Sun, Harold Huimin; Hanna, Dave; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Krivitzky, Eric M.; Larosiliere, Louis M.; Baines, Nicholas C.
2013-08-27
In one example, a turbocharger for an internal combustion engine is described. The turbocharger comprises a casing containing an impeller having a full blade coupled to a hub that rotates about an axis of rotation. The casing includes a bleed port and an injection port. The full blade includes a hub edge, a casing edge, and a first distribution of angles, each angle measured between the axis of rotation and a mean line at the hub edge at a meridional distance along the hub edge. The full blade includes a second distribution of angles, each angle measured between the axis of rotation and a mean line at the casing edge at a meridional distance along the casing edge. Further, various systems are described for affecting the aerodynamic properties of the compressor and turbine components in a way that may extend the operating range of the turbocharger.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harley, P.; Spence, S.; Early, J.; Filsinger, D.; Dietrich, M.
2013-12-01
Single-zone modelling is used to assess different collections of impeller 1D loss models. Three collections of loss models have been identified in literature, and the background to each of these collections is discussed. Each collection is evaluated using three modern automotive turbocharger style centrifugal compressors; comparisons of performance for each of the collections are made. An empirical data set taken from standard hot gas stand tests for each turbocharger is used as a baseline for comparison. Compressor range is predicted in this study; impeller diffusion ratio is shown to be a useful method of predicting compressor surge in 1D, and choke is predicted using basic compressible flow theory. The compressor designer can use this as a guide to identify the most compatible collection of losses for turbocharger compressor design applications. The analysis indicates the most appropriate collection for the design of automotive turbocharger centrifugal compressors.
Turbocharger chiller modeling and test evaluation. Final report, March-November 1993
Kountz, K.J.; Wurm, J.
1996-07-01
The objectives of this project were: To determine the technoeconomic feasibility of a natural gas-fired turbocharger-based chiller system, arranged in a combined-fluid Rankine/Rankine cycle; To design the turbocharger chiller system for a 50 RT cooling rating point capacity, using available vehicle turbocharges and standard chiller heat exchanger technology; and To evaluate several low, medium, and high pressure refrigerants and refrigerant/lubricant pairs for their thermodynamic and thermal stability characteristics and applicability to the chiller cycle.
Modelling of Outer and Inner Film Oil Pressure for Floating Ring Bearing Clearance in Turbochargers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hao; Shi, Zhanqun; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew
2011-07-01
Floating ring bearing is widely used in turbochargers to undertake the extreme condition of high rotating speed and high operating temperature. It is also the most concerned by the designers and users alike due to its high failure rate and high maintenance cost. Any little clearance change may result in oil leakage, which in turn cause blue smoke or black smoke according to leakage types. However, there is no condition monitoring of this bearing because it is almost impossible to measure the clearance especially the inner clearance, in which the inner oil film directly bears the high speed rotation. In stead of measuring clearance directly, this paper has proposed a method that uses film pressure as a measure to monitor the bearing clearance and its variation. A non-linear mathematical model is developed by using Reynolds equations with non-linear oil film pressure. A full description of the outer and inner film is provided along both axial and radial directions. A numerical simulation is immediately carried out. Variable clearance changes are investigated using the mathematical model. Results show the relationship between clearance and film pressure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Assanis, D. N.; Ekchian, J. E.; Frank, R. M.; Heywood, J. B.
1985-01-01
A computer simulation of the turbocharged turbocompounded direct-injection diesel engine system was developed in order to study the performance characteristics of the total system as major design parameters and materials are varied. Quasi-steady flow models of the compressor, turbines, manifolds, intercooler, and ducting are coupled with a multicylinder reciprocator diesel model, where each cylinder undergoes the same thermodynamic cycle. The master cylinder model describes the reciprocator intake, compression, combustion and exhaust processes in sufficient detail to define the mass and energy transfers in each subsystem of the total engine system. Appropriate thermal loading models relate the heat flow through critical system components to material properties and design details. From this information, the simulation predicts the performance gains, and assesses the system design trade-offs which would result from the introduction of selected heat transfer reduction materials in key system components, over a range of operating conditions.
Advanced turbocharger design study program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Culy, D. G.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Richardson, N. R.
1984-01-01
The advanced Turbocharger Design Study consisted of: (1) the evaluation of three advanced engine designs to determine their turbocharging requirements, and of technologies applicable to advanced turbocharger designs; (2) trade-off studies to define a turbocharger conceptual design and select the engine with the most representative requirements for turbocharging; (3) the preparation of a turbocharger conceptual design for the Curtiss Wright RC2-32 engine selected in the trade-off studies; and (4) the assessment of market impact and the preparation of a technology demonstration plan for the advanced turbocharger.
Anatomically accurate individual face modeling.
Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C; Sung, Eric
2003-01-01
This paper presents a new 3D face model of a specific person constructed from the anatomical perspective. By exploiting the laser range data, a 3D facial mesh precisely representing the skin geometry is reconstructed. Based on the geometric facial mesh, we develop a deformable multi-layer skin model. It takes into account the nonlinear stress-strain relationship and dynamically simulates the non-homogenous behavior of the real skin. The face model also incorporates a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators and underlying skull structure. Lagrangian mechanics governs the facial motion dynamics, dictating the dynamic deformation of facial skin in response to the muscle contraction. PMID:15455936
An experimental procedure to determine heat transfer properties of turbochargers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serrano, J. R.; Olmeda, P.; Páez, A.; Vidal, F.
2010-03-01
Heat transfer phenomena in turbochargers have been a subject of investigation due to their importance for the correct determination of compressor real work when modelling. The commonly stated condition of adiabaticity for turbochargers during normal operation of an engine has been revaluated because important deviations from adiabatic behaviour have been stated in many studies in this issue especially when the turbocharger is running at low rotational speeds/loads. The deviations mentioned do not permit us to assess properly the turbine and compressor efficiencies since the pure aerodynamic effects cannot be separated from the non-desired heat transfer due to the presence of both phenomena during turbocharger operation. The correction of the aforesaid facts is necessary to properly feed engine models with reliable information and in this way increase the quality of the results in any modelling process. The present work proposes a thermal characterization methodology successfully applied in a turbocharger for a passenger car which is based on the physics of the turbocharger. Its application helps to understand the thermal behaviour of the turbocharger, and the results obtained constitute vital information for future modelling efforts which involve the use of the information obtained from the proposed methodology. The conductance values obtained from the proposed methodology have been applied to correct a procedure for measuring the mechanical efficiency of the tested turbocharger.
Accurate mask model for advanced nodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zine El Abidine, Nacer; Sundermann, Frank; Yesilada, Emek; Ndiaye, El Hadji Omar; Mishra, Kushlendra; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Toublan, Olivier; Schanen, Isabelle
2014-07-01
Standard OPC models consist of a physical optical model and an empirical resist model. The resist model compensates the optical model imprecision on top of modeling resist development. The optical model imprecision may result from mask topography effects and real mask information including mask ebeam writing and mask process contributions. For advanced technology nodes, significant progress has been made to model mask topography to improve optical model accuracy. However, mask information is difficult to decorrelate from standard OPC model. Our goal is to establish an accurate mask model through a dedicated calibration exercise. In this paper, we present a flow to calibrate an accurate mask enabling its implementation. The study covers the different effects that should be embedded in the mask model as well as the experiment required to model them.
Pre-Modeling Ensures Accurate Solid Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gow, George
2010-01-01
Successful solid modeling requires a well-organized design tree. The design tree is a list of all the object's features and the sequential order in which they are modeled. The solid-modeling process is faster and less prone to modeling errors when the design tree is a simple and geometrically logical definition of the modeled object. Few high…
New model accurately predicts reformate composition
Ancheyta-Juarez, J.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. )
1994-01-31
Although naphtha reforming is a well-known process, the evolution of catalyst formulation, as well as new trends in gasoline specifications, have led to rapid evolution of the process, including: reactor design, regeneration mode, and operating conditions. Mathematical modeling of the reforming process is an increasingly important tool. It is fundamental to the proper design of new reactors and revamp of existing ones. Modeling can be used to optimize operating conditions, analyze the effects of process variables, and enhance unit performance. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo has developed a model of the catalytic reforming process that accurately predicts reformate composition at the higher-severity conditions at which new reformers are being designed. The new AA model is more accurate than previous proposals because it takes into account the effects of temperature and pressure on the rate constants of each chemical reaction.
Accurate modeling of parallel scientific computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nicol, David M.; Townsend, James C.
1988-01-01
Scientific codes are usually parallelized by partitioning a grid among processors. To achieve top performance it is necessary to partition the grid so as to balance workload and minimize communication/synchronization costs. This problem is particularly acute when the grid is irregular, changes over the course of the computation, and is not known until load time. Critical mapping and remapping decisions rest on the ability to accurately predict performance, given a description of a grid and its partition. This paper discusses one approach to this problem, and illustrates its use on a one-dimensional fluids code. The models constructed are shown to be accurate, and are used to find optimal remapping schedules.
Electrically-Assisted Turbocharger Development for Performance and Emissions
Bailey, Milton
2000-08-20
Turbocharger transient lag inherently imposes a tradeoff between a robust engine response to transient load shifts and exhaust emissions. By itself, a well matched turbocharger for an engine has limited flexibility in improving this transient response. Electrically-assisted turbocharging has been seen as an attractive option to improve response and lower transient emissions. This paper presents the results of a multi-year joint CRADA between DDC and ORNL. Virtual lab diesel simulation models characterized the performance improvement potential of an electrically assisted turbocharger technology. Operating requirements to reduce transient duration between load shift time by up to 50% were determined. A turbomachine has been conceptualized with an integrated motor-generator, providing transient burst boost plus energy recovery capability. Numerous electric motor designs were considered, and a prototype motor was developed, fabricated, and is undergoing tests. Power controls have been designed and fabricated.
The importance of accurate atmospheric modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Payne, Dylan; Schroeder, John; Liang, Pang
2014-11-01
This paper will focus on the effect of atmospheric conditions on EO sensor performance using computer models. We have shown the importance of accurately modeling atmospheric effects for predicting the performance of an EO sensor. A simple example will demonstrated how real conditions for several sites in China will significantly impact on image correction, hyperspectral imaging, and remote sensing. The current state-of-the-art model for computing atmospheric transmission and radiance is, MODTRAN® 5, developed by the US Air Force Research Laboratory and Spectral Science, Inc. Research by the US Air Force, Navy and Army resulted in the public release of LOWTRAN 2 in the early 1970's. Subsequent releases of LOWTRAN and MODTRAN® have continued until the present. Please verify that (1) all pages are present, (2) all figures are correct, (3) all fonts and special characters are correct, and (4) all text and figures fit within the red margin lines shown on this review document. Complete formatting information is available at http://SPIE.org/manuscripts Return to the Manage Active Submissions page at http://spie.org/submissions/tasks.aspx and approve or disapprove this submission. Your manuscript will not be published without this approval. Please contact author_help@spie.org with any questions or concerns. The paper will demonstrate the importance of using validated models and local measured meteorological, atmospheric and aerosol conditions to accurately simulate the atmospheric transmission and radiance. Frequently default conditions are used which can produce errors of as much as 75% in these values. This can have significant impact on remote sensing applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikuchi, Shigeta; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko; Yamagata, Akihiro
2013-02-01
Since the automobile turbochargers are installed in an engine compartment with limited space, the ducts upstream of the turbocharger compressor may be curved in a complex manner. In the present paper, the effect of a curved duct upstream on performance of small centrifugal compressors for automobile turbochargers is discussed. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a turbocharger compressor validated for the compressor model with the straight pipe applied to the compressor with the curved pipe are executed, and the deterioration of the performance for the curved pipe is confirmed. It is also found that the deterioration of compressor performance is caused by the interaction of the secondary flow and the impeller.
14 CFR 33.34 - Turbocharger rotors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbocharger rotors. 33.34 Section 33.34... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.34 Turbocharger rotors. Each turbocharger case must be designed and constructed to be able to contain fragments of...
Accurate astronomical atmospheric dispersion models in ZEMAX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spanò, P.
2014-07-01
ZEMAX provides a standard built-in atmospheric model to simulate atmospheric refraction and dispersion. This model has been compared with other ones to assess its intrinsic accuracy, critical for very demanding application like ADCs for AO-assisted extremely large telescopes. A revised simple model, based on updated published data of the air refractivity, is proposed by using the "Gradient 5" surface of Zemax. At large zenith angles (65 deg), discrepancies up to 100 mas in the differential refraction are expected near the UV atmospheric transmission cutoff. When high-accuracy modeling is required, the latter model should be preferred.
Accurate spectral modeling for infrared radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiwari, S. N.; Gupta, S. K.
1977-01-01
Direct line-by-line integration and quasi-random band model techniques are employed to calculate the spectral transmittance and total band absorptance of 4.7 micron CO, 4.3 micron CO2, 15 micron CO2, and 5.35 micron NO bands. Results are obtained for different pressures, temperatures, and path lengths. These are compared with available theoretical and experimental investigations. For each gas, extensive tabulations of results are presented for comparative purposes. In almost all cases, line-by-line results are found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values. The range of validity of other models and correlations are discussed.
Accurate theoretical chemistry with coupled pair models.
Neese, Frank; Hansen, Andreas; Wennmohs, Frank; Grimme, Stefan
2009-05-19
Quantum chemistry has found its way into the everyday work of many experimental chemists. Calculations can predict the outcome of chemical reactions, afford insight into reaction mechanisms, and be used to interpret structure and bonding in molecules. Thus, contemporary theory offers tremendous opportunities in experimental chemical research. However, even with present-day computers and algorithms, we cannot solve the many particle Schrodinger equation exactly; inevitably some error is introduced in approximating the solutions of this equation. Thus, the accuracy of quantum chemical calculations is of critical importance. The affordable accuracy depends on molecular size and particularly on the total number of atoms: for orientation, ethanol has 9 atoms, aspirin 21 atoms, morphine 40 atoms, sildenafil 63 atoms, paclitaxel 113 atoms, insulin nearly 800 atoms, and quaternary hemoglobin almost 12,000 atoms. Currently, molecules with up to approximately 10 atoms can be very accurately studied by coupled cluster (CC) theory, approximately 100 atoms with second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), approximately 1000 atoms with density functional theory (DFT), and beyond that number with semiempirical quantum chemistry and force-field methods. The overwhelming majority of present-day calculations in the 100-atom range use DFT. Although these methods have been very successful in quantum chemistry, they do not offer a well-defined hierarchy of calculations that allows one to systematically converge to the correct answer. Recently a number of rather spectacular failures of DFT methods have been found-even for seemingly simple systems such as hydrocarbons, fueling renewed interest in wave function-based methods that incorporate the relevant physics of electron correlation in a more systematic way. Thus, it would be highly desirable to fill the gap between 10 and 100 atoms with highly correlated ab initio methods. We have found that one of the earliest (and now
Advanced turbocharger rotor for variable geometry turbocharging systems
Stafford, R.J.; Mulloy, J.M.; Yonushonis, T.M.; Weber, H.G.; Patel, M.J.
1997-12-31
Turbocharging of diesel engines has enhanced fuel economy and reduced diesel engine emissions. The initial applications of turbochargers to heavy duty diesel engines during the early 1970`s reduced Bosch smoke (a measure of particulate matter used at the time) from 2.4 to 0.6 units. Current turbochargers are optimized at one set of engine conditions and by necessity, at the off-design conditions or transient conditions the fuel economy and emissions performance are penalized. A rotor was designed and a prototype fabricated which showed as much as a 10% efficiency improvement at off-design conditions. The leading edges are blunt and rounded to accept the flow from the turbine nozzles at a variety of inlet conditions with a minimum of losses. The rotor efficiency is better at all conditions and the advantage improves as it operates at conditions further from the design point. Unfortunately, the conventional materials from which this turbine rotor was constructed had inadequate strength to allow its use on engines, and had such high rotational inertia that transient response would have been severely compromised.
14 CFR 33.34 - Turbocharger rotors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbocharger rotors. 33.34 Section 33.34 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... rotors. Each turbocharger case must be designed and constructed to be able to contain fragments of...
A simulation study of the behavior of a two-stage turbocharging system during surge
Cheese, P.; Hetet, J.F.; Tauzia, X.; Roy, P.; Inozu, B.
1996-12-31
Turbocharger matching for a high rated two-stage turbocharged Diesel engine is rather difficult due to the power balance between the two turbocharger stages. Compressor surge is a predominant factor, especially for naval applications for which operation ranges are quite wide. In this paper, a simulation study of a two-stage turbocharged system that includes a low pressure and a high pressure compressor is presented. Equations that are specific to such a system are added to a basic model and the resulting set of equations is solved using ACSL. The influence of the geometry of the charging air system on the compressor surge is analyzed according to the primary engine parameters (cylinder pressure, engine speed and distribution diagram)
Rotordynamics and bearing design of turbochargers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wen Jeng
2012-05-01
Turbochargers have gained significant attention in recent years. They are already widely used in automotive, locomotive, and marine applications with diesel engines. They are also applied in the aerospace application to increase the engine performance now. The turbochargers used in automotive and aerospace industry are very light-weight with operating speeds above 100,000 rpm. The turbochargers used in locomotive and marine applications are relatively heavy in size and power compared to the automotive and aerospace applications, and the maximum continuous operating speeds are around 30,000 rpm depending on the diesel engine power rating. Floating ring bushings, semi-floating dampers, ball bearings, and ball bearings with dampers are commonly used in automotive applications for small turbochargers. However, these bearings may not be appropriate for large turbochargers in locomotive and marine applications. Instead, multi-lobed bearings with and without squeeze film dampers are commonly used in these heavy-duty turbochargers. This paper deals with the rotordynamic characteristics of larger turbochargers in locomotive and marine applications. Various bearing designs are discussed. Bearing design parameters are studied and optimal values are suggested. Test results are also presented to support the analytical simulation.
Water wave model with accurate dispersion and vertical vorticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bokhove, Onno
2010-05-01
Cotter and Bokhove (Journal of Engineering Mathematics 2010) derived a variational water wave model with accurate dispersion and vertical vorticity. In one limit, it leads to Luke's variational principle for potential flow water waves. In the another limit it leads to the depth-averaged shallow water equations including vertical vorticity. Presently, focus will be put on the Hamiltonian formulation of the variational model and its boundary conditions.
An Accurate and Dynamic Computer Graphics Muscle Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levine, David Asher
1997-01-01
A computer based musculo-skeletal model was developed at the University in the departments of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering. This model accurately represents human shoulder kinematics. The result of this model is the graphical display of bones moving through an appropriate range of motion based on inputs of EMGs and external forces. The need existed to incorporate a geometric muscle model in the larger musculo-skeletal model. Previous muscle models did not accurately represent muscle geometries, nor did they account for the kinematics of tendons. This thesis covers the creation of a new muscle model for use in the above musculo-skeletal model. This muscle model was based on anatomical data from the Visible Human Project (VHP) cadaver study. Two-dimensional digital images from the VHP were analyzed and reconstructed to recreate the three-dimensional muscle geometries. The recreated geometries were smoothed, reduced, and sliced to form data files defining the surfaces of each muscle. The muscle modeling function opened these files during run-time and recreated the muscle surface. The modeling function applied constant volume limitations to the muscle and constant geometry limitations to the tendons.
Local Debonding and Fiber Breakage in Composite Materials Modeled Accurately
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.
2001-01-01
A prerequisite for full utilization of composite materials in aerospace components is accurate design and life prediction tools that enable the assessment of component performance and reliability. Such tools assist both structural analysts, who design and optimize structures composed of composite materials, and materials scientists who design and optimize the composite materials themselves. NASA Glenn Research Center's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) software package (http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/LPB/mac) addresses this need for composite design and life prediction tools by providing a widely applicable and accurate approach to modeling composite materials. Furthermore, MAC/GMC serves as a platform for incorporating new local models and capabilities that are under development at NASA, thus enabling these new capabilities to progress rapidly to a stage in which they can be employed by the code's end users.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Longkai; Bin, Guangfu; Li, Xuejun; Liu, Dingqu
2016-03-01
For the high-speed gasoline engine turbocharger rotor, due to the heterogeneity of multiple parts material, manufacturing and assembly errors, running wear in impeller and uneven carbon of turbine, the random unbalance usually can be developed which will induce excessive rotor vibration, and even lead to nonlinear vibration accidents. However, the investigation of unbalance location on the nonlinear high-speed turbocharger rotordynamic characteristics is less. In order to discuss the rotor unbalance location effects of turbocharger with nonlinear floating ring bearings(FRBs), the realistic turbocharger of gasoline engine is taken as a research object. The rotordynamic equations of motion under the condition of unbalance are derived by applied unbalance force and nonlinear oil film force of FRBs. The FE model of turbocharger rotor-bearing system is modeled which includes the unbalance excitation and nonlinear FRBs. Under the conditions of four different applied locations of unbalance, the nonlinear transient analyses are performed based on the rotor FEM. The differences of dynamic behavior are obvious to the turbocharger rotor systems for four conditions, and the bifurcation phenomena are different. From the results of waterfall and transient response analysis, the speed for the appearance of fractional frequency is not identical and the amplitude magnitude is different from the different unbalance locations, and the non-synchronous vibration does not occur in the turbocharger and the amplitude is relative stable and minimum under the condition 4. The turbocharger vibration and non-synchronous components could be reduced or suppressed by controlling the applied location of unbalance, which is helpful for the dynamic design, fault diagnosis and vibration control of the high-speed gasoline engine turbochargers.
An Accurate Temperature Correction Model for Thermocouple Hygrometers 1
Savage, Michael J.; Cass, Alfred; de Jager, James M.
1982-01-01
Numerous water relation studies have used thermocouple hygrometers routinely. However, the accurate temperature correction of hygrometer calibration curve slopes seems to have been largely neglected in both psychrometric and dewpoint techniques. In the case of thermocouple psychrometers, two temperature correction models are proposed, each based on measurement of the thermojunction radius and calculation of the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. The first model relies on calibration at a single temperature and the second at two temperatures. Both these models were more accurate than the temperature correction models currently in use for four psychrometers calibrated over a range of temperatures (15-38°C). The model based on calibration at two temperatures is superior to that based on only one calibration. The model proposed for dewpoint hygrometers is similar to that for psychrometers. It is based on the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. Comparison with empirical data from three dewpoint hygrometers calibrated at four different temperatures indicates that these instruments need only be calibrated at, e.g. 25°C, if the calibration slopes are corrected for temperature. PMID:16662241
An accurate temperature correction model for thermocouple hygrometers.
Savage, M J; Cass, A; de Jager, J M
1982-02-01
Numerous water relation studies have used thermocouple hygrometers routinely. However, the accurate temperature correction of hygrometer calibration curve slopes seems to have been largely neglected in both psychrometric and dewpoint techniques.In the case of thermocouple psychrometers, two temperature correction models are proposed, each based on measurement of the thermojunction radius and calculation of the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. The first model relies on calibration at a single temperature and the second at two temperatures. Both these models were more accurate than the temperature correction models currently in use for four psychrometers calibrated over a range of temperatures (15-38 degrees C). The model based on calibration at two temperatures is superior to that based on only one calibration.The model proposed for dewpoint hygrometers is similar to that for psychrometers. It is based on the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. Comparison with empirical data from three dewpoint hygrometers calibrated at four different temperatures indicates that these instruments need only be calibrated at, e.g. 25 degrees C, if the calibration slopes are corrected for temperature. PMID:16662241
More-Accurate Model of Flows in Rocket Injectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hosangadi, Ashvin; Chenoweth, James; Brinckman, Kevin; Dash, Sanford
2011-01-01
An improved computational model for simulating flows in liquid-propellant injectors in rocket engines has been developed. Models like this one are needed for predicting fluxes of heat in, and performances of, the engines. An important part of predicting performance is predicting fluctuations of temperature, fluctuations of concentrations of chemical species, and effects of turbulence on diffusion of heat and chemical species. Customarily, diffusion effects are represented by parameters known in the art as the Prandtl and Schmidt numbers. Prior formulations include ad hoc assumptions of constant values of these parameters, but these assumptions and, hence, the formulations, are inaccurate for complex flows. In the improved model, these parameters are neither constant nor specified in advance: instead, they are variables obtained as part of the solution. Consequently, this model represents the effects of turbulence on diffusion of heat and chemical species more accurately than prior formulations do, and may enable more-accurate prediction of mixing and flows of heat in rocket-engine combustion chambers. The model has been implemented within CRUNCH CFD, a proprietary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer program, and has been tested within that program. The model could also be implemented within other CFD programs.
On the importance of having accurate data for astrophysical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lique, Francois
2016-06-01
The Herschel telescope and the ALMA and NOEMA interferometers have opened new windows of observation for wavelengths ranging from far infrared to sub-millimeter with spatial and spectral resolutions previously unmatched. To make the most of these observations, an accurate knowledge of the physical and chemical processes occurring in the interstellar and circumstellar media is essential.In this presentation, I will discuss what are the current needs of astrophysics in terms of molecular data and I will show that accurate molecular data are crucial for the proper determination of the physical conditions in molecular clouds.First, I will focus on collisional excitation studies that are needed for molecular lines modelling beyond the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) approach. In particular, I will show how new collisional data for the HCN and HNC isomers, two tracers of star forming conditions, have allowed solving the problem of their respective abundance in cold molecular clouds. I will also present the last collisional data that have been computed in order to analyse new highly resolved observations provided by the ALMA interferometer.Then, I will present the calculation of accurate rate constants for the F+H2 → HF+H and Cl+H2 ↔ HCl+H reactions, which have allowed a more accurate determination of the physical conditions in diffuse molecular clouds. I will also present the recent work on the ortho-para-H2 conversion due to hydrogen exchange that allow more accurate determination of the ortho-to-para-H2 ratio in the universe and that imply a significant revision of the cooling mechanism in astrophysical media.
Accurate method of modeling cluster scaling relations in modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Jian-hua; Li, Baojiu
2016-06-01
We propose a new method to model cluster scaling relations in modified gravity. Using a suite of nonradiative hydrodynamical simulations, we show that the scaling relations of accumulated gas quantities, such as the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (Compton-y parameter) and the x-ray Compton-y parameter, can be accurately predicted using the known results in the Λ CDM model with a precision of ˜3 % . This method provides a reliable way to analyze the gas physics in modified gravity using the less demanding and much more efficient pure cold dark matter simulations. Our results therefore have important theoretical and practical implications in constraining gravity using cluster surveys.
Anisotropic Turbulence Modeling for Accurate Rod Bundle Simulations
Baglietto, Emilio
2006-07-01
An improved anisotropic eddy viscosity model has been developed for accurate predictions of the thermal hydraulic performances of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. The proposed model adopts a non-linear formulation of the stress-strain relationship in order to include the reproduction of the anisotropic phenomena, and in combination with an optimized low-Reynolds-number formulation based on Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) to produce correct damping of the turbulent viscosity in the near wall region. This work underlines the importance of accurate anisotropic modeling to faithfully reproduce the scale of the turbulence driven secondary flows inside the bundle subchannels, by comparison with various isothermal and heated experimental cases. The very low scale secondary motion is responsible for the increased turbulence transport which produces a noticeable homogenization of the velocity distribution and consequently of the circumferential cladding temperature distribution, which is of main interest in bundle design. Various fully developed bare bundles test cases are shown for different geometrical and flow conditions, where the proposed model shows clearly improved predictions, in close agreement with experimental findings, for regular as well as distorted geometries. Finally the applicability of the model for practical bundle calculations is evaluated through its application in the high-Reynolds form on coarse grids, with excellent results. (author)
Accurate pressure gradient calculations in hydrostatic atmospheric models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carroll, John J.; Mendez-Nunez, Luis R.; Tanrikulu, Saffet
1987-01-01
A method for the accurate calculation of the horizontal pressure gradient acceleration in hydrostatic atmospheric models is presented which is especially useful in situations where the isothermal surfaces are not parallel to the vertical coordinate surfaces. The present method is shown to be exact if the potential temperature lapse rate is constant between the vertical pressure integration limits. The technique is applied to both the integration of the hydrostatic equation and the computation of the slope correction term in the horizontal pressure gradient. A fixed vertical grid and a dynamic grid defined by the significant levels in the vertical temperature distribution are employed.
Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response
Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S.; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R.; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E.; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M. Eileen; Kogan, Scott C.; Downing, James R.; Lowe, Scott W.
2009-01-01
The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients. PMID:19339691
Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response.
Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M Eileen; Kogan, Scott C; Downing, James R; Lowe, Scott W
2009-04-01
The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients. PMID:19339691
An accurate model potential for alkali neon systems.
Zanuttini, D; Jacquet, E; Giglio, E; Douady, J; Gervais, B
2009-12-01
We present a detailed investigation of the ground and lowest excited states of M-Ne dimers, for M=Li, Na, and K. We show that the potential energy curves of these Van der Waals dimers can be obtained accurately by considering the alkali neon systems as one-electron systems. Following previous authors, the model describes the evolution of the alkali valence electron in the combined potentials of the alkali and neon cores by means of core polarization pseudopotentials. The key parameter for an accurate model is the M(+)-Ne potential energy curve, which was obtained by means of ab initio CCSD(T) calculation using a large basis set. For each MNe dimer, a systematic comparison with ab initio computation of the potential energy curve for the X, A, and B states shows the remarkable accuracy of the model. The vibrational analysis and the comparison with existing experimental data strengthens this conclusion and allows for a precise assignment of the vibrational levels. PMID:19968334
Turbulence Models for Accurate Aerothermal Prediction in Hypersonic Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiang-Hong; Wu, Yi-Zao; Wang, Jiang-Feng
Accurate description of the aerodynamic and aerothermal environment is crucial to the integrated design and optimization for high performance hypersonic vehicles. In the simulation of aerothermal environment, the effect of viscosity is crucial. The turbulence modeling remains a major source of uncertainty in the computational prediction of aerodynamic forces and heating. In this paper, three turbulent models were studied: the one-equation eddy viscosity transport model of Spalart-Allmaras, the Wilcox k-ω model and the Menter SST model. For the k-ω model and SST model, the compressibility correction, press dilatation and low Reynolds number correction were considered. The influence of these corrections for flow properties were discussed by comparing with the results without corrections. In this paper the emphasis is on the assessment and evaluation of the turbulence models in prediction of heat transfer as applied to a range of hypersonic flows with comparison to experimental data. This will enable establishing factor of safety for the design of thermal protection systems of hypersonic vehicle.
14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...
14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...
14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...
14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...
14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to hazardous... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system....
Generating Facial Expressions Using an Anatomically Accurate Biomechanical Model.
Wu, Tim; Hung, Alice; Mithraratne, Kumar
2014-11-01
This paper presents a computational framework for modelling the biomechanics of human facial expressions. A detailed high-order (Cubic-Hermite) finite element model of the human head was constructed using anatomical data segmented from magnetic resonance images. The model includes a superficial soft-tissue continuum consisting of skin, the subcutaneous layer and the superficial Musculo-Aponeurotic system. Embedded within this continuum mesh, are 20 pairs of facial muscles which drive facial expressions. These muscles were treated as transversely-isotropic and their anatomical geometries and fibre orientations were accurately depicted. In order to capture the relative composition of muscles and fat, material heterogeneity was also introduced into the model. Complex contact interactions between the lips, eyelids, and between superficial soft tissue continuum and deep rigid skeletal bones were also computed. In addition, this paper investigates the impact of incorporating material heterogeneity and contact interactions, which are often neglected in similar studies. Four facial expressions were simulated using the developed model and the results were compared with surface data obtained from a 3D structured-light scanner. Predicted expressions showed good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:26355331
Advanced Turbo-Charging Research and Development
2008-02-27
The objective of this project is to conduct analysis, design, procurement and test of a high pressure ratio, wide flow range, and high EGR system with two stages of turbocharging. The system needs to meet the stringent 2010MY emissions regulations at 20% + better fuel economy than its nearest gasoline competitor while allowing equivalent vehicle launch characteristics and higher torque capability than its nearest gasoline competitor. The system will also need to meet light truck/ SUV life requirements, which will require validation or development of components traditionally used only in passenger car applications. The conceived system is termed 'seriessequential turbocharger' because the turbocharger system operates in series at appropriate times and also sequentially when required. This is accomplished using intelligent design and control of flow passages and valves. Components of the seriessequential system will also be applicable to parallel-sequential systems which are also expected to be in use for future light truck/SUV applications.
Inverter Modeling For Accurate Energy Predictions Of Tracking HCPV Installations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowman, J.; Jensen, S.; McDonald, Mark
2010-10-01
High efficiency high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) solar plants of megawatt scale are now operational, and opportunities for expanded adoption are plentiful. However, effective bidding for sites requires reliable prediction of energy production. HCPV module nameplate power is rated for specific test conditions; however, instantaneous HCPV power varies due to site specific irradiance and operating temperature, and is degraded by soiling, protective stowing, shading, and electrical connectivity. These factors interact with the selection of equipment typically supplied by third parties, e.g., wire gauge and inverters. We describe a time sequence model accurately accounting for these effects that predicts annual energy production, with specific reference to the impact of the inverter on energy output and interactions between system-level design decisions and the inverter. We will also show two examples, based on an actual field design, of inverter efficiency calculations and the interaction between string arrangements and inverter selection.
Accurate, low-cost 3D-models of gullies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onnen, Nils; Gronz, Oliver; Ries, Johannes B.; Brings, Christine
2015-04-01
Soil erosion is a widespread problem in arid and semi-arid areas. The most severe form is the gully erosion. They often cut into agricultural farmland and can make a certain area completely unproductive. To understand the development and processes inside and around gullies, we calculated detailed 3D-models of gullies in the Souss Valley in South Morocco. Near Taroudant, we had four study areas with five gullies different in size, volume and activity. By using a Canon HF G30 Camcorder, we made varying series of Full HD videos with 25fps. Afterwards, we used the method Structure from Motion (SfM) to create the models. To generate accurate models maintaining feasible runtimes, it is necessary to select around 1500-1700 images from the video, while the overlap of neighboring images should be at least 80%. In addition, it is very important to avoid selecting photos that are blurry or out of focus. Nearby pixels of a blurry image tend to have similar color values. That is why we used a MATLAB script to compare the derivatives of the images. The higher the sum of the derivative, the sharper an image of similar objects. MATLAB subdivides the video into image intervals. From each interval, the image with the highest sum is selected. E.g.: 20min. video at 25fps equals 30.000 single images. The program now inspects the first 20 images, saves the sharpest and moves on to the next 20 images etc. Using this algorithm, we selected 1500 images for our modeling. With VisualSFM, we calculated features and the matches between all images and produced a point cloud. Then, MeshLab has been used to build a surface out of it using the Poisson surface reconstruction approach. Afterwards we are able to calculate the size and the volume of the gullies. It is also possible to determine soil erosion rates, if we compare the data with old recordings. The final step would be the combination of the terrestrial data with the data from our aerial photography. So far, the method works well and we
Towards Accurate Molecular Modeling of Plastic Bonded Explosives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chantawansri, T. L.; Andzelm, J.; Taylor, D.; Byrd, E.; Rice, B.
2010-03-01
There is substantial interest in identifying the controlling factors that influence the susceptibility of polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) to accidental initiation. Numerous Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of PBXs using the COMPASS force field have been reported in recent years, where the validity of the force field in modeling the solid EM fill has been judged solely on its ability to reproduce lattice parameters, which is an insufficient metric. Performance of the COMPASS force field in modeling EMs and the polymeric binder has been assessed by calculating structural, thermal, and mechanical properties, where only fair agreement with experimental data is obtained. We performed MD simulations using the COMPASS force field for the polymer binder hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene and five EMs: cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetra-azacyclo-octane, 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexantirohexaazazisowurzitane, 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-benzenetriamine, and pentaerythritol tetranitate. Predicted EM crystallographic and molecular structural parameters, as well as calculated properties for the binder will be compared with experimental results for different simulation conditions. We also present novel simulation protocols, which improve agreement between experimental and computation results thus leading to the accurate modeling of PBXs.
Turbocharger for internal combustion engines
Kawamura, H.
1988-09-13
This patent describes a turbocharger for an internal combustion engine having engine cylinders, comprising: a turbine drivable by the exhaust energy of the internal combustion engine and having an impeller; an air compressor coupled by a shaft to the impeller for charging air into the engine cylinders in response to rotation of the shaft; a motor-generator having a rotor with a substantially I-shaped cross section mounted on the shaft, and stator coils disposed around the rotor. The rotor having an axial length longer than the diameter of the rotor, a magnetic path in the direction of the diameter of the rotor, dummy fillers which fill a part other than the magnetic path of the rotor to define a circular cross-section with the rotor, the magnetic path being fixedly secured to the dummy fillers, and an axially elongate, ring-shaped, rare-earth metal magnet constructed as a portion of the shaft and having a magnetic reluctance in a first direction normal to an axis of the shaft smaller than a magnetic reluctance in a second direction normal to the first direction and to the axis of the shaft, and an outer periphery of which is wound with carbon fibers; disks made of a metal of high tensile strength for holding the opposite ends of the magnet, respectively; and control means for operating the motor-generator as a motor under first operating conditions of the internal combustion engine, and as a generator under second operating conditions of the internal combustion engine, and means for supplying the stator coils with armature current leading a no-lead induced electromotive force by 90.
An accurate and simple quantum model for liquid water.
Paesani, Francesco; Zhang, Wei; Case, David A; Cheatham, Thomas E; Voth, Gregory A
2006-11-14
The path-integral molecular dynamics and centroid molecular dynamics methods have been applied to investigate the behavior of liquid water at ambient conditions starting from a recently developed simple point charge/flexible (SPC/Fw) model. Several quantum structural, thermodynamic, and dynamical properties have been computed and compared to the corresponding classical values, as well as to the available experimental data. The path-integral molecular dynamics simulations show that the inclusion of quantum effects results in a less structured liquid with a reduced amount of hydrogen bonding in comparison to its classical analog. The nuclear quantization also leads to a smaller dielectric constant and a larger diffusion coefficient relative to the corresponding classical values. Collective and single molecule time correlation functions show a faster decay than their classical counterparts. Good agreement with the experimental measurements in the low-frequency region is obtained for the quantum infrared spectrum, which also shows a higher intensity and a redshift relative to its classical analog. A modification of the original parametrization of the SPC/Fw model is suggested and tested in order to construct an accurate quantum model, called q-SPC/Fw, for liquid water. The quantum results for several thermodynamic and dynamical properties computed with the new model are shown to be in a significantly better agreement with the experimental data. Finally, a force-matching approach was applied to the q-SPC/Fw model to derive an effective quantum force field for liquid water in which the effects due to the nuclear quantization are explicitly distinguished from those due to the underlying molecular interactions. Thermodynamic and dynamical properties computed using standard classical simulations with this effective quantum potential are found in excellent agreement with those obtained from significantly more computationally demanding full centroid molecular dynamics
Holographic vibration analysis of turbocharger turbine wheel instruction for use and benefit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chambard, Jean-Pierre; Thouvenin, Denis
2004-06-01
Since the early 1990's, holography has been used worldwide to study the vibration of mechanical parts at the design stage. The so-called <
Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beck, N. J.; Barkhimer, R. L.; Steinmeyer, D. C.; Kelly, J. E.
1993-12-01
The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine.
MAN B&W radial turbochargers after 32000 hours of HFO operation
1995-11-01
In late 1990, the first three of 36 reengined 6L28/32H gen-sets built by MAN B&W Diesel A/S in Holeby, Denmark, were delivered for the Atlantic-class container vessel MV OOCL Inspiration (ex. Ile de France), owned by Sea-Land Service. One of the determining factors for the re-engining contract was the expected 2O000 hour interval between overhauls. The gen-sets are optimized for an output of 1260 kW at 720 r/min (bmep = 17.8 bar), and are supercharged by high-efficiency, water-free MAN B&W model NR20/R turbochargers. The supercharging principle is constant-pressure turbocharging. The service rating of these gen-sets normally is 80% (sea load), with part-load operation down to 30% load not uncommon. Unrestricted part-load operation in spite of the lower air excess ratio as compared to pulse-pressure turbocharging is one of the preconditions for real heavy-fuel oil capability, and the MAN B&W turbochargers play a significant part in achieving this. The result of the inspection was that both compressor and turbine were clean and without detectable deposits, as were the diffuser and the nozzle ring, where hardly any erosion marks and no blade shortening due to erosion could be found.
New process model proves accurate in tests on catalytic reformer
Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ancheyta-Juarez, J. )
1994-07-25
A mathematical model has been devised to represent the process that takes place in a fixed-bed, tubular, adiabatic catalytic reforming reactor. Since its development, the model has been applied to the simulation of a commercial semiregenerative reformer. The development of mass and energy balances for this reformer led to a model that predicts both concentration and temperature profiles along the reactor. A comparison of the model's results with experimental data illustrates its accuracy at predicting product profiles. Simple steps show how the model can be applied to simulate any fixed-bed catalytic reformer.
Coupling Efforts to the Accurate and Efficient Tsunami Modelling System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, S.
2015-12-01
In the present study, we couple two different types of tsunami models, i.e., nondispersive shallow water model of characteristic form(MOST ver.4) and dispersive Boussinesq model of non-characteristic form(Son et al. (2011)) in an attempt to improve modelling accuracy and efficiency. Since each model deals with different type of primary variables, additional care on matching boundary condition is required. Using an absorbing-generating boundary condition developed by Van Dongeren and Svendsen(1997), model coupling and integration is achieved. Characteristic variables(i.e., Riemann invariants) in MOST are converted to non-characteristic variables for Boussinesq solver without any loss of physical consistency. Established modelling system has been validated through typical test problems to realistic tsunami events. Simulated results reveal good performance of developed modelling system. Since coupled modelling system provides advantageous flexibility feature during implementation, great efficiencies and accuracies are expected to be gained through spot-focusing application of Boussinesq model inside the entire domain of tsunami propagation.
77 FR 34206 - Airworthiness Directives; Hartzell Engine Technologies Turbochargers
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-06-11
... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Technologies Turbochargers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for... airplanes with Hartzell Engine Technologies (HET) turbochargers, part numbers (P/Ns) 406610-0005 and...
Accurate modelling of flow induced stresses in rigid colloidal aggregates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanni, Marco
2015-07-01
A method has been developed to estimate the motion and the internal stresses induced by a fluid flow on a rigid aggregate. The approach couples Stokesian dynamics and structural mechanics in order to take into account accurately the effect of the complex geometry of the aggregates on hydrodynamic forces and the internal redistribution of stresses. The intrinsic error of the method, due to the low-order truncation of the multipole expansion of the Stokes solution, has been assessed by comparison with the analytical solution for the case of a doublet in a shear flow. In addition, it has been shown that the error becomes smaller as the number of primary particles in the aggregate increases and hence it is expected to be negligible for realistic reproductions of large aggregates. The evaluation of internal forces is performed by an adaptation of the matrix methods of structural mechanics to the geometric features of the aggregates and to the particular stress-strain relationship that occurs at intermonomer contacts. A preliminary investigation on the stress distribution in rigid aggregates and their mode of breakup has been performed by studying the response to an elongational flow of both realistic reproductions of colloidal aggregates (made of several hundreds monomers) and highly simplified structures. A very different behaviour has been evidenced between low-density aggregates with isostatic or weakly hyperstatic structures and compact aggregates with highly hyperstatic configuration. In low-density clusters breakup is caused directly by the failure of the most stressed intermonomer contact, which is typically located in the inner region of the aggregate and hence originates the birth of fragments of similar size. On the contrary, breakup of compact and highly cross-linked clusters is seldom caused by the failure of a single bond. When this happens, it proceeds through the removal of a tiny fragment from the external part of the structure. More commonly, however
Magnetic field models of nine CP stars from "accurate" measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glagolevskij, Yu. V.
2013-01-01
The dipole models of magnetic fields in nine CP stars are constructed based on the measurements of metal lines taken from the literature, and performed by the LSD method with an accuracy of 10-80 G. The model parameters are compared with the parameters obtained for the same stars from the hydrogen line measurements. For six out of nine stars the same type of structure was obtained. Some parameters, such as the field strength at the poles B p and the average surface magnetic field B s differ considerably in some stars due to differences in the amplitudes of phase dependences B e (Φ) and B s (Φ), obtained by different authors. It is noted that a significant increase in the measurement accuracy has little effect on the modelling of the large-scale structures of the field. By contrast, it is more important to construct the shape of the phase dependence based on a fairly large number of field measurements, evenly distributed by the rotation period phases. It is concluded that the Zeeman component measurement methods have a strong effect on the shape of the phase dependence, and that the measurements of the magnetic field based on the lines of hydrogen are more preferable for modelling the large-scale structures of the field.
An Accurate In Vitro Model of the E. coli Envelope
Clifton, Luke A; Holt, Stephen A; Hughes, Arwel V; Daulton, Emma L; Arunmanee, Wanatchaporn; Heinrich, Frank; Khalid, Syma; Jefferies, Damien; Charlton, Timothy R; Webster, John R P; Kinane, Christian J; Lakey, Jeremy H
2015-01-01
Gram-negative bacteria are an increasingly serious source of antibiotic-resistant infections, partly owing to their characteristic protective envelope. This complex, 20 nm thick barrier includes a highly impermeable, asymmetric bilayer outer membrane (OM), which plays a pivotal role in resisting antibacterial chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the OM molecular structure and its dynamics are poorly understood because the structure is difficult to recreate or study in vitro. The successful formation and characterization of a fully asymmetric model envelope using Langmuir–Blodgett and Langmuir–Schaefer methods is now reported. Neutron reflectivity and isotopic labeling confirmed the expected structure and asymmetry and showed that experiments with antibacterial proteins reproduced published in vivo behavior. By closely recreating natural OM behavior, this model provides a much needed robust system for antibiotic development. PMID:26331292
Leidenfrost effect: accurate drop shape modeling and new scaling laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobac, Benjamin; Rednikov, Alexey; Dorbolo, Stéphane; Colinet, Pierre
2014-11-01
In this study, we theoretically investigate the shape of a drop in a Leidenfrost state, focusing on the geometry of the vapor layer. The drop geometry is modeled by numerically matching the solution of the hydrostatic shape of a superhydrophobic drop (for the upper part) with the solution of the lubrication equation of the vapor flow underlying the drop (for the bottom part). The results highlight that the vapor layer, fed by evaporation, forms a concave depression in the drop interface that becomes increasingly marked with the drop size. The vapor layer then consists of a gas pocket in the center and a thin annular neck surrounding it. The film thickness increases with the size of the drop, and the thickness at the neck appears to be of the order of 10--100 μm in the case of water. The model is compared to recent experimental results [Burton et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 074301 (2012)] and shows an excellent agreement, without any fitting parameter. New scaling laws also emerge from this model. The geometry of the vapor pocket is only weakly dependent on the superheat (and thus on the evaporation rate), this weak dependence being more pronounced in the neck region. In turn, the vapor layer characteristics strongly depend on the drop size.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mead, A. J.; Peacock, J. A.; Heymans, C.; Joudaki, S.; Heavens, A. F.
2015-12-01
We present an optimized variant of the halo model, designed to produce accurate matter power spectra well into the non-linear regime for a wide range of cosmological models. To do this, we introduce physically motivated free parameters into the halo-model formalism and fit these to data from high-resolution N-body simulations. For a variety of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and wCDM models, the halo-model power is accurate to ≃ 5 per cent for k ≤ 10h Mpc-1 and z ≤ 2. An advantage of our new halo model is that it can be adapted to account for the effects of baryonic feedback on the power spectrum. We demonstrate this by fitting the halo model to power spectra from the OWLS (OverWhelmingly Large Simulations) hydrodynamical simulation suite via parameters that govern halo internal structure. We are able to fit all feedback models investigated at the 5 per cent level using only two free parameters, and we place limits on the range of these halo parameters for feedback models investigated by the OWLS simulations. Accurate predictions to high k are vital for weak-lensing surveys, and these halo parameters could be considered nuisance parameters to marginalize over in future analyses to mitigate uncertainty regarding the details of feedback. Finally, we investigate how lensing observables predicted by our model compare to those from simulations and from HALOFIT for a range of k-cuts and feedback models and quantify the angular scales at which these effects become important. Code to calculate power spectra from the model presented in this paper can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/hmcode.
A nonlinear Kalman filtering approach to embedded control of turbocharged diesel engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rigatos, Gerasimos; Siano, Pierluigi; Arsie, Ivan
2014-10-01
The development of efficient embedded control for turbocharged Diesel engines, requires the programming of elaborated nonlinear control and filtering methods. To this end, in this paper nonlinear control for turbocharged Diesel engines is developed with the use of Differential flatness theory and the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter. It is shown that the dynamic model of the turbocharged Diesel engine is differentially flat and admits dynamic feedback linearization. It is also shown that the dynamic model can be written in the linear Brunovsky canonical form for which a state feedback controller can be easily designed. To compensate for modeling errors and external disturbances the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter is used and redesigned as a disturbance observer. The filter consists of the Kalman Filter recursion on the linearized equivalent of the Diesel engine model and of an inverse transformation based on differential flatness theory which enables to obtain estimates for the state variables of the initial nonlinear model. Once the disturbances variables are identified it is possible to compensate them by including an additional control term in the feedback loop. The efficiency of the proposed control method is tested through simulation experiments.
Stability Analysis of a Turbocharger Rotor System Supported on Floating Ring Bearings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, H.; Shi, Z. Q.; Zhen, D.; Gu, F. S.; Ball, A. D.
2012-05-01
The stability of a turbocharger rotor is governed by the coupling of rotor dynamics and fluid dynamics because the high speed rotor system is supported on a pair of hydrodynamic floating ring bearings which comprise of inner and outer fluid films in series. In order to investigate the stability, this paper has developed a finite element model of the rotor system with consideration of such exciting forces as rotor imbalance, hydrodynamic fluid forces, lubricant feed pressure and dead weight. The dimensionless analytical expression of nonlinear oil film forces in floating ring bearings have been derived on the basis of short bearing theory. Based on numerical simulation, the effects of rotor imbalance, lubricant viscosity, lubricant feed pressure and bearing clearances on the stability of turbocharger rotor system have been studied. The disciplines of the stability of two films and dynamic performances of rotor system have been provided.
Rotordynamics and Design Methods of an Oil-Free Turbocharger
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, Samuel A.
1999-01-01
The feasibility of supporting a turbocharger rotor on air foil bearings is investigated based upon predicted rotordynamic stability, load accommodations, and stress considerations. It is demonstrated that foil bearings offer a plausible replacement for oil-lubricated bearings in diesel truck turbochargers. Also, two different rotor configurations are analyzed and the design is chosen which best optimizes the desired performance characteristics. The method of designing machinery for foil bearing use and the assumptions made are discussed.
Rotordynamic Design Analysis of an Oil-Free Turbocharger
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, Samuel A.
1997-01-01
Modern heavy duty diesel engines utilize turbochargers for increased power output. Also, a wide range of power levels can be achieved with one engine displacement through the use of different turbocharger configurations, eliminating the need for several different sized engines. These are the reasons that virtually all diesel truck engines currently marketed use turbochargers. However, because these turbochargers rely on ring seals and oil-lubricated floating sleeve bearings, they often suffer breakdowns. These turbochargers operate at elevated temperatures which often causes the oil to degrade and even coke to the bearing surfaces. This can lead to catastrophic failure, increased particulate emissions from oil leaks, and, in extreme cases, engine fires. Replacing the oil lubricated bearings from these turbochargers with some other device is desirable to eliminate these inherent problems. Foil bearings are compliant selecting bearings lubricated by air and are well suited to high speed, light load applications. Thus, foil bearings present one potential replacement for oil-lubricated sleeve bearings. Their use as such is investigated in this work.
MONA: An accurate two-phase well flow model based on phase slippage
Asheim, H.
1984-10-01
In two phase flow, holdup and pressure loss are related to interfacial slippage. A model based on the slippage concept has been developed and tested using production well data from Forties, the Ekofisk area, and flowline data from Prudhoe Bay. The model developed turned out considerably more accurate than the standard models used for comparison.
Creation of Anatomically Accurate Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Solid Models from Medical Images
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stewart, John E.; Graham, R. Scott; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Oberlander, Eric J.; Broaddus, William C.
1999-01-01
Most surgical instrumentation and implants used in the world today are designed with sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. This software automates the mechanical development of a product from its conceptual design through manufacturing. CAD software also provides a means of manipulating solid models prior to Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Few surgical products are designed in conjunction with accurate CAD models of human anatomy because of the difficulty with which these models are created. We have developed a novel technique that creates anatomically accurate, patient specific CAD solids from medical images in a matter of minutes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grasso, Robert J.; Russo, Leonard P.; Barrett, John L.; Odhner, Jefferson E.; Egbert, Paul I.
2007-09-01
BAE Systems presents the results of a program to model the performance of Raman LIDAR systems for the remote detection of atmospheric gases, air polluting hydrocarbons, chemical and biological weapons, and other molecular species of interest. Our model, which integrates remote Raman spectroscopy, 2D and 3D LADAR, and USAF atmospheric propagation codes permits accurate determination of the performance of a Raman LIDAR system. The very high predictive performance accuracy of our model is due to the very accurate calculation of the differential scattering cross section for the specie of interest at user selected wavelengths. We show excellent correlation of our calculated cross section data, used in our model, with experimental data obtained from both laboratory measurements and the published literature. In addition, the use of standard USAF atmospheric models provides very accurate determination of the atmospheric extinction at both the excitation and Raman shifted wavelengths.
Leng, Wei; Ju, Lili; Gunzburger, Max; Price, Stephen; Ringler, Todd
2012-01-01
The numerical modeling of glacier and ice sheet evolution is a subject of growing interest, in part because of the potential for models to inform estimates of global sea level change. This paper focuses on the development of a numerical model that determines the velocity and pressure fields within an ice sheet. Our numerical model features a high-fidelity mathematical model involving the nonlinear Stokes system and combinations of no-sliding and sliding basal boundary conditions, high-order accurate finite element discretizations based on variable resolution grids, and highly scalable parallel solution strategies, all of which contribute to a numerical model that can achieve accurate velocity and pressure approximations in a highly efficient manner. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our model by analytical solution tests, established ice sheet benchmark experiments, and comparisons with other well-established ice sheet models.
Improving light propagation Monte Carlo simulations with accurate 3D modeling of skin tissue
Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present a 3D light propagation model to simulate multispectral reflectance images of large skin surface areas. In particular, we aim to simulate more accurately the effects of various physiological properties of the skin in the case of subcutaneous vein imaging compared to existing models. Our method combines a Monte Carlo light propagation model, a realistic three-dimensional model of the skin using parametric surfaces and a vision system for data acquisition. We describe our model in detail, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling and compare our results with those obtained with a well established Monte Carlo model and with real skin reflectance images.
Turbocharger bearing retention and lubrication system
Gutknecht, D.A.
1991-12-31
This patent describes exhausts gas driven turbocharger. It comprises a housing, a shaft within the housing having a longitudinal axis of rotation and a pair of ends, a compressor wheel mounted within the housing on one end of the shaft for rotation therewith, a turbine wheel mounted within the housing on the other end of the shaft for rotation therewith, means for communicating air to the compressor wheel, means for communicating exhaust gas to the turbine wheel to cause the latter to rotate the shaft and the compressor wheel mounted thereon to compress the air communicated to the compressor wheel, and bearing means mounting the shaft for rotation relative to the housing, the bearing means including a bearing outer ring, a bearing inner ring, and ball bearing elements supporting the bearing outer ring on the bearing inner ring, a bearing locating aperture in the bearing outer ring, and an elongated bearing location pin having a longitudinal axis of symmetry extending transversely to the longitudinal axis of the shaft.
Control system for variable geometry turbocharger
Abo, T.; Ueno, T.; Sumizawa, A.
1987-08-11
A control system is described for a variable geometry turbocharger for an internal combustion engine including a turbine having a variable area inflow passage, the turbine being operated in response to an exhaust gas flow supplied through the variable area inflow passage, and a compressor adapted to be driven by the turbine. The control system consists of means for detecting operating conditions of the engine, a control means including arithmetic means which calculates a first control value for controlling the cross-sectional area of the variable area inflow passage to provide a suitable supercharging pressure of intake air supplied to the engine in response to the detected operating conditions of the engine, a first variable geometry valve means for changing the cross-sectional area of the variable area inflow passage, means for actuating the variable geometry valve means in accordance with the first control value; and a limiter means for changing the first control value so as to restrict a reduction of the cross sectional area of the variable area inflow passage when the calculated control value has reached a predetermined value after being changed to reduce the cross-sectional area of the variable area inflow passage.
Accurate FDTD modelling for dispersive media using rational function and particle swarm optimisation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Haejun; Ha, Sang-Gyu; Choi, Jaehoon; Jung, Kyung-Young
2015-07-01
This article presents an accurate finite-difference time domain (FDTD) dispersive modelling suitable for complex dispersive media. A quadratic complex rational function (QCRF) is used to characterise their dispersive relations. To obtain accurate coefficients of QCRF, in this work, we use an analytical approach and a particle swarm optimisation (PSO) simultaneously. In specific, an analytical approach is used to obtain the QCRF matrix-solving equation and PSO is applied to adjust a weighting function of this equation. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the validity of the proposed FDTD dispersion model.
Carbon-Carbon Turbocharger Housing Unit for Intermittent Combustion Engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)
1998-01-01
An improved, lightweight, turbine housing unit for an intermittent combustion reciprocating internal combustion engine turbocharger is prepared from a lay-up or molding of carbon-carbon composite materials in a single-piece or two-piece process. When compared to conventional steel or cast iron, the use of carbon-carbon composite materials in a turbine housing unit reduces the overall weight of the engine and reduces the heat energy loss used in the turbocharging process. This reduction in heat energy loss and weight reduction provides for more efficient engine operation.
Solid oxide fuel cell power plant with an anode recycle loop turbocharger
Saito, Kazuo; Skiba, Tommy; Patel, Kirtikumar H.
2015-07-14
An anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) has a turbocharger turbine (102) secured in fluid communication with a compressed oxidant stream within an oxidant inlet line (218) downstream from a compressed oxidant supply (104), and the anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) also includes a turbocharger compressor (106) mechanically linked to the turbocharger turbine (102) and secured in fluid communication with a flow of anode exhaust passing through an anode exhaust recycle loop (238) of the solid oxide fuel cell power plant (200). All or a portion of compressed oxidant within an oxidant inlet line (218) drives the turbocharger turbine (102) to thereby compress the anode exhaust stream in the recycle loop (238). A high-temperature, automotive-type turbocharger (100) replaces a recycle loop blower-compressor (52).
Identification of accurate nonlinear rainfall-runoff models with unique parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schoups, G.; Vrugt, J. A.; Fenicia, F.; van de Giesen, N.
2009-04-01
We propose a strategy to identify models with unique parameters that yield accurate streamflow predictions, given a time-series of rainfall inputs. The procedure consists of five general steps. First, an a priori range of model structures is specified based on prior general and site-specific hydrologic knowledge. To this end, we rely on a flexible model code that allows a specification of a wide range of model structures, from simple to complex. Second, using global optimization each model structure is calibrated to a record of rainfall-runoff data, yielding optimal parameter values for each model structure. Third, accuracy of each model structure is determined by estimating model prediction errors using independent validation and statistical theory. Fourth, parameter identifiability of each calibrated model structure is estimated by means of Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulation. Finally, an assessment is made about each model structure in terms of its accuracy of mimicking rainfall-runoff processes (step 3), and the uniqueness of its parameters (step 4). The procedure results in the identification of the most complex and accurate model supported by the data, without causing parameter equifinality. As such, it provides insight into the information content of the data for identifying nonlinear rainfall-runoff models. We illustrate the method using rainfall-runoff data records from several MOPEX basins in the US.
Material Models for Accurate Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming and Springback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Fusahito
2010-06-01
For anisotropic sheet metals, modeling of anisotropy and the Bauschinger effect is discussed in the framework of Yoshida-Uemori kinematic hardening model incorporating with anisotropic yield functions. The performances of the models in predicting yield loci, cyclic stress-strain responses on several types of steel and aluminum sheets are demonstrated by comparing the numerical simulation results with the corresponding experimental observations. From some examples of FE simulation of sheet metal forming and springback, it is concluded that modeling of both the anisotropy and the Bauschinger effect is essential for the accurate numerical simulation.
Development of modified cable models to simulate accurate neuronal active behaviors
2014-01-01
In large network and single three-dimensional (3-D) neuron simulations, high computing speed dictates using reduced cable models to simulate neuronal firing behaviors. However, these models are unwarranted under active conditions and lack accurate representation of dendritic active conductances that greatly shape neuronal firing. Here, realistic 3-D (R3D) models (which contain full anatomical details of dendrites) of spinal motoneurons were systematically compared with their reduced single unbranched cable (SUC, which reduces the dendrites to a single electrically equivalent cable) counterpart under passive and active conditions. The SUC models matched the R3D model's passive properties but failed to match key active properties, especially active behaviors originating from dendrites. For instance, persistent inward currents (PIC) hysteresis, frequency-current (FI) relationship secondary range slope, firing hysteresis, plateau potential partial deactivation, staircase currents, synaptic current transfer ratio, and regional FI relationships were not accurately reproduced by the SUC models. The dendritic morphology oversimplification and lack of dendritic active conductances spatial segregation in the SUC models caused significant underestimation of those behaviors. Next, SUC models were modified by adding key branching features in an attempt to restore their active behaviors. The addition of primary dendritic branching only partially restored some active behaviors, whereas the addition of secondary dendritic branching restored most behaviors. Importantly, the proposed modified models successfully replicated the active properties without sacrificing model simplicity, making them attractive candidates for running R3D single neuron and network simulations with accurate firing behaviors. The present results indicate that using reduced models to examine PIC behaviors in spinal motoneurons is unwarranted. PMID:25277743
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rumple, Christopher; Krane, Michael; Richter, Joseph; Craven, Brent
2013-11-01
The mammalian nose is a multi-purpose organ that houses a convoluted airway labyrinth responsible for respiratory air conditioning, filtering of environmental contaminants, and chemical sensing. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of respiratory airflow and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture an anatomically-accurate transparent model for stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements. Challenges in the design and manufacture of an index-matched anatomical model are addressed. PIV measurements are presented, which are used to validate concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian nasal airflow. Supported by the National Science Foundation.
An investigation into the passive acoustic effect of the turbine in an automotive turbocharger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peat, K. S.; Torregrosa, A. J.; Broatch, A.; Fernández, T.
2006-08-01
The turbine of an automotive turbocharger is one of many elements in the exhaust line which lie between the primary noise source, namely the gas pulsations through the exhaust valves, and the primary noise radiation element, the exhaust tailpipe orifice. Like every other element of the exhaust system, it has a passive acoustic effect on the propagation of the primary exhaust noise. Thus knowledge of the passive acoustic effect of the turbine is essential to an understanding of the overall acoustic effectiveness of an exhaust system. In particular, if a comprehensive model of the acoustic propagation through the entire exhaust system of a turbocharged engine is sought, an acoustic model of the turbine is a prerequisite. This paper presents such a model as well as an experimental technique from which measured data can be obtained to verify the model and to characterise the acoustic behaviour of the turbine in a more general sense. In the first instance, the one-dimensional nonlinear equations of the fluid flow are solved for steady flow, to determine the background conditions for acoustic propagation including the mean convective flow distribution. The nonlinear time-domain flow equations are then linearised and solved for a single frequency of sound. At low frequencies, there is good agreement between measured and predicted results. System resonances that are observed at high frequencies can also be explained by the model.
Methodology to set up accurate OPC model using optical CD metrology and atomic force microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shim, Yeon-Ah; Kang, Jaehyun; Lee, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jeahee; Kim, Keeho
2007-03-01
For the 90nm node and beyond, smaller Critical Dimension(CD) control budget is required and the ways to control good CD uniformity are needed. Moreover Optical Proximity Correction(OPC) for the sub-90nm node demands more accurate wafer CD data in order to improve accuracy of OPC model. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is the typical method for measuring CD until ArF process. However SEM can give serious attack such as shrinkage of Photo Resist(PR) by burning of weak chemical structure of ArF PR due to high energy electron beam. In fact about 5nm CD narrowing occur when we measure CD by using CD-SEM in ArF photo process. Optical CD Metrology(OCD) and Atomic Force Microscopy(AFM) has been considered to the method for measuring CD without attack of organic materials. Also the OCD and AFM measurement system have the merits of speed, easiness and accurate data. For model-based OPC, the model is generated using CD data of test patterns transferred onto the wafer. In this study we discuss to generate accurate OPC model using OCD and AFM measurement system.
Can phenological models predict tree phenology accurately under climate change conditions?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chuine, Isabelle; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean Michel; García de Cortázar-Atauri, Inaki; Charrier, Guillaume; Lacointe, André; Améglio, Thierry
2014-05-01
The onset of the growing season of trees has been globally earlier by 2.3 days/decade during the last 50 years because of global warming and this trend is predicted to continue according to climate forecast. The effect of temperature on plant phenology is however not linear because temperature has a dual effect on bud development. On one hand, low temperatures are necessary to break bud dormancy, and on the other hand higher temperatures are necessary to promote bud cells growth afterwards. Increasing phenological changes in temperate woody species have strong impacts on forest trees distribution and productivity, as well as crops cultivation areas. Accurate predictions of trees phenology are therefore a prerequisite to understand and foresee the impacts of climate change on forests and agrosystems. Different process-based models have been developed in the last two decades to predict the date of budburst or flowering of woody species. They are two main families: (1) one-phase models which consider only the ecodormancy phase and make the assumption that endodormancy is always broken before adequate climatic conditions for cell growth occur; and (2) two-phase models which consider both the endodormancy and ecodormancy phases and predict a date of dormancy break which varies from year to year. So far, one-phase models have been able to predict accurately tree bud break and flowering under historical climate. However, because they do not consider what happens prior to ecodormancy, and especially the possible negative effect of winter temperature warming on dormancy break, it seems unlikely that they can provide accurate predictions in future climate conditions. It is indeed well known that a lack of low temperature results in abnormal pattern of bud break and development in temperate fruit trees. An accurate modelling of the dormancy break date has thus become a major issue in phenology modelling. Two-phases phenological models predict that global warming should delay
Building an accurate 3D model of a circular feature for robot vision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, L.
2012-06-01
In this paper, an accurate 3D model analysis of a circular feature is built with error compensation for robot vision. We propose an efficient method of fitting ellipses to data points by minimizing the algebraic distance subject to the constraint that a conic should be an ellipse and solving the ellipse parameters through a direct ellipse fitting method by analysing the 3D geometrical representation in a perspective projection scheme, the 3D position of a circular feature with known radius can be obtained. A set of identical circles, machined on a calibration board whose centres were known, was calibrated with a camera and did the model analysis that our method developed. Experimental results show that our method is more accurate than other methods.
Seth A Veitzer
2008-10-21
Effects of stray electrons are a main factor limiting performance of many accelerators. Because heavy-ion fusion (HIF) accelerators will operate in regimes of higher current and with walls much closer to the beam than accelerators operating today, stray electrons might have a large, detrimental effect on the performance of an HIF accelerator. A primary source of stray electrons is electrons generated when halo ions strike the beam pipe walls. There is some research on these types of secondary electrons for the HIF community to draw upon, but this work is missing one crucial ingredient: the effect of grazing incidence. The overall goal of this project was to develop the numerical tools necessary to accurately model the effect of grazing incidence on the behavior of halo ions in a HIF accelerator, and further, to provide accurate models of heavy ion stopping powers with applications to ICF, WDM, and HEDP experiments.
Cylinder-averaged histories of nitrogen oxide in a DI diesel with simulated turbocharging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donahue, Ronald J.; Borman, Gary L.; Bower, Glenn R.
1994-10-01
An experimental study was conducted using the dumping technique (total cylinder sampling) to produce cylinder mass-averaged nitric oxide histories. Data were taken using a four stroke diesel research engine employing a quiescent chamber, high pressure direct injection fuel system, and simulated turbocharging. Two fuels were used to determine fuel cetane number effects. Two loads were run, one at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the other at a ratio of 0.3. The engine speed was held constant at 1500 rpm. Under the turbocharged and retarded timing conditions of this study, nitric oxide was produced up to the point of about 85% mass burned. Two different models were used to simulate the engine mn conditions: the phenomenological Hiroyasu spray-combustion model, and the three dimensional, U.W.-ERO modified KIVA-2 computational fluid dynamic code. Both of the models predicted the correct nitric oxide trend. Although the modified KIVA-2 combustion model using Zeldovich kinetics correctly predicted the shapes of the nitric oxide histories, it did not predict the exhaust concentrations without arbitrary adjustment based on experimental values.
Oksel, Ceyda; Winkler, David A; Ma, Cai Y; Wilkins, Terry; Wang, Xue Z
2016-09-01
The number of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) being exploited commercially is growing rapidly, due to the novel properties they exhibit. Clearly, it is important to understand and minimize any risks to health or the environment posed by the presence of ENMs. Data-driven models that decode the relationships between the biological activities of ENMs and their physicochemical characteristics provide an attractive means of maximizing the value of scarce and expensive experimental data. Although such structure-activity relationship (SAR) methods have become very useful tools for modelling nanotoxicity endpoints (nanoSAR), they have limited robustness and predictivity and, most importantly, interpretation of the models they generate is often very difficult. New computational modelling tools or new ways of using existing tools are required to model the relatively sparse and sometimes lower quality data on the biological effects of ENMs. The most commonly used SAR modelling methods work best with large datasets, are not particularly good at feature selection, can be relatively opaque to interpretation, and may not account for nonlinearity in the structure-property relationships. To overcome these limitations, we describe the application of a novel algorithm, a genetic programming-based decision tree construction tool (GPTree) to nanoSAR modelling. We demonstrate the use of GPTree in the construction of accurate and interpretable nanoSAR models by applying it to four diverse literature datasets. We describe the algorithm and compare model results across the four studies. We show that GPTree generates models with accuracies equivalent to or superior to those of prior modelling studies on the same datasets. GPTree is a robust, automatic method for generation of accurate nanoSAR models with important advantages that it works with small datasets, automatically selects descriptors, and provides significantly improved interpretability of models. PMID:26956430
Li, Rui; Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Weisheng; Ma, Guojun; Su, Yewang
2015-01-01
Spring constant calibration of the atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is of fundamental importance for quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The calibration within the framework of thin plate theory undoubtedly has a higher accuracy and broader scope than that within the well-established beam theory. However, thin plate theory-based accurate analytic determination of the constant has been perceived as an extremely difficult issue. In this paper, we implement the thin plate theory-based analytic modeling for the static behavior of rectangular AFM cantilevers, which reveals that the three-dimensional effect and Poisson effect play important roles in accurate determination of the spring constants. A quantitative scaling law is found that the normalized spring constant depends only on the Poisson’s ratio, normalized dimension and normalized load coordinate. Both the literature and our refined finite element model validate the present results. The developed model is expected to serve as the benchmark for accurate calibration of rectangular AFM cantilevers. PMID:26510769
Li, Rui; Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Weisheng; Ma, Guojun; Su, Yewang
2015-01-01
Spring constant calibration of the atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is of fundamental importance for quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The calibration within the framework of thin plate theory undoubtedly has a higher accuracy and broader scope than that within the well-established beam theory. However, thin plate theory-based accurate analytic determination of the constant has been perceived as an extremely difficult issue. In this paper, we implement the thin plate theory-based analytic modeling for the static behavior of rectangular AFM cantilevers, which reveals that the three-dimensional effect and Poisson effect play important roles in accurate determination of the spring constants. A quantitative scaling law is found that the normalized spring constant depends only on the Poisson's ratio, normalized dimension and normalized load coordinate. Both the literature and our refined finite element model validate the present results. The developed model is expected to serve as the benchmark for accurate calibration of rectangular AFM cantilevers. PMID:26510769
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Rui; Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Weisheng; Ma, Guojun; Su, Yewang
2015-10-01
Spring constant calibration of the atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is of fundamental importance for quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The calibration within the framework of thin plate theory undoubtedly has a higher accuracy and broader scope than that within the well-established beam theory. However, thin plate theory-based accurate analytic determination of the constant has been perceived as an extremely difficult issue. In this paper, we implement the thin plate theory-based analytic modeling for the static behavior of rectangular AFM cantilevers, which reveals that the three-dimensional effect and Poisson effect play important roles in accurate determination of the spring constants. A quantitative scaling law is found that the normalized spring constant depends only on the Poisson’s ratio, normalized dimension and normalized load coordinate. Both the literature and our refined finite element model validate the present results. The developed model is expected to serve as the benchmark for accurate calibration of rectangular AFM cantilevers.
Accurate and efficient halo-based galaxy clustering modelling with simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Zheng; Guo, Hong
2016-06-01
Small- and intermediate-scale galaxy clustering can be used to establish the galaxy-halo connection to study galaxy formation and evolution and to tighten constraints on cosmological parameters. With the increasing precision of galaxy clustering measurements from ongoing and forthcoming large galaxy surveys, accurate models are required to interpret the data and extract relevant information. We introduce a method based on high-resolution N-body simulations to accurately and efficiently model the galaxy two-point correlation functions (2PCFs) in projected and redshift spaces. The basic idea is to tabulate all information of haloes in the simulations necessary for computing the galaxy 2PCFs within the framework of halo occupation distribution or conditional luminosity function. It is equivalent to populating galaxies to dark matter haloes and using the mock 2PCF measurements as the model predictions. Besides the accurate 2PCF calculations, the method is also fast and therefore enables an efficient exploration of the parameter space. As an example of the method, we decompose the redshift-space galaxy 2PCF into different components based on the type of galaxy pairs and show the redshift-space distortion effect in each component. The generalizations and limitations of the method are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott E.; Galley, Chad R.; Szilágyi, Béla; Scheel, Mark A.; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A.
2015-09-01
Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. Using reduced order modeling techniques, we construct an accurate surrogate model, which is evaluated in a millisecond to a second, for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios in [1, 10] and durations corresponding to about 15 orbits before merger. We assess the model's uncertainty and show that our modeling strategy predicts NR waveforms not used for the surrogate's training with errors nearly as small as the numerical error of the NR code. Our model includes all spherical-harmonic -2Yℓm waveform modes resolved by the NR code up to ℓ=8 . We compare our surrogate model to effective one body waveforms from 50 M⊙ to 300 M⊙ for advanced LIGO detectors and find that the surrogate is always more faithful (by at least an order of magnitude in most cases).
Chuine, Isabelle; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean-Michel; García de Cortázar-Atauri, Iñaki; Charrier, Guillaume; Lacointe, André; Améglio, Thierry
2016-10-01
The onset of the growing season of trees has been earlier by 2.3 days per decade during the last 40 years in temperate Europe because of global warming. The effect of temperature on plant phenology is, however, not linear because temperature has a dual effect on bud development. On one hand, low temperatures are necessary to break bud endodormancy, and, on the other hand, higher temperatures are necessary to promote bud cell growth afterward. Different process-based models have been developed in the last decades to predict the date of budbreak of woody species. They predict that global warming should delay or compromise endodormancy break at the species equatorward range limits leading to a delay or even impossibility to flower or set new leaves. These models are classically parameterized with flowering or budbreak dates only, with no information on the endodormancy break date because this information is very scarce. Here, we evaluated the efficiency of a set of phenological models to accurately predict the endodormancy break dates of three fruit trees. Our results show that models calibrated solely with budbreak dates usually do not accurately predict the endodormancy break date. Providing endodormancy break date for the model parameterization results in much more accurate prediction of this latter, with, however, a higher error than that on budbreak dates. Most importantly, we show that models not calibrated with endodormancy break dates can generate large discrepancies in forecasted budbreak dates when using climate scenarios as compared to models calibrated with endodormancy break dates. This discrepancy increases with mean annual temperature and is therefore the strongest after 2050 in the southernmost regions. Our results claim for the urgent need of massive measurements of endodormancy break dates in forest and fruit trees to yield more robust projections of phenological changes in a near future. PMID:27272707
Accurate protein structure modeling using sparse NMR data and homologous structure information
Thompson, James M.; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G.; Liu, Gaohua; Rossi, Paolo; Tang, Yuefeng; Mills, Jeffrey L.; Szyperski, Thomas; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Baker, David
2012-01-01
While information from homologous structures plays a central role in X-ray structure determination by molecular replacement, such information is rarely used in NMR structure determination because it can be incorrect, both locally and globally, when evolutionary relationships are inferred incorrectly or there has been considerable evolutionary structural divergence. Here we describe a method that allows robust modeling of protein structures of up to 225 residues by combining , 13C, and 15N backbone and 13Cβ chemical shift data, distance restraints derived from homologous structures, and a physically realistic all-atom energy function. Accurate models are distinguished from inaccurate models generated using incorrect sequence alignments by requiring that (i) the all-atom energies of models generated using the restraints are lower than models generated in unrestrained calculations and (ii) the low-energy structures converge to within 2.0 Å backbone rmsd over 75% of the protein. Benchmark calculations on known structures and blind targets show that the method can accurately model protein structures, even with very remote homology information, to a backbone rmsd of 1.2–1.9 Å relative to the conventional determined NMR ensembles and of 0.9–1.6 Å relative to X-ray structures for well-defined regions of the protein structures. This approach facilitates the accurate modeling of protein structures using backbone chemical shift data without need for side-chain resonance assignments and extensive analysis of NOESY cross-peak assignments. PMID:22665781
Monte Carlo modeling provides accurate calibration factors for radionuclide activity meters.
Zagni, F; Cicoria, G; Lucconi, G; Infantino, A; Lodi, F; Marengo, M
2014-12-01
Accurate determination of calibration factors for radionuclide activity meters is crucial for quantitative studies and in the optimization step of radiation protection, as these detectors are widespread in radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine facilities. In this work we developed the Monte Carlo model of a widely used activity meter, using the Geant4 simulation toolkit. More precisely the "PENELOPE" EM physics models were employed. The model was validated by means of several certified sources, traceable to primary activity standards, and other sources locally standardized with spectrometry measurements, plus other experimental tests. Great care was taken in order to accurately reproduce the geometrical details of the gas chamber and the activity sources, each of which is different in shape and enclosed in a unique container. Both relative calibration factors and ionization current obtained with simulations were compared against experimental measurements; further tests were carried out, such as the comparison of the relative response of the chamber for a source placed at different positions. The results showed a satisfactory level of accuracy in the energy range of interest, with the discrepancies lower than 4% for all the tested parameters. This shows that an accurate Monte Carlo modeling of this type of detector is feasible using the low-energy physics models embedded in Geant4. The obtained Monte Carlo model establishes a powerful tool for first instance determination of new calibration factors for non-standard radionuclides, for custom containers, when a reference source is not available. Moreover, the model provides an experimental setup for further research and optimization with regards to materials and geometrical details of the measuring setup, such as the ionization chamber itself or the containers configuration. PMID:25195174
Coarse-grained red blood cell model with accurate mechanical properties, rheology and dynamics.
Fedosov, Dmitry A; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George E
2009-01-01
We present a coarse-grained red blood cell (RBC) model with accurate and realistic mechanical properties, rheology and dynamics. The modeled membrane is represented by a triangular mesh which incorporates shear inplane energy, bending energy, and area and volume conservation constraints. The macroscopic membrane elastic properties are imposed through semi-analytic theory, and are matched with those obtained in optical tweezers stretching experiments. Rheological measurements characterized by time-dependent complex modulus are extracted from the membrane thermal fluctuations, and compared with those obtained from the optical magnetic twisting cytometry results. The results allow us to define a meaningful characteristic time of the membrane. The dynamics of RBCs observed in shear flow suggests that a purely elastic model for the RBC membrane is not appropriate, and therefore a viscoelastic model is required. The set of proposed analyses and numerical tests can be used as a complete model testbed in order to calibrate the modeled viscoelastic membranes to accurately represent RBCs in health and disease. PMID:19965026
A solarized Brayton engine based on turbo-charger technology and the DLR receiver
Gallup, D.R.; Kesseli, J.B.
1994-06-01
Northern Research and Engineering Corp. (NREC) is currently under contract to Sandia National Laboratories to solarize a 30 kWe Brayton engine that is based on turbo-charger technology. This program is also supported by the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR), which is supplying the solar receiver through an agreement with the International Energy Agency/SolarPACES. The engine is a low pressure, highly recuperated engine. The turbo-machinery is built up from commercial turbo-chargers, which ensures low cost and high reliability. A combustor will be included in the system to allow for full power production during cloud transients. Current estimates are that the engine/alternator thermal-to-electric efficiency will be 30+%. The solar receiver to be supplied by DLR will be an advanced version of their VOBREC volumetric receiver. This receiver has a parabolic quartz window and ceramic foam absorber. The estimated efficiency of the receiver is 90+%. Sandia has developed an economic model to estimate the levelized energy cost (LEC) of energy produced by dish/engine systems. The model includes both the operating characteristics of the dishes and engines as well as a detailed economic model. The results of the analysis indicate that the dish/Brayton systems compare favorably with dish/Stirling systems.
Flatness-based embedded adaptive fuzzy control of turbocharged diesel engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rigatos, Gerasimos; Siano, Pierluigi; Arsie, Ivan
2014-10-01
In this paper nonlinear embedded control for turbocharged Diesel engines is developed with the use of Differential flatness theory and adaptive fuzzy control. It is shown that the dynamic model of the turbocharged Diesel engine is differentially flat and admits dynamic feedback linearization. It is also shown that the dynamic model can be written in the linear Brunovsky canonical form for which a state feedback controller can be easily designed. To compensate for modeling errors and external disturbances an adaptive fuzzy control scheme is implemanted making use of the transformed dynamical system of the diesel engine that is obtained through the application of differential flatness theory. Since only the system's output is measurable the complete state vector has to be reconstructed with the use of a state observer. It is shown that a suitable learning law can be defined for neuro-fuzzy approximators, which are part of the controller, so as to preserve the closed-loop system stability. With the use of Lyapunov stability analysis it is proven that the proposed observer-based adaptive fuzzy control scheme results in H∞ tracking performance.
Accurate Analytic Results for the Steady State Distribution of the Eigen Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Guan-Rong; Saakian, David B.; Hu, Chin-Kun
2016-04-01
Eigen model of molecular evolution is popular in studying complex biological and biomedical systems. Using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation method, we have calculated analytic equations for the steady state distribution of the Eigen model with a relative accuracy of O(1/N), where N is the length of genome. Our results can be applied for the case of small genome length N, as well as the cases where the direct numerics can not give accurate result, e.g., the tail of distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mead, A. J.; Heymans, C.; Lombriser, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Steele, O. I.; Winther, H. A.
2016-06-01
We present an accurate non-linear matter power spectrum prediction scheme for a variety of extensions to the standard cosmological paradigm, which uses the tuned halo model previously developed in Mead et al. We consider dark energy models that are both minimally and non-minimally coupled, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces with chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms. In all cases, we compare halo-model power spectra to measurements from high-resolution simulations. We show that the tuned halo-model method can predict the non-linear matter power spectrum measured from simulations of parametrized w(a) dark energy models at the few per cent level for k < 10 h Mpc-1, and we present theoretically motivated extensions to cover non-minimally coupled scalar fields, massive neutrinos and Vainshtein screened modified gravity models that result in few per cent accurate power spectra for k < 10 h Mpc-1. For chameleon screened models, we achieve only 10 per cent accuracy for the same range of scales. Finally, we use our halo model to investigate degeneracies between different extensions to the standard cosmological model, finding that the impact of baryonic feedback on the non-linear matter power spectrum can be considered independently of modified gravity or massive neutrino extensions. In contrast, considering the impact of modified gravity and massive neutrinos independently results in biased estimates of power at the level of 5 per cent at scales k > 0.5 h Mpc-1. An updated version of our publicly available HMCODE can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/hmcode.
Accurate modeling of switched reluctance machine based on hybrid trained WNN
Song, Shoujun Ge, Lefei; Ma, Shaojie; Zhang, Man
2014-04-15
According to the strong nonlinear electromagnetic characteristics of switched reluctance machine (SRM), a novel accurate modeling method is proposed based on hybrid trained wavelet neural network (WNN) which combines improved genetic algorithm (GA) with gradient descent (GD) method to train the network. In the novel method, WNN is trained by GD method based on the initial weights obtained per improved GA optimization, and the global parallel searching capability of stochastic algorithm and local convergence speed of deterministic algorithm are combined to enhance the training accuracy, stability and speed. Based on the measured electromagnetic characteristics of a 3-phase 12/8-pole SRM, the nonlinear simulation model is built by hybrid trained WNN in Matlab. The phase current and mechanical characteristics from simulation under different working conditions meet well with those from experiments, which indicates the accuracy of the model for dynamic and static performance evaluation of SRM and verifies the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method.
Accurate, efficient, and (iso)geometrically flexible collocation methods for phase-field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez, Hector; Reali, Alessandro; Sangalli, Giancarlo
2014-04-01
We propose new collocation methods for phase-field models. Our algorithms are based on isogeometric analysis, a new technology that makes use of functions from computational geometry, such as, for example, Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS). NURBS exhibit excellent approximability and controllable global smoothness, and can represent exactly most geometries encapsulated in Computer Aided Design (CAD) models. These attributes permitted us to derive accurate, efficient, and geometrically flexible collocation methods for phase-field models. The performance of our method is demonstrated by several numerical examples of phase separation modeled by the Cahn-Hilliard equation. We feel that our method successfully combines the geometrical flexibility of finite elements with the accuracy and simplicity of pseudo-spectral collocation methods, and is a viable alternative to classical collocation methods.
Beyond Ellipse(s): Accurately Modelling the Isophotal Structure of Galaxies with ISOFIT and CMODEL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciambur, B. C.
2015-09-01
This work introduces a new fitting formalism for isophotes that enables more accurate modeling of galaxies with non-elliptical shapes, such as disk galaxies viewed edge-on or galaxies with X-shaped/peanut bulges. Within this scheme, the angular parameter that defines quasi-elliptical isophotes is transformed from the commonly used, but inappropriate, polar coordinate to the “eccentric anomaly.” This provides a superior description of deviations from ellipticity, better capturing the true isophotal shape. Furthermore, this makes it possible to accurately recover both the surface brightness profile, using the correct azimuthally averaged isophote, and the two-dimensional model of any galaxy: the hitherto ubiquitous, but artificial, cross-like features in residual images are completely removed. The formalism has been implemented into the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility tasks Ellipse and Bmodel to create the new tasks “Isofit,” and “Cmodel.” The new tools are demonstrated here with application to five galaxies, chosen to be representative case-studies for several areas where this technique makes it possible to gain new scientific insight. Specifically: properly quantifying boxy/disky isophotes via the fourth harmonic order in edge-on galaxies, quantifying X-shaped/peanut bulges, higher-order Fourier moments for modeling bars in disks, and complex isophote shapes. Higher order (n > 4) harmonics now become meaningful and may correlate with structural properties, as boxyness/diskyness is known to do. This work also illustrates how the accurate construction, and subtraction, of a model from a galaxy image facilitates the identification and recovery of over-lapping sources such as globular clusters and the optical counterparts of X-ray sources.
Khan, Usman; Falconi, Christian
2014-01-01
Ideally, the design of high-performance micro-hotplates would require a large number of simulations because of the existence of many important design parameters as well as the possibly crucial effects of both spread and drift. However, the computational cost of FEM simulations, which are the only available tool for accurately predicting the temperature in micro-hotplates, is very high. As a result, micro-hotplate designers generally have no effective simulation-tools for the optimization. In order to circumvent these issues, here, we propose a model for practical circular-symmetric micro-hot-plates which takes advantage of modified Bessel functions, computationally efficient matrix-approach for considering the relevant boundary conditions, Taylor linearization for modeling the Joule heating and radiation losses, and external-region-segmentation strategy in order to accurately take into account radiation losses in the entire micro-hotplate. The proposed model is almost as accurate as FEM simulations and two to three orders of magnitude more computationally efficient (e.g., 45 s versus more than 8 h). The residual errors, which are mainly associated to the undesired heating in the electrical contacts, are small (e.g., few degrees Celsius for an 800 °C operating temperature) and, for important analyses, almost constant. Therefore, we also introduce a computationally-easy single-FEM-compensation strategy in order to reduce the residual errors to about 1 °C. As illustrative examples of the power of our approach, we report the systematic investigation of a spread in the membrane thermal conductivity and of combined variations of both ambient and bulk temperatures. Our model enables a much faster characterization of micro-hotplates and, thus, a much more effective optimization prior to fabrication. PMID:24763214
An Accurate and Computationally Efficient Model for Membrane-Type Circular-Symmetric Micro-Hotplates
Khan, Usman; Falconi, Christian
2014-01-01
Ideally, the design of high-performance micro-hotplates would require a large number of simulations because of the existence of many important design parameters as well as the possibly crucial effects of both spread and drift. However, the computational cost of FEM simulations, which are the only available tool for accurately predicting the temperature in micro-hotplates, is very high. As a result, micro-hotplate designers generally have no effective simulation-tools for the optimization. In order to circumvent these issues, here, we propose a model for practical circular-symmetric micro-hot-plates which takes advantage of modified Bessel functions, computationally efficient matrix-approach for considering the relevant boundary conditions, Taylor linearization for modeling the Joule heating and radiation losses, and external-region-segmentation strategy in order to accurately take into account radiation losses in the entire micro-hotplate. The proposed model is almost as accurate as FEM simulations and two to three orders of magnitude more computationally efficient (e.g., 45 s versus more than 8 h). The residual errors, which are mainly associated to the undesired heating in the electrical contacts, are small (e.g., few degrees Celsius for an 800 °C operating temperature) and, for important analyses, almost constant. Therefore, we also introduce a computationally-easy single-FEM-compensation strategy in order to reduce the residual errors to about 1 °C. As illustrative examples of the power of our approach, we report the systematic investigation of a spread in the membrane thermal conductivity and of combined variations of both ambient and bulk temperatures. Our model enables a much faster characterization of micro-hotplates and, thus, a much more effective optimization prior to fabrication. PMID:24763214
A Method for Accurate in silico modeling of Ultrasound Transducer Arrays
Guenther, Drake A.; Walker, William F.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a new approach to improve the in silico modeling of ultrasound transducer arrays. While current simulation tools accurately predict the theoretical element spatio-temporal pressure response, transducers do not always behave as theorized. In practice, using the probe's physical dimensions and published specifications in silico, often results in unsatisfactory agreement between simulation and experiment. We describe a general optimization procedure used to maximize the correlation between the observed and simulated spatio-temporal response of a pulsed single element in a commercial ultrasound probe. A linear systems approach is employed to model element angular sensitivity, lens effects, and diffraction phenomena. A numerical deconvolution method is described to characterize the intrinsic electro-mechanical impulse response of the element. Once the response of the element and optimal element characteristics are known, prediction of the pressure response for arbitrary apertures and excitation signals is performed through direct convolution using available tools. We achieve a correlation of 0.846 between the experimental emitted waveform and simulated waveform when using the probe's physical specifications in silico. A far superior correlation of 0.988 is achieved when using the optimized in silico model. Electronic noise appears to be the main effect preventing the realization of higher correlation coefficients. More accurate in silico modeling will improve the evaluation and design of ultrasound transducers as well as aid in the development of sophisticated beamforming strategies. PMID:19041997
Towards more accurate numerical modeling of impedance based high frequency harmonic vibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Yee Yan; Kiong Soh, Chee
2014-03-01
The application of smart materials in various fields of engineering has recently become increasingly popular. For instance, the high frequency based electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique employing smart piezoelectric materials is found to be versatile in structural health monitoring (SHM). Thus far, considerable efforts have been made to study and improve the technique. Various theoretical models of the EMI technique have been proposed in an attempt to better understand its behavior. So far, the three-dimensional (3D) coupled field finite element (FE) model has proved to be the most accurate. However, large discrepancies between the results of the FE model and experimental tests, especially in terms of the slope and magnitude of the admittance signatures, continue to exist and are yet to be resolved. This paper presents a series of parametric studies using the 3D coupled field finite element method (FEM) on all properties of materials involved in the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) structure interaction of the EMI technique, to investigate their effect on the admittance signatures acquired. FE model updating is then performed by adjusting the parameters to match the experimental results. One of the main reasons for the lower accuracy, especially in terms of magnitude and slope, of previous FE models is the difficulty in determining the damping related coefficients and the stiffness of the bonding layer. In this study, using the hysteretic damping model in place of Rayleigh damping, which is used by most researchers in this field, and updated bonding stiffness, an improved and more accurate FE model is achieved. The results of this paper are expected to be useful for future study of the subject area in terms of research and application, such as modeling, design and optimization.
Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Bürgi, Alfred; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel
2015-01-01
The increase in mobile communication technology has led to concern about potential health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phone base stations. Different RF-EMF prediction models have been applied to assess population exposure to RF-EMF. Our study examines what input data are needed to accurately model RF-EMF, as detailed data are not always available for epidemiological studies. We used NISMap, a 3D radio wave propagation model, to test models with various levels of detail in building and antenna input data. The model outcomes were compared with outdoor measurements taken in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Results showed good agreement between modelled and measured RF-EMF when 3D building data and basic antenna information (location, height, frequency and direction) were used: Spearman correlations were >0.6. Model performance was not sensitive to changes in building damping parameters. Antenna-specific information about down-tilt, type and output power did not significantly improve model performance compared with using average down-tilt and power values, or assuming one standard antenna type. We conclude that 3D radio wave propagation modelling is a feasible approach to predict outdoor RF-EMF levels for ranking exposure levels in epidemiological studies, when 3D building data and information on the antenna height, frequency, location and direction are available. PMID:24472756
Accurate verification of the conserved-vector-current and standard-model predictions
Sirlin, A.; Zucchini, R.
1986-10-20
An approximate analytic calculation of O(Z..cap alpha../sup 2/) corrections to Fermi decays is presented. When the analysis of Koslowsky et al. is modified to take into account the new results, it is found that each of the eight accurately studied scrFt values differs from the average by approx. <1sigma, thus significantly improving the comparison of experiments with conserved-vector-current predictions. The new scrFt values are lower than before, which also brings experiments into very good agreement with the three-generation standard model, at the level of its quantum corrections.
Double Cluster Heads Model for Secure and Accurate Data Fusion in Wireless Sensor Networks
Fu, Jun-Song; Liu, Yun
2015-01-01
Secure and accurate data fusion is an important issue in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and has been extensively researched in the literature. In this paper, by combining clustering techniques, reputation and trust systems, and data fusion algorithms, we propose a novel cluster-based data fusion model called Double Cluster Heads Model (DCHM) for secure and accurate data fusion in WSNs. Different from traditional clustering models in WSNs, two cluster heads are selected after clustering for each cluster based on the reputation and trust system and they perform data fusion independently of each other. Then, the results are sent to the base station where the dissimilarity coefficient is computed. If the dissimilarity coefficient of the two data fusion results exceeds the threshold preset by the users, the cluster heads will be added to blacklist, and the cluster heads must be reelected by the sensor nodes in a cluster. Meanwhile, feedback is sent from the base station to the reputation and trust system, which can help us to identify and delete the compromised sensor nodes in time. Through a series of extensive simulations, we found that the DCHM performed very well in data fusion security and accuracy. PMID:25608211
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rumple, C.; Richter, J.; Craven, B. A.; Krane, M.
2012-11-01
A summary of the research being carried out by our multidisciplinary team to better understand the form and function of the nose in different mammalian species that include humans, carnivores, ungulates, rodents, and marine animals will be presented. The mammalian nose houses a convoluted airway labyrinth, where two hallmark features of mammals occur, endothermy and olfaction. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of airflow and respiratory and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture transparent, anatomically-accurate models for stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements of nasal airflow. Challenges in the design and manufacture of index-matched anatomical models are addressed and preliminary SPIV measurements are presented. Such measurements will constitute a validation database for concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian respiration and olfaction. Supported by the National Science Foundation.
Applying an accurate spherical model to gamma-ray burst afterglow observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leventis, K.; van der Horst, A. J.; van Eerten, H. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.
2013-05-01
We present results of model fits to afterglow data sets of GRB 970508, GRB 980703 and GRB 070125, characterized by long and broad-band coverage. The model assumes synchrotron radiation (including self-absorption) from a spherical adiabatic blast wave and consists of analytic flux prescriptions based on numerical results. For the first time it combines the accuracy of hydrodynamic simulations through different stages of the outflow dynamics with the flexibility of simple heuristic formulas. The prescriptions are especially geared towards accurate description of the dynamical transition of the outflow from relativistic to Newtonian velocities in an arbitrary power-law density environment. We show that the spherical model can accurately describe the data only in the case of GRB 970508, for which we find a circumburst medium density n ∝ r-2. We investigate in detail the implied spectra and physical parameters of that burst. For the microphysics we show evidence for equipartition between the fraction of energy density carried by relativistic electrons and magnetic field. We also find that for the blast wave to be adiabatic, the fraction of electrons accelerated at the shock has to be smaller than 1. We present best-fitting parameters for the afterglows of all three bursts, including uncertainties in the parameters of GRB 970508, and compare the inferred values to those obtained by different authors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wohlfeil, J.; Hirschmüller, H.; Piltz, B.; Börner, A.; Suppa, M.
2012-07-01
Modern pixel-wise image matching algorithms like Semi-Global Matching (SGM) are able to compute high resolution digital surface models from airborne and spaceborne stereo imagery. Although image matching itself can be performed automatically, there are prerequisites, like high geometric accuracy, which are essential for ensuring the high quality of resulting surface models. Especially for line cameras, these prerequisites currently require laborious manual interaction using standard tools, which is a growing problem due to continually increasing demand for such surface models. The tedious work includes partly or fully manual selection of tie- and/or ground control points for ensuring the required accuracy of the relative orientation of images for stereo matching. It also includes masking of large water areas that seriously reduce the quality of the results. Furthermore, a good estimate of the depth range is required, since accurate estimates can seriously reduce the processing time for stereo matching. In this paper an approach is presented that allows performing all these steps fully automated. It includes very robust and precise tie point selection, enabling the accurate calculation of the images' relative orientation via bundle adjustment. It is also shown how water masking and elevation range estimation can be performed automatically on the base of freely available SRTM data. Extensive tests with a large number of different satellite images from QuickBird and WorldView are presented as proof of the robustness and reliability of the proposed method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sokalski, W. A.; Shibata, M.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.
1992-01-01
The quality of several atomic charge models based on different definitions has been analyzed using cumulative atomic multipole moments (CAMM). This formalism can generate higher atomic moments starting from any atomic charges, while preserving the corresponding molecular moments. The atomic charge contribution to the higher molecular moments, as well as to the electrostatic potentials, has been examined for CO and HCN molecules at several different levels of theory. The results clearly show that the electrostatic potential obtained from CAMM expansion is convergent up to R-5 term for all atomic charge models used. This illustrates that higher atomic moments can be used to supplement any atomic charge model to obtain more accurate description of electrostatic properties.
Gröning, Flora; Jones, Marc E. H.; Curtis, Neil; Herrel, Anthony; O'Higgins, Paul; Evans, Susan E.; Fagan, Michael J.
2013-01-01
Computer-based simulation techniques such as multi-body dynamics analysis are becoming increasingly popular in the field of skull mechanics. Multi-body models can be used for studying the relationships between skull architecture, muscle morphology and feeding performance. However, to be confident in the modelling results, models need to be validated against experimental data, and the effects of uncertainties or inaccuracies in the chosen model attributes need to be assessed with sensitivity analyses. Here, we compare the bite forces predicted by a multi-body model of a lizard (Tupinambis merianae) with in vivo measurements, using anatomical data collected from the same specimen. This subject-specific model predicts bite forces that are very close to the in vivo measurements and also shows a consistent increase in bite force as the bite position is moved posteriorly on the jaw. However, the model is very sensitive to changes in muscle attributes such as fibre length, intrinsic muscle strength and force orientation, with bite force predictions varying considerably when these three variables are altered. We conclude that accurate muscle measurements are crucial to building realistic multi-body models and that subject-specific data should be used whenever possible. PMID:23614944
Gröning, Flora; Jones, Marc E H; Curtis, Neil; Herrel, Anthony; O'Higgins, Paul; Evans, Susan E; Fagan, Michael J
2013-07-01
Computer-based simulation techniques such as multi-body dynamics analysis are becoming increasingly popular in the field of skull mechanics. Multi-body models can be used for studying the relationships between skull architecture, muscle morphology and feeding performance. However, to be confident in the modelling results, models need to be validated against experimental data, and the effects of uncertainties or inaccuracies in the chosen model attributes need to be assessed with sensitivity analyses. Here, we compare the bite forces predicted by a multi-body model of a lizard (Tupinambis merianae) with in vivo measurements, using anatomical data collected from the same specimen. This subject-specific model predicts bite forces that are very close to the in vivo measurements and also shows a consistent increase in bite force as the bite position is moved posteriorly on the jaw. However, the model is very sensitive to changes in muscle attributes such as fibre length, intrinsic muscle strength and force orientation, with bite force predictions varying considerably when these three variables are altered. We conclude that accurate muscle measurements are crucial to building realistic multi-body models and that subject-specific data should be used whenever possible. PMID:23614944
An accurate and comprehensive model of thin fluid flows with inertia on curved substrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, A. J.; Li, Zhenquan
2006-04-01
Consider the three-dimensional flow of a viscous Newtonian fluid upon a curved two-dimensional substrate when the fluid film is thin, as occurs in many draining, coating and biological flows. We derive a comprehensive model of the dynamics of the film, the model being expressed in terms of the film thickness eta and the average lateral velocity bar{bm u}. Centre manifold theory assures us that the model accurately and systematically includes the effects of the curvature of substrate, gravitational body force, fluid inertia and dissipation. The model resolves wavelike phenomena in the dynamics of viscous fluid flows over arbitrarily curved substrates such as cylinders, tubes and spheres. We briefly illustrate its use in simulating drop formation on cylindrical fibres, wave transitions, three-dimensional instabilities, Faraday waves, viscous hydraulic jumps, flow vortices in a compound channel and flow down and up a step. These models are the most complete models for thin-film flow of a Newtonian fluid; many other thin-film models can be obtained by different restrictions and truncations of the model derived here.
Digitalized accurate modeling of SPCB with multi-spiral surface based on CPC algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yanhua; Gu, Lizhi
2015-09-01
The main methods of the existing multi-spiral surface geometry modeling include spatial analytic geometry algorithms, graphical method, interpolation and approximation algorithms. However, there are some shortcomings in these modeling methods, such as large amount of calculation, complex process, visible errors, and so on. The above methods have, to some extent, restricted the design and manufacture of the premium and high-precision products with spiral surface considerably. This paper introduces the concepts of the spatially parallel coupling with multi-spiral surface and spatially parallel coupling body. The typical geometry and topological features of each spiral surface forming the multi-spiral surface body are determined, by using the extraction principle of datum point cluster, the algorithm of coupling point cluster by removing singular point, and the "spatially parallel coupling" principle based on the non-uniform B-spline for each spiral surface. The orientation and quantitative relationships of datum point cluster and coupling point cluster in Euclidean space are determined accurately and in digital description and expression, coupling coalescence of the surfaces with multi-coupling point clusters under the Pro/E environment. The digitally accurate modeling of spatially parallel coupling body with multi-spiral surface is realized. The smooth and fairing processing is done to the three-blade end-milling cutter's end section area by applying the principle of spatially parallel coupling with multi-spiral surface, and the alternative entity model is processed in the four axis machining center after the end mill is disposed. And the algorithm is verified and then applied effectively to the transition area among the multi-spiral surface. The proposed model and algorithms may be used in design and manufacture of the multi-spiral surface body products, as well as in solving essentially the problems of considerable modeling errors in computer graphics and
Combustion mode switching with a turbocharged/supercharged engine
Mond, Alan; Jiang, Li
2015-09-22
A method for switching between low- and high-dilution combustion modes in an internal combustion engine having an intake passage with an exhaust-driven turbocharger, a crankshaft-driven positive displacement supercharger downstream of the turbocharger and having variable boost controllable with a supercharger bypass valve, and a throttle valve downstream of the supercharger. The current combustion mode and mass air flow are determined. A switch to the target combustion mode is commanded when an operating condition falls within a range of predetermined operating conditions. A target mass air flow to achieve a target air-fuel ratio corresponding to the current operating condition and the target combustion mode is determined. The degree of opening of the supercharger bypass valve and the throttle valve are controlled to achieve the target mass air flow. The amount of residual exhaust gas is manipulated.
Neural control of fast nonlinear systems--application to a turbocharged SI engine with VCT.
Colin, Guillaume; Chamaillard, Yann; Bloch, Gérard; Corde, Gilles
2007-07-01
Today, (engine) downsizing using turbocharging appears as a major way in reducing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of spark ignition (SI) engines. In this context, an efficient control of the air actuators [throttle, turbo wastegate, and variable camshaft timing (VCT)] is needed for engine torque control. This paper proposes a nonlinear model-based control scheme which combines separate, but coordinated, control modules. Theses modules are based on different control strategies: internal model control (IMC), model predictive control (MPC), and optimal control. It is shown how neural models can be used at different levels and included in the control modules to replace physical models, which are too complex to be online embedded, or to estimate nonmeasured variables. The results obtained from two different test benches show the real-time applicability and good control performance of the proposed methods. PMID:17668664
Validation of an Accurate Three-Dimensional Helical Slow-Wave Circuit Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kory, Carol L.
1997-01-01
The helical slow-wave circuit embodies a helical coil of rectangular tape supported in a metal barrel by dielectric support rods. Although the helix slow-wave circuit remains the mainstay of the traveling-wave tube (TWT) industry because of its exceptionally wide bandwidth, a full helical circuit, without significant dimensional approximations, has not been successfully modeled until now. Numerous attempts have been made to analyze the helical slow-wave circuit so that the performance could be accurately predicted without actually building it, but because of its complex geometry, many geometrical approximations became necessary rendering the previous models inaccurate. In the course of this research it has been demonstrated that using the simulation code, MAFIA, the helical structure can be modeled with actual tape width and thickness, dielectric support rod geometry and materials. To demonstrate the accuracy of the MAFIA model, the cold-test parameters including dispersion, on-axis interaction impedance and attenuation have been calculated for several helical TWT slow-wave circuits with a variety of support rod geometries including rectangular and T-shaped rods, as well as various support rod materials including isotropic, anisotropic and partially metal coated dielectrics. Compared with experimentally measured results, the agreement is excellent. With the accuracy of the MAFIA helical model validated, the code was used to investigate several conventional geometric approximations in an attempt to obtain the most computationally efficient model. Several simplifications were made to a standard model including replacing the helical tape with filaments, and replacing rectangular support rods with shapes conforming to the cylindrical coordinate system with effective permittivity. The approximate models are compared with the standard model in terms of cold-test characteristics and computational time. The model was also used to determine the sensitivity of various
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, R.; Flynn, C.; Candlish, G. N.; Fellhauer, M.; Gibson, B. K.
2015-04-01
We present accurate models of the gravitational potential produced by a radially exponential disc mass distribution. The models are produced by combining three separate Miyamoto-Nagai discs. Such models have been used previously to model the disc of the Milky Way, but here we extend this framework to allow its application to discs of any mass, scalelength, and a wide range of thickness from infinitely thin to near spherical (ellipticities from 0 to 0.9). The models have the advantage of simplicity of implementation, and we expect faster run speeds over a double exponential disc treatment. The potentials are fully analytical, and differentiable at all points. The mass distribution of our models deviates from the radial mass distribution of a pure exponential disc by <0.4 per cent out to 4 disc scalelengths, and <1.9 per cent out to 10 disc scalelengths. We tabulate fitting parameters which facilitate construction of exponential discs for any scalelength, and a wide range of disc thickness (a user-friendly, web-based interface is also available). Our recipe is well suited for numerical modelling of the tidal effects of a giant disc galaxy on star clusters or dwarf galaxies. We consider three worked examples; the Milky Way thin and thick disc, and a discy dwarf galaxy.
Algal productivity modeling: a step toward accurate assessments of full-scale algal cultivation.
Béchet, Quentin; Chambonnière, Paul; Shilton, Andy; Guizard, Guillaume; Guieysse, Benoit
2015-05-01
A new biomass productivity model was parameterized for Chlorella vulgaris using short-term (<30 min) oxygen productivities from algal microcosms exposed to 6 light intensities (20-420 W/m(2)) and 6 temperatures (5-42 °C). The model was then validated against experimental biomass productivities recorded in bench-scale photobioreactors operated under 4 light intensities (30.6-74.3 W/m(2)) and 4 temperatures (10-30 °C), yielding an accuracy of ± 15% over 163 days of cultivation. This modeling approach addresses major challenges associated with the accurate prediction of algal productivity at full-scale. Firstly, while most prior modeling approaches have only considered the impact of light intensity on algal productivity, the model herein validated also accounts for the critical impact of temperature. Secondly, this study validates a theoretical approach to convert short-term oxygen productivities into long-term biomass productivities. Thirdly, the experimental methodology used has the practical advantage of only requiring one day of experimental work for complete model parameterization. The validation of this new modeling approach is therefore an important step for refining feasibility assessments of algae biotechnologies. PMID:25502920
Davis, J.L.; Grant, J.W.
2014-01-01
Anatomically correct turtle utricle geometry was incorporated into two finite element models. The geometrically accurate model included appropriately shaped macular surface and otoconial layer, compact gel and column filament (or shear) layer thicknesses and thickness distributions. The first model included a shear layer where the effects of hair bundle stiffness was included as part of the shear layer modulus. This solid model’s undamped natural frequency was matched to an experimentally measured value. This frequency match established a realistic value of the effective shear layer Young’s modulus of 16 Pascals. We feel this is the most accurate prediction of this shear layer modulus and fits with other estimates (Kondrachuk, 2001b). The second model incorporated only beam elements in the shear layer to represent hair cell bundle stiffness. The beam element stiffness’s were further distributed to represent their location on the neuroepithelial surface. Experimentally measured striola hair cell bundles mean stiffness values were used in the striolar region and the mean extrastriola hair cell bundles stiffness values were used in this region. The results from this second model indicated that hair cell bundle stiffness contributes approximately 40% to the overall stiffness of the shear layer– hair cell bundle complex. This analysis shows that high mass saccules, in general, achieve high gain at the sacrifice of frequency bandwidth. We propose the mechanism by which this can be achieved is through increase the otoconial layer mass. The theoretical difference in gain (deflection per acceleration) is shown for saccules with large otoconial layer mass relative to saccules and utricles with small otoconial layer mass. Also discussed is the necessity of these high mass saccules to increase their overall system shear layer stiffness. Undamped natural frequencies and mode shapes for these sensors are shown. PMID:25445820
Xiao, Suzhi; Tao, Wei; Zhao, Hui
2016-01-01
In order to acquire an accurate three-dimensional (3D) measurement, the traditional fringe projection technique applies complex and laborious procedures to compensate for the errors that exist in the vision system. However, the error sources in the vision system are very complex, such as lens distortion, lens defocus, and fringe pattern nonsinusoidality. Some errors cannot even be explained or rendered with clear expressions and are difficult to compensate directly as a result. In this paper, an approach is proposed that avoids the complex and laborious compensation procedure for error sources but still promises accurate 3D measurement. It is realized by the mathematical model extension technique. The parameters of the extended mathematical model for the ’phase to 3D coordinates transformation’ are derived using the least-squares parameter estimation algorithm. In addition, a phase-coding method based on a frequency analysis is proposed for the absolute phase map retrieval to spatially isolated objects. The results demonstrate the validity and the accuracy of the proposed flexible fringe projection vision system on spatially continuous and discontinuous objects for 3D measurement. PMID:27136553
Accurately modeling Gaussian beam propagation in the context of Monte Carlo techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hokr, Brett H.; Winblad, Aidan; Bixler, Joel N.; Elpers, Gabriel; Zollars, Byron; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Thomas, Robert J.
2016-03-01
Monte Carlo simulations are widely considered to be the gold standard for studying the propagation of light in turbid media. However, traditional Monte Carlo methods fail to account for diffraction because they treat light as a particle. This results in converging beams focusing to a point instead of a diffraction limited spot, greatly effecting the accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations near the focal plane. Here, we present a technique capable of simulating a focusing beam in accordance to the rules of Gaussian optics, resulting in a diffraction limited focal spot. This technique can be easily implemented into any traditional Monte Carlo simulation allowing existing models to be converted to include accurate focusing geometries with minimal effort. We will present results for a focusing beam in a layered tissue model, demonstrating that for different scenarios the region of highest intensity, thus the greatest heating, can change from the surface to the focus. The ability to simulate accurate focusing geometries will greatly enhance the usefulness of Monte Carlo for countless applications, including studying laser tissue interactions in medical applications and light propagation through turbid media.
Fu, Q.; Sun, W.B.; Yang, P.
1998-09-01
An accurate parameterization is presented for the infrared radiative properties of cirrus clouds. For the single-scattering calculations, a composite scheme is developed for randomly oriented hexagonal ice crystals by comparing results from Mie theory, anomalous diffraction theory (ADT), the geometric optics method (GOM), and the finite-difference time domain technique. This scheme employs a linear combination of single-scattering properties from the Mie theory, ADT, and GOM, which is accurate for a wide range of size parameters. Following the approach of Q. Fu, the extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, and asymmetry factor are parameterized as functions of the cloud ice water content and generalized effective size (D{sub ge}). The present parameterization of the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds is validated by examining the bulk radiative properties for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Compared with reference results, the typical relative error in emissivity due to the parameterization is {approximately}2.2%. The accuracy of this parameterization guarantees its reliability in applications to climate models. The present parameterization complements the scheme for the solar radiative properties of cirrus clouds developed by Q. Fu for use in numerical models.
Seth, Ajay; Matias, Ricardo; Veloso, António P.; Delp, Scott L.
2016-01-01
The complexity of shoulder mechanics combined with the movement of skin relative to the scapula makes it difficult to measure shoulder kinematics with sufficient accuracy to distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Multibody skeletal models can improve motion capture accuracy by reducing the space of possible joint movements, and models are used widely to improve measurement of lower limb kinematics. In this study, we developed a rigid-body model of a scapulothoracic joint to describe the kinematics of the scapula relative to the thorax. This model describes scapular kinematics with four degrees of freedom: 1) elevation and 2) abduction of the scapula on an ellipsoidal thoracic surface, 3) upward rotation of the scapula normal to the thoracic surface, and 4) internal rotation of the scapula to lift the medial border of the scapula off the surface of the thorax. The surface dimensions and joint axes can be customized to match an individual’s anthropometry. We compared the model to “gold standard” bone-pin kinematics collected during three shoulder tasks and found modeled scapular kinematics to be accurate to within 2mm root-mean-squared error for individual bone-pin markers across all markers and movement tasks. As an additional test, we added random and systematic noise to the bone-pin marker data and found that the model reduced kinematic variability due to noise by 65% compared to Euler angles computed without the model. Our scapulothoracic joint model can be used for inverse and forward dynamics analyses and to compute joint reaction loads. The computational performance of the scapulothoracic joint model is well suited for real-time applications; it is freely available for use with OpenSim 3.2, and is customizable and usable with other OpenSim models. PMID:26734761
Seth, Ajay; Matias, Ricardo; Veloso, António P; Delp, Scott L
2016-01-01
The complexity of shoulder mechanics combined with the movement of skin relative to the scapula makes it difficult to measure shoulder kinematics with sufficient accuracy to distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Multibody skeletal models can improve motion capture accuracy by reducing the space of possible joint movements, and models are used widely to improve measurement of lower limb kinematics. In this study, we developed a rigid-body model of a scapulothoracic joint to describe the kinematics of the scapula relative to the thorax. This model describes scapular kinematics with four degrees of freedom: 1) elevation and 2) abduction of the scapula on an ellipsoidal thoracic surface, 3) upward rotation of the scapula normal to the thoracic surface, and 4) internal rotation of the scapula to lift the medial border of the scapula off the surface of the thorax. The surface dimensions and joint axes can be customized to match an individual's anthropometry. We compared the model to "gold standard" bone-pin kinematics collected during three shoulder tasks and found modeled scapular kinematics to be accurate to within 2 mm root-mean-squared error for individual bone-pin markers across all markers and movement tasks. As an additional test, we added random and systematic noise to the bone-pin marker data and found that the model reduced kinematic variability due to noise by 65% compared to Euler angles computed without the model. Our scapulothoracic joint model can be used for inverse and forward dynamics analyses and to compute joint reaction loads. The computational performance of the scapulothoracic joint model is well suited for real-time applications; it is freely available for use with OpenSim 3.2, and is customizable and usable with other OpenSim models. PMID:26734761
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kopasakis, George
2014-01-01
The presentation covers a recently developed methodology to model atmospheric turbulence as disturbances for aero vehicle gust loads and for controls development like flutter and inlet shock position. The approach models atmospheric turbulence in their natural fractional order form, which provides for more accuracy compared to traditional methods like the Dryden model, especially for high speed vehicle. The presentation provides a historical background on atmospheric turbulence modeling and the approaches utilized for air vehicles. This is followed by the motivation and the methodology utilized to develop the atmospheric turbulence fractional order modeling approach. Some examples covering the application of this method are also provided, followed by concluding remarks.
Burward-Hoy, J. M.; Geist, W. H.; Krick, M. S.; Mayo, D. R.
2004-01-01
Neutron multiplicity counting is a technique for the rapid, nondestructive measurement of plutonium mass in pure and impure materials. This technique is very powerful because it uses the measured coincidence count rates to determine the sample mass without requiring a set of representative standards for calibration. Interpreting measured singles, doubles, and triples count rates using the three-parameter standard point model accurately determines plutonium mass, neutron multiplication, and the ratio of ({alpha},n) to spontaneous-fission neutrons (alpha) for oxides of moderate mass. However, underlying standard point model assumptions - including constant neutron energy and constant multiplication throughout the sample - cause significant biases for the mass, multiplication, and alpha in measurements of metal and large, dense oxides.
Accurate Cold-Test Model of Helical TWT Slow-Wave Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kory, Carol L.; Dayton, J. A., Jr.
1998-01-01
Recently, a method has been established to accurately calculate cold-test data for helical slow-wave structures using the three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic computer code, MAFIA. Cold-test parameters have been calculated for several helical traveling-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits possessing various support rod configurations, and results are presented here showing excellent agreement with experiment. The helical models include tape thickness, dielectric support shapes and material properties consistent with the actual circuits. The cold-test data from this helical model can be used as input into large-signal helical TWT interaction codes making it possible, for the first time, to design a complete TWT via computer simulation.
Accurate Cold-Test Model of Helical TWT Slow-Wave Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kory, Carol L.; Dayton, James A., Jr.
1998-01-01
Recently, a method has been established to accurately calculate cold-test data for helical slow-wave structures using the three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic computer code, MAxwell's equations by the Finite Integration Algorithm (MAFIA). Cold-test parameters have been calculated for several helical traveLing-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits possessing various support rod configurations, and results are presented here showing excellent agreement with experiment. The helical models include tape thickness, dielectric support shapes and material properties consistent with the actual circuits. The cold-test data from this helical model can be used as input into large-signal helical TWT interaction codes making It possible, for the first time, to design complete TWT via computer simulation.
Accurate Cold-Test Model of Helical TWT Slow-Wave Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kory, Carol L.; Dayton, James A., Jr.
1997-01-01
Recently, a method has been established to accurately calculate cold-test data for helical slow-wave structures using the three-dimensional electromagnetic computer code, MAFIA. Cold-test parameters have been calculated for several helical traveling-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits possessing various support rod configurations, and results are presented here showing excellent agreement with experiment. The helical models include tape thickness, dielectric support shapes and material properties consistent with the actual circuits. The cold-test data from this helical model can be used as input into large-signal helical TWT interaction codes making it possible, for the first time, to design a complete TWT via computer simulation.
Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott E; Galley, Chad R; Szilágyi, Béla; Scheel, Mark A; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A
2015-09-18
Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. Using reduced order modeling techniques, we construct an accurate surrogate model, which is evaluated in a millisecond to a second, for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios in [1, 10] and durations corresponding to about 15 orbits before merger. We assess the model's uncertainty and show that our modeling strategy predicts NR waveforms not used for the surrogate's training with errors nearly as small as the numerical error of the NR code. Our model includes all spherical-harmonic _{-2}Y_{ℓm} waveform modes resolved by the NR code up to ℓ=8. We compare our surrogate model to effective one body waveforms from 50M_{⊙} to 300M_{⊙} for advanced LIGO detectors and find that the surrogate is always more faithful (by at least an order of magnitude in most cases). PMID:26430979
Construction of feasible and accurate kinetic models of metabolism: A Bayesian approach
Saa, Pedro A.; Nielsen, Lars K.
2016-01-01
Kinetic models are essential to quantitatively understand and predict the behaviour of metabolic networks. Detailed and thermodynamically feasible kinetic models of metabolism are inherently difficult to formulate and fit. They have a large number of heterogeneous parameters, are non-linear and have complex interactions. Many powerful fitting strategies are ruled out by the intractability of the likelihood function. Here, we have developed a computational framework capable of fitting feasible and accurate kinetic models using Approximate Bayesian Computation. This framework readily supports advanced modelling features such as model selection and model-based experimental design. We illustrate this approach on the tightly-regulated mammalian methionine cycle. Sampling from the posterior distribution, the proposed framework generated thermodynamically feasible parameter samples that converged on the true values, and displayed remarkable prediction accuracy in several validation tests. Furthermore, a posteriori analysis of the parameter distributions enabled appraisal of the systems properties of the network (e.g., control structure) and key metabolic regulations. Finally, the framework was used to predict missing allosteric interactions. PMID:27417285
An Accurate Model for Biomolecular Helices and Its Application to Helix Visualization
Wang, Lincong; Qiao, Hui; Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan; Zou, Shuxue
2015-01-01
Helices are the most abundant secondary structural elements in proteins and the structural forms assumed by double stranded DNAs (dsDNA). Though the mathematical expression for a helical curve is simple, none of the previous models for the biomolecular helices in either proteins or DNAs use a genuine helical curve, likely because of the complexity of fitting backbone atoms to helical curves. In this paper we model a helix as a series of different but all bona fide helical curves; each one best fits the coordinates of four consecutive backbone Cα atoms for a protein or P atoms for a DNA molecule. An implementation of the model demonstrates that it is more accurate than the previous ones for the description of the deviation of a helix from a standard helical curve. Furthermore, the accuracy of the model makes it possible to correlate deviations with structural and functional significance. When applied to helix visualization, the ribbon diagrams generated by the model are less choppy or have smaller side chain detachment than those by the previous visualization programs that typically model a helix as a series of low-degree splines. PMID:26126117
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopparla, P.; Natraj, V.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Shia, R. L.; Yung, Y. L.
2014-12-01
Radiative transfer (RT) computations are an essential component of energy budget calculations in climate models. However, full treatment of RT processes is computationally expensive, prompting usage of 2-stream approximations in operational climate models. This simplification introduces errors of the order of 10% in the top of the atmosphere (TOA) fluxes [Randles et al., 2013]. Natraj et al. [2005, 2010] and Spurr and Natraj [2013] demonstrated the ability of a technique using principal component analysis (PCA) to speed up RT simulations. In the PCA method for RT performance enhancement, empirical orthogonal functions are developed for binned sets of inherent optical properties that possess some redundancy; costly multiple-scattering RT calculations are only done for those (few) optical states corresponding to the most important principal components, and correction factors are applied to approximate radiation fields. Here, we extend the PCA method to a broadband spectral region from the ultraviolet to the shortwave infrared (0.3-3 micron), accounting for major gas absorptions in this region. Comparisons between the new model, called Universal Principal Component Analysis model for Radiative Transfer (UPCART), 2-stream models (such as those used in climate applications) and line-by-line RT models are performed, in order for spectral radiances, spectral fluxes and broadband fluxes. Each of these are calculated at the TOA for several scenarios with varying aerosol types, extinction and scattering optical depth profiles, and solar and viewing geometries. We demonstrate that very accurate radiative forcing estimates can be obtained, with better than 1% accuracy in all spectral regions and better than 0.1% in most cases as compared to an exact line-by-line RT model. The model is comparable in speeds to 2-stream models, potentially rendering UPCART useful for operational General Circulation Models (GCMs). The operational speed and accuracy of UPCART can be further
Fitmunk: improving protein structures by accurate, automatic modeling of side-chain conformations.
Porebski, Przemyslaw Jerzy; Cymborowski, Marcin; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Minor, Wladek
2016-02-01
Improvements in crystallographic hardware and software have allowed automated structure-solution pipelines to approach a near-`one-click' experience for the initial determination of macromolecular structures. However, in many cases the resulting initial model requires a laborious, iterative process of refinement and validation. A new method has been developed for the automatic modeling of side-chain conformations that takes advantage of rotamer-prediction methods in a crystallographic context. The algorithm, which is based on deterministic dead-end elimination (DEE) theory, uses new dense conformer libraries and a hybrid energy function derived from experimental data and prior information about rotamer frequencies to find the optimal conformation of each side chain. In contrast to existing methods, which incorporate the electron-density term into protein-modeling frameworks, the proposed algorithm is designed to take advantage of the highly discriminatory nature of electron-density maps. This method has been implemented in the program Fitmunk, which uses extensive conformational sampling. This improves the accuracy of the modeling and makes it a versatile tool for crystallographic model building, refinement and validation. Fitmunk was extensively tested on over 115 new structures, as well as a subset of 1100 structures from the PDB. It is demonstrated that the ability of Fitmunk to model more than 95% of side chains accurately is beneficial for improving the quality of crystallographic protein models, especially at medium and low resolutions. Fitmunk can be used for model validation of existing structures and as a tool to assess whether side chains are modeled optimally or could be better fitted into electron density. Fitmunk is available as a web service at http://kniahini.med.virginia.edu/fitmunk/server/ or at http://fitmunk.bitbucket.org/. PMID:26894674
Are Quasi-Steady-State Approximated Models Suitable for Quantifying Intrinsic Noise Accurately?
Sengupta, Dola; Kar, Sandip
2015-01-01
Large gene regulatory networks (GRN) are often modeled with quasi-steady-state approximation (QSSA) to reduce the huge computational time required for intrinsic noise quantification using Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA). However, the question still remains whether the stochastic QSSA model measures the intrinsic noise as accurately as the SSA performed for a detailed mechanistic model or not? To address this issue, we have constructed mechanistic and QSSA models for few frequently observed GRNs exhibiting switching behavior and performed stochastic simulations with them. Our results strongly suggest that the performance of a stochastic QSSA model in comparison to SSA performed for a mechanistic model critically relies on the absolute values of the mRNA and protein half-lives involved in the corresponding GRN. The extent of accuracy level achieved by the stochastic QSSA model calculations will depend on the level of bursting frequency generated due to the absolute value of the half-life of either mRNA or protein or for both the species. For the GRNs considered, the stochastic QSSA quantifies the intrinsic noise at the protein level with greater accuracy and for larger combinations of half-life values of mRNA and protein, whereas in case of mRNA the satisfactory accuracy level can only be reached for limited combinations of absolute values of half-lives. Further, we have clearly demonstrated that the abundance levels of mRNA and protein hardly matter for such comparison between QSSA and mechanistic models. Based on our findings, we conclude that QSSA model can be a good choice for evaluating intrinsic noise for other GRNs as well, provided we make a rational choice based on experimental half-life values available in literature. PMID:26327626
Fitmunk: improving protein structures by accurate, automatic modeling of side-chain conformations
Porebski, Przemyslaw Jerzy; Cymborowski, Marcin; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Minor, Wladek
2016-01-01
Improvements in crystallographic hardware and software have allowed automated structure-solution pipelines to approach a near-‘one-click’ experience for the initial determination of macromolecular structures. However, in many cases the resulting initial model requires a laborious, iterative process of refinement and validation. A new method has been developed for the automatic modeling of side-chain conformations that takes advantage of rotamer-prediction methods in a crystallographic context. The algorithm, which is based on deterministic dead-end elimination (DEE) theory, uses new dense conformer libraries and a hybrid energy function derived from experimental data and prior information about rotamer frequencies to find the optimal conformation of each side chain. In contrast to existing methods, which incorporate the electron-density term into protein-modeling frameworks, the proposed algorithm is designed to take advantage of the highly discriminatory nature of electron-density maps. This method has been implemented in the program Fitmunk, which uses extensive conformational sampling. This improves the accuracy of the modeling and makes it a versatile tool for crystallographic model building, refinement and validation. Fitmunk was extensively tested on over 115 new structures, as well as a subset of 1100 structures from the PDB. It is demonstrated that the ability of Fitmunk to model more than 95% of side chains accurately is beneficial for improving the quality of crystallographic protein models, especially at medium and low resolutions. Fitmunk can be used for model validation of existing structures and as a tool to assess whether side chains are modeled optimally or could be better fitted into electron density. Fitmunk is available as a web service at http://kniahini.med.virginia.edu/fitmunk/server/ or at http://fitmunk.bitbucket.org/. PMID:26894674
Argudo, David; Bethel, Neville P; Marcoline, Frank V; Grabe, Michael
2016-07-01
Biological membranes deform in response to resident proteins leading to a coupling between membrane shape and protein localization. Additionally, the membrane influences the function of membrane proteins. Here we review contributions to this field from continuum elastic membrane models focusing on the class of models that couple the protein to the membrane. While it has been argued that continuum models cannot reproduce the distortions observed in fully-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we suggest that this failure can be overcome by using chemically accurate representations of the protein. We outline our recent advances along these lines with our hybrid continuum-atomistic model, and we show the model is in excellent agreement with fully-atomistic simulations of the nhTMEM16 lipid scramblase. We believe that the speed and accuracy of continuum-atomistic methodologies will make it possible to simulate large scale, slow biological processes, such as membrane morphological changes, that are currently beyond the scope of other computational approaches. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Proteins edited by J.C. Gumbart and Sergei Noskov. PMID:26853937
A Simple and Accurate Model to Predict Responses to Multi-electrode Stimulation in the Retina
Maturana, Matias I.; Apollo, Nicholas V.; Hadjinicolaou, Alex E.; Garrett, David J.; Cloherty, Shaun L.; Kameneva, Tatiana; Grayden, David B.; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Meffin, Hamish
2016-01-01
Implantable electrode arrays are widely used in therapeutic stimulation of the nervous system (e.g. cochlear, retinal, and cortical implants). Currently, most neural prostheses use serial stimulation (i.e. one electrode at a time) despite this severely limiting the repertoire of stimuli that can be applied. Methods to reliably predict the outcome of multi-electrode stimulation have not been available. Here, we demonstrate that a linear-nonlinear model accurately predicts neural responses to arbitrary patterns of stimulation using in vitro recordings from single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) stimulated with a subretinal multi-electrode array. In the model, the stimulus is projected onto a low-dimensional subspace and then undergoes a nonlinear transformation to produce an estimate of spiking probability. The low-dimensional subspace is estimated using principal components analysis, which gives the neuron’s electrical receptive field (ERF), i.e. the electrodes to which the neuron is most sensitive. Our model suggests that stimulation proportional to the ERF yields a higher efficacy given a fixed amount of power when compared to equal amplitude stimulation on up to three electrodes. We find that the model captures the responses of all the cells recorded in the study, suggesting that it will generalize to most cell types in the retina. The model is computationally efficient to evaluate and, therefore, appropriate for future real-time applications including stimulation strategies that make use of recorded neural activity to improve the stimulation strategy. PMID:27035143
Hybridization modeling of oligonucleotide SNP arrays for accurate DNA copy number estimation
Wan, Lin; Sun, Kelian; Ding, Qi; Cui, Yuehua; Li, Ming; Wen, Yalu; Elston, Robert C.; Qian, Minping; Fu, Wenjiang J
2009-01-01
Affymetrix SNP arrays have been widely used for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype calling and DNA copy number variation inference. Although numerous methods have achieved high accuracy in these fields, most studies have paid little attention to the modeling of hybridization of probes to off-target allele sequences, which can affect the accuracy greatly. In this study, we address this issue and demonstrate that hybridization with mismatch nucleotides (HWMMN) occurs in all SNP probe-sets and has a critical effect on the estimation of allelic concentrations (ACs). We study sequence binding through binding free energy and then binding affinity, and develop a probe intensity composite representation (PICR) model. The PICR model allows the estimation of ACs at a given SNP through statistical regression. Furthermore, we demonstrate with cell-line data of known true copy numbers that the PICR model can achieve reasonable accuracy in copy number estimation at a single SNP locus, by using the ratio of the estimated AC of each sample to that of the reference sample, and can reveal subtle genotype structure of SNPs at abnormal loci. We also demonstrate with HapMap data that the PICR model yields accurate SNP genotype calls consistently across samples, laboratories and even across array platforms. PMID:19586935
A Simple and Accurate Model to Predict Responses to Multi-electrode Stimulation in the Retina.
Maturana, Matias I; Apollo, Nicholas V; Hadjinicolaou, Alex E; Garrett, David J; Cloherty, Shaun L; Kameneva, Tatiana; Grayden, David B; Ibbotson, Michael R; Meffin, Hamish
2016-04-01
Implantable electrode arrays are widely used in therapeutic stimulation of the nervous system (e.g. cochlear, retinal, and cortical implants). Currently, most neural prostheses use serial stimulation (i.e. one electrode at a time) despite this severely limiting the repertoire of stimuli that can be applied. Methods to reliably predict the outcome of multi-electrode stimulation have not been available. Here, we demonstrate that a linear-nonlinear model accurately predicts neural responses to arbitrary patterns of stimulation using in vitro recordings from single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) stimulated with a subretinal multi-electrode array. In the model, the stimulus is projected onto a low-dimensional subspace and then undergoes a nonlinear transformation to produce an estimate of spiking probability. The low-dimensional subspace is estimated using principal components analysis, which gives the neuron's electrical receptive field (ERF), i.e. the electrodes to which the neuron is most sensitive. Our model suggests that stimulation proportional to the ERF yields a higher efficacy given a fixed amount of power when compared to equal amplitude stimulation on up to three electrodes. We find that the model captures the responses of all the cells recorded in the study, suggesting that it will generalize to most cell types in the retina. The model is computationally efficient to evaluate and, therefore, appropriate for future real-time applications including stimulation strategies that make use of recorded neural activity to improve the stimulation strategy. PMID:27035143
Fast and accurate analytical model to solve inverse problem in SHM using Lamb wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poddar, Banibrata; Giurgiutiu, Victor
2016-04-01
Lamb wave propagation is at the center of attention of researchers for structural health monitoring of thin walled structures. This is due to the fact that Lamb wave modes are natural modes of wave propagation in these structures with long travel distances and without much attenuation. This brings the prospect of monitoring large structure with few sensors/actuators. However the problem of damage detection and identification is an "inverse problem" where we do not have the luxury to know the exact mathematical model of the system. On top of that the problem is more challenging due to the confounding factors of statistical variation of the material and geometric properties. Typically this problem may also be ill posed. Due to all these complexities the direct solution of the problem of damage detection and identification in SHM is impossible. Therefore an indirect method using the solution of the "forward problem" is popular for solving the "inverse problem". This requires a fast forward problem solver. Due to the complexities involved with the forward problem of scattering of Lamb waves from damages researchers rely primarily on numerical techniques such as FEM, BEM, etc. But these methods are slow and practically impossible to be used in structural health monitoring. We have developed a fast and accurate analytical forward problem solver for this purpose. This solver, CMEP (complex modes expansion and vector projection), can simulate scattering of Lamb waves from all types of damages in thin walled structures fast and accurately to assist the inverse problem solver.
Development and application of accurate analytical models for single active electron potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Michelle; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Becker, Andreas
2015-05-01
The single active electron (SAE) approximation is a theoretical model frequently employed to study scenarios in which inner-shell electrons may productively be treated as frozen spectators to a physical process of interest, and accurate analytical approximations for these potentials are sought as a useful simulation tool. Density function theory is often used to construct a SAE potential, requiring that a further approximation for the exchange correlation functional be enacted. In this study, we employ the Krieger, Li, and Iafrate (KLI) modification to the optimized-effective-potential (OEP) method to reduce the complexity of the problem to the straightforward solution of a system of linear equations through simple arguments regarding the behavior of the exchange-correlation potential in regions where a single orbital dominates. We employ this method for the solution of atomic and molecular potentials, and use the resultant curve to devise a systematic construction for highly accurate and useful analytical approximations for several systems. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER16103), and the U.S. National Science Foundation (Graduate Research Fellowship, Grants No. PHY-1125844 and No. PHY-1068706).
Do Ecological Niche Models Accurately Identify Climatic Determinants of Species Ranges?
Searcy, Christopher A; Shaffer, H Bradley
2016-04-01
Defining species' niches is central to understanding their distributions and is thus fundamental to basic ecology and climate change projections. Ecological niche models (ENMs) are a key component of making accurate projections and include descriptions of the niche in terms of both response curves and rankings of variable importance. In this study, we evaluate Maxent's ranking of environmental variables based on their importance in delimiting species' range boundaries by asking whether these same variables also govern annual recruitment based on long-term demographic studies. We found that Maxent-based assessments of variable importance in setting range boundaries in the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense; CTS) correlate very well with how important those variables are in governing ongoing recruitment of CTS at the population level. This strong correlation suggests that Maxent's ranking of variable importance captures biologically realistic assessments of factors governing population persistence. However, this result holds only when Maxent models are built using best-practice procedures and variables are ranked based on permutation importance. Our study highlights the need for building high-quality niche models and provides encouraging evidence that when such models are built, they can reflect important aspects of a species' ecology. PMID:27028071
Linaro, Daniele; Storace, Marco; Giugliano, Michele
2011-01-01
Stochastic channel gating is the major source of intrinsic neuronal noise whose functional consequences at the microcircuit- and network-levels have been only partly explored. A systematic study of this channel noise in large ensembles of biophysically detailed model neurons calls for the availability of fast numerical methods. In fact, exact techniques employ the microscopic simulation of the random opening and closing of individual ion channels, usually based on Markov models, whose computational loads are prohibitive for next generation massive computer models of the brain. In this work, we operatively define a procedure for translating any Markov model describing voltage- or ligand-gated membrane ion-conductances into an effective stochastic version, whose computer simulation is efficient, without compromising accuracy. Our approximation is based on an improved Langevin-like approach, which employs stochastic differential equations and no Montecarlo methods. As opposed to an earlier proposal recently debated in the literature, our approximation reproduces accurately the statistical properties of the exact microscopic simulations, under a variety of conditions, from spontaneous to evoked response features. In addition, our method is not restricted to the Hodgkin-Huxley sodium and potassium currents and is general for a variety of voltage- and ligand-gated ion currents. As a by-product, the analysis of the properties emerging in exact Markov schemes by standard probability calculus enables us for the first time to analytically identify the sources of inaccuracy of the previous proposal, while providing solid ground for its modification and improvement we present here. PMID:21423712
Accurate integral equation theory for the central force model of liquid water and ionic solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichiye, Toshiko; Haymet, A. D. J.
1988-10-01
The atom-atom pair correlation functions and thermodynamics of the central force model of water, introduced by Lemberg, Stillinger, and Rahman, have been calculated accurately by an integral equation method which incorporates two new developments. First, a rapid new scheme has been used to solve the Ornstein-Zernike equation. This scheme combines the renormalization methods of Allnatt, and Rossky and Friedman with an extension of the trigonometric basis-set solution of Labik and co-workers. Second, by adding approximate ``bridge'' functions to the hypernetted-chain (HNC) integral equation, we have obtained predictions for liquid water in which the hydrogen bond length and number are in good agreement with ``exact'' computer simulations of the same model force laws. In addition, for dilute ionic solutions, the ion-oxygen and ion-hydrogen coordination numbers display both the physically correct stoichiometry and good agreement with earlier simulations. These results represent a measurable improvement over both a previous HNC solution of the central force model and the ex-RISM integral equation solutions for the TIPS and other rigid molecule models of water.
Efficient and Accurate Explicit Integration Algorithms with Application to Viscoplastic Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arya, Vinod K.
1994-01-01
Several explicit integration algorithms with self-adative time integration strategies are developed and investigated for efficiency and accuracy. These algorithms involve the Runge-Kutta second order, the lower Runge-Kutta method of orders one and two, and the exponential integration method. The algorithms are applied to viscoplastic models put forth by Freed and Verrilli and Bodner and Partom for thermal/mechanical loadings (including tensile, relaxation, and cyclic loadings). The large amount of computations performed showed that, for comparable accuracy, the efficiency of an integration algorithm depends significantly on the type of application (loading). However, in general, for the aforementioned loadings and viscoplastic models, the exponential integration algorithm with the proposed self-adaptive time integration strategy worked more (or comparably) efficiently and accurately than the other integration algorithms. Using this strategy for integrating viscoplastic models may lead to considerable savings in computer time (better efficiency) without adversely affecting the accuracy of the results. This conclusion should encourage the utilization of viscoplastic models in the stress analysis and design of structural components.
An accurate and efficient Lagrangian sub-grid model for multi-particle dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toschi, Federico; Mazzitelli, Irene; Lanotte, Alessandra S.
2014-11-01
Many natural and industrial processes involve the dispersion of particle in turbulent flows. Despite recent theoretical progresses in the understanding of particle dynamics in simple turbulent flows, complex geometries often call for numerical approaches based on eulerian Large Eddy Simulation (LES). One important issue related to the Lagrangian integration of tracers in under-resolved velocity fields is connected to the lack of spatial correlations at unresolved scales. Here we propose a computationally efficient Lagrangian model for the sub-grid velocity of tracers dispersed in statistically homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows. The model incorporates the multi-scale nature of turbulent temporal and spatial correlations that are essential to correctly reproduce the dynamics of multi-particle dispersion. The new model is able to describe the Lagrangian temporal and spatial correlations in clouds of particles. In particular we show that pairs and tetrads dispersion compare well with results from Direct Numerical Simulations of statistically isotropic and homogeneous 3d turbulence. This model may offer an accurate and efficient way to describe multi-particle dispersion in under resolved turbulent velocity fields such as the one employed in eulerian LES. This work is part of the research programmes FP112 of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). We acknowledge support from the EU COST Action MP0806.
Pagán, Josué; Risco-Martín, José L; Moya, José M; Ayala, José L
2016-08-01
Prediction of symptomatic crises in chronic diseases allows to take decisions before the symptoms occur, such as the intake of drugs to avoid the symptoms or the activation of medical alarms. The prediction horizon is in this case an important parameter in order to fulfill the pharmacokinetics of medications, or the time response of medical services. This paper presents a study about the prediction limits of a chronic disease with symptomatic crises: the migraine. For that purpose, this work develops a methodology to build predictive migraine models and to improve these predictions beyond the limits of the initial models. The maximum prediction horizon is analyzed, and its dependency on the selected features is studied. A strategy for model selection is proposed to tackle the trade off between conservative but robust predictive models, with respect to less accurate predictions with higher horizons. The obtained results show a prediction horizon close to 40min, which is in the time range of the drug pharmacokinetics. Experiments have been performed in a realistic scenario where input data have been acquired in an ambulatory clinical study by the deployment of a non-intrusive Wireless Body Sensor Network. Our results provide an effective methodology for the selection of the future horizon in the development of prediction algorithms for diseases experiencing symptomatic crises. PMID:27260782
Santolini, Marc; Mora, Thierry; Hakim, Vincent
2014-01-01
The identification of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) on genomic DNA is of crucial importance for understanding and predicting regulatory elements in gene networks. TFBS motifs are commonly described by Position Weight Matrices (PWMs), in which each DNA base pair contributes independently to the transcription factor (TF) binding. However, this description ignores correlations between nucleotides at different positions, and is generally inaccurate: analysing fly and mouse in vivo ChIPseq data, we show that in most cases the PWM model fails to reproduce the observed statistics of TFBSs. To overcome this issue, we introduce the pairwise interaction model (PIM), a generalization of the PWM model. The model is based on the principle of maximum entropy and explicitly describes pairwise correlations between nucleotides at different positions, while being otherwise as unconstrained as possible. It is mathematically equivalent to considering a TF-DNA binding energy that depends additively on each nucleotide identity at all positions in the TFBS, like the PWM model, but also additively on pairs of nucleotides. We find that the PIM significantly improves over the PWM model, and even provides an optimal description of TFBS statistics within statistical noise. The PIM generalizes previous approaches to interdependent positions: it accounts for co-variation of two or more base pairs, and predicts secondary motifs, while outperforming multiple-motif models consisting of mixtures of PWMs. We analyse the structure of pairwise interactions between nucleotides, and find that they are sparse and dominantly located between consecutive base pairs in the flanking region of TFBS. Nonetheless, interactions between pairs of non-consecutive nucleotides are found to play a significant role in the obtained accurate description of TFBS statistics. The PIM is computationally tractable, and provides a general framework that should be useful for describing and predicting TFBSs beyond
Application of thin plate splines for accurate regional ionosphere modeling with multi-GNSS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krypiak-Gregorczyk, Anna; Wielgosz, Pawel; Borkowski, Andrzej
2016-04-01
GNSS-derived regional ionosphere models are widely used in both precise positioning, ionosphere and space weather studies. However, their accuracy is often not sufficient to support precise positioning, RTK in particular. In this paper, we presented new approach that uses solely carrier phase multi-GNSS observables and thin plate splines (TPS) for accurate ionospheric TEC modeling. TPS is a closed solution of a variational problem minimizing both the sum of squared second derivatives of a smoothing function and the deviation between data points and this function. This approach is used in UWM-rt1 regional ionosphere model developed at UWM in Olsztyn. The model allows for providing ionospheric TEC maps with high spatial and temporal resolutions - 0.2x0.2 degrees and 2.5 minutes, respectively. For TEC estimation, EPN and EUPOS reference station data is used. The maps are available with delay of 15-60 minutes. In this paper we compare the performance of UWM-rt1 model with IGS global and CODE regional ionosphere maps during ionospheric storm that took place on March 17th, 2015. During this storm, the TEC level over Europe doubled comparing to earlier quiet days. The performance of the UWM-rt1 model was validated by (a) comparison to reference double-differenced ionospheric corrections over selected baselines, and (b) analysis of post-fit residuals to calibrated carrier phase geometry-free observational arcs at selected test stations. The results show a very good performance of UWM-rt1 model. The obtained post-fit residuals in case of UWM maps are lower by one order of magnitude comparing to IGS maps. The accuracy of UWM-rt1 -derived TEC maps is estimated at 0.5 TECU. This may be directly translated to the user positioning domain.
Felmy, Andrew R.; Mason, Marvin; Qafoku, Odeta; Xia, Yuanxian; Wang, Zheming; MacLean, Graham
2003-03-27
Developing accurate thermodynamic models for predicting the chemistry of the high-level waste tanks at Hanford is an extremely daunting challenge in electrolyte and radionuclide chemistry. These challenges stem from the extremely high ionic strength of the tank waste supernatants, presence of chelating agents in selected tanks, wide temperature range in processing conditions and the presence of important actinide species in multiple oxidation states. This presentation summarizes progress made to date in developing accurate models for these tank waste solutions, how these data are being used at Hanford and the important challenges that remain. New thermodynamic measurements on Sr and actinide complexation with specific chelating agents (EDTA, HEDTA and gluconate) will also be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somerville, W. R. C.; Auguié, B.; Le Ru, E. C.
2016-03-01
SMARTIES calculates the optical properties of oblate and prolate spheroidal particles, with comparable capabilities and ease-of-use as Mie theory for spheres. This suite of MATLAB codes provides a fully documented implementation of an improved T-matrix algorithm for the theoretical modelling of electromagnetic scattering by particles of spheroidal shape. Included are scripts that cover a range of scattering problems relevant to nanophotonics and plasmonics, including calculation of far-field scattering and absorption cross-sections for fixed incidence orientation, orientation-averaged cross-sections and scattering matrix, surface-field calculations as well as near-fields, wavelength-dependent near-field and far-field properties, and access to lower-level functions implementing the T-matrix calculations, including the T-matrix elements which may be calculated more accurately than with competing codes.
Accurate calculation of conductive conductances in complex geometries for spacecrafts thermal models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garmendia, Iñaki; Anglada, Eva; Vallejo, Haritz; Seco, Miguel
2016-02-01
The thermal subsystem of spacecrafts and payloads is always designed with the help of Thermal Mathematical Models. In the case of the Thermal Lumped Parameter (TLP) method, the non-linear system of equations that is created is solved to calculate the temperature distribution and the heat power that goes between nodes. The accuracy of the results depends largely on the appropriate calculation of the conductive and radiative conductances. Several established methods for the determination of conductive conductances exist but they present some limitations for complex geometries. Two new methods are proposed in this paper to calculate accurately these conductive conductances: The Extended Far Field method and the Mid-Section method. Both are based on a finite element calculation but while the Extended Far Field method uses the calculation of node mean temperatures, the Mid-Section method is based on assuming specific temperature values. They are compared with traditionally used methods showing the advantages of these two new methods.
A fast and accurate PCA based radiative transfer model: Extension to the broadband shortwave region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopparla, Pushkar; Natraj, Vijay; Spurr, Robert; Shia, Run-Lie; Crisp, David; Yung, Yuk L.
2016-04-01
Accurate radiative transfer (RT) calculations are necessary for many earth-atmosphere applications, from remote sensing retrieval to climate modeling. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-based spectral binning method has been shown to provide an order of magnitude increase in computational speed while maintaining an overall accuracy of 0.01% (compared to line-by-line calculations) over narrow spectral bands. In this paper, we have extended the PCA method for RT calculations over the entire shortwave region of the spectrum from 0.3 to 3 microns. The region is divided into 33 spectral fields covering all major gas absorption regimes. We find that the RT performance runtimes are shorter by factors between 10 and 100, while root mean square errors are of order 0.01%.
Accurate force fields and methods for modelling organic molecular crystals at finite temperatures.
Nyman, Jonas; Pundyke, Orla Sheehan; Day, Graeme M
2016-06-21
We present an assessment of the performance of several force fields for modelling intermolecular interactions in organic molecular crystals using the X23 benchmark set. The performance of the force fields is compared to several popular dispersion corrected density functional methods. In addition, we present our implementation of lattice vibrational free energy calculations in the quasi-harmonic approximation, using several methods to account for phonon dispersion. This allows us to also benchmark the force fields' reproduction of finite temperature crystal structures. The results demonstrate that anisotropic atom-atom multipole-based force fields can be as accurate as several popular DFT-D methods, but have errors 2-3 times larger than the current best DFT-D methods. The largest error in the examined force fields is a systematic underestimation of the (absolute) lattice energy. PMID:27230942
O’Connor, James PB; Boult, Jessica KR; Jamin, Yann; Babur, Muhammad; Finegan, Katherine G; Williams, Kaye J; Little, Ross A; Jackson, Alan; Parker, Geoff JM; Reynolds, Andrew R; Waterton, John C; Robinson, Simon P
2015-01-01
There is a clinical need for non-invasive biomarkers of tumor hypoxia for prognostic and predictive studies, radiotherapy planning and therapy monitoring. Oxygen enhanced MRI (OE-MRI) is an emerging imaging technique for quantifying the spatial distribution and extent of tumor oxygen delivery in vivo. In OE-MRI, the longitudinal relaxation rate of protons (ΔR1) changes in proportion to the concentration of molecular oxygen dissolved in plasma or interstitial tissue fluid. Therefore, well-oxygenated tissues show positive ΔR1. We hypothesized that the fraction of tumor tissue refractory to oxygen challenge (lack of positive ΔR1, termed “Oxy-R fraction”) would be a robust biomarker of hypoxia in models with varying vascular and hypoxic features. Here we demonstrate that OE-MRI signals are accurate, precise and sensitive to changes in tumor pO2 in highly vascular 786-0 renal cancer xenografts. Furthermore, we show that Oxy-R fraction can quantify the hypoxic fraction in multiple models with differing hypoxic and vascular phenotypes, when used in combination with measurements of tumor perfusion. Finally, Oxy-R fraction can detect dynamic changes in hypoxia induced by the vasomodulator agent hydralazine. In contrast, more conventional biomarkers of hypoxia (derived from blood oxygenation-level dependent MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) did not relate to tumor hypoxia consistently. Our results show that the Oxy-R fraction accurately quantifies tumor hypoxia non-invasively and is immediately translatable to the clinic. PMID:26659574
Nielsen, Jens; D’Avezac, Mayeul; Hetherington, James; Stamatakis, Michail
2013-12-14
Ab initio kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations have been successfully applied for over two decades to elucidate the underlying physico-chemical phenomena on the surfaces of heterogeneous catalysts. These simulations necessitate detailed knowledge of the kinetics of elementary reactions constituting the reaction mechanism, and the energetics of the species participating in the chemistry. The information about the energetics is encoded in the formation energies of gas and surface-bound species, and the lateral interactions between adsorbates on the catalytic surface, which can be modeled at different levels of detail. The majority of previous works accounted for only pairwise-additive first nearest-neighbor interactions. More recently, cluster-expansion Hamiltonians incorporating long-range interactions and many-body terms have been used for detailed estimations of catalytic rate [C. Wu, D. J. Schmidt, C. Wolverton, and W. F. Schneider, J. Catal. 286, 88 (2012)]. In view of the increasing interest in accurate predictions of catalytic performance, there is a need for general-purpose KMC approaches incorporating detailed cluster expansion models for the adlayer energetics. We have addressed this need by building on the previously introduced graph-theoretical KMC framework, and we have developed Zacros, a FORTRAN2003 KMC package for simulating catalytic chemistries. To tackle the high computational cost in the presence of long-range interactions we introduce parallelization with OpenMP. We further benchmark our framework by simulating a KMC analogue of the NO oxidation system established by Schneider and co-workers [J. Catal. 286, 88 (2012)]. We show that taking into account only first nearest-neighbor interactions may lead to large errors in the prediction of the catalytic rate, whereas for accurate estimates thereof, one needs to include long-range terms in the cluster expansion.
The S-model: A highly accurate MOST model for CAD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satter, J. H.
1986-09-01
A new MOST model which combines simplicity and a logical structure with a high accuracy of only 0.5-4.5% is presented. The model is suited for enhancement and depletion devices with either large or small dimensions. It includes the effects of scattering and carrier-velocity saturation as well as the influence of the intrinsic source and drain series resistance. The decrease of the drain current due to substrate bias is incorporated too. The model is in the first place intended for digital purposes. All necessary quantities are calculated in a straightforward manner without iteration. An almost entirely new way of determining the parameters is described and a new cluster parameter is introduced, which is responsible for the high accuracy of the model. The total number of parameters is 7. A still simpler β expression is derived, which is suitable for only one value of the substrate bias and contains only three parameters, while maintaining the accuracy. The way in which the parameters are determined is readily suited for automatic measurement. A simple linear regression procedure programmed in the computer, which controls the measurements, produces the parameter values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchman, Michael; Winter, Amos
2015-11-01
Turbocharging an engine increases specific power, improves fuel economy, reduces emissions, and lowers cost compared to a naturally aspirated engine of the same power output. These advantages make turbocharging commonplace for multi-cylinder engines. Single cylinder engineers are not commonly turbocharged due to the phase lag between the exhaust stroke, which powers the turbocharger, and the intake stroke, when air is pumped into the engine. Our proposed method of turbocharging single cylinder engines is to add an ``air capacitor'' to the intake manifold, an additional volume that acts as a buffer to store compressed air between the exhaust and intake strokes, and smooth out the pressure pulses from the turbocharger. This talk presents experimental results from a single cylinder, turbocharged diesel engine fit with various sized air capacitors. Power output from the engine was measured using a dynamometer made from a generator, with the electrical power dissipated with resistive heating elements. We found that intake air density increases with capacitor size as theoretically predicted, ranging from 40 to 60 percent depending on heat transfer. Our experiment was able to produce 29 percent more power compared to using natural aspiration. These results validated that an air capacitor and turbocharger may be a simple, cost effective means of increasing the power density of single cylinder engines.
Random generalized linear model: a highly accurate and interpretable ensemble predictor
2013-01-01
Background Ensemble predictors such as the random forest are known to have superior accuracy but their black-box predictions are difficult to interpret. In contrast, a generalized linear model (GLM) is very interpretable especially when forward feature selection is used to construct the model. However, forward feature selection tends to overfit the data and leads to low predictive accuracy. Therefore, it remains an important research goal to combine the advantages of ensemble predictors (high accuracy) with the advantages of forward regression modeling (interpretability). To address this goal several articles have explored GLM based ensemble predictors. Since limited evaluations suggested that these ensemble predictors were less accurate than alternative predictors, they have found little attention in the literature. Results Comprehensive evaluations involving hundreds of genomic data sets, the UCI machine learning benchmark data, and simulations are used to give GLM based ensemble predictors a new and careful look. A novel bootstrap aggregated (bagged) GLM predictor that incorporates several elements of randomness and instability (random subspace method, optional interaction terms, forward variable selection) often outperforms a host of alternative prediction methods including random forests and penalized regression models (ridge regression, elastic net, lasso). This random generalized linear model (RGLM) predictor provides variable importance measures that can be used to define a “thinned” ensemble predictor (involving few features) that retains excellent predictive accuracy. Conclusion RGLM is a state of the art predictor that shares the advantages of a random forest (excellent predictive accuracy, feature importance measures, out-of-bag estimates of accuracy) with those of a forward selected generalized linear model (interpretability). These methods are implemented in the freely available R software package randomGLM. PMID:23323760
Discrete state model and accurate estimation of loop entropy of RNA secondary structures.
Zhang, Jian; Lin, Ming; Chen, Rong; Wang, Wei; Liang, Jie
2008-03-28
Conformational entropy makes important contribution to the stability and folding of RNA molecule, but it is challenging to either measure or compute conformational entropy associated with long loops. We develop optimized discrete k-state models of RNA backbone based on known RNA structures for computing entropy of loops, which are modeled as self-avoiding walks. To estimate entropy of hairpin, bulge, internal loop, and multibranch loop of long length (up to 50), we develop an efficient sampling method based on the sequential Monte Carlo principle. Our method considers excluded volume effect. It is general and can be applied to calculating entropy of loops with longer length and arbitrary complexity. For loops of short length, our results are in good agreement with a recent theoretical model and experimental measurement. For long loops, our estimated entropy of hairpin loops is in excellent agreement with the Jacobson-Stockmayer extrapolation model. However, for bulge loops and more complex secondary structures such as internal and multibranch loops, we find that the Jacobson-Stockmayer extrapolation model has large errors. Based on estimated entropy, we have developed empirical formulae for accurate calculation of entropy of long loops in different secondary structures. Our study on the effect of asymmetric size of loops suggest that loop entropy of internal loops is largely determined by the total loop length, and is only marginally affected by the asymmetric size of the two loops. Our finding suggests that the significant asymmetric effects of loop length in internal loops measured by experiments are likely to be partially enthalpic. Our method can be applied to develop improved energy parameters important for studying RNA stability and folding, and for predicting RNA secondary and tertiary structures. The discrete model and the program used to calculate loop entropy can be downloaded at http://gila.bioengr.uic.edu/resources/RNA.html. PMID:18376982
Gay, Guillaume; Courtheoux, Thibault; Reyes, Céline
2012-01-01
In fission yeast, erroneous attachments of spindle microtubules to kinetochores are frequent in early mitosis. Most are corrected before anaphase onset by a mechanism involving the protein kinase Aurora B, which destabilizes kinetochore microtubules (ktMTs) in the absence of tension between sister chromatids. In this paper, we describe a minimal mathematical model of fission yeast chromosome segregation based on the stochastic attachment and detachment of ktMTs. The model accurately reproduces the timing of correct chromosome biorientation and segregation seen in fission yeast. Prevention of attachment defects requires both appropriate kinetochore orientation and an Aurora B–like activity. The model also reproduces abnormal chromosome segregation behavior (caused by, for example, inhibition of Aurora B). It predicts that, in metaphase, merotelic attachment is prevented by a kinetochore orientation effect and corrected by an Aurora B–like activity, whereas in anaphase, it is corrected through unbalanced forces applied to the kinetochore. These unbalanced forces are sufficient to prevent aneuploidy. PMID:22412019
Wijma, Hein J; Marrink, Siewert J; Janssen, Dick B
2014-07-28
Computational approaches could decrease the need for the laborious high-throughput experimental screening that is often required to improve enzymes by mutagenesis. Here, we report that using multiple short molecular dynamics (MD) simulations makes it possible to accurately model enantioselectivity for large numbers of enzyme-substrate combinations at low computational costs. We chose four different haloalkane dehalogenases as model systems because of the availability of a large set of experimental data on the enantioselective conversion of 45 different substrates. To model the enantioselectivity, we quantified the frequency of occurrence of catalytically productive conformations (near attack conformations) for pairs of enantiomers during MD simulations. We found that the angle of nucleophilic attack that leads to carbon-halogen bond cleavage was a critical variable that limited the occurrence of productive conformations; enantiomers for which this angle reached values close to 180° were preferentially converted. A cluster of 20-40 very short (10 ps) MD simulations allowed adequate conformational sampling and resulted in much better agreement to experimental enantioselectivities than single long MD simulations (22 ns), while the computational costs were 50-100 fold lower. With single long MD simulations, the dynamics of enzyme-substrate complexes remained confined to a conformational subspace that rarely changed significantly, whereas with multiple short MD simulations a larger diversity of conformations of enzyme-substrate complexes was observed. PMID:24916632
Accurate models for P-gp drug recognition induced from a cancer cell line cytotoxicity screen.
Levatić, Jurica; Ćurak, Jasna; Kralj, Marijeta; Šmuc, Tomislav; Osmak, Maja; Supek, Fran
2013-07-25
P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1) is a promiscuous drug efflux pump of substantial pharmacological importance. Taking advantage of large-scale cytotoxicity screening data involving 60 cancer cell lines, we correlated the differential biological activities of ∼13,000 compounds against cellular P-gp levels. We created a large set of 934 high-confidence P-gp substrates or nonsubstrates by enforcing agreement with an orthogonal criterion involving P-gp overexpressing ADR-RES cells. A support vector machine (SVM) was 86.7% accurate in discriminating P-gp substrates on independent test data, exceeding previous models. Two molecular features had an overarching influence: nearly all P-gp substrates were large (>35 atoms including H) and dense (specific volume of <7.3 Å(3)/atom) molecules. Seven other descriptors and 24 molecular fragments ("effluxophores") were found enriched in the (non)substrates and incorporated into interpretable rule-based models. Biological experiments on an independent P-gp overexpressing cell line, the vincristine-resistant VK2, allowed us to reclassify six compounds previously annotated as substrates, validating our method's predictive ability. Models are freely available at http://pgp.biozyne.com . PMID:23772653
2011-01-01
Background Data assimilation refers to methods for updating the state vector (initial condition) of a complex spatiotemporal model (such as a numerical weather model) by combining new observations with one or more prior forecasts. We consider the potential feasibility of this approach for making short-term (60-day) forecasts of the growth and spread of a malignant brain cancer (glioblastoma multiforme) in individual patient cases, where the observations are synthetic magnetic resonance images of a hypothetical tumor. Results We apply a modern state estimation algorithm (the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter), previously developed for numerical weather prediction, to two different mathematical models of glioblastoma, taking into account likely errors in model parameters and measurement uncertainties in magnetic resonance imaging. The filter can accurately shadow the growth of a representative synthetic tumor for 360 days (six 60-day forecast/update cycles) in the presence of a moderate degree of systematic model error and measurement noise. Conclusions The mathematical methodology described here may prove useful for other modeling efforts in biology and oncology. An accurate forecast system for glioblastoma may prove useful in clinical settings for treatment planning and patient counseling. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Anthony Almudevar, Tomas Radivoyevitch, and Kristin Swanson (nominated by Georg Luebeck). PMID:22185645
Elvira, L; Hernandez, F; Cuesta, P; Cano, S; Gonzalez-Martin, J-V; Astiz, S
2013-06-01
Although the intensive production system of Lacaune dairy sheep is the only profitable method for producers outside of the French Roquefort area, little is known about this type of systems. This study evaluated yield records of 3677 Lacaune sheep under intensive management between 2005 and 2010 in order to describe the lactation curve of this breed and to investigate the suitability of different mathematical functions for modeling this curve. A total of 7873 complete lactations during a 40-week lactation period corresponding to 201 281 pieces of weekly yield data were used. First, five mathematical functions were evaluated on the basis of the residual mean square, determination coefficient, Durbin Watson and Runs Test values. The two better models were found to be Pollott Additive and fractional polynomial (FP). In the second part of the study, the milk yield, peak of milk yield, day of peak and persistency of the lactations were calculated with Pollot Additive and FP models and compared with the real data. The results indicate that both models gave an extremely accurate fit to Lacaune lactation curves in order to predict milk yields (P = 0.871), with the FP model being the best choice to provide a good fit to an extensive amount of real data and applicable on farm without specific statistical software. On the other hand, the interpretation of the parameters of the Pollott Additive function helps to understand the biology of the udder of the Lacaune sheep. The characteristics of the Lacaune lactation curve and milk yield are affected by lactation number and length. The lactation curves obtained in the present study allow the early identification of ewes with low milk yield potential, which will help to optimize farm profitability. PMID:23257242
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopparla, P.; Natraj, V.; Shia, R. L.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Crisp, D.; Yung, Y. L.
2015-12-01
Radiative transfer (RT) computations form the engine of atmospheric retrieval codes. However, full treatment of RT processes is computationally expensive, prompting usage of two-stream approximations in current exoplanetary atmospheric retrieval codes [Line et al., 2013]. Natraj et al. [2005, 2010] and Spurr and Natraj [2013] demonstrated the ability of a technique using principal component analysis (PCA) to speed up RT computations. In the PCA method for RT performance enhancement, empirical orthogonal functions are developed for binned sets of inherent optical properties that possess some redundancy; costly multiple-scattering RT calculations are only done for those few optical states corresponding to the most important principal components, and correction factors are applied to approximate radiation fields. Kopparla et al. [2015, in preparation] extended the PCA method to a broadband spectral region from the ultraviolet to the shortwave infrared (0.3-3 micron), accounting for major gas absorptions in this region. Here, we apply the PCA method to a some typical (exo-)planetary retrieval problems. Comparisons between the new model, called Universal Principal Component Analysis Radiative Transfer (UPCART) model, two-stream models and line-by-line RT models are performed, for spectral radiances, spectral fluxes and broadband fluxes. Each of these are calculated at the top of the atmosphere for several scenarios with varying aerosol types, extinction and scattering optical depth profiles, and stellar and viewing geometries. We demonstrate that very accurate radiance and flux estimates can be obtained, with better than 1% accuracy in all spectral regions and better than 0.1% in most cases, as compared to a numerically exact line-by-line RT model. The accuracy is enhanced when the results are convolved to typical instrument resolutions. The operational speed and accuracy of UPCART can be further improved by optimizing binning schemes and parallelizing the codes, work
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerlet, Sandrine; Spiga, A.; Sylvestre, M.; Fouchet, T.; Millour, E.; Wordsworth, R.; Leconte, J.; Forget, F.
2013-10-01
Recent observations of Saturn’s stratospheric thermal structure and composition revealed new phenomena: an equatorial oscillation in temperature, reminiscent of the Earth's Quasi-Biennal Oscillation ; strong meridional contrasts of hydrocarbons ; a warm “beacon” associated with the powerful 2010 storm. Those signatures cannot be reproduced by 1D photochemical and radiative models and suggest that atmospheric dynamics plays a key role. This motivated us to develop a complete 3D General Circulation Model (GCM) for Saturn, based on the LMDz hydrodynamical core, to explore the circulation, seasonal variability, and wave activity in Saturn's atmosphere. In order to closely reproduce Saturn's radiative forcing, a particular emphasis was put in obtaining fast and accurate radiative transfer calculations. Our radiative model uses correlated-k distributions and spectral discretization tailored for Saturn's atmosphere. We include internal heat flux, ring shadowing and aerosols. We will report on the sensitivity of the model to spectral discretization, spectroscopic databases, and aerosol scenarios (varying particle sizes, opacities and vertical structures). We will also discuss the radiative effect of the ring shadowing on Saturn's atmosphere. We will present a comparison of temperature fields obtained with this new radiative equilibrium model to that inferred from Cassini/CIRS observations. In the troposphere, our model reproduces the observed temperature knee caused by heating at the top of the tropospheric aerosol layer. In the lower stratosphere (20mbar
modeled temperature is 5-10K too low compared to measurements. This suggests that processes other than radiative heating/cooling by trace
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wosnik, M.; Bachant, P.
2014-12-01
Cross-flow turbines, often referred to as vertical-axis turbines, show potential for success in marine hydrokinetic (MHK) and wind energy applications, ranging from small- to utility-scale installations in tidal/ocean currents and offshore wind. As turbine designs mature, the research focus is shifting from individual devices to the optimization of turbine arrays. It would be expensive and time-consuming to conduct physical model studies of large arrays at large model scales (to achieve sufficiently high Reynolds numbers), and hence numerical techniques are generally better suited to explore the array design parameter space. However, since the computing power available today is not sufficient to conduct simulations of the flow in and around large arrays of turbines with fully resolved turbine geometries (e.g., grid resolution into the viscous sublayer on turbine blades), the turbines' interaction with the energy resource (water current or wind) needs to be parameterized, or modeled. Models used today--a common model is the actuator disk concept--are not able to predict the unique wake structure generated by cross-flow turbines. This wake structure has been shown to create "constructive" interference in some cases, improving turbine performance in array configurations, in contrast with axial-flow, or horizontal axis devices. Towards a more accurate parameterization of cross-flow turbines, an extensive experimental study was carried out using a high-resolution turbine test bed with wake measurement capability in a large cross-section tow tank. The experimental results were then "interpolated" using high-fidelity Navier--Stokes simulations, to gain insight into the turbine's near-wake. The study was designed to achieve sufficiently high Reynolds numbers for the results to be Reynolds number independent with respect to turbine performance and wake statistics, such that they can be reliably extrapolated to full scale and used for model validation. The end product of
Accurate modeling of cache replacement policies in a Data-Grid.
Otoo, Ekow J.; Shoshani, Arie
2003-01-23
Caching techniques have been used to improve the performance gap of storage hierarchies in computing systems. In data intensive applications that access large data files over wide area network environment, such as a data grid,caching mechanism can significantly improve the data access performance under appropriate workloads. In a data grid, it is envisioned that local disk storage resources retain or cache the data files being used by local application. Under a workload of shared access and high locality of reference, the performance of the caching techniques depends heavily on the replacement policies being used. A replacement policy effectively determines which set of objects must be evicted when space is needed. Unlike cache replacement policies in virtual memory paging or database buffering, developing an optimal replacement policy for data grids is complicated by the fact that the file objects being cached have varying sizes and varying transfer and processing costs that vary with time. We present an accurate model for evaluating various replacement policies and propose a new replacement algorithm referred to as ''Least Cost Beneficial based on K backward references (LCB-K).'' Using this modeling technique, we compare LCB-K with various replacement policies such as Least Frequently Used (LFU), Least Recently Used (LRU), Greedy DualSize (GDS), etc., using synthetic and actual workload of accesses to and from tertiary storage systems. The results obtained show that (LCB-K) and (GDS) are the most cost effective cache replacement policies for storage resource management in data grids.
An Approach to More Accurate Model Systems for Purple Acid Phosphatases (PAPs).
Bernhardt, Paul V; Bosch, Simone; Comba, Peter; Gahan, Lawrence R; Hanson, Graeme R; Mereacre, Valeriu; Noble, Christopher J; Powell, Annie K; Schenk, Gerhard; Wadepohl, Hubert
2015-08-01
The active site of mammalian purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) have a dinuclear iron site in two accessible oxidation states (Fe(III)2 and Fe(III)Fe(II)), and the heterovalent is the active form, involved in the regulation of phosphate and phosphorylated metabolite levels in a wide range of organisms. Therefore, two sites with different coordination geometries to stabilize the heterovalent active form and, in addition, with hydrogen bond donors to enable the fixation of the substrate and release of the product, are believed to be required for catalytically competent model systems. Two ligands and their dinuclear iron complexes have been studied in detail. The solid-state structures and properties, studied by X-ray crystallography, magnetism, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the solution structural and electronic properties, investigated by mass spectrometry, electronic, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Mössbauer spectroscopies and electrochemistry, are discussed in detail in order to understand the structures and relative stabilities in solution. In particular, with one of the ligands, a heterovalent Fe(III)Fe(II) species has been produced by chemical oxidation of the Fe(II)2 precursor. The phosphatase reactivities of the complexes, in particular, also of the heterovalent complex, are reported. These studies include pH-dependent as well as substrate concentration dependent studies, leading to pH profiles, catalytic efficiencies and turnover numbers, and indicate that the heterovalent diiron complex discussed here is an accurate PAP model system. PMID:26196255
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walter, Johannes; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Süß, Sebastian; Segets, Doris; Peukert, Wolfgang
2015-04-01
Analytical centrifugation (AC) is a powerful technique for the characterisation of nanoparticles in colloidal systems. As a direct and absolute technique it requires no calibration or measurements of standards. Moreover, it offers simple experimental design and handling, high sample throughput as well as moderate investment costs. However, the full potential of AC for nanoparticle size analysis requires the development of powerful data analysis techniques. In this study we show how the application of direct boundary models to AC data opens up new possibilities in particle characterisation. An accurate analysis method, successfully applied to sedimentation data obtained by analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) in the past, was used for the first time in analysing AC data. Unlike traditional data evaluation routines for AC using a designated number of radial positions or scans, direct boundary models consider the complete sedimentation boundary, which results in significantly better statistics. We demonstrate that meniscus fitting, as well as the correction of radius and time invariant noise significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratio and prevents the occurrence of false positives due to optical artefacts. Moreover, hydrodynamic non-ideality can be assessed by the residuals obtained from the analysis. The sedimentation coefficient distributions obtained by AC are in excellent agreement with the results from AUC. Brownian dynamics simulations were used to generate numerical sedimentation data to study the influence of diffusion on the obtained distributions. Our approach is further validated using polystyrene and silica nanoparticles. In particular, we demonstrate the strength of AC for analysing multimodal distributions by means of gold nanoparticles.
ACCURATE UNIVERSAL MODELS FOR THE MASS ACCRETION HISTORIES AND CONCENTRATIONS OF DARK MATTER HALOS
Zhao, D. H.; Jing, Y. P.; Mo, H. J.; Boerner, G.
2009-12-10
A large amount of observations have constrained cosmological parameters and the initial density fluctuation spectrum to a very high accuracy. However, cosmological parameters change with time and the power index of the power spectrum dramatically varies with mass scale in the so-called concordance LAMBDACDM cosmology. Thus, any successful model for its structural evolution should work well simultaneously for various cosmological models and different power spectra. We use a large set of high-resolution N-body simulations of a variety of structure formation models (scale-free, standard CDM, open CDM, and LAMBDACDM) to study the mass accretion histories, the mass and redshift dependence of concentrations, and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos. We find that there is significant disagreement between the much-used empirical models in the literature and our simulations. Based on our simulation results, we find that the mass accretion rate of a halo is tightly correlated with a simple function of its mass, the redshift, parameters of the cosmology, and of the initial density fluctuation spectrum, which correctly disentangles the effects of all these factors and halo environments. We also find that the concentration of a halo is strongly correlated with the universe age when its progenitor on the mass accretion history first reaches 4% of its current mass. According to these correlations, we develop new empirical models for both the mass accretion histories and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos, and the latter can also be used to predict the mass and redshift dependence of halo concentrations. These models are accurate and universal: the same set of model parameters works well for different cosmological models and for halos of different masses at different redshifts, and in the LAMBDACDM case the model predictions match the simulation results very well even though halo mass is traced to about 0.0005 times the final mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pastor, J. V.; Serrano, J. R.; Dolz, V.; López, M. A.; Bouffaud, F.
2012-10-01
This paper presents a novel non-invasive technique to estimate the turbocharger shaft whirl motion. The aim of this article is to present a system for monitoring the shaft motion of a turbocharger, which will be used in turbocharger destructive testing. To achieve this, a camera and a light source were installed in a turbocharger test bench with a controlled lubrication circuit. An image recording methodology and a process algorithm have been developed, in order to estimate the shaft motion. This processing consists on differentiating specific zones of the image, in order to obtain their coordinates. Two reference points have been configured on the compressor side, which help to calculate the relative position of the shaft, avoiding the errors due to structural vibrations. Maximum eccentricity of the turbocharger has been determined and it has been compared with shaft motion when it is spinning in different conditions. A luminosity study has been also done, in order to improve the process and to obtain locus of shaft position in a picture exposition time period. The technique has been applied to diagnosis of a lubrication failure test and the main results will be presented in this article: like shaft motion figures; thermodynamic variables and pictures of the shaft while it is spinning at abnormal lubrication conditions. The measuring components used in this technique have the ability to withstand the catastrophic failure of the turbocharger in this type of test.
Hu, Y.X.; Stamnes, K. )
1993-04-01
A new parameterization of the radiative Properties of water clouds is presented. Cloud optical properties for valent radius throughout the solar and both solar and terrestrial spectra and for cloud equivalent radii in the range 2.5-60 [mu]m are calculated from Mie theory. It is found that cloud optical properties depend mainly on equivalent radius throughout the solar and terrestrial spectrum and are insensitive to the details of the droplet size distribution, such as shape, skewness, width, and modality (single or bimodal). This suggests that in cloud models, aimed at predicting the evolution of cloud microphysics with climate change, it is sufficient to determine the third and the second moments of the size distribution (the ratio of which determines the equivalent radius). It also implies that measurements of the cloud liquid water content and the extinction coefficient are sufficient to determine cloud optical properties experimentally (i.e., measuring the complete droplet size distribution is not required). Based on the detailed calculations, the optical properties are parameterized as a function of cloud liquid water path and equivalent cloud droplet radius by using a nonlinear least-square fitting. The parameterization is performed separately for the range of radii 2.5-12 [mu]m, 12-30,[mu]m, and 30-60 [mu]m. Cloud heating and cooling rates are computed from this parameterization by using a comprehensive radiation model. Comparison with similar results obtained from exact Mie scattering calculations shows that this parameterization yields very accurate results and that it is several thousand times faster. This parameterization separates the dependence of cloud optical properties on droplet size and liquid water content, and is suitable for inclusion into climate models. 22 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.
Modeling of Non-Gravitational Forces for Precise and Accurate Orbit Determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hackel, Stefan; Gisinger, Christoph; Steigenberger, Peter; Balss, Ulrich; Montenbruck, Oliver; Eineder, Michael
2014-05-01
Remote sensing satellites support a broad range of scientific and commercial applications. The two radar imaging satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X provide spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR data with a very high accuracy. The precise reconstruction of the satellite's trajectory is based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from a geodetic-grade dual-frequency Integrated Geodetic and Occultation Receiver (IGOR) onboard the spacecraft. The increasing demand for precise radar products relies on validation methods, which require precise and accurate orbit products. An analysis of the orbit quality by means of internal and external validation methods on long and short timescales shows systematics, which reflect deficits in the employed force models. Following the proper analysis of this deficits, possible solution strategies are highlighted in the presentation. The employed Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination (RDOD) approach utilizes models for gravitational and non-gravitational forces. A detailed satellite macro model is introduced to describe the geometry and the optical surface properties of the satellite. Two major non-gravitational forces are the direct and the indirect Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). The satellite TerraSAR-X flies on a dusk-dawn orbit with an altitude of approximately 510 km above ground. Due to this constellation, the Sun almost constantly illuminates the satellite, which causes strong across-track accelerations on the plane rectangular to the solar rays. The indirect effect of the solar radiation is called Earth Radiation Pressure (ERP). This force depends on the sunlight, which is reflected by the illuminated Earth surface (visible spectra) and the emission of the Earth body in the infrared spectra. Both components of ERP require Earth models to describe the optical properties of the Earth surface. Therefore, the influence of different Earth models on the orbit quality is assessed. The scope of
Emission of a Dual-Fuel Turbocharged Compression Ignition Engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rózycki, Andrzej
2012-02-01
The paper describes the results of a four-cylinder dual fuel turbocharged compression ignition engine. The aim of the study was to determine the maximum CNG share in thefuel mixture delivered into the cylinder. Analysis of the investigation results showed that the CNG energy share in the fuel charge delivered into the cylinder can reach 45%. At that level of CNG energy share a 15% reduction in maximum torque is achieved in comparison with the standard fuelling. The unburnt hydrocarbon emission increases significantly. Emissions of other principal pollutants reach values comparable with those obtained at standard fuelling.
Walter, Johannes; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Süss, Sebastian; Segets, Doris; Peukert, Wolfgang
2015-04-21
Analytical centrifugation (AC) is a powerful technique for the characterisation of nanoparticles in colloidal systems. As a direct and absolute technique it requires no calibration or measurements of standards. Moreover, it offers simple experimental design and handling, high sample throughput as well as moderate investment costs. However, the full potential of AC for nanoparticle size analysis requires the development of powerful data analysis techniques. In this study we show how the application of direct boundary models to AC data opens up new possibilities in particle characterisation. An accurate analysis method, successfully applied to sedimentation data obtained by analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) in the past, was used for the first time in analysing AC data. Unlike traditional data evaluation routines for AC using a designated number of radial positions or scans, direct boundary models consider the complete sedimentation boundary, which results in significantly better statistics. We demonstrate that meniscus fitting, as well as the correction of radius and time invariant noise significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratio and prevents the occurrence of false positives due to optical artefacts. Moreover, hydrodynamic non-ideality can be assessed by the residuals obtained from the analysis. The sedimentation coefficient distributions obtained by AC are in excellent agreement with the results from AUC. Brownian dynamics simulations were used to generate numerical sedimentation data to study the influence of diffusion on the obtained distributions. Our approach is further validated using polystyrene and silica nanoparticles. In particular, we demonstrate the strength of AC for analysing multimodal distributions by means of gold nanoparticles. PMID:25789666
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lachaume, Regis; Rabus, Markus; Jordan, Andres
2015-08-01
In stellar interferometry, the assumption that the observables can be seen as Gaussian, independent variables is the norm. In particular, neither the optical interferometry FITS (OIFITS) format nor the most popular fitting software in the field, LITpro, offer means to specify a covariance matrix or non-Gaussian uncertainties. Interferometric observables are correlated by construct, though. Also, the calibration by an instrumental transfer function ensures that the resulting observables are not Gaussian, even if uncalibrated ones happened to be so.While analytic frameworks have been published in the past, they are cumbersome and there is no generic implementation available. We propose here a relatively simple way of dealing with correlated errors without the need to extend the OIFITS specification or making some Gaussian assumptions. By repeatedly picking at random which interferograms, which calibrator stars, and which are the errors on their diameters, and performing the data processing on the bootstrapped data, we derive a sampling of p(O), the multivariate probability density function (PDF) of the observables O. The results can be stored in a normal OIFITS file. Then, given a model m with parameters P predicting observables O = m(P), we can estimate the PDF of the model parameters f(P) = p(m(P)) by using a density estimation of the observables' PDF p.With observations repeated over different baselines, on nights several days apart, and with a significant set of calibrators systematic errors are de facto taken into account. We apply the technique to a precise and accurate assessment of stellar diameters obtained at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer with PIONIER.
Stable, accurate and efficient computation of normal modes for horizontal stratified models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Bo; Chen, Xiaofei
2016-08-01
We propose an adaptive root-determining strategy that is very useful when dealing with trapped modes or Stoneley modes whose energies become very insignificant on the free surface in the presence of low-velocity layers or fluid layers in the model. Loss of modes in these cases or inaccuracy in the calculation of these modes may then be easily avoided. Built upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficients, the concept of `family of secular functions' that we herein call `adaptive mode observers' is thus naturally introduced to implement this strategy, the underlying idea of which has been distinctly noted for the first time and may be generalized to other applications such as free oscillations or applied to other methods in use when these cases are encountered. Additionally, we have made further improvements upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method; mode observers associated with only the free surface and low-velocity layers (and the fluid/solid interface if the model contains fluid layers) are adequate to guarantee no loss and high precision at the same time of any physically existent modes without excessive calculations. Finally, the conventional definition of the fundamental mode is reconsidered, which is entailed in the cases under study. Some computational aspects are remarked on. With the additional help afforded by our superior root-searching scheme and the possibility of speeding calculation using a less number of layers aided by the concept of `turning point', our algorithm is remarkably efficient as well as stable and accurate and can be used as a powerful tool for widely related applications.
Stable, accurate and efficient computation of normal modes for horizontal stratified models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Bo; Chen, Xiaofei
2016-06-01
We propose an adaptive root-determining strategy that is very useful when dealing with trapped modes or Stoneley modes whose energies become very insignificant on the free surface in the presence of low-velocity layers or fluid layers in the model. Loss of modes in these cases or inaccuracy in the calculation of these modes may then be easily avoided. Built upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficients, the concept of "family of secular functions" that we herein call "adaptive mode observers", is thus naturally introduced to implement this strategy, the underlying idea of which has been distinctly noted for the first time and may be generalized to other applications such as free oscillations or applied to other methods in use when these cases are encountered. Additionally, we have made further improvements upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method; mode observers associated with only the free surface and low-velocity layers (and the fluid/solid interface if the model contains fluid layers) are adequate to guarantee no loss and high precision at the same time of any physically existent modes without excessive calculations. Finally, the conventional definition of the fundamental mode is reconsidered, which is entailed in the cases under study. Some computational aspects are remarked on. With the additional help afforded by our superior root-searching scheme and the possibility of speeding calculation using a less number of layers aided by the concept of "turning point", our algorithm is remarkably efficient as well as stable and accurate and can be used as a powerful tool for widely related applications.
Accurate calculation and modeling of the adiabatic connection in density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teale, A. M.; Coriani, S.; Helgaker, T.
2010-04-01
AC. When parametrized in terms of the same input data, the AC-CI model offers improved performance over the corresponding AC-D model, which is shown to be the lowest-order contribution to the AC-CI model. The utility of the accurately calculated AC curves for the analysis of standard density functionals is demonstrated for the BLYP exchange-correlation functional and the interaction-strength-interpolation (ISI) model AC integrand. From the results of this analysis, we investigate the performance of our proposed two-parameter AC-D and AC-CI models when a simple density functional for the AC at infinite interaction strength is employed in place of information at the fully interacting point. The resulting two-parameter correlation functionals offer a qualitatively correct behavior of the AC integrand with much improved accuracy over previous attempts. The AC integrands in the present work are recommended as a basis for further work, generating functionals that avoid spurious error cancellations between exchange and correlation energies and give good accuracy for the range of densities and types of correlation contained in the systems studied here.
Towards more accurate wind and solar power prediction by improving NWP model physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steiner, Andrea; Köhler, Carmen; von Schumann, Jonas; Ritter, Bodo
2014-05-01
nighttime to well mixed conditions during the day presents a big challenge to NWP models. Fast decrease and successive increase in hub-height wind speed after sunrise, and the formation of nocturnal low level jets will be discussed. For PV, the life cycle of low stratus clouds and fog is crucial. Capturing these processes correctly depends on the accurate simulation of diffusion or vertical momentum transport and the interaction with other atmospheric and soil processes within the numerical weather model. Results from Single Column Model simulations and 3d case studies will be presented. Emphasis is placed on wind forecasts; however, some references to highlights concerning the PV-developments will also be given. *) ORKA: Optimierung von Ensembleprognosen regenerativer Einspeisung für den Kürzestfristbereich am Anwendungsbeispiel der Netzsicherheitsrechnungen **) EWeLiNE: Erstellung innovativer Wetter- und Leistungsprognosemodelle für die Netzintegration wetterabhängiger Energieträger, www.projekt-eweline.de
Cooling system of an internal combustion engine having a turbo-charger
Hasegawa, M.; Fukuda, T.
1986-09-02
A cooling system of an internal combustion engine is described having a turbo-charger, comprising a cooling water circulation passageway filled with cooling water for cooling the engine including at least a cylinder head cooling portion, a cooling water circulation passageway for cooling the turbo-charger including a turbo-charger cooling portion, and means for supplying a part of the engine cooling water to the turbo-charger cooling water ciruclation passageway and returning it from there to the engine cooling water cirulation passageway, characterized in that the turbo-charger cooling portion is positioned at the same level or higher than the cylinder head cooling portion of the engine, the turbo-charger cooling water circulation passageway includes a water volume positioned at a level higher than the turbo-charger cooling portion. The volume is connected to a cooling water reservoir tank via a pressure relief valve which is opened when pressure in the volume exceeds a predetermined value to supply cooling water to the volume.
Toward accurate tooth segmentation from computed tomography images using a hybrid level set model
Gan, Yangzhou; Zhao, Qunfei; Xia, Zeyang E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn; Hu, Ying; Xiong, Jing E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn; Zhang, Jianwei
2015-01-15
Purpose: A three-dimensional (3D) model of the teeth provides important information for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Tooth segmentation is an essential step in generating the 3D digital model from computed tomography (CT) images. The aim of this study is to develop an accurate and efficient tooth segmentation method from CT images. Methods: The 3D dental CT volumetric images are segmented slice by slice in a two-dimensional (2D) transverse plane. The 2D segmentation is composed of a manual initialization step and an automatic slice by slice segmentation step. In the manual initialization step, the user manually picks a starting slice and selects a seed point for each tooth in this slice. In the automatic slice segmentation step, a developed hybrid level set model is applied to segment tooth contours from each slice. Tooth contour propagation strategy is employed to initialize the level set function automatically. Cone beam CT (CBCT) images of two subjects were used to tune the parameters. Images of 16 additional subjects were used to validate the performance of the method. Volume overlap metrics and surface distance metrics were adopted to assess the segmentation accuracy quantitatively. The volume overlap metrics were volume difference (VD, mm{sup 3}) and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC, %). The surface distance metrics were average symmetric surface distance (ASSD, mm), RMS (root mean square) symmetric surface distance (RMSSSD, mm), and maximum symmetric surface distance (MSSD, mm). Computation time was recorded to assess the efficiency. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with two state-of-the-art methods. Results: For the tested CBCT images, the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the incisor were 38.16 ± 12.94 mm{sup 3}, 88.82 ± 2.14%, 0.29 ± 0.03 mm, 0.32 ± 0.08 mm, and 1.25 ± 0.58 mm, respectively; the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the canine were 49.12 ± 9.33 mm{sup 3}, 91.57 ± 0.82%, 0.27 ± 0.02 mm, 0
Towards accurate kinetic modeling of prompt NO formation in hydrocarbon flames via the NCN pathway
Sutton, Jeffrey A.; Fleming, James W.
2008-08-15
A basic kinetic mechanism that can predict the appropriate prompt-NO precursor NCN, as shown by experiment, with relative accuracy while still producing postflame NO results that can be calculated as accurately as or more accurately than through the former HCN pathway is presented for the first time. The basic NCN submechanism should be a starting point for future NCN kinetic and prompt NO formation refinement.
A Method for Turbocharging Four-Stroke Single Cylinder Engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchman, Michael; Winter, Amos
2014-11-01
Turbocharging is not conventionally used with single cylinder engines due to the timing mismatch between when the turbo is powered and when it can deliver air to the cylinder. The proposed solution involves a fixed, pressurized volume - which we call an air capacitor - on the intake side of the engine between the turbocharger and intake valves. The capacitor acts as a buffer and would be implemented as a new style of intake manifold with a larger volume than traditional systems. This talk will present the flow analysis used to determine the optimal size for the capacitor, which was found to be four to five times the engine capacity, as well as its anticipated contributions to engine performance. For a capacitor sized for a one-liter engine, the time to reach operating pressure was found to be approximately two seconds, which would be acceptable for slowly accelerating applications and steady state applications. The air density increase that could be achieved, compared to ambient air, was found to vary between fifty percent for adiabatic compression and no heat transfer from the capacitor, to eighty percent for perfect heat transfer. These increases in density are proportional to, to first order, the anticipated power increases that could be realized. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 1122374.
Cast CF8C-Plus Stainless Steel for Turbocharger Applications
Maziasz, P.J.; Shyam, A.; Evans, N.D.; Pattabiraman, K. (Honeywell Turbo Technologies
2010-06-30
The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) project is to provide the critical test data needed to qualify CF8C-Plus cast stainless steel for commercial production and use for turbocharger housings with upgraded performance and durability relative to standard commercial cast irons or stainless steels. The turbocharger technologies include, but are not limited to, heavy-duty highway diesel engines, and passenger vehicle diesel and gasoline engines. This CRADA provides additional critical high-temperature mechanical properties testing and data analysis needed to quality the new CF8C-Plus steels for turbocharger housing applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Y. B.; Zhuge, W. L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, S. Y.
2016-05-01
To reach the goal of energy conservation and emission reduction, high intake pressure is needed to meet the demand of high power density and high EGR rate for internal combustion engine. Present power density of diesel engine has reached 90KW/L and intake pressure ratio needed is over 5. Two-stage turbocharging system is an effective way to realize high compression ratio. Because turbocharging system compression work derives from exhaust gas energy. Efficiency of exhaust gas energy influenced by design and matching of turbine system is important to performance of high supercharging engine. Conventional turbine system is assembled by single-stage turbocharger turbines and turbine matching is based on turbine MAP measured on test rig. Flow between turbine system is assumed uniform and value of outlet physical quantities of turbine are regarded as the same as ambient value. However, there are three-dimension flow field distortion and outlet physical quantities value change which will influence performance of turbine system as were demonstrated by some studies. For engine equipped with two-stage turbocharging system, optimization of turbine system design will increase efficiency of exhaust gas energy and thereby increase engine power density. However flow interaction of turbine system will change flow in turbine and influence turbine performance. To recognize the interaction characteristics between high pressure turbine and low pressure turbine, flow in turbine system is modeled and simulated numerically. The calculation results suggested that static pressure field at inlet to low pressure turbine increases back pressure of high pressure turbine, however efficiency of high pressure turbine changes little; distorted velocity field at outlet to high pressure turbine results in swirl at inlet to low pressure turbine. Clockwise swirl results in large negative angle of attack at inlet to rotor which causes flow loss in turbine impeller passages and decreases turbine
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The three evapotranspiration (ET) measurement/retrieval techniques used in this study, lysimeter, scintillometer and remote sensing vary in their level of complexity, accuracy, resolution and applicability. The lysimeter with its point measurement is the most accurate and direct method to measure ET...
Knorr, K L; Hilsenbeck, S G; Wenger, C R; Pounds, G; Oldaker, T; Vendely, P; Pandian, M R; Harrington, D; Clark, G M
1992-01-01
Determining an appropriate level of adjuvant therapy is one of the most difficult facets of treating breast cancer patients. Although the myriad of prognostic factors aid in this decision, often they give conflicting reports of a patient's prognosis. What we need is a survival model which can properly utilize the information contained in these factors and give an accurate, reliable account of the patient's probability of recurrence. We also need a method of evaluating these models' predictive ability instead of simply measuring goodness-of-fit, as is currently done. Often, prognostic factors are broken into two categories such as positive or negative. But this dichotomization may hide valuable prognostic information. We investigated whether continuous representations of factors, including standard transformations--logarithmic, square root, categorical, and smoothers--might more accurately estimate the underlying relationship between each factor and survival. We chose the logistic regression model, a special case of the commonly used Cox model, to test our hypothesis. The model containing continuous transformed factors fit the data more closely than the model containing the traditional dichotomized factors. In order to appropriately evaluate these models, we introduce three predictive validity statistics--the Calibration score, the Overall Calibration score, and the Brier score--designed to assess the model's accuracy and reliability. These standardized scores showed the transformed factors predicted three year survival accurately and reliably. The scores can also be used to assess models or compare across studies. PMID:1391991
Turbocharger with variable nozzle having vane sealing surfaces
Arnold, Philippe; Petitjean, Dominique; Ruquart, Anthony; Dupont, Guillaume; Jeckel, Denis
2011-11-15
A variable nozzle for a turbocharger includes a plurality of vanes rotatably mounted on a nozzle ring and disposed in a nozzle flow path defined between the nozzle ring and an opposite nozzle wall. Either or both of the faces of the nozzle ring and nozzle wall include(s) at least one step that defines sealing surfaces positioned to be substantially abutted by airfoil surfaces of the vanes in the closed position of the vanes and to be spaced from the airfoil surfaces in positions other than the closed position. This substantial abutment between the airfoil surfaces and the sealing surfaces serves to substantially prevent exhaust gas from leaking past the ends of the airfoil portions. At the same time, clearances between the nozzle ring face and the end faces of the airfoil portions can be sufficiently large to prevent binding of the vanes under all operating conditions.
Turbocharger with sliding piston, and having vanes and leakage dams
Roberts, Quentin; Alnega, Ahmed
2011-12-06
A turbocharger having a sliding piston for regulating exhaust gas flow into the turbine wheel includes a set of first vanes mounted on a fixed first wall of the turbine nozzle and projecting axially toward an opposite second wall of the nozzle, and/or a set of second vanes mounted on the end of the piston and projecting in an opposite axial direction toward the first wall of the nozzle. For the/each set of vanes, there are leakage dams formed on the wall that is adjacent the vane tips when the piston is closed. The leakage dams are closely adjacent the vane tips and discourage exhaust gas from leaking in a generally radial direction past the vane tips as the piston just begins to open from its fully closed position.
Dunn, Nicholas J. H.; Noid, W. G.
2015-12-28
The present work investigates the capability of bottom-up coarse-graining (CG) methods for accurately modeling both structural and thermodynamic properties of all-atom (AA) models for molecular liquids. In particular, we consider 1, 2, and 3-site CG models for heptane, as well as 1 and 3-site CG models for toluene. For each model, we employ the multiscale coarse-graining method to determine interaction potentials that optimally approximate the configuration dependence of the many-body potential of mean force (PMF). We employ a previously developed “pressure-matching” variational principle to determine a volume-dependent contribution to the potential, U{sub V}(V), that approximates the volume-dependence of the PMF. We demonstrate that the resulting CG models describe AA density fluctuations with qualitative, but not quantitative, accuracy. Accordingly, we develop a self-consistent approach for further optimizing U{sub V}, such that the CG models accurately reproduce the equilibrium density, compressibility, and average pressure of the AA models, although the CG models still significantly underestimate the atomic pressure fluctuations. Additionally, by comparing this array of models that accurately describe the structure and thermodynamic pressure of heptane and toluene at a range of different resolutions, we investigate the impact of bottom-up coarse-graining upon thermodynamic properties. In particular, we demonstrate that U{sub V} accounts for the reduced cohesion in the CG models. Finally, we observe that bottom-up coarse-graining introduces subtle correlations between the resolution, the cohesive energy density, and the “simplicity” of the model.
Accurate cortical tissue classification on MRI by modeling cortical folding patterns.
Kim, Hosung; Caldairou, Benoit; Hwang, Ji-Wook; Mansi, Tommaso; Hong, Seok-Jun; Bernasconi, Neda; Bernasconi, Andrea
2015-09-01
Accurate tissue classification is a crucial prerequisite to MRI morphometry. Automated methods based on intensity histograms constructed from the entire volume are challenged by regional intensity variations due to local radiofrequency artifacts as well as disparities in tissue composition, laminar architecture and folding patterns. Current work proposes a novel anatomy-driven method in which parcels conforming cortical folding were regionally extracted from the brain. Each parcel is subsequently classified using nonparametric mean shift clustering. Evaluation was carried out on manually labeled images from two datasets acquired at 3.0 Tesla (n = 15) and 1.5 Tesla (n = 20). In both datasets, we observed high tissue classification accuracy of the proposed method (Dice index >97.6% at 3.0 Tesla, and >89.2% at 1.5 Tesla). Moreover, our method consistently outperformed state-of-the-art classification routines available in SPM8 and FSL-FAST, as well as a recently proposed local classifier that partitions the brain into cubes. Contour-based analyses localized more accurate white matter-gray matter (GM) interface classification of the proposed framework compared to the other algorithms, particularly in central and occipital cortices that generally display bright GM due to their highly degree of myelination. Excellent accuracy was maintained, even in the absence of correction for intensity inhomogeneity. The presented anatomy-driven local classification algorithm may significantly improve cortical boundary definition, with possible benefits for morphometric inference and biomarker discovery. PMID:26037453
Ustinov, E A
2014-10-01
Commensurate-incommensurate (C-IC) transition of krypton molecular layer on graphite received much attention in recent decades in theoretical and experimental researches. However, there still exists a possibility of generalization of the phenomenon from thermodynamic viewpoint on the basis of accurate molecular simulation. Recently, a new technique was developed for analysis of two-dimensional (2D) phase transitions in systems involving a crystalline phase, which is based on accounting for the effect of temperature and the chemical potential on the lattice constant of the 2D layer using the Gibbs-Duhem equation [E. A. Ustinov, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 074706 (2014)]. The technique has allowed for determination of phase diagrams of 2D argon layers on the uniform surface and in slit pores. This paper extends the developed methodology on systems accounting for the periodic modulation of the substrate potential. The main advantage of the developed approach is that it provides highly accurate evaluation of the chemical potential of crystalline layers, which allows reliable determination of temperature and other parameters of various 2D phase transitions. Applicability of the methodology is demonstrated on the krypton-graphite system. Analysis of phase diagram of the krypton molecular layer, thermodynamic functions of coexisting phases, and a method of prediction of adsorption isotherms is considered accounting for a compression of the graphite due to the krypton-carbon interaction. The temperature and heat of C-IC transition has been reliably determined for the gas-solid and solid-solid system. PMID:25296827
Ustinov, E. A.
2014-10-07
Commensurate–incommensurate (C-IC) transition of krypton molecular layer on graphite received much attention in recent decades in theoretical and experimental researches. However, there still exists a possibility of generalization of the phenomenon from thermodynamic viewpoint on the basis of accurate molecular simulation. Recently, a new technique was developed for analysis of two-dimensional (2D) phase transitions in systems involving a crystalline phase, which is based on accounting for the effect of temperature and the chemical potential on the lattice constant of the 2D layer using the Gibbs–Duhem equation [E. A. Ustinov, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 074706 (2014)]. The technique has allowed for determination of phase diagrams of 2D argon layers on the uniform surface and in slit pores. This paper extends the developed methodology on systems accounting for the periodic modulation of the substrate potential. The main advantage of the developed approach is that it provides highly accurate evaluation of the chemical potential of crystalline layers, which allows reliable determination of temperature and other parameters of various 2D phase transitions. Applicability of the methodology is demonstrated on the krypton–graphite system. Analysis of phase diagram of the krypton molecular layer, thermodynamic functions of coexisting phases, and a method of prediction of adsorption isotherms is considered accounting for a compression of the graphite due to the krypton–carbon interaction. The temperature and heat of C-IC transition has been reliably determined for the gas–solid and solid–solid system.
Surface electron density models for accurate ab initio molecular dynamics with electronic friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novko, D.; Blanco-Rey, M.; Alducin, M.; Juaristi, J. I.
2016-06-01
Ab initio molecular dynamics with electronic friction (AIMDEF) is a valuable methodology to study the interaction of atomic particles with metal surfaces. This method, in which the effect of low-energy electron-hole (e-h) pair excitations is treated within the local density friction approximation (LDFA) [Juaristi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 116102 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.116102], can provide an accurate description of both e-h pair and phonon excitations. In practice, its applicability becomes a complicated task in those situations of substantial surface atoms displacements because the LDFA requires the knowledge at each integration step of the bare surface electron density. In this work, we propose three different methods of calculating on-the-fly the electron density of the distorted surface and we discuss their suitability under typical surface distortions. The investigated methods are used in AIMDEF simulations for three illustrative adsorption cases, namely, dissociated H2 on Pd(100), N on Ag(111), and N2 on Fe(110). Our AIMDEF calculations performed with the three approaches highlight the importance of going beyond the frozen surface density to accurately describe the energy released into e-h pair excitations in case of large surface atom displacements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiang; Vu-Quoc, Loc
2007-07-01
We present in this paper the displacement-driven version of a tangential force-displacement (TFD) model that accounts for both elastic and plastic deformations together with interfacial friction occurring in collisions of spherical particles. This elasto-plastic frictional TFD model, with its force-driven version presented in [L. Vu-Quoc, L. Lesburg, X. Zhang. An accurate tangential force-displacement model for granular-flow simulations: contacting spheres with plastic deformation, force-driven formulation, Journal of Computational Physics 196(1) (2004) 298-326], is consistent with the elasto-plastic frictional normal force-displacement (NFD) model presented in [L. Vu-Quoc, X. Zhang. An elasto-plastic contact force-displacement model in the normal direction: displacement-driven version, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A 455 (1991) 4013-4044]. Both the NFD model and the present TFD model are based on the concept of additive decomposition of the radius of contact area into an elastic part and a plastic part. The effect of permanent indentation after impact is represented by a correction to the radius of curvature. The effect of material softening due to plastic flow is represented by a correction to the elastic moduli. The proposed TFD model is accurate, and is validated against nonlinear finite element analyses involving plastic flows in both the loading and unloading conditions. The proposed consistent displacement-driven, elasto-plastic NFD and TFD models are designed for implementation in computer codes using the discrete-element method (DEM) for granular-flow simulations. The model is shown to be accurate and is validated against nonlinear elasto-plastic finite-element analysis.
Multi Sensor Data Integration for AN Accurate 3d Model Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chhatkuli, S.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.
2015-05-01
The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel technique of data integration between two different data sets, i.e. laser scanned RGB point cloud and oblique imageries derived 3D model, to create a 3D model with more details and better accuracy. In general, aerial imageries are used to create a 3D city model. Aerial imageries produce an overall decent 3D city models and generally suit to generate 3D model of building roof and some non-complex terrain. However, the automatically generated 3D model, from aerial imageries, generally suffers from the lack of accuracy in deriving the 3D model of road under the bridges, details under tree canopy, isolated trees, etc. Moreover, the automatically generated 3D model from aerial imageries also suffers from undulated road surfaces, non-conforming building shapes, loss of minute details like street furniture, etc. in many cases. On the other hand, laser scanned data and images taken from mobile vehicle platform can produce more detailed 3D road model, street furniture model, 3D model of details under bridge, etc. However, laser scanned data and images from mobile vehicle are not suitable to acquire detailed 3D model of tall buildings, roof tops, and so forth. Our proposed approach to integrate multi sensor data compensated each other's weakness and helped to create a very detailed 3D model with better accuracy. Moreover, the additional details like isolated trees, street furniture, etc. which were missing in the original 3D model derived from aerial imageries could also be integrated in the final model automatically. During the process, the noise in the laser scanned data for example people, vehicles etc. on the road were also automatically removed. Hence, even though the two dataset were acquired in different time period the integrated data set or the final 3D model was generally noise free and without unnecessary details.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gong, Yue; Beck, Joseph E.; Heffernan, Neil T.
2011-01-01
Student modeling is a fundamental concept applicable to a variety of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS). However, there is not a lot of practical guidance on how to construct and train such models. This paper compares two approaches for student modeling, Knowledge Tracing (KT) and Performance Factors Analysis (PFA), by evaluating their predictive…
Models in biology: ‘accurate descriptions of our pathetic thinking’
2014-01-01
In this essay I will sketch some ideas for how to think about models in biology. I will begin by trying to dispel the myth that quantitative modeling is somehow foreign to biology. I will then point out the distinction between forward and reverse modeling and focus thereafter on the former. Instead of going into mathematical technicalities about different varieties of models, I will focus on their logical structure, in terms of assumptions and conclusions. A model is a logical machine for deducing the latter from the former. If the model is correct, then, if you believe its assumptions, you must, as a matter of logic, also believe its conclusions. This leads to consideration of the assumptions underlying models. If these are based on fundamental physical laws, then it may be reasonable to treat the model as ‘predictive’, in the sense that it is not subject to falsification and we can rely on its conclusions. However, at the molecular level, models are more often derived from phenomenology and guesswork. In this case, the model is a test of its assumptions and must be falsifiable. I will discuss three models from this perspective, each of which yields biological insights, and this will lead to some guidelines for prospective model builders. PMID:24886484
More accurate predictions with transonic Navier-Stokes methods through improved turbulence modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Dennis A.
1989-01-01
Significant improvements in predictive accuracies for off-design conditions are achievable through better turbulence modeling; and, without necessarily adding any significant complication to the numerics. One well established fact about turbulence is it is slow to respond to changes in the mean strain field. With the 'equilibrium' algebraic turbulence models no attempt is made to model this characteristic and as a consequence these turbulence models exaggerate the turbulent boundary layer's ability to produce turbulent Reynolds shear stresses in regions of adverse pressure gradient. As a consequence, too little momentum loss within the boundary layer is predicted in the region of the shock wave and along the aft part of the airfoil where the surface pressure undergoes further increases. Recently, a 'nonequilibrium' algebraic turbulence model was formulated which attempts to capture this important characteristic of turbulence. This 'nonequilibrium' algebraic model employs an ordinary differential equation to model the slow response of the turbulence to changes in local flow conditions. In its original form, there was some question as to whether this 'nonequilibrium' model performed as well as the 'equilibrium' models for weak interaction cases. However, this turbulence model has since been further improved wherein it now appears that this turbulence model performs at least as well as the 'equilibrium' models for weak interaction cases and for strong interaction cases represents a very significant improvement. The performance of this turbulence model relative to popular 'equilibrium' models is illustrated for three airfoil test cases of the 1987 AIAA Viscous Transonic Airfoil Workshop, Reno, Nevada. A form of this 'nonequilibrium' turbulence model is currently being applied to wing flows for which similar improvements in predictive accuracy are being realized.
Johnson, Timothy C.; Wellman, Dawn M.
2015-06-26
Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has been widely used in environmental applications to study processes associated with subsurface contaminants and contaminant remediation. Anthropogenic alterations in subsurface electrical conductivity associated with contamination often originate from highly industrialized areas with significant amounts of buried metallic infrastructure. The deleterious influence of such infrastructure on imaging results generally limits the utility of ERT where it might otherwise prove useful for subsurface investigation and monitoring. In this manuscript we present a method of accurately modeling the effects of buried conductive infrastructure within the forward modeling algorithm, thereby removing them from the inversion results. The method is implemented in parallel using immersed interface boundary conditions, whereby the global solution is reconstructed from a series of well-conditioned partial solutions. Forward modeling accuracy is demonstrated by comparison with analytic solutions. Synthetic imaging examples are used to investigate imaging capabilities within a subsurface containing electrically conductive buried tanks, transfer piping, and well casing, using both well casings and vertical electrode arrays as current sources and potential measurement electrodes. Results show that, although accurate infrastructure modeling removes the dominating influence of buried metallic features, the presence of metallic infrastructure degrades imaging resolution compared to standard ERT imaging. However, accurate imaging results may be obtained if electrodes are appropriately located.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
West, J. B.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Cerling, T.
2006-12-01
Understanding how the biosphere responds to change it at the heart of biogeochemistry, ecology, and other Earth sciences. The dramatic increase in human population and technological capacity over the past 200 years or so has resulted in numerous, simultaneous changes to biosphere structure and function. This, then, has lead to increased urgency in the scientific community to try to understand how systems have already responded to these changes, and how they might do so in the future. Since all biospheric processes exhibit some patchiness or patterns over space, as well as time, we believe that understanding the dynamic interactions between natural systems and human technological manipulations can be improved if these systems are studied in an explicitly spatial context. We present here results of some of our efforts to model the spatial variation in the stable isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O) of plants over large spatial extents, and how these spatial model predictions compare to spatially explicit data. Stable isotopes trace and record ecological processes and as such, if modeled correctly over Earth's surface allow us insights into changes in biosphere states and processes across spatial scales. The data-model comparisons show good agreement, in spite of the remaining uncertainties (e.g., plant source water isotopic composition). For example, inter-annual changes in climate are recorded in wine stable isotope ratios. Also, a much simpler model of leaf water enrichment driven with spatially continuous global rasters of precipitation and climate normals largely agrees with complex GCM modeling that includes leaf water δ18O. Our results suggest that modeling plant stable isotope ratios across large spatial extents may be done with reasonable accuracy, including over time. These spatial maps, or isoscapes, can now be utilized to help understand spatially distributed data, as well as to help guide future studies designed to understand ecological change across
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toyokuni, Genti; Takenaka, Hiroshi
2012-06-01
We propose a method for modeling global seismic wave propagation through an attenuative Earth model including the center. This method enables accurate and efficient computations since it is based on the 2.5-D approach, which solves wave equations only on a 2-D cross section of the whole Earth and can correctly model 3-D geometrical spreading. We extend a numerical scheme for the elastic waves in spherical coordinates using the finite-difference method (FDM), to solve the viscoelastodynamic equation. For computation of realistic seismic wave propagation, incorporation of anelastic attenuation is crucial. Since the nature of Earth material is both elastic solid and viscous fluid, we should solve stress-strain relations of viscoelastic material, including attenuative structures. These relations represent the stress as a convolution integral in time, which has had difficulty treating viscoelasticity in time-domain computation such as the FDM. However, we now have a method using so-called memory variables, invented in the 1980s, followed by improvements in Cartesian coordinates. Arbitrary values of the quality factor (Q) can be incorporated into the wave equation via an array of Zener bodies. We also introduce the multi-domain, an FD grid of several layers with different grid spacings, into our FDM scheme. This allows wider lateral grid spacings with depth, so as not to perturb the FD stability criterion around the Earth center. In addition, we propose a technique to avoid the singularity problem of the wave equation in spherical coordinates at the Earth center. We develop a scheme to calculate wavefield variables on this point, based on linear interpolation for the velocity-stress, staggered-grid FDM. This scheme is validated through a comparison of synthetic seismograms with those obtained by the Direct Solution Method for a spherically symmetric Earth model, showing excellent accuracy for our FDM scheme. As a numerical example, we apply the method to simulate seismic
Pal, Saikat; Lindsey, Derek P.; Besier, Thor F.; Beaupre, Gary S.
2013-01-01
Cartilage material properties provide important insights into joint health, and cartilage material models are used in whole-joint finite element models. Although the biphasic model representing experimental creep indentation tests is commonly used to characterize cartilage, cartilage short-term response to loading is generally not characterized using the biphasic model. The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term and equilibrium material properties of human patella cartilage using a viscoelastic model representation of creep indentation tests. We performed 24 experimental creep indentation tests from 14 human patellar specimens ranging in age from 20 to 90 years (median age 61 years). We used a finite element model to reproduce the experimental tests and determined cartilage material properties from viscoelastic and biphasic representations of cartilage. The viscoelastic model consistently provided excellent representation of the short-term and equilibrium creep displacements. We determined initial elastic modulus, equilibrium elastic modulus, and equilibrium Poisson’s ratio using the viscoelastic model. The viscoelastic model can represent the short-term and equilibrium response of cartilage and may easily be implemented in whole-joint finite element models. PMID:23027200
Efficient and accurate approach to modeling the microstructure and defect properties of LaCoO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buckeridge, J.; Taylor, F. H.; Catlow, C. R. A.
2016-04-01
Complex perovskite oxides are promising materials for cathode layers in solid oxide fuel cells. Such materials have intricate electronic, magnetic, and crystalline structures that prove challenging to model accurately. We analyze a wide range of standard density functional theory approaches to modeling a highly promising system, the perovskite LaCoO3, focusing on optimizing the Hubbard U parameter to treat the self-interaction of the B-site cation's d states, in order to determine the most appropriate method to study defect formation and the effect of spin on local structure. By calculating structural and electronic properties for different magnetic states we determine that U =4 eV for Co in LaCoO3 agrees best with available experiments. We demonstrate that the generalized gradient approximation (PBEsol +U ) is most appropriate for studying structure versus spin state, while the local density approximation (LDA +U ) is most appropriate for determining accurate energetics for defect properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakrzewski, Jakub; Delande, Dominique
2008-11-01
The quantum phase transition point between the insulator and the superfluid phase at unit filling factor of the infinite one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model is numerically computed with a high accuracy. The method uses the infinite system version of the time evolving block decimation algorithm, here tested in a challenging case. We provide also the accurate estimate of the phase transition point at double occupancy.
Accurate analytical method for the extraction of solar cell model parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phang, J. C. H.; Chan, D. S. H.; Phillips, J. R.
1984-05-01
Single diode solar cell model parameters are rapidly extracted from experimental data by means of the presently derived analytical expressions. The parameter values obtained have a less than 5 percent error for most solar cells, in light of the extraction of model parameters for two cells of differing quality which were compared with parameters extracted by means of the iterative method.
Active appearance model and deep learning for more accurate prostate segmentation on MRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Ruida; Roth, Holger R.; Lu, Le; Wang, Shijun; Turkbey, Baris; Gandler, William; McCreedy, Evan S.; Agarwal, Harsh K.; Choyke, Peter; Summers, Ronald M.; McAuliffe, Matthew J.
2016-03-01
Prostate segmentation on 3D MR images is a challenging task due to image artifacts, large inter-patient prostate shape and texture variability, and lack of a clear prostate boundary specifically at apex and base levels. We propose a supervised machine learning model that combines atlas based Active Appearance Model (AAM) with a Deep Learning model to segment the prostate on MR images. The performance of the segmentation method is evaluated on 20 unseen MR image datasets. The proposed method combining AAM and Deep Learning achieves a mean Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 0.925 for whole 3D MR images of the prostate using axial cross-sections. The proposed model utilizes the adaptive atlas-based AAM model and Deep Learning to achieve significant segmentation accuracy.
Fast and accurate Monte Carlo sampling of first-passage times from Wiener diffusion models
Drugowitsch, Jan
2016-01-01
We present a new, fast approach for drawing boundary crossing samples from Wiener diffusion models. Diffusion models are widely applied to model choices and reaction times in two-choice decisions. Samples from these models can be used to simulate the choices and reaction times they predict. These samples, in turn, can be utilized to adjust the models’ parameters to match observed behavior from humans and other animals. Usually, such samples are drawn by simulating a stochastic differential equation in discrete time steps, which is slow and leads to biases in the reaction time estimates. Our method, instead, facilitates known expressions for first-passage time densities, which results in unbiased, exact samples and a hundred to thousand-fold speed increase in typical situations. In its most basic form it is restricted to diffusion models with symmetric boundaries and non-leaky accumulation, but our approach can be extended to also handle asymmetric boundaries or to approximate leaky accumulation. PMID:26864391
D’Adamo, Giuseppe; Pelissetto, Andrea; Pierleoni, Carlo
2014-12-28
A coarse-graining strategy, previously developed for polymer solutions, is extended here to mixtures of linear polymers and hard-sphere colloids. In this approach, groups of monomers are mapped onto a single pseudoatom (a blob) and the effective blob-blob interactions are obtained by requiring the model to reproduce some large-scale structural properties in the zero-density limit. We show that an accurate parametrization of the polymer-colloid interactions is obtained by simply introducing pair potentials between blobs and colloids. For the coarse-grained (CG) model in which polymers are modelled as four-blob chains (tetramers), the pair potentials are determined by means of the iterative Boltzmann inversion scheme, taking full-monomer (FM) pair correlation functions at zero-density as targets. For a larger number n of blobs, pair potentials are determined by using a simple transferability assumption based on the polymer self-similarity. We validate the model by comparing its predictions with full-monomer results for the interfacial properties of polymer solutions in the presence of a single colloid and for thermodynamic and structural properties in the homogeneous phase at finite polymer and colloid density. The tetramer model is quite accurate for q ≲ 1 (q=R{sup ^}{sub g}/R{sub c}, where R{sup ^}{sub g} is the zero-density polymer radius of gyration and R{sub c} is the colloid radius) and reasonably good also for q = 2. For q = 2, an accurate coarse-grained description is obtained by using the n = 10 blob model. We also compare our results with those obtained by using single-blob models with state-dependent potentials.
Accurate calculation of binding energies for molecular clusters - Assessment of different models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedrich, Joachim; Fiedler, Benjamin
2016-06-01
In this work we test different strategies to compute high-level benchmark energies for medium-sized molecular clusters. We use the incremental scheme to obtain CCSD(T)/CBS energies for our test set and carefully validate the accuracy for binding energies by statistical measures. The local errors of the incremental scheme are <1 kJ/mol. Since they are smaller than the basis set errors, we obtain higher total accuracy due to the applicability of larger basis sets. The final CCSD(T)/CBS benchmark values are ΔE = - 278.01 kJ/mol for (H2O)10, ΔE = - 221.64 kJ/mol for (HF)10, ΔE = - 45.63 kJ/mol for (CH4)10, ΔE = - 19.52 kJ/mol for (H2)20 and ΔE = - 7.38 kJ/mol for (H2)10 . Furthermore we test state-of-the-art wave-function-based and DFT methods. Our benchmark data will be very useful for critical validations of new methods. We find focal-point-methods for estimating CCSD(T)/CBS energies to be highly accurate and efficient. For foQ-i3CCSD(T)-MP2/TZ we get a mean error of 0.34 kJ/mol and a standard deviation of 0.39 kJ/mol.
conSSert: Consensus SVM Model for Accurate Prediction of Ordered Secondary Structure.
Kieslich, Chris A; Smadbeck, James; Khoury, George A; Floudas, Christodoulos A
2016-03-28
Accurate prediction of protein secondary structure remains a crucial step in most approaches to the protein-folding problem, yet the prediction of ordered secondary structure, specifically beta-strands, remains a challenge. We developed a consensus secondary structure prediction method, conSSert, which is based on support vector machines (SVM) and provides exceptional accuracy for the prediction of beta-strands with QE accuracy of over 0.82 and a Q2-EH of 0.86. conSSert uses as input probabilities for the three types of secondary structure (helix, strand, and coil) that are predicted by four top performing methods: PSSpred, PSIPRED, SPINE-X, and RAPTOR. conSSert was trained/tested using 4261 protein chains from PDBSelect25, and 8632 chains from PISCES. Further validation was performed using targets from CASP9, CASP10, and CASP11. Our data suggest that poor performance in strand prediction is likely a result of training bias and not solely due to the nonlocal nature of beta-sheet contacts. conSSert is freely available for noncommercial use as a webservice: http://ares.tamu.edu/conSSert/ . PMID:26928531
Telfer, Scott; Erdemir, Ahmet; Woodburn, James; Cavanagh, Peter R
2016-01-25
Integration of patient-specific biomechanical measurements into the design of therapeutic footwear has been shown to improve clinical outcomes in patients with diabetic foot disease. The addition of numerical simulations intended to optimise intervention design may help to build on these advances, however at present the time and labour required to generate and run personalised models of foot anatomy restrict their routine clinical utility. In this study we developed second-generation personalised simple finite element (FE) models of the forefoot with varying geometric fidelities. Plantar pressure predictions from barefoot, shod, and shod with insole simulations using simplified models were compared to those obtained from CT-based FE models incorporating more detailed representations of bone and tissue geometry. A simplified model including representations of metatarsals based on simple geometric shapes, embedded within a contoured soft tissue block with outer geometry acquired from a 3D surface scan was found to provide pressure predictions closest to the more complex model, with mean differences of 13.3kPa (SD 13.4), 12.52kPa (SD 11.9) and 9.6kPa (SD 9.3) for barefoot, shod, and insole conditions respectively. The simplified model design could be produced in <1h compared to >3h in the case of the more detailed model, and solved on average 24% faster. FE models of the forefoot based on simplified geometric representations of the metatarsal bones and soft tissue surface geometry from 3D surface scans may potentially provide a simulation approach with improved clinical utility, however further validity testing around a range of therapeutic footwear types is required. PMID:26708965
A new geometric-based model to accurately estimate arm and leg inertial estimates.
Wicke, Jason; Dumas, Geneviève A
2014-06-01
Segment estimates of mass, center of mass and moment of inertia are required input parameters to analyze the forces and moments acting across the joints. The objectives of this study were to propose a new geometric model for limb segments, to evaluate it against criterion values obtained from DXA, and to compare its performance to five other popular models. Twenty five female and 24 male college students participated in the study. For the criterion measures, the participants underwent a whole body DXA scan, and estimates for segment mass, center of mass location, and moment of inertia (frontal plane) were directly computed from the DXA mass units. For the new model, the volume was determined from two standing frontal and sagittal photographs. Each segment was modeled as a stack of slices, the sections of which were ellipses if they are not adjoining another segment and sectioned ellipses if they were adjoining another segment (e.g. upper arm and trunk). Length of axes of the ellipses was obtained from the photographs. In addition, a sex-specific, non-uniform density function was developed for each segment. A series of anthropometric measurements were also taken by directly following the definitions provided of the different body segment models tested, and the same parameters determined for each model. Comparison of models showed that estimates from the new model were consistently closer to the DXA criterion than those from the other models, with an error of less than 5% for mass and moment of inertia and less than about 6% for center of mass location. PMID:24735506
Cimpoesu, Dorin Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Stancu, Alexandru
2013-12-14
We propose a generalized Stoner-Wohlfarth (SW) type model to describe various experimentally observed angular dependencies of the switching field in non-single-domain magnetic particles. Because the nonuniform magnetic states are generally characterized by complicated spin configurations with no simple analytical description, we maintain the macrospin hypothesis and we phenomenologically include the effects of nonuniformities only in the anisotropy energy, preserving as much as possible the elegance of SW model, the concept of critical curve and its geometric interpretation. We compare the results obtained with our model with full micromagnetic simulations in order to evaluate the performance and limits of our approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maeda, Chiaki; Tasaki, Satoko; Kirihara, Soshu
2011-05-01
Computer graphic models of bioscaffolds with four-coordinate lattice structures of solid rods in artificial bones were designed by using a computer aided design. The scaffold models composed of acryl resin with hydroxyapatite particles at 45vol. % were fabricated by using stereolithography of a computer aided manufacturing. After dewaxing and sintering heat treatment processes, the ceramics scaffold models with four-coordinate lattices and fine hydroxyapatite microstructures were obtained successfully. By using a computer aided analysis, it was found that bio-fluids could flow extensively inside the sintered scaffolds. This result shows that the lattice structures will realize appropriate bio-fluid circulations and promote regenerations of new bones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dale, Andy; Stolpovsky, Konstantin; Wallmann, Klaus
2016-04-01
The recycling and burial of biogenic material in the sea floor plays a key role in the regulation of ocean chemistry. Proper consideration of these processes in ocean biogeochemical models is becoming increasingly recognized as an important step in model validation and prediction. However, the rate of organic matter remineralization in sediments and the benthic flux of redox-sensitive elements are difficult to predict a priori. In this communication, examples of empirical benthic flux models that can be coupled to earth system models to predict sediment-water exchange in the open ocean are presented. Large uncertainties hindering further progress in this field include knowledge of the reactivity of organic carbon reaching the sediment, the importance of episodic variability in bottom water chemistry and particle rain rates (for both the deep-sea and margins) and the role of benthic fauna. How do we meet the challenge?
A model for the accurate computation of the lateral scattering of protons in water.
Bellinzona, E V; Ciocca, M; Embriaco, A; Ferrari, A; Fontana, A; Mairani, A; Parodi, K; Rotondi, A; Sala, P; Tessonnier, T
2016-02-21
A pencil beam model for the calculation of the lateral scattering in water of protons for any therapeutic energy and depth is presented. It is based on the full Molière theory, taking into account the energy loss and the effects of mixtures and compounds. Concerning the electromagnetic part, the model has no free parameters and is in very good agreement with the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code. The effects of the nuclear interactions are parametrized with a two-parameter tail function, adjusted on MC data calculated with FLUKA. The model, after the convolution with the beam and the detector response, is in agreement with recent proton data in water from HIT. The model gives results with the same accuracy of the MC codes based on Molière theory, with a much shorter computing time. PMID:26808380
A model for the accurate computation of the lateral scattering of protons in water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellinzona, E. V.; Ciocca, M.; Embriaco, A.; Ferrari, A.; Fontana, A.; Mairani, A.; Parodi, K.; Rotondi, A.; Sala, P.; Tessonnier, T.
2016-02-01
A pencil beam model for the calculation of the lateral scattering in water of protons for any therapeutic energy and depth is presented. It is based on the full Molière theory, taking into account the energy loss and the effects of mixtures and compounds. Concerning the electromagnetic part, the model has no free parameters and is in very good agreement with the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code. The effects of the nuclear interactions are parametrized with a two-parameter tail function, adjusted on MC data calculated with FLUKA. The model, after the convolution with the beam and the detector response, is in agreement with recent proton data in water from HIT. The model gives results with the same accuracy of the MC codes based on Molière theory, with a much shorter computing time.
Xu, Xuemiao; Zhang, Huaidong; Han, Guoqiang; Kwan, Kin Chung; Pang, Wai-Man; Fang, Jiaming; Zhao, Gansen
2016-01-01
Exterior orientation parameters’ (EOP) estimation using space resection plays an important role in topographic reconstruction for push broom scanners. However, existing models of space resection are highly sensitive to errors in data. Unfortunately, for lunar imagery, the altitude data at the ground control points (GCPs) for space resection are error-prone. Thus, existing models fail to produce reliable EOPs. Motivated by a finding that for push broom scanners, angular rotations of EOPs can be estimated independent of the altitude data and only involving the geographic data at the GCPs, which are already provided, hence, we divide the modeling of space resection into two phases. Firstly, we estimate the angular rotations based on the reliable geographic data using our proposed mathematical model. Then, with the accurate angular rotations, the collinear equations for space resection are simplified into a linear problem, and the global optimal solution for the spatial position of EOPs can always be achieved. Moreover, a certainty term is integrated to penalize the unreliable altitude data for increasing the error tolerance. Experimental results evidence that our model can obtain more accurate EOPs and topographic maps not only for the simulated data, but also for the real data from Chang’E-1, compared to the existing space resection model. PMID:27077855
Wang, Mingyu; Han, Lijuan; Liu, Shasha; Zhao, Xuebing; Yang, Jinghua; Loh, Soh Kheang; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhang, Chenxi; Fang, Xu
2015-09-01
Renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass has been deemed an alternative to depleting fossil fuels. In order to improve this technology, we aim to develop robust mathematical models for the enzymatic lignocellulose degradation process. By analyzing 96 groups of previously published and newly obtained lignocellulose saccharification results and fitting them to Weibull distribution, we discovered Weibull statistics can accurately predict lignocellulose saccharification data, regardless of the type of substrates, enzymes and saccharification conditions. A mathematical model for enzymatic lignocellulose degradation was subsequently constructed based on Weibull statistics. Further analysis of the mathematical structure of the model and experimental saccharification data showed the significance of the two parameters in this model. In particular, the λ value, defined the characteristic time, represents the overall performance of the saccharification system. This suggestion was further supported by statistical analysis of experimental saccharification data and analysis of the glucose production levels when λ and n values change. In conclusion, the constructed Weibull statistics-based model can accurately predict lignocellulose hydrolysis behavior and we can use the λ parameter to assess the overall performance of enzymatic lignocellulose degradation. Advantages and potential applications of the model and the λ value in saccharification performance assessment were discussed. PMID:26121186
Xu, Xuemiao; Zhang, Huaidong; Han, Guoqiang; Kwan, Kin Chung; Pang, Wai-Man; Fang, Jiaming; Zhao, Gansen
2016-01-01
Exterior orientation parameters' (EOP) estimation using space resection plays an important role in topographic reconstruction for push broom scanners. However, existing models of space resection are highly sensitive to errors in data. Unfortunately, for lunar imagery, the altitude data at the ground control points (GCPs) for space resection are error-prone. Thus, existing models fail to produce reliable EOPs. Motivated by a finding that for push broom scanners, angular rotations of EOPs can be estimated independent of the altitude data and only involving the geographic data at the GCPs, which are already provided, hence, we divide the modeling of space resection into two phases. Firstly, we estimate the angular rotations based on the reliable geographic data using our proposed mathematical model. Then, with the accurate angular rotations, the collinear equations for space resection are simplified into a linear problem, and the global optimal solution for the spatial position of EOPs can always be achieved. Moreover, a certainty term is integrated to penalize the unreliable altitude data for increasing the error tolerance. Experimental results evidence that our model can obtain more accurate EOPs and topographic maps not only for the simulated data, but also for the real data from Chang'E-1, compared to the existing space resection model. PMID:27077855
Berger, Perrine; Alouini, Mehdi; Bourderionnet, Jérôme; Bretenaker, Fabien; Dolfi, Daniel
2010-01-18
We developed an improved model in order to predict the RF behavior and the slow light properties of the SOA valid for any experimental conditions. It takes into account the dynamic saturation of the SOA, which can be fully characterized by a simple measurement, and only relies on material fitting parameters, independent of the optical intensity and the injected current. The present model is validated by showing a good agreement with experiments for small and large modulation indices. PMID:20173888
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M. W.; Terrel, A.; Certik, O.; Seljebotn, D.
2013-12-01
This presentation will focus on two barriers to progress in the hydrological modeling community, and research and development conducted to lessen or eliminate them. The first is a barrier to sharing hydrological models among specialized scientists that is caused by intertwining the implementation of numerical methods with the implementation of abstract numerical modeling information. In the Proteus toolkit for computational methods and simulation, we have decoupled these two important parts of computational model through separate "physics" and "numerics" interfaces. More recently we have begun developing the Strong Form Language for easy and direct representation of the mathematical model formulation in a domain specific language embedded in Python. The second major barrier is sharing ANY scientific software tools that have complex library or module dependencies, as most parallel, multi-physics hydrological models must have. In this setting, users and developer are dependent on an entire distribution, possibly depending on multiple compilers and special instructions depending on the environment of the target machine. To solve these problem we have developed, hashdist, a stateless package management tool and a resulting portable, open source scientific software distribution.
Heuijerjans, Ashley; Matikainen, Marko K.; Julkunen, Petro; Eliasson, Pernilla; Aspenberg, Per; Isaksson, Hanna
2015-01-01
Background Computational models of Achilles tendons can help understanding how healthy tendons are affected by repetitive loading and how the different tissue constituents contribute to the tendon’s biomechanical response. However, available models of Achilles tendon are limited in their description of the hierarchical multi-structural composition of the tissue. This study hypothesised that a poroviscoelastic fibre-reinforced model, previously successful in capturing cartilage biomechanical behaviour, can depict the biomechanical behaviour of the rat Achilles tendon found experimentally. Materials and Methods We developed a new material model of the Achilles tendon, which considers the tendon’s main constituents namely: water, proteoglycan matrix and collagen fibres. A hyperelastic formulation of the proteoglycan matrix enabled computations of large deformations of the tendon, and collagen fibres were modelled as viscoelastic. Specimen-specific finite element models were created of 9 rat Achilles tendons from an animal experiment and simulations were carried out following a repetitive tensile loading protocol. The material model parameters were calibrated against data from the rats by minimising the root mean squared error (RMS) between experimental force data and model output. Results and Conclusions All specimen models were successfully fitted to experimental data with high accuracy (RMS 0.42-1.02). Additional simulations predicted more compliant and soft tendon behaviour at reduced strain-rates compared to higher strain-rates that produce a stiff and brittle tendon response. Stress-relaxation simulations exhibited strain-dependent stress-relaxation behaviour where larger strains produced slower relaxation rates compared to smaller strain levels. Our simulations showed that the collagen fibres in the Achilles tendon are the main load-bearing component during tensile loading, where the orientation of the collagen fibres plays an important role for the tendon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Brien, Edward P.; Morrison, Greg; Brooks, Bernard R.; Thirumalai, D.
2009-03-01
Single molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments are used to infer the properties of the denatured state ensemble (DSE) of proteins. From the measured average FRET efficiency, ⟨E⟩, the distance distribution P(R ) is inferred by assuming that the DSE can be described as a polymer. The single parameter in the appropriate polymer model (Gaussian chain, wormlike chain, or self-avoiding walk) for P(R ) is determined by equating the calculated and measured ⟨E⟩. In order to assess the accuracy of this "standard procedure," we consider the generalized Rouse model (GRM), whose properties [⟨E⟩ and P(R )] can be analytically computed, and the Molecular Transfer Model for protein L for which accurate simulations can be carried out as a function of guanadinium hydrochloride (GdmCl) concentration. Using the precisely computed ⟨E⟩ for the GRM and protein L, we infer P(R ) using the standard procedure. We find that the mean end-to-end distance can be accurately inferred (less than 10% relative error) using ⟨E⟩ and polymer models for P(R ). However, the value extracted for the radius of gyration (Rg) and the persistence length (lp) are less accurate. For protein L, the errors in the inferred properties increase as the GdmCl concentration increases for all polymer models. The relative error in the inferred Rg and lp, with respect to the exact values, can be as large as 25% at the highest GdmCl concentration. We propose a self-consistency test, requiring measurements of ⟨E⟩ by attaching dyes to different residues in the protein, to assess the validity of describing DSE using the Gaussian model. Application of the self-consistency test to the GRM shows that even for this simple model, which exhibits an order→disorder transition, the Gaussian P(R ) is inadequate. Analysis of experimental data of FRET efficiencies with dyes at several locations for the cold shock protein, and simulations results for protein L, for which accurate FRET
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klostermann, U. K.; Mülders, T.; Schmöller, T.; Lorusso, G. F.; Hendrickx, E.
2010-04-01
In this paper, we discuss the performance of EUV resist models in terms of predictive accuracy, and we assess the readiness of the corresponding model calibration methodology. The study is done on an extensive OPC data set collected at IMEC for the ShinEtsu resist SEVR-59 on the ASML EUV Alpha Demo Tool (ADT), with the data set including more than thousand CD values. We address practical aspects such as the speed of calibration and selection of calibration patterns. The model is calibrated on 12 process window data series varying in pattern width (32, 36, 40 nm), orientation (H, V) and pitch (dense, isolated). The minimum measured feature size at nominal process condition is a 32 nm CD at a dense pitch of 64 nm. Mask metrology is applied to verify and eventually correct nominal width of the drawn CD. Cross-sectional SEM information is included in the calibration to tune the simulated resist loss and sidewall angle. The achieved calibration RMS is ~ 1.0 nm. We show what elements are important to obtain a well calibrated model. We discuss the impact of 3D mask effects on the Bossung tilt. We demonstrate that a correct representation of the flare level during the calibration is important to achieve a high predictability at various flare conditions. Although the model calibration is performed on a limited subset of the measurement data (one dimensional structures only), its accuracy is validated based on a large number of OPC patterns (at nominal dose and focus conditions) not included in the calibration; validation RMS results as small as 1 nm can be reached. Furthermore, we study the model's extendibility to two-dimensional end of line (EOL) structures. Finally, we correlate the experimentally observed fingerprint of the CD uniformity to a model, where EUV tool specific signatures are taken into account.
Hewitt, Nicola J; Edwards, Robert J; Fritsche, Ellen; Goebel, Carsten; Aeby, Pierre; Scheel, Julia; Reisinger, Kerstin; Ouédraogo, Gladys; Duche, Daniel; Eilstein, Joan; Latil, Alain; Kenny, Julia; Moore, Claire; Kuehnl, Jochen; Barroso, Joao; Fautz, Rolf; Pfuhler, Stefan
2013-06-01
Several human skin models employing primary cells and immortalized cell lines used as monocultures or combined to produce reconstituted 3D skin constructs have been developed. Furthermore, these models have been included in European genotoxicity and sensitization/irritation assay validation projects. In order to help interpret data, Cosmetics Europe (formerly COLIPA) facilitated research projects that measured a variety of defined phase I and II enzyme activities and created a complete proteomic profile of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in native human skin and compared them with data obtained from a number of in vitro models of human skin. Here, we have summarized our findings on the current knowledge of the metabolic capacity of native human skin and in vitro models and made an overall assessment of the metabolic capacity from gene expression, proteomic expression, and substrate metabolism data. The known low expression and function of phase I enzymes in native whole skin were reflected in the in vitro models. Some XMEs in whole skin were not detected in in vitro models and vice versa, and some major hepatic XMEs such as cytochrome P450-monooxygenases were absent or measured only at very low levels in the skin. Conversely, despite varying mRNA and protein levels of phase II enzymes, functional activity of glutathione S-transferases, N-acetyltransferase 1, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases were all readily measurable in whole skin and in vitro skin models at activity levels similar to those measured in the liver. These projects have enabled a better understanding of the contribution of XMEs to toxicity endpoints. PMID:23539547
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonard, T.; Spence, S.; Early, J.; Filsinger, D.
2013-12-01
Mixed flow turbines represent a potential solution to the increasing requirement for high pressure, low velocity ratio operation in turbocharger applications. While literature exists for the use of these turbines at such operating conditions, there is a lack of detailed design guidance for defining the basic geometry of the turbine, in particular, the cone angle - the angle at which the inlet of the mixed flow turbine is inclined to the axis. This investigates the effect and interaction of such mixed flow turbine design parameters. Computational Fluids Dynamics was initially used to investigate the performance of a modern radial turbine to create a baseline for subsequent mixed flow designs. Existing experimental data was used to validate this model. Using the CFD model, a number of mixed flow turbine designs were investigated. These included studies varying the cone angle and the associated inlet blade angle. The results of this analysis provide insight into the performance of a mixed flow turbine with respect to cone and inlet blade angle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, L.; Wang, W. J.; Peng, Z. J.
2011-09-01
The rotor dynamic behaviour of turbochargers (TC) has been paid significant attention because of its importance in their healthy operation. Commonly, the TC is firmly mounted on engines and they will definitely suffer from the vibrations originated from engines in operation. However, only a limited number of papers have been published with consideration of this phenomenon. In this paper, a finite element model of a TC rotor supported by nonlinear floating ring bearings has been established. The nonlinear bearing forces have been calculated by a newly proposed analytical method. An efficient numerical integration approach has been employed to conduct the investigation including the traditional unbalance and the considered engine excitation effects in question. The results show that the unbalance will place considerable influence on the rotor response at a low working speed. At high speeds, the effect will be prevented by the dominant sub-synchronous vibrations, which also prohibit the appearance of a chaotic state. The novel investigation with the proposed model considering engine excitation reveals that the engine induced vibration will greatly affect the TC rotor response at relatively lower rotor speeds as well. At higher speed range, the dominant effect of sub-synchronous vibrations is still capable of keeping the same orbit shapes as that without engine excitation from a relative viewpoint.
Toward Accurate Modeling of the Effect of Ion-Pair Formation on Solute Redox Potential.
Qu, Xiaohui; Persson, Kristin A
2016-09-13
A scheme to model the dependence of a solute redox potential on the supporting electrolyte is proposed, and the results are compared to experimental observations and other reported theoretical models. An improved agreement with experiment is exhibited if the effect of the supporting electrolyte on the redox potential is modeled through a concentration change induced via ion pair formation with the salt, rather than by only considering the direct impact on the redox potential of the solute itself. To exemplify the approach, the scheme is applied to the concentration-dependent redox potential of select molecules proposed for nonaqueous flow batteries. However, the methodology is general and enables rational computational electrolyte design through tuning of the operating window of electrochemical systems by shifting the redox potential of its solutes; including potentially both salts as well as redox active molecules. PMID:27500744
Abdelnour, Farras; Voss, Henning U.; Raj, Ashish
2014-01-01
The relationship between anatomic connectivity of large-scale brain networks and their functional connectivity is of immense importance and an area of active research. Previous attempts have required complex simulations which model the dynamics of each cortical region, and explore the coupling between regions as derived by anatomic connections. While much insight is gained from these non-linear simulations, they can be computationally taxing tools for predicting functional from anatomic connectivities. Little attention has been paid to linear models. Here we show that a properly designed linear model appears to be superior to previous non-linear approaches in capturing the brain’s long-range second order correlation structure that governs the relationship between anatomic and functional connectivities. We derive a linear network of brain dynamics based on graph diffusion, whereby the diffusing quantity undergoes a random walk on a graph. We test our model using subjects who underwent diffusion MRI and resting state fMRI. The network diffusion model applied to the structural networks largely predicts the correlation structures derived from their fMRI data, to a greater extent than other approaches. The utility of the proposed approach is that it can routinely be used to infer functional correlation from anatomic connectivity. And since it is linear, anatomic connectivity can also be inferred from functional data. The success of our model confirms the linearity of ensemble average signals in the brain, and implies that their long-range correlation structure may percolate within the brain via purely mechanistic processes enacted on its structural connectivity pathways. PMID:24384152
Fast and accurate modeling of molecular atomization energies with machine learning.
Rupp, Matthias; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Müller, Klaus-Robert; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole
2012-02-01
We introduce a machine learning model to predict atomization energies of a diverse set of organic molecules, based on nuclear charges and atomic positions only. The problem of solving the molecular Schrödinger equation is mapped onto a nonlinear statistical regression problem of reduced complexity. Regression models are trained on and compared to atomization energies computed with hybrid density-functional theory. Cross validation over more than seven thousand organic molecules yields a mean absolute error of ∼10 kcal/mol. Applicability is demonstrated for the prediction of molecular atomization potential energy curves. PMID:22400967
Pino, Francisco; Roé, Nuria; Aguiar, Pablo; Falcon, Carles; Ros, Domènec; Pavía, Javier
2015-02-15
Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has become an important noninvasive imaging technique in small-animal research. Due to the high resolution required in small-animal SPECT systems, the spatially variant system response needs to be included in the reconstruction algorithm. Accurate modeling of the system response should result in a major improvement in the quality of reconstructed images. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the impact that an accurate modeling of spatially variant collimator/detector response has on image-quality parameters, using a low magnification SPECT system equipped with a pinhole collimator and a small gamma camera. Methods: Three methods were used to model the point spread function (PSF). For the first, only the geometrical pinhole aperture was included in the PSF. For the second, the septal penetration through the pinhole collimator was added. In the third method, the measured intrinsic detector response was incorporated. Tomographic spatial resolution was evaluated and contrast, recovery coefficients, contrast-to-noise ratio, and noise were quantified using a custom-built NEMA NU 4–2008 image-quality phantom. Results: A high correlation was found between the experimental data corresponding to intrinsic detector response and the fitted values obtained by means of an asymmetric Gaussian distribution. For all PSF models, resolution improved as the distance from the point source to the center of the field of view increased and when the acquisition radius diminished. An improvement of resolution was observed after a minimum of five iterations when the PSF modeling included more corrections. Contrast, recovery coefficients, and contrast-to-noise ratio were better for the same level of noise in the image when more accurate models were included. Ring-type artifacts were observed when the number of iterations exceeded 12. Conclusions: Accurate modeling of the PSF improves resolution, contrast, and recovery
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vladescu, Jason C.; Carroll, Regina; Paden, Amber; Kodak, Tiffany M.
2012-01-01
The present study replicates and extends previous research on the use of video modeling (VM) with voiceover instruction to train staff to implement discrete-trial instruction (DTI). After staff trainees reached the mastery criterion when teaching an adult confederate with VM, they taught a child with a developmental disability using DTI. The…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ellison, Donald; Conway, Bruce; Englander, Jacob
2015-01-01
A significant body of work exists showing that providing a nonlinear programming (NLP) solver with expressions for the problem constraint gradient substantially increases the speed of program execution and can also improve the robustness of convergence, especially for local optimizers. Calculation of these derivatives is often accomplished through the computation of spacecraft's state transition matrix (STM). If the two-body gravitational model is employed as is often done in the context of preliminary design, closed form expressions for these derivatives may be provided. If a high fidelity dynamics model, that might include perturbing forces such as the gravitational effect from multiple third bodies and solar radiation pressure is used then these STM's must be computed numerically. We present a method for the power hardward model and a full ephemeris model. An adaptive-step embedded eight order Dormand-Prince numerical integrator is discussed and a method for the computation of the time of flight derivatives in this framework is presented. The use of these numerically calculated derivatieves offer a substantial improvement over finite differencing in the context of a global optimizer. Specifically the inclusion of these STM's into the low thrust missiondesign tool chain in use at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center allows for an increased preliminary mission design cadence.
Developing an Accurate CFD Based Gust Model for the Truss Braced Wing Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartels, Robert E.
2013-01-01
The increased flexibility of long endurance aircraft having high aspect ratio wings necessitates attention to gust response and perhaps the incorporation of gust load alleviation. The design of civil transport aircraft with a strut or truss-braced high aspect ratio wing furthermore requires gust response analysis in the transonic cruise range. This requirement motivates the use of high fidelity nonlinear computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for gust response analysis. This paper presents the development of a CFD based gust model for the truss braced wing aircraft. A sharp-edged gust provides the gust system identification. The result of the system identification is several thousand time steps of instantaneous pressure coefficients over the entire vehicle. This data is filtered and downsampled to provide the snapshot data set from which a reduced order model is developed. A stochastic singular value decomposition algorithm is used to obtain a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The POD model is combined with a convolution integral to predict the time varying pressure coefficient distribution due to a novel gust profile. Finally the unsteady surface pressure response of the truss braced wing vehicle to a one-minus-cosine gust, simulated using the reduced order model, is compared with the full CFD.
Accurate prediction of the refractive index of polymers using first principles and data modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afzal, Mohammad Atif Faiz; Cheng, Chong; Hachmann, Johannes
Organic polymers with a high refractive index (RI) have recently attracted considerable interest due to their potential application in optical and optoelectronic devices. The ability to tailor the molecular structure of polymers is the key to increasing the accessible RI values. Our work concerns the creation of predictive in silico models for the optical properties of organic polymers, the screening of large-scale candidate libraries, and the mining of the resulting data to extract the underlying design principles that govern their performance. This work was set up to guide our experimentalist partners and allow them to target the most promising candidates. Our model is based on the Lorentz-Lorenz equation and thus includes the polarizability and number density values for each candidate. For the former, we performed a detailed benchmark study of different density functionals, basis sets, and the extrapolation scheme towards the polymer limit. For the number density we devised an exceedingly efficient machine learning approach to correlate the polymer structure and the packing fraction in the bulk material. We validated the proposed RI model against the experimentally known RI values of 112 polymers. We could show that the proposed combination of physical and data modeling is both successful and highly economical to characterize a wide range of organic polymers, which is a prerequisite for virtual high-throughput screening.
Chon, K H; Cohen, R J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H
1997-01-01
A linear and nonlinear autoregressive moving average (ARMA) identification algorithm is developed for modeling time series data. The algorithm uses Laguerre expansion of kernals (LEK) to estimate Volterra-Wiener kernals. However, instead of estimating linear and nonlinear system dynamics via moving average models, as is the case for the Volterra-Wiener analysis, we propose an ARMA model-based approach. The proposed algorithm is essentially the same as LEK, but this algorithm is extended to include past values of the output as well. Thus, all of the advantages associated with using the Laguerre function remain with our algorithm; but, by extending the algorithm to the linear and nonlinear ARMA model, a significant reduction in the number of Laguerre functions can be made, compared with the Volterra-Wiener approach. This translates into a more compact system representation and makes the physiological interpretation of higher order kernels easier. Furthermore, simulation results show better performance of the proposed approach in estimating the system dynamics than LEK in certain cases, and it remains effective in the presence of significant additive measurement noise. PMID:9236985
Sapsis, Themistoklis P; Majda, Andrew J
2013-08-20
A framework for low-order predictive statistical modeling and uncertainty quantification in turbulent dynamical systems is developed here. These reduced-order, modified quasilinear Gaussian (ROMQG) algorithms apply to turbulent dynamical systems in which there is significant linear instability or linear nonnormal dynamics in the unperturbed system and energy-conserving nonlinear interactions that transfer energy from the unstable modes to the stable modes where dissipation occurs, resulting in a statistical steady state; such turbulent dynamical systems are ubiquitous in geophysical and engineering turbulence. The ROMQG method involves constructing a low-order, nonlinear, dynamical system for the mean and covariance statistics in the reduced subspace that has the unperturbed statistics as a stable fixed point and optimally incorporates the indirect effect of non-Gaussian third-order statistics for the unperturbed system in a systematic calibration stage. This calibration procedure is achieved through information involving only the mean and covariance statistics for the unperturbed equilibrium. The performance of the ROMQG algorithm is assessed on two stringent test cases: the 40-mode Lorenz 96 model mimicking midlatitude atmospheric turbulence and two-layer baroclinic models for high-latitude ocean turbulence with over 125,000 degrees of freedom. In the Lorenz 96 model, the ROMQG algorithm with just a single mode captures the transient response to random or deterministic forcing. For the baroclinic ocean turbulence models, the inexpensive ROMQG algorithm with 252 modes, less than 0.2% of the total, captures the nonlinear response of the energy, the heat flux, and even the one-dimensional energy and heat flux spectra. PMID:23918398
Yu, Victoria Y.; Tran, Angelia; Nguyen, Dan; Cao, Minsong; Ruan, Dan; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke
2015-11-15
Purpose: Significant dosimetric benefits had been previously demonstrated in highly noncoplanar treatment plans. In this study, the authors developed and verified an individualized collision model for the purpose of delivering highly noncoplanar radiotherapy and tested the feasibility of total delivery automation with Varian TrueBeam developer mode. Methods: A hand-held 3D scanner was used to capture the surfaces of an anthropomorphic phantom and a human subject, which were positioned with a computer-aided design model of a TrueBeam machine to create a detailed virtual geometrical collision model. The collision model included gantry, collimator, and couch motion degrees of freedom. The accuracy of the 3D scanner was validated by scanning a rigid cubical phantom with known dimensions. The collision model was then validated by generating 300 linear accelerator orientations corresponding to 300 gantry-to-couch and gantry-to-phantom distances, and comparing the corresponding distance measurements to their corresponding models. The linear accelerator orientations reflected uniformly sampled noncoplanar beam angles to the head, lung, and prostate. The distance discrepancies between measurements on the physical and virtual systems were used to estimate treatment-site-specific safety buffer distances with 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001% probability of collision between the gantry and couch or phantom. Plans containing 20 noncoplanar beams to the brain, lung, and prostate optimized via an in-house noncoplanar radiotherapy platform were converted into XML script for automated delivery and the entire delivery was recorded and timed to demonstrate the feasibility of automated delivery. Results: The 3D scanner measured the dimension of the 14 cm cubic phantom within 0.5 mm. The maximal absolute discrepancy between machine and model measurements for gantry-to-couch and gantry-to-phantom was 0.95 and 2.97 cm, respectively. The reduced accuracy of gantry-to-phantom measurements was
Are satellite based rainfall estimates accurate enough for crop modelling under Sahelian climate?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramarohetra, J.; Sultan, B.
2012-04-01
Agriculture is considered as the most climate dependant human activity. In West Africa and especially in the sudano-sahelian zone, rain-fed agriculture - that represents 93% of cultivated areas and is the means of support of 70% of the active population - is highly vulnerable to precipitation variability. To better understand and anticipate climate impacts on agriculture, crop models - that estimate crop yield from climate information (e.g rainfall, temperature, insolation, humidity) - have been developed. These crop models are useful (i) in ex ante analysis to quantify the impact of different strategies implementation - crop management (e.g. choice of varieties, sowing date), crop insurance or medium-range weather forecast - on yields, (ii) for early warning systems and to (iii) assess future food security. Yet, the successful application of these models depends on the accuracy of their climatic drivers. In the sudano-sahelian zone , the quality of precipitation estimations is then a key factor to understand and anticipate climate impacts on agriculture via crop modelling and yield estimations. Different kinds of precipitation estimations can be used. Ground measurements have long-time series but an insufficient network density, a large proportion of missing values, delay in reporting time, and they have limited availability. An answer to these shortcomings may lie in the field of remote sensing that provides satellite-based precipitation estimations. However, satellite-based rainfall estimates (SRFE) are not a direct measurement but rather an estimation of precipitation. Used as an input for crop models, it determines the performance of the simulated yield, hence SRFE require validation. The SARRAH crop model is used to model three different varieties of pearl millet (HKP, MTDO, Souna3) in a square degree centred on 13.5°N and 2.5°E, in Niger. Eight satellite-based rainfall daily products (PERSIANN, CMORPH, TRMM 3b42-RT, GSMAP MKV+, GPCP, TRMM 3b42v6, RFEv2 and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yahja, A.; Kim, C.; Lin, Y.; Bajcsy, P.
2008-12-01
This paper addresses the problem of accurate estimation of geospatial models from a set of groundwater recharge & discharge (R&D) maps and from auxiliary remote sensing and terrestrial raster measurements. The motivation for our work is driven by the cost of field measurements, and by the limitations of currently available physics-based modeling techniques that do not include all relevant variables and allow accurate predictions only at coarse spatial scales. The goal is to improve our understanding of the underlying physical phenomena and increase the accuracy of geospatial models--with a combination of remote sensing, field measurements and physics-based modeling. Our approach is to process a set of R&D maps generated from interpolated sparse field measurements using existing physics-based models, and identify the R&D map that would be the most suitable for extracting a set of rules between the auxiliary variables of interest and the R&D map labels. We implemented this approach by ranking R&D maps using information entropy and mutual information criteria, and then by deriving a set of rules using a machine learning technique, such as the decision tree method. The novelty of our work is in developing a general framework for building geospatial models with the ultimate goal of minimizing cost and maximizing model accuracy. The framework is demonstrated for groundwater R&D rate models but could be applied to other similar studies, for instance, to understanding hypoxia based on physics-based models and remotely sensed variables. Furthermore, our key contribution is in designing a ranking method for R&D maps that allows us to analyze multiple plausible R&D maps with a different number of zones which was not possible in our earlier prototype of the framework called Spatial Pattern to Learn. We will present experimental results using examples R&D and other maps from an area in Wisconsin.
Engine with turbo-charger for an outboard motor
Torigai, K.
1988-05-03
An outboard motor for propelling a water craft through a body of water is described. The outboard motor comprises an internal combustion engine having an output shaft, clamping means for affixing the outboard motor to a transom of the watercraft with the output shaft rotating about a vertically extending axis, a watercraft propulsion device positioned beneath the engine, driven by the output shaft and cooperable with the body of water for propelling the watercraft therethrough, an exhaust conduit extending vertically downwardly along one vertical side of the engine, induction ports for the chambers positioned on a vertical side of the engine opposite to the one side, a turbo-charger having a turbine stage with an exhaust inlet communicating with the exhaust conduit and disposed adjacent to the exhaust conduit on the one vertical side of the engine, a compressor stage driven by the turbine stage, an intercooler located along the top of the engine and extending in a horizontal plane, means for delivering a compressed air charge from the compressor stage to the intercooler, and means for delivering the compressed air from the intercooler to the induction ports.
An Accurate In Vitro Model of the E. coli Envelope
Clifton, Luke A.; Holt, Stephen A.; Hughes, Arwel V.; Daulton, Emma L.; Arunmanee, Wanatchaporn; Heinrich, Frank; Khalid, Syma; Jefferies, Damien; Charlton, Timothy R.; Webster, John R. P.; Kinane, Christian J.
2015-01-01
Abstract Gram‐negative bacteria are an increasingly serious source of antibiotic‐resistant infections, partly owing to their characteristic protective envelope. This complex, 20 nm thick barrier includes a highly impermeable, asymmetric bilayer outer membrane (OM), which plays a pivotal role in resisting antibacterial chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the OM molecular structure and its dynamics are poorly understood because the structure is difficult to recreate or study in vitro. The successful formation and characterization of a fully asymmetric model envelope using Langmuir–Blodgett and Langmuir–Schaefer methods is now reported. Neutron reflectivity and isotopic labeling confirmed the expected structure and asymmetry and showed that experiments with antibacterial proteins reproduced published in vivo behavior. By closely recreating natural OM behavior, this model provides a much needed robust system for antibiotic development. PMID:27346898
An accurate in vitro model of the E. coli envelope.
Clifton, Luke A; Holt, Stephen A; Hughes, Arwel V; Daulton, Emma L; Arunmanee, Wanatchaporn; Heinrich, Frank; Khalid, Syma; Jefferies, Damien; Charlton, Timothy R; Webster, John R P; Kinane, Christian J; Lakey, Jeremy H
2015-10-01
Gram-negative bacteria are an increasingly serious source of antibiotic-resistant infections, partly owing to their characteristic protective envelope. This complex, 20 nm thick barrier includes a highly impermeable, asymmetric bilayer outer membrane (OM), which plays a pivotal role in resisting antibacterial chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the OM molecular structure and its dynamics are poorly understood because the structure is difficult to recreate or study in vitro. The successful formation and characterization of a fully asymmetric model envelope using Langmuir-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaefer methods is now reported. Neutron reflectivity and isotopic labeling confirmed the expected structure and asymmetry and showed that experiments with antibacterial proteins reproduced published in vivo behavior. By closely recreating natural OM behavior, this model provides a much needed robust system for antibiotic development. PMID:26331292
An accurate two-phase approximate solution to the acute viral infection model
Perelson, Alan S
2009-01-01
During an acute viral infection, virus levels rise, reach a peak and then decline. Data and numerical solutions suggest the growth and decay phases are linear on a log scale. While viral dynamic models are typically nonlinear with analytical solutions difficult to obtain, the exponential nature of the solutions suggests approximations can be found. We derive a two-phase approximate solution to the target cell limited influenza model and illustrate the accuracy using data and previously established parameter values of six patients infected with influenza A. For one patient, the subsequent fall in virus concentration was not consistent with our predictions during the decay phase and an alternate approximation is derived. We find expressions for the rate and length of initial viral growth in terms of the parameters, the extent each parameter is involved in viral peaks, and the single parameter responsible for virus decay. We discuss applications of this analysis in antiviral treatments and investigating host and virus heterogeneities.
Features of creation of highly accurate models of triumphal pylons for archaeological reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grishkanich, A. S.; Sidorov, I. S.; Redka, D. N.
2015-12-01
Cited a measuring operation for determining the geometric characteristics of objects in space and geodetic survey objects on the ground. In the course of the work, data were obtained on a relative positioning of the pylons in space. There are deviations from verticality. In comparison with traditional surveying this testing method is preferable because it allows you to get in semi-automated mode, the CAD model of the object is high for subsequent analysis that is more economical-ly advantageous.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naumenko, Mikhail; Guzivaty, Vadim; Sapelko, Tatiana
2016-04-01
Lake morphometry refers to physical factors (shape, size, structure, etc) that determine the lake depression. Morphology has a great influence on lake ecological characteristics especially on water thermal conditions and mixing depth. Depth analyses, including sediment measurement at various depths, volumes of strata and shoreline characteristics are often critical to the investigation of biological, chemical and physical properties of fresh waters as well as theoretical retention time. Management techniques such as loading capacity for effluents and selective removal of undesirable components of the biota are also dependent on detailed knowledge of the morphometry and flow characteristics. During the recent years a lake bathymetric surveys were carried out by using echo sounder with a high bottom depth resolution and GPS coordinate determination. Few digital bathymetric models have been created with 10*10 m spatial grid for some small lakes of Russian Plain which the areas not exceed 1-2 sq. km. The statistical characteristics of the depth and slopes distribution of these lakes calculated on an equidistant grid. It will provide the level-surface-volume variations of small lakes and reservoirs, calculated through combination of various satellite images. We discuss the methodological aspects of creating of morphometric models of depths and slopes of small lakes as well as the advantages of digital models over traditional methods.
Mathematical model accurately predicts protein release from an affinity-based delivery system.
Vulic, Katarina; Pakulska, Malgosia M; Sonthalia, Rohit; Ramachandran, Arun; Shoichet, Molly S
2015-01-10
Affinity-based controlled release modulates the delivery of protein or small molecule therapeutics through transient dissociation/association. To understand which parameters can be used to tune release, we used a mathematical model based on simple binding kinetics. A comprehensive asymptotic analysis revealed three characteristic regimes for therapeutic release from affinity-based systems. These regimes can be controlled by diffusion or unbinding kinetics, and can exhibit release over either a single stage or two stages. This analysis fundamentally changes the way we think of controlling release from affinity-based systems and thereby explains some of the discrepancies in the literature on which parameters influence affinity-based release. The rate of protein release from affinity-based systems is determined by the balance of diffusion of the therapeutic agent through the hydrogel and the dissociation kinetics of the affinity pair. Equations for tuning protein release rate by altering the strength (KD) of the affinity interaction, the concentration of binding ligand in the system, the rate of dissociation (koff) of the complex, and the hydrogel size and geometry, are provided. We validated our model by collapsing the model simulations and the experimental data from a recently described affinity release system, to a single master curve. Importantly, this mathematical analysis can be applied to any single species affinity-based system to determine the parameters required for a desired release profile. PMID:25449806
Robust and Accurate Modeling Approaches for Migraine Per-Patient Prediction from Ambulatory Data.
Pagán, Josué; De Orbe, M Irene; Gago, Ana; Sobrado, Mónica; Risco-Martín, José L; Mora, J Vivancos; Moya, José M; Ayala, José L
2015-01-01
Migraine is one of the most wide-spread neurological disorders, and its medical treatment represents a high percentage of the costs of health systems. In some patients, characteristic symptoms that precede the headache appear. However, they are nonspecific, and their prediction horizon is unknown and pretty variable; hence, these symptoms are almost useless for prediction, and they are not useful to advance the intake of drugs to be effective and neutralize the pain. To solve this problem, this paper sets up a realistic monitoring scenario where hemodynamic variables from real patients are monitored in ambulatory conditions with a wireless body sensor network (WBSN). The acquired data are used to evaluate the predictive capabilities and robustness against noise and failures in sensors of several modeling approaches. The obtained results encourage the development of per-patient models based on state-space models (N4SID) that are capable of providing average forecast windows of 47 min and a low rate of false positives. PMID:26134103
Towards a More Accurate Solar Power Forecast By Improving NWP Model Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Köhler, C.; Lee, D.; Steiner, A.; Ritter, B.
2014-12-01
The growing importance and successive expansion of renewable energies raise new challenges for decision makers, transmission system operators, scientists and many more. In this interdisciplinary field, the role of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) is to reduce the uncertainties associated with the large share of weather-dependent power sources. Precise power forecast, well-timed energy trading on the stock market, and electrical grid stability can be maintained. The research project EWeLiNE is a collaboration of the German Weather Service (DWD), the Fraunhofer Institute (IWES) and three German transmission system operators (TSOs). Together, wind and photovoltaic (PV) power forecasts shall be improved by combining optimized NWP and enhanced power forecast models. The conducted work focuses on the identification of critical weather situations and the associated errors in the German regional NWP model COSMO-DE. Not only the representation of the model cloud characteristics, but also special events like Sahara dust over Germany and the solar eclipse in 2015 are treated and their effect on solar power accounted for. An overview of the EWeLiNE project and results of the ongoing research will be presented.
Robust and Accurate Modeling Approaches for Migraine Per-Patient Prediction from Ambulatory Data
Pagán, Josué; Irene De Orbe, M.; Gago, Ana; Sobrado, Mónica; Risco-Martín, José L.; Vivancos Mora, J.; Moya, José M.; Ayala, José L.
2015-01-01
Migraine is one of the most wide-spread neurological disorders, and its medical treatment represents a high percentage of the costs of health systems. In some patients, characteristic symptoms that precede the headache appear. However, they are nonspecific, and their prediction horizon is unknown and pretty variable; hence, these symptoms are almost useless for prediction, and they are not useful to advance the intake of drugs to be effective and neutralize the pain. To solve this problem, this paper sets up a realistic monitoring scenario where hemodynamic variables from real patients are monitored in ambulatory conditions with a wireless body sensor network (WBSN). The acquired data are used to evaluate the predictive capabilities and robustness against noise and failures in sensors of several modeling approaches. The obtained results encourage the development of per-patient models based on state-space models (N4SID) that are capable of providing average forecast windows of 47 min and a low rate of false positives. PMID:26134103
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Yongfei; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Wanhua
2015-05-01
Hemodynamics altered by stent implantation is well-known to be closely related to in-stent restenosis. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been used to investigate the hemodynamics in stented arteries in detail and help to analyze the performances of stents. In this study, blood models with Newtonian or non-Newtonian properties were numerically investigated for the hemodynamics at steady or pulsatile inlet conditions respectively employing CFD based on the finite volume method. The results showed that the blood model with non-Newtonian property decreased the area of low wall shear stress (WSS) compared with the blood model with Newtonian property and the magnitude of WSS varied with the magnitude and waveform of the inlet velocity. The study indicates that the inlet conditions and blood models are all important for accurately predicting the hemodynamics. This will be beneficial to estimate the performances of stents and also help clinicians to select the proper stents for the patients.
Accurate 3d Textured Models of Vessels for the Improvement of the Educational Tools of a Museum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soile, S.; Adam, K.; Ioannidis, C.; Georgopoulos, A.
2013-02-01
Besides the demonstration of the findings, modern museums organize educational programs which aim to experience and knowledge sharing combined with entertainment rather than to pure learning. Toward that effort, 2D and 3D digital representations are gradually replacing the traditional recording of the findings through photos or drawings. The present paper refers to a project that aims to create 3D textured models of two lekythoi that are exhibited in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens in Greece; on the surfaces of these lekythoi scenes of the adventures of Odysseus are depicted. The project is expected to support the production of an educational movie and some other relevant interactive educational programs for the museum. The creation of accurate developments of the paintings and of accurate 3D models is the basis for the visualization of the adventures of the mythical hero. The data collection was made by using a structured light scanner consisting of two machine vision cameras that are used for the determination of geometry of the object, a high resolution camera for the recording of the texture, and a DLP projector. The creation of the final accurate 3D textured model is a complicated and tiring procedure which includes the collection of geometric data, the creation of the surface, the noise filtering, the merging of individual surfaces, the creation of a c-mesh, the creation of the UV map, the provision of the texture and, finally, the general processing of the 3D textured object. For a better result a combination of commercial and in-house software made for the automation of various steps of the procedure was used. The results derived from the above procedure were especially satisfactory in terms of accuracy and quality of the model. However, the procedure was proved to be time consuming while the use of various software packages presumes the services of a specialist.
Reynolds, Andrew M.; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Chittka, Lars
2013-01-01
Pollinating bees develop foraging circuits (traplines) to visit multiple flowers in a manner that minimizes overall travel distance, a task analogous to the travelling salesman problem. We report on an in-depth exploration of an iterative improvement heuristic model of bumblebee traplining previously found to accurately replicate the establishment of stable routes by bees between flowers distributed over several hectares. The critical test for a model is its predictive power for empirical data for which the model has not been specifically developed, and here the model is shown to be consistent with observations from different research groups made at several spatial scales and using multiple configurations of flowers. We refine the model to account for the spatial search strategy of bees exploring their environment, and test several previously unexplored predictions. We find that the model predicts accurately 1) the increasing propensity of bees to optimize their foraging routes with increasing spatial scale; 2) that bees cannot establish stable optimal traplines for all spatial configurations of rewarding flowers; 3) the observed trade-off between travel distance and prioritization of high-reward sites (with a slight modification of the model); 4) the temporal pattern with which bees acquire approximate solutions to travelling salesman-like problems over several dozen foraging bouts; 5) the instability of visitation schedules in some spatial configurations of flowers; 6) the observation that in some flower arrays, bees' visitation schedules are highly individually different; 7) the searching behaviour that leads to efficient location of flowers and routes between them. Our model constitutes a robust theoretical platform to generate novel hypotheses and refine our understanding about how small-brained insects develop a representation of space and use it to navigate in complex and dynamic environments. PMID:23505353
Key Issues for an Accurate Modelling of GaSb TPV Converters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martín, Diego; Algora, Carlos
2003-01-01
GaSb TPV devices are commonly manufactured by Zn diffusion from the vapour phase on a n-type substrate, leading to very high doping concentrations in a narrow emitter. This fact emphasizes the need of a careful modelling that must include high doping effects to simulate the optoelectronic behaviour of devices. In this work the key parameters that have strong influence on the performance of GaSb TPV devices are underlined, more reliable values are suggested and our first results on the study of the absorption coefficient dependence with p-type high doping concentration are presented.
Multiconjugate adaptive optics applied to an anatomically accurate human eye model.
Bedggood, P A; Ashman, R; Smith, G; Metha, A B
2006-09-01
Aberrations of both astronomical telescopes and the human eye can be successfully corrected with conventional adaptive optics. This produces diffraction-limited imagery over a limited field of view called the isoplanatic patch. A new technique, known as multiconjugate adaptive optics, has been developed recently in astronomy to increase the size of this patch. The key is to model atmospheric turbulence as several flat, discrete layers. A human eye, however, has several curved, aspheric surfaces and a gradient index lens, complicating the task of correcting aberrations over a wide field of view. Here we utilize a computer model to determine the degree to which this technology may be applied to generate high resolution, wide-field retinal images, and discuss the considerations necessary for optimal use with the eye. The Liou and Brennan schematic eye simulates the aspheric surfaces and gradient index lens of real human eyes. We show that the size of the isoplanatic patch of the human eye is significantly increased through multiconjugate adaptive optics. PMID:19529172
Accurate modeling of SiPM detectors coupled to FE electronics for timing performance analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciciriello, F.; Corsi, F.; Licciulli, F.; Marzocca, C.; Matarrese, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Bisogni, M. G.
2013-08-01
It has already been shown how the shape of the current pulse produced by a SiPM in response to an incident photon is sensibly affected by the characteristics of the front-end electronics (FEE) used to read out the detector. When the application requires to approach the best theoretical time performance of the detection system, the influence of all the parasitics associated to the coupling SiPM-FEE can play a relevant role and must be adequately modeled. In particular, it has been reported that the shape of the current pulse is affected by the parasitic inductance of the wiring connection between SiPM and FEE. In this contribution, we extend the validity of a previously presented SiPM model to account for the wiring inductance. Various combinations of the main performance parameters of the FEE (input resistance and bandwidth) have been simulated in order to evaluate their influence on the time accuracy of the detection system, when the time pick-off of each single event is extracted by means of a leading edge discriminator (LED) technique.
Considering mask pellicle effect for more accurate OPC model at 45nm technology node
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ching-Heng; Liu, Qingwei; Zhang, Liguo
2008-11-01
Now it comes to the 45nm technology node, which should be the first generation of the immersion micro-lithography. And the brand-new lithography tool makes many optical effects, which can be ignored at 90nm and 65nm nodes, now have significant impact on the pattern transmission process from design to silicon. Among all the effects, one that needs to be pay attention to is the mask pellicle effect's impact on the critical dimension variation. With the implement of hyper-NA lithography tools, light transmits the mask pellicle vertically is not a good approximation now, and the image blurring induced by the mask pellicle should be taken into account in the computational microlithography. In this works, we investigate how the mask pellicle impacts the accuracy of the OPC model. And we will show that considering the extremely tight critical dimension control spec for 45nm generation node, to take the mask pellicle effect into the OPC model now becomes necessary.
Production of Diesel Engine Turbocharger Turbine from Low Cost Titanium Powder
Muth, T. R.; Mayer, R.
2012-05-04
Turbochargers in commercial turbo-diesel engines are multi-material systems where usually the compressor rotor is made of aluminum or titanium based material and the turbine rotor is made of either a nickel based superalloy or titanium, designed to operate under the harsh exhaust gas conditions. The use of cast titanium in the turbine section has been used by Cummins Turbo Technologies since 1997. Having the benefit of a lower mass than the superalloy based turbines; higher turbine speeds in a more compact design can be achieved with titanium. In an effort to improve the cost model, and develop an industrial supply of titanium componentry that is more stable than the traditional aerospace based supply chain, the Contractor has developed component manufacturing schemes that use economical Armstrong titanium and titanium alloy powders and MgR-HDH powders. Those manufacturing schemes can be applied to compressor and turbine rotor components for diesel engine applications with the potential of providing a reliable supply of titanium componentry with a cost and performance advantage over cast titanium.
The third-generation turbocharged engine for the Audi 5000 CS and 5000 CS Quattro
Stock, D.
1986-01-01
In September 1985 the new Audi 5000 CS Quattro was introduced to the American market. This luxurious high performance touring sedan has been equipped with a more advanced turbocharged engine with intercooler and electronic engine management giving improved performance, excellent torque, faster response and better fuel economy. The basic engine is the tried-and-tested Audi 5-cylinder unit. The turbocharged engine's ancillary systems, the electronic ignition control and fuel injection have all been newly developed, carefully optimized and well matched in the special demands of a turbocharged engine. The ignition system controls the engine and fuel injection and delivers analog and digital signals to the car's instrument panel display. The system also has an integrated self-diagnostic function.
Serres, Nicolas
2010-11-09
A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.
Preliminary results on performance testing of a turbocharged rotary combustion engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meng, P. R.; Rice, W. J.; Schock, H. J.; Pringle, D. P.
1982-01-01
The performance of a turbocharged rotary engine at power levels above 75 kW (100 hp) was studied. A twin rotor turbocharged Mazda engine was tested at speeds of 3000 to 6000 rpm and boost pressures to 7 psi. The NASA developed combustion diagnostic instrumentation was used to quantify indicated and pumping mean effect pressures, peak pressure, and face to face variability on a cycle by cycle basis. Results of this testing showed that a 5900 rpm a 36 percent increase in power was obtained by operating the engine in the turbocharged configuration. When operating with lean carburetor jets at 105 hp (78.3 kW) and 4000 rpm, a brake specific fuel consumption of 0.45 lbm/lb-hr was measured.
Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging. Final report, July 1990-December 1993
Beck, N.J.; Barkhimer, R.L.; Steinmeyer, D.C.; Kelly, J.E.
1993-12-01
The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine. Electronic fuel injection, Turbocharging, Diesel combustion, Cold starting, Flame photography.
Accurate modeling of light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells
Abouelsaood, A.A.; Ghannam, M.Y.; Poortmans, J.; Mertens, R.P.
1997-12-31
An attempt is made to assess the accuracy of the simplifying assumption of total retransmission of light inside the escape or loss cone which is made in many models of optical confinement in thin-film silicon solar cells. A closed form expression is derived for the absorption enhancement factor as a function of the refractive index in the low-absorption limit for a thin-film cell with a flat front surface and a lambertian back reflector. Numerical calculations are carried out to investigate similar systems with antireflection coatings, and the investigation of cells with a textured front surface is achieved using a modified version of the existing ray-tracing computer simulation program TEXTURE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chien Chang, Jia-Ren; Tai, Cheng-Chi
2006-07-01
This article reports on the design and development of a complete, programmable electrocardiogram (ECG) generator, which can be used for the testing, calibration and maintenance of electrocardiograph equipment. A modified mathematical model, developed from the three coupled ordinary differential equations of McSharry et al. [IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 289, (2003)], was used to locate precisely the positions of the onset, termination, angle, and duration of individual components in an ECG. Generator facilities are provided so the user can adjust the signal amplitude, heart rate, QRS-complex slopes, and P- and T-wave settings. The heart rate can be adjusted in increments of 1BPM (beats per minute), from 20to176BPM, while the amplitude of the ECG signal can be set from 0.1to400mV with a 0.1mV resolution. Experimental results show that the proposed concept and the resulting system are feasible.
TRIM—3D: a three-dimensional model for accurate simulation of shallow water flow
Casulli, Vincenzo; Bertolazzi, Enrico; Cheng, Ralph T.
1993-01-01
A semi-implicit finite difference formulation for the numerical solution of three-dimensional tidal circulation is discussed. The governing equations are the three-dimensional Reynolds equations in which the pressure is assumed to be hydrostatic. A minimal degree of implicitness has been introduced in the finite difference formula so that the resulting algorithm permits the use of large time steps at a minimal computational cost. This formulation includes the simulation of flooding and drying of tidal flats, and is fully vectorizable for an efficient implementation on modern vector computers. The high computational efficiency of this method has made it possible to provide the fine details of circulation structure in complex regions that previous studies were unable to obtain. For proper interpretation of the model results suitable interactive graphics is also an essential tool.
A microbial clock provides an accurate estimate of the postmortem interval in a mouse model system
Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lauber, Christian L; Knights, Dan; Ackermann, Gail; Humphrey, Gregory C; Gebert, Matthew J; Van Treuren, Will; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Keepers, Kyle; Guo, Yan; Bullard, James; Fierer, Noah; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob
2013-01-01
Establishing the time since death is critical in every death investigation, yet existing techniques are susceptible to a range of errors and biases. For example, forensic entomology is widely used to assess the postmortem interval (PMI), but errors can range from days to months. Microbes may provide a novel method for estimating PMI that avoids many of these limitations. Here we show that postmortem microbial community changes are dramatic, measurable, and repeatable in a mouse model system, allowing PMI to be estimated within approximately 3 days over 48 days. Our results provide a detailed understanding of bacterial and microbial eukaryotic ecology within a decomposing corpse system and suggest that microbial community data can be developed into a forensic tool for estimating PMI. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01104.001 PMID:24137541
Biomechanical modeling provides more accurate data for neuronavigation than rigid registration
Garlapati, Revanth Reddy; Roy, Aditi; Joldes, Grand Roman; Wittek, Adam; Mostayed, Ahmed; Doyle, Barry; Warfield, Simon Keith; Kikinis, Ron; Knuckey, Neville; Bunt, Stuart; Miller, Karol
2015-01-01
It is possible to improve neuronavigation during image-guided surgery by warping the high-quality preoperative brain images so that they correspond with the current intraoperative configuration of the brain. In this work, the accuracy of registration results obtained using comprehensive biomechanical models is compared to the accuracy of rigid registration, the technology currently available to patients. This comparison allows us to investigate whether biomechanical modeling provides good quality image data for neuronavigation for a larger proportion of patients than rigid registration. Preoperative images for 33 cases of neurosurgery were warped onto their respective intraoperative configurations using both biomechanics-based method and rigid registration. We used a Hausdorff distance-based evaluation process that measures the difference between images to quantify the performance of both methods of registration. A statistical test for difference in proportions was conducted to evaluate the null hypothesis that the proportion of patients for whom improved neuronavigation can be achieved, is the same for rigid and biomechanics-based registration. The null hypothesis was confidently rejected (p-value<10−4). Even the modified hypothesis that less than 25% of patients would benefit from the use of biomechanics-based registration was rejected at a significance level of 5% (p-value = 0.02). The biomechanics-based method proved particularly effective for cases experiencing large craniotomy-induced brain deformations. The outcome of this analysis suggests that our nonlinear biomechanics-based methods are beneficial to a large proportion of patients and can be considered for use in the operating theatre as one possible method of improving neuronavigation and surgical outcomes. PMID:24460486
A new method based on the subpixel Gaussian model for accurate estimation of asteroid coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savanevych, V. E.; Briukhovetskyi, O. B.; Sokovikova, N. S.; Bezkrovny, M. M.; Vavilova, I. B.; Ivashchenko, Yu. M.; Elenin, L. V.; Khlamov, S. V.; Movsesian, Ia. S.; Dashkova, A. M.; Pogorelov, A. V.
2015-08-01
We describe a new iteration method to estimate asteroid coordinates, based on a subpixel Gaussian model of the discrete object image. The method operates by continuous parameters (asteroid coordinates) in a discrete observational space (the set of pixel potentials) of the CCD frame. In this model, the kind of coordinate distribution of the photons hitting a pixel of the CCD frame is known a priori, while the associated parameters are determined from a real digital object image. The method that is developed, which is flexible in adapting to any form of object image, has a high measurement accuracy along with a low calculating complexity, due to the maximum-likelihood procedure that is implemented to obtain the best fit instead of a least-squares method and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for minimization of the quadratic form. Since 2010, the method has been tested as the basis of our Collection Light Technology (COLITEC) software, which has been installed at several observatories across the world with the aim of the automatic discovery of asteroids and comets in sets of CCD frames. As a result, four comets (C/2010 X1 (Elenin), P/2011 NO1(Elenin), C/2012 S1 (ISON) and P/2013 V3 (Nevski)) as well as more than 1500 small Solar system bodies (including five near-Earth objects (NEOs), 21 Trojan asteroids of Jupiter and one Centaur object) have been discovered. We discuss these results, which allowed us to compare the accuracy parameters of the new method and confirm its efficiency. In 2014, the COLITEC software was recommended to all members of the Gaia-FUN-SSO network for analysing observations as a tool to detect faint moving objects in frames.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Jianmin; Rappe, Andrew M.
2016-01-01
Due to the absence of the long-range van der Waals (vdW) interaction, conventional density functional theory (DFT) often fails in the description of molecular complexes and solids. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the development of the vdW correction. However, the vdW correction based on the leading-order coefficient C6 alone can only achieve limited accuracy, while accurate modeling of higher-order coefficients remains a formidable task, due to the strong non-additivity effect. Here, we apply a model dynamic multipole polarizability within a modified single-frequency approximation to calculate C8 and C10 between small molecules. We find that the higher-order vdW coefficients from this model can achieve remarkable accuracy, with mean absolute relative deviations of 5% for C8 and 7% for C10. Inclusion of accurate higher-order contributions in the vdW correction will effectively enhance the predictive power of DFT in condensed matter physics and quantum chemistry.
Lupaşcu, Carmen Alina; Tegolo, Domenico; Trucco, Emanuele
2013-12-01
We present an algorithm estimating the width of retinal vessels in fundus camera images. The algorithm uses a novel parametric surface model of the cross-sectional intensities of vessels, and ensembles of bagged decision trees to estimate the local width from the parameters of the best-fit surface. We report comparative tests with REVIEW, currently the public database of reference for retinal width estimation, containing 16 images with 193 annotated vessel segments and 5066 profile points annotated manually by three independent experts. Comparative tests are reported also with our own set of 378 vessel widths selected sparsely in 38 images from the Tayside Scotland diabetic retinopathy screening programme and annotated manually by two clinicians. We obtain considerably better accuracies compared to leading methods in REVIEW tests and in Tayside tests. An important advantage of our method is its stability (success rate, i.e., meaningful measurement returned, of 100% on all REVIEW data sets and on the Tayside data set) compared to a variety of methods from the literature. We also find that results depend crucially on testing data and conditions, and discuss criteria for selecting a training set yielding optimal accuracy. PMID:24001930
Accurate analytical modelling of cosmic ray induced failure rates of power semiconductor devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, Friedhelm D.
2009-06-01
A new, simple and efficient approach is presented to conduct estimations of the cosmic ray induced failure rate for high voltage silicon power devices early in the design phase. This allows combining common design issues such as device losses and safe operating area with the constraints imposed by the reliability to result in a better and overall more efficient design methodology. Starting from an experimental and theoretical background brought forth a few yeas ago [Kabza H et al. Cosmic radiation as a cause for power device failure and possible countermeasures. In: Proceedings of the sixth international symposium on power semiconductor devices and IC's, Davos, Switzerland; 1994. p. 9-12, Zeller HR. Cosmic ray induced breakdown in high voltage semiconductor devices, microscopic model and possible countermeasures. In: Proceedings of the sixth international symposium on power semiconductor devices and IC's, Davos, Switzerland; 1994. p. 339-40, and Matsuda H et al. Analysis of GTO failure mode during d.c. blocking. In: Proceedings of the sixth international symposium on power semiconductor devices and IC's, Davos, Switzerland; 1994. p. 221-5], an exact solution of the failure rate integral is derived and presented in a form which lends itself to be combined with the results available from commercial semiconductor simulation tools. Hence, failure rate integrals can be obtained with relative ease for realistic two- and even three-dimensional semiconductor geometries. Two case studies relating to IGBT cell design and planar junction termination layout demonstrate the purpose of the method.
Slodownik, Dan; Grinberg, Igor; Spira, Ram M; Skornik, Yehuda; Goldstein, Ronald S
2009-04-01
The current standard method for predicting contact allergenicity is the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Public objection to the use of animals in testing of cosmetics makes the development of a system that does not use sentient animals highly desirable. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick egg has been extensively used for the growth of normal and transformed mammalian tissues. The CAM is not innervated, and embryos are sacrificed before the development of pain perception. The aim of this study was to determine whether the sensitization phase of contact dermatitis to known cosmetic allergens can be quantified using CAM-engrafted human skin and how these results compare with published EC3 data obtained with the LLNA. We studied six common molecules used in allergen testing and quantified migration of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) as a measure of their allergic potency. All agents with known allergic potential induced statistically significant migration of LC. The data obtained correlated well with published data for these allergens generated using the LLNA test. The human-skin CAM model therefore has great potential as an inexpensive, non-radioactive, in vivo alternative to the LLNA, which does not require the use of sentient animals. In addition, this system has the advantage of testing the allergic response of human, rather than animal skin. PMID:19054059
Accurate Estimation of Protein Folding and Unfolding Times: Beyond Markov State Models.
Suárez, Ernesto; Adelman, Joshua L; Zuckerman, Daniel M
2016-08-01
Because standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are unable to access time scales of interest in complex biomolecular systems, it is common to "stitch together" information from multiple shorter trajectories using approximate Markov state model (MSM) analysis. However, MSMs may require significant tuning and can yield biased results. Here, by analyzing some of the longest protein MD data sets available (>100 μs per protein), we show that estimators constructed based on exact non-Markovian (NM) principles can yield significantly improved mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for protein folding and unfolding. In some cases, MSM bias of more than an order of magnitude can be corrected when identical trajectory data are reanalyzed by non-Markovian approaches. The NM analysis includes "history" information, higher order time correlations compared to MSMs, that is available in every MD trajectory. The NM strategy is insensitive to fine details of the states used and works well when a fine time-discretization (i.e., small "lag time") is used. PMID:27340835
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weber, Tobias K. D.; Riedel, Thomas
2015-04-01
Free water is a prerequesite to chemical reactions and biological activity in earth's upper crust essential to life. The void volume between the solid compounds provides space for water, air, and organisms that thrive on the consumption of minerals and organic matter thereby regulating soil carbon turnover. However, not all water in the pore space in soils and sediments is in its liquid state. This is a result of the adhesive forces which reduce the water activity in small pores and charged mineral surfaces. This water has a lower tendency to react chemically in solution as this additional binding energy lowers its activity. In this work, we estimated the amount of soil pore water that is thermodynamically different from a simple aqueous solution. The quantity of soil pore water with properties different to liquid water was found to systematically increase with increasing clay content. The significance of this is that the grain size and surface area apparently affects the thermodynamic state of water. This implies that current methods to determine the amount of water content, traditionally determined from bulk density or gravimetric water content after drying at 105°C overestimates the amount of free water in a soil especially at higher clay content. Our findings have consequences for biogeochemical processes in soils, e.g. nutrients may be contained in water which is not free which could enhance preservation. From water activity measurements on a set of various soils with 0 to 100 wt-% clay, we can show that 5 to 130 mg H2O per g of soil can generally be considered as unsuitable for microbial respiration. These results may therefore provide a unifying explanation for the grain size dependency of organic matter preservation in sedimentary environments and call for a revised view on the biogeochemical environment in soils and sediments. This could allow a different type of process oriented modelling.
Process for Making Carbon-Carbon Turbocharger Housing Unit for Intermittent Combustion Engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)
1999-01-01
An improved. lightweight, turbine housing unit for an intermittent combustion reciprocating internal combustion engine turbocharger is prepared from a lay-up or molding of carbon-carbon composite materials in a single-piece or two-piece process. When compared to conventional steel or cast iron, the use of carbon-carbon composite materials in a turbine housing unit reduces the overall weight of the engine and reduces the heat energy loss used in the turbo-charging process. This reduction in heat energy loss and weight reduction provides for more efficient engine operation.
van Wyk, Marnus J; Bingle, Marianne; Meyer, Frans J C
2005-09-01
International bodies such as International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) make provision for human exposure assessment based on SAR calculations (or measurements) and basic restrictions. In the case of base station exposure this is mostly applicable to occupational exposure scenarios in the very near field of these antennas where the conservative reference level criteria could be unnecessarily restrictive. This study presents a variety of critical aspects that need to be considered when calculating SAR in a human body close to a mobile phone base station antenna. A hybrid FEM/MoM technique is proposed as a suitable numerical method to obtain accurate results. The verification of the FEM/MoM implementation has been presented in a previous publication; the focus of this study is an investigation into the detail that must be included in a numerical model of the antenna, to accurately represent the real-world scenario. This is accomplished by comparing numerical results to measurements for a generic GSM base station antenna and appropriate, representative canonical and human phantoms. The results show that it is critical to take the disturbance effect of the human phantom (a large conductive body) on the base station antenna into account when the antenna-phantom spacing is less than 300 mm. For these small spacings, the antenna structure must be modeled in detail. The conclusion is that it is feasible to calculate, using the proposed techniques and methodology, accurate occupational compliance zones around base station antennas based on a SAR profile and basic restriction guidelines. PMID:15931680
Panagiotopoulou, O; Wilshin, S D; Rayfield, E J; Shefelbine, S J; Hutchinson, J R
2012-02-01
Finite element modelling is well entrenched in comparative vertebrate biomechanics as a tool to assess the mechanical design of skeletal structures and to better comprehend the complex interaction of their form-function relationships. But what makes a reliable subject-specific finite element model? To approach this question, we here present a set of convergence and sensitivity analyses and a validation study as an example, for finite element analysis (FEA) in general, of ways to ensure a reliable model. We detail how choices of element size, type and material properties in FEA influence the results of simulations. We also present an empirical model for estimating heterogeneous material properties throughout an elephant femur (but of broad applicability to FEA). We then use an ex vivo experimental validation test of a cadaveric femur to check our FEA results and find that the heterogeneous model matches the experimental results extremely well, and far better than the homogeneous model. We emphasize how considering heterogeneous material properties in FEA may be critical, so this should become standard practice in comparative FEA studies along with convergence analyses, consideration of element size, type and experimental validation. These steps may be required to obtain accurate models and derive reliable conclusions from them. PMID:21752810
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Cui; Di-Yu, Zhang; Gao, Chen; Ji-Gen, Chen; Si-Liang, Zeng; Fu-Ming, Guo; Yu-Jun, Yang
2016-03-01
We demonstrate that the interference minima in the linear molecular harmonic spectra can be accurately predicted by a modified two-center model. Based on systematically investigating the interference minima in the linear molecular harmonic spectra by the strong-field approximation (SFA), it is found that the locations of the harmonic minima are related not only to the nuclear distance between the two main atoms contributing to the harmonic generation, but also to the symmetry of the molecular orbital. Therefore, we modify the initial phase difference between the double wave sources in the two-center model, and predict the harmonic minimum positions consistent with those simulated by SFA. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB922200) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274001, 11274141, 11304116, 11247024, and 11034003), and the Jilin Provincial Research Foundation for Basic Research, China (Grant Nos. 20130101012JC and 20140101168JC).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rong, Y. M.; Chang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Zhang, G. J.; Shao, X. Y.
2015-12-01
There are few researches that concentrate on the prediction of the bead geometry for laser brazing with crimping butt. This paper addressed the accurate prediction of the bead profile by developing a generalized regression neural network (GRNN) algorithm. Firstly GRNN model was developed and trained to decrease the prediction error that may be influenced by the sample size. Then the prediction accuracy was demonstrated by comparing with other articles and back propagation artificial neural network (BPNN) algorithm. Eventually the reliability and stability of GRNN model were discussed from the points of average relative error (ARE), mean square error (MSE) and root mean square error (RMSE), while the maximum ARE and MSE were 6.94% and 0.0303 that were clearly less than those (14.28% and 0.0832) predicted by BPNN. Obviously, it was proved that the prediction accuracy was improved at least 2 times, and the stability was also increased much more.
Gray, Alan; Harlen, Oliver G.; Harris, Sarah A.; Khalid, Syma; Leung, Yuk Ming; Lonsdale, Richard; Mulholland, Adrian J.; Pearson, Arwen R.; Read, Daniel J.; Richardson, Robin A.
2015-01-01
Despite huge advances in the computational techniques available for simulating biomolecules at the quantum-mechanical, atomistic and coarse-grained levels, there is still a widespread perception amongst the experimental community that these calculations are highly specialist and are not generally applicable by researchers outside the theoretical community. In this article, the successes and limitations of biomolecular simulation and the further developments that are likely in the near future are discussed. A brief overview is also provided of the experimental biophysical methods that are commonly used to probe biomolecular structure and dynamics, and the accuracy of the information that can be obtained from each is compared with that from modelling. It is concluded that progress towards an accurate spatial and temporal model of biomacromolecules requires a combination of all of these biophysical techniques, both experimental and computational. PMID:25615870
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pau, George Shu Heng; Shen, Chaopeng; Riley, William J.; Liu, Yaning
2016-02-01
The topography, and the biotic and abiotic parameters are typically upscaled to make watershed-scale hydrologic-biogeochemical models computationally tractable. However, upscaling procedure can produce biases when nonlinear interactions between different processes are not fully captured at coarse resolutions. Here we applied the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Mapping Method (PODMM) to downscale the field solutions from a coarse (7 km) resolution grid to a fine (220 m) resolution grid. PODMM trains a reduced-order model (ROM) with coarse-resolution and fine-resolution solutions, here obtained using PAWS+CLM, a quasi-3-D watershed processes model that has been validated for many temperate watersheds. Subsequent fine-resolution solutions were approximated based only on coarse-resolution solutions and the ROM. The approximation errors were efficiently quantified using an error estimator. By jointly estimating correlated variables and temporally varying the ROM parameters, we further reduced the approximation errors by up to 20%. We also improved the method's robustness by constructing multiple ROMs using different set of variables, and selecting the best approximation based on the error estimator. The ROMs produced accurate downscaling of soil moisture, latent heat flux, and net primary production with O(1000) reduction in computational cost. The subgrid distributions were also nearly indistinguishable from the ones obtained using the fine-resolution model. Compared to coarse-resolution solutions, biases in upscaled ROM solutions were reduced by up to 80%. This method has the potential to help address the long-standing spatial scaling problem in hydrology and enable long-time integration, parameter estimation, and stochastic uncertainty analysis while accurately representing the heterogeneities.
Accurate Time-Dependent Traveling-Wave Tube Model Developed for Computational Bit-Error-Rate Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kory, Carol L.
2001-01-01
The phenomenal growth of the satellite communications industry has created a large demand for traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) operating with unprecedented specifications requiring the design and production of many novel devices in record time. To achieve this, the TWT industry heavily relies on computational modeling. However, the TWT industry's computational modeling capabilities need to be improved because there are often discrepancies between measured TWT data and that predicted by conventional two-dimensional helical TWT interaction codes. This limits the analysis and design of novel devices or TWT's with parameters differing from what is conventionally manufactured. In addition, the inaccuracy of current computational tools limits achievable TWT performance because optimized designs require highly accurate models. To address these concerns, a fully three-dimensional, time-dependent, helical TWT interaction model was developed using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell code MAFIA (Solution of MAxwell's equations by the Finite-Integration-Algorithm). The model includes a short section of helical slow-wave circuit with excitation fed by radiofrequency input/output couplers, and an electron beam contained by periodic permanent magnet focusing. A cutaway view of several turns of the three-dimensional helical slow-wave circuit with input/output couplers is shown. This has been shown to be more accurate than conventionally used two-dimensional models. The growth of the communications industry has also imposed a demand for increased data rates for the transmission of large volumes of data. To achieve increased data rates, complex modulation and multiple access techniques are employed requiring minimum distortion of the signal as it is passed through the TWT. Thus, intersymbol interference (ISI) becomes a major consideration, as well as suspected causes such as reflections within the TWT. To experimentally investigate effects of the physical TWT on ISI would be
Gao, Yaozong; Shao, Yeqin; Lian, Jun; Wang, Andrew Z; Chen, Ronald C; Shen, Dinggang
2016-06-01
Segmenting male pelvic organs from CT images is a prerequisite for prostate cancer radiotherapy. The efficacy of radiation treatment highly depends on segmentation accuracy. However, accurate segmentation of male pelvic organs is challenging due to low tissue contrast of CT images, as well as large variations of shape and appearance of the pelvic organs. Among existing segmentation methods, deformable models are the most popular, as shape prior can be easily incorporated to regularize the segmentation. Nonetheless, the sensitivity to initialization often limits their performance, especially for segmenting organs with large shape variations. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to guide deformable models, thus making them robust against arbitrary initializations. Specifically, we learn a displacement regressor, which predicts 3D displacement from any image voxel to the target organ boundary based on the local patch appearance. This regressor provides a non-local external force for each vertex of deformable model, thus overcoming the initialization problem suffered by the traditional deformable models. To learn a reliable displacement regressor, two strategies are particularly proposed. 1) A multi-task random forest is proposed to learn the displacement regressor jointly with the organ classifier; 2) an auto-context model is used to iteratively enforce structural information during voxel-wise prediction. Extensive experiments on 313 planning CT scans of 313 patients show that our method achieves better results than alternative classification or regression based methods, and also several other existing methods in CT pelvic organ segmentation. PMID:26800531
Sethurajan, Athinthra Krishnaswamy; Krachkovskiy, Sergey A; Halalay, Ion C; Goward, Gillian R; Protas, Bartosz
2015-09-17
We used NMR imaging (MRI) combined with data analysis based on inverse modeling of the mass transport problem to determine ionic diffusion coefficients and transference numbers in electrolyte solutions of interest for Li-ion batteries. Sensitivity analyses have shown that accurate estimates of these parameters (as a function of concentration) are critical to the reliability of the predictions provided by models of porous electrodes. The inverse modeling (IM) solution was generated with an extension of the Planck-Nernst model for the transport of ionic species in electrolyte solutions. Concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients and transference numbers were derived using concentration profiles obtained from in situ (19)F MRI measurements. Material properties were reconstructed under minimal assumptions using methods of variational optimization to minimize the least-squares deviation between experimental and simulated concentration values with uncertainty of the reconstructions quantified using a Monte Carlo analysis. The diffusion coefficients obtained by pulsed field gradient NMR (PFG-NMR) fall within the 95% confidence bounds for the diffusion coefficient values obtained by the MRI+IM method. The MRI+IM method also yields the concentration dependence of the Li(+) transference number in agreement with trends obtained by electrochemical methods for similar systems and with predictions of theoretical models for concentrated electrolyte solutions, in marked contrast to the salt concentration dependence of transport numbers determined from PFG-NMR data. PMID:26247105
Chen, Y; Mo, X; Chen, M; Olivera, G; Parnell, D; Key, S; Lu, W; Reeher, M; Galmarini, D
2014-06-01
Purpose: An accurate leaf fluence model can be used in applications such as patient specific delivery QA and in-vivo dosimetry for TomoTherapy systems. It is known that the total fluence is not a linear combination of individual leaf fluence due to leakage-transmission, tongue-and-groove, and source occlusion effect. Here we propose a method to model the nonlinear effects as linear terms thus making the MLC-detector system a linear system. Methods: A leaf pattern basis (LPB) consisting of no-leaf-open, single-leaf-open, double-leaf-open and triple-leaf-open patterns are chosen to represent linear and major nonlinear effects of leaf fluence as a linear system. An arbitrary leaf pattern can be expressed as (or decomposed to) a linear combination of the LPB either pulse by pulse or weighted by dwelling time. The exit detector responses to the LPB are obtained by processing returned detector signals resulting from the predefined leaf patterns for each jaw setting. Through forward transformation, detector signal can be predicted given a delivery plan. An equivalent leaf open time (LOT) sinogram containing output variation information can also be inversely calculated from the measured detector signals. Twelve patient plans were delivered in air. The equivalent LOT sinograms were compared with their planned sinograms. Results: The whole calibration process was done in 20 minutes. For two randomly generated leaf patterns, 98.5% of the active channels showed differences within 0.5% of the local maximum between the predicted and measured signals. Averaged over the twelve plans, 90% of LOT errors were within +/−10 ms. The LOT systematic error increases and shows an oscillating pattern when LOT is shorter than 50 ms. Conclusion: The LPB method models the MLC-detector response accurately, which improves patient specific delivery QA and in-vivo dosimetry for TomoTherapy systems. It is sensitive enough to detect systematic LOT errors as small as 10 ms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCullagh, Nuala; Jeong, Donghui; Szalay, Alexander S.
2016-01-01
Accurate modelling of non-linearities in the galaxy bispectrum, the Fourier transform of the galaxy three-point correlation function, is essential to fully exploit it as a cosmological probe. In this paper, we present numerical and theoretical challenges in modelling the non-linear bispectrum. First, we test the robustness of the matter bispectrum measured from N-body simulations using different initial conditions generators. We run a suite of N-body simulations using the Zel'dovich approximation and second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) at different starting redshifts, and find that transients from initial decaying modes systematically reduce the non-linearities in the matter bispectrum. To achieve 1 per cent accuracy in the matter bispectrum at z ≤ 3 on scales k < 1 h Mpc-1, 2LPT initial conditions generator with initial redshift z ≳ 100 is required. We then compare various analytical formulas and empirical fitting functions for modelling the non-linear matter bispectrum, and discuss the regimes for which each is valid. We find that the next-to-leading order (one-loop) correction from standard perturbation theory matches with N-body results on quasi-linear scales for z ≥ 1. We find that the fitting formula in Gil-Marín et al. accurately predicts the matter bispectrum for z ≤ 1 on a wide range of scales, but at higher redshifts, the fitting formula given in Scoccimarro & Couchman gives the best agreement with measurements from N-body simulations.
Bhaskara, Ramachandra M; Padhi, Amrita; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy
2014-07-01
With the preponderance of multidomain proteins in eukaryotic genomes, it is essential to recognize the constituent domains and their functions. Often function involves communications across the domain interfaces, and the knowledge of the interacting sites is essential to our understanding of the structure-function relationship. Using evolutionary information extracted from homologous domains in at least two diverse domain architectures (single and multidomain), we predict the interface residues corresponding to domains from the two-domain proteins. We also use information from the three-dimensional structures of individual domains of two-domain proteins to train naïve Bayes classifier model to predict the interfacial residues. Our predictions are highly accurate (∼85%) and specific (∼95%) to the domain-domain interfaces. This method is specific to multidomain proteins which contain domains in at least more than one protein architectural context. Using predicted residues to constrain domain-domain interaction, rigid-body docking was able to provide us with accurate full-length protein structures with correct orientation of domains. We believe that these results can be of considerable interest toward rational protein and interaction design, apart from providing us with valuable information on the nature of interactions. PMID:24375512
Wang, Guotai; Zhang, Shaoting; Xie, Hongzhi; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Gu, Lixu
2015-01-01
Shape prior plays an important role in accurate and robust liver segmentation. However, liver shapes have complex variations and accurate modeling of liver shapes is challenging. Using large-scale training data can improve the accuracy but it limits the computational efficiency. In order to obtain accurate liver shape priors without sacrificing the efficiency when dealing with large-scale training data, we investigate effective and scalable shape prior modeling method that is more applicable in clinical liver surgical planning system. We employed the Sparse Shape Composition (SSC) to represent liver shapes by an optimized sparse combination of shapes in the repository, without any assumptions on parametric distributions of liver shapes. To leverage large-scale training data and improve the computational efficiency of SSC, we also introduced a homotopy-based method to quickly solve the L1-norm optimization problem in SSC. This method takes advantage of the sparsity of shape modeling, and solves the original optimization problem in SSC by continuously transforming it into a series of simplified problems whose solution is fast to compute. When new training shapes arrive gradually, the homotopy strategy updates the optimal solution on the fly and avoids re-computing it from scratch. Experiments showed that SSC had a high accuracy and efficiency in dealing with complex liver shape variations, excluding gross errors and preserving local details on the input liver shape. The homotopy-based SSC had a high computational efficiency, and its runtime increased very slowly when repository's capacity and vertex number rose to a large degree. When repository's capacity was 10,000, with 2000 vertices on each shape, homotopy method cost merely about 11.29 s to solve the optimization problem in SSC, nearly 2000 times faster than interior point method. The dice similarity coefficient (DSC), average symmetric surface distance (ASD), and maximum symmetric surface distance measurement
75 FR 16662 - Airworthiness Directives; Kelly Aerospace Energy Systems, LLC Rebuilt Turbochargers
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-04-02
... in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Examining the AD Docket You may... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... three reports of infant mortality turbine wheel failure in rebuilt turbochargers, since June of 2007....
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
George, Atanasiu; Chiru, Anghel
2014-06-01
This paper aims on comparison between a turbocharged engine and a pressure wave charged engine. The comparison was accomplished using the engine simulation software AVL Boost, version 2010. The grahps were extracted using AVL Impress, version 2010. The performance increase is limited by the mechanical side of the simulated engine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hackel, Stefan; Montenbruck, Oliver; Steigenberger, -Peter; Eineder, Michael; Gisinger, Christoph
Remote sensing satellites support a broad range of scientific and commercial applications. The two radar imaging satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X provide spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR data with a very high accuracy. The increasing demand for precise radar products relies on sophisticated validation methods, which require precise and accurate orbit products. Basically, the precise reconstruction of the satellite’s trajectory is based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from a geodetic-grade dual-frequency receiver onboard the spacecraft. The Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination (RDOD) approach utilizes models for the gravitational and non-gravitational forces. Following a proper analysis of the orbit quality, systematics in the orbit products have been identified, which reflect deficits in the non-gravitational force models. A detailed satellite macro model is introduced to describe the geometry and the optical surface properties of the satellite. Two major non-gravitational forces are the direct and the indirect Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). Due to the dusk-dawn orbit configuration of TerraSAR-X, the satellite is almost constantly illuminated by the Sun. Therefore, the direct SRP has an effect on the lateral stability of the determined orbit. The indirect effect of the solar radiation principally contributes to the Earth Radiation Pressure (ERP). The resulting force depends on the sunlight, which is reflected by the illuminated Earth surface in the visible, and the emission of the Earth body in the infrared spectra. Both components of ERP require Earth models to describe the optical properties of the Earth surface. Therefore, the influence of different Earth models on the orbit quality is assessed within the presentation. The presentation highlights the influence of non-gravitational force and satellite macro models on the orbit quality of TerraSAR-X.
Principles and computer simulations of intercooled-turbocharged gas generator/expander engine
Jeng, Y.L.
1991-01-01
An internal combustion engine is proposed that is based on a patent of Dr. L. S. Wang. This engine utilizes a two-stage adiabatic compression with intercooling to reduce exhaust energy loss, and a reciprocating piston-gasifier to raise the cycle peak temperature. Combustion occurs within piston-gasifier to generate high temperature and pressure gases with no brake net work output. The discharge gas expands in turbocharging turbine to drive the two compressors. Further expansion is performed in the power turbine to produce the engine power output. To study the feasibility of the proposed engine, piston-gasifier is designed and computer code was developed to simulate the engine operations. Processes in various system components are described by several submodels which are integrated in the computer code to predict the engine performance. The piston-gasifier model treats manifolds and cylinders as open systems and combustion is described as a one-zone heat release process. Processes including heat transfer and friction are described in sufficient detail to determine the mass and energy transfers in each manifold and master cylinder. The power turbine is described by the modified Stodola Ellipse while other machineries are described by scaled performance maps. Intercoolers are modeled by a combination of analytical solutions and empirical correlations. The predicted quasi-steady performance characteristics of piston-gasifier are studied. And a reference operating point is chosen to select turbomachineries and to design intercoolers. The system performance is obtained by matching the operations of all components. Covering a wide range of operations, the results of engine simulations show that excellent part load performance is obtained by the reduction of exhaust energy loss. Still liable to refinements, discussions are made, pointing out future directions of further improvement.
Chang, Chih-Hao . E-mail: chchang@engineering.ucsb.edu; Liou, Meng-Sing . E-mail: meng-sing.liou@grc.nasa.gov
2007-07-01
In this paper, we propose a new approach to compute compressible multifluid equations. Firstly, a single-pressure compressible multifluid model based on the stratified flow model is proposed. The stratified flow model, which defines different fluids in separated regions, is shown to be amenable to the finite volume method. We can apply the conservation law to each subregion and obtain a set of balance equations. Secondly, the AUSM{sup +} scheme, which is originally designed for the compressible gas flow, is extended to solve compressible liquid flows. By introducing additional dissipation terms into the numerical flux, the new scheme, called AUSM{sup +}-up, can be applied to both liquid and gas flows. Thirdly, the contribution to the numerical flux due to interactions between different phases is taken into account and solved by the exact Riemann solver. We will show that the proposed approach yields an accurate and robust method for computing compressible multiphase flows involving discontinuities, such as shock waves and fluid interfaces. Several one-dimensional test problems are used to demonstrate the capability of our method, including the Ransom's water faucet problem and the air-water shock tube problem. Finally, several two dimensional problems will show the capability to capture enormous details and complicated wave patterns in flows having large disparities in the fluid density and velocities, such as interactions between water shock wave and air bubble, between air shock wave and water column(s), and underwater explosion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Guo-Jiao; Bai, Chao-Ying; Greenhalgh, Stewart
2013-09-01
The traditional grid/cell-based wavefront expansion algorithms, such as the shortest path algorithm, can only find the first arrivals or multiply reflected (or mode converted) waves transmitted from subsurface interfaces, but cannot calculate the other later reflections/conversions having a minimax time path. In order to overcome the above limitations, we introduce the concept of a stationary minimax time path of Fermat's Principle into the multistage irregular shortest path method. Here we extend it from Cartesian coordinates for a flat earth model to global ray tracing of multiple phases in a 3-D complex spherical earth model. The ray tracing results for 49 different kinds of crustal, mantle and core phases show that the maximum absolute traveltime error is less than 0.12 s and the average absolute traveltime error is within 0.09 s when compared with the AK135 theoretical traveltime tables for a 1-D reference model. Numerical tests in terms of computational accuracy and CPU time consumption indicate that the new scheme is an accurate, efficient and a practical way to perform 3-D multiphase arrival tracking in regional or global traveltime tomography.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stukel, Michael R.; Landry, Michael R.; Ohman, Mark D.; Goericke, Ralf; Samo, Ty; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.
2012-03-01
Despite the increasing use of linear inverse modeling techniques to elucidate fluxes in undersampled marine ecosystems, the accuracy with which they estimate food web flows has not been resolved. New Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) solution methods have also called into question the biases of the commonly used L2 minimum norm (L 2MN) solution technique. Here, we test the abilities of MCMC and L 2MN methods to recover field-measured ecosystem rates that are sequentially excluded from the model input. For data, we use experimental measurements from process cruises of the California Current Ecosystem (CCE-LTER) Program that include rate estimates of phytoplankton and bacterial production, micro- and mesozooplankton grazing, and carbon export from eight study sites varying from rich coastal upwelling to offshore oligotrophic conditions. Both the MCMC and L 2MN methods predicted well-constrained rates of protozoan and mesozooplankton grazing with reasonable accuracy, but the MCMC method overestimated primary production. The MCMC method more accurately predicted the poorly constrained rate of vertical carbon export than the L 2MN method, which consistently overestimated export. Results involving DOC and bacterial production were equivocal. Overall, when primary production is provided as model input, the MCMC method gives a robust depiction of ecosystem processes. Uncertainty in inverse ecosystem models is large and arises primarily from solution under-determinacy. We thus suggest that experimental programs focusing on food web fluxes expand the range of experimental measurements to include the nature and fate of detrital pools, which play large roles in the model.
Martin, Katherine J.; Patrick, Denis R.; Bissell, Mina J.; Fournier, Marcia V.
2008-10-20
One of the major tenets in breast cancer research is that early detection is vital for patient survival by increasing treatment options. To that end, we have previously used a novel unsupervised approach to identify a set of genes whose expression predicts prognosis of breast cancer patients. The predictive genes were selected in a well-defined three dimensional (3D) cell culture model of non-malignant human mammary epithelial cell morphogenesis as down-regulated during breast epithelial cell acinar formation and cell cycle arrest. Here we examine the ability of this gene signature (3D-signature) to predict prognosis in three independent breast cancer microarray datasets having 295, 286, and 118 samples, respectively. Our results show that the 3D-signature accurately predicts prognosis in three unrelated patient datasets. At 10 years, the probability of positive outcome was 52, 51, and 47 percent in the group with a poor-prognosis signature and 91, 75, and 71 percent in the group with a good-prognosis signature for the three datasets, respectively (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, p<0.05). Hazard ratios for poor outcome were 5.5 (95% CI 3.0 to 12.2, p<0.0001), 2.4 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.6, p<0.0001) and 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.2, p = 0.016) and remained significant for the two larger datasets when corrected for estrogen receptor (ER) status. Hence the 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome in both ER-positive and ER-negative tumors, though individual genes differed in their prognostic ability in the two subtypes. Genes that were prognostic in ER+ patients are AURKA, CEP55, RRM2, EPHA2, FGFBP1, and VRK1, while genes prognostic in ER patients include ACTB, FOXM1 and SERPINE2 (Kaplan-Meier p<0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis in the largest dataset showed that the 3D-signature was a strong independent factor in predicting breast cancer outcome. The 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome across multiple datasets and holds prognostic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yogurtcu, Osman N.; Johnson, Margaret E.
2015-08-01
The dynamics of association between diffusing and reacting molecular species are routinely quantified using simple rate-equation kinetics that assume both well-mixed concentrations of species and a single rate constant for parameterizing the binding rate. In two-dimensions (2D), however, even when systems are well-mixed, the assumption of a single characteristic rate constant for describing association is not generally accurate, due to the properties of diffusional searching in dimensions d ≤ 2. Establishing rigorous bounds for discriminating between 2D reactive systems that will be accurately described by rate equations with a single rate constant, and those that will not, is critical for both modeling and experimentally parameterizing binding reactions restricted to surfaces such as cellular membranes. We show here that in regimes of intrinsic reaction rate (ka) and diffusion (D) parameters ka/D > 0.05, a single rate constant cannot be fit to the dynamics of concentrations of associating species independently of the initial conditions. Instead, a more sophisticated multi-parametric description than rate-equations is necessary to robustly characterize bimolecular reactions from experiment. Our quantitative bounds derive from our new analysis of 2D rate-behavior predicted from Smoluchowski theory. Using a recently developed single particle reaction-diffusion algorithm we extend here to 2D, we are able to test and validate the predictions of Smoluchowski theory and several other theories of reversible reaction dynamics in 2D for the first time. Finally, our results also mean that simulations of reactive systems in 2D using rate equations must be undertaken with caution when reactions have ka/D > 0.05, regardless of the simulation volume. We introduce here a simple formula for an adaptive concentration dependent rate constant for these chemical kinetics simulations which improves on existing formulas to better capture non-equilibrium reaction dynamics from dilute
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbour, San-Lian S.; Barbour, Randall L.; Koo, Ping C.; Graber, Harry L.; Chang, Jenghwa
1995-05-01
results reported are the first to demonstrate that high quality images of small added inclusions can be obtained from anatomically accurate models of thick tissues having arbitrary boundaries based on the analysis of diffusely sscattered light.
Gray, Alan; Harlen, Oliver G.; Harris, Sarah A.; Khalid, Syma; Leung, Yuk Ming; Lonsdale, Richard; Mulholland, Adrian J.; Pearson, Arwen R.; Read, Daniel J.; Richardson, Robin A.
2015-01-01
The current computational techniques available for biomolecular simulation are described, and the successes and limitations of each with reference to the experimental biophysical methods that they complement are presented. Despite huge advances in the computational techniques available for simulating biomolecules at the quantum-mechanical, atomistic and coarse-grained levels, there is still a widespread perception amongst the experimental community that these calculations are highly specialist and are not generally applicable by researchers outside the theoretical community. In this article, the successes and limitations of biomolecular simulation and the further developments that are likely in the near future are discussed. A brief overview is also provided of the experimental biophysical methods that are commonly used to probe biomolecular structure and dynamics, and the accuracy of the information that can be obtained from each is compared with that from modelling. It is concluded that progress towards an accurate spatial and temporal model of biomacromolecules requires a combination of all of these biophysical techniques, both experimental and computational.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stecca, Guglielmo; Siviglia, Annunziato; Blom, Astrid
2016-07-01
We present an accurate numerical approximation to the Saint-Venant-Hirano model for mixed-sediment morphodynamics in one space dimension. Our solution procedure originates from the fully-unsteady matrix-vector formulation developed in [54]. The principal part of the problem is solved by an explicit Finite Volume upwind method of the path-conservative type, by which all the variables are updated simultaneously in a coupled fashion. The solution to the principal part is embedded into a splitting procedure for the treatment of frictional source terms. The numerical scheme is extended to second-order accuracy and includes a bookkeeping procedure for handling the evolution of size stratification in the substrate. We develop a concept of balancedness for the vertical mass flux between the substrate and active layer under bed degradation, which prevents the occurrence of non-physical oscillations in the grainsize distribution of the substrate. We suitably modify the numerical scheme to respect this principle. We finally verify the accuracy in our solution to the equations, and its ability to reproduce one-dimensional morphodynamics due to streamwise and vertical sorting, using three test cases. In detail, (i) we empirically assess the balancedness of vertical mass fluxes under degradation; (ii) we study the convergence to the analytical linearised solution for the propagation of infinitesimal-amplitude waves [54], which is here employed for the first time to assess a mixed-sediment model; (iii) we reproduce Ribberink's E8-E9 flume experiment [46].
An accurate locally active memristor model for S-type negative differential resistance in NbOx
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibson, Gary A.; Musunuru, Srinitya; Zhang, Jiaming; Vandenberghe, Ken; Lee, James; Hsieh, Cheng-Chih; Jackson, Warren; Jeon, Yoocharn; Henze, Dick; Li, Zhiyong; Stanley Williams, R.
2016-01-01
A number of important commercial applications would benefit from the introduction of easily manufactured devices that exhibit current-controlled, or "S-type," negative differential resistance (NDR). A leading example is emerging non-volatile memory based on crossbar array architectures. Due to the inherently linear current vs. voltage characteristics of candidate non-volatile memristor memory elements, individual memory cells in these crossbar arrays can be addressed only if a highly non-linear circuit element, termed a "selector," is incorporated in the cell. Selectors based on a layer of niobium oxide sandwiched between two electrodes have been investigated by a number of groups because the NDR they exhibit provides a promisingly large non-linearity. We have developed a highly accurate compact dynamical model for their electrical conduction that shows that the NDR in these devices results from a thermal feedback mechanism. A series of electrothermal measurements and numerical simulations corroborate this model. These results reveal that the leakage currents can be minimized by thermally isolating the selector or by incorporating materials with larger activation energies for electron motion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reppert, Mike; Naibo, Virginia; Jankowiak, Ryszard
2010-07-01
Accurate lineshape functions for modeling fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) difference spectra (ΔFLN spectra) in the low-fluence limit are derived and examined in terms of the physical interpretation of various contributions, including photoproduct absorption and emission. While in agreement with the earlier results of Jaaniso [Proc. Est. Acad. Sci., Phys., Math. 34, 277 (1985)] and Fünfschilling et al. [J. Lumin. 36, 85 (1986)], the derived formulas differ substantially from functions used recently [e.g., M. Rätsep et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 479, 140 (2009)] to model ΔFLN spectra. In contrast to traditional FLN spectra, it is demonstrated that for most physically reasonable parameters, the ΔFLN spectrum reduces simply to the single-site fluorescence lineshape function. These results imply that direct measurement of a bulk-averaged single-site fluorescence lineshape function can be accomplished with no complicated extraction process or knowledge of any additional parameters such as site distribution function shape and width. We argue that previous analysis of ΔFLN spectra obtained for many photosynthetic complexes led to strong artificial lowering of apparent electron-phonon coupling strength, especially on the high-energy side of the pigment site distribution function.
Filizola, Marta
2009-01-01
For years conventional drug design at G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) has mainly focused on the inhibition of a single receptor at a usually well-defined ligand-binding site. The recent discovery of more and more physiologically relevant GPCR dimers/oligomers suggests that selectively targeting these complexes or designing small molecules that inhibit receptor-receptor interactions might provide new opportunities for novel drug discovery. To uncover the fundamental mechanisms and dynamics governing GPCR dimerization/oligomerization, it is crucial to understand the dynamic process of receptor-receptor association, and to identify regions that are suitable for selective drug binding. This minireview highlights current progress in the development of increasingly accurate dynamic molecular models of GPCR oligomers based on structural, biochemical, and biophysical information that has recently appeared in the literature. In view of this new information, there has never been a more exciting time for computational research into GPCRs than at present. Information-driven modern molecular models of GPCR complexes are expected to efficiently guide the rational design of GPCR oligomer-specific drugs, possibly allowing researchers to reach for the high-hanging fruits in GPCR drug discovery, i.e. more potent and selective drugs for efficient therapeutic interventions. PMID:19465029
Długosz, Maciej; Antosiewicz, Jan M
2015-07-01
Proper treatment of hydrodynamic interactions is of importance in evaluation of rigid-body mobility tensors of biomolecules in Stokes flow and in simulations of their folding and solution conformation, as well as in simulations of the translational and rotational dynamics of either flexible or rigid molecules in biological systems at low Reynolds numbers. With macromolecules conveniently modeled in calculations or in dynamic simulations as ensembles of spherical frictional elements, various approximations to hydrodynamic interactions, such as the two-body, far-field Rotne-Prager approach, are commonly used, either without concern or as a compromise between the accuracy and the numerical complexity. Strikingly, even though the analytical Rotne-Prager approach fails to describe (both in the qualitative and quantitative sense) mobilities in the simplest system consisting of two spheres, when the distance between their surfaces is of the order of their size, it is commonly applied to model hydrodynamic effects in macromolecular systems. Here, we closely investigate hydrodynamic effects in two and three-body systems, consisting of bead-shell molecular models, using either the analytical Rotne-Prager approach, or an accurate numerical scheme that correctly accounts for the many-body character of hydrodynamic interactions and their short-range behavior. We analyze mobilities, and translational and rotational velocities of bodies resulting from direct forces acting on them. We show, that with the sufficient number of frictional elements in hydrodynamic models of interacting bodies, the far-field approximation is able to provide a description of hydrodynamic effects that is in a reasonable qualitative as well as quantitative agreement with the description resulting from the application of the virtually exact numerical scheme, even for small separations between bodies. PMID:26068580
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gritsyk, P. A.; Somov, B. V.
2016-08-01
The M7.7 solar flare of July 19, 2012, at 05:58 UT was observed with high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolutions in the hard X-ray and optical ranges. The flare occurred at the solar limb, which allowed us to see the relative positions of the coronal and chromospheric X-ray sources and to determine their spectra. To explain the observations of the coronal source and the chromospheric one unocculted by the solar limb, we apply an accurate analytical model for the kinetic behavior of accelerated electrons in a flare. We interpret the chromospheric hard X-ray source in the thick-target approximation with a reverse current and the coronal one in the thin-target approximation. Our estimates of the slopes of the hard X-ray spectra for both sources are consistent with the observations. However, the calculated intensity of the coronal source is lower than the observed one by several times. Allowance for the acceleration of fast electrons in a collapsing magnetic trap has enabled us to remove this contradiction. As a result of our modeling, we have estimated the flux density of the energy transferred by electrons with energies above 15 keV to be ˜5 × 1010 erg cm-2 s-1, which exceeds the values typical of the thick-target model without a reverse current by a factor of ˜5. To independently test the model, we have calculated the microwave spectrum in the range 1-50 GHz that corresponds to the available radio observations.
Sundaramurthy, Aravind; Alai, Aaron; Ganpule, Shailesh; Holmberg, Aaron; Plougonven, Erwan; Chandra, Namas
2012-09-01
Blast waves generated by improvised explosive devices (IEDs) cause traumatic brain injury (TBI) in soldiers and civilians. In vivo animal models that use shock tubes are extensively used in laboratories to simulate field conditions, to identify mechanisms of injury, and to develop injury thresholds. In this article, we place rats in different locations along the length of the shock tube (i.e., inside, outside, and near the exit), to examine the role of animal placement location (APL) in the biomechanical load experienced by the animal. We found that the biomechanical load on the brain and internal organs in the thoracic cavity (lungs and heart) varied significantly depending on the APL. When the specimen is positioned outside, organs in the thoracic cavity experience a higher pressure for a longer duration, in contrast to APL inside the shock tube. This in turn will possibly alter the injury type, severity, and lethality. We found that the optimal APL is where the Friedlander waveform is first formed inside the shock tube. Once the optimal APL was determined, the effect of the incident blast intensity on the surface and intracranial pressure was measured and analyzed. Noticeably, surface and intracranial pressure increases linearly with the incident peak overpressures, though surface pressures are significantly higher than the other two. Further, we developed and validated an anatomically accurate finite element model of the rat head. With this model, we determined that the main pathway of pressure transmission to the brain was through the skull and not through the snout; however, the snout plays a secondary role in diffracting the incoming blast wave towards the skull. PMID:22620716
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jolivet, L.; Cohen, M.; Ruas, A.
2015-08-01
Landscape influences fauna movement at different levels, from habitat selection to choices of movements' direction. Our goal is to provide a development frame in order to test simulation functions for animal's movement. We describe our approach for such simulations and we compare two types of functions to calculate trajectories. To do so, we first modelled the role of landscape elements to differentiate between elements that facilitate movements and the ones being hindrances. Different influences are identified depending on landscape elements and on animal species. Knowledge were gathered from ecologists, literature and observation datasets. Second, we analysed the description of animal movement recorded with GPS at fine scale, corresponding to high temporal frequency and good location accuracy. Analysing this type of data provides information on the relation between landscape features and movements. We implemented an agent-based simulation approach to calculate potential trajectories constrained by the spatial environment and individual's behaviour. We tested two functions that consider space differently: one function takes into account the geometry and the types of landscape elements and one cost function sums up the spatial surroundings of an individual. Results highlight the fact that the cost function exaggerates the distances travelled by an individual and simplifies movement patterns. The geometry accurate function represents a good bottom-up approach for discovering interesting areas or obstacles for movements.
Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Cannon, William R.; Oehmen, Christopher S.; Shah, Anuj R.; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Lipton, Mary S.; Waters, Katrina M.
2008-07-01
Motivation: The standard approach to identifying peptides based on accurate mass and elution time (AMT) compares these profiles obtained from a high resolution mass spectrometer to a database of peptides previously identified from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) studies. It would be advantageous, with respect to both accuracy and cost, to only search for those peptides that are detectable by MS (proteotypic). Results: We present a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model that uses a simple descriptor space based on 35 properties of amino acid content, charge, hydrophilicity, and polarity for the quantitative prediction of proteotypic peptides. Using three independently derived AMT databases (Shewanella oneidensis, Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia pestis) for training and validation within and across species, the SVM resulted in an average accuracy measure of ~0.8 with a standard deviation of less than 0.025. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these results are achievable with a small set of 12 variables and can achieve high proteome coverage. Availability: http://omics.pnl.gov/software/STEPP.php
Turabelidze, Anna; Guo, Shujuan; DiPietro, Luisa A
2010-01-01
Studies in the field of wound healing have utilized a variety of different housekeeping genes for reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. However, nearly all of these studies assume that the selected normalization gene is stably expressed throughout the course of the repair process. The purpose of our current investigation was to identify the most stable housekeeping genes for studying gene expression in mouse wound healing using RT-qPCR. To identify which housekeeping genes are optimal for studying gene expression in wound healing, we examined all articles published in Wound Repair and Regeneration that cited RT-qPCR during the period of January/February 2008 until July/August 2009. We determined that ACTβ, GAPDH, 18S, and β2M were the most frequently used housekeeping genes in human, mouse, and pig studies. We also investigated nine commonly used housekeeping genes that are not generally used in wound healing models: GUS, TBP, RPLP2, ATP5B, SDHA, UBC, CANX, CYC1, and YWHAZ. We observed that wounded and unwounded tissues have contrasting housekeeping gene expression stability. The results demonstrate that commonly used housekeeping genes must be validated as accurate normalizing genes for each individual experimental condition. PMID:20731795
Augustin, Christoph M.; Neic, Aurel; Liebmann, Manfred; Prassl, Anton J.; Niederer, Steven A.; Haase, Gundolf; Plank, Gernot
2016-01-01
Electromechanical (EM) models of the heart have been used successfully to study fundamental mechanisms underlying a heart beat in health and disease. However, in all modeling studies reported so far numerous simplifications were made in terms of representing biophysical details of cellular function and its heterogeneity, gross anatomy and tissue microstructure, as well as the bidirectional coupling between electrophysiology (EP) and tissue distension. One limiting factor is the employed spatial discretization methods which are not sufficiently flexible to accommodate complex geometries or resolve heterogeneities, but, even more importantly, the limited efficiency of the prevailing solver techniques which are not sufficiently scalable to deal with the incurring increase in degrees of freedom (DOF) when modeling cardiac electromechanics at high spatio-temporal resolution. This study reports on the development of a novel methodology for solving the nonlinear equation of finite elasticity using human whole organ models of cardiac electromechanics, discretized at a high para-cellular resolution. Three patient-specific, anatomically accurate, whole heart EM models were reconstructed from magnetic resonance (MR) scans at resolutions of 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm, yielding meshes of approximately 184.6, 24.4 and 3.7 million tetrahedral elements and 95.9, 13.2 and 2.1 million displacement DOF, respectively. The same mesh was used for discretizing the governing equations of both electrophysiology (EP) and nonlinear elasticity. A novel algebraic multigrid (AMG) preconditioner for an iterative Krylov solver was developed to deal with the resulting computational load. The AMG preconditioner was designed under the primary objective of achieving favorable strong scaling characteristics for both setup and solution runtimes, as this is key for exploiting current high performance computing hardware. Benchmark results using the 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm meshes demonstrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Augustin, Christoph M.; Neic, Aurel; Liebmann, Manfred; Prassl, Anton J.; Niederer, Steven A.; Haase, Gundolf; Plank, Gernot
2016-01-01
Electromechanical (EM) models of the heart have been used successfully to study fundamental mechanisms underlying a heart beat in health and disease. However, in all modeling studies reported so far numerous simplifications were made in terms of representing biophysical details of cellular function and its heterogeneity, gross anatomy and tissue microstructure, as well as the bidirectional coupling between electrophysiology (EP) and tissue distension. One limiting factor is the employed spatial discretization methods which are not sufficiently flexible to accommodate complex geometries or resolve heterogeneities, but, even more importantly, the limited efficiency of the prevailing solver techniques which is not sufficiently scalable to deal with the incurring increase in degrees of freedom (DOF) when modeling cardiac electromechanics at high spatio-temporal resolution. This study reports on the development of a novel methodology for solving the nonlinear equation of finite elasticity using human whole organ models of cardiac electromechanics, discretized at a high para-cellular resolution. Three patient-specific, anatomically accurate, whole heart EM models were reconstructed from magnetic resonance (MR) scans at resolutions of 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm, yielding meshes of approximately 184.6, 24.4 and 3.7 million tetrahedral elements and 95.9, 13.2 and 2.1 million displacement DOF, respectively. The same mesh was used for discretizing the governing equations of both electrophysiology (EP) and nonlinear elasticity. A novel algebraic multigrid (AMG) preconditioner for an iterative Krylov solver was developed to deal with the resulting computational load. The AMG preconditioner was designed under the primary objective of achieving favorable strong scaling characteristics for both setup and solution runtimes, as this is key for exploiting current high performance computing hardware. Benchmark results using the 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm meshes demonstrate
Mui, K W; Wong, L T; Chung, L Y
2009-11-01
Atmospheric visibility impairment has gained increasing concern as it is associated with the existence of a number of aerosols as well as common air pollutants and produces unfavorable conditions for observation, dispersion, and transportation. This study analyzed the atmospheric visibility data measured in urban and suburban Hong Kong (two selected stations) with respect to time-matched mass concentrations of common air pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), nitrogen monoxide (NO), respirable suspended particulates (PM(10)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and meteorological parameters including air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. No significant difference in atmospheric visibility was reported between the two measurement locations (p > or = 0.6, t test); and good atmospheric visibility was observed more frequently in summer and autumn than in winter and spring (p < 0.01, t test). It was also found that atmospheric visibility increased with temperature but decreased with the concentrations of SO(2), CO, PM(10), NO, and NO(2). The results showed that atmospheric visibility was season dependent and would have significant correlations with temperature, the mass concentrations of PM(10) and NO(2), and the air pollution index API (correlation coefficients mid R: R mid R: > or = 0.7, p < or = 0.0001, t test). Mathematical expressions catering to the seasonal variations of atmospheric visibility were thus proposed. By comparison, the proposed visibility prediction models were more accurate than some existing regional models. In addition to improving visibility prediction accuracy, this study would be useful for understanding the context of low atmospheric visibility, exploring possible remedial measures, and evaluating the impact of air pollution and atmospheric visibility impairment in this region. PMID:18951139
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Infantino, Angelo; Marengo, Mario; Baschetti, Serafina; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Longo Vaschetto, Vittorio; Lucconi, Giulia; Massucci, Piera; Vichi, Sara; Zagni, Federico; Mostacci, Domiziano
2015-11-01
Biomedical cyclotrons for production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radionuclides and radiotherapy with hadrons or ions are widely diffused and established in hospitals as well as in industrial facilities and research sites. Guidelines for site planning and installation, as well as for radiation protection assessment, are given in a number of international documents; however, these well-established guides typically offer analytic methods of calculation of both shielding and materials activation, in approximate or idealized geometry set up. The availability of Monte Carlo codes with accurate and up-to-date libraries for transport and interactions of neutrons and charged particles at energies below 250 MeV, together with the continuously increasing power of nowadays computers, makes systematic use of simulations with realistic geometries possible, yielding equipment and site specific evaluation of the source terms, shielding requirements and all quantities relevant to radiation protection. In this work, the well-known Monte Carlo code FLUKA was used to simulate two representative models of cyclotron for PET radionuclides production, including their targetry; and one type of proton therapy cyclotron including the energy selection system. Simulations yield estimates of various quantities of radiological interest, including the effective dose distribution around the equipment, the effective number of neutron produced per incident proton and the activation of target materials, the structure of the cyclotron, the energy degrader, the vault walls and the soil. The model was validated against experimental measurements and comparison with well-established reference data. Neutron ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was measured around a GE PETtrace cyclotron: an average ratio between experimental measurement and simulations of 0.99±0.07 was found. Saturation yield of 18F, produced by the well-known 18O(p,n)18F reaction, was calculated and compared with the IAEA recommended
Koesters, Thomas; Friedman, Kent P.; Fenchel, Matthias; Zhan, Yiqiang; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Babb, James; Jelescu, Ileana O.; Faul, David; Boada, Fernando E.; Shepherd, Timothy M.
2016-01-01
Simultaneous PET/MR of the brain is a promising new technology for characterizing patients with suspected cognitive impairment or epilepsy. Unlike CT though, MR signal intensities do not provide a direct correlate to PET photon attenuation correction (AC) and inaccurate radiotracer standard uptake value (SUV) estimation could limit future PET/MR clinical applications. We tested a novel AC method that supplements standard Dixon-based tissue segmentation with a superimposed model-based bone compartment. Methods We directly compared SUV estimation for MR-based AC methods to reference CT AC in 16 patients undergoing same-day, single 18FDG dose PET/CT and PET/MR for suspected neurodegeneration. Three Dixon-based MR AC methods were compared to CT – standard Dixon 4-compartment segmentation alone, Dixon with a superimposed model-based bone compartment, and Dixon with a superimposed bone compartment and linear attenuation correction optimized specifically for brain tissue. The brain was segmented using a 3D T1-weighted volumetric MR sequence and SUV estimations compared to CT AC for whole-image, whole-brain and 91 FreeSurfer-based regions-of-interest. Results Modifying the linear AC value specifically for brain and superimposing a model-based bone compartment reduced whole-brain SUV estimation bias of Dixon-based PET/MR AC by 95% compared to reference CT AC (P < 0.05) – this resulted in a residual −0.3% whole-brain mean SUV bias. Further, brain regional analysis demonstrated only 3 frontal lobe regions with SUV estimation bias of 5% or greater (P < 0.05). These biases appeared to correlate with high individual variability in the frontal bone thickness and pneumatization. Conclusion Bone compartment and linear AC modifications result in a highly accurate MR AC method in subjects with suspected neurodegeneration. This prototype MR AC solution appears equivalent than other recently proposed solutions, and does not require additional MR sequences and scan time. These
Internal combustion engine control system for use with turbo-charged engine, and method
Denz, H.; Stumm, H.; Zechnall, M.
1983-06-28
To permit operation of engines, particularly turbo-charged engines, at the maximum power level just short of causing engine knocking, and preventing engine knocking, temperatures in the engine are sensed and, if an excessive temperature signal is detected, for example excessive engine temperature, exhaust gas temperature, turbo-charged air, or turbo charger temperature, a fuel supply system, for example a fuel injection system, is controlled to enrich the mixture, for example by multiplying the fuel injection time by a factor as commanded by an additional control stage which stores in a memory, such as a rom engine operating characteristic curves. In addition, spark retardation by a retarding angle (Alpha 1) can be commanded, the spark retardation in combination with enriching of the fuel-air mixture being less than without such enrichment, thus permitting operation of the engine at appropriate power and efficiency level without noticeably increasing fuel consumption in the course of continued operation of the engine.
Magnetorheological valve based actuator for improvement of passively controlled turbocharger system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahiuddin, I.; Mazlan, S. A.; Imaduddin, F.; Ubaidillah, Ichwan, B.
2016-03-01
Variable geometry turbochargers have been widely researched to fulfil the current engine stringent regulations. The passively controlled turbocharger (PCT) concept has been proposed to reduce energy consumption by utilizing the emission energy to move the actuator. However, it only covered a small range operating condition. Therefore, a magnetorheological(MR) Valve device, as typical smart material devices to enhance a passive device, is proposed to improve the PCT. Even though the benefits have been considered for the compactness and easiness to connect to an electrical system, the number of publications regarding the MR application within engine system is hard to be found. Therefore, this paper introduces a design of an MR Valve in a turbocharger. The main challenge is to make sure its capability to produce a sufficient total pressure drop. To overcome the challenge, its material properties, shape and pressure drop calculation has been analyzed to fulfil the requirement. Finally, to get a more understanding of actuator performance, the actuator response was simulated by treating the exhaust gas pressure as an input. It shows that the new MR actuator has a potential dynamic to improve the PCT controllability.
Study of the turbocharger shaft motion by means of infrared sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serrano, J. R.; Guardiola, C.; Dolz, V.; López, M. A.; Bouffaud, F.
2015-05-01
This work describes a technique for measuring the precession movement of the shaft of small automotive turbochargers. The main novelty is that the technique is based on infrared light diode sensors. With presented technique it is possible to perform secure mounting of electronics and also to measure, with good accuracy, far enough from the turbocharger shaft. Both advantages allow applying it even in critical lubrication conditions and when blade contact occurs. The technique's main difficulties arise from the small size of the turbocharger shaft and the high precession movement in critical conditions. In order to generate the optimum albedo reflection for infrared measurement, a special cylindrical nut with larger diameter than the original one is assembled at the shaft tip in the compressor side. Following, shaft balancing, the calibration of the sensors and the compensation of errors from different sources are needed steps before the method is able to identify the main frequencies of shaft motion. Once synchronous and sub-synchronous frequencies have been obtained it is possible to reconstruct the instantaneous position of the shaft to determine its precession movement.
Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of friction-welded joints in tial turbocharger components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, J. G.; Kropf, A. J.; Vissers, D. R.; Sun, W. M.; Katsoudas, J.; Yang, N.; Fei, D.
2012-05-01
Titanium aluminide (TiAl) is an advanced intermetallic material and is being investigated for application in turbocharger components for diesel engines. A TiAl turbocharger rotor consists of a cast TiAl turbine wheel and a Ti-alloy shaft that are joined by friction welding. Although friction welding is an established industrial process, it is still challenging to join dissimilar materials especially for brittle intermetallics. These joints are therefore required to be inspected using a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method. In this study, synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (CT) developed at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory was used for NDE characterization of friction-welded joint in three TiAl turbocharger rotors. The filtered synchrotron X-ray source has high peak energies to penetrate thick metallic materials, and the detector (imager) has high spatial resolutions to resolve small flaws. The CT inspections revealed detailed 3D crack distributions within poorly welded joints. The crack detection sensitivity and resolution was calibrated and found to be correlated well with destructive examination.
CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-08-01671 Materials for Advanced Turbocharger Designs
Maziasz, P. J.; Wilson, M.
2014-11-28
Results were obtained on residual stresses in the weld of the steel shaft to the Ni-based superalloy turbine wheel for turbochargers. Neutron diffraction studies at the HFIR Residual Stress Facility showed asymmetric tensile stresses after electron-beam welding of the wheel and shaft. A post-weld heat-treatment was found to relieve and reduce the residual stresses. Results were also obtained on cast CF8C-Plus steel as an upgrade alternative to cast irons (SiMo, Ni-resist) for higher temperature capability and performance for the turbocharger housing. CF8C-Plus steel has demonstrated creep-rupture resistance at 600-950oC, and is more creep-resistant than HK30Nb, but lacks oxidation-resistance at 800oC and above in 10% water vapor. New modified CF8C-Plus Cu/W steels with Cr and Ni additions show better oxidation resistance at 800oC in 10% water vapor, and have capability to higher temperatures. For automotive gasoline engine turbocharger applications, higher temperatures are required, so at the end of this project, testing began at 1000oC and above.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valentine, A. P.; Kaeufl, P.; De Wit, R. W. L.; Trampert, J.
2014-12-01
Obtaining knowledge about source parameters in (near) real-time during or shortly after an earthquake is essential for mitigating damage and directing resources in the aftermath of the event. Therefore, a variety of real-time source-inversion algorithms have been developed over recent decades. This has been driven by the ever-growing availability of dense seismograph networks in many seismogenic areas of the world and the significant advances in real-time telemetry. By definition, these algorithms rely on short time-windows of sparse, local and regional observations, resulting in source estimates that are highly sensitive to observational errors, noise and missing data. In order to obtain estimates more rapidly, many algorithms are either entirely based on empirical scaling relations or make simplifying assumptions about the Earth's structure, which can in turn lead to biased results. It is therefore essential that realistic uncertainty bounds are estimated along with the parameters. A natural means of propagating probabilistic information on source parameters through the entire processing chain from first observations to potential end users and decision makers is provided by the Bayesian formalism.We present a novel method based on pattern recognition allowing us to incorporate highly accurate physical modelling into an uncertainty-aware real-time inversion algorithm. The algorithm is based on a pre-computed Green's functions database, containing a large set of source-receiver paths in a highly heterogeneous crustal model. Unlike similar methods, which often employ a grid search, we use a supervised learning algorithm to relate synthetic waveforms to point source parameters. This training procedure has to be performed only once and leads to a representation of the posterior probability density function p(m|d) --- the distribution of source parameters m given observations d --- which can be evaluated quickly for new data.Owing to the flexibility of the pattern
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jibeom; Jeon, Joonhyeon
2015-01-01
Recently, related studies on Equation Of State (EOS) have reported that generalized van der Waals (GvdW) shows poor representations in the near critical region for non-polar and non-sphere molecules. Hence, there are still remains a problem of GvdW parameters to minimize loss in describing saturated vapor densities and vice versa. This paper describes a recursive model GvdW (rGvdW) for an accurate representation of pure fluid materials in the near critical region. For the performance evaluation of rGvdW in the near critical region, other EOS models are also applied together with two pure molecule group: alkane and amine. The comparison results show rGvdW provides much more accurate and reliable predictions of pressure than the others. The calculating model of EOS through this approach gives an additional insight into the physical significance of accurate prediction of pressure in the nearcritical region.
Boyce, Christopher M; Holland, Daniel J; Scott, Stuart A; Dennis, John S
2013-12-18
Discrete element modeling is being used increasingly to simulate flow in fluidized beds. These models require complex measurement techniques to provide validation for the approximations inherent in the model. This paper introduces the idea of modeling the experiment to ensure that the validation is accurate. Specifically, a 3D, cylindrical gas-fluidized bed was simulated using a discrete element model (DEM) for particle motion coupled with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to describe the flow of gas. The results for time-averaged, axial velocity during bubbling fluidization were compared with those from magnetic resonance (MR) experiments made on the bed. The DEM-CFD data were postprocessed with various methods to produce time-averaged velocity maps for comparison with the MR results, including a method which closely matched the pulse sequence and data processing procedure used in the MR experiments. The DEM-CFD results processed with the MR-type time-averaging closely matched experimental MR results, validating the DEM-CFD model. Analysis of different averaging procedures confirmed that MR time-averages of dynamic systems correspond to particle-weighted averaging, rather than frame-weighted averaging, and also demonstrated that the use of Gaussian slices in MR imaging of dynamic systems is valid. PMID:24478537
2013-01-01
Discrete element modeling is being used increasingly to simulate flow in fluidized beds. These models require complex measurement techniques to provide validation for the approximations inherent in the model. This paper introduces the idea of modeling the experiment to ensure that the validation is accurate. Specifically, a 3D, cylindrical gas-fluidized bed was simulated using a discrete element model (DEM) for particle motion coupled with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to describe the flow of gas. The results for time-averaged, axial velocity during bubbling fluidization were compared with those from magnetic resonance (MR) experiments made on the bed. The DEM-CFD data were postprocessed with various methods to produce time-averaged velocity maps for comparison with the MR results, including a method which closely matched the pulse sequence and data processing procedure used in the MR experiments. The DEM-CFD results processed with the MR-type time-averaging closely matched experimental MR results, validating the DEM-CFD model. Analysis of different averaging procedures confirmed that MR time-averages of dynamic systems correspond to particle-weighted averaging, rather than frame-weighted averaging, and also demonstrated that the use of Gaussian slices in MR imaging of dynamic systems is valid. PMID:24478537
Priebe, R.J.; Rowland, D.P.
1991-03-01
The report represents the development, test and evaluation of Three Wheel Turbocharger System on the DDC Series 149 Marine engine. The program included development and performance testing in a test cell and demonstration of the system in actual revenue service aboard an inland waterways towboat. The Detroit Diesel Series 149 Marine engines rated at 700 SHP were tested aboard the M/V ABBIE-C, owned and operated by Compass Marine Services, Inc. Both port and starboard engines were fully instrumented to measure engine operating parameters, propeller shaft torque and fuel consumption. The data was collected by a computer based data acquisition system. The development, testing and demonstration program consisted of six task levels including TWT System design and development, Towboat DDC 12V-149NA (2 engines) baseline testing and DDC 8V-149 engine testing with one engine configured as TIB/DDEC model and the second as TWT/DDEC model. The TWT system in conjunction with DDEC significantly improved air-fuel ratio and transient response of the 8V-149 TWT/DDEC engine which proved to be 15% more fuel efficient than the 12V-149NA engines.
Jatana, Gurneesh S; Magee, Mark; Fain, David; Naik, Sameer V; Shaver, Gregory M; Lucht, Robert P
2015-02-10
A diode-laser-absorption-spectroscopy-based sensor system was used to perform high-speed (100 Hz to 5 kHz) measurements of gas properties (temperature, pressure, and H(2)O vapor concentration) at the turbocharger inlet and at the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler exit of a diesel engine. An earlier version of this system was previously used for high-speed measurements of gas temperature and H(2)O vapor concentration in the intake manifold of the diesel engine. A 1387.2 N m tunable distributed feedback diode laser was used to scan across multiple H(2)O absorption transitions, and the direct absorption signal was recorded using a high-speed data acquisition system. Compact optical connectors were designed to conduct simultaneous measurements in the intake manifold, the EGR cooler exit, and the turbocharger inlet of the engine. For measurements at the turbocharger inlet, these custom optical connectors survived gas temperatures as high as 800 K using a simple and passive arrangement in which the temperature-sensitive components were protected from high temperatures using ceramic insulators. This arrangement reduced system cost and complexity by eliminating the need for any active water or oil cooling. Diode-laser measurements performed during steady-state engine operation were within 5% of the thermocouple and pressure sensor measurements, and within 10% of the H(2)O concentration values derived from the CO(2) gas analyzer measurements. Measurements were also performed in the engine during transient events. In one such transient event, where a step change in fueling was introduced, the diode-laser sensor was able to capture the 30 ms change in the gas properties; the thermocouple, on the other hand, required 7.4 s to accurately reflect the change in gas conditions, while the gas analyzer required nearly 600 ms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first implementation of such a simple and passive arrangement of high-temperature optical connectors as well
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feldgus, Steven; Shields, George C.
2001-10-01
The Bergman cyclization of large polycyclic enediyne systems that mimic the cores of the enediyne anticancer antibiotics was studied using the ONIOM hybrid method. Tests on small enediynes show that ONIOM can accurately match experimental data. The effect of the triggering reaction in the natural products is investigated, and we support the argument that it is strain effects that lower the cyclization barrier. The barrier for the triggered molecule is very low, leading to a reasonable half-life at biological temperatures. No evidence is found that would suggest a concerted cyclization/H-atom abstraction mechanism is necessary for DNA cleavage.
White, E.; Woolley, M.; Bienemann, A.; Johnson, D.E.; Wyatt, M.; Murray, G.; Taylor, H.; Gill, S.S.
2011-01-01
Achieving accurate intracranial electrode or catheter placement is critical in clinical practice in order to maximise the efficacy of deep brain stimulation and drug delivery respectively as well as to minimise side-effects. We have developed a highly accurate and robust method for MRI-guided, stereotactic delivery of catheters and electrodes to deep target structures in the brain of pigs. This study outlines the development of this equipment and animal model. Specifically this system enables reliable head immobilisation, acquisition of high-resolution MR images, precise co-registration of MRI and stereotactic spaces and overall rigidity to facilitate accurate burr hole-generation and catheter implantation. To demonstrate the utility of this system, in this study a total of twelve catheters were implanted into the putamen of six Large White Landrace pigs. All implants were accurately placed into the putamen. Target accuracy had a mean Euclidean distance of 0.623 mm (standard deviation of 0.33 mm). This method has allowed us to accurately insert fine cannulae, suitable for the administration of therapeutic agents by convection-enhanced delivery (CED), into the brain of pigs. This study provides summary evidence of a robust system for catheter implantation into the brain of a large animal model. We are currently using this stereotactic system, implantation procedure and animal model to develop catheter-based drug delivery systems that will be translated into human clinical trials, as well as to model the distribution of therapeutic agents administered by CED over large volumes of brain. PMID:21074564
Effects of air injection on a turbocharged Teledyne Continential Motors TSIO-360-C engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E.
1979-01-01
A turbocharged fuel injected aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions that included that EPA five-mode emissions cycle and fuel air ratio variations for individual modes while injecting air into the exhaust gas. Air injection resulted in a decrease of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while exceeding the maximum recommended turbine inlet temperature of 1650 F at the full rich mixture of the engine. Leanout tests indicated that the EPA standards could be met through the combined use of fuel management and air injection.
The effect of diesel injection timing on a turbocharged diesel engine fumigated with ethanol
Schroeder, A.R.; Savage, L.D.; White, R.A.; Sorenson, S.C.
1988-01-01
A study has been done to determine the effect of changes in diesel injection timing on engine performance using a multicylinder, turbocharged diesel engine fumigated with ethanol. Tests at half load with engine speeds of 2000 and 2400 rpm indicated that a 4% increase in thermal efficiency could be obtained by advancing the diesel injection timing from 18 to 29/sup 0/BTDC. The effect of changes in diesel timing was much more pronounced at 2400 rpm. Advancing the diesel timing decreased CO and unburned HC levels significantly. The increase in NO levels due to advances in diesel timing was offset by the decrease in NO due to ethanol addition.
Study on rotational frequency noise in a centrifugal compressor for automobile turbochargers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wakaki, Daichi; Sakuka, Yuta; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko; Yamagata, Akihiro
2014-02-01
The rotational frequency noise (also known as the pulsation noise) due to the mistuning of impeller blade rows introduced at the manufacturing stage of the impellers is observed in the small-sized centrifugal compressor for automobile turbochargers. The present paper addresses the elucidation of the generating mechanism and parameter dependency such as the kind and degree of mistuning. In order to analyze numerically the rotational frequency noise due to mistuning, the unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of the whole compressor including volute is executed, and the resultant time history of the pressure is fed into the spectral analysis.
Air mass flow estimation in turbocharged diesel engines from in-cylinder pressure measurement
Desantes, J.M.; Galindo, J.; Guardiola, C.; Dolz, V.
2010-01-15
Air mass flow determination is needed for the control of current internal combustion engines. Current methods are based on specific sensors (as hot wire anemometers) or indirect estimation through manifold pressure. With the availability of cylinder pressure sensors for engine control, methods based on them can be used for replacing or complementing standard methods. Present paper uses in cylinder pressure increase during the intake stroke for inferring the trapped air mass. The method is validated on two different turbocharged diesel engines and compared with the standard methods. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eissa, Y.; Blanc, P.; Wald, L.; Ghedira, H.
2015-07-01
Routine measurements of the beam irradiance at normal incidence (DNI) include the irradiance originating from within the extent of the solar disc only (DNIS) whose angular extent is 0.266° ± 1.7 %, and that from a larger circumsolar region, called the circumsolar normal irradiance (CSNI). This study investigates if the spectral aerosol optical properties of the AERONET stations are sufficient for an accurate modelling of the monochromatic DNIS and CSNI under cloud-free conditions in a desert environment. The data from an AERONET station in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, and a collocated Sun and Aureole Measurement (SAM) instrument which offers reference measurements of the monochromatic profile of solar radiance, were exploited. Using the AERONET data both the radiative transfer models libRadtran and SMARTS offer an accurate estimate of the monochromatic DNIS, with a relative root mean square error (RMSE) of 5 %, a relative bias of +1 % and acoefficient of determination greater than 0.97. After testing two configurations in SMARTS and three in libRadtran for modelling the monochromatic CSNI, libRadtran exhibits the most accurate results when the AERONET aerosol phase function is presented as a Two Term Henyey-Greenstein phase function. In this case libRadtran exhibited a relative RMSE and a bias of respectively 22 and -19 % and a coefficient of determination of 0.89. The results are promising and pave the way towards reporting the contribution of the broadband circumsolar irradiance to standard DNI measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Feng; Zhou, Ming; Xu, Quanyong
2016-06-01
Semi-floating ring bearing(SFRB) is developed to control the vibration of turbocharger rotor. The outer clearance of SFRB affects the magnitude and frequency of nonlinear whirl motion, which is significant for the design of turbocharger. In order to explore the effects of outer clearance, a transient finite element analysis program for rotor and oil film bearing is built and validated by a published experimental case. The nonlinear dynamic behaviors of rotor-SFRB system are simulated. According to the simulation results, two representative subsynchronous oscillations excited by the two bearings respectively are discovered. As the outer clearance of SFRB increases from 24 μm to 60 μm, the low-frequency subsynchronous oscillation experiences three steps, including a strong start, a gradual recession and a combination with the other one. At the same time, the high-frequency subsynchronous oscillation starts to appear gradually, then strengthens, and finally combines. If gravity and unbalance are neglected, the combination will start starts from high rotor speed and extents to low rotor speed, just like a "zipper". It is found from the quantitative analysis that when the outer clearance increases, the vibration amplitude experiences large value firstly, then reduction, and suddenly increasing after combination. A useful design principle of SFRB outer clearance for minimum vibration amplitude is proposed: the outer clearance value should be chosen to keep the frequency of two subsynchronous oscillations clearly separated and their amplitudes close.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Jaiyoung; Hu, Xiao; Shadden, Shawn C.
2014-11-01
The cerebral circulation is unique in its ability to maintain blood flow to the brain under widely varying physiologic conditions. Incorporating this autoregulatory response is critical to cerebral blood flow modeling, as well as investigations into pathological conditions. We discuss a one-dimensional nonlinear model of blood flow in the cerebral arteries that includes coupling of autoregulatory lumped parameter networks. The model is tested to reproduce a common clinical test to assess autoregulatory function - the carotid artery compression test. The change in the flow velocity at the middle cerebral artery (MCA) during carotid compression and release demonstrated strong agreement with published measurements. The model is then used to investigate vasospasm of the MCA, a common clinical concern following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Vasospasm was modeled by prescribing vessel area reduction in the middle portion of the MCA. Our model showed similar increases in velocity for moderate vasospasms, however, for serious vasospasm (~ 90% area reduction), the blood flow velocity demonstrated decrease due to blood flow rerouting. This demonstrates a potentially important phenomenon, which otherwise would lead to false-negative decisions on clinical vasospasm if not properly anticipated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brauchle, J.; Hein, D.; Berger, R.
2015-04-01
Remote sensing in areas with extreme altitude differences is particularly challenging. In high mountain areas specifically, steep slopes result in reduced ground pixel resolution and degraded quality in the DEM. Exceptionally high brightness differences can in part no longer be imaged by the sensors. Nevertheless, detailed information about mountainous regions is highly relevant: time and again glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and debris avalanches claim dozens of victims. Glaciers are sensitive to climate change and must be carefully monitored. Very detailed and accurate 3D maps provide a basic tool for the analysis of natural hazards and the monitoring of glacier surfaces in high mountain areas. There is a gap here, because the desired accuracies are often not achieved. It is for this reason that the DLR Institute of Optical Sensor Systems has developed a new aerial camera, the MACS-Himalaya. The measuring unit comprises four camera modules with an overall aperture angle of 116° perpendicular to the direction of flight. A High Dynamic Range (HDR) mode was introduced so that within a scene, bright areas such as sun-flooded snow and dark areas such as shaded stone can be imaged. In 2014, a measuring survey was performed on the Nepalese side of the Himalayas. The remote sensing system was carried by a Stemme S10 motor glider. Amongst other targets, the Seti Valley, Kali-Gandaki Valley and the Mt. Everest/Khumbu Region were imaged at heights up to 9,200 m. Products such as dense point clouds, DSMs and true orthomosaics with a ground pixel resolution of up to 15 cm were produced. Special challenges and gaps in the investigation of high mountain areas, approaches for resolution of these problems, the camera system and the state of evaluation are presented with examples.
Kates-Harbeck, Julian; Tilloy, Antoine; Prentiss, Mara
2016-01-01
Inspired by RecA-protein-based homology recognition, we consider the pairing of two long linear arrays of binding sites. We propose a fully reversible, physically realizable biased random walk model for rapid and accurate self-assembly due to the spontaneous pairing of matching binding sites, where the statistics of the searched sample are included. In the model, there are two bound conformations, and the free energy for each conformation is a weakly nonlinear function of the number of contiguous matched bound sites. PMID:23944487
Teodoro, Tiago Quevedo; Haiduke, Roberto Luiz Andrade
2013-10-15
Accurate relativistic adapted Gaussian basis sets (RAGBSs) for 87 Fr up to 118 Uuo atoms without variational prolapse were developed here with the use of a polynomial version of the Generator Coordinate Dirac-Fock method. Two finite nuclear models have been used, the Gaussian and uniform sphere models. The largest RAGBS error, with respect to numerical Dirac-Fock results, is 15.4 miliHartree for Ununoctium with a basis set size of 33s30p19d14f functions. PMID:23913741
Orenstein, Yaron; Wang, Yuhao; Berger, Bonnie
2016-01-01
Motivation: Protein–RNA interactions, which play vital roles in many processes, are mediated through both RNA sequence and structure. CLIP-based methods, which measure protein–RNA binding in vivo, suffer from experimental noise and systematic biases, whereas in vitro experiments capture a clearer signal of protein RNA-binding. Among them, RNAcompete provides binding affinities of a specific protein to more than 240 000 unstructured RNA probes in one experiment. The computational challenge is to infer RNA structure- and sequence-based binding models from these data. The state-of-the-art in sequence models, Deepbind, does not model structural preferences. RNAcontext models both sequence and structure preferences, but is outperformed by GraphProt. Unfortunately, GraphProt cannot detect structural preferences from RNAcompete data due to the unstructured nature of the data, as noted by its developers, nor can it be tractably run on the full RNACompete dataset. Results: We develop RCK, an efficient, scalable algorithm that infers both sequence and structure preferences based on a new k-mer based model. Remarkably, even though RNAcompete data is designed to be unstructured, RCK can still learn structural preferences from it. RCK significantly outperforms both RNAcontext and Deepbind in in vitro binding prediction for 244 RNAcompete experiments. Moreover, RCK is also faster and uses less memory, which enables scalability. While currently on par with existing methods in in vivo binding prediction on a small scale test, we demonstrate that RCK will increasingly benefit from experimentally measured RNA structure profiles as compared to computationally predicted ones. By running RCK on the entire RNAcompete dataset, we generate and provide as a resource a set of protein–RNA structure-based models on an unprecedented scale. Availability and Implementation: Software and models are freely available at http://rck.csail.mit.edu/ Contact: bab@mit.edu Supplementary information
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wehrbein, W. M.; Leovy, C. B.
1982-01-01
The circulation of the middle atmosphere of the earth (15-90 km) is driven by the unequal distribution of net radiative heating. Calculations have shown that local radiative heating is nearly balanced by radiative cooling throughout parts of the stratosphere and mesosphere. The 15 micrometer band of CO2 is the dominant component of the infrared cooling. The present investigation is concerned with an algorithm regarding the involved cooling process. The algorithm was designed for the semispectral primitive equation model of the stratosphere and mesosphere described by Holton and Wehrbein (1980). The model consists of 16 layers, each nominally 5 km thick, between the base of the stratosphere at 100 mb (approximately 16 km) and the base of the thermosphere (approximately 96 km). The considered algorithm provides a convenient means of incorporating cooling due to CO2 into dynamical models of the middle atmosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinhardt, Colin N.; Ritcey, James A.
2015-09-01
We present a novel method for efficient and physically-accurate modeling & simulation of anisoplanatic imaging through the atmosphere; in particular we present a new space-variant volumetric image blur algorithm. The method is based on the use of physical atmospheric meteorology models, such as vertical turbulence profiles and aerosol/molecular profiles which can be in general fully spatially-varying in 3 dimensions and also evolving in time. The space-variant modeling method relies on the metadata provided by 3D computer graphics modeling and rendering systems to decompose the image into a set of slices which can be treated in an independent but physically consistent manner to achieve simulated image blur effects which are more accurate and realistic than the homogeneous and stationary blurring methods which are commonly used today. We also present a simple illustrative example of the application of our algorithm, and show its results and performance are in agreement with the expected relative trends and behavior of the prescribed turbulence profile physical model used to define the initial spatially-varying environmental scenario conditions. We present the details of an efficient Fourier-transform-domain formulation of the SV volumetric blur algorithm and detailed algorithm pseudocode description of the method implementation and clarification of some nonobvious technical details.
Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W.; Kendall, Anthony D.; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip
2015-01-01
Estimates of climate change impacts on global food production are generally based on statistical or process-based models. Process-based models can provide robust predictions of agricultural yield responses to changing climate and management. However, applications of these models often suffer from bias due to the common practice of re-initializing soil conditions to the same state for each year of the forecast period. If simulations neglect to include year-to-year changes in initial soil conditions and water content related to agronomic management, adaptation and mitigation strategies designed to maintain stable yields under climate change cannot be properly evaluated. We apply a process-based crop system model that avoids re-initialization bias to demonstrate the importance of simulating both year-to-year and cumulative changes in pre-season soil carbon, nutrient, and water availability. Results are contrasted with simulations using annual re-initialization, and differences are striking. We then demonstrate the potential for the most likely adaptation strategy to offset climate change impacts on yields using continuous simulations through the end of the 21st century. Simulations that annually re-initialize pre-season soil carbon and water contents introduce an inappropriate yield bias that obscures the potential for agricultural management to ameliorate the deleterious effects of rising temperatures and greater rainfall variability. PMID:26043188
Nguyen, Hung T.; Pabit, Suzette A.; Meisburger, Steve P.; Pollack, Lois; Case, David A.
2014-12-14
A new method is introduced to compute X-ray solution scattering profiles from atomic models of macromolecules. The three-dimensional version of the Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM) from liquid-state statistical mechanics is employed to compute the solvent distribution around the solute, including both water and ions. X-ray scattering profiles are computed from this distribution together with the solute geometry. We describe an efficient procedure for performing this calculation employing a Lebedev grid for the angular averaging. The intensity profiles (which involve no adjustable parameters) match experiment and molecular dynamics simulations up to wide angle for two proteins (lysozyme and myoglobin) in water, as well as the small-angle profiles for a dozen biomolecules taken from the BioIsis.net database. The RISM model is especially well-suited for studies of nucleic acids in salt solution. Use of fiber-diffraction models for the structure of duplex DNA in solution yields close agreement with the observed scattering profiles in both the small and wide angle scattering (SAXS and WAXS) regimes. In addition, computed profiles of anomalous SAXS signals (for Rb{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+}) emphasize the ionic contribution to scattering and are in reasonable agreement with experiment. In cases where an absolute calibration of the experimental data at q = 0 is available, one can extract a count of the excess number of waters and ions; computed values depend on the closure that is assumed in the solution of the Ornstein–Zernike equations, with results from the Kovalenko–Hirata closure being closest to experiment for the cases studied here.
Kostylev, Maxim; Wilson, David
2014-01-01
Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential source of renewable, low-carbon-footprint liquid fuels. Biomass recalcitrance and enzyme cost are key challenges associated with the large-scale production of cellulosic fuel. Kinetic modeling of enzymatic cellulose digestion has been complicated by the heterogeneous nature of the substrate and by the fact that a true steady state cannot be attained. We present a two-parameter kinetic model based on the Michaelis-Menten scheme (Michaelis L and Menten ML. (1913) Biochem Z 49:333–369), but with a time-dependent activity coefficient analogous to fractal-like kinetics formulated by Kopelman (Kopelman R. (1988) Science 241:1620–1626). We provide a mathematical derivation and experimental support to show that one of the parameters is a total activity coefficient and the other is an intrinsic constant that reflects the ability of the cellulases to overcome substrate recalcitrance. The model is applicable to individual cellulases and their mixtures at low-to-medium enzyme loads. Using biomass degrading enzymes from a cellulolytic bacterium Thermobifida fusca we show that the model can be used for mechanistic studies of enzymatic cellulose digestion. We also demonstrate that it applies to the crude supernatant of the widely studied cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei and can thus be used to compare cellulases from different organisms. The two parameters may serve a similar role to Vmax, KM, and kcat in classical kinetics. A similar approach may be applicable to other enzymes with heterogeneous substrates and where a steady state is not achievable. PMID:23837567
Kosovec, Juliann E.; Zaidi, Ali H.; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Kasi, Pashtoon M.; Cothron, Kyle; Thompson, Diane V.; Lynch, Edward; Jobe, Blair A.
2014-01-01
Objective To assess the reliability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection of esophageal cancer in the Levrat model of end-to-side esophagojejunostomy. Background The Levrat model has proven utility in terms of its ability to replicate Barrett’s carcinogenesis by inducing gastroduodenoesophageal reflux (GDER). Due to lack of data on the utility of non-invasive methods for detection of esophageal cancer, treatment efficacy studies have been limited, as adenocarcinoma histology has only been validated post-mortem. It would therefore be of great value if the validity and reliability of MRI could be established in this setting. Methods Chronic GDER reflux was induced in 19 male Sprague-Dawley rats using the modified Levrat model. At 40 weeks post-surgery, all animals underwent endoscopy, MRI scanning, and post-mortem histological analysis of the esophagus and anastomosis. With post-mortem histology serving as the gold standard, assessment of presence of esophageal cancer was made by five esophageal specialists and five radiologists on endoscopy and MRI, respectively. Results The accuracy of MRI and endoscopic analysis to correctly identify cancer vs. no cancer was 85.3% and 50.5%, respectively. ROC curves demonstrated that MRI rating had an AUC of 0.966 (p<0.001) and endoscopy rating had an AUC of 0.534 (p = 0.804). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI for identifying cancer vs. no-cancer was 89.1% and 80% respectively, as compared to 45.5% and 57.5% for endoscopy. False positive rates of MRI and endoscopy were 20% and 42.5%, respectively. Conclusions MRI is a more reliable diagnostic method than endoscopy in the Levrat model. The non-invasiveness of the tool and its potential to volumetrically quantify the size and number of tumors likely makes it even more useful in evaluating novel agents and their efficacy in treatment studies of esophageal cancer. PMID:24705451
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Hung T.; Pabit, Suzette A.; Meisburger, Steve P.; Pollack, Lois; Case, David A.
2014-12-01
A new method is introduced to compute X-ray solution scattering profiles from atomic models of macromolecules. The three-dimensional version of the Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM) from liquid-state statistical mechanics is employed to compute the solvent distribution around the solute, including both water and ions. X-ray scattering profiles are computed from this distribution together with the solute geometry. We describe an efficient procedure for performing this calculation employing a Lebedev grid for the angular averaging. The intensity profiles (which involve no adjustable parameters) match experiment and molecular dynamics simulations up to wide angle for two proteins (lysozyme and myoglobin) in water, as well as the small-angle profiles for a dozen biomolecules taken from the BioIsis.net database. The RISM model is especially well-suited for studies of nucleic acids in salt solution. Use of fiber-diffraction models for the structure of duplex DNA in solution yields close agreement with the observed scattering profiles in both the small and wide angle scattering (SAXS and WAXS) regimes. In addition, computed profiles of anomalous SAXS signals (for Rb+ and Sr2+) emphasize the ionic contribution to scattering and are in reasonable agreement with experiment. In cases where an absolute calibration of the experimental data at q = 0 is available, one can extract a count of the excess number of waters and ions; computed values depend on the closure that is assumed in the solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equations, with results from the Kovalenko-Hirata closure being closest to experiment for the cases studied here.
Fragoso, Margarida; Kawrakow, Iwan; Faddegon, Bruce A.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Chetty, Indrin J.
2009-12-15
electron splitting. When DBS was used with electron splitting and combined with augmented charged particle range rejection, a technique recently introduced in BEAMnrc, relative efficiencies were {approx}420 ({approx}253 min on a single processor) and {approx}175 ({approx}58 min on a single processor) for the 10x10 and 40x40 cm{sup 2} field sizes, respectively. Calculations of the Siemens Primus treatment head with VMC++ produced relative efficiencies of {approx}1400 ({approx}6 min on a single processor) and {approx}60 ({approx}4 min on a single processor) for the 10x10 and 40x40 cm{sup 2} field sizes, respectively. BEAMnrc PHSP calculations with DBS alone or DBS in combination with charged particle range rejection were more efficient than the other efficiency enhancing techniques used. Using VMC++, accurate simulations of the entire linac treatment head were performed within minutes on a single processor. Noteworthy differences ({+-}1%-3%) in the mean energy, planar fluence, and angular and spectral distributions were observed with the NIST bremsstrahlung cross sections compared with those of Bethe-Heitler (BEAMnrc default bremsstrahlung cross section). However, MC calculated dose distributions in water phantoms (using combinations of VRTs/AEITs and cross-section data) agreed within 2% of measurements. Furthermore, MC calculated dose distributions in a simulated water/air/water phantom, using NIST cross sections, were within 2% agreement with the BEAMnrc Bethe-Heitler default case.
Fragoso, Margarida; Kawrakow, Iwan; Faddegon, Bruce A.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Chetty, Indrin J.
2009-01-01
DBS was used with electron splitting and combined with augmented charged particle range rejection, a technique recently introduced in BEAMnrc, relative efficiencies were ∼420 (∼253 min on a single processor) and ∼175 (∼58 min on a single processor) for the 10×10 and 40×40 cm2 field sizes, respectively. Calculations of the Siemens Primus treatment head with VMC++ produced relative efficiencies of ∼1400 (∼6 min on a single processor) and ∼60 (∼4 min on a single processor) for the 10×10 and 40×40 cm2 field sizes, respectively. BEAMnrc PHSP calculations with DBS alone or DBS in combination with charged particle range rejection were more efficient than the other efficiency enhancing techniques used. Using VMC++, accurate simulations of the entire linac treatment head were performed within minutes on a single processor. Noteworthy differences (±1%–3%) in the mean energy, planar fluence, and angular and spectral distributions were observed with the NIST bremsstrahlung cross sections compared with those of Bethe–Heitler (BEAMnrc default bremsstrahlung cross section). However, MC calculated dose distributions in water phantoms (using combinations of VRTs∕AEITs and cross-section data) agreed within 2% of measurements. Furthermore, MC calculated dose distributions in a simulated water∕air∕water phantom, using NIST cross sections, were within 2% agreement with the BEAMnrc Bethe–Heitler default case. PMID:20095258
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laub, Bernard; Grinstead, Jay; Dyakonov, Artem; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj
2011-01-01
Though arc jet testing has been the proven method employed for development testing and certification of TPS and TPS instrumentation, the operational aspects of arc jets limit testing to selected, but constant, conditions. Flight, on the other hand, produces timevarying entry conditions in which the heat flux increases, peaks, and recedes as a vehicle descends through an atmosphere. As a result, we are unable to "test as we fly." Attempts to replicate the time-dependent aerothermal environment of atmospheric entry by varying the arc jet facility operating conditions during a test have proven to be difficult, expensive, and only partially successful. A promising alternative is to rotate the test model exposed to a constant-condition arc jet flow to yield a time-varying test condition at a point on a test article (Fig. 1). The model shape and rotation rate can be engineered so that the heat flux at a point on the model replicates the predicted profile for a particular point on a flight vehicle. This simple concept will enable, for example, calibration of the TPS sensors on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) aeroshell for anticipated flight environments.
Riley, Todd R; Lazarovici, Allan; Mann, Richard S; Bussemaker, Harmen J
2015-01-01
Transcription factors are crucial regulators of gene expression. Accurate quantitative definition of their intrinsic DNA binding preferences is critical to understanding their biological function. High-throughput in vitro technology has recently been used to deeply probe the DNA binding specificity of hundreds of eukaryotic transcription factors, yet algorithms for analyzing such data have not yet fully matured. Here, we present a general framework (FeatureREDUCE) for building sequence-to-affinity models based on a biophysically interpretable and extensible model of protein-DNA interaction that can account for dependencies between nucleotides within the binding interface or multiple modes of binding. When training on protein binding microarray (PBM) data, we use robust regression and modeling of technology-specific biases to infer specificity models of unprecedented accuracy and precision. We provide quantitative validation of our results by comparing to gold-standard data when available. PMID:26701911
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eissa, Y.; Blanc, P.; Wald, L.; Ghedira, H.
2015-12-01
Routine measurements of the beam irradiance at normal incidence include the irradiance originating from within the extent of the solar disc only (DNIS), whose angular extent is 0.266° ± 1.7 %, and from a larger circumsolar region, called the circumsolar normal irradiance (CSNI). This study investigates whether the spectral aerosol optical properties of the AERONET stations are sufficient for an accurate modelling of the monochromatic DNIS and CSNI under cloud-free conditions in a desert environment. The data from an AERONET station in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, and the collocated Sun and Aureole Measurement instrument which offers reference measurements of the monochromatic profile of solar radiance were exploited. Using the AERONET data both the radiative transfer models libRadtran and SMARTS offer an accurate estimate of the monochromatic DNIS, with a relative root mean square error (RMSE) of 6 % and a coefficient of determination greater than 0.96. The observed relative bias obtained with libRadtran is +2 %, while that obtained with SMARTS is -1 %. After testing two configurations in SMARTS and three in libRadtran for modelling the monochromatic CSNI, libRadtran exhibits the most accurate results when the AERONET aerosol phase function is presented as a two-term Henyey-Greenstein phase function. In this case libRadtran exhibited a relative RMSE and a bias of respectively 27 and -24 % and a coefficient of determination of 0.882. Therefore, AERONET data may very well be used to model the monochromatic DNIS and the monochromatic CSNI. The results are promising and pave the way towards reporting the contribution of the broadband circumsolar irradiance to standard measurements of the beam irradiance.
Ishida, Toyokazu
2008-09-17
To further understand the catalytic role of the protein environment in the enzymatic process, the author has analyzed the reaction mechanism of the Claisen rearrangement of Bacillus subtilis chorismate mutase (BsCM). By introducing a new computational strategy that combines all-electron QM calculations with ab initio QM/MM modelings, it was possible to simulate the molecular interactions between the substrate and the protein environment. The electrostatic nature of the transition state stabilization was characterized by performing all-electron QM calculations based on the fragment molecular orbital technique for the entire enzyme.
A new expression of Ns versus Ef to an accurate control charge model for AlGaAs/GaAs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouneb, I.; Kerrour, F.
2016-03-01
Semi-conductor components become the privileged support of information and communication, particularly appreciation to the development of the internet. Today, MOS transistors on silicon dominate largely the semi-conductors market, however the diminution of transistors grid length is not enough to enhance the performances and respect Moore law. Particularly, for broadband telecommunications systems, where faster components are required. For this reason, alternative structures proposed like hetero structures IV-IV or III-V [1] have been.The most effective components in this area (High Electron Mobility Transistor: HEMT) on IIIV substrate. This work investigates an approach for contributing to the development of a numerical model based on physical and numerical modelling of the potential at heterostructure in AlGaAs/GaAs interface. We have developed calculation using projective methods allowed the Hamiltonian integration using Green functions in Schrodinger equation, for a rigorous resolution “self coherent” with Poisson equation. A simple analytical approach for charge-control in quantum well region of an AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT structure was presented. A charge-control equation, accounting for a variable average distance of the 2-DEG from the interface was introduced. Our approach which have aim to obtain ns-Vg characteristics is mainly based on: A new linear expression of Fermi-level variation with two-dimensional electron gas density in high electron mobility and also is mainly based on the notion of effective doping and a new expression of AEc
Safaei, B; Naseradinmousavi, P; Rahmani, A
2016-04-01
In the present paper, an analytical solution based on a molecular mechanics model is developed to evaluate the elastic critical axial buckling strain of chiral multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). To this end, the total potential energy of the system is calculated with the consideration of the both bond stretching and bond angular variations. Density functional theory (DFT) in the form of generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is implemented to evaluate force constants used in the molecular mechanics model. After that, based on the principle of molecular mechanics, explicit expressions are proposed to obtain elastic surface Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the single-walled carbon nanotubes corresponding to different types of chirality. Selected numerical results are presented to indicate the influence of the type of chirality, tube diameter, and number of tube walls in detailed. An excellent agreement is found between the present numerical results and those found in the literature which confirms the validity as well as the accuracy of the present closed-form solution. It is found that the value of critical axial buckling strain exhibit significant dependency on the type of chirality and number of tube walls. PMID:26930445
Xiao, Li; Wang, Changhao; Ye, Xiang; Luo, Ray
2016-08-25
Continuum solvation modeling based upon the Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) is widely used in structural and functional analysis of biomolecules. In this work, we propose a charge-central interpretation of the full nonlinear PBE electrostatic interactions. The validity of the charge-central view or simply charge view, as formulated as a vacuum Poisson equation with effective charges, was first demonstrated by reproducing both electrostatic potentials and energies from the original solvated full nonlinear PBE. There are at least two benefits when the charge-central framework is applied. First the convergence analyses show that the use of polarization charges allows a much faster converging numerical procedure for electrostatic energy and forces calculation for the full nonlinear PBE. Second, the formulation of the solvated electrostatic interactions as effective charges in vacuum allows scalable algorithms to be deployed for large biomolecular systems. Here, we exploited the charge-view interpretation and developed a particle-particle particle-mesh (P3M) strategy for the full nonlinear PBE systems. We also studied the accuracy and convergence of solvation forces with the charge-view and the P3M methods. It is interesting to note that the convergence of both the charge-view and the P3M methods is more rapid than the original full nonlinear PBE method. Given the developments and validations documented here, we are working to adapt the P3M treatment of the full nonlinear PBE model to molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:27146097
Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development
Wagner, Terrance
2015-12-31
This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yujie; Zhu, Banghe; Darne, Chinmay; Tan, I.-Chih; Rasmussen, John C.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.
2011-12-01
The goal of preclinical fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography (FEOT) is to provide three-dimensional fluorophore distribution for a myriad of drug and disease discovery studies in small animals. Effective measurements, as well as fast and robust image reconstruction, are necessary for extensive applications. Compared to bioluminescence tomography (BLT), FEOT may result in improved image quality through higher detected photon count rates. However, background signals that arise from excitation illumination affect the reconstruction quality, especially when tissue fluorophore concentration is low and/or fluorescent target is located deeply in tissues. We show that near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging with an optimized filter configuration significantly reduces the background noise. Model-based reconstruction with a high-order approximation to the radiative transfer equation further improves the reconstruction quality compared to the diffusion approximation. Improvements in FEOT are demonstrated experimentally using a mouse-shaped phantom with targets of pico- and subpico-mole NIR fluorescent dye.
Myint, P. C.; Hao, Y.; Firoozabadi, A.
2015-03-27
Thermodynamic property calculations of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO_{2}) and water, including brines, are essential in theoretical models of many natural and industrial processes. The properties of greatest practical interest are density, solubility, and enthalpy. Many models for density and solubility calculations have been presented in the literature, but there exists only one study, by Spycher and Pruess, that has compared theoretical molar enthalpy predictions with experimental data [1]. In this report, we recommend two different models for enthalpy calculations: the CPA equation of state by Li and Firoozabadi [2], and the CO_{2} activity coefficient model by Duan and Sun [3]. We show that the CPA equation of state, which has been demonstrated to provide good agreement with density and solubility data, also accurately calculates molar enthalpies of pure CO_{2}, pure water, and both CO_{2}-rich and aqueous (H_{2}O-rich) mixtures of the two species. It is applicable to a wider range of conditions than the Spycher and Pruess model. In aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) mixtures, we show that Duan and Sun’s model yields accurate results for the partial molar enthalpy of CO_{2}. It can be combined with another model for the brine enthalpy to calculate the molar enthalpy of H_{2}O-CO_{2}-NaCl mixtures. We conclude by explaining how the CPA equation of state may be modified to further improve agreement with experiments. This generalized CPA is the basis of our future work on this topic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, X.; Schwenke, D.; Lee, T. J.
2014-12-01
Last year we reported a semi-empirical 32S16O2 spectroscopic line list (denoted Ames-296K) for its atmospheric characterization in Venus and other Exoplanetary environments. In order to facilitate the Sulfur isotopic ratio and Sulfur chemistry model determination, now we present Ames-296K line lists for both 626 (upgraded) and other 4 symmetric isotopologues: 636, 646, 666 and 828. The line lists are computed on an ab initio potential energy surface refined with most reliable high resolution experimental data, using a high quality CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(Q+d)Z dipole moment surface. The most valuable part of our approach is to provide "truly reliable" predictions (and alternatives) for those unknown or hard-to-measure/analyze spectra. This strategy has guaranteed the lists are the best available alternative for those wide spectra region missing from spectroscopic databases such as HITRAN and GEISA, where only very limited data exist for 626/646 and no Infrared data at all for 636/666 or other minor isotopologues. Our general line position accuracy up to 5000 cm-1 is 0.01 - 0.02 cm-1 or better. Most transition intensity deviations are less than 5%, compare to experimentally measured quantities. Note that we have solved a convergence issue and further improved the quality and completeness of the main isotopologue 626 list at 296K. We will compare the lists to available models in CDMS/JPL/HITRAN and discuss the future mutually beneficial interactions between theoretical and experimental efforts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanc, Émilie; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Chaljub, Emmanuel; Lombard, Bruno; Xie, Zhinan
2016-04-01
This paper concerns the numerical modelling of time-domain mechanical waves in viscoelastic media based on a generalized Zener model. To do so, classically in the literature relaxation mechanisms are introduced, resulting in a set of the so-called memory variables and thus in large computational arrays that need to be stored. A challenge is thus to accurately mimic a given attenuation law using a minimal set of relaxation mechanisms. For this purpose, we replace the classical linear approach of Emmerich & Korn with a nonlinear optimization approach with constraints of positivity. We show that this technique is more accurate than the linear approach. Moreover, it ensures that physically meaningful relaxation times that always honour the constraint of decay of total energy with time are obtained. As a result, these relaxation times can always be used in a stable way in a modelling algorithm, even in the case of very strong attenuation for which the classical linear approach may provide some negative and thus unusable coefficients.
Dall'Ora, M.; Botticella, M. T.; Della Valle, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Zampieri, L.; Tomasella, L.; Cappellaro, E.; Benetti, S.; Pignata, G.; Bufano, F.; Bayless, A. J.; Pritchard, T. A.; Taubenberger, S.; Benitez, S.; Kotak, R.; Inserra, C.; Fraser, M.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Haislip, J. B.; Harutyunyan, A.; and others
2014-06-01
We present an extensive optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic campaign of the Type IIP supernova SN 2012aw. The data set densely covers the evolution of SN 2012aw shortly after the explosion through the end of the photospheric phase, with two additional photometric observations collected during the nebular phase, to fit the radioactive tail and estimate the {sup 56}Ni mass. Also included in our analysis is the previously published Swift UV data, therefore providing a complete view of the ultraviolet-optical-infrared evolution of the photospheric phase. On the basis of our data set, we estimate all the relevant physical parameters of SN 2012aw with our radiation-hydrodynamics code: envelope mass M {sub env} ∼ 20 M {sub ☉}, progenitor radius R ∼ 3 × 10{sup 13} cm (∼430 R {sub ☉}), explosion energy E ∼ 1.5 foe, and initial {sup 56}Ni mass ∼0.06 M {sub ☉}. These mass and radius values are reasonably well supported by independent evolutionary models of the progenitor, and may suggest a progenitor mass higher than the observational limit of 16.5 ± 1.5 M {sub ☉} of the Type IIP events.
Takemiya, Takako; Takeuchi, Chisen
2013-01-01
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common central nervous system disease associated with progressive physical impairment. To study the mechanisms of the disease, we used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. EAE is induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein35-55 peptide, and the severity of paralysis in the disease is generally measured using the EAE score. Here, we compared EAE scores and traveled distance using the open-field test for an assessment of EAE progression. EAE scores were obtained with a 6-step observational scoring system for paralysis, and the traveled distance was obtained by automatic trajectory analysis of natural exploratory behaviors detected by a computer. The traveled distance of the EAE mice started to decrease significantly at day 7 of the EAE process, when the EAE score still did not reflect a change. Moreover, in the relationship between the traveled distance and paralysis as measured by the EAE score after day 14, there was a high coefficient of determination between the distance and the score. The results suggest that traveled distance is a sensitive marker of motor dysfunction in the early phases of EAE progression and that it reflects the degree of motor dysfunction after the onset of paralysis in EAE. PMID:24967302
van Deelen, Rutger; Hasekamp, Otto P; Landgraf, Jochen
2007-01-10
We present what we believe to be a novel approach to simulating the spectral fine structure (<1 nm) in measurements of spectrometers such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME). GOME measures the Earth's radiance spectra and daily solar irradiance spectra from which a reflectivity spectrum is commonly extracted. The high-frequency structures contained in such a spectrum are, apart from atmospheric absorption, caused by Raman scattering and by a shift between the solar irradiance and the Earth's radiance spectrum. Normally, an a priori high-resolution solar spectrum is used to simulate these structures. We present an alternative method in which all the required information on the solar spectrum is retrieved from the GOME measurements. We investigate two approaches for the spectral range of 390-400 nm. First, a solar spectrum is reconstructed on a fine spectral grid from the GOME solar measurement. This approach leads to undersampling errors of up to 0.5% in the modeling of the Earth's radiance spectra. Second, a combination of the solar measurement and one of the Earth's radiance measurement is used to retrieve a solar spectrum. This approach effectively removes the undersampling error and results in residuals close to the GOME measurement noise of 0.1%. PMID:17268571
A statistical model of ChIA-PET data for accurate detection of chromatin 3D interactions
Paulsen, Jonas; Rødland, Einar A.; Holden, Lars; Holden, Marit; Hovig, Eivind
2014-01-01
Identification of three-dimensional (3D) interactions between regulatory elements across the genome is crucial to unravel the complex regulatory machinery that orchestrates proliferation and differentiation of cells. ChIA-PET is a novel method to identify such interactions, where physical contacts between regions bound by a specific protein are quantified using next-generation sequencing. However, determining the significance of the observed interaction frequencies in such datasets is challenging, and few methods have been proposed. Despite the fact that regions that are close in linear genomic distance have a much higher tendency to interact by chance, no methods to date are capable of taking such dependency into account. Here, we propose a statistical model taking into account the genomic distance relationship, as well as the general propensity of anchors to be involved in contacts overall. Using both real and simulated data, we show that the previously proposed statistical test, based on Fisher's exact test, leads to invalid results when data are dependent on genomic distance. We also evaluate our method on previously validated cell-line specific and constitutive 3D interactions, and show that relevant interactions are significant, while avoiding over-estimating the significance of short nearby interactions. PMID:25114054
Zuñiga, Cristal; Li, Chien-Ting; Huelsman, Tyler; Levering, Jennifer; Zielinski, Daniel C; McConnell, Brian O; Long, Christopher P; Knoshaug, Eric P; Guarnieri, Michael T; Antoniewicz, Maciek R; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Zengler, Karsten
2016-09-01
The green microalga Chlorella vulgaris has been widely recognized as a promising candidate for biofuel production due to its ability to store high lipid content and its natural metabolic versatility. Compartmentalized genome-scale metabolic models constructed from genome sequences enable quantitative insight into the transport and metabolism of compounds within a target organism. These metabolic models have long been utilized to generate optimized design strategies for an improved production process. Here, we describe the reconstruction, validation, and application of a genome-scale metabolic model for C. vulgaris UTEX 395, iCZ843. The reconstruction represents the most comprehensive model for any eukaryotic photosynthetic organism to date, based on the genome size and number of genes in the reconstruction. The highly curated model accurately predicts phenotypes under photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic conditions. The model was validated against experimental data and lays the foundation for model-driven strain design and medium alteration to improve yield. Calculated flux distributions under different trophic conditions show that a number of key pathways are affected by nitrogen starvation conditions, including central carbon metabolism and amino acid, nucleotide, and pigment biosynthetic pathways. Furthermore, model prediction of growth rates under various medium compositions and subsequent experimental validation showed an increased growth rate with the addition of tryptophan and methionine. PMID:27372244
Sbalchiero, Juliano Carlos; de Albuquerque Leal, Paulo Roberto; dos Santos, César Cabello
2014-11-01
Seventeen patients were submitted to delayed unilateral breast reconstruction using pedicled, muscle-sparing turbocharged transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap based on the contralateral perforator vessels. The lateral portion of the rectus abdominis muscle on the pedicled side was preserved in 12 patients. Zones II and IV were included in the flap in all cases. Mean duration of surgery was 7 hours and 15 minutes. Four complications developed in the abdominal donor site: contralateral abdominal bulging (n=1), minor suture dehiscence (n=2), and epidermolysis at the border of the abdominal flap and umbilical scar (n=1). Three partial losses (10%-30%) occurred in the reconstructed breast (17.64% of cases), whereas 2 cases of fat necrosis were associated with partial losses. One patient developed deep vein thrombosis with pulmonary embolism; however, outcome was favorable. This proved a viable alternative for breast reconstruction, with satisfactory results in most patients and acceptable morbidity and surgical time. PMID:24625511
Effects of air injection on a turbocharged Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-360-C engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E.
1979-01-01
Results are presented for tests performed to assess the effects of exhaust manifold injection air flow rate on emissions and on exhaust gas temperature and turbine inlet temperature for a range of engine operating conditions (speed, torque, and fuel-air ratios) of a fuel-injected turbocharged six-cylinder air-cooled Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-360-C engine. Air injection into the exhaust gas at 80 F resulted in a decrease in hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while exceeding the maximum recommended turbine inlet temperature of 1650 F at the full rich mixture of the engine. The EPA standards could be met within present turbine inlet temperature limits using commercially available air pumps, provided that the fuel-air ratios were leaned in the taxi, climb, and approach modes.
Grassi, Lorenzo; Väänänen, Sami P; Ristinmaa, Matti; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Isaksson, Hanna
2016-03-21
Subject-specific finite element models have been proposed as a tool to improve fracture risk assessment in individuals. A thorough laboratory validation against experimental data is required before introducing such models in clinical practice. Results from digital image correlation can provide full-field strain distribution over the specimen surface during in vitro test, instead of at a few pre-defined locations as with strain gauges. The aim of this study was to validate finite element models of human femora against experimental data from three cadaver femora, both in terms of femoral strength and of the full-field strain distribution collected with digital image correlation. The results showed a high accuracy between predicted and measured principal strains (R(2)=0.93, RMSE=10%, 1600 validated data points per specimen). Femoral strength was predicted using a rate dependent material model with specific strain limit values for yield and failure. This provided an accurate prediction (<2% error) for two out of three specimens. In the third specimen, an accidental change in the boundary conditions occurred during the experiment, which compromised the femoral strength validation. The achieved strain accuracy was comparable to that obtained in state-of-the-art studies which validated their prediction accuracy against 10-16 strain gauge measurements. Fracture force was accurately predicted, with the predicted failure location being very close to the experimental fracture rim. Despite the low sample size and the single loading condition tested, the present combined numerical-experimental method showed that finite element models can predict femoral strength by providing a thorough description of the local bone mechanical response. PMID:26944687
2014-01-01
Background Locating the protein-coding genes in novel genomes is essential to understanding and exploiting the genomic information but it is still difficult to accurately predict all the genes. The recent availability of detailed information about transcript structure from high-throughput sequencing of messenger RNA (RNA-Seq) delineates many expressed genes and promises increased accuracy in gene prediction. Computational gene predictors have been intensively developed for and tested in well-studied animal genomes. Hundreds of fungal genomes are now or will soon be sequenced. The differences of fungal genomes from animal genomes and the phylogenetic sparsity of well-studied fungi call for gene-prediction tools tailored to them. Results SnowyOwl is a new gene prediction pipeline that uses RNA-Seq data to train and provide hints for the generation of Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based gene predictions and to evaluate the resulting models. The pipeline has been developed and streamlined by comparing its predictions to manually curated gene models in three fungal genomes and validated against the high-quality gene annotation of Neurospora crassa; SnowyOwl predicted N. crassa genes with 83% sensitivity and 65% specificity. SnowyOwl gains sensitivity by repeatedly running the HMM gene predictor Augustus with varied input parameters and selectivity by choosing the models with best homology to known proteins and best agreement with the RNA-Seq data. Conclusions SnowyOwl efficiently uses RNA-Seq data to produce accurate gene models in both well-studied and novel fungal genomes. The source code for the SnowyOwl pipeline (in Python) and a web interface (in PHP) is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/snowyowl/. PMID:24980894
Fabrication of a mechanically aligned single-wafer MEMS turbine with turbocharger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelekies, S. O.; Schuhmann, T.; Gardner, W. G.; Camacho, A.; Protz, J. M.
2010-10-01
We describe the fabrication of a turbocharged, microelectromechanical system (MEMS) turbine. The turbine will be part of a standalone power unit and includes extra layers to connect the turbine to a generator. The project goal is to demonstrate the successful combination of several features, namely: silicon fusion bonding (SFB), a micro turbocharger [2], two rotors, mechanical alignment between two wafers [1], and the use of only one 5" silicon wafer. The dimension of the actual turbine casing will be 14mm. The turbine rotor will have a diameter of 8mm. Given these dimensions, MEMS processes are an adequate way to fabricate the device, but it will be necessary to stack up seven different layers to build the turbine, as it is not possible to construct it out of one thick wafer. SFB will be used for bonding because it permits the great precision necessary for high quality alignment. Yet a more precise alignment will be necessary between the layers that contain the turbine rotor, to decrease imbalance and guarantee operation at a very high rpm. To achieve these tight tolerances, a mechanical alignment feature announced by Liudi Jiang [1] is used. The alignment accuracy is expected to be around 200nm. Despite the fact that the turbine consists of multiple layers, it will be fabricated on only one silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. As a result, all layers are exposed to the same process flow. The fabrication process includes MEMS technology as photolithography, nine deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) steps, and six SFB operations. A total of 14 masks are necessary for the fabrication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, Takahiro; Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nagasawa, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Takafumi; Koseki, Takami; Hirose, Hitoshi; Ochi, Shuichi
An epoch-making incineration plant, which is equipped with a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor coupled to a turbocharger, for the recovery of the energy contained in sewage sludge is proposed. This plant has three main advantages. (1) A pressure vessel is unnecessary because the maximum operating pressure is 0.3 MPa (absolute pressure). The material cost for plant construction can be reduced. (2) CO2 emissions originating from power generation can be decreased because the FDF (Forced Draft Fan) and the IDF (Induced Draft Fan) are omitted. (3) Steam in the flue gas becomes a working fluid of the turbocharger, so that in addition to the combustion air, the surplus air is also generable. Therefore, this proposed plant will not only save energy but also the generate energy. The objective of this study is to elucidate the fundamental combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge using a lab-scale pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC). The tested fuels are de-watered sludge and sawdust. The temperature distribution in the furnace and N2O emissions in the flue gas are experimentally clarified. As the results, for sludge only combustion, the temperature in the sand bed decreases by drying and pyrolysis, and the pyrolysis gas burns in the freeboard so that the temperature rises. On the other hand, the residual char of sawdust after pyrolysis burns stably in the sand bed for the co-firing of sludge and sawdust. Thus the temperature of the co-firing is considerably higher than that of the sludge only combustion. N2O emissions decreases with increasing freeboard temperature, and are controlled by the temperature for all experimental conditions. These data can be utilize to operation the demonstration plant.
Wang, Shiyao; Deng, Zhidong; Yin, Gang
2016-01-01
A high-performance differential global positioning system (GPS) receiver with real time kinematics provides absolute localization for driverless cars. However, it is not only susceptible to multipath effect but also unable to effectively fulfill precise error correction in a wide range of driving areas. This paper proposes an accurate GPS–inertial measurement unit (IMU)/dead reckoning (DR) data fusion method based on a set of predictive models and occupancy grid constraints. First, we employ a set of autoregressive and moving average (ARMA) equations that have different structural parameters to build maximum likelihood models of raw navigation. Second, both grid constraints and spatial consensus checks on all predictive results and current measurements are required to have removal of outliers. Navigation data that satisfy stationary stochastic process are further fused to achieve accurate localization results. Third, the standard deviation of multimodal data fusion can be pre-specified by grid size. Finally, we perform a lot of field tests on a diversity of real urban scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate that the method can significantly smooth small jumps in bias and considerably reduce accumulated position errors due to DR. With low computational complexity, the position accuracy of our method surpasses existing state-of-the-arts on the same dataset and the new data fusion method is practically applied in our driverless car. PMID:26927108
Wang, Shiyao; Deng, Zhidong; Yin, Gang
2016-01-01
A high-performance differential global positioning system (GPS) receiver with real time kinematics provides absolute localization for driverless cars. However, it is not only susceptible to multipath effect but also unable to effectively fulfill precise error correction in a wide range of driving areas. This paper proposes an accurate GPS-inertial measurement unit (IMU)/dead reckoning (DR) data fusion method based on a set of predictive models and occupancy grid constraints. First, we employ a set of autoregressive and moving average (ARMA) equations that have different structural parameters to build maximum likelihood models of raw navigation. Second, both grid constraints and spatial consensus checks on all predictive results and current measurements are required to have removal of outliers. Navigation data that satisfy stationary stochastic process are further fused to achieve accurate localization results. Third, the standard deviation of multimodal data fusion can be pre-specified by grid size. Finally, we perform a lot of field tests on a diversity of real urban scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate that the method can significantly smooth small jumps in bias and considerably reduce accumulated position errors due to DR. With low computational complexity, the position accuracy of our method surpasses existing state-of-the-arts on the same dataset and the new data fusion method is practically applied in our driverless car. PMID:26927108
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rybynok, V. O.; Kyriacou, P. A.
2007-10-01
Diabetes is one of the biggest health challenges of the 21st century. The obesity epidemic, sedentary lifestyles and an ageing population mean prevalence of the condition is currently doubling every generation. Diabetes is associated with serious chronic ill health, disability and premature mortality. Long-term complications including heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease and amputations, make the greatest contribution to the costs of diabetes care. Many of these long-term effects could be avoided with earlier, more effective monitoring and treatment. Currently, blood glucose can only be monitored through the use of invasive techniques. To date there is no widely accepted and readily available non-invasive monitoring technique to measure blood glucose despite the many attempts. This paper challenges one of the most difficult non-invasive monitoring techniques, that of blood glucose, and proposes a new novel approach that will enable the accurate, and calibration free estimation of glucose concentration in blood. This approach is based on spectroscopic techniques and a new adaptive modelling scheme. The theoretical implementation and the effectiveness of the adaptive modelling scheme for this application has been described and a detailed mathematical evaluation has been employed to prove that such a scheme has the capability of extracting accurately the concentration of glucose from a complex biological media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, K. C.; Fougere, N.; Bieler, A. M.; Altwegg, K.; Combi, M. R.; Gombosi, T. I.; Huang, Z.; Rubin, M.; Tenishev, V.; Toth, G.; Tzou, C. Y.
2015-12-01
We have previously published results from the AMPS DSMC (Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator Direct Simulation Monte Carlo) model and its characterization of the neutral coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko through detailed comparison with data collected by the ROSINA/COPS (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis/COmet Pressure Sensor) instrument aboard the Rosetta spacecraft [Bieler, 2015]. Results from these DSMC models have been used to create an empirical model of the near comet coma (<200 km) of comet 67P. The empirical model characterizes the neutral coma in a comet centered, sun fixed reference frame as a function of heliocentric distance, radial distance from the comet, local time and declination. The model is a significant improvement over more simple empirical models, such as the Haser model. While the DSMC results are a more accurate representation of the coma at any given time, the advantage of a mean state, empirical model is the ease and speed of use. One use of such an empirical model is in the calculation of a total cometary coma production rate from the ROSINA/COPS data. The COPS data are in situ measurements of gas density and velocity along the ROSETTA spacecraft track. Converting the measured neutral density into a production rate requires knowledge of the neutral gas distribution in the coma. Our empirical model provides this information and therefore allows us to correct for the spacecraft location to calculate a production rate as a function of heliocentric distance. We will present the full empirical model as well as the calculated neutral production rate for the period of August 2014 - August 2015 (perihelion).
Hasnain, Sabeeha; McClendon, Christopher L; Hsu, Monica T; Jacobson, Matthew P; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta
2014-01-01
A new coarse-grained model of the E. coli cytoplasm is developed by describing the proteins of the cytoplasm as flexible units consisting of one or more spheres that follow Brownian dynamics (BD), with hydrodynamic interactions (HI) accounted for by a mean-field approach. Extensive BD simulations were performed to calculate the diffusion coefficients of three different proteins in the cellular environment. The results are in close agreement with experimental or previously simulated values, where available. Control simulations without HI showed that use of HI is essential to obtain accurate diffusion coefficients. Anomalous diffusion inside the crowded cellular medium was investigated with Fractional Brownian motion analysis, and found to be present in this model. By running a series of control simulations in which various forces were removed systematically, it was found that repulsive interactions (volume exclusion) are the main cause for anomalous diffusion, with a secondary contribution from HI. PMID:25180859
Zeinali-Rafsanjani, B.; Mosleh-Shirazi, M. A.; Faghihi, R.; Karbasi, S.; Mosalaei, A.
2015-01-01
To accurately recompute dose distributions in chest-wall radiotherapy with 120 kVp kilovoltage X-rays, an MCNP4C Monte Carlo model is presented using a fast method that obviates the need to fully model the tube components. To validate the model, half-value layer (HVL), percentage depth doses (PDDs) and beam profiles were measured. Dose measurements were performed for a more complex situation using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) placed within a Rando phantom. The measured and computed first and second HVLs were 3.8, 10.3 mm Al and 3.8, 10.6 mm Al, respectively. The differences between measured and calculated PDDs and beam profiles in water were within 2 mm/2% for all data points. In the Rando phantom, differences for majority of data points were within 2%. The proposed model offered an approximately 9500-fold reduced run time compared to the conventional full simulation. The acceptable agreement, based on international criteria, between the simulations and the measurements validates the accuracy of the model for its use in treatment planning and radiobiological modeling studies of superficial therapies including chest-wall irradiation using kilovoltage beam. PMID:26170553
Zeinali-Rafsanjani, B; Mosleh-Shirazi, M A; Faghihi, R; Karbasi, S; Mosalaei, A
2015-01-01
To accurately recompute dose distributions in chest-wall radiotherapy with 120 kVp kilovoltage X-rays, an MCNP4C Monte Carlo model is presented using a fast method that obviates the need to fully model the tube components. To validate the model, half-value layer (HVL), percentage depth doses (PDDs) and beam profiles were measured. Dose measurements were performed for a more complex situation using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) placed within a Rando phantom. The measured and computed first and second HVLs were 3.8, 10.3 mm Al and 3.8, 10.6 mm Al, respectively. The differences between measured and calculated PDDs and beam profiles in water were within 2 mm/2% for all data points. In the Rando phantom, differences for majority of data points were within 2%. The proposed model offered an approximately 9500-fold reduced run time compared to the conventional full simulation. The acceptable agreement, based on international criteria, between the simulations and the measurements validates the accuracy of the model for its use in treatment planning and radiobiological modeling studies of superficial therapies including chest-wall irradiation using kilovoltage beam. PMID:26170553
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari, R.; Mirnezhad, M.; Sahmani, S.
2015-04-01
Molecular mechanics theory has been widely used to investigate the mechanical properties of nanostructures analytically. However, there is a limited number of research in which molecular mechanics model is utilized to predict the elastic properties of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). In the current study, the mechanical properties of chiral single-walled BNNTs are predicted analytically based on an accurate molecular mechanics model. For this purpose, based upon the density functional theory (DFT) within the framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), the exchange correlation of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof is adopted to evaluate force constants used in the molecular mechanics model. Afterwards, based on the principle of molecular mechanics, explicit expressions are given to calculate surface Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the single-walled BNNTs for different values of tube diameter and types of chirality. Moreover, the values of surface Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and bending stiffness of boron nitride sheets are obtained via the DFT as byproducts. The results predicted by the present model are in reasonable agreement with those reported by other models in the literature.
Nir, Oded; Marvin, Esra; Lahav, Ori
2014-11-01
Measuring and modeling pH in concentrated aqueous solutions in an accurate and consistent manner is of paramount importance to many R&D and industrial applications, including RO desalination. Nevertheless, unified definitions and standard procedures have yet to be developed for solutions with ionic strength higher than ∼0.7 M, while implementation of conventional pH determination approaches may lead to significant errors. In this work a systematic yet simple methodology for measuring pH in concentrated solutions (dominated by Na(+)/Cl(-)) was developed and evaluated, with the aim of achieving consistency with the Pitzer ion-interaction approach. Results indicate that the addition of 0.75 M of NaCl to NIST buffers, followed by assigning a new standard pH (calculated based on the Pitzer approach), enabled reducing measured errors to below 0.03 pH units in seawater RO brines (ionic strength up to 2 M). To facilitate its use, the method was developed to be both conceptually and practically analogous to the conventional pH measurement procedure. The method was used to measure the pH of seawater RO retentates obtained at varying recovery ratios. The results matched better the pH values predicted by an accurate RO transport model. Calibrating the model by the measured pH values enabled better boron transport prediction. A Donnan-induced phenomenon, affecting pH in both retentate and permeate streams, was identified and quantified. PMID:25058737
Riley, Todd R; Lazarovici, Allan; Mann, Richard S; Bussemaker, Harmen J
2015-01-01
Transcription factors are crucial regulators of gene expression. Accurate quantitative definition of their intrinsic DNA binding preferences is critical to understanding their biological function. High-throughput in vitro technology has recently been used to deeply probe the DNA binding specificity of hundreds of eukaryotic transcription factors, yet algorithms for analyzing such data have not yet fully matured. Here, we present a general framework (FeatureREDUCE) for building sequence-to-affinity models based on a biophysically interpretable and extensible model of protein-DNA interaction that can account for dependencies between nucleotides within the binding interface or multiple modes of binding. When training on protein binding microarray (PBM) data, we use robust regression and modeling of technology-specific biases to infer specificity models of unprecedented accuracy and precision. We provide quantitative validation of our results by comparing to gold-standard data when available. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06397.001 PMID:26701911
Wlodarczyk, Natalie
2010-01-01
The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of audio and visual modeling on music and nonmusic majors' ability to accurately sing and accompany a familiar melody on guitar by ear. Two studies were run to investigate the impact of musical training on the ability to play by ear. All participants were student volunteers enrolled in sections of a beginning class guitar course and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, audio modeling only, or audio and visual modeling. All participants were asked to sing the same familiar song in the same key and accompany on guitar. Study 1 compared music majors with nonmusic majors and showed no significant difference between treatment conditions, however, there was a significant difference between music majors and nonmusic majors across all conditions. There was no significant interaction between groups and treatment conditions. Study 2 investigated the operational definition of "musically trained" and compared musically trained with nonmusically trained participants across the same three conditions. Results of Study 2 showed no significant difference between musically trained and nonmusically trained participants; however, there was a significant difference between treatment conditions with the audio-visual group completing the task in the shortest amount of time. There was no significant interaction between groups and treatment conditions. Results of these analyses support the use of instructor modeling for beginning guitar students and suggest that previous musical knowledge does not play a role in guitar skills acquisition at the beginning level. PMID:21141772
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Koven, Charles D.; Riley, William J.; Knox, Ryan G.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.
2015-06-01
A significant fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions is assimilated by tropical forests and stored as biomass, slowing the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. Because different plant tissues have different functional roles and turnover times, predictions of carbon balance of tropical forests depend on how earth system models (ESMs) represent the dynamic allocation of productivity to different tree compartments. This study shows that observed allocation of productivity, biomass, and turnover times of main tree compartments (leaves, wood, and roots) are not accurately represented in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 ESMs. In particular, observations indicate that biomass saturates with increasing productivity. In contrast, most models predict continuous increases in biomass with increases in productivity. This bias may lead to an over-prediction of carbon uptake in response to CO2 or climate-driven changes in productivity. Compartment-specific productivity and biomass are useful benchmarks to assess terrestrial ecosystem model performance. Improvements in the predicted allocation patterns and turnover times by ESMs will reduce uncertainties in climate predictions.
Kousera, C A; Nijjer, S; Torii, R; Petraco, R; Sen, S; Foin, N; Hughes, A D; Francis, D P P; Xu, X Y; Davies, J E
2014-06-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is increasingly being developed for the diagnostics of arterial diseases. Imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT) and angiography are commonly used. However, these have limited spatial resolution and are subject to movement artifact. This study developed a new approach to generate CFD models by combining high-fidelity, patient-specific coronary anatomy models derived from optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging with patient-specific pressure and velocity phasic data. Additionally, we used a new technique which does not require the catheter to be used to determine the centerline of the vessel. The CFD data were then compared with invasively measured pressure and velocity. Angiography imaging data of 21 vessels collected from 19 patients were fused with OCT visualizations of the same vessels using an algorithm that produces reconstructions inheriting the in-plane (10 μm) and longitudinal (0.2 mm) resolution of OCT. Proximal pressure and distal velocity waveforms ensemble averaged from invasively measured data were used as inlet and outlet boundary conditions, respectively, in CFD simulations. The resulting distal pressure waveform was compared against the measured waveform to test the model. The results followed the shape of the measured waveforms closely (cross-correlation coefficient = 0.898 ± 0.005, ), indicating realistic modeling of flow resistance, the mean of differences between measured and simulated results was -3. 5 mmHg, standard deviation of differences (SDD) = 8.2 mmHg over the cycle and -9.8 mmHg, SDD = 16.4 mmHg at peak flow. Models incorporating phasic velocity in patient-specific models of coronary anatomy derived from high-resolution OCT images show a good correlation with the measured pressure waveforms in all cases, indicating that the model results may be an accurate representation of the measured flow conditions. PMID:24845301
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Na; Yao, Jun; Huang, Zhaoqin; Wang, Yueying
2013-06-01
Numerical simulation in naturally fractured media is challenging because of the coexistence of porous media and fractures on multiple scales that need to be coupled. We present a new approach to reservoir simulation that gives accurate resolution of both large-scale and fine-scale flow patterns. Multiscale methods are suitable for this type of modeling, because it enables capturing the large scale behavior of the solution without solving all the small features. Dual-porosity models in view of their strength and simplicity can be mainly used for sugar-cube representation of fractured media. In such a representation, the transfer function between the fracture and the matrix block can be readily calculated for water-wet media. For a mixed-wet system, the evaluation of the transfer function becomes complicated due to the effect of gravity. In this work, we use a multiscale finite element method (MsFEM) for two-phase flow in fractured media using the discrete-fracture model. By combining MsFEM with the discrete-fracture model, we aim towards a numerical scheme that facilitates fractured reservoir simulation without upscaling. MsFEM uses a standard Darcy model to approximate the pressure and saturation on a coarse grid, whereas fine scale effects are captured through basis functions constructed by solving local flow problems using the discrete-fracture model. The accuracy and the robustness of MsFEM are shown through several examples. In the first example, we consider several small fractures in a matrix and then compare the results solved by the finite element method. Then, we use the MsFEM in more complex models. The results indicate that the MsFEM is a promising path toward direct simulation of highly resolution geomodels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Natale, Giuseppe; Crippa, Bruno; Troise, Claudia; Pingue, Folco; Audia, Karim; Dalla Via, Giorgio
2010-05-01
The seismic sequence occurred in the Abruzzo Apennines near L'Aquila (Italy) in April 2009 caused extensive damage and a large number of casualties (close to 300). The earthquake struck an area in the Italian Apennines chain where several faults, belonging to adjacent seismotectonic domains, create a complex tectonic regime resulting from the interaction among regional stress build-up, local stress changes caused by individual earthquakes and visco-elastic stress relaxation. Understanding such complex interaction in the Apennines can lead to a large step forward in the seismic risk mitigation in Italy. The Abruzzo earthquake has been exceptionally well recorded by InSAR data, much better than the first Italian earthquake ever recorded by satellites, namely the 1997 Umbria-Marche one. Envisat data for the Abruzzo earthquake are in fact very clear and allow an accurate reconstruction of the faulting mechanism. We present here an accurate inversion of vertical deformation data obtained by ENVISAT images, aimed to give a detailed reconstruction of the fault geometry and slip distribution. The resulting faulting models are then used to compute, by a suitable theoretical model based on elastic dislocation theory, the stress changes induced on the neighbouring faults. The study of the subsequent mainshocks of the Abruzzo sequence clearly evidence the effect of static stress changes consecutively triggering the subsequent mainshocks. Furthermore, this analysis put in evidence the seismotectonic domains that have been more heavily charged by stress released by the Abruzzo mainshocks. The most important faults significantly charged by the Abruzzo sequence include the Sulmona and Avezzano tectonic domains, including also the area, West-Southwest to the Avezzano domain, where a large earthquake occurred in 1394. Taking into account the average regional stress build-up in the area, the positive Coulomb stress changes caused by this earthquake can be seen as anticipating the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsao, Chao-hsi; Freniere, Edward R.; Smith, Linda
2009-02-01
The use of white LEDs for solid-state lighting to address applications in the automotive, architectural and general illumination markets is just emerging. LEDs promise greater energy efficiency and lower maintenance costs. However, there is a significant amount of design and cost optimization to be done while companies continue to improve semiconductor manufacturing processes and begin to apply more efficient and better color rendering luminescent materials such as phosphor and quantum dot nanomaterials. In the last decade, accurate and predictive opto-mechanical software modeling has enabled adherence to performance, consistency, cost, and aesthetic criteria without the cost and time associated with iterative hardware prototyping. More sophisticated models that include simulation of optical phenomenon, such as luminescence, promise to yield designs that are more predictive - giving design engineers and materials scientists more control over the design process to quickly reach optimum performance, manufacturability, and cost criteria. A design case study is presented where first, a phosphor formulation and excitation source are optimized for a white light. The phosphor formulation, the excitation source and other LED components are optically and mechanically modeled and ray traced. Finally, its performance is analyzed. A blue LED source is characterized by its relative spectral power distribution and angular intensity distribution. YAG:Ce phosphor is characterized by relative absorption, excitation and emission spectra, quantum efficiency and bulk absorption coefficient. Bulk scatter properties are characterized by wavelength dependent scatter coefficients, anisotropy and bulk absorption coefficient.
Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Balle, Salvador; Arlinghaus, Robert
2016-01-01
State-space models (SSM) are increasingly applied in studies involving biotelemetry-generated positional data because they are able to estimate movement parameters from positions that are unobserved or have been observed with non-negligible observational error. Popular telemetry systems in marine coastal fish consist of arrays of omnidirectional acoustic receivers, which generate a multivariate time-series of detection events across the tracking period. Here we report a novel Bayesian fitting of a SSM application that couples mechanistic movement properties within a home range (a specific case of random walk weighted by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) with a model of observational error typical for data obtained from acoustic receiver arrays. We explored the performance and accuracy of the approach through simulation modelling and extensive sensitivity analyses of the effects of various configurations of movement properties and time-steps among positions. Model results show an accurate and unbiased estimation of the movement parameters, and in most cases the simulated movement parameters were properly retrieved. Only in extreme situations (when fast swimming speeds are combined with pooling the number of detections over long time-steps) the model produced some bias that needs to be accounted for in field applications. Our method was subsequently applied to real acoustic tracking data collected from a small marine coastal fish species, the pearly razorfish, Xyrichtys novacula. The Bayesian SSM we present here constitutes an alternative for those used to the Bayesian way of reasoning. Our Bayesian SSM can be easily adapted and generalized to any species, thereby allowing studies in freely roaming animals on the ecological and evolutionary consequences of home ranges and territory establishment, both in fishes and in other taxa. PMID:27119718
Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Balle, Salvador; Arlinghaus, Robert
2016-01-01
State-space models (SSM) are increasingly applied in studies involving biotelemetry-generated positional data because they are able to estimate movement parameters from positions that are unobserved or have been observed with non-negligible observational error. Popular telemetry systems in marine coastal fish consist of arrays of omnidirectional acoustic receivers, which generate a multivariate time-series of detection events across the tracking period. Here we report a novel Bayesian fitting of a SSM application that couples mechanistic movement properties within a home range (a specific case of random walk weighted by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) with a model of observational error typical for data obtained from acoustic receiver arrays. We explored the performance and accuracy of the approach through simulation modelling and extensive sensitivity analyses of the effects of various configurations of movement properties and time-steps among positions. Model results show an accurate and unbiased estimation of the movement parameters, and in most cases the simulated movement parameters were properly retrieved. Only in extreme situations (when fast swimming speeds are combined with pooling the number of detections over long time-steps) the model produced some bias that needs to be accounted for in field applications. Our method was subsequently applied to real acoustic tracking data collected from a small marine coastal fish species, the pearly razorfish, Xyrichtys novacula. The Bayesian SSM we present here constitutes an alternative for those used to the Bayesian way of reasoning. Our Bayesian SSM can be easily adapted and generalized to any species, thereby allowing studies in freely roaming animals on the ecological and evolutionary consequences of home ranges and territory establishment, both in fishes and in other taxa. PMID:27119718
Mohaghegh, S.; Balan, B.; Ameri, S.
1995-12-31
The ultimate test for any technique that bears the claim of permeability prediction from well log data, is accurate and verifiable prediction of permeability for wells from which only the well log data is available. So far all the available models and techniques have been tried on data that includes both well logs and the corresponding permeability values. This approach at best is nothing more than linear or nonlinear curve fitting. The objective of this paper is to test the capability of the most promising of these techniques in independent (where corresponding permeability values are not available or have not been used in development of the model) prediction of permeability in a heterogeneous formation. These techniques are {open_quotes}Multiple Regression{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Virtual Measurements using Artificial Neural Networks.{close_quotes} For the purposes of this study several wells from a heterogeneous formation in West Virginia were selected. Well log data and corresponding permeability values for these wells were available. The techniques were applied to the remaining data and a permeability model for the field was developed. The model was then applied to the well that was separated from the rest of the data earlier and the results were compared. This approach will test the generalization power of each technique. The result will show that although Multiple Regression provides acceptable results for wells that were used during model development, (good curve fitting,) it lacks a consistent generalization capability, meaning that it does not perform as well with data it has not been exposed to (the data from well that has been put aside). On the other hand, Virtual Measurement technique provides a steady generalization power. This technique is able to perform the permeability prediction task even for the entire wells with no prior exposure to their permeability profile.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rom, Mark Carl
2011-01-01
Grades matter. College grading systems, however, are often ad hoc and prone to mistakes. This essay focuses on one factor that contributes to high-quality grading systems: grading accuracy (or "efficiency"). I proceed in several steps. First, I discuss the elements of "efficient" (i.e., accurate) grading. Next, I present analytical results…
Guo, En-Yu; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Jing, Tao; Torquato, Salvatore; Jiao, Yang
2014-03-01
Heterogeneous materials are ubiquitous in nature and synthetic situations and have a wide range of important engineering applications. Accurate modeling and reconstructing three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of topologically complex materials from limited morphological information such as a two-dimensional (2D) micrograph is crucial to the assessment and prediction of effective material properties and performance under extreme conditions. Here, we extend a recently developed dilation–erosion method and employ the Yeong–Torquato stochastic reconstruction procedure to model and generate 3D austenitic–ferritic cast duplex stainless steel microstructure containing percolating filamentary ferrite phase from 2D optical micrographs of the material sample. Specifically, the ferrite phase is dilated to produce a modified target 2D microstructure and the resulting 3D reconstruction is eroded to recover the percolating ferrite filaments. The dilation–erosion reconstruction is compared with the actual 3D microstructure, obtained from serial sectioning (polishing), as well as the standard stochastic reconstructions incorporating topological connectedness information. The fact that the former can achieve the same level of accuracy as the latter suggests that the dilation–erosion procedure is tantamount to incorporating appreciably more topological and geometrical information into the reconstruction while being much more computationally efficient. - Highlights: • Spatial correlation functions used to characterize filamentary ferrite phase • Clustering information assessed from 3D experimental structure via serial sectioning • Stochastic reconstruction used to generate 3D virtual structure 2D micrograph • Dilation–erosion method to improve accuracy of 3D reconstruction.
Xiao, Zheng; Dunn, Elizabeth; Singh, Kanal; Khan, Imran S.; Yannone, Steven M.; Cowan, Morton J.
2009-01-01
Two Artemis-deficient (mArt-/-) mouse models, independently generated on 129/SvJ backgrounds have the expected T-B-NK+SCID phenotype. However, they fail to mimic the human disease due to CD4+ T-cell leakiness. Moreover, immune reconstitution in these leaky mouse models following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is more easily achieved than that seen in Artemis-deficient humans. To develop a more clinically relevant animal model we backcrossed the mArt-/- mutation onto the C57Bl/6 (B6) background (99.9%) resulting in virtually no CD4+ T-cell leakiness compared to 129/SvJ mArt-/- mice (0.3±0.25% vs 19.5±15.1%, p<0.001). The non-leaky mouse was also uniquely resistant to engraftment using allogeneic mismatched HSC, comparable to what is seen with human Artemis deficiency. The genetic background also influenced Artemis-associated radiation sensitivity with differing degrees of x-ray hypersensitivity evident in 129/SvJ and B6 backgrounds with both the mArt-/- and mArt-/+ genotypes. Our results indicate that immunogenic and DNA repair phenotypes associated with Artemis deficiency are significantly altered by genetic background, which has important implications for SCID diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, the B6 mArt-/- mouse is a more accurate model for the human disease, and a more appropriate system for studying human Artemis-deficiency and for developing improved transplant and gene therapy regimens for the treatment of SCID children. PMID:19135937
Nonlinear effects of unbalance in the rotor-floating ring bearing system of turbochargers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, L.; Wang, W. J.; Peng, Z. J.
2013-01-01
Turbocharger (TC) rotor-floating ring bearing (FRB) system is characterised by high speed as well as high non-linearity. Using the run-up and run-down simulation method, this paper systematically investigates the influence of unbalance on the rotordynamic characteristics of a real TC-FRB system over the speed range from 0 Hz to 3500 Hz. The rotor is discretized by the finite element method, and the desired oil film forces at each simulation step are calculated by an efficient analytical method. The imposed unbalance amount and distribution are the variables considered in the performed non-stationary simulations. The newly obtained results evidently show the distinct phenomena brought about by the variations of the unbalance offset, which confirms that the unbalance level is a critical parameter for the system response. In the meantime, the variations of unbalance distribution, i.e. out-of-phase and in-phase unbalance, can lead to entirely different simulation results as well, which proves the distribution of unbalance is not negligible during the dynamic analysis of the rotor-FRB system. Additionally, considerable effort has been placed on the description as well as discussion of a unique phenomenon termed Critical Limit Cycle Oscillation (CLC Oscillation), which is of great importance and interest to the TC research and development.
Canakci, Mustafa
2007-04-01
In this study, the combustion characteristics and emissions of two different petroleum diesel fuels (No. 1 and No. 2) and biodiesel from soybean oil were compared. The tests were performed at steady state conditions in a four-cylinder turbocharged DI diesel engine at full load at 1400-rpm engine speed. The experimental results compared with No. 2 diesel fuel showed that biodiesel provided significant reductions in PM, CO, and unburned HC, the NO(x) increased by 11.2%. Biodiesel had a 13.8% increase in brake-specific fuel consumption due to its lower heating value. However, using No. 1 diesel fuel gave better emission results, NO(x) and brake-specific fuel consumption reduced by 16.1% and 1.2%, respectively. The values of the principal combustion characteristics of the biodiesel were obtained between two petroleum diesel fuels. The results indicated that biodiesel may be blended with No. 1 diesel fuel to be used without any modification on the engine. PMID:16822672
Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.
2011-01-01
With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads
Renfrew, Paul Douglas; Quan, Hude; Doig, Christopher James; Dixon, Elijah; Molinari, Michele
2011-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To determine the generalizability of the predictions for 90-day mortality generated by Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) and the serum sodium augmented MELD (MELDNa) to Atlantic Canadian adults with end-stage liver disease awaiting liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: The predictive accuracy of the MELD and the MELDNa was evaluated by measurement of the discrimination and calibration of the respective models’ estimates for the occurrence of 90-day mortality in a consecutive cohort of LT candidates accrued over a five-year period. Accuracy of discrimination was measured by the area under the ROC curves. Calibration accuracy was evaluated by comparing the observed and model-estimated incidences of 90-day wait-list failure for the total cohort and within quantiles of risk. RESULTS: The area under the ROC curve for the MELD was 0.887 (95% CI 0.705 to 0.978) – consistent with very good accuracy of discrimination. The area under the ROC curve for the MELDNa was 0.848 (95% CI 0.681 to 0.965). The observed incidence of 90-day wait-list mortality in the validation cohort was 7.9%, which was not significantly different from the MELD estimate of 6.6% (95% CI 4.9% to 8.4%; P=0.177) or the MELDNa estimate of 5.8% (95% CI 3.5% to 8.0%; P=0.065). Global goodness-of-fit testing found no evidence of significant lack of fit for either model (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2 [df=3] for MELD 2.941, P=0.401; for MELDNa 2.895, P=0.414). CONCLUSION: Both the MELD and the MELDNa accurately predicted the occurrence of 90-day wait-list mortality in the study cohort and, therefore, are generalizable to Atlantic Canadians with end-stage liver disease awaiting LT. PMID:21876856
Accurate monotone cubic interpolation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huynh, Hung T.
1991-01-01
Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.
Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodrich, John W.
1996-01-01
Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.
Gkontra, Polyxeni; Daras, Petros; Maglaveras, Nicos
2014-01-01
Assessing the structural integrity of the hippocampus (HC) is an essential step toward prevention, diagnosis, and follow-up of various brain disorders due to the implication of the structural changes of the HC in those disorders. In this respect, the development of automatic segmentation methods that can accurately, reliably, and reproducibly segment the HC has attracted considerable attention over the past decades. This paper presents an innovative 3-D fully automatic method to be used on top of the multiatlas concept for the HC segmentation. The method is based on a subject-specific set of 3-D optimal local maps (OLMs) that locally control the influence of each energy term of a hybrid active contour model (ACM). The complete set of the OLMs for a set of training images is defined simultaneously via an optimization scheme. At the same time, the optimal ACM parameters are also calculated. Therefore, heuristic parameter fine-tuning is not required. Training OLMs are subsequently combined, by applying an extended multiatlas concept, to produce the OLMs that are anatomically more suitable to the test image. The proposed algorithm was tested on three different and publicly available data sets. Its accuracy was compared with that of state-of-the-art methods demonstrating the efficacy and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:27170866
Zarpalas, Dimitrios; Gkontra, Polyxeni; Daras, Petros; Maglaveras, Nicos
2014-01-01
Assessing the structural integrity of the hippocampus (HC) is an essential step toward prevention, diagnosis, and follow-up of various brain disorders due to the implication of the structural changes of the HC in those disorders. In this respect, the development of automatic segmentation methods that can accurately, reliably, and reproducibly segment the HC has attracted considerable attention over the past decades. This paper presents an innovative 3-D fully automatic method to be used on top of the multiatlas concept for the HC segmentation. The method is based on a subject-specific set of 3-D optimal local maps (OLMs) that locally control the influence of each energy term of a hybrid active contour model (ACM). The complete set of the OLMs for a set of training images is defined simultaneously via an optimization scheme. At the same time, the optimal ACM parameters are also calculated. Therefore, heuristic parameter fine-tuning is not required. Training OLMs are subsequently combined, by applying an extended multiatlas concept, to produce the OLMs that are anatomically more suitable to the test image. The proposed algorithm was tested on three different and publicly available data sets. Its accuracy was compared with that of state-of-the-art methods demonstrating the efficacy and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:27170866
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bizzocchi, L.; Caselli, P.; Leonardo, E.; Dore, L.
2013-07-01
Context. Samples of pristine solar system material found in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles are highly enriched in 15N. Conspicuous nitrogen isotopic anomalies have also been measured in comets, and the 14N/15N abundance ratio of the Earth is itself higher than the recognised presolar value by almost a factor of two. Low-temperature ion/molecule reactions in the proto-solar nebula have been repeatedly indicated as being responsible for these 15N-enhancements. Aims: We have searched for 15N variants of the N2H+ ion in L1544, a prototypical starless cloud core that is one of the best candidate sources for detection owing to its low central core temperature and high CO depletion. The goal is to evaluate accurate and reliable 14N/15N ratio values for this species in the interstellar gas. Methods: A deep integration of the 15NNH+(1-0) line at 90.4 GHz was obtained with the IRAM 30 m telescope. Non-LTE radiative transfer modelling was performed on the J = 1-0 emissions of the parent and 15N-containing dyazenilium ions, using a Bonnor-Ebert sphere as a model for the source. Results: A high-quality fit of the N2H+(1-0) hyperfine spectrum has allowed us to derive a revised value of the N2H+ column density in L1544. Analysis of the observed N15NH+ and 15NNH+ spectra yielded an abundance ratio N(N15NH+)/N(15NNH+) = 1.1 ± 0.3. The obtained 14N/15N isotopic ratio is ~1000 ± 200, suggestive of a sizeable 15N depletion in this molecular ion. Such a result is not consistent with the prediction of the current nitrogen chemical models. Conclusions: Since chemical models predict high 15N fractionation of N2H+, we suggest that 15N14N, or 15N in some other molecular form, tends to deplete onto dust grains. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).Full Tables B.1-B.6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gancedo, Matthieu
Increase in emission regulations in the transport industry brings the need to have more efficient engines. A path followed by the automobile industry is to downsize the size of the internal combustion engine and increase the air density at the intake to keep the engine power when needed. Typically a centrifugal compressor is used to force the air into the engine, it can be powered from the engine shaft (superchargers) or extracting energy contained into the hot exhaust gases with a turbine (turbochargers). The flow range of the compressor needs to match the one of the engine. However compressors mass flow operating range is limited by choke on the high end and surge on the low end. In order to extend the operation at low mass flow rates, the use of passive devices for turbocharger centrifugal compressors was explored since the late 80's. Hence, casing treatments including flow recirculation from the inducer part of the compressor have been shown to move the surge limit to lower flows. Yet, the working mechanisms are still not well understood and thus, to optimize the design of this by-pass system, it is necessary to determine the nature of the changes induced by the device both on the dynamic stability of the pressure delivery and on the flow at the inlet. The compressor studied here features a self-recirculating casing treatment at the inlet. The recirculation passage could be blocked to carry a direct comparison between the cases with and without the flow feature. To grasp the effect on compressor stability, pressure measurements were taken in the different constituting elements of the compressor. The study of the mean pressure variations across the operating map showed that the tongue region is a limiting element. Dynamic pressure measurements revealed that the instabilities generated near the inducer when the recirculation is blocked increase the overall instability levels at the compressor outlet and propagating pressure waves starting at the tongue occurred
The Role of Tribology in the Development of an Oil-Free Turbocharger
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dellacorte, Christopher
1997-01-01
Gas-turbine-based aeropropulsion engines are technologically mature. Thus, as with any mature technology, revolutionary approaches will be needed to achieve the significant performance gains that will keep the U.S. propulsion manufacturers well ahead of foreign competition. One such approach is the development of oil-free turbomachinery utilizing advanced foil air bearings, seals, and solid lubricants. By eliminating oil-lubricated bearings and seals and supporting an engine rotor on an air film, significant improvements can be realized. For example, the entire oil system including pipes, lines, filters, cooler, and tanks could be removed, thereby saving considerable weight. Since air has no thermal decomposition temperature, engine systems could operate without excessive cooling. Also, since air bearings have no diameter-rpm fatigue limits (D-N limits), engines could be designed to operate at much higher speeds and higher density, which would result in a smaller aeropropulsion package. Because of recent advances in compliant foil air bearings and high temperature solid lubricants, these technologies can be applied to oil-free turbomachinery. In an effort to develop these technologies and to demonstrate a project along the path to an oil-free gas turbine engine, NASA has undertaken the development of an oil-free turbocharger for a heavy duty diesel engine. This turbomachine can reach 120000 rpm at a bearing temperature of 540 C (1000 F) and, in comparison to oil-lubricated bearings, can increase efficiency by 10 to 15 percent because of reduced friction. In addition, because there are no oil lubricants, there are no seal-leakage-induced emissions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itano, Wayne M.; Ramsey, Norman F.
1993-07-01
The paper discusses current methods for accurate measurements of time by conventional atomic clocks, with particular attention given to the principles of operation of atomic-beam frequency standards, atomic hydrogen masers, and atomic fountain and to the potential use of strings of trapped mercury ions as a time device more stable than conventional atomic clocks. The areas of application of the ultraprecise and ultrastable time-measuring devices that tax the capacity of modern atomic clocks include radio astronomy and tests of relativity. The paper also discusses practical applications of ultraprecise clocks, such as navigation of space vehicles and pinpointing the exact position of ships and other objects on earth using the GPS.
Accurate quantum chemical calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.
1989-01-01
An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grillo, C.; Suyu, S. H.; Rosati, P.; Mercurio, A.; Balestra, I.; Munari, E.; Nonino, M.; Caminha, G. B.; Lombardi, M.; De Lucia, G.; Borgani, S.; Gobat, R.; Biviano, A.; Girardi, M.; Umetsu, K.; Coe, D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Postman, M.; Zitrin, A.; Halkola, A.; Broadhurst, T.; Sartoris, B.; Presotto, V.; Annunziatella, M.; Maier, C.; Fritz, A.; Vanzella, E.; Frye, B.
2015-02-01
We present a detailed mass reconstruction and a novel study on the substructure properties in the core of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1-2403. We show and employ our extensive spectroscopic data set taken with the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph instrument as part of our CLASH-VLT program, to confirm spectroscopically 10 strong lensing systems and to select a sample of 175 plausible cluster members to a limiting stellar mass of log (M */M ⊙) ~= 8.6. We reproduce the measured positions of a set of 30 multiple images with a remarkable median offset of only 0.''3 by means of a comprehensive strong lensing model comprised of two cluster dark-matter halos, represented by cored elliptical pseudo-isothermal mass distributions, and the cluster member components, parameterized with dual pseudo-isothermal total mass profiles. The latter have total mass-to-light ratios increasing with the galaxy HST/WFC3 near-IR (F160W) luminosities. The measurement of the total enclosed mass within the Einstein radius is accurate to ~5%, including the systematic uncertainties estimated from six distinct mass models. We emphasize that the use of multiple-image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and knowledge of cluster membership based on extensive spectroscopic information is key to constructing robust high-resolution mass maps. We also produce magnification maps over the central area that is covered with HST observations. We investigate the galaxy contribution, both in terms of total and stellar mass, to the total mass budget of the cluster. When compared with the outcomes of cosmological N-body simulations, our results point to a lack of massive subhalos in the inner regions of simulated clusters with total masses similar to that of MACS J0416.1-2403. Our findings of the location and shape of the cluster dark-matter halo density profiles and on the cluster substructures provide intriguing tests of the
Grillo, C.; Suyu, S. H.; Umetsu, K.; Rosati, P.; Caminha, G. B.; Mercurio, A.; Balestra, I.; Munari, E.; Nonino, M.; De Lucia, G.; Borgani, S.; Biviano, A.; Girardi, M.; Lombardi, M.; Gobat, R.; Zitrin, A.; Halkola, A. and others
2015-02-10
We present a detailed mass reconstruction and a novel study on the substructure properties in the core of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1–2403. We show and employ our extensive spectroscopic data set taken with the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph instrument as part of our CLASH-VLT program, to confirm spectroscopically 10 strong lensing systems and to select a sample of 175 plausible cluster members to a limiting stellar mass of log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≅ 8.6. We reproduce the measured positions of a set of 30 multiple images with a remarkable median offset of only 0.''3 by means of a comprehensive strong lensing model comprised of two cluster dark-matter halos, represented by cored elliptical pseudo-isothermal mass distributions, and the cluster member components, parameterized with dual pseudo-isothermal total mass profiles. The latter have total mass-to-light ratios increasing with the galaxy HST/WFC3 near-IR (F160W) luminosities. The measurement of the total enclosed mass within the Einstein radius is accurate to ∼5%, including the systematic uncertainties estimated from six distinct mass models. We emphasize that the use of multiple-image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and knowledge of cluster membership based on extensive spectroscopic information is key to constructing robust high-resolution mass maps. We also produce magnification maps over the central area that is covered with HST observations. We investigate the galaxy contribution, both in terms of total and stellar mass, to the total mass budget of the cluster. When compared with the outcomes of cosmological N-body simulations, our results point to a lack of massive subhalos in the inner regions of simulated clusters with total masses similar to that of MACS J0416.1–2403. Our findings of the location and shape of the cluster dark-matter halo density profiles and on the cluster substructures provide intriguing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, L.; Wang, W. J.; Peng, Z. J.
2012-08-01
As a high speed rotating device, the modern turbocharger rotor is commonly supported by floating ring bearings (FRBs). The high nonlinearity there can always lead to quite complex and interesting phenomena rarely observed in other rotating applications. Using the run-up and run-down simulation method, this paper originally and systematically discusses the effect of bearing outer clearance on the rotordynamic characteristics of a realistic turbocharger rotor over the speed range up to 3000 Hz. The rotor is discretized by the Finite Element Method and supported by analytically calculated bearing forces. The linear analysis is proved to be effective in predicting the first two nonlinear jumps but inadequate to study the rotordynamic characteristics at higher rotor speeds. The nonlinearly simulated results show the appearances of distinct and interesting phenomena within the considered range of FRB outer clearance, which can be further divided into four groups. Within the same group, the simulation results are qualitatively similar to each other but quite dissimilar from the results from different groups. Moreover, the unwelcome Critical Limit Cycle Oscillation can be avoided by increasing the outer clearance size. Additionally, in some cases, the run-down simulations reveal distinct frequency maps as compared to the corresponding run-ups. Furthermore, it is seen that ring speed ratios can be considerably affected by the nonlinear jumps. Therefore, FRB outer clearance should be thoroughly examined to achieve the best rotordynamic performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gancedo, Matthieu; Gutmark, Ephraim; Guillou, Erwann
2016-02-01
Turbocharging reciprocating engines is a viable solution in order to meet the new regulations for emissions and fuel efficiency in part because turbochargers allow to use smaller, more efficient engines (downsizing) while maintaining power. A major challenge is to match the flow range of a dynamic turbomachine (the centrifugal compressor in the turbocharger) with a positive displacement pump (the engine) as the flow range of the latter is typically higher. The operating range of the compressor is thus of prime interest. At low mass flow rate (MFR), the compressor range is limited by the occurrence of surge. To control and improve it, numerous and varied methods have been used. Yet, an automotive application requires that the solution remains relatively simple and preferably passive. A common feature that has been demonstrated to improve the surge line is the use of flow recirculation in the inducer region through a circumferential bleed slot around the shroud, also called "ported shroud", similar to what has been developed for axial compressors in the past. The compressor studied here features such a device. In order to better understand the effect of the recirculation slot on the compressor functioning, flow measurements were performed at the inlet using particle image velocimetry and the results were correlated with pressure measurements nearby. Measurements were taken on a compressor with and without recirculation and across the full range of normal operation and during surge using a phase-locking method to obtain average flow fields throughout the entire surge cycle. When the recirculation is blocked, it was found that strong backflow develops at low MFR perturbing the incoming flow and inducing significant preswirl. The slot eliminated most of the backflow in front of the inducer making the compressor operation more stable. The measurements performed during surge showed strong backflow occurring periodically during the outlet pressure drop and when the
Rotary engine performance limits predicted by a zero-dimensional model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartrand, Timothy A.; Willis, Edward A.
1992-01-01
A parametric study was performed to determine the performance limits of a rotary combustion engine. This study shows how well increasing the combustion rate, insulating, and turbocharging increase brake power and decrease fuel consumption. Several generalizations can be made from the findings. First, it was shown that the fastest combustion rate is not necessarily the best combustion rate. Second, several engine insulation schemes were employed for a turbocharged engine. Performance improved only for a highly insulated engine. Finally, the variability of turbocompounding and the influence of exhaust port shape were calculated. Rotary engines performance was predicted by an improved zero-dimensional computer model based on a model developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the 1980's. Independent variables in the study include turbocharging, manifold pressures, wall thermal properties, leakage area, and exhaust port geometry. Additions to the computer programs since its results were last published include turbocharging, manifold modeling, and improved friction power loss calculation. The baseline engine for this study is a single rotor 650 cc direct-injection stratified-charge engine with aluminum housings and a stainless steel rotor. Engine maps are provided for the baseline and turbocharged versions of the engine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genova, Alessandro; Ceresoli, Davide; Pavanello, Michele
2016-06-01
In this work we achieve three milestones: (1) we present a subsystem DFT method capable of running ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations accurately and efficiently. (2) In order to rid the simulations of inter-molecular self-interaction error, we exploit the ability of semilocal frozen density embedding formulation of subsystem DFT to represent the total electron density as a sum of localized subsystem electron densities that are constrained to integrate to a preset, constant number of electrons; the success of the method relies on the fact that employed semilocal nonadditive kinetic energy functionals effectively cancel out errors in semilocal exchange-correlation potentials that are linked to static correlation effects and self-interaction. (3) We demonstrate this concept by simulating liquid water and solvated OH• radical. While the bulk of our simulations have been performed on a periodic box containing 64 independent water molecules for 52 ps, we also simulated a box containing 256 water molecules for 22 ps. The results show that, provided one employs an accurate nonadditive kinetic energy functional, the dynamics of liquid water and OH• radical are in semiquantitative agreement with experimental results or higher-level electronic structure calculations. Our assessments are based upon comparisons of radial and angular distribution functions as well as the diffusion coefficient of the liquid.
Wang, Yong; Goh, Wang Ling; Chai, Kevin T-C; Mu, Xiaojing; Hong, Yan; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Je, Minkyu
2016-04-01
The parasitic effects from electromechanical resonance, coupling, and substrate losses were collected to derive a new two-port equivalent-circuit model for Lamb wave resonators, especially for those fabricated on silicon technology. The proposed model is a hybrid π-type Butterworth-Van Dyke (PiBVD) model that accounts for the above mentioned parasitic effects which are commonly observed in Lamb-wave resonators. It is a combination of interdigital capacitor of both plate capacitance and fringe capacitance, interdigital resistance, Ohmic losses in substrate, and the acoustic motional behavior of typical Modified Butterworth-Van Dyke (MBVD) model. In the case studies presented in this paper using two-port Y-parameters, the PiBVD model fitted significantly better than the typical MBVD model, strengthening the capability on characterizing both magnitude and phase of either Y11 or Y21. The accurate modelling on two-port Y-parameters makes the PiBVD model beneficial in the characterization of Lamb-wave resonators, providing accurate simulation to Lamb-wave resonators and oscillators. PMID:27131699
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yong; Goh, Wang Ling; Chai, Kevin T.-C.; Mu, Xiaojing; Hong, Yan; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Je, Minkyu
2016-04-01
The parasitic effects from electromechanical resonance, coupling, and substrate losses were collected to derive a new two-port equivalent-circuit model for Lamb wave resonators, especially for those fabricated on silicon technology. The proposed model is a hybrid π-type Butterworth-Van Dyke (PiBVD) model that accounts for the above mentioned parasitic effects which are commonly observed in Lamb-wave resonators. It is a combination of interdigital capacitor of both plate capacitance and fringe capacitance, interdigital resistance, Ohmic losses in substrate, and the acoustic motional behavior of typical Modified Butterworth-Van Dyke (MBVD) model. In the case studies presented in this paper using two-port Y-parameters, the PiBVD model fitted significantly better than the typical MBVD model, strengthening the capability on characterizing both magnitude and phase of either Y11 or Y21. The accurate modelling on two-port Y-parameters makes the PiBVD model beneficial in the characterization of Lamb-wave resonators, providing accurate simulation to Lamb-wave resonators and oscillators.
van Dijk, Simone; van Alphen, Maarten J A; Jacobi, Irene; Smeele, Ludwig E; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Balm, Alfons J M
2016-02-01
In oral cancer treatment, function loss such as speech and swallowing deterioration can be severe, mostly due to reduced lingual mobility. Until now, there is no standardized measurement tool for tongue mobility and pre-operative prediction of function loss is based on expert opinion instead of evidence based insight. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of a triple-camera setup for the measurement of tongue range of motion (ROM) in healthy adults and its feasibility in patients with partial glossectomy. A triple-camera setup was used, and 3D coordinates of the tongue in five standardized tongue positions were achieved in 15 healthy volunteers. Maximum distances between the tip of the tongue and the maxillary midline were calculated. Each participant was recorded twice, and each movie was analysed three times by two separate raters. Intrarater, interrater and test-retest reliability were the main outcome measures. Secondly, feasibility of the method was tested in ten patients treated for oral tongue carcinoma. Intrarater, interrater and test-retest reliability all showed high correlation coefficients of >0.9 in both study groups. All healthy subjects showed perfect symmetrical tongue ROM. In patients, significant differences in lateral tongue movements were found, due to restricted tongue mobility after surgery. This triple-camera setup is a reliable measurement tool to assess three-dimensional information of tongue ROM. It constitutes an accurate tool for objective grading of reduced tongue mobility after partial glossectomy. PMID:26516075
Marko, Nicholas F.; Weil, Robert J.; Schroeder, Jason L.; Lang, Frederick F.; Suki, Dima; Sawaya, Raymond E.
2014-01-01
Purpose Approximately 12,000 glioblastomas are diagnosed annually in the United States. The median survival rate for this disease is 12 months, but individual survival rates can vary with patient-specific factors, including extent of surgical resection (EOR). The goal of our investigation is to develop a reliable strategy for personalized survival prediction and for quantifying the relationship between survival, EOR, and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Patients and Methods We used accelerated failure time (AFT) modeling using data from 721 newly diagnosed patients with glioblastoma (from 1993 to 2010) to model the factors affecting individualized survival after surgical resection, and we used the model to construct probabilistic, patient-specific tools for survival prediction. We validated this model with independent data from 109 patients from a second institution. Results AFT modeling using age, Karnofsky performance score, EOR, and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy produced a continuous, nonlinear, multivariable survival model for glioblastoma. The median personalized predictive error was 4.37 months, representing a more than 20% improvement over current methods. Subsequent model-based calculations yield patient-specific predictions of the incremental effects of EOR and adjuvant therapy on survival. Conclusion Nonlinear, multivariable AFT modeling outperforms current methods for estimating individual survival after glioblastoma resection. The model produces personalized survival curves and quantifies the relationship between variables modulating patient-specific survival. This approach provides comprehensive, personalized, probabilistic, and clinically relevant information regarding the anticipated course of disease, the overall prognosis, and the patient-specific influence of EOR and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The continuous, nonlinear relationship identified between expected median survival and EOR argues against a surgical management strategy based on rigid EOR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Tong; Pantazatos, Dennis; Li, Sheng; Hamuro, Yoshitomo; Hilser, Vincent J.; Woods, Virgil L.
2012-01-01
Peptide amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS) data are often used to qualitatively support models for protein structure. We have developed and validated a method (DXCOREX) by which exchange data can be used to quantitatively assess the accuracy of three-dimensional (3-D) models of protein structure. The method utilizes the COREX algorithm to predict a protein's amide hydrogen exchange rates by reference to a hypothesized structure, and these values are used to generate a virtual data set (deuteron incorporation per peptide) that can be quantitatively compared with the deuteration level of the peptide probes measured by hydrogen exchange experimentation. The accuracy of DXCOREX was established in studies performed with 13 proteins for which both high-resolution structures and experimental data were available. The DXCOREX-calculated and experimental data for each protein was highly correlated. We then employed correlation analysis of DXCOREX-calculated versus DXMS experimental data to assess the accuracy of a recently proposed structural model for the catalytic domain of a Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2. The model's calculated exchange behavior was highly correlated with the experimental exchange results available for the protein, supporting the accuracy of the proposed model. This method of analysis will substantially increase the precision with which experimental hydrogen exchange data can help decipher challenging questions regarding protein structure and dynamics.
Zhao, Xi; Dellandréa, Emmanuel; Chen, Liming; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A
2011-10-01
Three-dimensional face landmarking aims at automatically localizing facial landmarks and has a wide range of applications (e.g., face recognition, face tracking, and facial expression analysis). Existing methods assume neutral facial expressions and unoccluded faces. In this paper, we propose a general learning-based framework for reliable landmark localization on 3-D facial data under challenging conditions (i.e., facial expressions and occlusions). Our approach relies on a statistical model, called 3-D statistical facial feature model, which learns both the global variations in configurational relationships between landmarks and the local variations of texture and geometry around each landmark. Based on this model, we further propose an occlusion classifier and a fitting algorithm. Results from experiments on three publicly available 3-D face databases (FRGC, BU-3-DFE, and Bosphorus) demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, in terms of landmarking accuracy and robustness, in the presence of expressions and occlusions. PMID:21622076
NNLOPS accurate associated HW production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astill, William; Bizon, Wojciech; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia
2016-06-01
We present a next-to-next-to-leading order accurate description of associated HW production consistently matched to a parton shower. The method is based on reweighting events obtained with the HW plus one jet NLO accurate calculation implemented in POWHEG, extended with the MiNLO procedure, to reproduce NNLO accurate Born distributions. Since the Born kinematics is more complex than the cases treated before, we use a parametrization of the Collins-Soper angles to reduce the number of variables required for the reweighting. We present phenomenological results at 13 TeV, with cuts suggested by the Higgs Cross section Working Group.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zhaokui; Ding, Yanwei; Li, Zhaowei
2016-05-01
Firstly, the new single and combined error models applied to estimate the cumulative geoid height error are efficiently produced by the dominating error sources consisting of the gravity gradient of the satellite-equipped gradiometer and the orbital position of the space-borne GPS/GLONASS receiver using the power spectral principle. At degree 250, the cumulative geoid height error is 1.769 × 10-1 m based on the new combined error model, which preferably accords with a recovery accuracy of 1.760 × 10-1 m from the GOCE-only Earth gravity field model GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM_R2 released in Germany. Therefore, the new combined error model of the cumulative geoid height is correct and reliable in this study. Secondly, the requirements analysis for the future GOCE Follow-On satellite system is carried out in respect of the preferred design of the matching measurement accuracy of key payloads comprising the gravity gradient and orbital position and the optimal selection of the orbital altitude of the satellite. We recommend the gravity gradient with an accuracy of 10-13-10-15/s2, the orbital position with a precision of 1-0.1 cm and the orbital altitude of 200-250 km in the future GOCE Follow-On mission.
How to accurately bypass damage
Broyde, Suse; Patel, Dinshaw J.
2016-01-01
Ultraviolet radiation can cause cancer through DNA damage — specifically, by linking adjacent thymine bases. Crystal structures show how the enzyme DNA polymerase η accurately bypasses such lesions, offering protection. PMID:20577203
Chia -Hsun Chuang; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marco; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Ross, Ashley J.; Zhao, Gong Bo; Wang, Yuting; Antonio J. Cuesta; Rubino-Martin, J. A.; Prada, Francisco; Alam, Shadab; et al
2016-08-08
We analyze the broad-range shape of the monopole and quadrupole correlation functions of the BOSS Data Release 12 (DR12) CMASS and LOWZ galaxy sample to obtain constraints on the Hubble expansion rate H(z), the angular-diameter distance DA(z), the normalised growth rate f(z)σ8(z), and the physical matter density Ωmh2. In addition, we adopt wide and flat priors on all model parameters in order to ensure the results are those of a `single-probe' galaxy clustering analysis. We also marginalize over three nuisance terms that account for potential observational systematics affecting the measured monopole. However, such Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis is computationallymore » expensive for advanced theoretical models, thus we develop a new methodology to speed up our analysis.« less
Okeme, Joseph O; Parnis, J Mark; Poole, Justen; Diamond, Miriam L; Jantunen, Liisa M
2016-08-01
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) shows promise for use as a passive air sampler (PAS) for semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). To use PDMS as a PAS, knowledge of its chemical-specific partitioning behaviour and time to equilibrium is needed. Here we report on the effectiveness of two approaches for estimating the partitioning properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), values of PDMS-to-air partition ratios or coefficients (KPDMS-Air), and time to equilibrium of a range of SVOCs. Measured values of KPDMS-Air, Exp' at 25 °C obtained using the gas chromatography retention method (GC-RT) were compared with estimates from a poly-parameter free energy relationship (pp-FLER) and a COSMO-RS oligomer-based model. Target SVOCs included novel flame retardants (NFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Significant positive relationships were found between log KPDMS-Air, Exp' and estimates made using the pp-FLER model (log KPDMS-Air, pp-LFER) and the COSMOtherm program (log KPDMS-Air, COSMOtherm). The discrepancy and bias between measured and predicted values were much higher for COSMO-RS than the pp-LFER model, indicating the anticipated better performance of the pp-LFER model than COSMO-RS. Calculations made using measured KPDMS-Air, Exp' values show that a PDMS PAS of 0.1 cm thickness will reach 25% of its equilibrium capacity in ∼1 day for alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) to ∼ 500 years for tris (4-tert-butylphenyl) phosphate (TTBPP), which brackets the volatility range of all compounds tested. The results presented show the utility of GC-RT method for rapid and precise measurements of KPDMS-Air. PMID:27179237
Lagi, Marco; Bar-Yam, Yavni; Bertrand, Karla Z; Bar-Yam, Yaneer
2015-11-10
Recent increases in basic food prices are severely affecting vulnerable populations worldwide. Proposed causes such as shortages of grain due to adverse weather, increasing meat consumption in China and India, conversion of corn to ethanol in the United States, and investor speculation on commodity markets lead to widely differing implications for policy. A lack of clarity about which factors are responsible reinforces policy inaction. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we construct a dynamic model that quantitatively agrees with food prices. The results show that the dominant causes of price increases are investor speculation and ethanol conversion. Models that just treat supply and demand are not consistent with the actual price dynamics. The two sharp peaks in 2007/2008 and 2010/2011 are specifically due to investor speculation, whereas an underlying upward trend is due to increasing demand from ethanol conversion. The model includes investor trend following as well as shifting between commodities, equities, and bonds to take advantage of increased expected returns. Claims that speculators cannot influence grain prices are shown to be invalid by direct analysis of price-setting practices of granaries. Both causes of price increase, speculative investment and ethanol conversion, are promoted by recent regulatory changes-deregulation of the commodity markets, and policies promoting the conversion of corn to ethanol. Rapid action is needed to reduce the impacts of the price increases on global hunger. PMID:26504216
Lagi, Marco; Bar-Yam, Yavni; Bertrand, Karla Z.; Bar-Yam, Yaneer
2015-01-01
Recent increases in basic food prices are severely affecting vulnerable populations worldwide. Proposed causes such as shortages of grain due to adverse weather, increasing meat consumption in China and India, conversion of corn to ethanol in the United States, and investor speculation on commodity markets lead to widely differing implications for policy. A lack of clarity about which factors are responsible reinforces policy inaction. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we construct a dynamic model that quantitatively agrees with food prices. The results show that the dominant causes of price increases are investor speculation and ethanol conversion. Models that just treat supply and demand are not consistent with the actual price dynamics. The two sharp peaks in 2007/2008 and 2010/2011 are specifically due to investor speculation, whereas an underlying upward trend is due to increasing demand from ethanol conversion. The model includes investor trend following as well as shifting between commodities, equities, and bonds to take advantage of increased expected returns. Claims that speculators cannot influence grain prices are shown to be invalid by direct analysis of price-setting practices of granaries. Both causes of price increase, speculative investment and ethanol conversion, are promoted by recent regulatory changes—deregulation of the commodity markets, and policies promoting the conversion of corn to ethanol. Rapid action is needed to reduce the impacts of the price increases on global hunger. PMID:26504216
Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Galant, David C.; Goorvitch, D.
1994-01-01
Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schr\\"{o}dinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.
Qafoku, Odeta; Felmy, Andrew R.
2007-01-01
The development of an accurate aqueous thermodynamic model is described for oxalate species in the Na-Ba-Ca-Mn-Sr-Cl-NO3-PO4-SO4-H2O system at 25°C. The model is valid to high ionic strength (as high as 10m) and from very acid (10m H2SO4) to neutral and basic conditions. The model is based upon the equations of Pitzer and co-workers. The necessary ion-interaction parameters are determined by comparison with experimental data taken from the literature or determined in this study. The proposed aqueous activity and solubility model is valid for a range of applications from interpretation of studies on mineral dissolution at circumneutral pH to the dissolution of high-level waste tank sludges under acidic conditions.
A highly accurate interatomic potential for argon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aziz, Ronald A.
1993-09-01
A modified potential based on the individually damped model of Douketis, Scoles, Marchetti, Zen, and Thakkar [J. Chem. Phys. 76, 3057 (1982)] is presented which fits, within experimental error, the accurate ultraviolet (UV) vibration-rotation spectrum of argon determined by UV laser absorption spectroscopy by Herman, LaRocque, and Stoicheff [J. Chem. Phys. 89, 4535 (1988)]. Other literature potentials fail to do so. The potential also is shown to predict a large number of other properties and is probably the most accurate characterization of the argon interaction constructed to date.
Lambret-Frotté, Julia; de Almeida, Leandro C. S.; de Moura, Stéfanie M.; Souza, Flavio L. F.; Linhares, Francisco S.; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio
2015-01-01
Employing reference genes to normalize the data generated with quantitative PCR (qPCR) can increase the accuracy and reliability of this method. Previous results have shown that no single housekeeping gene can be universally applied to all experiments. Thus, the identification of a suitable reference gene represents a critical step of any qPCR analysis. Setaria viridis has recently been proposed as a model system for the study of Panicoid grasses, a crop family of major agronomic importance. Therefore, this paper aims to identify suitable S. viridis reference genes that can enhance the analysis of gene expression in this novel model plant. The first aim of this study was the identification of a suitable RNA extraction method that could retrieve a high quality and yield of RNA. After this, two distinct algorithms were used to assess the gene expression of fifteen different candidate genes in eighteen different samples, which were divided into two major datasets, the developmental and the leaf gradient. The best-ranked pair of reference genes from the developmental dataset included genes that encoded a phosphoglucomutase and a folylpolyglutamate synthase; genes that encoded a cullin and the same phosphoglucomutase as above were the most stable genes in the leaf gradient dataset. Additionally, the expression pattern of two target genes, a SvAP3/PI MADS-box transcription factor and the carbon-fixation enzyme PEPC, were assessed to illustrate the reliability of the chosen reference genes. This study has shown that novel reference genes may perform better than traditional housekeeping genes, a phenomenon which has been previously reported. These results illustrate the importance of carefully validating reference gene candidates for each experimental set before employing them as universal standards. Additionally, the robustness of the expression of the target genes may increase the utility of S. viridis as a model for Panicoid grasses. PMID:26247784
Colella, Stefano; Yau, Christopher; Taylor, Jennifer M; Mirza, Ghazala; Butler, Helen; Clouston, Penny; Bassett, Anne S; Seller, Anneke; Holmes, Christopher C; Ragoussis, Jiannis
2007-01-01
Array-based technologies have been used to detect chromosomal copy number changes (aneuploidies) in the human genome. Recent studies identified numerous copy number variants (CNV) and some are common polymorphisms that may contribute to disease susceptibility. We developed, and experimentally validated, a novel computational framework (QuantiSNP) for detecting regions of copy number variation from BeadArray SNP genotyping data using an Objective Bayes Hidden-Markov Model (OB-HMM). Objective Bayes measures are used to set certain hyperparameters in the priors using a novel re-sampling framework to calibrate the model to a fixed Type I (false positive) error rate. Other parameters are set via maximum marginal likelihood to prior training data of known structure. QuantiSNP provides probabilistic quantification of state classifications and significantly improves the accuracy of segmental aneuploidy identification and mapping, relative to existing analytical tools (Beadstudio, Illumina), as demonstrated by validation of breakpoint boundaries. QuantiSNP identified both novel and validated CNVs. QuantiSNP was developed using BeadArray SNP data but it can be adapted to other platforms and we believe that the OB-HMM framework has widespread applicability in genomic research. In conclusion, QuantiSNP is a novel algorithm for high-resolution CNV/aneuploidy detection with application to clinical genetics, cancer and disease association studies. PMID:17341461
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coogan, L. A.; Dosso, S. E.; Higgins, J. A.
2014-12-01
There are sharp rises in the Sr- and Li-isotopic composition of seawater at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary that are generally thought to be associated with Himalayan uplift and associated climatic changes and continental weathering variability. In modeling such data the norm is to hold the chemical fluxes associated with off-axis hydrothermal circulation through the oceanic crust constant while varying the river fluxes (and/or isotopic ratios). There is, however, no a priori reason to assume the chemical fluxes (or isotopic compositions) associated with off-axis hydrothermal systems should stay constant. Instead, changing environmental conditions (e.g. seawater composition and bottom water temperature) will lead to changes in these fluxes. An alternative model to explain the sharp rise in the Sr- and Li-isotopic composition of seawater at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary is cooling of the deep ocean. Decreased reaction rates in the oceanic crust, due to decreasing temperature, can be shown to lead to a decrease in the flux of unradiogenic Sr into the ocean. The magnitude matches, within uncertainty, that required to explain the increase in seawater Sr-isotopic composition [Coogan and Dosso, in review]. The story for Li is more uncertain. Two factors may lead to smaller effective fractionation factors between seawater and the (large) Li sink in the oceanic crust when bottom water is warmer: (i) higher temperature will decrease the isotopic fractionation factor; (ii) the more extensive fluid-rock reaction in the ocean crust when bottom water is warmer will make Li uptake by the oceanic crust more efficient. All other things being equal this will lead to a lower Li content of seawater. In turn, a lower Li content in seawater will mean that for a given Li-uptake rate by the crust the effective fractionation factor is smaller, due to Rayleigh distillation of Li-isotopes during fluid-rock reaction in the oceanic crust. In combination these factors predict a significant (many
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosati, Dora P.; Molina, Chai; Earn, David J. D.
2015-12-01
Human behaviour and disease dynamics can greatly influence each other. In particular, people often engage in self-protective behaviours that affect epidemic patterns (e.g., vaccination, use of barrier precautions, isolation, etc.). Self-protective measures usually have a mitigating effect on an epidemic [16], but can in principle have negative impacts at the population level [12,15,18]. The structure of underlying social and biological contact networks can significantly influence the specific ways in which population-level effects are manifested. Using a different contact network in a disease dynamics model-keeping all else equal-can yield very different epidemic patterns. For example, it has been shown that when individuals imitate their neighbours' vaccination decisions with some probability, this can lead to herd immunity in some networks [9], yet for other networks it can preserve clusters of susceptible individuals that can drive further outbreaks of infectious disease [12].
Incarnato, Danny; Neri, Francesco; Diamanti, Daniela; Oliviero, Salvatore
2013-01-01
The prediction of pairing between microRNAs (miRNAs) and the miRNA recognition elements (MREs) on mRNAs is expected to be an important tool for understanding gene regulation. Here, we show that mRNAs that contain Pumilio recognition elements (PRE) in the proximity of predicted miRNA-binding sites are more likely to form stable secondary structures within their 3′-UTR, and we demonstrated using a PUM1 and PUM2 double knockdown that Pumilio proteins are general regulators of miRNA accessibility. On the basis of these findings, we developed a computational method for predicting miRNA targets that accounts for the presence of PRE in the proximity of seed-match sequences within poorly accessible structures. Moreover, we implement the miRNA-MRE duplex pairing as a two-step model, which better fits the available structural data. This algorithm, called MREdictor, allows for the identification of miRNA targets in poorly accessible regions and is not restricted to a perfect seed-match; these features are not present in other computational prediction methods. PMID:23863844
Fernández-Colino, A; Bermudez, J M; Arias, F J; Quinteros, D; Gonzo, E
2016-04-01
Transversality between mathematical modeling, pharmacology, and materials science is essential in order to achieve controlled-release systems with advanced properties. In this regard, the area of biomaterials provides a platform for the development of depots that are able to achieve controlled release of a drug, whereas pharmacology strives to find new therapeutic molecules and mathematical models have a connecting function, providing a rational understanding by modeling the parameters that influence the release observed. Herein we present a mechanism which, based on reasonable assumptions, explains the experimental data obtained very well. In addition, we have developed a simple and accurate “lumped” kinetics model to correctly fit the experimentally observed drug-release behavior. This lumped model allows us to have simple analytic solutions for the mass and rate of drug release as a function of time without limitations of time or mass of drug released, which represents an important step-forward in the area of in vitro drug delivery when compared to the current state of the art in mathematical modeling. As an example, we applied the mechanism and model to the release data for acetazolamide from a recombinant polymer. Both materials were selected because of a need to develop a suitable ophthalmic formulation for the treatment of glaucoma. The in vitro release model proposed herein provides a valuable predictive tool for ensuring product performance and batch-to-batch reproducibility, thus paving the way for the development of further pharmaceutical devices. PMID:26838852
Paglia, Gianluca; Rohl, Andrew L.; Gale, Julian D.; Buckley, Craig E.
2005-06-01
We have performed an extensive computational study of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, beginning with the geometric analysis of approximately 1.47 billion spinel-based structural candidates, followed by derivative method energy minimization calculations of approximately 122 000 structures. Optimization of the spinel-based structural models demonstrated that structures exhibiting nonspinel site occupancy after simulation were more energetically favorable, as suggested in other computational studies. More importantly, none of the spinel structures exhibited simulated diffraction patterns that were characteristic of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This suggests that cations of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are not exclusively held in spinel positions, that the spinel model of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} does not accurately reflect its structure, and that a representative structure cannot be achieved from molecular modeling when the spinel representation is used as the starting structure. The latter two of these three findings are extremely important when trying to accurately model the structure. A second set of starting models were generated with a large number of cations occupying c symmetry positions, based on the findings from recent experiments. Optimization of the new c symmetry-based structural models resulted in simulated diffraction patterns that were characteristic of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The modeling, conducted using supercells, yields a more accurate and complete determination of the defect structure of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} than can be achieved with current experimental techniques. The results show that on average over 40% of the cations in the structure occupy nonspinel positions, and approximately two-thirds of these occupy c symmetry positions. The structures exhibit variable occupancy in the site positions that follow local symmetry exclusion rules. This variation was predominantly represented by a migration of cations away from a symmetry positions to other
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paglia, Gianluca; Rohl, Andrew L.; Buckley, Craig E.; Gale, Julian D.
2005-06-01
We have performed an extensive computational study of γ-Al2O3 , beginning with the geometric analysis of approximately 1.47 billion spinel-based structural candidates, followed by derivative method energy minimization calculations of approximately 122 000 structures. Optimization of the spinel-based structural models demonstrated that structures exhibiting nonspinel site occupancy after simulation were more energetically favorable, as suggested in other computational studies. More importantly, none of the spinel structures exhibited simulated diffraction patterns that were characteristic of γ-Al2O3 . This suggests that cations of γ-Al2O3 are not exclusively held in spinel positions, that the spinel model of γ-Al2O3 does not accurately reflect its structure, and that a representative structure cannot be achieved from molecular modeling when the spinel representation is used as the starting structure. The latter two of these three findings are extremely important when trying to accurately model the structure. A second set of starting models were generated with a large number of cations occupying c symmetry positions, based on the findings from recent experiments. Optimization of the new c symmetry-based structural models resulted in simulated diffraction patterns that were characteristic of γ-Al2O3 . The modeling, conducted using supercells, yields a more accurate and complete determination of the defect structure of γ-Al2O3 than can be achieved with current experimental techniques. The results show that on average over 40% of the cations in the structure occupy nonspinel positions, and approximately two-thirds of these occupy c symmetry positions. The structures exhibit variable occupancy in the site positions that follow local symmetry exclusion rules. This variation was predominantly represented by a migration of cations away from a symmetry positions to other tetrahedral site positions during optimization which were found not to affect the diffraction
May, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Dunn, J; Jordan, N; Osterheld, A; Faenov, A; Pikuz, T; Skobelev, I; Fora, F; Bollanti, S; Lazzaro, P D; Murra, D; Reale, A; Reale, L; Tomassetti, G; Ritucci, A; Francucci, M; Martellucci, S; Petrocelli, G
2004-09-28
Iron spectra have been recorded from plasmas created at three different laser plasma facilities, the Tor Vergata University laser in Rome (Italy), the Hercules laser at ENEA in Frascati (Italy), and the Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET) laser at LLNL in California (USA). The measurements provide a means of identifying dielectronic satellite lines from FeXVI and FeXV in the vicinity of the strong 2p {yields} 3d transitions of FeXVII. About 80 {Delta}n {ge} 1 lines of FeXV (Mg-like) to FeXIX (O-like) were recorded between 13.8 to 17.1 {angstrom} with a high spectral resolution ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 4000), about thirty of these lines are from FeXVI and FeXV. The laser produced plasmas had electron temperatures between 100 to 500 eV and electron densities between 10{sup 20} to 10{sup 22} cm{sup -3}. The Hebrew University Lawrence Livermore Atomic Code (HULLAC) was used to calculate the atomic structure and atomic rates for FeXV to FeXIX. HULLAC was used to calculate synthetic line intensities at T{sub e} = 200 eV and n{sub e} = 10{sup 21}cm{sup -3} for three different conditions to illustrate the role of opacity: optically thin plasmas with no excitation-autoionization/dielectronic recombination (EA/DR) contributions to the line intensities, optically thin plasmas that included EA/DR contributions to the line intensities, and optically thick plasmas (optical depth {approx} 200 {micro}m) that included EA/DR contributions to the line intensities. The optically thick simulation best reproduced the recorded spectrum from the Hercules laser. However some discrepancies between the modeling and the recorded spectra remain.
Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jun; Weissmann, Daniel; Dolg, Michael; Chen, Xuebo
2015-08-28
The experimentally observed extraction complexes of trivalent lanthanide Eu(3+) and actinide Am(3+)/Cm(3+) cations with Cyanex272 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid, denoted as HC272] and Cyanex301 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid, denoted as HC301] have been studied by using relativistic energy-consistent 4f- and 5f-in-core pseudopotentials for trivalent f elements, combined with density functional theory and a continuum solvation model. It has been found that, as a result of hydrogen bonding, HC272 exists primarily as a self-associated species, whereas HC301 is preferably a monomer. The calculations show that in case of all three M(3+) (M = Eu, Am, Cm) ions for HC272 the extraction complexes M[H(C272)2]3 are formed prior to M(C272)3, whereas for HC301 the extraction complexes M(C301)3 have priority over M[H(C301)2]3. The calculated M-O and M-S bond lengths and the M-P distances of these preferred extraction complexes agree very well with the available experimental data. The obtained changes of the Gibbs free energies in the liquid-liquid extraction reactions (1): Maqu(3+) + 3(HC272)2,org→ M[H(C272)2]3,org + 3Haqu(+) and (2): Maqu(3+) + 3HC301org→ M(C301)3,org + 3Haqu(+) agree with the experimentally observed thermodynamical priorities of HC272 and HC301, i.e., HC272 prefers Eu(3+) over Am(3+)/Cm(3+) and HC301 prefers Am(3+)/Cm(3+) over Eu(3+). The obtained changes of the Gibbs free energies in reaction (2) (Eu, 68.1 kJ mol(-1); Am, 46.5 kJ mol(-1)) agree quite well with the experimental findings (Eu, 63.3 kJ mol(-1); Am, 44.1 kJ mol(-1)). PMID:26203895
Larsen, J.F.; Wallace, J.S.
1997-01-01
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential for reduced exhaust emissions and improved efficiency, by way of lean-burn engine fueling with hydrogen supplemented natural gas (Hythane). The emissions and efficiency of the Hythane fuel (15% hydrogen, 85% natural gas by volume), were compared to the emissions and efficiency of pure natural gas using a turbocharged, spark ignition, 3.1 L, V-6 engine. The feasibility of heavy duty engine fueling with Hythane was assessed through testing conducted at engine speed and load combinations typical of heavy-duty engine operation. Comparison of the efficiency and emissions at MBT spark timing revealed that Hythane fueling of the test engine resulted in consistently lower brake specific energy consumption and emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), at a given equivalence ratio. There was no clear trend with respect to MBT oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions. It was also discovered that an improved NO{sub x}-THC tradeoff resulted when Hythane was used to fuel the test engine. Consequently, Hythane engine operating parameters can be adjusted to achieve a concurrent reduction in NO{sub x} and THC emissions relative to natural gas fueling.
Accurate Molecular Polarizabilities Based on Continuum Electrostatics
Truchon, Jean-François; Nicholls, Anthony; Iftimie, Radu I.; Roux, Benoît; Bayly, Christopher I.
2013-01-01
A novel approach for representing the intramolecular polarizability as a continuum dielectric is introduced to account for molecular electronic polarization. It is shown, using a finite-difference solution to the Poisson equation, that the Electronic Polarization from Internal Continuum (EPIC) model yields accurate gas-phase molecular polarizability tensors for a test set of 98 challenging molecules composed of heteroaromatics, alkanes and diatomics. The electronic polarization originates from a high intramolecular dielectric that produces polarizabilities consistent with B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ and experimental values when surrounded by vacuum dielectric. In contrast to other approaches to model electronic polarization, this simple model avoids the polarizability catastrophe and accurately calculates molecular anisotropy with the use of very few fitted parameters and without resorting to auxiliary sites or anisotropic atomic centers. On average, the unsigned error in the average polarizability and anisotropy compared to B3LYP are 2% and 5%, respectively. The correlation between the polarizability components from B3LYP and this approach lead to a R2 of 0.990 and a slope of 0.999. Even the F2 anisotropy, shown to be a difficult case for existing polarizability models, can be reproduced within 2% error. In addition to providing new parameters for a rapid method directly applicable to the calculation of polarizabilities, this work extends the widely used Poisson equation to areas where accurate molecular polarizabilities matter. PMID:23646034
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahin, O. K.; Asci, M.
2014-12-01
At this study, determination of theoretical parameters for inversion process of Trabzon-Sürmene-Kutlular ore bed anomalies was examined. Making a decision of which model equation can be used for inversion is the most important step for the beginning. It is thought that will give a chance to get more accurate results. So, sections were evaluated with sphere-cylinder nomogram. After that, same sections were analyzed with cylinder-dike nomogram to determine the theoretical parameters for inversion process for every single model equations. After comparison of results, we saw that only one of them was more close to parameters of nomogram evaluations. But, other inversion result parameters were different from their nomogram parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arockia Bazil Raj, A.; Padmavathi, S.
2016-07-01
Atmospheric parameters strongly affect the performance of Free Space Optical Communication (FSOC) system when the optical wave is propagating through the inhomogeneous turbulent medium. Developing a model to get an accurate prediction of optical attenuation according to meteorological parameters becomes significant to understand the behaviour of FSOC channel during different seasons. A dedicated free space optical link experimental set-up is developed for the range of 0.5 km at an altitude of 15.25 m. The diurnal profile of received power and corresponding meteorological parameters are continuously measured using the developed optoelectronic assembly and weather station, respectively, and stored in a data logging computer. Measured meteorological parameters (as input factors) and optical attenuation (as response factor) of size [177147 × 4] are used for linear regression analysis and to design the mathematical model that is more suitable to predict the atmospheric optical attenuation at our test field. A model that exhibits the R2 value of 98.76% and average percentage deviation of 1.59% is considered for practical implementation. The prediction accuracy of the proposed model is investigated along with the comparative results obtained from some of the existing models in terms of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) during different local seasons in one-year period. The average RMSE value of 0.043-dB/km is obtained in the longer range dynamic of meteorological parameters variations.
Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.
2011-10-05
This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (ÃÂÃÂ© pilot ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¼ 0.2-0.6 and ÃÂÃÂ© overall ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant ÃÂÃÂ© pilot (> 0.5), increasing ÃÂÃÂ© overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing ÃÂÃÂ© overall (at constant ÃÂÃÂ© pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.
Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock.
Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R; Holmes, William M
2016-06-01
Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models. PMID:27111139
Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Holmes, William M.
2016-06-01
Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models.
Accurate colorimetric feedback for RGB LED clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man, Kwong; Ashdown, Ian
2006-08-01
We present an empirical model of LED emission spectra that is applicable to both InGaN and AlInGaP high-flux LEDs, and which accurately predicts their relative spectral power distributions over a wide range of LED junction temperatures. We further demonstrate with laboratory measurements that changes in LED spectral power distribution with temperature can be accurately predicted with first- or second-order equations. This provides the basis for a real-time colorimetric feedback system for RGB LED clusters that can maintain the chromaticity of white light at constant intensity to within +/-0.003 Δuv over a range of 45 degrees Celsius, and to within 0.01 Δuv when dimmed over an intensity range of 10:1.
Felmy, Andrew R.; Mason, Marvin J.; Qafoku, Odeta; Dixon, David A.
2005-04-19
This symposium manuscript describes the development of an accurate aqueous thermodynamic model for predicting the speciation of Sr in the waste tanks at the Hanford site. A systematic approach is described that details the studies performed to define the most important inorganic and organic complexation reactions as well as the effects of other important metal ions that compete with Sr for complexation reactions with the chelates. By using this approach we were able to define a reduced set of inorganic complexation, organic complexation, and competing metal reactions that best represent the much more complex waste tank chemical system. A summary is presented of the final thermodynamic model for the system Na-Ca-Sr-OH-CO3-NO3-EDTA-HEDTA-H2O from 25 to 75 ºC that was previously published in a variety of sources. Previously unpublished experimental data are also given for the competing metal Ni as well for certain chemical systems, Na-Sr-CO3-PO4-H2O, and for the solubility of amorphous iron hydroxide in the presence of several organic chelating agents. These data were not used in model development but were key to the final selection of the specific chemical systems prioritized for detailed study.
Predict amine solution properties accurately
Cheng, S.; Meisen, A.; Chakma, A.
1996-02-01
Improved process design begins with using accurate physical property data. Especially in the preliminary design stage, physical property data such as density viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat can affect the overall performance of absorbers, heat exchangers, reboilers and pump. These properties can also influence temperature profiles in heat transfer equipment and thus control or affect the rate of amine breakdown. Aqueous-amine solution physical property data are available in graphical form. However, it is not convenient to use with computer-based calculations. Developed equations allow improved correlations of derived physical property estimates with published data. Expressions are given which can be used to estimate physical properties of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), monoethanolamine (MEA) and diglycolamine (DGA) solutions.
Accurate thickness measurement of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.
2016-03-01
Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.
Accurate upwind methods for the Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huynh, Hung T.
1993-01-01
A new class of piecewise linear methods for the numerical solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics is presented. These methods are uniformly second-order accurate, and can be considered as extensions of Godunov's scheme. With an appropriate definition of monotonicity preservation for the case of linear convection, it can be shown that they preserve monotonicity. Similar to Van Leer's MUSCL scheme, they consist of two key steps: a reconstruction step followed by an upwind step. For the reconstruction step, a monotonicity constraint that preserves uniform second-order accuracy is introduced. Computational efficiency is enhanced by devising a criterion that detects the 'smooth' part of the data where the constraint is redundant. The concept and coding of the constraint are simplified by the use of the median function. A slope steepening technique, which has no effect at smooth regions and can resolve a contact discontinuity in four cells, is described. As for the upwind step, existing and new methods are applied in a manner slightly different from those in the literature. These methods are derived by approximating the Euler equations via linearization and diagonalization. At a 'smooth' interface, Harten, Lax, and Van Leer's one intermediate state model is employed. A modification for this model that can resolve contact discontinuities is presented. Near a discontinuity, either this modified model or a more accurate one, namely, Roe's flux-difference splitting. is used. The current presentation of Roe's method, via the conceptually simple flux-vector splitting, not only establishes a connection between the two splittings, but also leads to an admissibility correction with no conditional statement, and an efficient approximation to Osher's approximate Riemann solver. These reconstruction and upwind steps result in schemes that are uniformly second-order accurate and economical at smooth regions, and yield high resolution at discontinuities.
How Accurately can we Calculate Thermal Systems?
Cullen, D; Blomquist, R N; Dean, C; Heinrichs, D; Kalugin, M A; Lee, M; Lee, Y; MacFarlan, R; Nagaya, Y; Trkov, A
2004-04-20
I would like to determine how accurately a variety of neutron transport code packages (code and cross section libraries) can calculate simple integral parameters, such as K{sub eff}, for systems that are sensitive to thermal neutron scattering. Since we will only consider theoretical systems, we cannot really determine absolute accuracy compared to any real system. Therefore rather than accuracy, it would be more precise to say that I would like to determine the spread in answers that we obtain from a variety of code packages. This spread should serve as an excellent indicator of how accurately we can really model and calculate such systems today. Hopefully, eventually this will lead to improvements in both our codes and the thermal scattering models that they use in the future. In order to accomplish this I propose a number of extremely simple systems that involve thermal neutron scattering that can be easily modeled and calculated by a variety of neutron transport codes. These are theoretical systems designed to emphasize the effects of thermal scattering, since that is what we are interested in studying. I have attempted to keep these systems very simple, and yet at the same time they include most, if not all, of the important thermal scattering effects encountered in a large, water-moderated, uranium fueled thermal system, i.e., our typical thermal reactors.
Accurate determination of characteristic relative permeability curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krause, Michael H.; Benson, Sally M.
2015-09-01
A recently developed technique to accurately characterize sub-core scale heterogeneity is applied to investigate the factors responsible for flowrate-dependent effective relative permeability curves measured on core samples in the laboratory. The dependency of laboratory measured relative permeability on flowrate has long been both supported and challenged by a number of investigators. Studies have shown that this apparent flowrate dependency is a result of both sub-core scale heterogeneity and outlet boundary effects. However this has only been demonstrated numerically for highly simplified models of porous media. In this paper, flowrate dependency of effective relative permeability is demonstrated using two rock cores, a Berea Sandstone and a heterogeneous sandstone from the Otway Basin Pilot Project in Australia. Numerical simulations of steady-state coreflooding experiments are conducted at a number of injection rates using a single set of input characteristic relative permeability curves. Effective relative permeability is then calculated from the simulation data using standard interpretation methods for calculating relative permeability from steady-state tests. Results show that simplified approaches may be used to determine flowrate-independent characteristic relative permeability provided flow rate is sufficiently high, and the core heterogeneity is relatively low. It is also shown that characteristic relative permeability can be determined at any typical flowrate, and even for geologically complex models, when using accurate three-dimensional models.
Thomas, John F; West, Brian H; Huff, Shean P
2015-03-01
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance
Ginovska, Bojana; Camaioni, Donald M; Dupuis, Michel; Schwerdtfeger, Christine A; Gilcrease, Quinn
2008-10-23
Dielectric continuum solvation models are widely used because they are a computationally efficacious way to simulate equilibrium properties of solutes. With advances that allow for molecular-shaped cavities, they have reached a high level of accuracy, in particular for neutral solutes. However, benchmark tests show that existing schemes for defining cavities are unable to consistently predict accurately the effects of solvation on ions, especially anions. This work involves the further development of a protocol put forth earlier for defining the cavities of aqueous solutes, with resulting advances that are most striking for anions. Molecular cavities are defined as interlocked spheres around atoms or groups of atoms in the solute, but the sphere radii are determined by simple empirically-based expressions involving the effective atomic charges of the solute atoms (derived from molecular electrostatic potential) and base radii. Both of these terms are optimized for the different types of atoms or functional groups in a training set of neutral and charged solutes. Parameters in these expressions for radii were fitted by minimizing residuals between calculated and measured standard free energies of solvation (ΔG_{s}*), weighted by the uncertainty in the measured value. The calculations were performed using density functional theory with the B3LYP functional and the 6-311+G** basis set and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel (COSMO). The optimized radii definitions reproduce ΔG_{s}* of neutral solutes and singly-charged ions in the training set to within experimental uncertainty and, more importantly, accurately predict ΔG_{s}* of compounds outside the training set, in particular anions. Inherent to this approach, the cavity definitions reflect the strength of specific solute-water interactions. We surmise that this feature underlies the success of the model, referred to as the CD-COSMO model for Charge-Dependent (also Camaioni-Dupuis) COSMO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dixit, V. K.; Porwal, S.; Singh, S. D.; Sharma, T. K.; Ghosh, Sandip; Oak, S. M.
2014-02-01
Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) peak energy of bulk and quantum well (QW) structures is studied by using a new phenomenological model for including the effect of localized states. In general an anomalous S-shaped temperature dependence of the PL peak energy is observed for many materials which is usually associated with the localization of excitons in band-tail states that are formed due to potential fluctuations. Under such conditions, the conventional models of Varshni, Viña and Passler fail to replicate the S-shaped temperature dependence of the PL peak energy and provide inconsistent and unrealistic values of the fitting parameters. The proposed formalism persuasively reproduces the S-shaped temperature dependence of the PL peak energy and provides an accurate determination of the exciton localization energy in bulk and QW structures along with the appropriate values of material parameters. An example of a strained InAs0.38P0.62/InP QW is presented by performing detailed temperature and excitation intensity dependent PL measurements and subsequent in-depth analysis using the proposed model. Versatility of the new formalism is tested on a few other semiconductor materials, e.g. GaN, nanotextured GaN, AlGaN and InGaN, which are known to have a significant contribution from the localized states. A quantitative evaluation of the fractional contribution of the localized states is essential for understanding the temperature dependence of the PL peak energy of bulk and QW well structures having a large contribution of the band-tail states.
Accurate ab Initio Spin Densities
2012-01-01
We present an approach for the calculation of spin density distributions for molecules that require very large active spaces for a qualitatively correct description of their electronic structure. Our approach is based on the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm to calculate the spin density matrix elements as a basic quantity for the spatially resolved spin density distribution. The spin density matrix elements are directly determined from the second-quantized elementary operators optimized by the DMRG algorithm. As an analytic convergence criterion for the spin density distribution, we employ our recently developed sampling-reconstruction scheme [J. Chem. Phys.2011, 134, 224101] to build an accurate complete-active-space configuration-interaction (CASCI) wave function from the optimized matrix product states. The spin density matrix elements can then also be determined as an expectation value employing the reconstructed wave function expansion. Furthermore, the explicit reconstruction of a CASCI-type wave function provides insight into chemically interesting features of the molecule under study such as the distribution of α and β electrons in terms of Slater determinants, CI coefficients, and natural orbitals. The methodology is applied to an iron nitrosyl complex which we have identified as a challenging system for standard approaches [J. Chem. Theory Comput.2011, 7, 2740]. PMID:22707921
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danish, Syed Noman; Qureshi, Shafiq Rehman; EL-Leathy, Abdelrahman; Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Umer, Usama; Ma, Chaochen
2014-12-01
Extensive numerical investigations of the performance and flow structure in an unshrouded tandem-bladed centrifugal compressor are presented in comparison to a conventional compressor. Stage characteristics are explored for various tip clearance levels, axial spacings and circumferential clockings. Conventional impeller was modified to tandem-bladed design with no modifications in backsweep angle, meridional gas passage and camber distributions in order to have a true comparison with conventional design. Performance degradation is observed for both the conventional and tandem designs with increase in tip clearance. Linear-equation models for correlating stage characteristics with tip clearance are proposed. Comparing two designs, it is clearly evident that the conventional design shows better performance at moderate flow rates. However; near choke flow, tandem design gives better results primarily because of the increase in throat area. Surge point flow rate also seems to drop for tandem compressor resulting in increased range of operation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bouwma-Gearhart, Jana; Stewart, James; Brown, Keffrelyn
2009-01-01
Understanding the particulate nature of matter (PNM) is vital for participating in many areas of science. We assessed 11 students' atomic/molecular-level explanations of real-world phenomena after their participation in a modelling-based PNM unit. All 11 students offered a scientifically acceptable model regarding atomic/molecular behaviour in…
Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena
2016-07-01
In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.
Accurate pose estimation for forensic identification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merckx, Gert; Hermans, Jeroen; Vandermeulen, Dirk
2010-04-01
In forensic authentication, one aims to identify the perpetrator among a series of suspects or distractors. A fundamental problem in any recognition system that aims for identification of subjects in a natural scene is the lack of constrains on viewing and imaging conditions. In forensic applications, identification proves even more challenging, since most surveillance footage is of abysmal quality. In this context, robust methods for pose estimation are paramount. In this paper we will therefore present a new pose estimation strategy for very low quality footage. Our approach uses 3D-2D registration of a textured 3D face model with the surveillance image to obtain accurate far field pose alignment. Starting from an inaccurate initial estimate, the technique uses novel similarity measures based on the monogenic signal to guide a pose optimization process. We will illustrate the descriptive strength of the introduced similarity measures by using them directly as a recognition metric. Through validation, using both real and synthetic surveillance footage, our pose estimation method is shown to be accurate, and robust to lighting changes and image degradation.
Michael, Denna; Kanjala, Chifundo; Calvert, Clara; Pretorius, Carel; Wringe, Alison; Todd, Jim; Mtenga, Balthazar; Isingo, Raphael; Zaba, Basia; Urassa, Mark
2014-01-01
Introduction Spectrum epidemiological models are used by UNAIDS to provide global, regional and national HIV estimates and projections, which are then used for evidence-based health planning for HIV services. However, there are no validations of the Spectrum model against empirical serological and mortality data from populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Serologic, demographic and verbal autopsy data have been regularly collected among over 30,000 residents in north-western Tanzania since 1994. Five-year age-specific mortality rates (ASMRs) per 1,000 person years and the probability of dying between 15 and 60 years of age (45Q15,) were calculated and compared with the Spectrum model outputs. Mortality trends by HIV status are shown for periods before the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (1994–1999, 2000–2005) and the first 5 years afterwards (2005–2009). Results Among 30–34 year olds of both sexes, observed ASMRs per 1,000 person years were 13.33 (95% CI: 10.75–16.52) in the period 1994–1999, 11.03 (95% CI: 8.84–13.77) in 2000–2004, and 6.22 (95% CI; 4.75–8.15) in 2005–2009. Among the same age group, the ASMRs estimated by the Spectrum model were 10.55, 11.13 and 8.15 for the periods 1994–1999, 2000–2004 and 2005–2009, respectively. The cohort data, for both sexes combined, showed that the 45Q15 declined from 39% (95% CI: 27–55%) in 1994 to 22% (95% CI: 17–29%) in 2009, whereas the Spectrum model predicted a decline from 43% in 1994 to 37% in 2009. Conclusion From 1994 to 2009, the observed decrease in ASMRs was steeper in younger age groups than that predicted by the Spectrum model, perhaps because the Spectrum model under-estimated the ASMRs in 30–34 year olds in 1994–99. However, the Spectrum model predicted a greater decrease in 45Q15 mortality than observed in the cohort, although the reasons for this over-estimate are unclear. PMID:24438873
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
Toward Accurate and Quantitative Comparative Metagenomics.
Nayfach, Stephen; Pollard, Katherine S
2016-08-25
Shotgun metagenomics and computational analysis are used to compare the taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities. Leveraging this approach to understand roles of microbes in human biology and other environments requires quantitative data summaries whose values are comparable across samples and studies. Comparability is currently hampered by the use of abundance statistics that do not estimate a meaningful parameter of the microbial community and biases introduced by experimental protocols and data-cleaning approaches. Addressing these challenges, along with improving study design, data access, metadata standardization, and analysis tools, will enable accurate comparative metagenomics. We envision a future in which microbiome studies are replicable and new metagenomes are easily and rapidly integrated with existing data. Only then can the potential of metagenomics for predictive ecological modeling, well-powered association studies, and effective microbiome medicine be fully realized. PMID:27565341
Accurate Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maddalena, Ronald J.
2010-01-01
The NRAO Green Bank Telescope routinely observes at wavelengths from 3 mm to 1 m. As with all mm-wave telescopes, observing conditions depend upon the variable atmospheric water content. The site provides over 100 days/yr when opacities are low enough for good observing at 3 mm, but winds on the open-air structure reduce the time suitable for 3-mm observing where pointing is critical. Thus, to maximum productivity the observing wavelength needs to match weather conditions. For 6 years the telescope has used a dynamic scheduling system (recently upgraded; www.gb.nrao.edu/DSS) that requires accurate multi-day forecasts for winds and opacities. Since opacity forecasts are not provided by the National Weather Services (NWS), I have developed an automated system that takes available forecasts, derives forecasted opacities, and deploys the results on the web in user-friendly graphical overviews (www.gb.nrao.edu/ rmaddale/Weather). The system relies on the "North American Mesoscale" models, which are updated by the NWS every 6 hrs, have a 12 km horizontal resolution, 1 hr temporal resolution, run to 84 hrs, and have 60 vertical layers that extend to 20 km. Each forecast consists of a time series of ground conditions, cloud coverage, etc, and, most importantly, temperature, pressure, humidity as a function of height. I use the Liebe's MWP model (Radio Science, 20, 1069, 1985) to determine the absorption in each layer for each hour for 30 observing wavelengths. Radiative transfer provides, for each hour and wavelength, the total opacity and the radio brightness of the atmosphere, which contributes substantially at some wavelengths to Tsys and the observational noise. Comparisons of measured and forecasted Tsys at 22.2 and 44 GHz imply that the forecasted opacities are good to about 0.01 Nepers, which is sufficient for forecasting and accurate calibration. Reliability is high out to 2 days and degrades slowly for longer-range forecasts.
Accurate wavelength calibration method for flat-field grating spectrometers.
Du, Xuewei; Li, Chaoyang; Xu, Zhe; Wang, Qiuping
2011-09-01
A portable spectrometer prototype is built to study wavelength calibration for flat-field grating spectrometers. An accurate calibration method called parameter fitting is presented. Both optical and structural parameters of the spectrometer are included in the wavelength calibration model, which accurately describes the relationship between wavelength and pixel position. Along with higher calibration accuracy, the proposed calibration method can provide information about errors in the installation of the optical components, which will be helpful for spectrometer alignment. PMID:21929865
Turbocharging Quantum Tomography.
Blume-Kohout, Robin J; Gamble, John King,; Nielsen, Erik; Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm; Scholten, Travis L.; Rudinger, Kenneth Michael
2015-01-01
Quantum tomography is used to characterize quantum operations implemented in quantum information processing (QIP) hardware. Traditionally, state tomography has been used to characterize the quantum state prepared in an initialization procedure, while quantum process tomography is used to characterize dynamical operations on a QIP system. As such, tomography is critical to the development of QIP hardware (since it is necessary both for debugging and validating as-built devices, and its results are used to influence the next generation of devices). But tomography su %7C ers from several critical drawbacks. In this report, we present new research that resolves several of these flaws. We describe a new form of tomography called gate set tomography (GST), which unifies state and process tomography, avoids prior methods critical reliance on precalibrated operations that are not generally available, and can achieve unprecedented accuracies. We report on theory and experimental development of adaptive tomography protocols that achieve far higher fidelity in state reconstruction than non-adaptive methods. Finally, we present a new theoretical and experimental analysis of process tomography on multispin systems, and demonstrate how to more e %7C ectively detect and characterize quantum noise using carefully tailored ensembles of input states.
Towards an accurate bioimpedance identification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez, B.; Louarroudi, E.; Bragos, R.; Pintelon, R.
2013-04-01
This paper describes the local polynomial method (LPM) for estimating the time-invariant bioimpedance frequency response function (FRF) considering both the output-error (OE) and the errors-in-variables (EIV) identification framework and compare it with the traditional cross— and autocorrelation spectral analysis techniques. The bioimpedance FRF is measured with the multisine electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. To show the overwhelming accuracy of the LPM approach, both the LPM and the classical cross— and autocorrelation spectral analysis technique are evaluated through the same experimental data coming from a nonsteady-state measurement of time-varying in vivo myocardial tissue. The estimated error sources at the measurement frequencies due to noise, σnZ, and the stochastic nonlinear distortions, σZNL, have been converted to Ω and plotted over the bioimpedance spectrum for each framework. Ultimately, the impedance spectra have been fitted to a Cole impedance model using both an unweighted and a weighted complex nonlinear least square (CNLS) algorithm. A table is provided with the relative standard errors on the estimated parameters to reveal the importance of which system identification frameworks should be used.
Accurate lineshape spectroscopy and the Boltzmann constant
Truong, G.-W.; Anstie, J. D.; May, E. F.; Stace, T. M.; Luiten, A. N.
2015-01-01
Spectroscopy has an illustrious history delivering serendipitous discoveries and providing a stringent testbed for new physical predictions, including applications from trace materials detection, to understanding the atmospheres of stars and planets, and even constraining cosmological models. Reaching fundamental-noise limits permits optimal extraction of spectroscopic information from an absorption measurement. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-limited spectrometer that delivers high-precision measurements of the absorption lineshape. These measurements yield a very accurate measurement of the excited-state (6P1/2) hyperfine splitting in Cs, and reveals a breakdown in the well-known Voigt spectral profile. We develop a theoretical model that accounts for this breakdown, explaining the observations to within the shot-noise limit. Our model enables us to infer the thermal velocity dispersion of the Cs vapour with an uncertainty of 35 p.p.m. within an hour. This allows us to determine a value for Boltzmann's constant with a precision of 6 p.p.m., and an uncertainty of 71 p.p.m. PMID:26465085
Accurate lineshape spectroscopy and the Boltzmann constant.
Truong, G-W; Anstie, J D; May, E F; Stace, T M; Luiten, A N
2015-01-01
Spectroscopy has an illustrious history delivering serendipitous discoveries and providing a stringent testbed for new physical predictions, including applications from trace materials detection, to understanding the atmospheres of stars and planets, and even constraining cosmological models. Reaching fundamental-noise limits permits optimal extraction of spectroscopic information from an absorption measurement. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-limited spectrometer that delivers high-precision measurements of the absorption lineshape. These measurements yield a very accurate measurement of the excited-state (6P1/2) hyperfine splitting in Cs, and reveals a breakdown in the well-known Voigt spectral profile. We develop a theoretical model that accounts for this breakdown, explaining the observations to within the shot-noise limit. Our model enables us to infer the thermal velocity dispersion of the Cs vapour with an uncertainty of 35 p.p.m. within an hour. This allows us to determine a value for Boltzmann's constant with a precision of 6 p.p.m., and an uncertainty of 71 p.p.m. PMID:26465085
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMillin, L. M.; Crone, L. J.; Goldberg, M. D.; Kleespies, T. J.
1995-09-01
A fast and accurate method for the generation of atmospheric transmittances, optical path transmittance (OPTRAN), is described. Results from OPTRAN are compared with those produced by other currently used methods. OPTRAN produces transmittances that can be used to generate brightness temperatures that are accurate to better than 0.2 K, well over 10 times as accurate as the current methods. This is significant because it brings the accuracy of transmittance computation to a level at which it will not adversely affect atmospheric retrievals. OPTRAN is the product of an evolution of approaches developed earlier at the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. A majorfeature of OPTRAN that contributes to its accuracy is that transmittance is obtained as a function of the absorber amount rather than the pressure.
Accurate Mass Measurements in Proteomics
Liu, Tao; Belov, Mikhail E.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.
2007-08-01
To understand different aspects of life at the molecular level, one would think that ideally all components of specific processes should be individually isolated and studied in details. Reductionist approaches, i.e., studying one biological event at a one-gene or one-protein-at-a-time basis, indeed have made significant contributions to our understanding of many basic facts of biology. However, these individual “building blocks” can not be visualized as a comprehensive “model” of the life of cells, tissues, and organisms, without using more integrative approaches.1,2 For example, the emerging field of “systems biology” aims to quantify all of the components of a biological system to assess their interactions and to integrate diverse types of information obtainable from this system into models that could explain and predict behaviors.3-6 Recent breakthroughs in genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics are making this daunting task a reality.7-14 Proteomics, the systematic study of the entire complement of proteins expressed by an organism, tissue, or cell under a specific set of conditions at a specific time (i.e., the proteome), has become an essential enabling component of systems biology. While the genome of an organism may be considered static over short timescales, the expression of that genome as the actual gene products (i.e., mRNAs and proteins) is a dynamic event that is constantly changing due to the influence of environmental and physiological conditions. Exclusive monitoring of the transcriptomes can be carried out using high-throughput cDNA microarray analysis,15-17 however the measured mRNA levels do not necessarily correlate strongly with the corresponding abundances of proteins,18-20 The actual amount of functional proteins can be altered significantly and become independent of mRNA levels as a result of post-translational modifications (PTMs),21 alternative splicing,22,23 and protein turnover.24,25 Moreover, the functions of expressed
Accurate paleointensities - the multi-method approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Groot, Lennart
2016-04-01
The accuracy of models describing rapid changes in the geomagnetic field over the past millennia critically depends on the availability of reliable paleointensity estimates. Over the past decade methods to derive paleointensities from lavas (the only recorder of the geomagnetic field that is available all over the globe and through geologic times) have seen significant improvements and various alternative techniques were proposed. The 'classical' Thellier-style approach was optimized and selection criteria were defined in the 'Standard Paleointensity Definitions' (Paterson et al, 2014). The Multispecimen approach was validated and the importance of additional tests and criteria to assess Multispecimen results must be emphasized. Recently, a non-heating, relative paleointensity technique was proposed -the pseudo-Thellier protocol- which shows great potential in both accuracy and efficiency, but currently lacks a solid theoretical underpinning. Here I present work using all three of the aforementioned paleointensity methods on suites of young lavas taken from the volcanic islands of Hawaii, La Palma, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and Terceira. Many of the sampled cooling units are <100 years old, the actual field strength at the time of cooling is therefore reasonably well known. Rather intuitively, flows that produce coherent results from two or more different paleointensity methods yield the most accurate estimates of the paleofield. Furthermore, the results for some flows pass the selection criteria for one method, but fail in other techniques. Scrutinizing and combing all acceptable results yielded reliable paleointensity estimates for 60-70% of all sampled cooling units - an exceptionally high success rate. This 'multi-method paleointensity approach' therefore has high potential to provide the much-needed paleointensities to improve geomagnetic field models for the Holocene.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, P. O. A. L.; Harrison, M. F.
1997-05-01
The application of validated acoustic models to intake/exhaust system acoustic design is described with reference to a sequence of specific practical examples. These include large turbocharged diesel generating sets, truck engines and high performance petrol engines. The discussion includes a comparison of frequency domain, time domain and hybrid modelling approaches to design methodology. The calculation of sound emission from open terminations is summarized in an appendix.
Accurately Detecting Students' Lies regarding Relational Aggression by Correctional Instructions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Marksteiner, Tamara
2012-01-01
This study investigates the effect of correctional instructions when detecting lies about relational aggression. Based on models from the field of social psychology, we predict that correctional instruction will lead to a less pronounced lie bias and to more accurate lie detection. Seventy-five teachers received videotapes of students' true denial…
Accurate Measurements of the Local Deuterium Abundance from HST Spectra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Linsky, Jeffrey L.
1996-01-01
An accurate measurement of the primordial value of D/H would provide a critical test of nucleosynthesis models for the early universe and the baryon density. I briefly summarize the ongoing HST observations of the interstellar H and D Lyman-alpha absorption for lines of sight to nearby stars and comment on recent reports of extragalactic D/H measurements.
Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rauschl, J. A.
1966-01-01
Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.
Remote balance weighs accurately amid high radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eggenberger, D. N.; Shuck, A. B.
1969-01-01
Commercial beam-type balance, modified and outfit