The pull rate limit is also predicted by a one-dimensional heat transfer model valid when the die sides and menisci are almost parallel and when the thermal conductivities of melt, crystal, and die are all equal. Both the one- and two-dimensional heat transfer models show that heat loss from the melt is dominated by conduction into the crystal and slow heat release to the ambient along the length of the ribbon. The limiting pull rate results from the reduced efficiency of conduction through the melt caused by the curvature of the meniscus which increases height of the die top above the level of the melt. Thermal-capillary limits are predicted for both positive and negative pressure differences across the meniscus.

  20. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperaes in the range of about 1800.degree. to 2700.degree. C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  1. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  2. A generalized theory for determining the field-enhanced thermal emission rate by the reverse pulsed deep-level transient spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ghung G.; Li, Sheng S.

    1986-07-01

    A generalized theory for determining the field-enhanced thermal emission rates and carrier capture cross section of deep-level defects at very high field and for large trap density by the reverse pulsed deep-level transient spectroscopy technique has been developed in this paper. Using this new theory the field-enhanced emission rates for the DX center in a liquid-phase-epitaxial grown Sn-doped Al0.2Ga0.8As were determined for field strength up to 7×105 V/cm.

  3. Accelerating rate calorimetry studies of the effect of binder type on the thermal stability of a lithiated mesocarbon microbead material in electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, M. N.; Dahn, J. R.

    An Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) is used to measure the thermal behaviour of lithiated MCMB (mesocarbon microbead) electrodes, made with different binder, in electrolyte. Electrodes using PVDF, (VdF:HFP) or (VdF:CTFE) copolymer and ethylenepropylene-diene (EPD) terpolymer binders were studied. The safety results for the Vdf-based binder electrodes are almost identical, within error, suggesting that the safety of Li-ion cells is not compromised or improved by changes to the binder within this group. On the other hand, the electrodes made with EPD binder, that is not plasticized by the electrolyte, appear to have the lowest self-heating rates.

  4. Developmental and Immediate Thermal Environments Shape Energetic Trade-Offs, Growth Efficiency, and Metabolic Rate in Divergent Life-History Ecotypes of the Garter Snake Thamnophis elegans.

    PubMed

    Gangloff, Eric J; Vleck, David; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Interactions at all levels of ecology are influenced by the rate at which energy is obtained, converted, and allocated. Trade-offs in energy allocation within individuals in turn form the basis for life-history theory. Here we describe tests of the influences of temperature, developmental environment, and genetic background on measures of growth efficiency and resting metabolic rate in an ectothermic vertebrate, the western terrestrial garter snake (Thamnophis elegans). After raising captive-born snakes from divergent life-history ecotypes on thermal regimes mimicking natural habitat differences (2 × 2 experimental design of ecotype and thermal environment), we measured oxygen consumption rate at temperatures spanning the activity range of this species. We found ecotypic differences in the reaction norms of snakes across the measured range of temperatures and a temperature-dependent allometric relationship between mass and metabolic rate predicted by the metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis. Additionally, we present evidence of within-individual trade-offs between growth efficiency and resting metabolic rate, as predicted by classic life-history theory. These observations help illuminate the ultimate and proximate factors that underlie variation in these interrelated physiological and life-history traits. PMID:26658251

  5. Precise and Accurate Density Determination of Explosives Using Hydrostatic Weighing

    SciTech Connect

    B. Olinger

    2005-07-01

    Precise and accurate density determination requires weight measurements in air and water using sufficiently precise analytical balances, knowledge of the densities of air and water, knowledge of thermal expansions, availability of a density standard, and a method to estimate the time to achieve thermal equilibrium with water. Density distributions in pressed explosives are inferred from the densities of elements from a central slice.

  6. An experimental study of the influence of elevated buoyancy levels on flame spread rate over thermally thin cellulosic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shang, P. C.; Altenkirch, R. A.; Eichhorn, R.

    1978-01-01

    The role of buoyancy on the flame spread rate over paper and its effect on extinction was studied by changing the gravity level and pressure. It was found that the flame spread rate decreases as the buoyancy induced flow increases. A method for correlating flame spread data using dimensionless parameters is presented. The Damkohler number is shown to be the dependent variable.

  7. Fully vectorial laser resonator modeling of continuous-wave solid-state lasers including rate equations, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence.

    PubMed

    Asoubar, Daniel; Wyrowski, Frank

    2015-07-27

    The computer-aided design of high quality mono-mode, continuous-wave solid-state lasers requires fast, flexible and accurate simulation algorithms. Therefore in this work a model for the calculation of the transversal dominant mode structure is introduced. It is based on the generalization of the scalar Fox and Li algorithm to a fully-vectorial light representation. To provide a flexible modeling concept of different resonator geometries containing various optical elements, rigorous and approximative solutions of Maxwell's equations are combined in different subdomains of the resonator. This approach allows the simulation of plenty of different passive intracavity components as well as active media. For the numerically efficient simulation of nonlinear gain, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence effects in solid-state active crystals a semi-analytical vectorial beam propagation method is discussed in detail. As a numerical example the beam quality and output power of a flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser are improved. To that end we compensate the influence of stress-induced birefringence and thermal lensing by an aspherical mirror and a 90° quartz polarization rotator.

  8. Fully vectorial laser resonator modeling of continuous-wave solid-state lasers including rate equations, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence.

    PubMed

    Asoubar, Daniel; Wyrowski, Frank

    2015-07-27

    The computer-aided design of high quality mono-mode, continuous-wave solid-state lasers requires fast, flexible and accurate simulation algorithms. Therefore in this work a model for the calculation of the transversal dominant mode structure is introduced. It is based on the generalization of the scalar Fox and Li algorithm to a fully-vectorial light representation. To provide a flexible modeling concept of different resonator geometries containing various optical elements, rigorous and approximative solutions of Maxwell's equations are combined in different subdomains of the resonator. This approach allows the simulation of plenty of different passive intracavity components as well as active media. For the numerically efficient simulation of nonlinear gain, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence effects in solid-state active crystals a semi-analytical vectorial beam propagation method is discussed in detail. As a numerical example the beam quality and output power of a flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser are improved. To that end we compensate the influence of stress-induced birefringence and thermal lensing by an aspherical mirror and a 90° quartz polarization rotator. PMID:26367545

  9. Large registry analysis to accurately define second malignancy rates and risks in a well-characterized cohort of 744 consecutive multiple myeloma patients followed-up for 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Monika; Ihorst, Gabriele; Landgren, Ola; Pantic, Milena; Reinhardt, Heike; Waldschmidt, Johannes; May, Annette M.; Schumacher, Martin; Kleber, Martina; Wäsch, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Additional malignancies in multiple myeloma patients after first-line and maintenance treatment have been observed, questioning whether specific risks exist. Second primary malignancies have also gained attention since randomized data showed associations to newer drugs. We have conducted this large registry analysis in 744 consecutive patients and analyzed: 1) frequency and onset of additional malignancies; and 2) second primary malignancy- and myeloma-specific risks. We assessed the frequency of additional malignancies in terms of host-, myeloma- and treatment-specific characteristics. To compare these risks, we estimated cumulative incidence rates for second malignancies and myeloma with Fine and Gray regression models taking into account competing risks. Additional malignancies were found in 118 patients: prior or synchronous malignancies in 63% and subsequent in 37%. Cumulative incidence rates for second malignancies were increased in IgG-myeloma and decreased in bortezomib-treated patients (P<0.05). Cumulative incidence rates for myeloma death were increased with higher stage and age, but decreased in IgG-subtypes and due to anti-myeloma treatment (P<0.05). Cytogenetics in patients acquiring second primary malignancies were predominantly favorable, suggesting that indolent myeloma and long disease latency may allow the manifestation of additional malignancies. An assessment of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result Program of the National Cancer Institute and our data with long-term follow up of 25 years confirmed a prevalence of second malignancy of 10% at 25 years, whereas death from myeloma decreased from 90% to 83%, respectively. Our important findings widen our knowledge of second malignancies and show that they are of increasing relevance as the prognosis in myeloma improves and mortality rates decrease. PMID:26160877

  10. High-Precision Tungsten Isotopic Analysis by Multicollection Negative Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry Based on Simultaneous Measurement of W and (18)O/(16)O Isotope Ratios for Accurate Fractionation Correction.

    PubMed

    Trinquier, Anne; Touboul, Mathieu; Walker, Richard J

    2016-02-01

    Determination of the (182)W/(184)W ratio to a precision of ± 5 ppm (2σ) is desirable for constraining the timing of core formation and other early planetary differentiation processes. However, WO3(-) analysis by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry normally results in a residual correlation between the instrumental-mass-fractionation-corrected (182)W/(184)W and (183)W/(184)W ratios that is attributed to mass-dependent variability of O isotopes over the course of an analysis and between different analyses. A second-order correction using the (183)W/(184)W ratio relies on the assumption that this ratio is constant in nature. This may prove invalid, as has already been realized for other isotope systems. The present study utilizes simultaneous monitoring of the (18)O/(16)O and W isotope ratios to correct oxide interferences on a per-integration basis and thus avoid the need for a double normalization of W isotopes. After normalization of W isotope ratios to a pair of W isotopes, following the exponential law, no residual W-O isotope correlation is observed. However, there is a nonideal mass bias residual correlation between (182)W/(i)W and (183)W/(i)W with time. Without double normalization of W isotopes and on the basis of three or four duplicate analyses, the external reproducibility per session of (182)W/(184)W and (183)W/(184)W normalized to (186)W/(183)W is 5-6 ppm (2σ, 1-3 μg loads). The combined uncertainty per session is less than 4 ppm for (183)W/(184)W and less than 6 ppm for (182)W/(184)W (2σm) for loads between 3000 and 50 ng.

  11. Achieving a balance between small singlet-triplet energy splitting and high fluorescence radiative rate in a quinoxaline-based orange-red thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ling; Wu, Zhongbin; Xie, Guohua; Zhong, Cheng; Zhu, Zece; Cong, Hengjiang; Ma, Dongge; Yang, Chuluo

    2016-09-21

    A new orange-red thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter is designed and synthesized by incorporating a fluorine-substituted quinoxaline as an electron-acceptor and a phenoxazine as an electron-donor. The rational molecular design enables small singlet-triplet energy splitting (ΔEST) and high fluorescence radiative rate (k) for long-wavelength TADF emitters. The organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) employing the new TADF emitter achieve maximum external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of 13.9% and 9.0% for the vacuum- and solution-processed OLEDs, respectively.

  12. Electron impact cross-sections and cooling rates for methane. [in thermal balance of electrons in atmospheres and ionospheres of planets and satellites in outer solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gan, L.; Cravens, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    Energy transfer between electrons and methane gas by collisional processes plays an important role in the thermal balance of electrons in the atmospheres and ionospheres of planets and satellites in the outer solar system. The literature is reviewed for electron impact cross-sections for methane in this paper. Energy transfer rates are calculated for elastic and inelastic processes using a Maxwellian electron distribution. Vibrational, rotational, and electronic excitation and ionization are included. Results are presented for a wide range of electron temperatures and neutral temperatures.

  13. Effect of argon gas flow rate on properties of film electrodes prepared by thermal vacuum evaporation from synthesized Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} source

    SciTech Connect

    Sabli, Nordin; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hilal, Hikmat S.; Fujii, Masatoshi

    2014-03-05

    This work describes a new technique to enhance photoresponse of metal chalcogenide-based semiconductor film electrodes deposited by thermal vacuum evaporation under argon gas flow from synthesized Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} sources. SnSe formation with Cu-doped was obtained under higher argon gas flow rate (V{sub A} = 25 cm{sup 3}/min). Higher value of photoresponse was observed for films deposited under V{sub A} = 25 cm{sup 3}/min which was 9.1%. This finding indicates that Cu atoms inside the SnSe film were important to increase carrier concentrations that promote higher photoresponse.

  14. Redefining cooling rate in terms of ice front velocity and thermal gradient: first evidence of relevance to freezing injury of lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, J; Körber, C; Rau, G; Hubel, A; Cravalho, E G

    1990-06-01

    A freezing process and the resulting injury or survival of biological cells is commonly characterized in terms of the cooling rate, B. Under certain circumstances, the cooling rate can be expressed as B = G.v, where G denotes the thermal gradient at the ice-liquid interface and v its velocity, respectively. To determine the influence of G and v on the morphology of the ice-liquid interface and on cell survival, a gradient freezing stage was designed. Flat capillaries could be pushed with constant velocity from a warm to a cold heat reservoir. With this setup both parameters, G and v, are independently adjustable and the resulting process of directional solidification can be observed dynamically in a light microscope. Human lymphocytes in phosphate-buffered saline with 10 vol% of dimethyl sulfoxide were used as biological test material. Viability was assessed by a membrane integrity test with fluorescein diacetate and ethidium bromide. All cells were cooled down to a final temperature of -196 degrees C and then rapidly thawed. The results obtained with this technique show that the viability determined after freezing and thawing with a certain cooling rate, B = G.v, may vary considerably depending on the imposed values of the thermal gradient, G, and the ice front velocity, v. In addition, the data seem to suggest that, first, the maximum viability which can be reached is governed by the cooling rate, and, second, this maximum for a given cooling rate could be achieved by establishing small temperature gradients and high interface velocities (about 30 degrees K/cm and 500 microns/sec, respectively, for the range of values of G and v tested). PMID:2379414

  15. Homogeneous nucleation rate measurements of 1-butanol in helium: a comparative study of a thermal diffusion cloud chamber and a laminar flow diffusion chamber.

    PubMed

    Brus, David; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Zdímal, Vladimír; Lihavainen, Heikki

    2005-06-01

    Isothermal homogeneous nucleation rates of 1-butanol were measured both in a thermal diffusion cloud chamber and in a laminar flow diffusion chamber built recently at the Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic. The chosen system 1-butanol-helium can be studied reasonably well in both devices, in the overlapping range of temperatures. The results were compared with those found in the literature and those measured by Lihavainen in a laminar flow diffusion chamber of a similar design. The same isotherms measured with the thermal diffusion cloud chamber occur at highest saturation ratios of the three devices. Isotherms measured with the two laminar flow diffusion chambers are reasonably close together; the measurements by Lihavainen occur at lowest saturation ratios. The temperature dependences observed were similar in all three devices. The molecular content of critical clusters was calculated using the nucleation theorem and compared with the Kelvin equation. Both laminar flow diffusion chambers provided very similar sizes slightly above the Kelvin equation, whereas the thermal diffusion cloud chamber suggests critical cluster sizes significantly smaller. The results found elsewhere in the literature were in reasonable agreement with our results.

  16. Homogeneous nucleation rate measurements of 1-butanol in helium: a comparative study of a thermal diffusion cloud chamber and a laminar flow diffusion chamber.

    PubMed

    Brus, David; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Zdímal, Vladimír; Lihavainen, Heikki

    2005-06-01

    Isothermal homogeneous nucleation rates of 1-butanol were measured both in a thermal diffusion cloud chamber and in a laminar flow diffusion chamber built recently at the Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic. The chosen system 1-butanol-helium can be studied reasonably well in both devices, in the overlapping range of temperatures. The results were compared with those found in the literature and those measured by Lihavainen in a laminar flow diffusion chamber of a similar design. The same isotherms measured with the thermal diffusion cloud chamber occur at highest saturation ratios of the three devices. Isotherms measured with the two laminar flow diffusion chambers are reasonably close together; the measurements by Lihavainen occur at lowest saturation ratios. The temperature dependences observed were similar in all three devices. The molecular content of critical clusters was calculated using the nucleation theorem and compared with the Kelvin equation. Both laminar flow diffusion chambers provided very similar sizes slightly above the Kelvin equation, whereas the thermal diffusion cloud chamber suggests critical cluster sizes significantly smaller. The results found elsewhere in the literature were in reasonable agreement with our results. PMID:15974753

  17. Cooling rate and thermal structure determined from progressive magnetization of the Dacite Dome at Mount St. Helens, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Denlinger, Roger P.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.

    1990-03-01

    Our study of a magnetic anomaly associated with the recently active dacite dome at Mount St. Helens suggests that the dome consists of a hot, nonmagnetized core surrounded by a cool, magnetized carapace and flanking talus. The talus does not contribute to the anomaly because its constituent blocks are randomly oriented. Temporal changes in the magnetic anomaly indicate that the magnetized carapace thickened at an average rate of 0.03±0.01 m/d from 1984 to 1986. Petrographic and rock magnetic properties of dome samples indicate that the dominant process responsible for these changes is magnetization of extensively oxidized rock at progressively deeper levels within the dome as the rock cools through its blocking temperature, rather than subsequent changes in magnetization caused by further oxidation. Newly extruded material cools rapidly for a short period as heat is conducted outward in response to convective heat loss from its surface. The cooling rate gradually declines for several weeks, and thereafter the material cools at a relatively constant rate by convective heat loss from its interior along fractures that propagate inward. The rate of internal convective heat loss through fractures varies with rainfall, snowmelt, and large-scale fracturing during subsequent eruptive episodes. In accordance with a model for solidification of the 1959 lava lake at Kilauea Iki, Hawaii, we picture the dome's magnetized carapace as being a two-phase, porous, convective zone separated from the nonmagnetized core of the dome by a thin, single-phase conductive zone. As a consequence of the heat balance between the conductive and convective zones, the blocking-temperature isotherm migrates inward at a relatively constant rate. If the dome remains inactive, the time scale for its complete magnetization is estimated to be 18-36 years, a forecast which can be refined by shallow drilling into the dome and by continuing studies of its growing magnetic anomaly.

  18. Cooling rate and thermal structure determined from progressive magnetization of the dacite dome at Mount St. Helens, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Dzurisin, D. ); Denlinger, R.P. ); Rosenbaum, J.G. )

    1990-03-10

    The study suggests that the dome consists of a hot, nonmagnetized core surrounded by a cool magnetized carapace and flanking talus. Temporal changes in the magnetic anomaly indicate that the magnetized carapace thickened at an average rate of 0.03 {plus minus} 0.01 m/d from 1984 to 1986. Petrographic and rock magnetic properties of dome samples indicate that the dominant process responsible for these changes is magnetization of extensively oxidized rock at progressively deeper levels within the dome as the rock cools through its blocking temperature, rather than subsequent changes in magetization caused by further oxidation. Newly extruded material cools rapidly for a short period as heat is conducted outward in response to convective heat loss from its surface. The cooling rate gradually declines for several weeks, and thereafter the material cools at a relatively constant rate by convective heat loss from its interior along fractures that propagate inward. The rate of internal convective heat loss through fractures varies with rainfall, snowmelt, and large-scale fracturing during subsequent eruptive episodes. In accordance with a model for solidification of the 1959 lava lake at Kilauea Iki, Hawaii, the authors picture the dome's magnetized carapace as being a two-phase, porous, convective zone separated from the nonmagnetized core of the dome by a thin, single-phase conductive zone. As a consequence of the heat balance between the conductive and convective zones, the blocking-temperature isotherm migrates inward at a relatively constant rate. If the dome remains inactive, the time scale for its complete magnetization is estimated to be 18-36 years, a forecast which can be refined by shallow drilling into the dome and by continuing studies of its growing magnetic anomaly.

  19. Effects of post-reflow cooling rate and thermal aging on growth behavior of interfacial intermetallic compound between SAC305 solder and Cu substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaowu; Xu, Tao; Jiang, Xiongxin; Li, Yulong; Liu, Yi; Min, Zhixian

    2016-04-01

    The interfacial reactions between Cu and Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder reflowed under various cooling rates were investigated. It is found that the cooling rate is an important parameter in solder reflow process because it influences not only microstructure of solder alloy but also the morphology and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed between solder and Cu substrate. The experimental results indicate that only scallop-like Cu6Sn5 IMC layer is observed between solder and Cu substrate in case of water cooling and air cooling, while bilayer composed of scallop-like Cu6Sn5 and thin layer-like Cu3Sn is detected under furnace cooling due to sufficient reaction time to form Cu3Sn between Cu6Sn5 IMC and Cu substrate which resulted from slow cooling rate. Samples with different reflow cooling rates were further thermal-aged at 423 K. And it is found that the thickness of IMC increases linearly with square root of aging time. The growth constants of interfacial IMC layer during aging were obtained and compared for different cooling rates, indicating that the IMC layer thickness increased faster in samples under low cooling rate than in the high cooling rate under the same aging condition. The long prismatic grains were formed on the existing interfacial Cu6Sn5 grains to extrude deeply into solder matrix with lower cooling rate and long-term aging, and the Cu6Sn5 grains coarsened linearly with cubic root of aging time.

  20. Origins of Negative Strain Rate Dependence of Stress Corrosion Cracking Initiation in Alloy 690, and Intergranular Crack Formation in Thermally Treated Alloy 690

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Sung Soo

    2016-09-01

    We show that enhanced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) initiation in cold-rolled Alloy 690 with decreasing strain rate is related to the rate of short-range ordering (SRO) but not to the time-dependent corrosion process. Evidence for SRO is provided by aging tests on cold-rolled Alloy 690 at 623 K and 693 K (350 °C and 420 °C), respectively, which demonstrate its enhanced lattice contraction and hardness increase with aging temperature and time, respectively. Secondary intergranular cracks formed only in thermally treated and cold-rolled Alloy 690 during SCC tests, which are not SCC cracks, are caused by its lattice contraction by SRO before SCC tests but not by the orientation effect.

  1. Different growth rates in amoeba of genotypically related environmental and clinical Legionella pneumophila strains isolated from a thermal spa.

    PubMed Central

    Molmeret, M.; Jarraud, S.; Mori, J. P.; Pernin, P.; Forey, F.; Reyrolle, M.; Vandenesch, F.; Etienne, J.; Farge, P.

    2001-01-01

    Two cases of legionellosis occurring 3 years apart were acquired in the same French thermal spa and were apparently due to the same strain of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, as shown by genomic macrorestriction analysis. Minor differences between the two isolates were found by random amplification PCR profiling which showed an additional band with one of the isolates. Analysis of 107 L. pneumophila strains isolated from the spa waters by genome macrorestriction failed to identify the infective strain, but a closely related L. pneumophila serogroup 3 strain differing from the clinical isolates by only one band was found. To determine if the clinical L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates was better adapted for intracellular multiplication than related serogroup 3 environmental isolates, the growth kinetics of six isolates were determined in co-culture with Acanthamoeba lenticulata. One clinical isolate failed to grow within amoeba, while the other clinical isolate yielded the highest increase in bacterial cell count per amoeba (1,200%) and the environmental isolates gave intermediate values. Genetic analysis of L. pneumophila isolates by DNA macrorestriction does not therefore appear to reflect their growth kinetics within amoeba, and is not sufficiently discriminatory to identify potentially virulent strains. PMID:11349974

  2. Influence of cooling rate in planar thermally assisted magnetic random access memory: Improved writeability due to spin-transfer-torque influence

    SciTech Connect

    Chavent, A.; Ducruet, C.; Portemont, C.; Creuzet, C.; Alvarez-Hérault, J.; Vila, L.; Sousa, R. C.; Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B.

    2015-09-14

    This paper investigates the effect of a controlled cooling rate on magnetic field reversal assisted by spin transfer torque (STT) in thermally assisted magnetic random access memory. By using a gradual linear decrease of the voltage at the end of the write pulse, the STT decays more slowly or at least at the same rate as the temperature. This condition is necessary to make sure that the storage layer magnetization remains in the desired written direction during cooling of the cell. The influence of the write current pulse decay rate was investigated on two exchange biased synthetic ferrimagnet (SyF) electrodes. For a NiFe based electrode, a significant improvement in writing reproducibility was observed using a gradual linear voltage transition. The write error rate decreases by a factor of 10 when increasing the write pulse fall-time from ∼3 ns to 70 ns. For comparison, a second CoFe/NiFe based electrode was also reversed by magnetic field assisted by STT. In this case, no difference between sharp and linear write pulse fall shape was observed. We attribute this observation to the higher thermal stability of the CoFe/NiFe electrode during cooling. In real-time measurements of the magnetization reversal, it was found that Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) coupling in the SyF electrode vanishes for the highest pulse voltages that were used due to the high temperature reached during write. As a result, during the cooling phase, the final state is reached through a spin-flop transition of the SyF storage layer.

  3. Influence of cooling rate in planar thermally assisted magnetic random access memory: Improved writeability due to spin-transfer-torque influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavent, A.; Ducruet, C.; Portemont, C.; Creuzet, C.; Vila, L.; Alvarez-Hérault, J.; Sousa, R. C.; Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B.

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of a controlled cooling rate on magnetic field reversal assisted by spin transfer torque (STT) in thermally assisted magnetic random access memory. By using a gradual linear decrease of the voltage at the end of the write pulse, the STT decays more slowly or at least at the same rate as the temperature. This condition is necessary to make sure that the storage layer magnetization remains in the desired written direction during cooling of the cell. The influence of the write current pulse decay rate was investigated on two exchange biased synthetic ferrimagnet (SyF) electrodes. For a NiFe based electrode, a significant improvement in writing reproducibility was observed using a gradual linear voltage transition. The write error rate decreases by a factor of 10 when increasing the write pulse fall-time from ˜3 ns to 70 ns. For comparison, a second CoFe/NiFe based electrode was also reversed by magnetic field assisted by STT. In this case, no difference between sharp and linear write pulse fall shape was observed. We attribute this observation to the higher thermal stability of the CoFe/NiFe electrode during cooling. In real-time measurements of the magnetization reversal, it was found that Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) coupling in the SyF electrode vanishes for the highest pulse voltages that were used due to the high temperature reached during write. As a result, during the cooling phase, the final state is reached through a spin-flop transition of the SyF storage layer.

  4. Experimental and computational results on exciton/free-carrier ratio, hot/thermalized carrier diffusion, and linear/nonlinear rate constants affecting scintillator proportionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. T.; Grim, Joel Q.; Li, Qi; Ucer, K. B.; Bizarri, G. A.; Kerisit, S.; Gao, Fei; Bhattacharya, P.; Tupitsyn, E.; Rowe, E.; Buliga, V. M.; Burger, A.

    2013-09-01

    Models of nonproportional response in scintillators have highlighted the importance of parameters such as branching ratios, carrier thermalization times, diffusion, kinetic order of quenching, associated rate constants, and radius of the electron track. For example, the fraction ηeh of excitations that are free carriers versus excitons was shown by Payne and coworkers to have strong correlation with the shape of electron energy response curves from Compton-coincidence studies. Rate constants for nonlinear quenching are implicit in almost all models of nonproportionality, and some assumption about track radius must invariably be made if one is to relate linear energy deposition dE/dx to volume-based excitation density n (eh/cm3) in terms of which the rates are defined. Diffusion, affecting time-dependent track radius and thus density of excitations, has been implicated as an important factor in nonlinear light yield. Several groups have recently highlighted diffusion of hot electrons in addition to thermalized carriers and excitons in scintillators. However, experimental determination of many of these parameters in the insulating crystals used as scintillators has seemed difficult. Subpicosecond laser techniques including interband z scan light yield, fluence-dependent decay time, and transient optical absorption are now yielding experimental values for some of the missing rates and ratios needed for modeling scintillator response. First principles calculations and Monte Carlo simulations can fill in additional parameters still unavailable from experiment. As a result, quantitative modeling of scintillator electron energy response from independently determined material parameters is becoming possible on an increasingly firmer data base. This paper describes recent laser experiments, calculations, and numerical modeling of scintillator response.

  5. NNLOPS accurate associated HW production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astill, William; Bizon, Wojciech; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2016-06-01

    We present a next-to-next-to-leading order accurate description of associated HW production consistently matched to a parton shower. The method is based on reweighting events obtained with the HW plus one jet NLO accurate calculation implemented in POWHEG, extended with the MiNLO procedure, to reproduce NNLO accurate Born distributions. Since the Born kinematics is more complex than the cases treated before, we use a parametrization of the Collins-Soper angles to reduce the number of variables required for the reweighting. We present phenomenological results at 13 TeV, with cuts suggested by the Higgs Cross section Working Group.

  6. Experimental frictional heating of coal gouge at seismic slip rates: Evidence for devolatilization and thermal pressurization of gouge fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Kieran; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Hower, James C.

    2006-09-01

    High velocity (1 m/s) friction experiments on bituminous coal gouge display several earthquake-related phenomena, including devolatilization by frictional heating, gas pressurization, and slip weakening. Stage I is characterized by sample shortening and reduction in the coefficient of friction ( μ) from ˜ 1 to 0.6. Stage II is characterized by high frequency (˜ 5 Hz) oscillations in stress and strain records and by gas emissions. Stage III is marked by rapid weakening ( μ ˜ 0.1 to 0.35) and sample shortening, together with continued gas emissions. Stage IV produces stable stress records and continued weakness ( μ ˜ 0.2), but without gas emission. Stage I shortening is due to compaction of the gouge and the weakening is attributed to mechanical or thermal effects. Stage II behavior is interpreted as due to coal gasification and fluctuations in fluid pressure, resulting in high frequency stick-slip type behavior. Dramatic reduction in shear stress in stage III is attributed to gas pressurization by pore collapse and corresponds to a frictional instability, analogous to nucleation of an earthquake. Microstructural observations indicate the deformation was brittle during stages I and II but ductile during stages III and IV. Time dependent finite element frictional heat models indicate the center of the samples became hot (˜ 900 °C) during stage II, whereas the edge of samples remained relatively cold (< 300 °C). Vitrinite reflectance of coal samples shows an increase in reflectance from ˜ 0.5 to ˜ 0.8% over the displacement interval 20-40 m (20-40 s), indicating that the reflectance responds to frictional heating on a short time scale. The energy expended per unit area in these low stress, large displacement experiments is similar to that of higher stress (˜ 50 MPa), short displacement (˜ 1 m) earthquakes (˜ 10 7 J/m 2).

  7. A survey of the reaction rate constants for the thermal dissociation and recombination of nitrogen and oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marraffa, Lionel; Dulikravich, George S.; Keeney, Timothy C.; Deiwert, George S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the present report is to survey the various values of forward and backward reaction rate constants used by investigators in the field of high-temperature (T greater than 2000 K) gas reactions involving nitrogen and oxygen only. The objective is to find those values that correlate well so that they can be used for the studies of hypersonic flow and supersonic combustion with reasonable confidence. Relatively good agreement among these various values is observed for temperatures lower than 10,000 K.

  8. Structures for attaching or sealing a space between components having different coefficients or rates of thermal expansion

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot; Dean, Anthony John; Tognarelli, Leonardo; Pecchioli, Mario

    2005-06-28

    A structure for attaching together or sealing a space between a first component and a second component that have different rates or amounts of dimensional change upon being exposed to temperatures other than ambient temperature. The structure comprises a first attachment structure associated with the first component that slidably engages a second attachment structure associated with the second component, thereby allowing for an independent floating movement of the second component relative to the first component. The structure can comprise split rings, laminar rings, or multiple split rings.

  9. The effects of acclimation and rates of temperature change on critical thermal limits in Tenebrio molitor (Tenebrionidae) and Cyrtobagous salviniae (Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Allen, Jessica L; Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Chown, Steven L

    2012-05-01

    Critical thermal limits provide an indication of the range of temperatures across which organisms may survive, and the extent of the lability of these limits offers insights into the likely impacts of changing thermal environments on such survival. However, investigations of these limits may be affected by the circumstances under which trials are undertaken. Only a few studies have examined these effects, and typically not for beetles. This group has also not been considered in the context of the time courses of acclimation and its reversal, both of which are important for estimating the responses of species to transient temperature changes. Here we therefore examine the effects of rate of temperature change on critical thermal maxima (CT(max)) and minima (CT(min)), as well as the time course of the acclimation response and its reversal in two beetle species, Tenebrio molitor and Cyrtobagous salviniae. Increasing rates of temperature change had opposite effects on T. molitor and C. salviniae. In T. molitor, faster rates of change reduced both CT(max) (c. 2°C) and CT(min) (c. 3°C), while in C. salviniae faster rates of change increased both CT(max) (c. 6°C) and CT(min) (c. 4°C). CT(max) in T. molitor showed little response to acclimation, while the response to acclimation of CT(min) was most pronounced following exposure to 35°C (from 25°C) and was complete within 24 h. The time course of acclimation of CT(max) in C. salviniae was 2 days when exposed to 36°C (from c. 26°C), while that of CT(min) was less than 3 days when exposed to 18°C. In T. molitor, the time course of reacclimation to 25°C after treatments at 15°C and 35°C at 75% RH was longer than the time course of acclimation, and varied from 3-6 days for CT(max) and 6 days for CT(min). In C. salviniae, little change in CT(max) and CT(min) (<0.5°C) took place in all treatments suggesting that reacclimation may only occur after the 7 day period used in this study. These results indicate that both T

  10. Thermal oxidation rates of Al(x)Ga(1-x)As in H(2)O vapor and oxide-defined vertical cavity surface emitting laser characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochiai, Mari

    The incorporation of oxides into semiconductor structures formed by the thermal oxidation of Alsb{x}Gasb{1-x}As in water vapor has resulted in a marked improvement in device performance. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL's), in particular, have benefited from this technology, demonstrating record operating characteristics. This study focuses on the following areas with respect to oxide defined VCSEL's: the establishment of rate laws for the lateral oxidation of AlAs, the fabrication of VCSEL's, and the characterization of VCSEL's designed for high speed operation. An oxidation rate study was conducted on structures with AlAs oxidation layers. At low temperatures and short oxidation times, oxidation was found to be reaction rate limited. Conversely, diffusion across the oxide was determined to be the rate limiting mechanism at high temperature or long oxidation times. The observed rates can be modeled by rate equations by which the two component mechanisms can be separated. An activation energy of 1.6 eV and 0.8 eV was determined for the reaction and diffusion limited mechanism, respectively. A reduction in oxidation rates was observed with decreasing oxidation layer thickness and increasing doping concentration. The thickness dependence can be incorporated into the rate equations by assuming an oxidation reaction rate which is inhibited by the presence of strain in thin layers. The reaction rate can be characterized by a threshold thickness for which a value of 20 nm was determined for Alsb{x}Gasb{1-x}As. Oxide defined GaAs VCSEL's varying in size and oxidation layer composition were fabricated. Threshold currents of 450 muA and external differential quantum efficiencies of 0.5 were obtained. Finally, the large signal modulation characteristics of oxide defined VCSEL's were investigated. A threshold carrier lifetime of 1.6 nanoseconds VCSEL's was determined from laser turn-on delay measurements. The laser turn-on delay was also measured under various

  11. Non-thermal radio frequency and static magnetic fields increase rate of hemoglobin deoxygenation in a cell-free preparation.

    PubMed

    Muehsam, David; Lalezari, Parviz; Lekhraj, Rukmani; Abruzzo, Provvidenza M; Abruzzo, Provvidenza; Bolotta, Alessandra; Marini, Marina; Bersani, Ferdinando; Aicardi, Giorgio; Pilla, Arthur; Casper, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The growing body of clinical and experimental data regarding electromagnetic field (EMF) bioeffects and their therapeutic applications has contributed to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action. This study reports that two EMF modalities currently in clinical use, a pulse-modulated radiofrequency (PRF) signal, and a static magnetic field (SMF), applied independently, increased the rate of deoxygenation of human hemoglobin (Hb) in a cell-free assay. Deoxygenation of Hb was initiated using the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) in an assay that allowed the time for deoxygenation to be controlled (from several min to several hours) by adjusting the relative concentrations of DTT and Hb. The time course of Hb deoxygenation was observed using visible light spectroscopy. Exposure for 10-30 min to either PRF or SMF increased the rate of deoxygenation occurring several min to several hours after the end of EMF exposure. The sensitivity and biochemical simplicity of the assay developed here suggest a new research tool that may help to further the understanding of basic biophysical EMF transduction mechanisms. If the results of this study were to be shown to occur at the cellular and tissue level, EMF-enhanced oxygen availability would be one of the mechanisms by which clinically relevant EMF-mediated enhancement of growth and repair processes could occur. PMID:23593496

  12. Adrenal catecholamine synthesis rate changes induced by combined thermal and immobilization stress in fed and 24 hour fasted rats.

    PubMed

    Bargiel, Z; Nowicka, H

    1989-01-01

    The combined stress of acute immobilization (IM) at high and low ambient temperature has been used to determine its influence on adrenal catecholamine (CA) content assassed histofluorimetrically in fed and 24 hour fasted rats. The general course of changes obtained after the arrangement of adrenal strips deriving from the adrenals of rats exposed to cold and IM stress (CIMS) at +10 degrees C to -25 degrees C during the different time fragments presented the adrenal CA depletion events followed sometimes by the adrenal CA content increase after the longer stress exposure or/and stronger CIMS and WIMS conditions. It was found that this depletion-stimulated increase of adrenal Ca synthesis rate had been accelerated in 24 h fasted rats compared to satiated ones exposed to the same stress conditions, especially after the CIMS exposure. Moreover the survival time duration at first lethal temperature (-5 degrees C and +45 degrees C) was significantly higher in fasted rats. The possible hypothalamic regulation of adrenal CA synthesis rate accordingly to the actual metabolism needs and beta-adrenoceptor sensitivity changes depending on satiety state have been discussed and the necessity of further investigations concerning the specificity of stress-induced metabolism changes in 24 h starved rats has been suggested.

  13. Non-thermal radio frequency and static magnetic fields increase rate of hemoglobin deoxygenation in a cell-free preparation.

    PubMed

    Muehsam, David; Lalezari, Parviz; Lekhraj, Rukmani; Abruzzo, Provvidenza M; Abruzzo, Provvidenza; Bolotta, Alessandra; Marini, Marina; Bersani, Ferdinando; Aicardi, Giorgio; Pilla, Arthur; Casper, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The growing body of clinical and experimental data regarding electromagnetic field (EMF) bioeffects and their therapeutic applications has contributed to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action. This study reports that two EMF modalities currently in clinical use, a pulse-modulated radiofrequency (PRF) signal, and a static magnetic field (SMF), applied independently, increased the rate of deoxygenation of human hemoglobin (Hb) in a cell-free assay. Deoxygenation of Hb was initiated using the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) in an assay that allowed the time for deoxygenation to be controlled (from several min to several hours) by adjusting the relative concentrations of DTT and Hb. The time course of Hb deoxygenation was observed using visible light spectroscopy. Exposure for 10-30 min to either PRF or SMF increased the rate of deoxygenation occurring several min to several hours after the end of EMF exposure. The sensitivity and biochemical simplicity of the assay developed here suggest a new research tool that may help to further the understanding of basic biophysical EMF transduction mechanisms. If the results of this study were to be shown to occur at the cellular and tissue level, EMF-enhanced oxygen availability would be one of the mechanisms by which clinically relevant EMF-mediated enhancement of growth and repair processes could occur.

  14. iPhone 4s Photoplethysmography: Which Light Color Yields the Most Accurate Heart Rate and Normalized Pulse Volume Using the iPhysioMeter Application in the Presence of Motion Artifact?

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Kenta; Rolfe, Peter; Lee, Jihyoung; Yamakoshi, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in information and communication technologies has made it possible to measure heart rate (HR) and normalized pulse volume (NPV), which are important physiological indices, using only a smartphone. This has been achieved with reflection mode photoplethysmography (PPG), by using a smartphone’s embedded flash as a light source and the camera as a light sensor. Despite its widespread use, the method of PPG is susceptible to motion artifacts as physical displacements influence photon propagation phenomena and, thereby, the effective optical path length. Further, it is known that the wavelength of light used for PPG influences the photon penetration depth and we therefore hypothesized that influences of motion artifact could be wavelength-dependant. To test this hypothesis, we made measurements in 12 healthy volunteers of HR and NPV derived from reflection mode plethysmograms recorded simultaneously at three different spectral regions (red, green and blue) at the same physical location with a smartphone. We then assessed the accuracy of the HR and NPV measurements under the influence of motion artifacts. The analyses revealed that the accuracy of HR was acceptably high with all three wavelengths (all rs > 0.996, fixed biases: −0.12 to 0.10 beats per minute, proportional biases: r = −0.29 to 0.03), but that of NPV was the best with green light (r = 0.791, fixed biases: −0.01 arbitrary units, proportional bias: r = 0.11). Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio obtained with green and blue light PPG was higher than that of red light PPG. These findings suggest that green is the most suitable color for measuring HR and NPV from the reflection mode photoplethysmogram under motion artifact conditions. We conclude that the use of green light PPG could be of particular benefit in ambulatory monitoring where motion artifacts are a significant issue. PMID:24618594

  15. iPhone 4s photoplethysmography: which light color yields the most accurate heart rate and normalized pulse volume using the iPhysioMeter Application in the presence of motion artifact?

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Kenta; Rolfe, Peter; Lee, Jihyoung; Yamakoshi, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in information and communication technologies has made it possible to measure heart rate (HR) and normalized pulse volume (NPV), which are important physiological indices, using only a smartphone. This has been achieved with reflection mode photoplethysmography (PPG), by using a smartphone's embedded flash as a light source and the camera as a light sensor. Despite its widespread use, the method of PPG is susceptible to motion artifacts as physical displacements influence photon propagation phenomena and, thereby, the effective optical path length. Further, it is known that the wavelength of light used for PPG influences the photon penetration depth and we therefore hypothesized that influences of motion artifact could be wavelength-dependant. To test this hypothesis, we made measurements in 12 healthy volunteers of HR and NPV derived from reflection mode plethysmograms recorded simultaneously at three different spectral regions (red, green and blue) at the same physical location with a smartphone. We then assessed the accuracy of the HR and NPV measurements under the influence of motion artifacts. The analyses revealed that the accuracy of HR was acceptably high with all three wavelengths (all rs > 0.996, fixed biases: -0.12 to 0.10 beats per minute, proportional biases: r =  -0.29 to 0.03), but that of NPV was the best with green light (r = 0.791, fixed biases: -0.01 arbitrary units, proportional bias: r = 0.11). Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio obtained with green and blue light PPG was higher than that of red light PPG. These findings suggest that green is the most suitable color for measuring HR and NPV from the reflection mode photoplethysmogram under motion artifact conditions. We conclude that the use of green light PPG could be of particular benefit in ambulatory monitoring where motion artifacts are a significant issue.

  16. iPhone 4s photoplethysmography: which light color yields the most accurate heart rate and normalized pulse volume using the iPhysioMeter Application in the presence of motion artifact?

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Kenta; Rolfe, Peter; Lee, Jihyoung; Yamakoshi, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in information and communication technologies has made it possible to measure heart rate (HR) and normalized pulse volume (NPV), which are important physiological indices, using only a smartphone. This has been achieved with reflection mode photoplethysmography (PPG), by using a smartphone's embedded flash as a light source and the camera as a light sensor. Despite its widespread use, the method of PPG is susceptible to motion artifacts as physical displacements influence photon propagation phenomena and, thereby, the effective optical path length. Further, it is known that the wavelength of light used for PPG influences the photon penetration depth and we therefore hypothesized that influences of motion artifact could be wavelength-dependant. To test this hypothesis, we made measurements in 12 healthy volunteers of HR and NPV derived from reflection mode plethysmograms recorded simultaneously at three different spectral regions (red, green and blue) at the same physical location with a smartphone. We then assessed the accuracy of the HR and NPV measurements under the influence of motion artifacts. The analyses revealed that the accuracy of HR was acceptably high with all three wavelengths (all rs > 0.996, fixed biases: -0.12 to 0.10 beats per minute, proportional biases: r =  -0.29 to 0.03), but that of NPV was the best with green light (r = 0.791, fixed biases: -0.01 arbitrary units, proportional bias: r = 0.11). Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio obtained with green and blue light PPG was higher than that of red light PPG. These findings suggest that green is the most suitable color for measuring HR and NPV from the reflection mode photoplethysmogram under motion artifact conditions. We conclude that the use of green light PPG could be of particular benefit in ambulatory monitoring where motion artifacts are a significant issue. PMID:24618594

  17. Soil Water and Thermal Gradients in the Vadose Zone: Assessing Evapotranspiration, Recharge Rates and Shifts in Phreatophytic Water Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koonce, J.; Young, M.; Devitt, D.; Yu, Z.; Wagner, A.; Fenstermaker, L.

    2011-12-01

    Soil water and temperature are important variables in energy and water balance studies, particularly to processes involved in evapotranspiration (ET), which provides a direct link between the balances and is crucial for closing the water budget. With a large uncertainty in precipitation rates from interannual variability and increased demand for water resources, understanding these processes is critical when assessing the movement of mass and energy through the vadose zone. Stress on the long-term water supply could lead to a potential shift of water source by phreatophytes. We seek answers to the following questions: Can we use soil temperature to estimate ET and downward water fluxes? Do changes in temperature signals follow shifts in water sources for plants? Although ET and recharge rates are primarily driven by atmospheric demand and water availability, to what extent does soil temperature change these rates? Data were analyzed from an array of soil water and temperature instruments, including TDR and heat dissipation sensors at multiple points from 30 to 500 cm, and fiber optic distributed temperature sensing at depth increments of 1.14 cm. ET data were obtained from an eddy covariance (EC) system and groundwater depth was measured using a pressure transducer in a well. Instruments were installed in Spring Valley, NV, a site dominated by Big Sage and Greasewood. ET dominates water loss at the site from March through September. We hypothesize that groundwater recharge did not occur within the valley floor during 2010-2011. Data indicate that snowmelt and precipitation percolates to ~300 cm depth (water contents increasing from 0.06 in Oct-2010 to 0.10 in May-2011). Gradual water content increases at 400 and 500 cm were measured; however, groundwater levels rose sharply from early October 2010 to approximately mid-June 2011, suggesting a high capillary fringe. Diurnal variation of soil temperatures are observed to ~50 cm depth and seasonal variation observed to

  18. Transition state theory thermal rate constants and RRKM-based branching ratios for the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction based on multi-state and multi-reference ab initio calculations of interest for the Titan's chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ouk, Chanda-Malis; Zvereva-Loëte, Natalia; Scribano, Yohann; Bussery-Honvault, Béatrice

    2012-10-30

    Multireference single and double configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations including Davidson (+Q) or Pople (+P) corrections have been conducted in this work for the reactants, products, and extrema of the doublet ground state potential energy surface involved in the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction. Such highly correlated ab initio calculations are then compared with previous PMP4, CCSD(T), W1, and DFT/B3LYP studies. Large relative differences are observed in particular for the transition state in the entrance channel resolving the disagreement between previous ab initio calculations. We confirm the existence of a small but positive potential barrier (3.86 ± 0.84 kJ mol(-1) (MR-AQCC) and 3.89 kJ mol(-1) (MRCI+P)) in the entrance channel of the title reaction. The correlation is seen to change significantly the energetic position of the two minima and five saddle points of this system together with the dissociation channels but not their relative order. The influence of the electronic correlation into the energetic of the system is clearly demonstrated by the thermal rate constant evaluation and it temperature dependance by means of the transition state theory. Indeed, only MRCI values are able to reproduce the experimental rate constant of the title reaction and its behavior with temperature. Similarly, product branching ratios, evaluated by means of unimolecular RRKM theory, confirm the NH production of Umemoto et al., whereas previous works based on less accurate ab initio calculations failed. We confirm the previous findings that the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction proceeds via an insertion-dissociation mechanism and that the dominant product channels are CH(2)NH + H and CH(3) + NH.

  19. THERMALLY DRIVEN ATMOSPHERIC ESCAPE

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Robert E.

    2010-06-20

    Accurately determining the escape rate from a planet's atmosphere is critical for determining its evolution. A large amount of Cassini data is now available for Titan's upper atmosphere and a wealth of data is expected within the next decade on escape from Pluto, Mars, and extra-solar planets. Escape can be driven by upward thermal conduction of energy deposited well below the exobase, as well as by nonthermal processes produced by energy deposited in the exobase region. Recent applications of a model for escape driven by upward thermal conduction, called the slow hydrodynamic escape model, have resulted in surprisingly large loss rates for the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Based on a molecular kinetic simulation of the exobase region, these rates appear to be orders of magnitude too large. Therefore, the slow hydrodynamic model is evaluated here. It is shown that such a model cannot give a reliable description of the atmospheric temperature profile unless it is coupled to a molecular kinetic description of the exobase region. Therefore, the present escape rates for Titan and Pluto must be re-evaluated using the atmospheric model described here.

  20. Relationship between thermal stability, degradation rate and expression yield of barnase variants in the periplasm of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kwon, W S; Da Silva, N A; Kellis, J T

    1996-12-01

    An advantage of exporting a recombinant protein to the periplasm of Escherichia coli is decreased proteolysis in the periplasm compared with that in the cytoplasm. However, protein degradation in the periplasm also occurs. It has been widely accepted that the thermodynamic stability of a protein is an important factor for protein degradation in the cytoplasm of E.coli. To investigate the effect of the thermodynamic stability of an exported protein on the extent of proteolysis in the periplasm, barnase (an extracellular ribonuclease from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) fused to alkaline phosphatase leader peptide was used as a model protein. A set of singly or doubly mutated barnase variants were constructed for export to the E.coli periplasm. It was found that the half-life of the barnase variants in vivo increased with their thermodynamic stability in vitro. A dominant factor for the final yield of exported barnase was not exportability but the turnover rate of the barnase variant. The yield of a stabilized mutant was up to 50% higher than that of the wild type. This suggests that exporting a protein to the periplasm and using protein engineering to enhance the stability can be combined as a strategy to optimize the production of recombinant proteins. PMID:9010933

  1. Effect of Thermal Aging on the Mechanical Properties of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/Cu Solder Joints Under High Strain Rate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van Luong; Kim, Ho-Kyung

    2015-07-01

    Shear tests with velocities between 0.5 m/s and 2.5 m/s were conducted to investigate the deformation characteristics of 0.76 mm lead-free Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder ball joints after thermal aging at 373 K up to 1000 h. A scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy was then used to examine the fracture surfaces and microstructures of the solder joints. The results showed that the main failure mode of the solder joints was the brittle interfacial fracture mode with cleavage failure in the intermetallic compound (IMC). The maximum shear strength and the fracture toughness ( K C) of the solder joint decreased substantially after aging for the initial aging time, after which they decreased gradually with further aging or an increase in the strain rate. The evolution of the IMC layer when it was thicker and had coarser nodules due to thermal aging was the primary cause of the reduction in the shear strength and fracture toughness in this study.

  2. Factors affecting the infectivity of tissues from pigs with classical swine fever: thermal inactivation rates and oral infectious dose.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Lucie; Haines, Felicity J; Everett, Helen E; Crudgington, Bentley; Johns, Helen L; Clifford, Derek; Drew, Trevor W; Crooke, Helen R

    2015-03-23

    Outbreaks of classical swine fever are often associated with ingestion of pig meat or products derived from infected pigs. Assessment of the disease risks associated with material of porcine origin requires knowledge on the likely amount of virus in the original material, how long the virus may remain viable within the resulting product and how much of that product would need to be ingested to result in infection. Using material from pigs infected with CSFV, we determined the viable virus concentrations in tissues that comprise the majority of pork products. Decimal reduction values (D values), the time required to reduce the viable virus load by 90% (or 1 log10), were determined at temperatures of relevance for chilling, cooking, composting and ambient storage. The rate of CSFV inactivation varied in different tissues. At lower temperatures, virus remained viable for substantially longer in muscle and serum compared to lymphoid and fat tissues. To enable estimation of the temperature dependence of inactivation, the temperature change required to change the D values by 90% (Z values) were determined as 13 °C, 14 °C, 12 °C and 10 °C for lymph node, fat, muscle and serum, respectively. The amount of virus required to infect 50% of pigs by ingestion was determined by feeding groups of animals with moderately and highly virulent CSFV. Interestingly, the virulent virus did not initiate infection at a lower dose than the moderately virulent strain. Although higher than for intranasal inoculation, the amount of virus required for infection via ingestion is present in only a few grams of tissue from infected animals.

  3. Reaction cross sections and thermal rate constant for Cl(-) + CH3Br → ClCH3 + Br(-) from J-dependent quantum scattering calculations.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Carsten; Schmatz, Stefan

    2016-07-20

    Employing dimensionality-reduced time-independent quantum scattering theory and summation over all possible total angular momentum states, initial-state selected reaction cross sections for the exothermic gas-phase bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reaction Cl(-) + CH3Br → ClCH3 + Br(-) have been calculated. The carbon-halogen bonds and the rotation of the methyl halides are taken into account. In agreement with previous calculations for J = 0, initial rotational motion of CH3Br decreases the reaction probability and consequently the cross sections. The experimentally obtained thermal rate constant for 300 K is reproduced within the experimental error. For lower temperatures, it is calculated to be below the experimental values but shows the same strong increase for T → 0. PMID:27381461

  4. Reaction cross sections and thermal rate constant for Cl(-) + CH3Br → ClCH3 + Br(-) from J-dependent quantum scattering calculations.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Carsten; Schmatz, Stefan

    2016-07-20

    Employing dimensionality-reduced time-independent quantum scattering theory and summation over all possible total angular momentum states, initial-state selected reaction cross sections for the exothermic gas-phase bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reaction Cl(-) + CH3Br → ClCH3 + Br(-) have been calculated. The carbon-halogen bonds and the rotation of the methyl halides are taken into account. In agreement with previous calculations for J = 0, initial rotational motion of CH3Br decreases the reaction probability and consequently the cross sections. The experimentally obtained thermal rate constant for 300 K is reproduced within the experimental error. For lower temperatures, it is calculated to be below the experimental values but shows the same strong increase for T → 0.

  5. A review of reaction rates and thermodynamic and transport properties for an 11-species air model for chemical and thermal nonequilibrium calculations to 30000 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Roop N.; Yos, Jerrold M.; Thompson, Richard A.; Lee, Kam-Pui

    1990-01-01

    Reaction rate coefficients and thermodynamic and transport properties are reviewed and supplemented for the 11-species air model which can be used for analyzing flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium up to temperatures of 3000 K. Such flows will likely occur around currently planned and future hypersonic vehicles. Guidelines for determining the state of the surrounding environment are provided. Curve fits are given for the various species properties for their efficient computation in flowfield codes. Approximate and more exact formulas are provided for computing the properties of partially ionized air mixtures in a high energy environment. Limitations of the approximate mixing laws are discussed for a mixture of ionized species. An electron number-density correction for the transport properties of the charged species is obtained. This correction has been generally ignored in the literature.

  6. Estimating thermal diffusivity and specific heat from needle probe thermal conductivity data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, W.F.; Gilbert, L.Y.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal diffusivity and specific heat can be estimated from thermal conductivity measurements made using a standard needle probe and a suitably high data acquisition rate. Thermal properties are calculated from the measured temperature change in a sample subjected to heating by a needle probe. Accurate thermal conductivity measurements are obtained from a linear fit to many tens or hundreds of temperature change data points. In contrast, thermal diffusivity calculations require a nonlinear fit to the measured temperature change occurring in the first few tenths of a second of the measurement, resulting in a lower accuracy than that obtained for thermal conductivity. Specific heat is calculated from the ratio of thermal conductivity to diffusivity, and thus can have an uncertainty no better than that of the diffusivity estimate. Our thermal conductivity measurements of ice Ih and of tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate, made using a 1.6 mm outer diameter needle probe and a data acquisition rate of 18.2 pointss, agree with published results. Our thermal diffusivity and specific heat results reproduce published results within 25% for ice Ih and 3% for THF hydrate. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Judging Students' Achievement Goal Orientations: Are Teacher Ratings Accurate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicke, Anna-Lena; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagy, Gabriel; Nagy, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Using the theoretical framework of achievement goal theory, this study investigated the accuracy of teachers' judgments of their students' motivation. Self-report data were gathered on the mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals of 1140 German secondary school students (mean age = 14.24) in five academic subjects (English,…

  8. Importance of level mixing on accurate [Fe II] transition rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, N. C.; Hibbert, A.

    2010-12-01

    Context. In a very recent measurement Gurell et al. (2009, A&A, 508, 525) commented that while the theoretical lifetime of a 4G5.5 is approximately one tenth of the lifetime of b 2H5.5 the corresponding measurement shows this to be close to one fifth. This large discrepancy is attributed to the effect of inadequate level mixing in the theoretical calculations. Aims: The aim of this work is to make a detailed analysis of these level mixing effects on transitions from various lower levels to the a 4G5.5 and b 2H5.5 levels given in three previous calculations and in the present more extensive CI calculation. Methods: The CIV3 structure codes of Hibbert (1975, Comput. Phys. Commun., 9, 141) and Hibbert et al. (1991, Comput. Phys. Commun., 64, 455) are used in the present work, combined with our “fine-tuning” extrapolation process. Results: The calculated mixing between the upper levels, obtained in previous calculations, is shown to be too weak. The stronger mixing determined in our work gives rise to a calculated lifetime for b 2H5.5 within 3% of the measured value. On the other hand our calculated lifetime for a 4G5.5 is around 20% lower than the measured value, which has fairly wide error bars. Conclusions: Our enhanced calculations explain the difference between previous calculations of the b 2H5.5 lifetime and the recent measured value and confirm the latter. We also suggest a somewhat higher value than experiment for the lifetime of a 4G5.5.

  9. Identification of Reduced-Order Thermal Therapy Models Using Thermal MR Images: Theory and Validation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and validate a method to identify computationally efficient site- and patient-specific models of ultrasound thermal therapies from MR thermal images. The models of the specific absorption rate of the transduced energy and the temperature response of the therapy target are identified in the reduced basis of proper orthogonal decomposition of thermal images, acquired in response to a mild thermal test excitation. The method permits dynamic reidentification of the treatment models during the therapy by recursively utilizing newly acquired images. Such adaptation is particularly important during high-temperature therapies, which are known to substantially and rapidly change tissue properties and blood perfusion. The developed theory was validated for the case of focused ultrasound heating of a tissue phantom. The experimental and computational results indicate that the developed approach produces accurate low-dimensional treatment models despite temporal and spatial noises in MR images and slow image acquisition rate. PMID:22531754

  10. Instantons and scaling of the transitions rates in Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of thermally-assisted quantum tunneling in spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Jiang, Zhang; Boixo, Sergio; Issakov, Sergei; Mazzola, Guglielmo; Troyer, Matthias; Neven, Hartmut

    We study analytically and numerically the dynamics of the quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) algorithm to simulate thermally-assisted tunneling in mean-field spin models without conservation of total spin. We use Kramers escape rate theory to calculate the scaling of the QMC time with the problem size to simulate the tunneling transitions. We develop path-integral instanton approach in coherent state and Suzuki-Trotter representations to calculate the escape rate and most probable escape path in QMC dynamics. Analtytical results are in a good agreement with numerical studies. We identify the class of models where the exponent in the scaling of the QMC time is the same as that in physical tunneling but the pre-factor depends very significantly on the QMC path representation. We propose the classes of problems where QMC can fail to simulate tunneling efficiently. The work of GM and MT has been supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation through the National Competence Center in Research QSIT and by ODNI, IARPA via MIT Lincoln Laboratory Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002.

  11. High-efficiency impurity activation by precise control of cooling rate during atmospheric pressure thermal plasma jet annealing of 4H-SiC wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Keisuke; Hanafusa, Hiroaki; Ashihara, Ryuhei; Hayashi, Shohei; Murakami, Hideki; Higashi, Seiichiro

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated high-temperature and rapid annealing of a silicon carbide (SiC) wafer by atmospheric pressure thermal plasma jet (TPJ) irradiation for impurity activation. To reduce the temperature gradient in the SiC wafer, a DC current preheating system and the lateral back-and-forth motion of the wafer were introduced. A maximum surface temperature of 1835 °C within 2.4 s without sample breakage was achieved, and aluminum (Al), phosphorus (P), and arsenic (As) activations in SiC were demonstrated. We have investigated precise control of heating rate (Rh) and cooling rate (Rc) during rapid annealing of P+-implanted 4H-SiC and its impact on impurity activation. No dependence of resistivity on Rh was observed, while increasing Rc significantly decreased resistivity. A minimum resistivity of 0.0025 Ω·cm and a maximum carrier concentration of 2.9 × 1020 cm-3 were obtained at Rc = 568 °C/s.

  12. Thermal responses and heart rates of low-birth-weight premature babies during daily care on a heated, water-filled mattress.

    PubMed

    Sarman, I

    1992-01-01

    Body temperatures, heart rates and resting oxygen consumptions were examined during routine nursing care in 12 premature babies treated alternately in incubators or on a heated, water-filled mattress (HWM). The mean temperatures were significantly higher in the axilla (0.3 degree C; p less than or equal to 0.05) and the foot (1.4 degrees C; p less than 0.001) during HWM care. The degree of maximal fall in various body temperatures during routine nursing procedures was the same for both treatments, whereas the time taken for the foot temperature to fall was 13 min shorter during HWM care (p less than 0.001). The proportion of heart rates below 160 bpm when the babies were not disturbed was 7.4% greater during HWM treatment (p less than 0.01). The resting oxygen consumption in babies treated on HWM was slightly lower (6.2 +/- 0.4 vs 6.4 +/- 0.5 ml/kg/min; p less than 0.05). Treatment on the HWM seems to promote calm and comfort, since it reduces the amount of thermal stress and prolongs quiet resting periods.

  13. Volcanic SO2 and SiF4 visualization using 2-D thermal emission spectroscopy - Part 2: Wind propagation and emission rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, A.; Stremme, W.; Harig, R.; Grutter, M.

    2013-01-01

    A technique for measuring two-dimensional (2-D) plumes of volcanic gases with thermal emission spectroscopy was described in Part 1 by Stremme et al. (2012a). In that paper the instrumental aspects as well as retrieval strategies for obtaining the slant column images of SO2 and SiF4, as well as animations of particular events observed at the Popocatépetl volcano, were presented. This work focuses on the procedures for determining the propagation speed of the gases and estimating an emission rate from the given image sequences. A 2-D column density distribution of a volcanic gas, available as time-consecutive frames, provides information of a projected wind field and the average velocity at which the volcanic plume is propagating. This information is valuable since the largest uncertainties when calculating emission rates of the gases using remote sensing techniques arise from propagation velocities which are often inadequately assumed. The presented reconstruction method solves the equation of continuity as an ill-posed problem using mainly a Tikhonov-like regularisation. It is observed from the available data sets that if the main direction of propagation is perpendicular to the line-of-sight, the algorithm works well for SO2, which has the strongest signals, and also for SiF4 in some favourable cases. Due to the similarity of the algorithm used here with the reconstruction methods used for profile retrievals based on optimal estimation theory, diagnostic tools like the averaging kernels can be calculated in an analogous manner and the information can be quantified as degrees of freedom. Thus, it is shown that the combination of wind field and column distribution of the gas plume can provide the emission rate of the volcano both during day and night.

  14. Profitable capitation requires accurate costing.

    PubMed

    West, D A; Hicks, L L; Balas, E A; West, T D

    1996-01-01

    In the name of costing accuracy, nurses are asked to track inventory use on per treatment basis when more significant costs, such as general overhead and nursing salaries, are usually allocated to patients or treatments on an average cost basis. Accurate treatment costing and financial viability require analysis of all resources actually consumed in treatment delivery, including nursing services and inventory. More precise costing information enables more profitable decisions as is demonstrated by comparing the ratio-of-cost-to-treatment method (aggregate costing) with alternative activity-based costing methods (ABC). Nurses must participate in this costing process to assure that capitation bids are based upon accurate costs rather than simple averages. PMID:8788799

  15. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R; Holmes, William M

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models. PMID:27111139

  16. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Holmes, William M.

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models.

  17. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R; Holmes, William M

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models.

  18. Cermet fuel thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Peddicord, K.L. ); Alvis, J.M. Jr.; Thomas, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    Cermets have been proposed as a candidate fuel for space reactors for several reasons, including their potential for high thermal conductivity. However, there is currently no accepted model for cermet fuel thermal conductivity. The objective of the work reported in this paper was to (a) investigate the adequacy of existing models; (b) develop, if necessary, an improved model; and (c) provide recommendations for future work on cermet thermal conductivity. The results from this work indicate that further work is needed to accurately characterize cermet fuel thermal conductivity. It was determined that particle shape and orientation have a large impact on cermet thermal conductivity.

  19. Accurate documentation and wound measurement.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Sylvie

    This article, part 4 in a series on wound management, addresses the sometimes routine yet crucial task of documentation. Clear and accurate records of a wound enable its progress to be determined so the appropriate treatment can be applied. Thorough records mean any practitioner picking up a patient's notes will know when the wound was last checked, how it looked and what dressing and/or treatment was applied, ensuring continuity of care. Documenting every assessment also has legal implications, demonstrating due consideration and care of the patient and the rationale for any treatment carried out. Part 5 in the series discusses wound dressing characteristics and selection.

  20. An efficient route to thermal rate constants in reduced dimensional quantum scattering simulations: Applications to the abstraction of hydrogen from alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Horsten, H. F.; Banks, S. T.; Clary, D. C.

    2011-09-01

    We present an efficient approach to the determination of two-dimensional potential energy surfaces for use in quantum reactive scattering simulations. Our method involves first determining the minimum energy path (MEP) for the reaction by means of an ab initio intrinsic reaction coordinate calculation. This one-dimensional potential is then corrected to take into account the zero point energies of the spectator modes. These are determined from Hessians in curvilinear coordinates after projecting out the modes to be explicitly treated in quantum scattering calculations. The final (1 + 1)-dimensional potential is constructed by harmonic expansion about each point along the MEP before transforming the whole surface to hyperspherical coordinates for use in the two-dimensional scattering simulations. This new method is applied to H-atom abstraction from methane, ethane and propane. For the latter, both reactive channels (producing i-C3H7 or n-C3H7) are investigated. For all reactions, electronic structure calculations are performed using an efficient, explicitly correlated, coupled cluster methodology (CCSD(T)-F12). Calculated thermal rate constants are compared to experimental and previous theoretical results.

  1. Quantum wavepacket dynamics of the N(4 S) + NO(X2 Π) reaction and its isotopic variants: Integral cross sections and thermal rate constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivannan, V.; Padmanaban, R.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the initial state-selected dynamics of the title reaction on its ground (1 3A″) and first excited (1 3A‧) triplet potential energy surfaces (PESs) by a time-dependent wavepacket propagation method, employing the ab initio analytical PESs developed by Gamallo et al. (2003). All partial wave contributions up to the total angular momentum J = 140 are found to be necessary for the scattering of NO diatom in its vibrational and rotational ground state up to a collision energy ∼ 0.9 eV. The converged initial state-selected reaction attributes viz., reaction probabilities, integral cross sections and thermal rate constants are obtained within the centrifugal sudden (CS) approximation and the convergence of the results are carefully checked by varying all parameters used in the numerical calculations. The dynamical results are compared with the other reported theoretical and experimental findings. Investigation on the energy-resolved channel-specific reaction probabilities infers that the N2 formation channel is very much favorable than the N-exchange channel. The reaction proceeds via some metastable resonances, observed from the oscillatory probability curves, which is more in the latter channel compared to the former. The effect of rotational and vibrational excitations of the reagent (NO diatom) on the dynamics is examined. We also examine the effect of isotopic substitution of N-atom (14 N by 15 N) on the reaction dynamics.

  2. Rydberg gas theory of a glow discharge plasma: II. Electrode kinetics (probe theory) and the thermal rate constant for Symmetrical charge transfer involving Rydberg atoms of Ar.

    PubMed

    Mason, Rod S

    2010-04-21

    A steady state chemical kinetic model is developed to describe the conduction of electrical current between two probes, of relatively large surface area, immersed in a fast flowing plasma by the mechanism of charge transfer through a gas of Rydberg atoms. It correctly predicts the shape of current-voltage profiles which are similar to those of Langmuir, or floating double probe measurements. The difference is that the plateau current at the probe reflects the transport limited ion current at the cathodic electrode, even when the probe is being scanned in the anodic region. The sharp gradient leading up to the plateau of the I-V curve is associated with the field dependence of the efficiency of Rydberg atom ionisation, not the electron temperature. This approach gives a good qualitative explanation of experimental behaviour over a wide range of probe bias voltages and includes the occurrence of electron impact ionisation at the anode. It also gives a value for the thermal rate coefficient of symmetrical charge transfer between Rydberg atoms of Ar (8.2 x 10(-7) molecule(-1) cm(3) s(-1), at 313 K; plasma density approximately = 10(10) atoms cm(-3), total pressure = 2.7 mbar).

  3. How Accurate Are Transition States from Simulations of Enzymatic Reactions?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The rate expression of traditional transition state theory (TST) assumes no recrossing of the transition state (TS) and thermal quasi-equilibrium between the ground state and the TS. Currently, it is not well understood to what extent these assumptions influence the nature of the activated complex obtained in traditional TST-based simulations of processes in the condensed phase in general and in enzymes in particular. Here we scrutinize these assumptions by characterizing the TSs for hydride transfer catalyzed by the enzyme Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase obtained using various simulation approaches. Specifically, we compare the TSs obtained with common TST-based methods and a dynamics-based method. Using a recently developed accurate hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics potential, we find that the TST-based and dynamics-based methods give considerably different TS ensembles. This discrepancy, which could be due equilibrium solvation effects and the nature of the reaction coordinate employed and its motion, raises major questions about how to interpret the TSs determined by common simulation methods. We conclude that further investigation is needed to characterize the impact of various TST assumptions on the TS phase-space ensemble and on the reaction kinetics. PMID:24860275

  4. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of biomaterials measured with self-heated thermistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valvano, J. W.; Cochran, J. R.; Diller, K. R.

    1985-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental method to measure the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of biomaterials. Self-heated thermistor probes, inserted into the tissue of interest, are used to deliver heat as well as to monitor the rate of heat removal. An empirical calibration procedure allows accurate thermal-property measurements over a wide range of tissue temperatures. Operation of the instrument in three media with known thermal properties shows the uncertainty of measurements to be about 2%. The reproducibility is 0.5% for the thermal-conductivity measurements and 2% for the thermal-diffusivity measurements. Thermal properties were measured in dog, pig, rabbit, and human tissues. The tissues included kidney, spleen, liver, brain, heart, lung, pancreas, colon cancer, and breast cancer. Thermal properties were measured for 65 separate tissue samples at 3, 10, 17, 23, 30, 37, and 45°C. The results show that the temperature coefficient of biomaterials approximates that of water.

  5. Accurate determination of characteristic relative permeability curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Michael H.; Benson, Sally M.

    2015-09-01

    A recently developed technique to accurately characterize sub-core scale heterogeneity is applied to investigate the factors responsible for flowrate-dependent effective relative permeability curves measured on core samples in the laboratory. The dependency of laboratory measured relative permeability on flowrate has long been both supported and challenged by a number of investigators. Studies have shown that this apparent flowrate dependency is a result of both sub-core scale heterogeneity and outlet boundary effects. However this has only been demonstrated numerically for highly simplified models of porous media. In this paper, flowrate dependency of effective relative permeability is demonstrated using two rock cores, a Berea Sandstone and a heterogeneous sandstone from the Otway Basin Pilot Project in Australia. Numerical simulations of steady-state coreflooding experiments are conducted at a number of injection rates using a single set of input characteristic relative permeability curves. Effective relative permeability is then calculated from the simulation data using standard interpretation methods for calculating relative permeability from steady-state tests. Results show that simplified approaches may be used to determine flowrate-independent characteristic relative permeability provided flow rate is sufficiently high, and the core heterogeneity is relatively low. It is also shown that characteristic relative permeability can be determined at any typical flowrate, and even for geologically complex models, when using accurate three-dimensional models.

  6. Thermal Analysis Methods for an Earth Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; Dec, John A.; Lindell, Michael C.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal analysis of a vehicle designed to return samples from another planet, such as the Earth Entry vehicle for the Mars Sample Return mission, presents several unique challenges. The Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) must contain Martian material samples after they have been collected and protect them from the high heating rates of entry into the Earth's atmosphere. This requirement necessitates inclusion of detailed thermal analysis early in the design of the vehicle. This paper will describe the challenges and solutions for a preliminary thermal analysis of an Earth Entry Vehicle. The aeroheatina on the vehicle during entry would be the main driver for the thermal behavior. and is a complex function of time, spatial position on the vehicle, vehicle temperature, and trajectory parameters. Thus. the thermal analysis must be closely tied to the aeroheating analysis in order to make accurate predictions. Also, the thermal analysis must account for the material response of the ablative thermal protection system TPS. For the exo-atmospheric portion of the mission, the thermal analysis must include the orbital radiation fluxes on the surfaces. The thermal behavior must also be used to predict the structural response of the vehicle (the thermal stress and strains) and whether they remain within the capability of the materials. Thus, the thermal analysis requires ties to the three-dimensional geometry, the aeroheating analysis, the material response analysis, the orbital analysis. and the structural analysis. The goal of this paper is to describe to what degree that has been achieved.

  7. SPLASH: Accurate OH maser positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Andrew; Gomez, Jose F.; Jones, Paul; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James; Dawson, Joanne; Ellingsen, Simon; Breen, Shari; Imai, Hiroshi; Lowe, Vicki; Jones, Courtney

    2013-10-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) 18 cm lines are powerful and versatile probes of diffuse molecular gas, that may trace a largely unstudied component of the Galactic ISM. SPLASH (the Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl) is a large, unbiased and fully-sampled survey of OH emission, absorption and masers in the Galactic Plane that will achieve sensitivities an order of magnitude better than previous work. In this proposal, we request ATCA time to follow up OH maser candidates. This will give us accurate (~10") positions of the masers, which can be compared to other maser positions from HOPS, MMB and MALT-45 and will provide full polarisation measurements towards a sample of OH masers that have not been observed in MAGMO.

  8. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  9. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-03-29

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  10. Thermal Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Philipp Andreas

    Accidental ignition of flammable gases is a critical safety concern in many industrial applications. Particularly in the aviation industry, the main areas of concern on an aircraft are the fuel tank and adjoining regions, where spilled fuel has a high likelihood of creating a flammable mixture. To this end, a fundamental understanding of the ignition phenomenon is necessary in order to develop more accurate test methods and standards as a means of designing safer air vehicles. The focus of this work is thermal ignition, particularly auto-ignition with emphasis on the effect of heating rate, hot surface ignition and flame propagation, and puffing flames. Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels is traditionally separated into slow reaction, cool flame, and ignition regimes based on pressure and temperature. Standard tests, such as the ASTM E659, are used to determine the lowest temperature required to ignite a specific fuel mixed with air at atmospheric pressure. It is expected that the initial pressure and the rate at which the mixture is heated also influences the limiting temperature and the type of combustion. This study investigates the effect of heating rate, between 4 and 15 K/min, and initial pressure, in the range of 25 to 100 kPa, on ignition of n-hexane air mixtures. Mixtures with equivalence ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 were investigated. The problem is also modeled computationally using an extension of Semenov's classical auto-ignition theory with a detailed chemical mechanism. Experiments and simulations both show that in the same reactor either a slow reaction or an ignition event can take place depending on the heating rate. Analysis of the detailed chemistry demonstrates that a mixture which approaches the ignition region slowly undergoes a significant modification of its composition. This change in composition induces a progressive shift of the explosion limit until the mixture is no longer flammable. A mixture that approaches the ignition region

  11. Interactive effects of thermal environment and dietary amino acid and fat levels on rate and efficiency of growth of pigs housed in a conventional nursery.

    PubMed

    Schenck, B C; Stahly, T S; Cromwell, G L

    1992-12-01

    In four trials, 480 weanling pigs were housed in a conventional nursery maintained at 20 or 30 degrees C, which represented a cool and hot thermal environment, respectively. They were allowed ad libitum access to corn-soybean meal-dried whey diets containing .7, 1.0, or 1.3% lysine and 0 or 5% added fat (choice white grease). The pigs were weaned between 27 and 33 d of age (7.27 +/- .90 kg) and penned in groups of five for the duration of the 42-d trials. Pigs housed in the cool environment consumed more feed (P < .01), gained more weight (P < .01), and utilized feed more efficiently (P < .01) than those in the hot environment. As dietary lysine levels were increased in the 20 and 30 degrees C environments, daily weight gains and gain:feed ratios increased linearly (P < .01) from d 0 to 21 and quadratically (P < .01) from d 21 to 42. However, the magnitudes of the increases were less in the cool environment, resulting in temperature x lysine interactions (P < .05). As the pig's feed intake, body weight, and heat production increased over time, the 20 and 30 degrees C environments became progressively warmer relative to the animal's zone of thermoneutrality. The associated reductions over time in energy and lysine intakes relative to the pigs' maintenance needs resulted in an increase in the concentration of dietary lysine needed to maximize rate and efficiency of gain in the 30 degrees C environment but not in the 20 degrees C environment (temperature x lysine x period interaction, P < .10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Energy consumption in buildings and female thermal demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingma, Boris; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2015-12-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings and offices adds up to about 30% of total carbon dioxide emissions; and occupant behaviour contributes to 80% of the variation in energy consumption. Indoor climate regulations are based on an empirical thermal comfort model that was developed in the 1960s (ref. ). Standard values for one of its primary variables--metabolic rate--are based on an average male, and may overestimate female metabolic rate by up to 35% (ref. ). This may cause buildings to be intrinsically non-energy-efficient in providing comfort to females. Therefore, we make a case to use actual metabolic rates. Moreover, with a biophysical analysis we illustrate the effect of miscalculating metabolic rate on female thermal demand. The approach is fundamentally different from current empirical thermal comfort models and builds up predictions from the physical and physiological constraints, rather than statistical association to thermal comfort. It provides a substantiation of the thermal comfort standard on the population level and adds flexibility to predict thermal demand of subpopulations and individuals. Ultimately, an accurate representation of thermal demand of all occupants leads to actual energy consumption predictions and real energy savings of buildings that are designed and operated by the buildings services community.

  13. Accurate lineshape spectroscopy and the Boltzmann constant

    PubMed Central

    Truong, G.-W.; Anstie, J. D.; May, E. F.; Stace, T. M.; Luiten, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopy has an illustrious history delivering serendipitous discoveries and providing a stringent testbed for new physical predictions, including applications from trace materials detection, to understanding the atmospheres of stars and planets, and even constraining cosmological models. Reaching fundamental-noise limits permits optimal extraction of spectroscopic information from an absorption measurement. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-limited spectrometer that delivers high-precision measurements of the absorption lineshape. These measurements yield a very accurate measurement of the excited-state (6P1/2) hyperfine splitting in Cs, and reveals a breakdown in the well-known Voigt spectral profile. We develop a theoretical model that accounts for this breakdown, explaining the observations to within the shot-noise limit. Our model enables us to infer the thermal velocity dispersion of the Cs vapour with an uncertainty of 35 p.p.m. within an hour. This allows us to determine a value for Boltzmann's constant with a precision of 6 p.p.m., and an uncertainty of 71 p.p.m. PMID:26465085

  14. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception.

  15. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception. PMID:24549293

  16. Increase Effect of Available Transfer Capability by Dynamic Rating Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Masaki; Satoh, Takuya; Iwamoto, Shinichi; Kurihara, Ikuo

    As the deregulated environment of power systems has been spread in the world, it is essential to operate power systems efficiently and economy. Under the environments, with the advance of communication technologies and sensors, the so-called dynamic rating is now to be realized. The dynamic rating is a method which determines accurate ratings by utilizing real-time information such as conductor temperatures, ambient temperatures and wind speeds. The dynamic rating is considered to increase the thermal capacities of overhead transmission lines and therefore take on importance in the deregulated electric power industry. The importance of the dynamic rating lies mainly in the area of Available Transfer Capability (ATC) improvement. In this paper, the validity of the proposed dynamic rating application is shown from the viewpoint of ATC, especially, ATC with thermal constraints. In addition, the possibilities of ATC estimations using sensitivities are verified on the purpose of reducing calculating time, considering the importance of real time simulation of ATC.

  17. Lie detection using thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidis, Ioannis T.

    2004-04-01

    In the present paper we describe a novel method for scoring polygraph tests using thermal image analysis. Our method features three stages: image acquisition, physiological correlation, and pattern classification. First, we acquire facial thermal imagery using an accurate mid-infrared camera. Then, we transform the raw thermal data to blood flow rate data through heat transfer modeling. Finally, we classify the subject as deceptive or non-deceptive based on the nearest-neighbor classification method. We perform our analysis on the periorbital area of the subjects" faces. Our previous research has indicated that the periorbital area is the facial area affected the most from blood flow redistribution during anxious states. We present promising experimental results from 18 subjects. We henceforth anticipate that thermal image analysis will play an increasingly important role in polygraph testing as an additional scoring channel. Our ultimate objective is to increase the accuracy and reliability of polygraph testing through the fusion of traditional invasive 1D physiological measurements with novel non-invasive 2D physiological measurements.

  18. Effect of sweating set rate on clothing real evaporative resistance determined on a sweating thermal manikin in a so-called isothermal condition (T manikin = T a = T r).

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Peng, Hui; Shi, Wen; Song, Guowen

    2016-04-01

    The ASTM F2370 (2010) is the only standard with regard to measurement of clothing real evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin. However, the sweating set-point is not recommended in the standard. In this study, the effect of sweating rate on clothing real evaporative resistance was investigated on a 34-zone "Newton" sweating thermal manikin in a so-called isothermal condition (T manikin = T a = T r). Four different sweating set rates (i.e., all segments had a sweating rate of 400, 800, 1200 ml/hr ∙ m(2), respectively, and different sweating rates were assigned to different segments) were applied to determine the clothing real evaporative resistance of five clothing ensembles and the boundary air layer. The results indicated that the sweating rate did not affect the real evaporative resistance of clothing ensembles with the absence of strong moisture absorbent layers. For the clothing ensemble with tight cotton underwear, a sweating rate of lower than 400 ml/hr ∙ m(2) is not recommended. This is mainly because the wet fabric "skin" might not be fully saturated and thus led to a lower evaporative heat loss and thereby a higher real evaporative resistance. For vapor permeable clothing, the real evaporative resistance determined in the so-called isothermal condition should be corrected before being used in thermal comfort or heat strain models. However, the reduction of wet thermal insulation due to moisture absorption in different test scenarios had a limited contribution to the effect of sweating rate on the real evaporative resistance. PMID:26150329

  19. Effect of sweating set rate on clothing real evaporative resistance determined on a sweating thermal manikin in a so-called isothermal condition (T manikin = T a = T r).

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Peng, Hui; Shi, Wen; Song, Guowen

    2016-04-01

    The ASTM F2370 (2010) is the only standard with regard to measurement of clothing real evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin. However, the sweating set-point is not recommended in the standard. In this study, the effect of sweating rate on clothing real evaporative resistance was investigated on a 34-zone "Newton" sweating thermal manikin in a so-called isothermal condition (T manikin = T a = T r). Four different sweating set rates (i.e., all segments had a sweating rate of 400, 800, 1200 ml/hr ∙ m(2), respectively, and different sweating rates were assigned to different segments) were applied to determine the clothing real evaporative resistance of five clothing ensembles and the boundary air layer. The results indicated that the sweating rate did not affect the real evaporative resistance of clothing ensembles with the absence of strong moisture absorbent layers. For the clothing ensemble with tight cotton underwear, a sweating rate of lower than 400 ml/hr ∙ m(2) is not recommended. This is mainly because the wet fabric "skin" might not be fully saturated and thus led to a lower evaporative heat loss and thereby a higher real evaporative resistance. For vapor permeable clothing, the real evaporative resistance determined in the so-called isothermal condition should be corrected before being used in thermal comfort or heat strain models. However, the reduction of wet thermal insulation due to moisture absorption in different test scenarios had a limited contribution to the effect of sweating rate on the real evaporative resistance.

  20. Effect of sweating set rate on clothing real evaporative resistance determined on a sweating thermal manikin in a so-called isothermal condition ( T manikin = T a = T r)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Peng, Hui; Shi, Wen; Song, Guowen

    2016-04-01

    The ASTM F2370 (2010) is the only standard with regard to measurement of clothing real evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin. However, the sweating set-point is not recommended in the standard. In this study, the effect of sweating rate on clothing real evaporative resistance was investigated on a 34-zone "Newton" sweating thermal manikin in a so-called isothermal condition ( T manikin = T a = T r). Four different sweating set rates (i.e., all segments had a sweating rate of 400, 800, 1200 ml/hr•m2, respectively, and different sweating rates were assigned to different segments) were applied to determine the clothing real evaporative resistance of five clothing ensembles and the boundary air layer. The results indicated that the sweating rate did not affect the real evaporative resistance of clothing ensembles with the absence of strong moisture absorbent layers. For the clothing ensemble with tight cotton underwear, a sweating rate of lower than 400 ml/hr•m2 is not recommended. This is mainly because the wet fabric "skin" might not be fully saturated and thus led to a lower evaporative heat loss and thereby a higher real evaporative resistance. For vapor permeable clothing, the real evaporative resistance determined in the so-called isothermal condition should be corrected before being used in thermal comfort or heat strain models. However, the reduction of wet thermal insulation due to moisture absorption in different test scenarios had a limited contribution to the effect of sweating rate on the real evaporative resistance.

  1. The use of accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) for the study of the thermal reactions of Li-ion battery electrolyte solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanaraj, J. S.; Zinigrad, E.; Asraf, L.; Gottlieb, H. E.; Sprecher, M.; Aurbach, D.; Schmidt, M.

    The thermal stability of 1M LiPF 6, LiClO 4, LiN(SO 2CF 2CF 3) 2 (LiBETI) and LiPF 3(CF 2CF 3) 3 (LiFAP) solutions in mixtures of ethylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate and dimethyl carbonate in the temperature range 40-350 °C was studied by ARC and DSC. NMR was used to analyze the reaction products at different reaction stages. The least thermally stable are LiClO 4 solutions. LiPF 3(CF 2CF 3) 3 solutions showed higher thermal stability than LiPF 6 solutions. The highest thermal stability was found for LiN(SO 2CF 2CF 3) 2 solutions. Studies by DSC and pressure measurements during ARC experiments with LiPF 6 and LiFAP solutions detected an endothermic reaction, which occurs before a number of exothermic reactions as the temperature increases. Fluoride ions are formed and react with the alkyl carbonate molecules both as bases and as nucleophiles.

  2. Thermal characterization of Li/sulfur, Li/ S-LiFePO4 and Li/S-LiV3O8 cells using Isothermal Micro-Calorimetry and Accelerating Rate Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeongwook; Sankarasubramanian, Shrihari; Kim, Chi-Su; Hovington, Pierre; Prakash, Jai; Zaghib, Karim

    2015-09-01

    The thermal behavior of three cathode materials for the lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cell, namely - sulfur, sulfur-LiFePO4 (S-LFP) composite and sulfur-LiV3O8 (S-LVO) composite was studied using Isothermal Micro-Calorimetry (IMC) at various discharge rates. A continuum model was used to calculate the reversible entropic heat and irreversible resistive heat generated over the discharge process and the model data was compared to the experimental data to elucidate contributions of reversible and irreversible heats to the overall heat generated during discharge. The reaction enthalpy (ΔHRx) was measured using IMC for each elementary reaction step and in combination with the calculated reversible entropic heat and irreversible resistive heat was fitted against the experimental total heat measurement. The model showed an excellent fit against the experimental data. Further, Accelerating Rate Calorimetry (ARC) was used to study the thermal safety of these three cells. The cell with the S-LVO composite cathode was found to have the highest onset temperature for thermal runaway and also the lowest maximum self-heat rate. Results of this study suggest that S-LVO composite is a promising electrode for Li/S cells.

  3. Accurately measuring dynamic coefficient of friction in ultraform finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Dennis; Echaves, Samantha; Pidgeon, Brendan; Travis, Nathan; Ellis, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    UltraForm Finishing (UFF) is a deterministic sub-aperture computer numerically controlled grinding and polishing platform designed by OptiPro Systems. UFF is used to grind and polish a variety of optics from simple spherical to fully freeform, and numerous materials from glasses to optical ceramics. The UFF system consists of an abrasive belt around a compliant wheel that rotates and contacts the part to remove material. This work aims to accurately measure the dynamic coefficient of friction (μ), how it changes as a function of belt wear, and how this ultimately affects material removal rates. The coefficient of friction has been examined in terms of contact mechanics and Preston's equation to determine accurate material removal rates. By accurately predicting changes in μ, polishing iterations can be more accurately predicted, reducing the total number of iterations required to meet specifications. We have established an experimental apparatus that can accurately measure μ by measuring triaxial forces during translating loading conditions or while manufacturing the removal spots used to calculate material removal rates. Using this system, we will demonstrate μ measurements for UFF belts during different states of their lifecycle and assess the material removal function from spot diagrams as a function of wear. Ultimately, we will use this system for qualifying belt-wheel-material combinations to develop a spot-morphing model to better predict instantaneous material removal functions.

  4. The Thermal Pressure in Low Metallicity Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfire, Mark; McKee, Christopher; Ostriker, Eve C.; Bolatto, Alberto; Jenkins, Edward

    2015-08-01

    The thermal pressure in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) is a relatively small fraction of the total ISM pressure yet it is extremely important for the evolution of the ISM phases. A multi-phase medium can exist between a range of thermal pressures Pmin < Pth < Pmax. The phase separation is driven by thermal instability and produces a cold (T ˜ 100 K) neutral atomic gas and a warm (T ˜ 8000 K) neutral atomic gas separated by thermally unstable gas. At thermal pressures greater than Pmax only the cold phase can exist and at thermal pressures less than Pmin only the warm phase can exist. The ISM is also highly turbulent and turbulence can both initiate the thermal phase transition and be produced in a rapid phase transition. Hydrodynamic modeling also points to a strong two-phase distribution (.e.g., Kim et al. 2011; Audit & Hennebelle 2010) with a median thermal pressure in the cold gas very near the expected two-phase pressure. Global, theoretical models including star-formation feedback have been developed for the molecular fraction in galactic disks using, at their core, the paradigm that thermal pressure determines the phase transitions to warm, cold, or multiphase medium (e.g., Krumholz et al. 2009; Ostriker et al. 2010).Here we present a phase diagram for a low metallicity galaxy using the Small Magellanic Clouds as an example. We find that although the heating rates and metallicities can differ by factors of 5 to 10 from the Milky Way, the resulting two-phase pressure and physical conditions of the phases are not very different from Galactic. We also confirm that a widely used fitting function for Pmin presented in Wolfire et al. 2003 provides an accurate prediction for the new results. We demonstrate how the variation in input parameters determine the final pressures and physical conditions.

  5. Selection, Evaluation, And Rating of Compact Heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Matt

    2014-10-07

    SEARCH determines and optimizes the design of a compact heat exchanger for specified process conditions. The user specifies process boundary conditions including the fluid state and flow rate and SEARCH will determine the optimum flow arrangement, channel geometry, and mechanical design for the unit. Fluids are modeled using NUST Refprop or tabulated values. A variety of thermal-hydraulic correlations are available including user-defined equations to accurately capture the heat transfer and pressure drop behavior of the process flows.

  6. Thermal protection system gap heating rates of the Rockwell International flat plate heat transfer model (OH2A/OH2B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, T. F.; Lockman, W. K.; Grifall, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Heat transfer data for the Rockwell International Flat Plate Thermocouple Model are presented. The model simulated the Space Shuttle Vehicle Thermal Protection System. Data were recorded for locations in and around various size gaps for various gap orientation configurations. The test was conducted at Mach 5.1 for free-stream Reynolds number per foot values from 500,000 to 1,500,000.

  7. A-B Similarity-Complementarity and Accurate Empathy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Sandra; McGinley, Hugh

    1983-01-01

    Rated the audio portions of videotaped segments of 32 dyadic interviews between A-type and B-type undergraduate males for accurate empathy using Truax's AE-Scale. Results indicated B-types elicited higher levels of empathy when they interacted with other B-types, while any dyad that contained an A-type resulted in less empathy. (JAC)

  8. Remotely monitoring evaporation rate and soil water status using thermal imaging and "three-temperatures model (3T Model)" under field-scale conditions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guo Yu; Zhao, Ming

    2010-03-01

    Remote monitoring of soil evaporation and soil water status is necessary for water resource and environment management. Ground based remote sensing can be the bridge between satellite remote sensing and ground-based point measurement. The primary object of this study is to provide an algorithm to estimate evaporation and soil water status by remote sensing and to verify its accuracy. Observations were carried out in a flat field with varied soil water content. High-resolution thermal images were taken with a thermal camera; soil evaporation was measured with a weighing lysimeter; weather data were recorded at a nearby meteorological station. Based on the thermal imaging and the three-temperatures model (3T model), we developed an algorithm to estimate soil evaporation and soil water status. The required parameters of the proposed method were soil surface temperature, air temperature, and solar radiation. By using the proposed method, daily variation in soil evaporation was estimated. Meanwhile, soil water status was remotely monitored by using the soil evaporation transfer coefficient. Results showed that the daily variation trends of measured and estimated evaporation agreed with each other, with a regression line of y = 0.92x and coefficient of determination R(2) = 0.69. The simplicity of the proposed method makes the 3T model a potentially valuable tool for remote sensing. PMID:20445861

  9. Approaches for the accurate definition of geological time boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaltegger, Urs; Baresel, Björn; Ovtcharova, Maria; Goudemand, Nicolas; Bucher, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    Which strategies lead to the most precise and accurate date of a given geological boundary? Geological units are usually defined by the occurrence of characteristic taxa and hence boundaries between these geological units correspond to dramatic faunal and/or floral turnovers and they are primarily defined using first or last occurrences of index species, or ideally by the separation interval between two consecutive, characteristic associations of fossil taxa. These boundaries need to be defined in a way that enables their worldwide recognition and correlation across different stratigraphic successions, using tools as different as bio-, magneto-, and chemo-stratigraphy, and astrochronology. Sedimentary sequences can be dated in numerical terms by applying high-precision chemical-abrasion, isotope-dilution, thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) U-Pb age determination to zircon (ZrSiO4) in intercalated volcanic ashes. But, though volcanic activity is common in geological history, ashes are not necessarily close to the boundary we would like to date precisely and accurately. In addition, U-Pb zircon data sets may be very complex and difficult to interpret in terms of the age of ash deposition. To overcome these difficulties we use a multi-proxy approach we applied to the precise and accurate dating of the Permo-Triassic and Early-Middle Triassic boundaries in South China. a) Dense sampling of ashes across the critical time interval and a sufficiently large number of analysed zircons per ash sample can guarantee the recognition of all system complexities. Geochronological datasets from U-Pb dating of volcanic zircon may indeed combine effects of i) post-crystallization Pb loss from percolation of hydrothermal fluids (even using chemical abrasion), with ii) age dispersion from prolonged residence of earlier crystallized zircon in the magmatic system. As a result, U-Pb dates of individual zircons are both apparently younger and older than the depositional age

  10. Is fat perception a thermal effect?

    PubMed

    Prinz, J F; de Wijk, R A; Huntjens, L A H; Engelen, L; Polet, I A

    2007-04-01

    It has been generally assumed that fat is detected by its flavour and by its lubrication of the oral mucosa. A recent study reported a correlation of -.99 between perceived temperature of a product and its fat content. This was significantly higher than correlations of sensory scores for fat flavour, mouthfeel, and afterfeel. This suggested a third detection mechanism; fat may be detected via its effect on the thermal conductivity of the food. In 3 studies, thermal sensitivity in humans was investigated to verify whether oral thermal receptors are sufficiently rapid and accurate to play a role in the perception of fats. The thermal sensitivity of the lips and oral mucosa of the anterior and middle one-third of the tongue were assessed using a Peltier device. Subjects detected 0.5 Hz fluctuations in temperature of 0.08'C on the lower lip, 0.26 degrees C and 1.36 degrees C at the tip and dorsum of the tongue, demonstrating that the lips are sufficiently sensitive to detect small differences in temperature. In two further experiments subjects ingested custards and mayonnaises and then spat out samples after 5, 10, or 20 sec. The temperature of the food and oral mucosa was measured before and after spitting and the rates of heating were calculated. Results suggest assessment of thermal conductivity of food may be used to assess fat content.

  11. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    2006-12-01

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneous materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X-ray CT (all previous thermal-imaging software can only produce 2D results). Because thermal effusivity is an intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity, etc.,more » quantitative imaging of effusivity allowed direct visualization of material's internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one-sided, non contact and sensitive to material's thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the measured

  12. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    PubMed

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  13. Thermal Spore Exposure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudet, Robert A.; Kempf, Michael; Kirschner, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Thermal spore exposure vessels (TSEVs) are laboratory containers designed for use in measuring rates of death or survival of microbial spores at elevated temperatures. A major consideration in the design of a TSEV is minimizing thermal mass in order to minimize heating and cooling times. This is necessary in order to minimize the number of microbes killed before and after exposure at the test temperature, so that the results of the test accurately reflect the effect of the test temperature. A typical prototype TSEV (see figure) includes a flat-bottomed stainless-steel cylinder 4 in. (10.16 cm) long, 0.5 in. (1.27 cm) in diameter, having a wall thickness of 0.010 plus or minus 0.002 in. (0.254 plus or minus 0.051 mm). Microbial spores are deposited in the bottom of the cylinder, then the top of the cylinder is closed with a sterile rubber stopper. Hypodermic needles are used to puncture the rubber stopper to evacuate the inside of the cylinder or to purge the inside of the cylinder with a gas. In a typical application, the inside of the cylinder is purged with dry nitrogen prior to a test. During a test, the lower portion of the cylinder is immersed in a silicone-oil bath that has been preheated to and maintained at the test temperature. Test temperatures up to 220 C have been used. Because the spores are in direct contact with the thin cylinder wall, they quickly become heated to the test temperature.

  14. Accurate paleointensities - the multi-method approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, Lennart

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of models describing rapid changes in the geomagnetic field over the past millennia critically depends on the availability of reliable paleointensity estimates. Over the past decade methods to derive paleointensities from lavas (the only recorder of the geomagnetic field that is available all over the globe and through geologic times) have seen significant improvements and various alternative techniques were proposed. The 'classical' Thellier-style approach was optimized and selection criteria were defined in the 'Standard Paleointensity Definitions' (Paterson et al, 2014). The Multispecimen approach was validated and the importance of additional tests and criteria to assess Multispecimen results must be emphasized. Recently, a non-heating, relative paleointensity technique was proposed -the pseudo-Thellier protocol- which shows great potential in both accuracy and efficiency, but currently lacks a solid theoretical underpinning. Here I present work using all three of the aforementioned paleointensity methods on suites of young lavas taken from the volcanic islands of Hawaii, La Palma, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and Terceira. Many of the sampled cooling units are <100 years old, the actual field strength at the time of cooling is therefore reasonably well known. Rather intuitively, flows that produce coherent results from two or more different paleointensity methods yield the most accurate estimates of the paleofield. Furthermore, the results for some flows pass the selection criteria for one method, but fail in other techniques. Scrutinizing and combing all acceptable results yielded reliable paleointensity estimates for 60-70% of all sampled cooling units - an exceptionally high success rate. This 'multi-method paleointensity approach' therefore has high potential to provide the much-needed paleointensities to improve geomagnetic field models for the Holocene.

  15. Important Nearby Galaxies without Accurate Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) and its offspring programs (e.g., THINGS, HERACLES, KINGFISH) have resulted in a fundamental change in our view of star formation and the ISM in galaxies, and together they represent the most complete multi-wavelength data set yet assembled for a large sample of nearby galaxies. These great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the goal of understanding the interstellar medium, the star formation process, and, more generally, galactic evolution at the present epoch. Nearby galaxies provide the basis for which we interpret the distant universe, and the SINGS sample represents the best studied nearby galaxies.Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of galaxies. Surprisingly, many of the SINGS spiral galaxies have numerous distance estimates resulting in confusion. We can rectify this situation for 8 of the SINGS spiral galaxies within 10 Mpc at a very low cost through measurements of the tip of the red giant branch. The proposed observations will provide an accuracy of better than 0.1 in distance modulus. Our sample includes such well known galaxies as M51 (the Whirlpool), M63 (the Sunflower), M104 (the Sombrero), and M74 (the archetypal grand design spiral).We are also proposing coordinated parallel WFC3 UV observations of the central regions of the galaxies, rich with high-mass UV-bright stars. As a secondary science goal we will compare the resolved UV stellar populations with integrated UV emission measurements used in calibrating star formation rates. Our observations will complement the growing HST UV atlas of high resolution images of nearby galaxies.

  16. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    2008-11-05

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one—sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneoirs materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X—ray CT (all previous thepnal—imaging software can only produce 20 results) . Because thermal effusivity is an Intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity,more » etc., quantitative imaging of eftusivity allowed direct visualization of material’s internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one—sided, non contact and sensitive to material’s thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one—sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the

  17. Fine-tuning control on CNT diameter distribution, length and density using thermal CVD growth at atmospheric pressure: an in-depth analysis on the role of flow rate and flow duration of acetylene (C2H2) gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Nishant; Mishra, Prabhash; Harsh, Harsh; Islam, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    An optimization control has been demonstrated to obtain carbon nanotubes having specific diameter distribution, length, homogeneity, and yield during its growth by thermal chemical vapor deposition technique under atmospheric pressure. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown on silicon wafer where a predeposition of iron catalyst of 2 nm thickness was made by sputtering. The growth was conducted under two variable parameters, i.e., flow rate and flow duration. Argon and hydrogen mixture was used for pretreatment of catalyst and as etching gas, and acetylene as a carbon precursor. In-depth analysis shows that increase in flow rate from 10 to 50 sccm resulted in increase in the concentration of amorphous carbon, CNTs diameter range and decrease in length, we found best result at 20 sccm flow rate of acetylene gas. On the other hand, as we varied flow duration from 6 to 14 min, with keeping flow rate of acetylene 20 sccm constant, dense homogeneous growth of horizontal CNTs network plus an increase in length and diameter range were observed. An optimization of flow rate and flow duration is presented here to obtain a selective diameter distribution and length as expected by this growth technique. Atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the samples' morphologies in support of the observations made.

  18. Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.

  19. Thermal and clinical performance of a closed device designed for human oocyte vitrification based on the optimization of the warming rate.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Miguel; Hebles, María; Migueles, Beatriz; Dorado, Mónica; Aguilera, Laura; González, Mercedes; Piqueras, Paloma; Montero, Lorena; Sánchez-Martín, Pascual; Sánchez-Martín, Fernando; Risco, Ramón

    2016-08-01

    Although it was qualitatively pointed out by Fahy et al. (1984), the key role of the warming rates in non-equillibrium vitrification has only recently been quantitatively established for murine oocytes by Mazur and Seki (2011). In this work we study the performance of a closed vitrification device designed under the new paradigm, for the vitrification of human oocytes. The vitrification carrier consists of a main straw in which a specifically designed capillary is mounted and where the oocytes are loaded by aspiration. It can be hermetically sealed before immersion in liquid nitrogen for vitrification, and it is warmed in a sterile water bath at 37 °C. Measured warming rates achieved with this design were of 600.000 ºC/min for a standard DMEM solution and 200.000 ºC/min with the vitrification solution for human oocytes. A cohort of 143 donor MII sibling human oocytes was split into two groups: control (fresh) and vitrified with SafeSpeed device. Similar results were found in both groups: survival (97.1%), fertilization after ICSI (74.7% in control vs. 77.3% in vitrified) and good quality embryos at day three (54.3% in control vs. 58.1% in vitrified) were settled as performance indicators. The pregnancy rate was 3/6 (50%) for the control, 2/3 (66%) for vitrified and 4/5 (80%) for mixed transfers.

  20. Thermal and clinical performance of a closed device designed for human oocyte vitrification based on the optimization of the warming rate.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Miguel; Hebles, María; Migueles, Beatriz; Dorado, Mónica; Aguilera, Laura; González, Mercedes; Piqueras, Paloma; Montero, Lorena; Sánchez-Martín, Pascual; Sánchez-Martín, Fernando; Risco, Ramón

    2016-08-01

    Although it was qualitatively pointed out by Fahy et al. (1984), the key role of the warming rates in non-equillibrium vitrification has only recently been quantitatively established for murine oocytes by Mazur and Seki (2011). In this work we study the performance of a closed vitrification device designed under the new paradigm, for the vitrification of human oocytes. The vitrification carrier consists of a main straw in which a specifically designed capillary is mounted and where the oocytes are loaded by aspiration. It can be hermetically sealed before immersion in liquid nitrogen for vitrification, and it is warmed in a sterile water bath at 37 °C. Measured warming rates achieved with this design were of 600.000 ºC/min for a standard DMEM solution and 200.000 ºC/min with the vitrification solution for human oocytes. A cohort of 143 donor MII sibling human oocytes was split into two groups: control (fresh) and vitrified with SafeSpeed device. Similar results were found in both groups: survival (97.1%), fertilization after ICSI (74.7% in control vs. 77.3% in vitrified) and good quality embryos at day three (54.3% in control vs. 58.1% in vitrified) were settled as performance indicators. The pregnancy rate was 3/6 (50%) for the control, 2/3 (66%) for vitrified and 4/5 (80%) for mixed transfers. PMID:27312427

  1. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Study on the dose rate upset effect of partially depleted silicon-on-insulator static random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fa-Zhan; Liu, Meng-Xin; Guo, Tian-Lei; Liu, Gang; Hai, Chao-He; Han, Zheng-Sheng; Yang, Shan-Chao; Li, Rui-Bin; Lin, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Wei

    2008-12-01

    This paper implements the study on the Dose Rate Upset effect of PDSOI SRAM (Partially Depleted Silicon-On-Insulator Static Random Access Memory) with the Qiangguang-I accelerator in Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology. The SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) chips are developed by the Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences. It uses the full address test mode to determine the upset mechanisms. A specified address test is taken in the same time. The test results indicate that the upset threshold of the PDSOI SRAM is about 1×108 Gy(Si)/s. However, there are a few bits upset when the dose rate reaches up to 1.58 × 109 Gy(Si)/s. The SRAM circuit can still work after the high level γ ray pulse. Finally, the upset mechanism is determined to be the rail span collapse by comparing the critical charge with the collected charge after γ ray pulse. The physical locations of upset cells are plotted in the layout of the SRAM to investigate the layout defect. Then, some layout optimizations are made to improve the dose rate hardened performance of the PDSOI SRAM.

  2. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcondes, Michel L.; Shukla, Gaurav; da Silveira, Pedro; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  3. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Marcondes, Michel L.; Shukla, Gaurav; Silveira, Pedro da; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2015-12-15

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  4. Thermal axion production

    SciTech Connect

    Salvio, Alberto; Xue, Wei E-mail: astrumia@cern.ch

    2014-01-01

    We reconsider thermal production of axions in the early universe, including axion couplings to all Standard Model (SM>) particles. Concerning the axion coupling to gluons, we find that thermal effects enhance the axion production rate by a factor of few with respect to previous computations performed in the limit of small strong gauge coupling. Furthermore, we find that the top Yukawa coupling induces a much larger axion production rate, unless the axion couples to SM particles only via anomalies.

  5. Accurate and Reliable Gait Cycle Detection in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hundza, Sandra R; Hook, William R; Harris, Christopher R; Mahajan, Sunny V; Leslie, Paul A; Spani, Carl A; Spalteholz, Leonhard G; Birch, Benjamin J; Commandeur, Drew T; Livingston, Nigel J

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)-based systems that employ gyroscopes for gait analysis. We describe an improved IMU-based gait analysis processing method that uses gyroscope angular rate reversal to identify the start of each gait cycle during walking. In validation tests with six subjects with Parkinson disease (PD), including those with severe shuffling gait patterns, and seven controls, the probability of True-Positive event detection and False-Positive event detection was 100% and 0%, respectively. Stride time validation tests using high-speed cameras yielded a standard deviation of 6.6 ms for controls and 11.8 ms for those with PD. These data demonstrate that the use of our angular rate reversal algorithm leads to improvements over previous gyroscope-based gait analysis systems. Highly accurate and reliable stride time measurements enabled us to detect subtle changes in stride time variability following a Parkinson's exercise class. We found unacceptable measurement accuracy for stride length when using the Aminian et al gyro-based biomechanical algorithm, with errors as high as 30% in PD subjects. An alternative method, using synchronized infrared timing gates to measure velocity, combined with accurate mean stride time from our angular rate reversal algorithm, more accurately calculates mean stride length.

  6. Simulation and moderation of the thermal response of confined pressed explosive compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dagley, I.J.; Parker, R.P.; Jones, D.A.; Montelli, L.

    1996-09-01

    The effects on the thermal response of pressed polymer bonded explosives caused by varying their components have been assessed at two extreme heating rates using the Super Small-scale Cookoff Bomb. Tests were primarily conducted on RDX-based compositions containing 5% ethylene-vinyl acetate binder with varying amounts of PETN or TATB. Some experiments were numerically simulated using a one-dimensional finite difference code. The simulations are not able to predict the violence of the thermal response, but do accurately reproduce radial heat flow in the test assembly and satisfactorily predict both the time to thermal response and the surface temperature at response for the mixed explosive compositions. The influence of the ratio of the mixed explosives on the type of thermal response observed is discussed and several compositions which give very mild thermal responses have been identified.

  7. Estimation of sweat rate and thermal tolerance of pure Creole and of Limousin × Creole crossbred growing bulls in Guadeloupe (French West Indies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bru, J. C.; Berbigier, P.; Sophie, S. A.

    1987-03-01

    Four out of 8 Limousin × Creole (Li × Cr) and 4 out of 8 Creole growing bulls were exposed to full sunshine in Guadeloupe (French West Indies), the others being kept under shade. Sweating rate (measured on the back with capsules filled with a dessicator), rectal temperature and respiratory rhythm were measured between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m., as well as climatic environmental data. Rectal temperature of Creole bulls (overall mean: 38.8‡C) remains unaffected by black globe temperature (TG), while, for Li × Cr bulls, it is well related to TG, reaching 39.5‡C when TG=39‡C; at this moment, Li × Cr respiratory rhythm reaches 100 breaths/min, compared with only 70 for Creole animals. The “shade” mean levels of these two parameters for each genotype are consistently the same (38.7‡C and 39 breaths/min). Under full sunshine, mean sweat rate is almost the same for the 2 genotypes; under shelter, the crossbred bulls sweat more than the Creole bulls, both shade means being significantly lower than means in the “sun”. Probably, when shaded, the Li × Cr animals must sweat more to balance a greater heat production, but their maximum sweat ability is not very different than the one of Creole bulls.

  8. Accurate determination of specific heat at high temperatures using the flash diffusivity method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandersande, J. W.; Zoltan, A.; Wood, C.

    1989-01-01

    The flash diffusivity method of Parker et al. (1961) was used to measure accurately the specific heat of test samples simultaneously with thermal diffusivity, thus obtaining the thermal conductivity of these materials directly. The accuracy of data obtained on two types of materials (n-type silicon-germanium alloys and niobium), was + or - 3 percent. It is shown that the method is applicable up to at least 1300 K.

  9. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  10. A Link Between Massive Binary Stars and Non-thermal Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Debra

    1999-07-01

    Non-thermal radio emission in Wolf-Rayet {WR} stars is explained in terms of synchrotron emission from shocks in the wind. For single star models, the shocks arise from instabilities in the wind itself, whereas in binary models, the shocks form at the wind-wind interaction zone. In Niemela et al. 1998 {from WFPC2 data}, we support the binary theory, for two WR stars, linking the non-thermal emission with the colliding wind region. Before we can conclusively link non- thermal emission to binarity, we must demonstrate that all non-thermal emitters are binary, and that all thermal emitters are either single stars or binary systems with separations that are either too wide or too close to result in a wind-wind interaction that produces shocks. We cannot yet conclusively state this because WFPC2 does not resolve binaries with separations less than about 0.100''. We propose to use the FGS to observe 9 non-thermal and 9 thermal WR stars to search for binary companions. The FGS ca n resolve angular separations as s mall as .007''. If the non-thermal stars are resolved as binaries and the thermal emitters are determined to be single, the single star theory of non-thermal emission can be disavowed. Co-latterally, we will have demonstrated a new method of detecting massive binaries, and, for all WR stars, we will establish a more accurate binary incidence rate.

  11. LOW THERMAL LIMIT OF GROWTH RATE OF SYMBIODINIUM CALIFORNIUM (DINOPHYTA) IN CULTURE MAY RESTRICT THE SYMBIONT TO SOUTHERN POPULATIONS OF ITS HOST ANEMONES (ANTHOPLEURA SPP.; ANTHOZOA, CNIDARIA)(1).

    PubMed

    McBride, Brooke Baldauf; Muller-Parker, Gisèle; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2009-08-01

    Symbiodinium californium (#383, Banaszak et al. 1993) is one of two known dinoflagellate symbionts of the intertidal sea anemones Anthopleura elegantissima, A. xanthogrammica, and A. sola and occurs only in hosts at southern latitudes of the North Pacific. To investigate if temperature restricts the latitudinal distribution of S. californium, growth and photosynthesis at a range of temperatures (5°C-30°C) were determined for cultured symbionts. Mean specific growth rates were the highest between 15°C and 28°C (μ 0.21-0.26 · d(-1) ) and extremely low at 5, 10, and 30°C (0.02-0.03 · d(-1) ). Average doubling times ranged from 2.7 d (20°C) to 33 d (5, 10, and 30°C). Cells cultured at 10°C had the greatest cell volume (821 μm(3) ) and the highest percentage of motile cells (64.5%). Growth and photosynthesis were uncoupled; light-saturated maximum photosynthesis (Pmax ) increased from 2.9 pg C · cell(-1 ) · h(-1) at 20°C to 13.2 pg C · cell(-1 ) · h(-1) at 30°C, a 4.5-fold increase. Less than 11% of daily photosynthetically fixed carbon was utilized for growth at 5, 10, and 30°C, indicating the potential for high carbon translocation at these temperatures. Low temperature effects on growth rate, and not on photosynthesis and cell morphology, may restrict the distribution of S. californium to southern populations of its host anemones.

  12. Modified chemiluminescent NO analyzer accurately measures NOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Installation of molybdenum nitric oxide (NO)-to-higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) converter in chemiluminescent gas analyzer and use of air purge allow accurate measurements of NOx in exhaust gases containing as much as thirty percent carbon monoxide (CO). Measurements using conventional analyzer are highly inaccurate for NOx if as little as five percent CO is present. In modified analyzer, molybdenum has high tolerance to CO, and air purge substantially quenches NOx destruction. In test, modified chemiluminescent analyzer accurately measured NO and NOx concentrations for over 4 months with no denegration in performance.

  13. The release of dipicolinic acid--the rate-limiting step of Bacillus endospore inactivation during the high pressure thermal sterilization process.

    PubMed

    Reineke, Kai; Schlumbach, Karl; Baier, Daniel; Mathys, Alexander; Knorr, Dietrich

    2013-03-01

    High pressure combined with elevated temperatures can produce low acid, commercially sterile and shelf-stable foods. Depending on the temperature and pressure levels applied, bacterial endospores pass through different pathways, which can lead to a pressure-induced germination or inactivation. Regardless of the pathway, Bacillus endospores first release pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (DPA), which contributes to the low amount of free water in the spore core and is consequently responsible for the spore's high resistance against wet and dry heat. This is therefore the rate-limiting step in the high pressure sterilization process. To evaluate the impact of a broad pressure, temperature and time domain on the DPA release, Bacillus subtilis spores were pressure treated between 0.1 and 900 MPa at between 30 and 80 °C under isothermal isobaric conditions during dwell time. DPA quantification was assessed using HPLC, and samples were taken both immediately and 2 h after the pressure treatment. To obtain a release kinetic for some pressure-temperature conditions, samples were collected between 1s and 60 min after decompression. A multiresponse kinetic model was then used to derive a model covering all kinetic data. The isorate lines modeled for the DPA release in the chosen pressure-temperature landscape enabled the determination of three distinct zones. (I) For pressures <600 MPa and temperatures >50 °C, a 90% DPA release was achievable in less than 5 min and no difference in the amount of DPA was found immediately 2 h after pressurization. This may indicate irreversible damage to the inner spore membrane or membrane proteins. (II) Above 600 MPa the synergism between pressure and temperature diminished, and the treatment temperature alone dominated DPA release. (III) Pressures <600 MPa and temperatures <50 °C resulted in a retarded release of DPA, with strong increased differences in the amount of DPA released after 2 h, which implies a pressure-induced physiological

  14. Metabolic rate measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, K.; Crosier, W.

    1980-01-01

    The Metabolic Rate Measurement System (MRMS) is an uncomplicated and accurate apparatus for measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of a test subject. From this one can determine the subject's metabolic rate for a variety of conditions, such as resting or light exercise. MRMS utilizes an LSI/11-03 microcomputer to monitor and control the experimental apparatus.

  15. Multiple heating rate kinetic parameters, thermal, X-ray diffraction studies of newly synthesized octahedral copper complexes based on bromo-coumarins along with their antioxidant, anti-tubercular and antimicrobial activity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ketan S.; Patel, Jiten C.; Dholariya, Hitesh R.; Patel, Kanuprasad D.

    2012-10-01

    Series of new Cu(II) complexes were synthesized by classical thermal technique. The biologically potent ligands (L) were prepared by refluxing 6-brom 3-acetyl coumarin with aldehydes in the presence of piperidine in ethanol. The Cu(II) complexes have been synthesized by mixing an aqueous solution of Cu(NO3)2 in 1:1 molar ratios with ethanolic bidentate ligands and Clioquinol. The structures of the ligands and their copper complexes were investigated and confirmed by the elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectral and powder X-ray diffraction studies respectively. Thermal behaviour of newly synthesized mixed ligand Cu(II) complexes were investigated by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, electronic spectra and magnetic measurements. Dynamic scan of DSC experiments for Cu(II) complexes were taken at different heating rates (2.5-20 °C min-1). Kinetic parameters for second step degradation of all complexes obtained by Kissinger's and Ozawa's methods were in good agreement. On the basis of these studies it is clear that ligands coordinated to metal atom in a monobasic bidentate mode, by Osbnd O and Osbnd N donor system. Thus, suitable octahedral geometry for hexa-coordinated state has been suggested for the metal complexes. Both the ligands as well as its complexes have been screened for their in vitro antioxidant, anti-tubercular and antimicrobial activities. All were found to be significant potent compared to parent ligands employed for complexation.

  16. Multiple heating rate kinetic parameters, thermal, X-ray diffraction studies of newly synthesized octahedral copper complexes based on bromo-coumarins along with their antioxidant, anti-tubercular and antimicrobial activity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ketan S; Patel, Jiten C; Dholariya, Hitesh R; Patel, Kanuprasad D

    2012-10-01

    Series of new Cu(II) complexes were synthesized by classical thermal technique. The biologically potent ligands (L) were prepared by refluxing 6-brom 3-acetyl coumarin with aldehydes in the presence of piperidine in ethanol. The Cu(II) complexes have been synthesized by mixing an aqueous solution of Cu(NO(3))(2) in 1:1 molar ratios with ethanolic bidentate ligands and Clioquinol. The structures of the ligands and their copper complexes were investigated and confirmed by the elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, mass spectral and powder X-ray diffraction studies respectively. Thermal behaviour of newly synthesized mixed ligand Cu(II) complexes were investigated by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, electronic spectra and magnetic measurements. Dynamic scan of DSC experiments for Cu(II) complexes were taken at different heating rates (2.5-20 °C min(-1)). Kinetic parameters for second step degradation of all complexes obtained by Kissinger's and Ozawa's methods were in good agreement. On the basis of these studies it is clear that ligands coordinated to metal atom in a monobasic bidentate mode, by OO and ON donor system. Thus, suitable octahedral geometry for hexa-coordinated state has been suggested for the metal complexes. Both the ligands as well as its complexes have been screened for their in vitro antioxidant, anti-tubercular and antimicrobial activities. All were found to be significant potent compared to parent ligands employed for complexation.

  17. Accurate pointing of tungsten welding electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegelmeier, P.

    1971-01-01

    Thoriated-tungsten is pointed accurately and quickly by using sodium nitrite. Point produced is smooth and no effort is necessary to hold the tungsten rod concentric. The chemically produced point can be used several times longer than ground points. This method reduces time and cost of preparing tungsten electrodes.

  18. Thermal energy storage test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ternes, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal behavior of prototype thermal energy storage units (TES) in both heating and cooling modes is determined. Improved and advanced storage systems are developed and performance standards are proposed. The design and construction of a thermal cycling facility for determining the thermal behavior of full scale TES units is described. The facility has the capability for testing with both liquid and air heat transport, at variable heat input/extraction rates, over a temperature range of 0 to 280 F.

  19. Library preparation for highly accurate population sequencing of RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Ashley; Andino, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Circular resequencing (CirSeq) is a novel technique for efficient and highly accurate next-generation sequencing (NGS) of RNA virus populations. The foundation of this approach is the circularization of fragmented viral RNAs, which are then redundantly encoded into tandem repeats by ‘rolling-circle’ reverse transcription. When sequenced, the redundant copies within each read are aligned to derive a consensus sequence of their initial RNA template. This process yields sequencing data with error rates far below the variant frequencies observed for RNA viruses, facilitating ultra-rare variant detection and accurate measurement of low-frequency variants. Although library preparation takes ~5 d, the high-quality data generated by CirSeq simplifies downstream data analysis, making this approach substantially more tractable for experimentalists. PMID:24967624

  20. On the importance of having accurate data for astrophysical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lique, Francois

    2016-06-01

    The Herschel telescope and the ALMA and NOEMA interferometers have opened new windows of observation for wavelengths ranging from far infrared to sub-millimeter with spatial and spectral resolutions previously unmatched. To make the most of these observations, an accurate knowledge of the physical and chemical processes occurring in the interstellar and circumstellar media is essential.In this presentation, I will discuss what are the current needs of astrophysics in terms of molecular data and I will show that accurate molecular data are crucial for the proper determination of the physical conditions in molecular clouds.First, I will focus on collisional excitation studies that are needed for molecular lines modelling beyond the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) approach. In particular, I will show how new collisional data for the HCN and HNC isomers, two tracers of star forming conditions, have allowed solving the problem of their respective abundance in cold molecular clouds. I will also present the last collisional data that have been computed in order to analyse new highly resolved observations provided by the ALMA interferometer.Then, I will present the calculation of accurate rate constants for the F+H2 → HF+H and Cl+H2 ↔ HCl+H reactions, which have allowed a more accurate determination of the physical conditions in diffuse molecular clouds. I will also present the recent work on the ortho-para-H2 conversion due to hydrogen exchange that allow more accurate determination of the ortho-to-para-H2 ratio in the universe and that imply a significant revision of the cooling mechanism in astrophysical media.

  1. 3ARM: A Fast, Accurate Radiative Transfer Model for Use in Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W.; Kinne, S.; Sokolik, I. N.; Toon, O. B.; Mlawer, E. J.; Clough, S. A.; Ackerman, T. P.; Mather, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new radiative transfer model combining the efforts of three groups of researchers is discussed. The model accurately computes radiative transfer in a inhomogeneous absorbing, scattering and emitting atmospheres. As an illustration of the model, results are shown for the effects of dust on the thermal radiation.

  2. 3ARM: A Fast, Accurate Radiative Transfer Model for use in Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W.; Kinne, S.; Sokolik, I. N.; Toon, O. B.; Mlawer, E. J.; Clough, S. A.; Ackerman, T. P.; Mather, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new radiative transfer model combining the efforts of three groups of researchers is discussed. The model accurately computes radiative transfer in a inhomogeneous absorbing, scattering and emitting atmospheres. As an illustration of the model, results are shown for the effects of dust on the thermal radiation.

  3. Relative thermalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rio, Lídia; Hutter, Adrian; Renner, Renato; Wehner, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    Locally thermal quantum systems may contradict traditional thermodynamics: heat can flow from a cold body to a hotter one, if the two are highly entangled. We show that to recover thermodynamic laws, we must use a stronger notion of thermalization: a system S is thermal relative to a reference R if S is both locally thermal and uncorrelated with R . Considering a general quantum reference is particularly relevant for a thermodynamic treatment of nanoscale quantum systems. We derive a technical condition for relative thermalization in terms of conditional entropies. Established results on local thermalization, which implicitly assume a classical reference, follow as special cases.

  4. Relative thermalization.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Lídia; Hutter, Adrian; Renner, Renato; Wehner, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    Locally thermal quantum systems may contradict traditional thermodynamics: heat can flow from a cold body to a hotter one, if the two are highly entangled. We show that to recover thermodynamic laws, we must use a stronger notion of thermalization: a system S is thermal relative to a reference R if S is both locally thermal and uncorrelated with R. Considering a general quantum reference is particularly relevant for a thermodynamic treatment of nanoscale quantum systems. We derive a technical condition for relative thermalization in terms of conditional entropies. Established results on local thermalization, which implicitly assume a classical reference, follow as special cases. PMID:27627243

  5. Feedback about More Accurate versus Less Accurate Trials: Differential Effects on Self-Confidence and Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected by feedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On Day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of…

  6. Thermal comfort following immersion.

    PubMed

    Guéritée, Julien; Redortier, Bernard; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Unlike thermal comfort in air, little research has been undertaken exploring thermal comfort around water sports. We investigated the impact of swimming and cooling in air after swimming on thermal comfort. After 10 min of swimming-and-resting cycles in 28°C water, volunteers wearing two types of garments or in swim briefs, faced winds in 24°C air, at rest or when stepping. Thermal comfort was significantly higher during swimming than resting. Post-immersion, following maximum discomfort, in 45 of 65 tests thermal comfort improved although mean skin temperature was still cooling (0.26 [SD 0.19] °C·min(-1) - max was 0.89°C·min(-1)). When thermal comfort was re-established mean skin temperature was lower than at maximal discomfort in 39 of 54 tests (0.81 [SD 0.58] °C - max difference was 2.68°C). The reduction in thermal discomfort in this scenario could be due to the adaptation of thermoreceptors, or to reductions in cooling rates to levels where discomfort was less stimulated. The relief from the recent discomfort may explain why, later, thermal comfort returned to initial levels in spite of poorer thermal profiles.

  7. Thermal lensing in optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang

    2016-08-22

    Average powers from fiber lasers have reached the point that a quantitative understanding of thermal lensing and its impact on transverse mode instability is becoming critical. Although thermal lensing is well known qualitatively, there is a general lack of a simple method for quantitative analysis. In this work, we first conduct a study of thermal lensing in optical fibers based on a perturbation technique. The perturbation technique becomes increasingly inaccurate as thermal lensing gets stronger. It, however, provides a basis for determining a normalization factor to use in a more accurate numerical study. A simple thermal lensing threshold condition is developed. The impact of thermal lensing on transverse mode instability is also studied. PMID:27557260

  8. Thermal conductivity of III-V semiconductor superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, S. Knezevic, I.

    2015-11-07

    This paper presents a semiclassical model for the anisotropic thermal transport in III-V semiconductor superlattices (SLs). An effective interface rms roughness is the only adjustable parameter. Thermal transport inside a layer is described by the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation time approximation and is affected by the relevant scattering mechanisms (three-phonon, mass-difference, and dopant and electron scattering of phonons), as well as by diffuse scattering from the interfaces captured via an effective interface scattering rate. The in-plane thermal conductivity is obtained from the layer conductivities connected in parallel. The cross-plane thermal conductivity is calculated from the layer thermal conductivities in series with one another and with thermal boundary resistances (TBRs) associated with each interface; the TBRs dominate cross-plane transport. The TBR of each interface is calculated from the transmission coefficient obtained by interpolating between the acoustic mismatch model (AMM) and the diffuse mismatch model (DMM), where the weight of the AMM transmission coefficient is the same wavelength-dependent specularity parameter related to the effective interface rms roughness that is commonly used to describe diffuse interface scattering. The model is applied to multiple III-arsenide superlattices, and the results are in very good agreement with experimental findings. The method is both simple and accurate, easy to implement, and applicable to complicated SL systems, such as the active regions of quantum cascade lasers. It is also valid for other SL material systems with high-quality interfaces and predominantly incoherent phonon transport.

  9. Precipitation of energetic neutral atoms and induced non-thermal escape fluxes from the Martian atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Lewkow, N. R.; Kharchenko, V.

    2014-08-01

    The precipitation of energetic neutral atoms, produced through charge exchange collisions between solar wind ions and thermal atmospheric gases, is investigated for the Martian atmosphere. Connections between parameters of precipitating fast ions and resulting escape fluxes, altitude-dependent energy distributions of fast atoms and their coefficients of reflection from the Mars atmosphere, are established using accurate cross sections in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Distributions of secondary hot (SH) atoms and molecules, induced by precipitating particles, have been obtained and applied for computations of the non-thermal escape fluxes. A new collisional database on accurate energy-angular-dependent cross sections, required for description of the energy-momentum transfer in collisions of precipitating particles and production of non-thermal atmospheric atoms and molecules, is reported with analytic fitting equations. Three-dimensional MC simulations with accurate energy-angular-dependent cross sections have been carried out to track large ensembles of energetic atoms in a time-dependent manner as they propagate into the Martian atmosphere and transfer their energy to the ambient atoms and molecules. Results of the MC simulations on the energy-deposition altitude profiles, reflection coefficients, and time-dependent atmospheric heating, obtained for the isotropic hard sphere and anisotropic quantum cross sections, are compared. Atmospheric heating rates, thermalization depths, altitude profiles of production rates, energy distributions of SH atoms and molecules, and induced escape fluxes have been determined.

  10. Feedback about more accurate versus less accurate trials: differential effects on self-confidence and activation.

    PubMed

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-06-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected byfeedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of two conditions: one group received feedback on the most accurate trials, whereas another group received feedback on the least accurate trials. On day 2, participants completed an anxiety questionnaire and performed a retention test. Shin conductance level, as a measure of arousal, was determined. The results indicated that feedback about more accurate trials resulted in more effective learning as well as increased self-confidence. Also, activation was a predictor of performance. PMID:22808705

  11. Two highly accurate methods for pitch calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniel, K.; Härtig, F.; Osawa, S.; Sato, O.

    2009-11-01

    Among profiles, helix and tooth thickness pitch is one of the most important parameters of an involute gear measurement evaluation. In principle, coordinate measuring machines (CMM) and CNC-controlled gear measuring machines as a variant of a CMM are suited for these kinds of gear measurements. Now the Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) and the German national metrology institute the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have each developed independently highly accurate pitch calibration methods applicable to CMM or gear measuring machines. Both calibration methods are based on the so-called closure technique which allows the separation of the systematic errors of the measurement device and the errors of the gear. For the verification of both calibration methods, NMIJ/AIST and PTB performed measurements on a specially designed pitch artifact. The comparison of the results shows that both methods can be used for highly accurate calibrations of pitch standards.

  12. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  13. Accurate Guitar Tuning by Cochlear Implant Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  14. Preparation and accurate measurement of pure ozone.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Christof; Simone, Daniela; Guinet, Mickaël

    2011-03-01

    Preparation of high purity ozone as well as precise and accurate measurement of its pressure are metrological requirements that are difficult to meet due to ozone decomposition occurring in pressure sensors. The most stable and precise transducer heads are heated and, therefore, prone to accelerated ozone decomposition, limiting measurement accuracy and compromising purity. Here, we describe a vacuum system and a method for ozone production, suitable to accurately determine the pressure of pure ozone by avoiding the problem of decomposition. We use an inert gas in a particularly designed buffer volume and can thus achieve high measurement accuracy and negligible degradation of ozone with purities of 99.8% or better. The high degree of purity is ensured by comprehensive compositional analyses of ozone samples. The method may also be applied to other reactive gases. PMID:21456766

  15. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  16. Accurate modeling of parallel scientific computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Townsend, James C.

    1988-01-01

    Scientific codes are usually parallelized by partitioning a grid among processors. To achieve top performance it is necessary to partition the grid so as to balance workload and minimize communication/synchronization costs. This problem is particularly acute when the grid is irregular, changes over the course of the computation, and is not known until load time. Critical mapping and remapping decisions rest on the ability to accurately predict performance, given a description of a grid and its partition. This paper discusses one approach to this problem, and illustrates its use on a one-dimensional fluids code. The models constructed are shown to be accurate, and are used to find optimal remapping schedules.

  17. Line gas sampling system ensures accurate analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Tremendous changes in the natural gas business have resulted in new approaches to the way natural gas is measured. Electronic flow measurement has altered the business forever, with developments in instrumentation and a new sensitivity to the importance of proper natural gas sampling techniques. This paper reports that YZ Industries Inc., Snyder, Texas, combined its 40 years of sampling experience with the latest in microprocessor-based technology to develop the KynaPak 2000 series, the first on-line natural gas sampling system that is both compact and extremely accurate. This means the composition of the sampled gas must be representative of the whole and related to flow. If so, relative measurement and sampling techniques are married, gas volumes are accurately accounted for and adjustments to composition can be made.

  18. Accurate mask model for advanced nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zine El Abidine, Nacer; Sundermann, Frank; Yesilada, Emek; Ndiaye, El Hadji Omar; Mishra, Kushlendra; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Toublan, Olivier; Schanen, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    Standard OPC models consist of a physical optical model and an empirical resist model. The resist model compensates the optical model imprecision on top of modeling resist development. The optical model imprecision may result from mask topography effects and real mask information including mask ebeam writing and mask process contributions. For advanced technology nodes, significant progress has been made to model mask topography to improve optical model accuracy. However, mask information is difficult to decorrelate from standard OPC model. Our goal is to establish an accurate mask model through a dedicated calibration exercise. In this paper, we present a flow to calibrate an accurate mask enabling its implementation. The study covers the different effects that should be embedded in the mask model as well as the experiment required to model them.

  19. Powerplant Thermal-Pollution Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.

    1982-01-01

    Three models predict nature of thermal plumes from powerplant discharge into water. Free-surface model accomodates major changes in ocean currents. Rigid-model accurately predicts changes in thermal plume caused by other inputs and outputs, such as pumped-water storage and hydroelectric-plant discharges. One-dimensional model predicts approximate stratification in lake with such inputs and outputs over a long period.

  20. Accurate Molecular Polarizabilities Based on Continuum Electrostatics

    PubMed Central

    Truchon, Jean-François; Nicholls, Anthony; Iftimie, Radu I.; Roux, Benoît; Bayly, Christopher I.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach for representing the intramolecular polarizability as a continuum dielectric is introduced to account for molecular electronic polarization. It is shown, using a finite-difference solution to the Poisson equation, that the Electronic Polarization from Internal Continuum (EPIC) model yields accurate gas-phase molecular polarizability tensors for a test set of 98 challenging molecules composed of heteroaromatics, alkanes and diatomics. The electronic polarization originates from a high intramolecular dielectric that produces polarizabilities consistent with B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ and experimental values when surrounded by vacuum dielectric. In contrast to other approaches to model electronic polarization, this simple model avoids the polarizability catastrophe and accurately calculates molecular anisotropy with the use of very few fitted parameters and without resorting to auxiliary sites or anisotropic atomic centers. On average, the unsigned error in the average polarizability and anisotropy compared to B3LYP are 2% and 5%, respectively. The correlation between the polarizability components from B3LYP and this approach lead to a R2 of 0.990 and a slope of 0.999. Even the F2 anisotropy, shown to be a difficult case for existing polarizability models, can be reproduced within 2% error. In addition to providing new parameters for a rapid method directly applicable to the calculation of polarizabilities, this work extends the widely used Poisson equation to areas where accurate molecular polarizabilities matter. PMID:23646034

  1. A Highly Accurate Face Recognition System Using Filtering Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Ishikawa, Sayuri; Kodate, Kashiko

    2007-09-01

    The authors previously constructed a highly accurate fast face recognition optical correlator (FARCO) [E. Watanabe and K. Kodate: Opt. Rev. 12 (2005) 460], and subsequently developed an improved, super high-speed FARCO (S-FARCO), which is able to process several hundred thousand frames per second. The principal advantage of our new system is its wide applicability to any correlation scheme. Three different configurations were proposed, each depending on correlation speed. This paper describes and evaluates a software correlation filter. The face recognition function proved highly accurate, seeing that a low-resolution facial image size (64 × 64 pixels) has been successfully implemented. An operation speed of less than 10 ms was achieved using a personal computer with a central processing unit (CPU) of 3 GHz and 2 GB memory. When we applied the software correlation filter to a high-security cellular phone face recognition system, experiments on 30 female students over a period of three months yielded low error rates: 0% false acceptance rate and 2% false rejection rate. Therefore, the filtering correlation works effectively when applied to low resolution images such as web-based images or faces captured by a monitoring camera.

  2. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  3. A highly accurate heuristic algorithm for the haplotype assembly problem

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common form of genetic variation in human DNA. The sequence of SNPs in each of the two copies of a given chromosome in a diploid organism is referred to as a haplotype. Haplotype information has many applications such as gene disease diagnoses, drug design, etc. The haplotype assembly problem is defined as follows: Given a set of fragments sequenced from the two copies of a chromosome of a single individual, and their locations in the chromosome, which can be pre-determined by aligning the fragments to a reference DNA sequence, the goal here is to reconstruct two haplotypes (h1, h2) from the input fragments. Existing algorithms do not work well when the error rate of fragments is high. Here we design an algorithm that can give accurate solutions, even if the error rate of fragments is high. Results We first give a dynamic programming algorithm that can give exact solutions to the haplotype assembly problem. The time complexity of the algorithm is O(n × 2t × t), where n is the number of SNPs, and t is the maximum coverage of a SNP site. The algorithm is slow when t is large. To solve the problem when t is large, we further propose a heuristic algorithm on the basis of the dynamic programming algorithm. Experiments show that our heuristic algorithm can give very accurate solutions. Conclusions We have tested our algorithm on a set of benchmark datasets. Experiments show that our algorithm can give very accurate solutions. It outperforms most of the existing programs when the error rate of the input fragments is high. PMID:23445458

  4. Thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wunderlich, B. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents the basic theory and techniques of thermal analysis. It discusses a range of applications and instrumentation from all fields of applied and basic research, and concludes with problem sets. Topics covered include: The Basics of Thermal Analysis; Thermometry; Differential Thermal Analysis; Calorimetry; Thermomechanical Analysis and Dilatometry; and Thermogravimetry.

  5. Accurate pressure gradient calculations in hydrostatic atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, John J.; Mendez-Nunez, Luis R.; Tanrikulu, Saffet

    1987-01-01

    A method for the accurate calculation of the horizontal pressure gradient acceleration in hydrostatic atmospheric models is presented which is especially useful in situations where the isothermal surfaces are not parallel to the vertical coordinate surfaces. The present method is shown to be exact if the potential temperature lapse rate is constant between the vertical pressure integration limits. The technique is applied to both the integration of the hydrostatic equation and the computation of the slope correction term in the horizontal pressure gradient. A fixed vertical grid and a dynamic grid defined by the significant levels in the vertical temperature distribution are employed.

  6. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Marcic, Milan

    2006-01-01

    A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  7. Accurate dispensing system for single oocytes using air ejection

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Sun, Yiling; Ohsumi, Chisato; Arai, Fumihito

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a new approach to increase the success rate of single-oocyte dispensing and investigate the subsequent viability of the dispensed oocytes. We used a pair of capacitance sensors placed in a microfluidic chip to detect the oocyte, and custom-designed a special buffer zone in the microchannel to decelerate the flow velocity and reduce the hydraulic pressure acting on the oocyte. In the buffer zone, a semicircular bay, formed by equally spaced micro-pillars, is used to stop the oocyte at the dispensing nozzle hole. Finally, the oocyte is ejected by airflow to the culture array. The novel feature of the developed microfluidic system is that the extraordinary improvement in success rate is accompanied by a lack of change in oocyte survival rate (as assessed by a comparison of survival rates before and after the dispensing procedure). By using this device, we achieved a highly accurate single-oocyte dispensing process with a success rate of 100%. The oocyte survival rate is approximately 70%, regardless of whether or not the oocyte is dispensed. The newly proposed system has the advantages of high operation speed and potential usage for two-dimensional micropatterning. PMID:24404076

  8. Accurate and occlusion-robust multi-view stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhaokun; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Fraser, Clive S.

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes an accurate multi-view stereo method for image-based 3D reconstruction that features robustness in the presence of occlusions. The new method offers improvements in dealing with two fundamental image matching problems. The first concerns the selection of the support window model, while the second centers upon accurate visibility estimation for each pixel. The support window model is based on an approximate 3D support plane described by a depth and two per-pixel depth offsets. For the visibility estimation, the multi-view constraint is initially relaxed by generating separate support plane maps for each support image using a modified PatchMatch algorithm. Then the most likely visible support image, which represents the minimum visibility of each pixel, is extracted via a discrete Markov Random Field model and it is further augmented by parameter clustering. Once the visibility is estimated, multi-view optimization taking into account all redundant observations is conducted to achieve optimal accuracy in the 3D surface generation for both depth and surface normal estimates. Finally, multi-view consistency is utilized to eliminate any remaining observational outliers. The proposed method is experimentally evaluated using well-known Middlebury datasets, and results obtained demonstrate that it is amongst the most accurate of the methods thus far reported via the Middlebury MVS website. Moreover, the new method exhibits a high completeness rate.

  9. Videometric terminal guidance method and system for UAV accurate landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiang; Lei, Zhihui; Yu, Qifeng; Zhang, Hongliang; Shang, Yang; Du, Jing; Gui, Yang; Guo, Pengyu

    2012-06-01

    We present a videometric method and system to implement terminal guidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) accurate landing. In the videometric system, two calibrated cameras attached to the ground are used, and a calibration method in which at least 5 control points are applied is developed to calibrate the inner and exterior parameters of the cameras. Cameras with 850nm spectral filter are used to recognize a 850nm LED target fixed on the UAV which can highlight itself in images with complicated background. NNLOG (normalized negative laplacian of gaussian) operator is developed for automatic target detection and tracking. Finally, 3-D position of the UAV with high accuracy can be calculated and transfered to control system to direct UAV accurate landing. The videometric system can work in the rate of 50Hz. Many real flight and static accuracy experiments demonstrate the correctness and veracity of the method proposed in this paper, and they also indicate the reliability and robustness of the system proposed in this paper. The static accuracy experiment results show that the deviation is less-than 10cm when target is far from the cameras and lessthan 2cm in 100m region. The real flight experiment results show that the deviation from DGPS is less-than 20cm. The system implement in this paper won the first prize in the AVIC Cup-International UAV Innovation Grand Prix, and it is the only one that achieved UAV accurate landing without GPS or DGPS.

  10. Cooling rates of LL, L and H chondrites and constraints on the duration of peak thermal conditions: Diffusion kinetic modeling and implications for fragmentation of asteroids and impact resetting of petrologic types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Jibamitra; Tirone, Massimiliano; Domanik, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    analysis shows that if a lower petrological type got transformed by the thermal effect of shock impacts to reflect higher metamorphic temperature, as has been suggested as a possibility, then the peak temperatures would have had to be sustained for at least 10 ky and 80 ky, respectively, for transformation to the petrologic types 6 and 4. Finally, we present a model that reconciles textural data supporting an onion-shell parent body of H-chondrites with rapid cooling rate at high temperature caused by impact induced disturbance, and also discuss alternatives to the onion shell parent body model.

  11. Accurately Mapping M31's Microlensing Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin

    2004-07-01

    We propose to augment an existing microlensing survey of M31 with source identifications provided by a modest amount of ACS {and WFPC2 parallel} observations to yield an accurate measurement of the masses responsible for microlensing in M31, and presumably much of its dark matter. The main benefit of these data is the determination of the physical {or "einstein"} timescale of each microlensing event, rather than an effective {"FWHM"} timescale, allowing masses to be determined more than twice as accurately as without HST data. The einstein timescale is the ratio of the lensing cross-sectional radius and relative velocities. Velocities are known from kinematics, and the cross-section is directly proportional to the {unknown} lensing mass. We cannot easily measure these quantities without knowing the amplification, hence the baseline magnitude, which requires the resolution of HST to find the source star. This makes a crucial difference because M31 lens m ass determinations can be more accurate than those towards the Magellanic Clouds through our Galaxy's halo {for the same number of microlensing events} due to the better constrained geometry in the M31 microlensing situation. Furthermore, our larger survey, just completed, should yield at least 100 M31 microlensing events, more than any Magellanic survey. A small amount of ACS+WFPC2 imaging will deliver the potential of this large database {about 350 nights}. For the whole survey {and a delta-function mass distribution} the mass error should approach only about 15%, or about 6% error in slope for a power-law distribution. These results will better allow us to pinpoint the lens halo fraction, and the shape of the halo lens spatial distribution, and allow generalization/comparison of the nature of halo dark matter in spiral galaxies. In addition, we will be able to establish the baseline magnitude for about 50, 000 variable stars, as well as measure an unprecedentedly deta iled color-magnitude diagram and luminosity

  12. Accurate upwind methods for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of piecewise linear methods for the numerical solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics is presented. These methods are uniformly second-order accurate, and can be considered as extensions of Godunov's scheme. With an appropriate definition of monotonicity preservation for the case of linear convection, it can be shown that they preserve monotonicity. Similar to Van Leer's MUSCL scheme, they consist of two key steps: a reconstruction step followed by an upwind step. For the reconstruction step, a monotonicity constraint that preserves uniform second-order accuracy is introduced. Computational efficiency is enhanced by devising a criterion that detects the 'smooth' part of the data where the constraint is redundant. The concept and coding of the constraint are simplified by the use of the median function. A slope steepening technique, which has no effect at smooth regions and can resolve a contact discontinuity in four cells, is described. As for the upwind step, existing and new methods are applied in a manner slightly different from those in the literature. These methods are derived by approximating the Euler equations via linearization and diagonalization. At a 'smooth' interface, Harten, Lax, and Van Leer's one intermediate state model is employed. A modification for this model that can resolve contact discontinuities is presented. Near a discontinuity, either this modified model or a more accurate one, namely, Roe's flux-difference splitting. is used. The current presentation of Roe's method, via the conceptually simple flux-vector splitting, not only establishes a connection between the two splittings, but also leads to an admissibility correction with no conditional statement, and an efficient approximation to Osher's approximate Riemann solver. These reconstruction and upwind steps result in schemes that are uniformly second-order accurate and economical at smooth regions, and yield high resolution at discontinuities.

  13. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  14. The first accurate description of an aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2006-12-01

    As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

  15. New law requires 'medically accurate' lesson plans.

    PubMed

    1999-09-17

    The California Legislature has passed a bill requiring all textbooks and materials used to teach about AIDS be medically accurate and objective. Statements made within the curriculum must be supported by research conducted in compliance with scientific methods, and published in peer-reviewed journals. Some of the current lesson plans were found to contain scientifically unsupported and biased information. In addition, the bill requires material to be "free of racial, ethnic, or gender biases." The legislation is supported by a wide range of interests, but opposed by the California Right to Life Education Fund, because they believe it discredits abstinence-only material.

  16. Accurate density functional thermochemistry for larger molecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavachari, K.; Stefanov, B. B.; Curtiss, L. A.; Lucent Tech.

    1997-06-20

    Density functional methods are combined with isodesmic bond separation reaction energies to yield accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules. Seven different density functionals are assessed for the evaluation of heats of formation, Delta H 0 (298 K), for a test set of 40 molecules composed of H, C, O and N. The use of bond separation energies results in a dramatic improvement in the accuracy of all the density functionals. The B3-LYP functional has the smallest mean absolute deviation from experiment (1.5 kcal mol/f).

  17. New law requires 'medically accurate' lesson plans.

    PubMed

    1999-09-17

    The California Legislature has passed a bill requiring all textbooks and materials used to teach about AIDS be medically accurate and objective. Statements made within the curriculum must be supported by research conducted in compliance with scientific methods, and published in peer-reviewed journals. Some of the current lesson plans were found to contain scientifically unsupported and biased information. In addition, the bill requires material to be "free of racial, ethnic, or gender biases." The legislation is supported by a wide range of interests, but opposed by the California Right to Life Education Fund, because they believe it discredits abstinence-only material. PMID:11366835

  18. Universality: Accurate Checks in Dyson's Hierarchical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godina, J. J.; Meurice, Y.; Oktay, M. B.

    2003-06-01

    In this talk we present high-accuracy calculations of the susceptibility near βc for Dyson's hierarchical model in D = 3. Using linear fitting, we estimate the leading (γ) and subleading (Δ) exponents. Independent estimates are obtained by calculating the first two eigenvalues of the linearized renormalization group transformation. We found γ = 1.29914073 ± 10 -8 and, Δ = 0.4259469 ± 10-7 independently of the choice of local integration measure (Ising or Landau-Ginzburg). After a suitable rescaling, the approximate fixed points for a large class of local measure coincide accurately with a fixed point constructed by Koch and Wittwer.

  19. Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.

  20. Accurate basis set truncation for wavefunction embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Taylor A.; Goodpaster, Jason D.; Manby, Frederick R.; Miller, Thomas F.

    2013-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally exact framework for performing embedded subsystem electronic structure calculations, including DFT-in-DFT and wavefunction theory-in-DFT descriptions. In the interest of efficiency, it is desirable to truncate the atomic orbital basis set in which the subsystem calculation is performed, thus avoiding high-order scaling with respect to the size of the MO virtual space. In this study, we extend a recently introduced projection-based embedding method [F. R. Manby, M. Stella, J. D. Goodpaster, and T. F. Miller III, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2564 (2012)], 10.1021/ct300544e to allow for the systematic and accurate truncation of the embedded subsystem basis set. The approach is applied to both covalently and non-covalently bound test cases, including water clusters and polypeptide chains, and it is demonstrated that errors associated with basis set truncation are controllable to well within chemical accuracy. Furthermore, we show that this approach allows for switching between accurate projection-based embedding and DFT embedding with approximate kinetic energy (KE) functionals; in this sense, the approach provides a means of systematically improving upon the use of approximate KE functionals in DFT embedding.

  1. Accurate Stellar Parameters for Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, John Michael; Fischer, Debra; Basu, Sarbani; Valenti, Jeff A.

    2015-01-01

    A large impedement to our understanding of planet formation is obtaining a clear picture of planet radii and densities. Although determining precise ratios between planet and stellar host are relatively easy, determining accurate stellar parameters is still a difficult and costly undertaking. High resolution spectral analysis has traditionally yielded precise values for some stellar parameters but stars in common between catalogs from different authors or analyzed using different techniques often show offsets far in excess of their uncertainties. Most analyses now use some external constraint, when available, to break observed degeneracies between surface gravity, effective temperature, and metallicity which can otherwise lead to correlated errors in results. However, these external constraints are impossible to obtain for all stars and can require more costly observations than the initial high resolution spectra. We demonstrate that these discrepencies can be mitigated by use of a larger line list that has carefully tuned atomic line data. We use an iterative modeling technique that does not require external constraints. We compare the surface gravity obtained with our spectral synthesis modeling to asteroseismically determined values for 42 Kepler stars. Our analysis agrees well with only a 0.048 dex offset and an rms scatter of 0.05 dex. Such accurate stellar gravities can reduce the primary source of uncertainty in radii by almost an order of magnitude over unconstrained spectral analysis.

  2. Accurately Predicting Complex Reaction Kinetics from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, William

    Many important systems contain a multitude of reactive chemical species, some of which react on a timescale faster than collisional thermalization, i.e. they never achieve a Boltzmann energy distribution. Usually it is impossible to fully elucidate the processes by experiments alone. Here we report recent progress toward predicting the time-evolving composition of these systems a priori: how unexpected reactions can be discovered on the computer, how reaction rates are computed from first principles, and how the many individual reactions are efficiently combined into a predictive simulation for the whole system. Some experimental tests of the a priori predictions are also presented.

  3. Selection, Evaluation, And Rating of Compact Heat exchangers

    2014-10-07

    SEARCH determines and optimizes the design of a compact heat exchanger for specified process conditions. The user specifies process boundary conditions including the fluid state and flow rate and SEARCH will determine the optimum flow arrangement, channel geometry, and mechanical design for the unit. Fluids are modeled using NUST Refprop or tabulated values. A variety of thermal-hydraulic correlations are available including user-defined equations to accurately capture the heat transfer and pressure drop behavior of themore » process flows.« less

  4. Atmospheric effects on the mapping of Martian thermal inertia and thermally derived albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, Joan N.; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the effects of a dusty C02 atmosphere on the thermal inertia and thermally derived albedo of Mars and we present a new map of thermal inertias. This new map was produced using a coupled surface atmosphere (CSA) model, dust opacities from Viking infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) data, and C02 columns based on topography. The CSA model thermal inertias are smaller than the 2% model thermal inertias, with the difference largest at large thermal inertia. Although the difference between the thermal inertias obtained with the two models is moderate for much of the region studied, it is largest in regions of either high dust opacity or of topographic lows, including the Viking Lander 1 site and some geologically interesting regions. The CSA model thermally derived albedos do not accurately predict the IRTM measured albedos and are very similar to the thermally derived albedos obtained with models making the 2% assumption.

  5. Thermal modelling using discrete vasculature for thermal therapy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Kok, H.P.; Gellermann, J.; van den Berg, C.A.T.; Stauffer, P.R.; Hand, J.W.; Crezee, J.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable temperature information during clinical hyperthermia and thermal ablation is essential for adequate treatment control, but conventional temperature measurements do not provide 3D temperature information. Treatment planning is a very useful tool to improve treatment quality and substantial progress has been made over the last decade. Thermal modelling is a very important and challenging aspect of hyperthermia treatment planning. Various thermal models have been developed for this purpose, with varying complexity. Since blood perfusion is such an important factor in thermal redistribution of energy in in vivo tissue, thermal simulations are most accurately performed by modelling discrete vasculature. This review describes the progress in thermal modelling with discrete vasculature for the purpose of hyperthermia treatment planning and thermal ablation. There has been significant progress in thermal modelling with discrete vasculature. Recent developments have made real-time simulations possible, which can provide feedback during treatment for improved therapy. Future clinical application of thermal modelling with discrete vasculature in hyperthermia treatment planning is expected to further improve treatment quality. PMID:23738700

  6. Chemical Reaction Rate Coefficients from Ring Polymer Molecular Dynamics: Theory and Practical Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Suleimanov, Yury V.; Aoiz, F. Javier; Guo, Hua

    2016-11-03

    This Feature Article presents an overview of the current status of ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) rate theory. We first analyze the RPMD approach and its connection to quantum transition-state theory. We then focus on its practical applications to prototypical chemical reactions in the gas phase, which demonstrate how accurate and reliable RPMD is for calculating thermal chemical reaction rate coefficients in multifarious cases. This review serves as an important checkpoint in RPMD rate theory development, which shows that RPMD is shifting from being just one of recent novel ideas to a well-established and validated alternative to conventional techniques formore » calculating thermal chemical rate coefficients. We also hope it will motivate further applications of RPMD to various chemical reactions.« less

  7. Quantifying the Thermal Fatigue of CPV Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-02-01

    A method is presented to quantify thermal fatigue in the CPV die-attach from meteorological data. A comparative; study between cities demonstrates a significant difference in the accumulated damage. These differences are most; sensitive to the number of larger (ΔT) thermal cycles experienced for a location. High frequency data (<1/min) may; be required to most accurately employ this method.

  8. Thermal Management and Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasnain, Aqib

    2016-01-01

    's rays directly impinging on the system. Heating rate of the lamps were calculated by knowing fraction of emitted energy in a wavelength interval and the filament temperature. This version of the model can be used to predict performance of the system under vacuum with extreme cold or hot conditions. Initial testing of the PTMS showed promise, and the thermal math model predicts even better performance in thermal vacuum testing. ii) Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are required for vehicles which enter earth's atmosphere to protect from aerodynamic heating caused by the friction between the vehicle and atmospheric gases. Orion's heat shield design has two aspects which needed to be analyzed thermally: i) a small excess of adhesive used to bond the outer AVCOAT layer to the inner composite structure tends to seep from under the AVCOAT and form a small bead in between two bricks of AVCOAT, ii) a silicone rubber with different thermophysical properties than AVCOAT fills the gap between two bricks of AVCOAT. I created a thermal model using TD to determine temperature differences that are caused by these two features. To prevent false results, all TD models must be verified against something known. In this case, the TD model was correlated to CHAR, an ablation modelling software used to analyze TPS. Analyzing a node far from the concerning features, we saw that the TD model data match CHAR data, verifying the TD model. Next, the temperature of the silicone rubber as well as the bead of adhesive were analyzed to determine if they exceeded allowable temperatures. It was determined that these two features do not have a significant effect on the max temperature of the heat shield. This model can be modified to check temperatures at various locations of the heat shield where the composite thickness varies.

  9. Highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-12-30

    Disclosed is a highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine, comprising a revolute joint, comprising a circular encoder wheel, having an axis of rotation; a plurality of marks disposed around at least a portion of the circumference of the encoder wheel; bearing means for supporting the encoder wheel, while permitting free rotation of the encoder wheel about the wheel's axis of rotation; and a sensor, rigidly attached to the bearing means, for detecting the motion of at least some of the marks as the encoder wheel rotates; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the encoder wheel, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the sensor, for converting the output of the sensor into a set of cylindrical coordinates representing the position of the probe tip relative to a reference cylindrical coordinate system.

  10. Practical aspects of spatially high accurate methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, Andrew G.; Mitchell, Curtis R.; Walters, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The computational qualities of high order spatially accurate methods for the finite volume solution of the Euler equations are presented. Two dimensional essentially non-oscillatory (ENO), k-exact, and 'dimension by dimension' ENO reconstruction operators are discussed and compared in terms of reconstruction and solution accuracy, computational cost and oscillatory behavior in supersonic flows with shocks. Inherent steady state convergence difficulties are demonstrated for adaptive stencil algorithms. An exact solution to the heat equation is used to determine reconstruction error, and the computational intensity is reflected in operation counts. Standard MUSCL differencing is included for comparison. Numerical experiments presented include the Ringleb flow for numerical accuracy and a shock reflection problem. A vortex-shock interaction demonstrates the ability of the ENO scheme to excel in simulating unsteady high-frequency flow physics.

  11. Toward Accurate and Quantitative Comparative Metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Nayfach, Stephen; Pollard, Katherine S

    2016-08-25

    Shotgun metagenomics and computational analysis are used to compare the taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities. Leveraging this approach to understand roles of microbes in human biology and other environments requires quantitative data summaries whose values are comparable across samples and studies. Comparability is currently hampered by the use of abundance statistics that do not estimate a meaningful parameter of the microbial community and biases introduced by experimental protocols and data-cleaning approaches. Addressing these challenges, along with improving study design, data access, metadata standardization, and analysis tools, will enable accurate comparative metagenomics. We envision a future in which microbiome studies are replicable and new metagenomes are easily and rapidly integrated with existing data. Only then can the potential of metagenomics for predictive ecological modeling, well-powered association studies, and effective microbiome medicine be fully realized. PMID:27565341

  12. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  13. Accurate Telescope Mount Positioning with MEMS Accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, L.; Jaskó, A.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the advantages and challenges of applying microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (MEMS accelerometers) in order to attain precise, accurate, and stateless positioning of telescope mounts. This provides a completely independent method from other forms of electronic, optical, mechanical or magnetic feedback or real-time astrometry. Our goal is to reach the subarcminute range which is considerably smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. Here we present how this subarcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors and we also detail how our procedures can be extended in order to attain even finer measurements. In addition, our paper discusses how can a complete system design be implemented in order to be a part of a telescope control system.

  14. Toward Accurate and Quantitative Comparative Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Nayfach, Stephen; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Shotgun metagenomics and computational analysis are used to compare the taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities. Leveraging this approach to understand roles of microbes in human biology and other environments requires quantitative data summaries whose values are comparable across samples and studies. Comparability is currently hampered by the use of abundance statistics that do not estimate a meaningful parameter of the microbial community and biases introduced by experimental protocols and data-cleaning approaches. Addressing these challenges, along with improving study design, data access, metadata standardization, and analysis tools, will enable accurate comparative metagenomics. We envision a future in which microbiome studies are replicable and new metagenomes are easily and rapidly integrated with existing data. Only then can the potential of metagenomics for predictive ecological modeling, well-powered association studies, and effective microbiome medicine be fully realized. PMID:27565341

  15. The importance of accurate atmospheric modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Dylan; Schroeder, John; Liang, Pang

    2014-11-01

    This paper will focus on the effect of atmospheric conditions on EO sensor performance using computer models. We have shown the importance of accurately modeling atmospheric effects for predicting the performance of an EO sensor. A simple example will demonstrated how real conditions for several sites in China will significantly impact on image correction, hyperspectral imaging, and remote sensing. The current state-of-the-art model for computing atmospheric transmission and radiance is, MODTRAN® 5, developed by the US Air Force Research Laboratory and Spectral Science, Inc. Research by the US Air Force, Navy and Army resulted in the public release of LOWTRAN 2 in the early 1970's. Subsequent releases of LOWTRAN and MODTRAN® have continued until the present. Please verify that (1) all pages are present, (2) all figures are correct, (3) all fonts and special characters are correct, and (4) all text and figures fit within the red margin lines shown on this review document. Complete formatting information is available at http://SPIE.org/manuscripts Return to the Manage Active Submissions page at http://spie.org/submissions/tasks.aspx and approve or disapprove this submission. Your manuscript will not be published without this approval. Please contact author_help@spie.org with any questions or concerns. The paper will demonstrate the importance of using validated models and local measured meteorological, atmospheric and aerosol conditions to accurately simulate the atmospheric transmission and radiance. Frequently default conditions are used which can produce errors of as much as 75% in these values. This can have significant impact on remote sensing applications.

  16. Accurate Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The NRAO Green Bank Telescope routinely observes at wavelengths from 3 mm to 1 m. As with all mm-wave telescopes, observing conditions depend upon the variable atmospheric water content. The site provides over 100 days/yr when opacities are low enough for good observing at 3 mm, but winds on the open-air structure reduce the time suitable for 3-mm observing where pointing is critical. Thus, to maximum productivity the observing wavelength needs to match weather conditions. For 6 years the telescope has used a dynamic scheduling system (recently upgraded; www.gb.nrao.edu/DSS) that requires accurate multi-day forecasts for winds and opacities. Since opacity forecasts are not provided by the National Weather Services (NWS), I have developed an automated system that takes available forecasts, derives forecasted opacities, and deploys the results on the web in user-friendly graphical overviews (www.gb.nrao.edu/ rmaddale/Weather). The system relies on the "North American Mesoscale" models, which are updated by the NWS every 6 hrs, have a 12 km horizontal resolution, 1 hr temporal resolution, run to 84 hrs, and have 60 vertical layers that extend to 20 km. Each forecast consists of a time series of ground conditions, cloud coverage, etc, and, most importantly, temperature, pressure, humidity as a function of height. I use the Liebe's MWP model (Radio Science, 20, 1069, 1985) to determine the absorption in each layer for each hour for 30 observing wavelengths. Radiative transfer provides, for each hour and wavelength, the total opacity and the radio brightness of the atmosphere, which contributes substantially at some wavelengths to Tsys and the observational noise. Comparisons of measured and forecasted Tsys at 22.2 and 44 GHz imply that the forecasted opacities are good to about 0.01 Nepers, which is sufficient for forecasting and accurate calibration. Reliability is high out to 2 days and degrades slowly for longer-range forecasts.

  17. The high cost of accurate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Kathleen M; Weber, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    Many business thinkers believe it's the role of senior managers to scan the external environment to monitor contingencies and constraints, and to use that precise knowledge to modify the company's strategy and design. As these thinkers see it, managers need accurate and abundant information to carry out that role. According to that logic, it makes sense to invest heavily in systems for collecting and organizing competitive information. Another school of pundits contends that, since today's complex information often isn't precise anyway, it's not worth going overboard with such investments. In other words, it's not the accuracy and abundance of information that should matter most to top executives--rather, it's how that information is interpreted. After all, the role of senior managers isn't just to make decisions; it's to set direction and motivate others in the face of ambiguities and conflicting demands. Top executives must interpret information and communicate those interpretations--they must manage meaning more than they must manage information. So which of these competing views is the right one? Research conducted by academics Sutcliffe and Weber found that how accurate senior executives are about their competitive environments is indeed less important for strategy and corresponding organizational changes than the way in which they interpret information about their environments. Investments in shaping those interpretations, therefore, may create a more durable competitive advantage than investments in obtaining and organizing more information. And what kinds of interpretations are most closely linked with high performance? Their research suggests that high performers respond positively to opportunities, yet they aren't overconfident in their abilities to take advantage of those opportunities.

  18. The effect of thermal preslaughter stress on the susceptibility of broiler chickens differing with respect to growth rate, age at slaughter, blood parameters, and ascites mortality, to hemorrhages in muscles.

    PubMed

    Kranen, R W; Veerkamp, C H; Lambooy, E; Van Kuppevelt, T H; Veerkamp, J H

    1998-05-01

    In this study we investigated the occurrence of hemorrhages in four groups of electrically stunned broilers, differing with respect to growth rate, age at slaughter, hemodynamic parameters, and ascites mortality. In addition, the effect of three thermal preslaughter conditions on hemorrhage occurrence in thigh and breast muscles was studied. Broilers were either reared at a thermoneutral or low temperature regimen, and were either restricted in their feed consumption or consumed feed ad libitum. Prior to slaughter the broilers were exposed for 2 +/- 0.5 h to either cold (4 +/- 2 C, RH 100%), moderate (19 +/- 2 C, RH: 70 to 80%), or warm (30 +/- 2 C, RH: 60 to 70%) conditions. There was no effect of rearing group, nor was there an interaction between rearing group and preslaughter condition on hemorrhage scores in the thighs or breasts. Preslaughter conditions only affected hemorrhage scores in the left thigh. Scores were highest in broilers exposed to moderate preslaughter conditions. These data indicate that the cause of hemorrhages in muscles is multifactorial. Hemorrhage severity was not diminished in broilers retarded in growth. Pathological hemodynamic adaptations to low rearing temperatures, leading to ascites, did not increase hemorrhage severity, neither upon exposure to moderate nor to cold or warm preslaughter conditions. PMID:9603363

  19. The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter

    SciTech Connect

    Kearny, C.H.

    2001-11-20

    The KFM is a homemade fallout meter that can be made using only materials, tools, and skills found in millions of American homes. It is an accurate and dependable electroscope-capacitor. The KFM, in conjunction with its attached table and a watch, is designed for use as a rate meter. Its attached table relates observed differences in the separations of its two leaves (before and after exposures at the listed time intervals) to the dose rates during exposures of these time intervals. In this manner dose rates from 30 mR/hr up to 43 R/hr can be determined with an accuracy of {+-}25%. A KFM can be charged with any one of the three expedient electrostatic charging devices described. Due to the use of anhydrite (made by heating gypsum from wallboard) inside a KFM and the expedient ''dry-bucket'' in which it can be charged when the air is very humid, this instrument always can be charged and used to obtain accurate measurements of gamma radiation no matter how high the relative humidity. The heart of this report is the step-by-step illustrated instructions for making and using a KFM. These instructions have been improved after each successive field test. The majority of the untrained test families, adequately motivated by cash bonuses offered for success and guided only by these written instructions, have succeeded in making and using a KFM. NOTE: ''The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter'', was published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory report in1979. Some of the materials originally suggested for suspending the leaves of the Kearny Fallout Meter (KFM) are no longer available. Because of changes in the manufacturing process, other materials (e.g., sewing thread, unwaxed dental floss) may not have the insulating capability to work properly. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has not tested any of the suggestions provided in the preface of the report, but they have been used by other groups. When using these instructions, the builder can verify the

  20. Size, shape, and the thermal niche of endotherms

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Warren P.; Kearney, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A key challenge in ecology is to define species' niches on the basis of functional traits. Size and shape are important determinants of a species' niche but their causal role is often difficult to interpret. For endotherms, size and shape define the thermal niche through their interaction with core temperature, insulation, and environmental conditions, determining the thermoneutral zone (TNZ) where energy and water costs are minimized. Laboratory measures of metabolic rate used to describe TNZs cannot be generalized to infer the capacity for terrestrial animals to find their TNZ in complex natural environments. Here, we derive an analytical model of the thermal niche of an ellipsoid furred endotherm that accurately predicts field and laboratory data. We use the model to illustrate the relative importance of size and shape on the location of the TNZ under different environmental conditions. The interaction between body shape and posture strongly influences the location of the TNZ and the expected scaling of metabolic rate with size at constant temperature. We demonstrate that the latter relationship has a slope of approximately ½ rather than the commonly expected surface area/volume scaling of ⅔. We show how such functional traits models can be integrated with spatial environmental datasets to calculate null expectations for body size clines from a thermal perspective, aiding mechanistic interpretation of empirical clines such as Bergmann's Rule. The combination of spatially explicit data with biophysical models of heat exchange provides a powerful means for studying the thermal niches of endotherms across climatic gradients. PMID:19846790

  1. New Accurate Oscillator Strengths and Electron Excitation Collision Strengths for N1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tayal, S. S.

    2006-01-01

    The nonorthogonal orbitals technique in a multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock approach is used to calculate oscillator strengths and transition probabilities of N(I) lines. The relativistic effects are allowed by means of Breit-Pauli operators. The length and velocity forms of oscillator strengths show good agreement for most transitions. The B-spline R-matrix with pseudostates approach has been used to calculate electron excitation collision strengths and rates. The nonorthogonal orbitals are used for an accurate description of both target wave functions and the R-matrix basis functions. The 24 spectroscopic bound and autoionizing states together with 15 pseudostates are included in the close-coupling expansion. The collision strengths for transitions between fine-structure levels are calculated by transforming the LS-coupled K-matrices to K-matrices in an intermediate coupling scheme. Thermally averaged collision strengths have been determined by integrating collision strength over a Maxwellian distribution of electron energies over a temperature range suitable for the modeling of astrophysical plasmas. The oscillator strengths and thermally averaged collision strengths are presented for transitions between the fine-structure levels of the 2s(sup 2)p(sup 3) (sup 4)S(sup 0), (sup 2)D(sup 0), (sup 2)P(sup 0), 2s2p(sup 4) (sup 4)P, 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 2)3s (sup 4)P, and (sup 2)P terms and from these levels to the levels of the 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 2)3p (sup 2)S(sup 0), (sup 4)D(sup 0), (sup 4)P(sup 0), (sup 4)S(sup 0), (sup 2)D(sup 0), (sup 2)P(sup 0),2s(sup 2)2p(sup 2)3s(sup 2)D, 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 2)4s(sup 4)P, (sup 2)P, 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 2)3d(sup 2)P, (sup 4)F,(sup 2)F,(sup 4)P, (sup 4)D, and (sup 2)D terms. Thermally averaged collision strengths are tabulated over a temperature range from 500 to 50,000 K.

  2. Approaching system equilibrium with accurate or not accurate feedback information in a two-route system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-mei; Xie, Dong-fan; Li, Qi

    2015-02-01

    With the development of intelligent transport system, advanced information feedback strategies have been developed to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the capacity. However, previous strategies provide accurate information to travelers and our simulation results show that accurate information brings negative effects, especially in delay case. Because travelers prefer to the best condition route with accurate information, and delayed information cannot reflect current traffic condition but past. Then travelers make wrong routing decisions, causing the decrease of the capacity and the increase of oscillations and the system deviating from the equilibrium. To avoid the negative effect, bounded rationality is taken into account by introducing a boundedly rational threshold BR. When difference between two routes is less than the BR, routes have equal probability to be chosen. The bounded rationality is helpful to improve the efficiency in terms of capacity, oscillation and the gap deviating from the system equilibrium.

  3. Accurate Reading with Sequential Presentation of Single Letters

    PubMed Central

    Price, Nicholas S. C.; Edwards, Gemma L.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid, accurate reading is possible when isolated, single words from a sentence are sequentially presented at a fixed spatial location. We investigated if reading of words and sentences is possible when single letters are rapidly presented at the fovea under user-controlled or automatically controlled rates. When tested with complete sentences, trained participants achieved reading rates of over 60 wpm and accuracies of over 90% with the single letter reading (SLR) method and naive participants achieved average reading rates over 30 wpm with greater than 90% accuracy. Accuracy declined as individual letters were presented for shorter periods of time, even when the overall reading rate was maintained by increasing the duration of spaces between words. Words in the lexicon that occur more frequently were identified with higher accuracy and more quickly, demonstrating that trained participants have lexical access. In combination, our data strongly suggest that comprehension is possible and that SLR is a practicable form of reading under conditions in which normal scanning of text is not possible, or for scenarios with limited spatial and temporal resolution such as patients with low vision or prostheses. PMID:23115548

  4. In-situ x-ray diffraction and resistivity analysis of CoSi{sub 2} phase formation with and without a Ti interlayer at rapid thermal annealing rates

    SciTech Connect

    Cabral, C. Jr.; Clevenger, L.A.; Stephenson, G.B.; Brauer, S.; Morales, G.; Ludwig, K.F. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    It has been demonstrated, using synchrotron radiation, that at rapid thermal annealing rates (3 C/s) the 2formation of CoSi{sub 2} shifts to higher temperatures when a thin Ti interlayer is placed between Co and polycrystalline Si. It has also been shown that the Ti interlayer reduces the temperature range between the start of CoSi formation and CoSi{sub 2} formation (i.e. the range over which CoSi is present). 13 nm of Co deposited by physical vapor deposition on polycrystalline Si with and without either a 2 nm or 3.4 nm interlayer of Ti was analyzed in-situ by monitoring x-ray diffraction (XRD) peak intensity as a function of temperature using monochromatic radiation from a synchrotron beam line and by monitoring resistivity as a function of temperature i a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) system. The XRD analysis indicates that the phase formation proceeds from CoSi to CoSi{sub 2} in a temperature range that decreases from about 200 C to 140 C to 115 C with pure Co, Co/2 nm Ti and Co/3.4 nm Ti films respectively. The onset of the CoSi formation increases by about 135 C and 160 C for Co/2 nm Ti and Co/3.4 nm Ti compared to pure Co. The CoSi temperature range decreases from about 75 C in pure Co to less than 50 C in Co/Ti. In-situ RTA resistance along with in-situ XRD analysis indicates that the onset formation temperatures for CoSi are about 440 C, 575 C and 600 C and the temperatures for the completion of CoSi{sub 2} formation are about 640 C, 715 C and 715 C for Co, Co/2 nm Ti and Co/3.4 nm Ti films respectively. The results are consistent with he Ti interlayer acting as a diffusion barrier during the initial stages of the Co-Si reaction.

  5. Accurate masses for dispersion-supported galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joe; Martinez, Gregory D.; Bullock, James S.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Geha, Marla; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Simon, Joshua D.; Avedo, Frank F.

    2010-08-01

    We derive an accurate mass estimator for dispersion-supported stellar systems and demonstrate its validity by analysing resolved line-of-sight velocity data for globular clusters, dwarf galaxies and elliptical galaxies. Specifically, by manipulating the spherical Jeans equation we show that the mass enclosed within the 3D deprojected half-light radius r1/2 can be determined with only mild assumptions about the spatial variation of the stellar velocity dispersion anisotropy as long as the projected velocity dispersion profile is fairly flat near the half-light radius, as is typically observed. We find M1/2 = 3 G-1< σ2los > r1/2 ~= 4 G-1< σ2los > Re, where < σ2los > is the luminosity-weighted square of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion and Re is the 2D projected half-light radius. While deceptively familiar in form, this formula is not the virial theorem, which cannot be used to determine accurate masses unless the radial profile of the total mass is known a priori. We utilize this finding to show that all of the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies (MW dSphs) are consistent with having formed within a halo of a mass of approximately 3 × 109 Msolar, assuming a Λ cold dark matter cosmology. The faintest MW dSphs seem to have formed in dark matter haloes that are at least as massive as those of the brightest MW dSphs, despite the almost five orders of magnitude spread in luminosity between them. We expand our analysis to the full range of observed dispersion-supported stellar systems and examine their dynamical I-band mass-to-light ratios ΥI1/2. The ΥI1/2 versus M1/2 relation for dispersion-supported galaxies follows a U shape, with a broad minimum near ΥI1/2 ~= 3 that spans dwarf elliptical galaxies to normal ellipticals, a steep rise to ΥI1/2 ~= 3200 for ultra-faint dSphs and a more shallow rise to ΥI1/2 ~= 800 for galaxy cluster spheroids.

  6. THERMAL REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal remediation is being proposed by Region I for remediation of the overburden soil and groundwater at the Solvent Recovery Services New England Superfund site. This presentation at the public meeting will acquaint area residents with thermal remediation. The two types of ...

  7. Thermal Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Norman

    The role that a good thermal environment plays in the educational process is discussed. Design implications arise from an analysis of the heating and ventilating principles as apply to vocational-technical facilities. The importance of integrating thermal components in the total design is emphasized. (JS)

  8. Thermal and Electrical Analysis of Mars Rover RTGs

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T; Skrabek, Emanuel A

    2012-01-19

    The RTG designs described in the preceding paper in these proceedings were analyzed for their thermal and electrical performance. Each analysis consisted of coupled thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analyses, using Fairchild-generated specialized computer codes. These were supplemented with preliminary structural and mass analyses. For each design, various cases representing different operating conditions (water-cooled/radiation-cooled, BOM/EOM, summer/winter, day/night) and different thermoelectric performance assumptions (from conservative to optimistic) were analyzed; and for every case, the heat flow rates, temperatures and electrical performance of each layer of thermoelectric elements and of the overall RTG were determined. The analyses were performed in great detail, to obtain accurate answers permitting meaningful comparisons between different designs. The results presented show the RTG performance achievable with current technology, and the performance improvements that would be achievable with various technology developments.

  9. Molecular beam-thermal hydrogen desorption from palladium

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, R. F. M.; Berardo, F. M. V.; Ribeiro, J. H. F.

    2010-04-15

    Among the most efficient techniques for hydrogen desorption monitoring, thermal desorption mass spectrometry is a very sensitive one, but in certain cases can give rise to uptake misleading results due to residual hydrogen partial pressure background variations. In this work one develops a novel thermal desorption variant based on the effusive molecular beam technique that represents a significant improvement in the accurate determination of hydrogen mass absorbed on a solid sample. The enhancement in the signal-to-noise ratio for trace hydrogen is on the order of 20%, and no previous calibration with a chemical standard is required. The kinetic information obtained from the hydrogen desorption mass spectra (at a constant heating rate of 1 deg. C/min) accounts for the consistency of the technique.

  10. NOTE: MRI temperature mapping during thermal balloon angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmatukha, Andriy V.; Bakker, Chris J. G.

    2006-04-01

    Knowledge on the thermal dose delivered during thermal balloon angioplasty (TBA) is desirable to understand why TBA's outcome varies widely among patients and why it is subject to high restenosis rates. In its conventional implementation, TBA involves injection of a heated medium into a balloon positioned within a stenotic blood vessel. The medium injection causes flow, motion and susceptibility-redistribution artefacts that are devastating to the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) technique of MRI temperature mapping. Here, we propose to separate in time medium injection and heating by first inflating a balloon with a medium at an initial temperature, and then by heating the medium up using laser light. The separation is shown to eliminate all the mentioned artefacts and to enable real-time MRI temperature mapping using the PRFS technique. Accurate and reliable temperature maps were acquired in a TBA balloon itself and in the surrounding phantom tissue during heat application.

  11. Multispectral thermal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.; Bender, S.C.; Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.B.; Smith, B.W.; Garrett, A.; Pendergast, M.M.; Kay, R.R.

    1998-12-01

    Many remote sensing applications rely on imaging spectrometry. Here the authors use imaging spectrometry for thermal and multispectral signatures measured from a satellite platform enhanced with a combination of accurate calibrations and on-board data for correcting atmospheric distortions. The approach is supported by physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis, which permits a cost-effective balance between various hardware and software aspects. The goal is to develop and demonstrate advanced technologies and analysis tools toward meeting the needs of the customer; at the same time, the attributes of this system can address other applications in such areas as environmental change, agriculture, and volcanology.

  12. How Accurate Can Enrollment Forecasting Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Robert C.

    1980-01-01

    After briefly describing several methods of projecting enrollments, cites research indicating that the cohort survival method is best used as a relatively short-range forecast where in-migration and out-migration ratios are expected to remain fairly stable or to change at the same rate as they have in the recent past. (Author/IRT)

  13. Intermolecular potential for thermal H2O-He collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palma, Amedeo; Green, Sheldon; Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical potentials for rotational excitation of H2O by He were constructed via several methods, all of which start with a large basis set SCF interaction. The semiempirical Hartree-Fock with damped dispersion model adds a damped long-range attraction with parameters adjusted to fit experimental total differential cross sections. Purely ab initio potentials add correlation energies obtained via perturbation theory (MP2 and MP4) or a variational method (ICF1). Scattering calculations were performed on all surfaces to compare wih available beam scattering and pressure broadening data and to assess sensitivity of state-to-state rates to uncertainties in the potential. From comparison with the limited experimental data, the ICF1 surface appears to be marginally better than the MP4 surface. Thermal rates calculated from this surface should be accurate to better than 50 percent, at least for the larger, more important rates.

  14. ACCURATE CHEMICAL MASTER EQUATION SOLUTION USING MULTI-FINITE BUFFERS

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Youfang; Terebus, Anna; Liang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The discrete chemical master equation (dCME) provides a fundamental framework for studying stochasticity in mesoscopic networks. Because of the multi-scale nature of many networks where reaction rates have large disparity, directly solving dCMEs is intractable due to the exploding size of the state space. It is important to truncate the state space effectively with quantified errors, so accurate solutions can be computed. It is also important to know if all major probabilistic peaks have been computed. Here we introduce the Accurate CME (ACME) algorithm for obtaining direct solutions to dCMEs. With multi-finite buffers for reducing the state space by O(n!), exact steady-state and time-evolving network probability landscapes can be computed. We further describe a theoretical framework of aggregating microstates into a smaller number of macrostates by decomposing a network into independent aggregated birth and death processes, and give an a priori method for rapidly determining steady-state truncation errors. The maximal sizes of the finite buffers for a given error tolerance can also be pre-computed without costly trial solutions of dCMEs. We show exactly computed probability landscapes of three multi-scale networks, namely, a 6-node toggle switch, 11-node phage-lambda epigenetic circuit, and 16-node MAPK cascade network, the latter two with no known solutions. We also show how probabilities of rare events can be computed from first-passage times, another class of unsolved problems challenging for simulation-based techniques due to large separations in time scales. Overall, the ACME method enables accurate and efficient solutions of the dCME for a large class of networks. PMID:27761104

  15. Accurate free energy calculation along optimized paths.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changjun; Xiao, Yi

    2010-05-01

    The path-based methods of free energy calculation, such as thermodynamic integration and free energy perturbation, are simple in theory, but difficult in practice because in most cases smooth paths do not exist, especially for large molecules. In this article, we present a novel method to build the transition path of a peptide. We use harmonic potentials to restrain its nonhydrogen atom dihedrals in the initial state and set the equilibrium angles of the potentials as those in the final state. Through a series of steps of geometrical optimization, we can construct a smooth and short path from the initial state to the final state. This path can be used to calculate free energy difference. To validate this method, we apply it to a small 10-ALA peptide and find that the calculated free energy changes in helix-helix and helix-hairpin transitions are both self-convergent and cross-convergent. We also calculate the free energy differences between different stable states of beta-hairpin trpzip2, and the results show that this method is more efficient than the conventional molecular dynamics method in accurate free energy calculation.

  16. Accurate SHAPE-directed RNA structure determination

    PubMed Central

    Deigan, Katherine E.; Li, Tian W.; Mathews, David H.; Weeks, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    Almost all RNAs can fold to form extensive base-paired secondary structures. Many of these structures then modulate numerous fundamental elements of gene expression. Deducing these structure–function relationships requires that it be possible to predict RNA secondary structures accurately. However, RNA secondary structure prediction for large RNAs, such that a single predicted structure for a single sequence reliably represents the correct structure, has remained an unsolved problem. Here, we demonstrate that quantitative, nucleotide-resolution information from a SHAPE experiment can be interpreted as a pseudo-free energy change term and used to determine RNA secondary structure with high accuracy. Free energy minimization, by using SHAPE pseudo-free energies, in conjunction with nearest neighbor parameters, predicts the secondary structure of deproteinized Escherichia coli 16S rRNA (>1,300 nt) and a set of smaller RNAs (75–155 nt) with accuracies of up to 96–100%, which are comparable to the best accuracies achievable by comparative sequence analysis. PMID:19109441

  17. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10-12 at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, and T2 has been determined. For the ground state of H2 the estimated precision is 3 × 10-7 cm-1, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.

  18. Fast and Provably Accurate Bilateral Filtering.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Kunal N; Dabhade, Swapnil D

    2016-06-01

    The bilateral filter is a non-linear filter that uses a range filter along with a spatial filter to perform edge-preserving smoothing of images. A direct computation of the bilateral filter requires O(S) operations per pixel, where S is the size of the support of the spatial filter. In this paper, we present a fast and provably accurate algorithm for approximating the bilateral filter when the range kernel is Gaussian. In particular, for box and Gaussian spatial filters, the proposed algorithm can cut down the complexity to O(1) per pixel for any arbitrary S . The algorithm has a simple implementation involving N+1 spatial filterings, where N is the approximation order. We give a detailed analysis of the filtering accuracy that can be achieved by the proposed approximation in relation to the target bilateral filter. This allows us to estimate the order N required to obtain a given accuracy. We also present comprehensive numerical results to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is competitive with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of speed and accuracy. PMID:27093722

  19. Accurate, reliable prototype earth horizon sensor head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F.; Cohen, H.

    1973-01-01

    The design and performance is described of an accurate and reliable prototype earth sensor head (ARPESH). The ARPESH employs a detection logic 'locator' concept and horizon sensor mechanization which should lead to high accuracy horizon sensing that is minimally degraded by spatial or temporal variations in sensing attitude from a satellite in orbit around the earth at altitudes in the 500 km environ 1,2. An accuracy of horizon location to within 0.7 km has been predicted, independent of meteorological conditions. This corresponds to an error of 0.015 deg-at 500 km altitude. Laboratory evaluation of the sensor indicates that this accuracy is achieved. First, the basic operating principles of ARPESH are described; next, detailed design and construction data is presented and then performance of the sensor under laboratory conditions in which the sensor is installed in a simulator that permits it to scan over a blackbody source against background representing the earth space interface for various equivalent plant temperatures.

  20. Fast and Accurate Exhaled Breath Ammonia Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Solga, Steven F.; Mudalel, Matthew L.; Spacek, Lisa A.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations. PMID:24962141