Science.gov

Sample records for accurate up-to-date information

  1. UP-TORR: online tool for accurate and Up-to-Date annotation of RNAi Reagents.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanhui; Roesel, Charles; Flockhart, Ian; Perkins, Lizabeth; Perrimon, Norbert; Mohr, Stephanie E

    2013-09-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely adopted tool for loss-of-function studies but RNAi results only have biological relevance if the reagents are appropriately mapped to genes. Several groups have designed and generated RNAi reagent libraries for studies in cells or in vivo for Drosophila and other species. At first glance, matching RNAi reagents to genes appears to be a simple problem, as each reagent is typically designed to target a single gene. In practice, however, the reagent-gene relationship is complex. Although the sequences of oligonucleotides used to generate most types of RNAi reagents are static, the reference genome and gene annotations are regularly updated. Thus, at the time a researcher chooses an RNAi reagent or analyzes RNAi data, the most current interpretation of the RNAi reagent-gene relationship, as well as related information regarding specificity (e.g., predicted off-target effects), can be different from the original interpretation. Here, we describe a set of strategies and an accompanying online tool, UP-TORR (for Updated Targets of RNAi Reagents; www.flyrnai.org/up-torr), useful for accurate and up-to-date annotation of cell-based and in vivo RNAi reagents. Importantly, UP-TORR automatically synchronizes with gene annotations daily, retrieving the most current information available, and for Drosophila, also synchronizes with the major reagent collections. Thus, UP-TORR allows users to choose the most appropriate RNAi reagents at the onset of a study, as well as to perform the most appropriate analyses of results of RNAi-based studies.

  2. Medical information about diabetes--how to keep up to date.

    PubMed

    Gadsby, R; Hall, H E; Court, R A

    2010-12-01

    Diabet. Med. 27, 1335-1340 (2010) ABSTRACT: There is a vast amount of new medical information published on diabetes each year; the number of systematic reviews on diabetes is also increasing rapidly. It is therefore difficult for clinicians keep up to date with the new evidence. It is suggested that reading the full National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines on diabetes will bring you up to date with information as at the date of the evidence cut-off, which is usually approximately 1 year before publication. Also regularly visiting 'NHS Evidence--diabetes', an online resource that offers a foraging service, surveying the literature and alerting clinicians to all the new important and useful information, enables the busy clinician to manage information overload and help keep up to date.

  3. How psychiatric trainees keep up to date: survey of psychiatric trainees' use of journals and other information sources.

    PubMed

    Walker-Tilley, Tom; Bainton, John; Fernando, Matthew; Wong, Yimlun; Ko, Ba; Warner, James; Nilforooshan, Ramin

    2016-02-01

    Aims and method To gather information about psychiatric trainees' use of different information sources and academic materials, a questionnaire was distributed at the London Deanery Annual Psychiatry Trainee Conference and the training programmes of two teaching trusts. Results Participants returned 202 out of a total of 300 completed questionnaires (67%). Websites were the most commonly accessed information source ahead of textbooks, abstracts and journals. Year of training correlated positively with journal use and negatively with textbook use. Year of training also correlated positively with frequency of reading three journals published by the Royal College of Psychiatrists and with specific reasons for consulting journals, namely to improve clinical practice and inform trainees' own research. Clinical implications Respondents reported consulting websites more frequently than more traditional information sources but journals are still a widely used source of information for trainee clinicians. It is important that trainees continue to be equipped with skills to identify and access high-quality information at the point of clinical uncertainty.

  4. Basing information on comprehensive, critically appraised, and up-to-date syntheses of the scientific evidence: a quality dimension of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients and clinicians expect patient decision aids to be based on the best available research evidence. Since 2005, this expectation has translated into a quality dimension of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards. Methods We reviewed the 2005 standards and the available literature on the evidence base of decision aids as well as searched for parallel activities in which evidence is brought to bear to inform clinical decisions. In conducting this work, we noted emerging and research issues that require attention and may inform this quality dimension in the future. Results This dimension requires patient decision aids to be based on research evidence about the relevant options and the nature and likelihood of their effect on outcomes that matter to patients. The synthesis of evidence should be comprehensive and up-to-date, and the evidence itself subject to critical appraisal. Ethical (informed patient choice), quality-of-care (patient-centered care), and scientific (evidence-based medicine) arguments justify this requirement. Empirical evidence suggests that over two thirds of available decision aids are based on high-quality evidence syntheses. Emerging issues identified include the duties of developers regarding the conduct of systematic reviews, the impact of comparative effectiveness research, their link with guidelines based on the same evidence, and how to present the developers’ confidence in the estimates to the end-users. Systematic application of the GRADE system, common in contemporary practice guideline development, could enhance satisfaction of this dimension. Conclusions While theoretical and practical issues remained to be addressed, high-quality patient decision aids should adhere to this dimension requiring they be based on comprehensive and up-to-date summaries of critically appraised evidence. PMID:24625191

  5. Pharmacist perception and use of UpToDate®.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Katie L; Beckett, Robert D; Sheehan, Amy Heck

    2014-10-01

    A cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 1,199 pharmacists was conducted to describe pharmacists' use and perception of UpToDate®. Of 472 (39%) respondents, 217 (46%) reported using UpToDate. Most respondents who used or had heard of UpToDate indicated willingness to change a treatment plan based on UpToDate recommendations (77%). Many believed that UpToDate is updated weekly (31%) or monthly (49%) and that all articles undergo external peer review (51%). In conclusion, the majority of respondents reported that they would adjust drug therapy based on UpToDate recommendations; however, many pharmacists may hold misconceptions regarding the updating and peer-review processes.

  6. Keeping PCs up to Date Can Be Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    The "joy" of computer maintenance takes many forms. These days, automation is the byword. Operating systems such as Microsoft Windows and utility suites such as Symantec's Norton Internet Security let you automatically keep crucial parts of your computer system up to date. It's fun to watch the technology keep tabs on itself. This document offers…

  7. The up-to-date management of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Anob M

    2015-08-01

    There have been a number of developments in the management of venous thromboembolism over the past few years. Old questions, such as thrombolysis, have been revisited in recent trials. New initiatives, such as ambulatory care pathways, are being established across the country. This conference brought together doctors from the UK, USA, Spain and Australia to review the up-to-date management of venous thromboembolism.

  8. [ISO 15189, Up-To-Date Information and Prospective View].

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Katsuji

    2016-02-01

    "Accreditation Activities for Medical Laboratories in Japan" Audits for transition to ISO 15189:2012 continue to progress. Besides the continual increase of accreditations for medical laboratory testing and pathological examinations, preparations for the addition of physiological testing to the scope of accreditation have finally been completed. As a part of the revision to Japan's Medical Service Act, the external evaluation of medical laboratories is now a requirement to approve clinical trial core hospitals. Accordingly, the importance of third-party accreditation in medical laboratory testing is attracting a growing level of attention. World Accreditation Day 2015 "Accreditation: Supporting the Delivery of Health and Social Care" JAB is being used to make every effort to contribute to this system in order to improve the quality of healthcare in Japan and the health of its citizens.

  9. Up-to-date use of honey for burns treatment.

    PubMed

    Zbuchea, A

    2014-03-31

    Made by bees from the nectar of flowers, used since ancient times to treat wounds and burns, honey has lately acquired a growing interest from the international scientific community and has been the subject of many specialized studies and communications. This article highlights the up-to-date knowledge on qualities, properties and mode of appliance of honey in the treatment of wounds of various etiologies, particularly burns, through an extensive retrospective analysis of data from the literature. This article aims to review and provide a synthesis of current issues regarding the complex action of honey on burn wounds, evidenced by in vitro studies, laboratory experiments and clinical trials published in the specialized literature. The present work analyzes extensively the anti-infectious and anti-inflammatory properties of honey, as well as its favorable effect on wound regeneration. Effectiveness of topical administration of honey is evidenced both by a series of experiments on laboratory animals and by clinical trials. This article also draws the attention of both medical staff and patients to the possibility of using this product, and to its acceptability in practice.

  10. Up-to-date use of honey for burns treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zbuchea, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Made by bees from the nectar of flowers, used since ancient times to treat wounds and burns, honey has lately acquired a growing interest from the international scientific community and has been the subject of many specialized studies and communications. This article highlights the up-to-date knowledge on qualities, properties and mode of appliance of honey in the treatment of wounds of various etiologies, particularly burns, through an extensive retrospective analysis of data from the literature. This article aims to review and provide a synthesis of current issues regarding the complex action of honey on burn wounds, evidenced by in vitro studies, laboratory experiments and clinical trials published in the specialized literature. The present work analyzes extensively the anti-infectious and anti-inflammatory properties of honey, as well as its favorable effect on wound regeneration. Effectiveness of topical administration of honey is evidenced both by a series of experiments on laboratory animals and by clinical trials. This article also draws the attention of both medical staff and patients to the possibility of using this product, and to its acceptability in practice. PMID:25249844

  11. How to get the most from the medical literature: keeping up to date in nephrology.

    PubMed

    Cullis, Jeremy; Webster, Angela C

    2010-04-01

    Best clinical practice means being up to date with the latest research, trials, guidelines and patient perspectives. Recent developments in the Internet, specifically Web 2.0 and its tools offer numerous opportunities for the doctor to keep up to date with all types of information, from professional news to the latest clinical research. Many clinicians are time-poor, and may not have had the opportunity to learn about newer technological innovations, or to understand how they can be used to save clinician's time and energy, while making information management more efficient. In this paper we will examine Web 2.0, including the use of RSS, and suggest a number of different websites that offer free access to nephrology news.

  12. Canine versus human epilepsy: are we up to date?

    PubMed

    Uriarte, A; Maestro Saiz, I

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we analyse and compare features of canine and human epilepsy and we suggest new tools for better future understanding of canine epilepsy. The prevalence of epileptic seizures in dogs ranges between 0.5% and 5.7% and between 1% and 3% in the human population. Studies on human epilepsy provide a ready-made format for classification, diagnosis and treatment in veterinary epilepsy. Human studies highlight the value of a thorough seizure classification. Nevertheless, a matter of concern in canine epilepsy is the limited information regarding seizure description and classification because of the lack of EEG-video recording. Establishment of a consensus protocol for ambulatory home video-recording in dogs who suffer from epilepsy, mainly considering indications, duration of monitoring, the sufficient essential training for an optimal interpretation of ictal semiology and the methodology of recordings is needed. The ultimate goal is that the information gathered by these videos will be analysed to describe the epileptic seizures thoroughly, recognize patterns and move towards a better understanding and therefore classification of canine epileptic seizures.

  13. ADMET biosensors: up-to-date issues and strategies.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yan; Offenhaeusser, Andrease

    2004-12-01

    This insight review introduces the new concepts, theories, technology, instruments, frontier issues, and key strategies of ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicity) biosensors, from the fermi to the quantum levels. Information about ADMET, originating from one author's invention, a patented pharmacotherapy for rescuing cardio-cerebral vascular stunning and regulating vascular endothelial growth-factor signaling at the post-genomic level, can be detected by a new generation of ADMET biosensor. This is a single-cell/single-molecule field-effect transistor (FET) hybrid system, where single molecules or single cells are assembled at the FET surface in a high density array manner via complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible technologies. Within a given nanometer distance, ADMET-mediated oxidation-reduction (redox) potentials, electrochemistry responses, and electron transfer processes can be simultaneously and directly probed by the gates of field-effect transistor arrays. The nanometer details of the functional coupling principles and characterization technologies of DNA single-molecule/single-cell FETs, as well as the design of lab-on-a-chip instruments, are indicated. Four frontier issues and key strategies are elucidated in detail. This can lead to innovative technology for high-throughout screening of labs-on-chips to resolve the pharmaceutical industry's current bottleneck via novel, FET-based drug discovery and single-molecule/single-cell screening methods, which can bring about a pharmaceutical industry revolution in the 21st century. PMID:15567991

  14. Critique of the analysis of UpToDate.com on the treatment of painful vertebral compression fractures: time to update UpToDate.

    PubMed

    Beall, D P; McRoberts, W P; Berven, S H; Ledlie, J T; Tutton, S M; Parsons, B P

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of painful vertebral compression fractures has changed substantially since the introduction of vertebroplasty in the mid-1980s and balloon kyphoplasty in the late 1990s. Both procedures were widely accepted with the vertebral fractures treated reaching 150,000 per annum in 2009 prior to the publication of 2 randomized controlled trials comparing vertebroplasty with a sham treatment published in the New England Journal of Medicine in August 2009. Since then, there has been a flood of information on vertebral augmentation and balloon kyphoplasty. It is worth evaluating this information especially because it relates to current recommendations that are often followed blindly by medical and administrative groups unfamiliar with either the procedure or the high level of evidence surrounding vertebral augmentation. To streamline the evaluation of some current recommendations, we limited the analysis to the recommendations found on UpToDate.com. This Web site is an evidence-based, peer-reviewed source of information available for patients, doctors, health insurance companies, and population-based medical decision-making.

  15. Up-to-date and precise estimates of cancer patient survival: model-based period analysis.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Hermann; Hakulinen, Timo

    2006-10-01

    Monitoring of progress in cancer patient survival by cancer registries should be as up-to-date as possible. Period analysis has been shown to provide more up-to-date survival estimates than do traditional methods of survival analysis. However, there is a trade-off between up-to-dateness and the precision of period estimates, in that increasing the up-to-dateness of survival estimates by restricting the analysis to a relatively short, recent time period, such as the most recent calendar year for which cancer registry data are available, goes along with a loss of precision. The authors propose a model-based approach to maximize the up-to-dateness of period estimates at minimal loss of precision. The approach is illustrated for monitoring of 5-year relative survival of patients diagnosed with one of 20 common forms of cancer in Finland between 1953 and 2002 by use of data from the nationwide Finnish Cancer Registry. It is shown that the model-based approach provides survival estimates that are as up-to-date as the most up-to-date conventional period estimates and at the same time much more precise than the latter. The modeling approach may further enhance the use of period analysis for deriving up-to-date cancer survival rates.

  16. Is the 2003 ISSVD terminology and classification of vulvodynia up-to-date? A neurobiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Micheletti, L; Radici, G; Lynch, P J

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to determine if the 2003 International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) terminology and classification of vulval pain is up-to-date, according to a current and widely accepted neurobiological pain classification, which divides pain into nociceptive, inflammatory and pathological pain with the latter subdivided into neuropathic and dysfunctional pain. Nociceptive pain is protective, adaptive, high-threshold pain provoked by noxious stimuli. Inflammatory pain is protective, adaptive, low-threshold pain associated with peripheral tissue damage and inflammation. Pathological pain is non-protective, maladaptive, low-threshold pain caused by structural damage to the nervous system (neuropathic pain) or by its abnormal function (dysfunctional pain). The 2003 ISSVD vulval pain classification should be revised in terms of current neurobiological pain information. Inflammatory vulval pain occurs as a result of specific infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic disorders. Neuropathic vulval pain arises following a specific neurological disorder, responsible for structural damage to the nervous system. Vulvodynia is dysfunctional vulval pain, caused by abnormal function of the nervous system itself.

  17. Non-hormonal topical treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy: an up-to-date overview.

    PubMed

    Sinha, A; Ewies, A A A

    2013-06-01

    Vulvovaginal atrophy-related symptoms exert a negative impact on the quality of life of up to 50% of postmenopausal women. Many of them decline to use topical vaginal estrogen, which is the standard effective therapy, due to the adverse publicity over recent years, and seek for alternatives. Further, there are no safety studies to support the use of topical vaginal estrogen in breast cancer survivors, and it is considered as contraindicated by many health-care professionals. Vaginal moisturizers and lubricants as well as regular sexual activity may be helpful to such women. Vaginal moisturizers may have an equivalent efficacy to topical vaginal estrogen and should be offered to women wishing to avoid the use of hormonal therapy. Lubricants are usually used during sexual intercourse to provide temporary relief from vaginal dryness and dyspareunia; however, they have no long-term therapeutic effects. We provide in this systematic review up-to-date information, for women and health-care professionals, about the use, safety and efficacy of the available vaginal moisturizers and lubricants.

  18. [Cardioneurology: the up-to-date key positions and the future prospects].

    PubMed

    Suslina, Z A; Foniakin, A V; Geraskina, L A

    2012-01-01

    The up-to-date key positions and the future prospects of cardioneurology were analyzed. The wide range of questions of cardioneurology was represented and the necessity of the interdisciplinary approach to the diagnostics, treating and prevention of the cerebrovascular diseases were proved. It was pointed that the studied problems are the priority directions in angioneurology and have great social and clinical importance.

  19. Technology in the Classroom: Is Your School's Technology Up-to-Date?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatewood, Thomas E.; Conrad, Susan H.

    1997-01-01

    This guide is meant to help educators assess elementary schools' technology programs and determine their needs in this area. A list of questions and guidelines for conducting a needs assessment is provided to ensure enough classroom up-to-date computer workstations and to evaluate the need for a technology resource center. A catalog with…

  20. Positive linking: a survival guide on how to keep up-to-date with pediatric infectious diseases literature using Internet technology.

    PubMed

    Loher-Niederer, Anita; Maccora, Janet; Ritz, Nicole

    2013-07-01

    A large number of medical journals publish an increasing number of articles each year. Keeping up-to-date with pediatric literature seems therefore an almost impossible task. For clinicians and researchers, who all have long, busy and tightly scheduled working days, time to find relevant new publications is scarce. The internet now offers numerous tools and opportunities that can help sort through this wealth of information, making it possible to keep up-to-date with relevant literature. In this article, we describe some of the different tools on offer and provide a selection of links and websites that facilitate efficient information management.

  1. Up-to-Date Applications of Microarrays and Their Way to Commercialization.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Sarah; Muekusch, Sandra; Seitz, Harald

    2015-04-23

    This review addresses up-to-date applications of Protein Microarrays. Protein Microarrays play a significant role in basic research as well as in clinical applications and are applicable in a lot of fields, e.g., DNA, proteins and small molecules. Additionally they are on the way to enter clinics in routine diagnostics. Protein Microarrays can be powerful tools to improve healthcare. An overview of basic characteristics to mediate essential knowledge of this technique is given. To reach this goal, some challenges still have to be addressed. A few applications of Protein Microarrays in a medical context are shown. Finally, an outlook, where the potential of Protein Microarrays is depicted and speculations how the future of Protein Microarrays will look like are made.

  2. Pediatric Subtalar Joint Synovial Chondromatosis Report of a Case and an Up-to-date Review.

    PubMed

    Saibaba, Balaji; Sudesh, Pebam; Govindan, Gokul; Prakash, Mahesh

    2015-09-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare, usually benign disorder affecting the population predominantly in the third and fourth decades of life and mainly involving the large weightbearing joints of the lower limb-the knees and the hip. In this report, we highlight an unusual pediatric clinical presentation of synovial osteochondromatosis involving the subtalar joint and discuss its surgical management; we also provide a comprehensive up-to-date literature review of the disorder. This patient was successfully treated with en masse surgical excision. He has been doing well, with complete pain relief and improved range of motion at 1-year follow-up. An exceptional involvement of the subtalar joint and an unusual presentation in the pediatric age group makes this case unique.

  3. Up-to-date approach to manage keloids and hypertrophic scars: a useful guide.

    PubMed

    Arno, Anna I; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Barret, Juan P; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-11-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars occur anywhere from 30 to 90% of patients, and are characterized by pathologically excessive dermal fibrosis and aberrant wound healing. Both entities have different clinical and histochemical characteristics, and unfortunately still represent a great challenge for clinicians due to lack of efficacious treatments. Current advances in molecular biology and genetics reveal new preventive and therapeutical options which represent a hope to manage this highly prevalent, chronic and disabling problem, with long-term beneficial outcomes and improvement of quality of life. While we wait for these translational clinical products to be marketed, however, it is imperative to know the basics of the currently existing wide array of strategies to deal with excessive scars: from the classical corticotherapy, to the most recent botulinum toxin and lasers. The main aim of this review paper is to offer a useful up-to-date guideline to prevent and treat keloids and hypertrophic scars.

  4. Up-to-Date Applications of Microarrays and Their Way to Commercialization

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Sarah; Muekusch, Sandra; Seitz, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses up-to-date applications of Protein Microarrays. Protein Microarrays play a significant role in basic research as well as in clinical applications and are applicable in a lot of fields, e.g., DNA, proteins and small molecules. Additionally they are on the way to enter clinics in routine diagnostics. Protein Microarrays can be powerful tools to improve healthcare. An overview of basic characteristics to mediate essential knowledge of this technique is given. To reach this goal, some challenges still have to be addressed. A few applications of Protein Microarrays in a medical context are shown. Finally, an outlook, where the potential of Protein Microarrays is depicted and speculations how the future of Protein Microarrays will look like are made. PMID:27600220

  5. Up-to-date radon-thoron discriminative detector for a large scale survey

    SciTech Connect

    Tokonami, Shinji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Zhuo, Weihai; Hulber, Erik

    2005-11-15

    An up-to-date radon-thoron discriminative detector has been developed for conducting a large scale survey. Comparing with our previous detector, some functional problems have been solved. The lowest and highest detection limits of the detector were estimated to be around 5 and 1000 Bq m{sup -3} for radon, and 15 and 1000 Bq m{sup -3} for thoron, respectively, with a 6 month exposure and several theoretical assumptions. Small indoor survey were carried out in Japan and in Hungary using the present detector. The presence of thoron was demonstrated in any indoor surveys by the two results. Since any measurements without discrimination of radon isotopes will result in different risk estimates from actual situations, a special attention should be paid to thoron and its concentration should be accordingly measured as well as the radon concentration.

  6. Up-to-Date Applications of Microarrays and Their Way to Commercialization

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Sarah; Muekusch, Sandra; Seitz, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses up-to-date applications of Protein Microarrays. Protein Microarrays play a significant role in basic research as well as in clinical applications and are applicable in a lot of fields, e.g., DNA, proteins and small molecules. Additionally they are on the way to enter clinics in routine diagnostics. Protein Microarrays can be powerful tools to improve healthcare. An overview of basic characteristics to mediate essential knowledge of this technique is given. To reach this goal, some challenges still have to be addressed. A few applications of Protein Microarrays in a medical context are shown. Finally, an outlook, where the potential of Protein Microarrays is depicted and speculations how the future of Protein Microarrays will look like are made.

  7. Hepsoft - an approach for up to date multi-platform deployment of HEP specific software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiser, S.

    2011-12-01

    LHC experiments are depending on a rich palette of software components to build their specific applications. These underlying software components include the ROOT analysis framework, the Geant4 simulation toolkit, monte carlo generators, grid middle-ware, graphics libraries, scripting languages, databases, tools, etc. which are provided centrally in up to date versions on multiple platforms (Linux, Mac, Windows). Until recently this set of packages has been tested and released in a tree like structure as a consistent set of versions across operating systems, architectures and compilers for LHC experiments only. Because of the tree like deployment these releases were only usable in connection with a configuration management tool which provided the proper build and run-time environments and was hindering other parties outside LHC from easily using this palette of packages. In a new approach the releases will be grouped in "flat structure" such that interested parties can start using it without configuration management, retaining all the above mentioned advantages. In addition to an increased usability the software shall also be distributed via system provided package deployment systems (rpm, apt, etc.). The approach of software deployment is following the ideas of providing a wide range of HEP specific software packages and tools in a coherent, up to date and modular way on multiple platforms. The target audience for such software deployments are individual developers or smaller development groups / experiments who don't have the resources to maintain this kind of infrastructure. This new software deployment strategy has already been successfully implemented for groups at CERN.

  8. Cognitive impairment in childhood onset epilepsy: up-to-date information about its causes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Hee; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive impairment associated with childhood-onset epilepsy is an important consequence in the developing brain owing to its negative effects on neurodevelopmental and social outcomes. While the cause of cognitive impairment in epilepsy appears to be multifactorial, epilepsy-related factors such as type of epilepsy and underlying etiology, age at onset, frequency of seizures, duration of epilepsy, and its treatment are considered important. In recent studies, antecedent cognitive impairment before the first recognized seizure and microstructural and functional alteration of the brain at onset of epilepsy suggest the presence of a common neurobiological mechanism between epilepsy and cognitive comorbidity. However, the overall impact of cognitive comorbidity in children with epilepsy and the independent contribution of each of these factors to cognitive impairment have not been clearly delineated. This review article focuses on the significant contributors to cognitive impairment in children with epilepsy.

  9. Up-to-Date Information on Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and affects all the components of the lung. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most predominant pulmonary manifestation and has been identified as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in RA. Clinically significant RA-ILD occurs in approximately 10% of RA patients. Several risk factors, such as old age, male gender, and smoking, have been reported to date. Histologically, the proportion of the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern is higher in RA-ILD than in ILD associated with other connective tissue diseases, and RA-ILD also shows nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and organizing pneumonia patterns. High-resolution computed tomography scans are highly predictive of the histological UIP pattern with a specificity of 96%-100%. Acute exacerbation, which is the acute deterioration of the respiratory status characterized by newly developed bilateral infiltrates with unknown etiologies, has been reported in RA-ILD. Although acute exacerbation of RA-ILD has high mortality, similar to that of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, its incidence is lower in RA-ILD than in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A consensus treatment has not yet been established. Current therapeutic regimens typically include corticosteroids with or without cytotoxic agents. Recent large longitudinal studies reported that the prognosis of RA-ILD was poor with a median survival of 2.6-3.0 years. Furthermore, histological and/or radiological patterns, such as UIP or non-UIP, have significant prognostic implications. RA-ILD patients with histological or radiological UIP patterns have poorer prognoses than those with non-UIP patterns. This review assessed the characteristics of RA-ILD by overviewing recent studies in the field and focused on the clinical significance of histological and/or radiological patterns in RA-ILD.

  10. Up-to-Date Information on Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and affects all the components of the lung. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most predominant pulmonary manifestation and has been identified as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in RA. Clinically significant RA-ILD occurs in approximately 10% of RA patients. Several risk factors, such as old age, male gender, and smoking, have been reported to date. Histologically, the proportion of the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern is higher in RA-ILD than in ILD associated with other connective tissue diseases, and RA-ILD also shows nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and organizing pneumonia patterns. High-resolution computed tomography scans are highly predictive of the histological UIP pattern with a specificity of 96%–100%. Acute exacerbation, which is the acute deterioration of the respiratory status characterized by newly developed bilateral infiltrates with unknown etiologies, has been reported in RA-ILD. Although acute exacerbation of RA-ILD has high mortality, similar to that of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, its incidence is lower in RA-ILD than in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A consensus treatment has not yet been established. Current therapeutic regimens typically include corticosteroids with or without cytotoxic agents. Recent large longitudinal studies reported that the prognosis of RA-ILD was poor with a median survival of 2.6–3.0 years. Furthermore, histological and/or radiological patterns, such as UIP or non-UIP, have significant prognostic implications. RA-ILD patients with histological or radiological UIP patterns have poorer prognoses than those with non-UIP patterns. This review assessed the characteristics of RA-ILD by overviewing recent studies in the field and focused on the clinical significance of histological and/or radiological patterns in RA-ILD. PMID:27279757

  11. Cognitive impairment in childhood onset epilepsy: up-to-date information about its causes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment associated with childhood-onset epilepsy is an important consequence in the developing brain owing to its negative effects on neurodevelopmental and social outcomes. While the cause of cognitive impairment in epilepsy appears to be multifactorial, epilepsy-related factors such as type of epilepsy and underlying etiology, age at onset, frequency of seizures, duration of epilepsy, and its treatment are considered important. In recent studies, antecedent cognitive impairment before the first recognized seizure and microstructural and functional alteration of the brain at onset of epilepsy suggest the presence of a common neurobiological mechanism between epilepsy and cognitive comorbidity. However, the overall impact of cognitive comorbidity in children with epilepsy and the independent contribution of each of these factors to cognitive impairment have not been clearly delineated. This review article focuses on the significant contributors to cognitive impairment in children with epilepsy. PMID:27186225

  12. Correlation Between UpToDate Searches and Reported Cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome During Outbreaks in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Thorner, Anna R; Cao, Bin; Jiang, Terrence; Warner, Amy J; Bonis, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  UpToDate is an online clinical decision support resource that is used extensively by clinicians around the world. Digital surveillance techniques have shown promise to aid with the detection and monitoring of infectious disease outbreaks. We sought to determine whether UpToDate searches for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) could be used to detect and monitor MERS outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. Methods.  We analyzed daily searches related to MERS in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during 3 outbreaks in these cities in 2014 and 2015 and compared them with reported cases during the same periods. We also compared UpToDate MERS searches in the affected cities to those in a composite of 4 negative control cities for the 2 outbreaks in 2014. Results.  UpToDate MERS searches during all 3 MERS outbreaks in Saudi Arabia showed a correlation to reported cases. In addition, UpToDate MERS search volume in Jeddah and Riyadh during the outbreak periods in 2014 was significantly higher than the concurrent search volume in the 4 negative control cities. In contrast, during the baseline periods, there was no difference between UpToDate searches for MERS in the affected cities compared with the negative control cities. Conclusions.  UpToDate search activity seems to be useful for detecting and monitoring outbreaks of MERS in Saudi Arabia.

  13. [Up-to-date applicability of interferon-γ release assays for the diagnosis of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Domínguez, José; Latorre, Irene

    2015-07-01

    Utility of the in-vitro immunodiagnostic methods, based on the detection of interferon-γ released by T-cells after specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen stimulation (IGRA), has been an improvement in the accuracy of the latent tuberculosis infection diagnosis. IGRA have a well-known higher specificity than the tuberculin skin testing (TST). Moreover, they can obtain a larger number of positive results than the TST in immunocompromised patients. IGRA have shown a high correlation with M. tuberculosis exposure, but their positive and negative predictive value are similar than those obtained by TST. Nevertheless, given their high specificity, they allow reducing number of unnecessary preventive treatments. In addition, these in-vitro techniques are less affected than TST by the different immunosuppressing status. In this review is discussed up-to-date applicability of IGRA in different patient groups: contact studies, pediatric population, immunosuppressed patients, health care workers and active tuberculosis patients. Furthermore, it has been included possible future directions for latent tuberculosis infection and active tuberculosis diagnosis.

  14. [Up-to-date findings in the host defence mechanism to cryptococcus infection].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Keiko; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a medically important opportunistic fungal pathogen with a polysaccharide capsule surrounding the yeast-like cells. In hosts with impaired cell-mediated immunity such as AIDS, uncontrolled infection causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis. In immunocompetent individuals, the host immune response usually limits the growth of the fungal pathogen at the primary infected site, where it may persist, without completely eradicated, in a latent state because of its ability to escape from killing by macrophages. Th1 response in adaptive immunity is essential for the host defense to cryptococcal infection, in which interferon (IFN)-γ polarizes innate macrophages into fungicidal M1 macrophages. Recently, we found that caspase recruitment domain family member (CARD9), an adaptor protein in a signal transduction triggered by C-type lectin receptors, plays a key role in the early production of IFN-γ at the site of infection by recruiting NK cells and CD4(+) and CD8(+) memory-phenotype T cells. We also found that IL-4 produced by Th2 cells stimulates broncoepithelial cells to secrete mucin, which may lead to promotion in the mucociliary clearance of C. neoformans. Here, we summarize the up-to-date findings in the host defense mechanism to this infection with focusing on our recent data.

  15. Cancer incidence predictions in the North of Portugal: keeping population-based cancer registration up to date.

    PubMed

    Castro, Clara; Antunes, Luís; Lunet, Nuno; Bento, Maria José

    2016-09-01

    Decision making towards cancer prevention and control requires monitoring of trends in cancer incidence and accurate estimation of its burden in different settings. We aimed to estimate the number of incident cases in northern Portugal for 2015 and 2020 (all cancers except nonmelanoma skin and for the 15 most frequent tumours). Cancer cases diagnosed in 1994-2009 were collected by the North Region Cancer Registry of Portugal (RORENO) and corresponding population figures were obtained from Statistics Portugal. JoinPoint regression was used to analyse incidence trends. Population projections until 2020 were derived by RORENO. Predictions were performed using the Poisson regression models proposed by Dyba and Hakulinen. The number of incident cases is expected to increase by 18.7% in 2015 and by 37.6% in 2020, with lower increments among men than among women. For most cancers considered, the number of cases will keep rising up to 2020, although decreasing trends of age-standardized rates are expected for some tumours. Cervix was the only cancer with a decreasing number of incident cases in the entire period. Thyroid and lung cancers were among those with the steepest increases in the number of incident cases expected for 2020, especially among women. In 2020, the top five cancers are expected to account for 82 and 62% of all cases diagnosed in men and women, respectively. This study contributes to a broader understanding of cancer burden in the north of Portugal and provides the basis for keeping population-based incidence estimates up to date.

  16. Bringing Classroom Utilization Reporting Up-to-Date. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John D.

    The purpose, audience, methodology, and statistics of classroom utilization reports used at the University of Colorado, Boulder, are examined with a view toward an evolving report on a schedule of classes. Utilization reports from the past decade are examined in terms of information attributes discussed by Kleijnen (1980). A computer-generated…

  17. Dynamic perfusion assessment during perforator flap surgery: an up-to-date

    PubMed Central

    MUNTEAN, MAXIMILIAN VLAD; MUNTEAN, VALENTIN; ARDELEAN, FILIP; GEORGESCU, ALEXANDRU

    2015-01-01

    Flap monitoring technology has progressed alongside flap design. The highly variable vascular anatomy and the complexity associated with modern perforator flaps demands dynamic, real-time, intraoperative information about the vessel location, perfusion patterns and flap physiology. Although most surgeons still assess flap perfusion and viability based solely on clinical experience, studies have shown that results may be highly variable and often misleading. Poor judgment of intraoperative perfusion leads to major complications. Employing dynamic perfusion imaging during flap reconstruction has led to a reduced complication rate, lower morbidity, shorter hospital stay, and an overall better result. With the emergence of multiple systems capable of intraoperative flap evaluation, the purpose of this article is to review the two systems that have been widely accepted and are currently used by plastic surgeons: Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT). PMID:26609259

  18. Processing Raw HST Data With Up-to-Date Calibration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Warren

    2007-01-01

    On-the-Fly Reprocessing (OTFR) is a collection of data-processing routines that work within the context of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pipeline data-flow system. The purpose served by OTFR is to generate, on demand, scientifically useful data products from raw HST data stored in an archive. First, on the basis of the requested final data products, OTFR retrieves the corresponding sets of raw data from the archives. Next, OTFR processes the raw data sets to remove artifacts and to establish proper header and other template information. Finally, the calibration routines appropriate to the specific data sets are invoked to produce the requested data products, and the data products are released to an archive distribution system for transmission to the requesting party. OTFR offers two notable advantages: (1) Inasmuch as calibrated data occupy about 8 times as much storage space as do raw data, by obviating storage of calibrated data, OTFR reduces the storage capacity needed by the archive; and (2) the calibration routines can be updated to give requesters the benefit of the most recent calibrations.

  19. MyProteinNet: build up-to-date protein interaction networks for organisms, tissues and user-defined contexts.

    PubMed

    Basha, Omer; Flom, Dvir; Barshir, Ruth; Smoly, Ilan; Tirman, Shoval; Yeger-Lotem, Esti

    2015-07-01

    The identification of the molecular pathways active in specific contexts, such as disease states or drug responses, often requires an extensive view of the potential interactions between a subset of proteins. This view is not easily obtained: it requires the integration of context-specific protein list or expression data with up-to-date data of protein interactions that are typically spread across multiple databases. The MyProteinNet web server allows users to easily create such context-sensitive protein interaction networks. Users can automatically gather and consolidate data from up to 11 different databases to create a generic protein interaction network (interactome). They can score the interactions based on reliability and filter them by user-defined contexts including molecular expression and protein annotation. The output of MyProteinNet includes the generic and filtered interactome files, together with a summary of their network attributes. MyProteinNet is particularly geared toward building human tissue interactomes, by maintaining tissue expression profiles from multiple resources. The ability of MyProteinNet to facilitate the construction of up-to-date, context-specific interactomes and its applicability to 11 different organisms and to tens of human tissues, make it a powerful tool in meaningful analysis of protein networks. MyProteinNet is available at http://netbio.bgu.ac.il/myproteinnet.

  20. Surgical versus non-surgical management for primary patellar dislocations: an up-to-date meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaozuo; Kang, Kai; Li, Tong; Lu, Bo; Dong, Jiangtao; Gao, Shijun

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this up-to-date meta-analysis was to compare the effects of surgical versus non-surgical treatment of patients following primary patellar dislocation and to provide the best evidence currently available. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using multiple databases, including Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Registry of Clinical Trials. All databases were searched from the earliest records to May 2013. Eligible studies were selected, and data were extracted by two independent investigators. The primary outcome variable was the frequency of recurrent patellar dislocation. The other outcomes included knee function scores, patient-rated outcomes, and radiographic examination. If appropriate, meta-analysis of these variables was performed. Nine independent trials were found to match the inclusion criteria. The pooled results demonstrated that the incidence of recurrent patellar dislocation and Hughston visual analog scale was significantly lower in the surgical treatment group than that in the non-surgical treatment group (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups in frequency of subsequent surgical interventions, percentage of excellent or good subjective opinion, Kujala score, pain score on visual analog scale, and severity of patellofemoral joint osteoarthrosis (P > 0.05). This up-to-date meta-analysis indicates that surgical treatment was associated with a lower risk of recurrent patellar dislocation, but a lower Hughston VAS than non-surgical treatment for primary patellar dislocation. More large high-quality trials and further studies are needed to overcome the limitations of small sample sizes, and varieties of different surgical procedures or non-surgical management strategies adopted in the included trials.

  1. 77 FR 26550 - Notice of Need To File Updated Information for Some Closed Captioning Exemption Petitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... provided in their previously submitted petition is still accurate and up-to-date, (2) update previously... FCC that its previously submitted petition and supporting information is accurate and up-to-date; (2... interested in continuing to request a closed captioning exemption for its programming must include...

  2. Form and Style: Theses, Reports, Term Papers. Eighth Edition. Up-to-Date Information on Chicago, MLA, and APA Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, William Giles; And Others

    The eighth edition of this manual, which incorporates recent changes in bibliographical format made by "The Chicago Manual of Style" and the Modern Language Association of America, provides guidance to writers of research papers and reports in college, graduate school, business, government, and the professions. The review of the fundamental…

  3. The hearts of competitive athletes: an up-to-date overview of exercise-induced cardiac adaptations.

    PubMed

    Dores, Hélder; Freitas, António; Malhotra, Aneil; Mendes, Miguel; Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Intense and regular physical exercise is responsible for various cardiac changes (electrical, structural and functional) that represent physiological adaptation to exercise training. This remodeling, commonly referred to as 'athlete's heart', can overlap with several pathological entities, in which sudden cardiac death may be the first clinical presentation. Although pre-competitive screening can identify athletes with life-threatening cardiovascular abnormalities, there are no widely used standardized pre-participation programs and those currently implemented are controversial. Data from personal and family history, features of physical examination and changes in the 12-lead electrocardiogram can raise the suspicion of cardiac disease and lead to early detection of entities such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, interpreting the electrocardiogram is often challenging, because some changes are considered physiological in athletes. Thus, clinical decision-making in such cases can prove difficult: missing a condition associated with an increased risk of life-threatening events, or conversely, mislabeling an athlete with a disease that leads to unnecessary disqualification, are both situations to avoid. This paper provides an up-to-date review of the physiological cardiac effects of exercise training and highlights key points that should be taken into consideration in the assessment of young competitive athletes.

  4. Evolutionary history of the Tricladida and the Platyhelminthes: an up-to-date phylogenetic and systematic account.

    PubMed

    Riutort, Marta; Álvarez-Presas, Marta; Lázaro, Eva; Solà, Eduard; Paps, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Within the free-living platyhelminths, the triclads, or planarians, are the best-known group, largely as a result of long-standing and intensive research on regeneration, pattern formation and Hox gene expression. However, the group's evolutionary history has been long debated, with controversies ranging from their phyletic structure and position within the Metazoa to the relationships among species within the Tricladida. Over the the last decade, with the advent of molecular phylogenies, some of these issues have begun to be resolved. Here, we present an up-to-date summary of the main phylogenetic changes and novelties with some comments on their evolutionary implications. The phylum has been split into two groups, and the position of the main group (the Rhabdithophora and the Catenulida), close to the Annelida and the Mollusca within the Lophotrochozoa, is now clear. Their internal relationships, although not totally resolved, have been clarified. Tricladida systematics has also experienced a revolution since the implementation of molecular data. The terrestrial planarians have been demonstrated to have emerged from one of the freshwater families, giving a different view of their evolution and greatly altering their classification. The use of molecular data is also facilitating the identification of Tricladida species by DNA barcoding, allowing better knowledge of their distribution and genetic diversity. Finally, molecular phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses, taking advantage of recent data, are beginning to give a clear picture of the recent history of the Dugesia and Schmidtea species in the Mediterranean. PMID:22450992

  5. Evolutionary history of the Tricladida and the Platyhelminthes: an up-to-date phylogenetic and systematic account.

    PubMed

    Riutort, Marta; Álvarez-Presas, Marta; Lázaro, Eva; Solà, Eduard; Paps, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Within the free-living platyhelminths, the triclads, or planarians, are the best-known group, largely as a result of long-standing and intensive research on regeneration, pattern formation and Hox gene expression. However, the group's evolutionary history has been long debated, with controversies ranging from their phyletic structure and position within the Metazoa to the relationships among species within the Tricladida. Over the the last decade, with the advent of molecular phylogenies, some of these issues have begun to be resolved. Here, we present an up-to-date summary of the main phylogenetic changes and novelties with some comments on their evolutionary implications. The phylum has been split into two groups, and the position of the main group (the Rhabdithophora and the Catenulida), close to the Annelida and the Mollusca within the Lophotrochozoa, is now clear. Their internal relationships, although not totally resolved, have been clarified. Tricladida systematics has also experienced a revolution since the implementation of molecular data. The terrestrial planarians have been demonstrated to have emerged from one of the freshwater families, giving a different view of their evolution and greatly altering their classification. The use of molecular data is also facilitating the identification of Tricladida species by DNA barcoding, allowing better knowledge of their distribution and genetic diversity. Finally, molecular phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses, taking advantage of recent data, are beginning to give a clear picture of the recent history of the Dugesia and Schmidtea species in the Mediterranean.

  6. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An Up-to-Date on Genetic Landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Sorrentino, Francesco S.; Romano, Mario R.; Incorvaia, Carlo; D'Angelo, Sergio; Perri, Paolo; De Nadai, Katia; Bonomo Roversi, Elia; Franceschelli, Paola; Sebastiani, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over 50 years of age, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of legal blindness in Western countries. Although the aging represents the main determinant of AMD, it must be considered a multifaceted disease caused by interactions among environmental risk factors and genetic backgrounds. Mounting evidence and/or arguments document the crucial role of inflammation and immune-mediated processes in the pathogenesis of AMD. Proinflammatory effects secondary to chronic inflammation (e.g., alternative complement activation) and heterogeneous types of oxidative stress (e.g., impaired cholesterol homeostasis) can result in degenerative damages at the level of crucial macular structures, that is photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch's membrane. In the most recent years, the association of AMD with genes, directly or indirectly, involved in immunoinflammatory pathways is increasingly becoming an essential core for AMD knowledge. Starting from the key basic-research notions detectable at the root of AMD pathogenesis, the present up-to-date paper reviews the best-known and/or the most attractive genetic findings linked to the mechanisms of inflammation of this complex disease. PMID:24369445

  7. Polar Front around the Kerguelen Islands: An up-to-date determination and associated circulation of surface/subsurface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young-Hyang; Durand, Isabelle; Kestenare, Elodie; Rougier, Gilles; Zhou, Meng; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Cotté, Cédric; Lee, Jae-Hak

    2014-10-01

    The circulation of iron-rich shelf waters around the Kerguelen Islands plays a crucial role for a climatically important, annually recurrent phytoplankton spring bloom over the sluggish shelf region and its downstream plume area along the Antarctic circumpolar flow. However, there is a long-standing confusion about the Polar Front (PF) in the Kerguelen region due to diverse suggestions in the literature for its geographical location with an extreme difference over 10° of latitude. Based on abundant historical hydrographic data, the in situ hydrographic and current measurements during the 2011 KEOPS2 cruise, satellite chlorophyll images, and altimetry-derived surface velocity fields, we determine and validate an up-to-date location of the PF around the Kerguelen Islands. Artificial Lagrangian particle trajectories computed from altimetric velocity time series are analyzed for the possible pathways and sources of different surface/subsurface waters advected into the chlorophyll bloom area east off the islands studied during the KEOPS2 cruise. The PF location determined as the northernmost boundary of the Winter Water colder than 2°C, which is also associated with a band of strong currents, appears to be primarily controlled by topography. The PF rounds the Kerguelen Islands from the south to deflect northward along the eastern escarpment up to the northeastern corner of the Kerguelen Plateau before making its southward retroflection. It is shown that the major surface/subsurface waters found within the deep basin east of the Kerguelen Islands originate from the shelf around the Heard Island, rather than from the shallow shelf north of the Kerguelen Islands.

  8. Drugs and Brugada syndrome patients: review of the literature, recommendations and an up-to-date website (www.brugadadrugs.org)

    PubMed Central

    Postema, Pieter G.; Wolpert, Christian; Amin, Ahmad S.; Probst, Vincent; Borggrefe, Martin; Roden, Dan M.; Priori, Silvia G.; Tan, Hanno L.; Hiraoka, Masayasu; Brugada, Josep; Wilde, Arthur A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, the Brugada syndrome has been recognized as an important cause of sudden cardiac death at a relatively young age. Importantly, many drugs have been reported to induce the characteristic Brugada syndrome-linked ECG abnormalities and/or (fatal) ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Objective: To review the literature on the use of drugs in Brugada syndrome patients, to make recommendations based on the literature and expert opinion regarding drug safety, and to ensure worldwide online and up-to-date availability of this information to all physicians who treat Brugada syndrome patients. Methods: We have performed an extensive review of the literature, formed an international expert panel to produce a consensus recommendation to each drug, and initiated a website (www.brugadadrugs.org). Results: The literature search yielded 506 reports to be considered. Drugs were categorized to one of four categories: 1) drugs to be avoided (n=18), 2) drugs preferably avoided (n=23), 3) antiarrhythmic drugs (n=4) and 4) diagnostic drugs (n=4). Level of evidence for most associations was C (only consensus opinion of experts, case studies, or standard-of-care) as there are no randomized studies and few non-randomized studies in Brugada syndrome patients. Conclusions: Many drugs have been associated with adverse events in Brugada syndrome patients. We have initiated a website (www.brugadadrugs.org) to ensure worldwide availability on safe drug use in Brugada syndrome patients. PMID:19716089

  9. Approaching system equilibrium with accurate or not accurate feedback information in a two-route system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-mei; Xie, Dong-fan; Li, Qi

    2015-02-01

    With the development of intelligent transport system, advanced information feedback strategies have been developed to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the capacity. However, previous strategies provide accurate information to travelers and our simulation results show that accurate information brings negative effects, especially in delay case. Because travelers prefer to the best condition route with accurate information, and delayed information cannot reflect current traffic condition but past. Then travelers make wrong routing decisions, causing the decrease of the capacity and the increase of oscillations and the system deviating from the equilibrium. To avoid the negative effect, bounded rationality is taken into account by introducing a boundedly rational threshold BR. When difference between two routes is less than the BR, routes have equal probability to be chosen. The bounded rationality is helpful to improve the efficiency in terms of capacity, oscillation and the gap deviating from the system equilibrium.

  10. 78 FR 34604 - Submitting Complete and Accurate Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 Submitting Complete and Accurate Information AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... accurate information as would a licensee or an applicant for a license.'' DATES: Submit comments by August... may submit comments by any of the following methods (unless this document describes a different...

  11. Moving the Needle on Poverty: An Up-to-Date Look at What States Are Doing to Alleviate Hardship among Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Moving the Needle on Poverty" is designed to provide Colorado leaders with an up-to-date picture of the diverse strategies that states across the nation are pursuing to lift individuals, families, and communities out of poverty. As the report indicates, many states are choosing to set specific and measurable goals for poverty reduction, while…

  12. [Amyloidosis: Up-to-date].

    PubMed

    Magy-Bertrand, N

    2016-08-01

    Amyloidosis is mainly a systemic disease belonging to protein-folding diseases. The past 10 years have shown significant progress in typing and the clinical management of amyloidosis, in the identification of novel prognostic markers for risk-stratification, and also in the development of new therapeutic agents. Biological molecular techniques are now able to type amyloidosis which were unidentified. Cardiac MRI and biomarkers allow a precise risk-stratification, especially in AL amyloidosis. If necessary, this prognostic evaluation may lead to rapid changes in the chemotherapy treatment. Emerging treatments rely on biotherapies, gene therapy, immunotherapy and blocking analogous agents. They give hope about an increase of survival of patients with systemic amyloidosis.

  13. Ultra-accurate collaborative information filtering via directed user similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q.; Song, W.-J.; Liu, J.-G.

    2014-07-01

    A key challenge of the collaborative filtering (CF) information filtering is how to obtain the reliable and accurate results with the help of peers' recommendation. Since the similarities from small-degree users to large-degree users would be larger than the ones in opposite direction, the large-degree users' selections are recommended extensively by the traditional second-order CF algorithms. By considering the users' similarity direction and the second-order correlations to depress the influence of mainstream preferences, we present the directed second-order CF (HDCF) algorithm specifically to address the challenge of accuracy and diversity of the CF algorithm. The numerical results for two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix, show that the accuracy of the new algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art CF algorithms. Comparing with the CF algorithm based on random walks proposed by Liu et al. (Int. J. Mod. Phys. C, 20 (2009) 285) the average ranking score could reach 0.0767 and 0.0402, which is enhanced by 27.3% and 19.1% for MovieLens and Netflix, respectively. In addition, the diversity, precision and recall are also enhanced greatly. Without relying on any context-specific information, tuning the similarity direction of CF algorithms could obtain accurate and diverse recommendations. This work suggests that the user similarity direction is an important factor to improve the personalized recommendation performance.

  14. Treatment-related fatigue with sorafenib, sunitinib and pazopanib in patients with advanced solid tumors: an up-to-date review and meta-analysis of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Matteo; Conti, Alessandro; Massari, Francesco; Arnaldi, Giorgio; Iacovelli, Roberto; Rizzo, Mimma; De Giorgi, Ugo; Trementino, Laura; Procopio, Giuseppe; Tortora, Giampaolo; Cascinu, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is the most common symptom associated with cancer and cancer treatment. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis to determine the incidence and relative risk (RR) of fatigue in patients (pts) with cancer treated with sorafenib (SO), sunitinib (SU) and pazopanib (PZ). PubMed databases were searched for articles published till August 2013. Eligible studies were selected according to PRISMA statement. Summary incidence, RR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-effects or fixed-effects models based on the heterogeneity of selected studies. Fifteen studies were included in our analysis. A total of 6,996 pts was enrolled: 2,260 had renal cell carcinomas (RCC), 1,691 non-small cell lung cancers, 1,290 breast cancers, 823 hepatocellular carcinomas, 362 soft tissue sarcomas, 304 gastrointestinal solid tumors, 165 neuroendocrine tumors and 101 melanomas. When stratified by drug, SO registered lower incidence and RR of all and high-grade fatigue when compared to SU, whereas the difference between SO and PZ was significant only for all-grade fatigue (p < 0.001). The difference between SU and PZ was significant for high-grade (p < 0.001) but not for all-grade fatigue (p = 0.52). In RCC pts, PZ showed the lower incidence and RR of all and high-grade fatigue. The differences were significant for SU vs. SO (p < 0.001), SU vs. PZ (p < 0.001) and SO vs. PZ (p < 0.001). Treatment with SO, SU and PZ is associated with an increased incidence of fatigue in pts with cancer. Early and appropriate management is required to avoid unnecessary dose reductions and transitory or definitive treatment discontinuations.

  15. An up-to-date GNSS velocity field of the Upper Rhine Graben: an active seismic region without observed present deformations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Frédéric; Henrion, Eric; Ulrich, Patrice

    2016-04-01

    The Rhine Graben is the central, most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system (ECRIS) of Oligocene age, which extends from the North Sea through Germany and France to the Mediterranean coast over a distance of some 1000 km. Within GURN the focus will be on the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). The URG is a 300 km long and 40 km wide SSW-NNE trending rift, extending from Basel (Switzerland) to Frankfurt (Germany). It is limited to the west by the Vosges mountains and to the east by the Black Forest. The graben is bounded to the north by the uplifted area of the Rhenish Massif. To the south, the Leymen, Ferrette and Vendlincourt folds represent the northern-most structural front of the Jura fold and thrust belt. In this study, we will present an up-to-date GNSS velocity field of the area based on a network of about 70 stations older than 5 years and ranging up to 12 years. The processing of the final velocity field go through some of corrections due to the use of a permanent GNSS network. An antenna switch generally induce a jump in the data which we have to correct. We also have to correct the outliers in the time series. The last step is to analyze the quality of the series based on the support and environment of the site, if the series is too biased by a flicker noise, we decide to reject it. The results seem to clearly indicate the lack of consistent horizontal velocities (on average 0.38mm/yr) in the URG, which could be not true fort vertical velocities.

  16. Variable versus constant power strategies during cycling time-trials: prediction of time savings using an up-to-date mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, G; Peacock, O; Passfield, L

    2007-07-01

    Swain (1997) employed the mathematical model of Di Prampero et al. (1979) to predict that, for cycling time-trials, the optimal pacing strategy is to vary power in parallel with the changes experienced in gradient and wind speed. We used a more up-to-date mathematical model with validated coefficients (Martin et al., 1998) to quantify the time savings that would result from such optimization of pacing strategy. A hypothetical cyclist (mass = 70 kg) and bicycle (mass = 10 kg) were studied under varying hypothetical wind velocities (-10 to 10 m x s(-1)), gradients (-10 to 10%), and pacing strategies. Mean rider power outputs of 164, 289, and 394 W were chosen to mirror baseline performances studied previously. The three race scenarios were: (i) a 10-km time-trial with alternating 1-km sections of 10% and -10% gradient; (ii) a 40-km time-trial with alternating 5-km sections of 4.4 and -4.4 m x s(-1) wind (Swain, 1997); and (iii) the 40-km time-trial delimited by Jeukendrup and Martin (2001). Varying a mean power of 289 W by +/- 10% during Swain's (1997) hilly and windy courses resulted in time savings of 126 and 51 s, respectively. Time savings for most race scenarios were greater than those suggested by Swain (1997). For a mean power of 289 W over the "standard" 40-km time-trial, a time saving of 26 s was observed with a power variability of 10%. The largest time savings were found for the hypothetical riders with the lowest mean power output who could vary power to the greatest extent. Our findings confirm that time savings are possible in cycling time-trials if the rider varies power in parallel with hill gradient and wind direction. With a more recent mathematical model, we found slightly greater time savings than those reported by Swain (1997). These time savings compared favourably with the predicted benefits of interventions such as altitude training or ingestion of carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks. Nevertheless, the extent to which such power output variations

  17. Automatic and Accurate Shadow Detection Using Near-Infrared Information.

    PubMed

    Rüfenacht, Dominic; Fredembach, Clément; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2014-08-01

    We present a method to automatically detect shadows in a fast and accurate manner by taking advantage of the inherent sensitivity of digital camera sensors to the near-infrared (NIR) part of the spectrum. Dark objects, which confound many shadow detection algorithms, often have much higher reflectance in the NIR. We can thus build an accurate shadow candidate map based on image pixels that are dark both in the visible and NIR representations. We further refine the shadow map by incorporating ratios of the visible to the NIR image, based on the observation that commonly encountered light sources have very distinct spectra in the NIR band. The results are validated on a new database, which contains visible/NIR images for a large variety of real-world shadow creating illuminant conditions, as well as manually labeled shadow ground truth. Both quantitative and qualitative evaluations show that our method outperforms current state-of-the-art shadow detection algorithms in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  18. A new accurate pill recognition system using imprint information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Kamata, Sei-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Great achievements in modern medicine benefit human beings. Also, it has brought about an explosive growth of pharmaceuticals that current in the market. In daily life, pharmaceuticals sometimes confuse people when they are found unlabeled. In this paper, we propose an automatic pill recognition technique to solve this problem. It functions mainly based on the imprint feature of the pills, which is extracted by proposed MSWT (modified stroke width transform) and described by WSC (weighted shape context). Experiments show that our proposed pill recognition method can reach an accurate rate up to 92.03% within top 5 ranks when trying to classify more than 10 thousand query pill images into around 2000 categories.

  19. 16 CFR 1101.32 - Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reasonable steps to assure information is... Reasonable Steps Commission Will Take To Assure Information It Discloses Is Accurate, and That Disclosure Is... Administers § 1101.32 Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate. (a) The Commission considers...

  20. 16 CFR 1101.32 - Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable steps to assure information is... Reasonable Steps Commission Will Take To Assure Information It Discloses Is Accurate, and That Disclosure Is... Administers § 1101.32 Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate. (a) The Commission considers...

  1. OneGeology - The most appropriate model to achieve access to up-to-date geoscience data using a distributed data system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komac, Marko; Duffy, Tim; Robida, Francois; Harrison, Matt; Allison, Lee

    2015-04-01

    OneGeology is an initiative of Geological Survey Organisations (GSO) around the globe that dates back to Brighton, UK in 2007. Since then OneGeology has been a leader in developing geological online map data using a new international standard - a geological exchange language known as the 'GeoSciML' (currently version 3.2 exists, which enables instant interoperability of the data). Increased use of this new language allows geological data to be shared and integrated across the planet with other organisations. One of very important goals of OneGeology was a transfer of valuable know-how to the developing world, hence shortening the digital learning curve. In autumn 2013 OneGeology was transformed into a Consortium with a clearly defined governance structure, making its structure more official, its operability more flexible and its membership more open where in addition to GSO also to other type of organisations that manage geoscience data can join and contribute. The next stage of the OneGeology initiative will hence be focused into increasing the openness and richness of that data from individual countries to create a multi-thematic global geological data resource on the rocks beneath our feet. Authoritative information on hazards and minerals will help to prevent natural disasters, explore for resources (water, minerals and energy) and identify risks to human health on a planetary scale. With this new stage also renewed OneGeology objectives were defined and these are 1) to be the provider of geosciences data globally, 2) to ensure exchange of know-how and skills so all can participate, and 3) to use the global profile of 1G to increase awareness of the geosciences and their relevance among professional and general public. We live in a digital world that enables prompt access to vast amounts of open access data. Understanding our world, the geology beneath our feet and environmental challenges related to geology calls for accessibility of geoscience data and One

  2. [Up to date lipid lowering treatment].

    PubMed

    Paragh, György; Karádi, István

    2016-07-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that "the lower the better" is a reasonable approach for reducing cardiovascular risk by lowering LDL cholesterol levels. Despite the reduction in cardiovascular events and mortality achieved by statin therapy, significant residual risk remains, especially in severe hereditary hypercholesterolemia, such as familial hypercholesterolemia. Some new strategies to achieve even lower LDL levels are now available, including the addition of cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe, and the recently available Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 monoclonal antibodies. In addition, new LDL drugs may be effectively administrated in those individuals who are unable to tolerate statins. The authors summarize the efficacy and clinical indications of these new agents and review the currently available guidelines. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(31), 1219-1223.

  3. [Lupus nephritis: up-to-date].

    PubMed

    Karras, A

    2015-02-01

    Renal involvement is frequent during natural history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and has a major prognostic value in this systemic disease. Screening for renal symptoms, such as proteinuria, micro-haematuria or renal failure must be performed at initial diagnosis and repeated during subsequent follow-ups. Any significant abnormality of these parameters may reveal active glomerulonephritis (GN) and should lead to a renal biopsy, which will significantly impact the therapeutic choices. Proliferative GN, defined as class III or IV by the actual histo-pathological classification, is the most severe form of SLE-associated nephropathy and can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in up to 60% of cases, according to ethnicity and follow-up duration. Standard induction treatment of active proliferative GN includes corticosteroids combined with an immunosuppressive drug, which can either be cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Even though, recent biotherapies have not yet proved their efficacy in the field of lupus nephritis, new protocols are expected, aiming higher remission rates and avoidance of high-dose corticosteroids regimens. When remission is achieved in proliferative GN, a maintenance therapy is required to decrease the risk of relapse, using either azathioprine or MMF. Immunosuppressive drugs are responsible for an increased risk of infectious or neoplastic complications but cardiovascular disease is actually one of the main causes of mortality among lupus patients, especially for patients with SLE-related kidney disease, well before reaching ESRD.

  4. Gastrointestinal stem cell up-to-date.

    PubMed

    Pirvulet, V

    2015-01-01

    Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract depends on stem cells with properties of self-renewal, clonogenicity, and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential gastric, intestinal, colonic stem cells new markers and the signaling pathways provide hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. This review provides an overview of the different types of stem cells, focusing on tissue-restricted adult stem cells.

  5. Systematic Reviews Keep Arthroscopy Up to Date.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Sometimes systematic reviews seem overprevalent, and some systematic reviews can be "inconclusive," which does not improve clinical decision making. On the other hand, systematic reviews can make a positive impact on patient outcomes by summarizing clinically relevant literature for arthroscopic surgeons and related researchers.

  6. Up-to-date probabilistic temperature climatologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Devineni, Naresh

    2015-02-01

    With ongoing global warming, climatologies based on average past temperatures are increasingly recognized as imperfect guides for current conditions, yet there is no consensus on alternatives. Here, we compare several approaches to deriving updated expected values of monthly mean temperatures, including moving average, exponentially weighted moving average, and piecewise linear regression. We go beyond most previous work by presenting updated climate normals as probability distributions rather than only point estimates, enabling estimation of the changing likelihood of hot and cold extremes. We show that there is a trade-off between bias and variance in these approaches, but that bias can be mitigated by an additive correction based on a global average temperature series, which has much less interannual variability than a single-station series. Using thousands of monthly temperature time series from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN), we find that the exponentially weighted moving average with a timescale of 15 years and global bias correction has good overall performance in hindcasting temperatures over the last 30 years (1984-2013) compared with the other methods tested. Our results suggest that over the last 30 years, the likelihood of extremely hot months (above the 99th percentile of the temperature probability distribution as of the early 1980s) has increased more than fourfold across the GHCN stations, whereas the likelihood of very cold months (under the 1st percentile) has decreased by over two-thirds.

  7. Congenital scoliosis: an up-to-date.

    PubMed

    Burnei, G; Gavriliu, S; Vlad, C; Georgescu, I; Ghita, R A; Dughilă, C; Japie, E M; Onilă, A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital scoliosis represents a spinal malformation due to defects of formation, segmentation or mixed ones. It is characterized by a longitudinal and rotational imbalance. 54 patients were analyzed and 39 out of them were operated by various approaches with anterior and posterior instrumentations during 2000 and 2012. The impossibility to appoint some patients encountered in the daily practice into the known classifications, allowed us to purpose two categories of congenital scoliosis related to the predominance of spinal deviances in the coronal and transversal views. No certain etiology of congenital scoliosis has been identified until today. The susceptibility of some polygenic defects is obvious due to the presence of a sum of defects associated to most of the congenital scoliosis cases and the rarity of the presence of a unique defect. The diagnosis requires a thorough clinical and imaging examination in order to establish an individualized therapeutic strategy. The treatment of congenital scoliosis is different from the adolescent idiopathic one. Therapeutic criteria are significantly different. It is essential to assess the difference in growth of the concavity related to the convexity when choosing a particular procedure. The magnitude of the curve and the progressive rate are fundamental issues to the surgeon.

  8. Antioxidant therapy effectiveness: an up to date.

    PubMed

    Iannitti, T; Palmieri, B

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidants are chemical compounds that giving an electron to free radical molecules convert them to an harmless configuration, avoiding damaging chain reaction, which can involve lipids, proteins enzymes carbohydrates, DNA, cell and nuclear membranes up to the cell death. Being either exogenous or endogenous they are addressed to prevent the oxidation induced damage, a process that causes damage in all tissues through free radicals chemical reactivity. A lot of natural, nutraceutical or chemical compounds are being actually marketed with a lot of different claims and are prescribed by doctors or sold over the counter. Unfortunately, in the medical literature many heterogeneous published articles support the use of this class of drugs, but most of them cannot be compared or pooled to achieve statistical significance of effectiveness. Our review aims at defining the state of the art of antioxidant therapy, with specific reference on the evidence based clinical use.

  9. Higher Education in France: A Handbook of Information Concerning Fields of Study in Each Institution. Bulletin, 1952, No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Edith

    1952-01-01

    Advising students who wish to study in other countries is often difficult because accurate, up-to-date, and detailed information about the offerings in their higher institutions is frequently unavailable. A student wishing to study in a given country needs to know what the several institutions offer not only in his own subject area but also in…

  10. Finding Good Health Information on the Internet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine. Some online health information is reliable and up to date, some not. How can you tell the good ... information? Where does it come from? Is it up-to-date? How is the site funded? Is there advertising ...

  11. Differential contribution of visual and auditory information to accurately predict the direction and rotational motion of a visual stimulus.

    PubMed

    Park, Seoung Hoon; Kim, Seonjin; Kwon, MinHyuk; Christou, Evangelos A

    2016-03-01

    Vision and auditory information are critical for perception and to enhance the ability of an individual to respond accurately to a stimulus. However, it is unknown whether visual and auditory information contribute differentially to identify the direction and rotational motion of the stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of an individual to accurately predict the direction and rotational motion of the stimulus based on visual and auditory information. In this study, we recruited 9 expert table-tennis players and used table-tennis service as our experimental model. Participants watched recorded services with different levels of visual and auditory information. The goal was to anticipate the direction of the service (left or right) and the rotational motion of service (topspin, sidespin, or cut). We recorded their responses and quantified the following outcomes: (i) directional accuracy and (ii) rotational motion accuracy. The response accuracy was the accurate predictions relative to the total number of trials. The ability of the participants to predict the direction of the service accurately increased with additional visual information but not with auditory information. In contrast, the ability of the participants to predict the rotational motion of the service accurately increased with the addition of auditory information to visual information but not with additional visual information alone. In conclusion, this finding demonstrates that visual information enhances the ability of an individual to accurately predict the direction of the stimulus, whereas additional auditory information enhances the ability of an individual to accurately predict the rotational motion of stimulus.

  12. The utility of accurate mass and LC elution time information in the analysis of complex proteomes

    SciTech Connect

    Norbeck, Angela D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Daly, Don S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-08-01

    Theoretical tryptic digests of all predicted proteins from the genomes of three organisms of varying complexity were evaluated for specificity and possible utility of combined peptide accurate mass and predicted LC normalized elution time (NET) information. The uniqueness of each peptide was evaluated using its combined mass (+/- 5 ppm and 1 ppm) and NET value (no constraint, +/- 0.05 and 0.01 on a 0-1 NET scale). The set of peptides both underestimates actual biological complexity due to the lack of specific modifications, and overestimates the expected complexity since many proteins will not be present in the sample or observable on the mass spectrometer because of dynamic range limitations. Once a peptide is identified from an LCMS/MS experiment, its mass and elution time is representative of a unique fingerprint for that peptide. The uniqueness of that fingerprint in comparison to that for the other peptides present is indicative of the ability to confidently identify that peptide based on accurate mass and NET measurements. These measurements can be made using HPLC coupled with high resolution MS in a high-throughput manner. Results show that for organisms with comparatively small proteomes, such as Deinococcus radiodurans, modest mass and elution time accuracies are generally adequate for peptide identifications. For more complex proteomes, increasingly accurate easurements are required. However, the majority of proteins should be uniquely identifiable by using LC-MS with mass accuracies within +/- 1 ppm and elution time easurements within +/- 0.01 NET.

  13. Capturing Accurate and Useful Information on Medication-Related Telenursing Triage Calls.

    PubMed

    Lake, R; Li, L; Baysari, M; Byrne, M; Robinson, M; Westbrook, J I

    2016-01-01

    Registered nurses providing telenursing triage and advice services record information on the medication related calls they handle. However the quality and consistency of these data were rarely examined. Our aim was to examine medication related calls made to the healthdirect advice service in November 2014, to assess their basic characteristics and how the data entry format influenced information collected and data consistency. Registered nurses selected the patient question type from a range of categories, and entered the medications involved in a free text field. Medication names were manually extracted from the free text fields. We also compared the selected patient question type with the free text description of the call, in order to gauge data consistency. Results showed that nurses provided patients with advice on medication-related queries in a timely matter (the median call duration of 9 minutes). From 1835 calls, we were able to identify and classify 2156 medications into 384 generic names. However, in 204 cases (11.2% of calls) no medication name was entered. A further 308 (15.0%) of the medication names entered were not identifiable. When we compared the selected patient question with the free text description of calls, we found that these were consistent in 63.27% of cases. Telenursing and triage advice services provide a valuable resource to the public with quick and easily accessible advice. To support nurses provide quality services and record accurate information about the queries, appropriate data entry format and design would be beneficial. PMID:27440292

  14. Conditional mutual inclusive information enables accurate quantification of associations in gene regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiujun; Zhao, Juan; Hao, Jin-Kao; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Chen, Luonan

    2015-03-11

    Mutual information (MI), a quantity describing the nonlinear dependence between two random variables, has been widely used to construct gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Despite its good performance, MI cannot separate the direct regulations from indirect ones among genes. Although the conditional mutual information (CMI) is able to identify the direct regulations, it generally underestimates the regulation strength, i.e. it may result in false negatives when inferring gene regulations. In this work, to overcome the problems, we propose a novel concept, namely conditional mutual inclusive information (CMI2), to describe the regulations between genes. Furthermore, with CMI2, we develop a new approach, namely CMI2NI (CMI2-based network inference), for reverse-engineering GRNs. In CMI2NI, CMI2 is used to quantify the mutual information between two genes given a third one through calculating the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the postulated distributions of including and excluding the edge between the two genes. The benchmark results on the GRNs from DREAM challenge as well as the SOS DNA repair network in Escherichia coli demonstrate the superior performance of CMI2NI. Specifically, even for gene expression data with small sample size, CMI2NI can not only infer the correct topology of the regulation networks but also accurately quantify the regulation strength between genes. As a case study, CMI2NI was also used to reconstruct cancer-specific GRNs using gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). CMI2NI is freely accessible at http://www.comp-sysbio.org/cmi2ni.

  15. Highly Accurate Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions via Incorporating Evolutionary Information and Physicochemical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng-Wei; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Gui, Jie; Nie, Ru

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) occur at almost all levels of cell functions and play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Thus, identification of PPIs is critical for deciphering the molecular mechanisms and further providing insight into biological processes. Although a variety of high-throughput experimental techniques have been developed to identify PPIs, existing PPI pairs by experimental approaches only cover a small fraction of the whole PPI networks, and further, those approaches hold inherent disadvantages, such as being time-consuming, expensive, and having high false positive rate. Therefore, it is urgent and imperative to develop automatic in silico approaches to predict PPIs efficiently and accurately. In this article, we propose a novel mixture of physicochemical and evolutionary-based feature extraction method for predicting PPIs using our newly developed discriminative vector machine (DVM) classifier. The improvements of the proposed method mainly consist in introducing an effective feature extraction method that can capture discriminative features from the evolutionary-based information and physicochemical characteristics, and then a powerful and robust DVM classifier is employed. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that DVM model is applied to the field of bioinformatics. When applying the proposed method to the Yeast and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) datasets, we obtain excellent prediction accuracies of 94.35% and 90.61%, respectively. The computational results indicate that our method is effective and robust for predicting PPIs, and can be taken as a useful supplementary tool to the traditional experimental methods for future proteomics research. PMID:27571061

  16. Highly Accurate Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions via Incorporating Evolutionary Information and Physicochemical Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng-Wei; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Gui, Jie; Nie, Ru

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) occur at almost all levels of cell functions and play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Thus, identification of PPIs is critical for deciphering the molecular mechanisms and further providing insight into biological processes. Although a variety of high-throughput experimental techniques have been developed to identify PPIs, existing PPI pairs by experimental approaches only cover a small fraction of the whole PPI networks, and further, those approaches hold inherent disadvantages, such as being time-consuming, expensive, and having high false positive rate. Therefore, it is urgent and imperative to develop automatic in silico approaches to predict PPIs efficiently and accurately. In this article, we propose a novel mixture of physicochemical and evolutionary-based feature extraction method for predicting PPIs using our newly developed discriminative vector machine (DVM) classifier. The improvements of the proposed method mainly consist in introducing an effective feature extraction method that can capture discriminative features from the evolutionary-based information and physicochemical characteristics, and then a powerful and robust DVM classifier is employed. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that DVM model is applied to the field of bioinformatics. When applying the proposed method to the Yeast and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) datasets, we obtain excellent prediction accuracies of 94.35% and 90.61%, respectively. The computational results indicate that our method is effective and robust for predicting PPIs, and can be taken as a useful supplementary tool to the traditional experimental methods for future proteomics research. PMID:27571061

  17. Highly Accurate Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions via Incorporating Evolutionary Information and Physicochemical Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng-Wei; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Gui, Jie; Nie, Ru

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) occur at almost all levels of cell functions and play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Thus, identification of PPIs is critical for deciphering the molecular mechanisms and further providing insight into biological processes. Although a variety of high-throughput experimental techniques have been developed to identify PPIs, existing PPI pairs by experimental approaches only cover a small fraction of the whole PPI networks, and further, those approaches hold inherent disadvantages, such as being time-consuming, expensive, and having high false positive rate. Therefore, it is urgent and imperative to develop automatic in silico approaches to predict PPIs efficiently and accurately. In this article, we propose a novel mixture of physicochemical and evolutionary-based feature extraction method for predicting PPIs using our newly developed discriminative vector machine (DVM) classifier. The improvements of the proposed method mainly consist in introducing an effective feature extraction method that can capture discriminative features from the evolutionary-based information and physicochemical characteristics, and then a powerful and robust DVM classifier is employed. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that DVM model is applied to the field of bioinformatics. When applying the proposed method to the Yeast and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) datasets, we obtain excellent prediction accuracies of 94.35% and 90.61%, respectively. The computational results indicate that our method is effective and robust for predicting PPIs, and can be taken as a useful supplementary tool to the traditional experimental methods for future proteomics research.

  18. Accurate refinement of docked protein complexes using evolutionary information and deep learning.

    PubMed

    Akbal-Delibas, Bahar; Farhoodi, Roshanak; Pomplun, Marc; Haspel, Nurit

    2016-06-01

    One of the major challenges for protein docking methods is to accurately discriminate native-like structures from false positives. Docking methods are often inaccurate and the results have to be refined and re-ranked to obtain native-like complexes and remove outliers. In a previous work, we introduced AccuRefiner, a machine learning based tool for refining protein-protein complexes. Given a docked complex, the refinement tool produces a small set of refined versions of the input complex, with lower root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) of atomic positions with respect to the native structure. The method employs a unique ranking tool that accurately predicts the RMSD of docked complexes with respect to the native structure. In this work, we use a deep learning network with a similar set of features and five layers. We show that a properly trained deep learning network can accurately predict the RMSD of a docked complex with 1.40 Å error margin on average, by approximating the complex relationship between a wide set of scoring function terms and the RMSD of a docked structure. The network was trained on 35000 unbound docking complexes generated by RosettaDock. We tested our method on 25 different putative docked complexes produced also by RosettaDock for five proteins that were not included in the training data. The results demonstrate that the high accuracy of the ranking tool enables AccuRefiner to consistently choose the refinement candidates with lower RMSD values compared to the coarsely docked input structures. PMID:26846813

  19. Accurate refinement of docked protein complexes using evolutionary information and deep learning.

    PubMed

    Akbal-Delibas, Bahar; Farhoodi, Roshanak; Pomplun, Marc; Haspel, Nurit

    2016-06-01

    One of the major challenges for protein docking methods is to accurately discriminate native-like structures from false positives. Docking methods are often inaccurate and the results have to be refined and re-ranked to obtain native-like complexes and remove outliers. In a previous work, we introduced AccuRefiner, a machine learning based tool for refining protein-protein complexes. Given a docked complex, the refinement tool produces a small set of refined versions of the input complex, with lower root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) of atomic positions with respect to the native structure. The method employs a unique ranking tool that accurately predicts the RMSD of docked complexes with respect to the native structure. In this work, we use a deep learning network with a similar set of features and five layers. We show that a properly trained deep learning network can accurately predict the RMSD of a docked complex with 1.40 Å error margin on average, by approximating the complex relationship between a wide set of scoring function terms and the RMSD of a docked structure. The network was trained on 35000 unbound docking complexes generated by RosettaDock. We tested our method on 25 different putative docked complexes produced also by RosettaDock for five proteins that were not included in the training data. The results demonstrate that the high accuracy of the ranking tool enables AccuRefiner to consistently choose the refinement candidates with lower RMSD values compared to the coarsely docked input structures.

  20. Can Raters with Reduced Job Descriptive Information Provide Accurate Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Ratings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Lee; Harvey, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Job-naive raters provided with job descriptive information made Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) ratings which were validated against ratings of job analysts who were also job content experts. None of the reduced job descriptive information conditions enabled job-naive raters to obtain either acceptable levels of convergent validity with…

  1. 16 CFR 1101.32 - Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to release to the public: (1) The Commission staff or a qualified person or entity outside the... will review the information in light of the comments. The degree of review by the Commission and...

  2. An examination of information quality as a moderator of accurate personality judgment.

    PubMed

    Letzring, Tera D; Human, Lauren J

    2014-10-01

    Information quality is an important moderator of the accuracy of personality judgment, and this article describes research focusing on how specific kinds of information are related to accuracy. In this study, 228 participants (159 female, 69 male; mean age = 23.43; 86.4% Caucasian) in unacquainted dyads were assigned to discuss thoughts and feelings, discuss behaviors, or engage in behaviors. Interactions lasted 25-30 min, and participants provided ratings of their partners and themselves following the interaction on the Big Five traits, ego-control, and ego-resiliency. Next, the amount of different types of information made available by each participant was objectively coded. The accuracy criterion, composed of self- and acquaintance ratings, was used to assess distinctive and normative accuracy using the Social Accuracy Model. Participants in the discussion conditions achieved higher distinctive accuracy than participants who engaged in behaviors, but normative accuracy did not differ across conditions. Information about specific behaviors and general behaviors were among the most consistent predictors of higher distinctive accuracy. Normative accuracy was more likely to decrease than increase when higher-quality information was available. Verbal information about behaviors is the most useful for learning about how people are unique.

  3. Polyallelic structural variants can provide accurate, highly informative genetic markers focused on diagnosis and therapeutic targets: Accuracy vs. Precision.

    PubMed

    Roses, A D

    2016-02-01

    Structural variants (SVs) include all insertions, deletions, and rearrangements in the genome, with several common types of nucleotide repeats including single sequence repeats, short tandem repeats, and insertion-deletion length variants. Polyallelic SVs provide highly informative markers for association studies with well-phenotyped cohorts. SVs can influence gene regulation by affecting epigenetics, transcription, splicing, and/or translation. Accurate assays of polyallelic SV loci are required to define the range and allele frequency of variable length alleles. PMID:26517180

  4. Effects of local information on group behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, S.; Arora, N.; Sen, S.

    1996-12-31

    Researchers in the field of Distributed Artificial Intelligence have studied the effects of local decision-making on overall system performance in both cooperative and self-interested agent groups. The performance of individual agents depends critically on the quality of information available to it about local and global goals and resources. Whereas in general it is assumed that the more accurate and up-to-date the available information, the better is the expected performance of the individual and the group, this conclusion can be challenged in a number of scenarios.

  5. Exploratory Movement Generates Higher-Order Information That Is Sufficient for Accurate Perception of Scaled Egocentric Distance

    PubMed Central

    Mantel, Bruno; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Campbell, Alain; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2015-01-01

    Body movement influences the structure of multiple forms of ambient energy, including optics and gravito-inertial force. Some researchers have argued that egocentric distance is derived from inferential integration of visual and non-visual stimulation. We suggest that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in perceptual stimulation as higher-order patterns that extend across optics and inertia. We formalize a pattern that specifies the egocentric distance of a stationary object across higher-order relations between optics and inertia. This higher-order parameter is created by self-generated movement of the perceiver in inertial space relative to the illuminated environment. For this reason, we placed minimal restrictions on the exploratory movements of our participants. We asked whether humans can detect and use the information available in this higher-order pattern. Participants judged whether a virtual object was within reach. We manipulated relations between body movement and the ambient structure of optics and inertia. Judgments were precise and accurate when the higher-order optical-inertial parameter was available. When only optic flow was available, judgments were poor. Our results reveal that participants perceived egocentric distance from the higher-order, optical-inertial consequences of their own exploratory activity. Analysis of participants’ movement trajectories revealed that self-selected movements were complex, and tended to optimize availability of the optical-inertial pattern that specifies egocentric distance. We argue that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in higher-order patterns of ambient energy, that self-generated movement can generate these higher-order patterns, and that these patterns can be detected and used to support perception of egocentric distance that is precise and accurate. PMID:25856410

  6. Combining Evolutionary Information and an Iterative Sampling Strategy for Accurate Protein Structure Prediction.

    PubMed

    Braun, Tatjana; Koehler Leman, Julia; Lange, Oliver F

    2015-12-01

    Recent work has shown that the accuracy of ab initio structure prediction can be significantly improved by integrating evolutionary information in form of intra-protein residue-residue contacts. Following this seminal result, much effort is put into the improvement of contact predictions. However, there is also a substantial need to develop structure prediction protocols tailored to the type of restraints gained by contact predictions. Here, we present a structure prediction protocol that combines evolutionary information with the resolution-adapted structural recombination approach of Rosetta, called RASREC. Compared to the classic Rosetta ab initio protocol, RASREC achieves improved sampling, better convergence and higher robustness against incorrect distance restraints, making it the ideal sampling strategy for the stated problem. To demonstrate the accuracy of our protocol, we tested the approach on a diverse set of 28 globular proteins. Our method is able to converge for 26 out of the 28 targets and improves the average TM-score of the entire benchmark set from 0.55 to 0.72 when compared to the top ranked models obtained by the EVFold web server using identical contact predictions. Using a smaller benchmark, we furthermore show that the prediction accuracy of our method is only slightly reduced when the contact prediction accuracy is comparatively low. This observation is of special interest for protein sequences that only have a limited number of homologs.

  7. The Psychology of Keeping Up-To-Date.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Samuel S.

    Two major factors in updating the skills of professional personnel--motivation and organizational climate--are integral parts of the concept of lifelong education for updating. A principal determinant of motivation is said to be achievement motivation; a professional must be highly motivated in order to maintain competence throughout his career.…

  8. Review of up-to date digital cameras interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkemann, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    Over the past 15 years, various interfaces on digital industrial cameras have been available on the market. This tutorial will give an overview of interfaces such as LVDS (RS644), Channel Link and Camera Link. In addition, other interfaces such as FireWire, Gigabit Ethernet, and now USB 3.0 have become more popular. Owing to their ease of use, these interfaces cover most of the market. Nevertheless, for certain applications and especially for higher bandwidths, Camera Link and CoaXPress are very useful. This tutorial will give a description of the advantages and disadvantages, comment on bandwidths, and provide recommendations on when to use which interface.

  9. Minimally invasive pulmonary surgery for lung cancer, up to date.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hisashi

    2013-08-01

    Recently, the minimally invasive surgical approach is an important issue in the pulmonary surgery. In this review, we present the current fashion of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and new approach including robotic lobectomy. There is no clear definition or standard for this surgical procedure regarding VATS lobectomy. Therefore, no randomized controlled trial of VATS and conventional lobectomy can be set up. Although the definition of VATS lobectomy is not straightforward, VATS lobectomy showed the technical feasibility of conventional lobectomy in mortality and postoperative complication as well as lymph node dissection. VATS procedure for advanced lung cancer is unclear whether such observations can be developed into a standardized approach. There are no reports to evaluate the advantages of robotic lobectomy in terms of treatment outcomes for lung cancer compared with VATS lobectomy. However, we believe that robotic lobectomy has clear potential to improve the quality of minimally invasive surgery.

  10. [Post-menopausal osteoporosis: Up-to-date].

    PubMed

    Briot, K; Roux, C

    2016-03-01

    Patients with a high risk of fragility fractures, and those with recent fractures, must receive the highest priority for anti-osteoporotic treatment, because of the consequences of some of these fractures (hip, vertebrae, pelvis, humerus). Both non pharmacological and pharmacological treatments must be used. The duration of the treatment is based on the assessment of fracture risk.

  11. [Short-course antibiotic regimens: Up-to-date].

    PubMed

    Dinh, A; Bouchand, F; Salomon, J; Bernard, L

    2016-07-01

    Antibiotic treatment durations are not well documented. Yet, dramatic emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms should lead to tend to decrease antibiotic selection pressure. Furthermore, it could lower health costs and reduce associated adverse events. Unfortunately, only few studies with rigorous methodology have been performed. We present the available data on frequent infections such as urinary tract infections, community acquired pneumonia, bone and joint infections and intra-abdominal infections. We underline the difficulties to perform such trials and discuss original options to a better evaluation of treatment duration.

  12. [Optic Disk Drusen: Historical and Up-To-Date Aspects].

    PubMed

    Nentwich, M M; Maertz, J; Rudolph, G

    2016-03-01

    Optic disc drusen are an important differential diagnosis in the diagnostic evaluation of a prominent optic nerve head. Drusen of the optic disc occur in 0.34 to 2.4 % of human individuals and manifest themselves bilaterally in three of four cases. Drusen are found six times more often within histological sections than on funduscopic examination. It is known that optic disc drusen can occur in familial clusters without any other pathological ophthalmic findings. They can also be associated with retinitis pigmentosa, or with the Joubert or Alagille syndromes. Non-invasive diagnostic tools include fundus-autofluorescence (AF), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ultrasound. Drusen of the optic nerve head are asymptomatic in most cases, though transient ischemia can lead to transient visual impairment. In particular, superficial drusen can lead to profound visual field defects in adulthood. Regular ophthalmological follow-up examinations with tonometry and perimetry are recommended for the early detection of visual field defects. Radial optic neurotomy (RON) seems to be a therapeutic option in patients with acute deterioration of the visual field.

  13. Bringing the cross-correlation method up to date

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The cross-correlation (XC) method of Tonry & Davis (1979, AJ, 84, 1511) is generalized to arbitrary parametrized line profiles. In the new algorithm the correlation function itself, rather than the observed galaxy spectrum, is fitted by the model line profile: this removes much of the complication in the error analysis caused by template mismatch. Like the Fourier correlation quotient (FCQ) method of Bender (1990, A&A, 229, 441), the inferred line profiles are, up to a normalization constant, independent of template mismatch as long as there are no blended lines. The standard reduced chi(exp 2) is a good measure of the fit of the inferred velocity distribution, largely decoupled from the fit of the spectral template. The updated XC method performs as well as other recently developed methods, with the added virtue of conceptual simplicity.

  14. Pneumothorax: an up to date “introduction”

    PubMed Central

    Papagiannis, Antonios; Lazaridis, George; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Lampaki, Sofia; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    The pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air or gas in the pleural space that separates the lung from the chest wall. Like pleural effusion where a large abnormal concentration of fluid (>100 mL) is liquid buildup in that space, pneumothorax may interfere with normal breathing. A medical term that it is used is the collapsed lung, although that term may also refer to atelectasis. There are two major types of pneumothorax; there is one that occurs without an apparent cause and in the absence of significant lung disease, while the so called; “secondary” pneumothorax occurs in the presence of existing lung pathology. In a minority of cases, the amount of air in the chest increases markedly when a one-way valve is formed by an area of damaged tissue, leading to a third type of pneumothorax, called “tensioned”. PMID:25861608

  15. Myocardial Bridging: An Up-to-Date Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael S; Chen, Cheng-Han

    2015-11-01

    Myocardial bridging is a congenital anomaly in which a segment of a coronary artery takes a "tunneled" intramuscular course under a "bridge" of overlying myocardium. This causes vessel compression in systole, resulting in hemodynamic changes that may be associated with angina, myocardial ischemia, acute coronary syndrome, left ventricular dysfunction, arrhythmias, and even sudden cardiac death. While described on autopsy for centuries, technological advances such as coronary computed tomography angiography and intravascular ultrasound have contributed greatly to our understanding of the anatomic, hemodynamic, and pathophysiological consequences of systolic compression. Atherosclerosis preferentially develops immediately proximal to the bridged segment, likely due to alterations in shear stress, while the compressed segment itself is often spared. First-line therapy of symptomatic bridging remains medical treatment with beta-blockers and non-dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers, and nitrates are contraindicated. Surgical myotomy, intracoronary stenting, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery have been used for refractory symptoms, but long-term outcomes remain uncertain. Further research is required to better define the patient population that would derive the greatest benefit from surgical and percutaneous intervention.

  16. Myocardial Bridging: An Up-to-Date Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael S.; Chen, Cheng-Han

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial bridging is a congenital anomaly in which a segment of a coronary artery takes a “tunneled” intramuscular course under a “bridge” of overlying myocardium. This causes vessel compression in systole, resulting in hemodynamic changes that may be associated with angina, myocardial ischemia, acute coronary syndrome, left ventricular dysfunction, arrhythmias, and even sudden cardiac death. While described on autopsy for centuries, technological advances such as coronary computed tomography angiography and intravascular ultrasound have contributed greatly to our understanding of the anatomic, hemodynamic, and pathophysiological consequences of systolic compression. Atherosclerosis preferentially develops immediately proximal to the bridged segment, likely due to alterations in shear stress, while the compressed segment itself is often spared. First-line therapy of symptomatic bridging remains medical treatment with beta-blockers and non-dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers, and nitrates are contraindicated. Surgical myotomy, intracoronary stenting, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery have been used for refractory symptoms, but long-term outcomes remain uncertain. Further research is required to better define the patient population that would derive the greatest benefit from surgical and percutaneous intervention. PMID:25999138

  17. Up-to-date status of food irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    1993-07-01

    The last decade has witnessed significant advancement of the acceptance of food irradiation processing. At present 37 countries have approved one or more food items for human consumption and 25 countries have commercialized this process. More developing countries are showing keen interest to introduce irradiation processing in order to reduce post-harvest food losses, to increase export potentials and to ensure safety of food to their people. Although progress towards acceptance of food irradiation by the industry is slow, actual market trials have shown that once consumers have understood this technology, they are willing to buy irradiated foods. This paper deals with the latest developments in the field of food irradiation with particular reference to legislation, consumer acceptance, commercialization and potential application in developing countries. This paper also deals with the role played by the International Organizations, aimed at facilitating the acceptance of food irradiation.

  18. Keeping Teachers Up-to-Date in Ag Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruwelheide, Kenneth L.

    1977-01-01

    Describes one of Montana State University's Agricultural and Industrial Education Department teacher workshops for vocational agriculture teachers. The planning, organization, and evaluation of the workshop (which covered farm tractor maintenance) are briefly described. (SH)

  19. Staying up to date with the JNC 8 hypertension guideline.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Harvey; Zuber, Kim; Davis, Jane S

    2014-08-01

    The recently released JNC 8 guideline on hypertension management is a major departure from previous JNC guidelines in methodology, focus, and content. This article reviews the design and content of the new guideline as well as its similarities and differences from JNC 7 and other recently published hypertension guidelines. PMID:25054794

  20. Honey bees can perform accurately directed waggle dances based solely on information from a homeward trip.

    PubMed

    Edrich, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Honey bees were displaced several 100 m from their hive to an unfamiliar site and provisioned with honey. After feeding, almost two-thirds of the bees flew home to their hive within a 50 min observation time. About half of these returning, bees signalled the direction of the release site in waggle dances thus demonstrating that the dance can be guided entirely by information gathered on a single homeward trip. The likely reason for the bees' enthusiastic dancing on their initial return from this new site was the highly rewarding honeycomb that they were given there. The attractive nature of the site is confirmed by many of these bees revisiting the site and continuing to forage there.

  1. Accurately decoding visual information from fMRI data obtained in a realistic virtual environment

    PubMed Central

    Floren, Andrew; Naylor, Bruce; Miikkulainen, Risto; Ress, David

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional interactive virtual environments (VEs) are a powerful tool for brain-imaging based cognitive neuroscience that are presently under-utilized. This paper presents machine-learning based methods for identifying brain states induced by realistic VEs with improved accuracy as well as the capability for mapping their spatial topography on the neocortex. VEs provide the ability to study the brain under conditions closer to the environment in which humans evolved, and thus to probe deeper into the complexities of human cognition. As a test case, we designed a stimulus to reflect a military combat situation in the Middle East, motivated by the potential of using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Each subject experienced moving through the virtual town where they encountered 1–6 animated combatants at different locations, while fMRI data was collected. To analyze the data from what is, compared to most studies, more complex and less controlled stimuli, we employed statistical machine learning in the form of Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis (MVPA) with special attention given to artificial Neural Networks (NN). Extensions to NN that exploit the block structure of the stimulus were developed to improve the accuracy of the classification, achieving performances from 58 to 93% (chance was 16.7%) with six subjects. This demonstrates that MVPA can decode a complex cognitive state, viewing a number of characters, in a dynamic virtual environment. To better understand the source of this information in the brain, a novel form of sensitivity analysis was developed to use NN to quantify the degree to which each voxel contributed to classification. Compared with maps produced by general linear models and the searchlight approach, these sensitivity maps revealed a more diverse pattern of information relevant to the classification of cognitive state. PMID:26106315

  2. Accurate prediction of interfacial residues in two-domain proteins using evolutionary information: implications for three-dimensional modeling.

    PubMed

    Bhaskara, Ramachandra M; Padhi, Amrita; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2014-07-01

    With the preponderance of multidomain proteins in eukaryotic genomes, it is essential to recognize the constituent domains and their functions. Often function involves communications across the domain interfaces, and the knowledge of the interacting sites is essential to our understanding of the structure-function relationship. Using evolutionary information extracted from homologous domains in at least two diverse domain architectures (single and multidomain), we predict the interface residues corresponding to domains from the two-domain proteins. We also use information from the three-dimensional structures of individual domains of two-domain proteins to train naïve Bayes classifier model to predict the interfacial residues. Our predictions are highly accurate (∼85%) and specific (∼95%) to the domain-domain interfaces. This method is specific to multidomain proteins which contain domains in at least more than one protein architectural context. Using predicted residues to constrain domain-domain interaction, rigid-body docking was able to provide us with accurate full-length protein structures with correct orientation of domains. We believe that these results can be of considerable interest toward rational protein and interaction design, apart from providing us with valuable information on the nature of interactions.

  3. Preferential access to genetic information from endogenous hominin ancient DNA and accurate quantitative SNP-typing via SPEX

    PubMed Central

    Brotherton, Paul; Sanchez, Juan J.; Cooper, Alan; Endicott, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of targeted genetic loci from ancient, forensic and clinical samples is usually built upon polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated sequence data. However, many studies have shown that PCR amplification from poor-quality DNA templates can create sequence artefacts at significant levels. With hominin (human and other hominid) samples, the pervasive presence of highly PCR-amplifiable human DNA contaminants in the vast majority of samples can lead to the creation of recombinant hybrids and other non-authentic artefacts. The resulting PCR-generated sequences can then be difficult, if not impossible, to authenticate. In contrast, single primer extension (SPEX)-based approaches can genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms from ancient fragments of DNA as accurately as modern DNA. A single SPEX-type assay can amplify just one of the duplex DNA strands at target loci and generate a multi-fold depth-of-coverage, with non-authentic recombinant hybrids reduced to undetectable levels. Crucially, SPEX-type approaches can preferentially access genetic information from damaged and degraded endogenous ancient DNA templates over modern human DNA contaminants. The development of SPEX-type assays offers the potential for highly accurate, quantitative genotyping from ancient hominin samples. PMID:19864251

  4. Providing accurate near real-time fire alerts for Protected Areas through NASA FIRMS: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Wong, M.; Murphy, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) is at the forefront of providing global near real-time (NRT) MODIS thermal anomalies / hotspot location data to end-users . FIRMS serves the data via an interactive Web GIS named Web Fire Mapper, downloads of NRT active fire, archive data downloads for MODIS hotspots dating back to 1999 and a hotspot email alert system The FIRMS Email Alerts system has been successfully alerting users of fires in their area of interest in near real-time and/or via daily and weekly email summaries, with an option to receive MODIS hotspot data as a text file (CSV) attachment. Currently, there are more than 7000 email alert subscriptions from more than 100 countries. Specifically, the email alerts system is designed to generate and send an email alert for any region or area on the globe, with a special focus on providing alerts for protected areas worldwide. For many protected areas, email alerts are particularly useful for early fire detection, monitoring on going fires, as well as allocating resources to protect wildlife and natural resources of particular value. For protected areas, FIRMS uses the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) supplied by United Nations Environment Program - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). Maintaining the most up-to-date, accurate boundary geometry for the protected areas for the email alerts is a challenge as the WDPA is continuously updated due to changing boundaries, merging or delisting of certain protected areas. Because of this dynamic nature of the protected areas database, the FIRMS protected areas database is frequently out-of-date with the most current version of WDPA database. To maintain the most up-to-date boundary information for protected areas and to be in compliance with the WDPA terms and conditions, FIRMS needs to constantly update its database of protected areas. Currently, FIRMS strives to keep its database up to date by downloading the most recent

  5. Automated production of an on-line laboratory reference manual from a laboratory information system.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sterling T; Kern, Dale A

    2002-04-01

    Laboratories provide information beyond test results, including information related to patient preparation, specimen collection and handling, test methodology, test availability, and interpretation of results. Most laboratories publish reference manuals to distribute this information to clients, while relying on the laboratory information system to provide this information to laboratory staff. Maintaining duplicate sources of information is expensive and error-prone, and printed materials become rapidly outdated. We developed a process to automate the production of a web-based reference manual directly from the laboratory information system, using a combination of MUMPS programs and HTML templates. We now focus our resources to assure that the laboratory information system database is accurate and complete, and then with minimal additional effort or expense produce an up-to-date on-line reference manual. We are therefore able to provide better sources of information in a sustainable manner.

  6. The role of cognitive switching in head-up displays. [to determine pilot ability to accurately extract information from either of two sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, E.

    1979-01-01

    The pilot's ability to accurately extract information from either one or both of two superimposed sources of information was determined. Static, aerial, color 35 mm slides of external runway environments and slides of corresponding static head-up display (HUD) symbology were used as the sources. A three channel tachistoscope was utilized to show either the HUD alone, the scene alone, or the two slides superimposed. Cognitive performance of the pilots was assessed by determining the percentage of correct answers given to two HUD related questions, two scene related questions, or one HUD and one scene related question.

  7. The National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service: a premiere cancer information and education resource for the nation.

    PubMed

    Bright, Mary Anne

    2007-01-01

    Through the National Cancer Act and its amendments (National Cancer Act, 1971; National Cancer Act Amendments, 1974), the U.S. Congress mandated that the National Cancer Institute (NCI) - the nation's lead agency for cancer information and research - provides accurate, up-to-date information about cancer to all segments of the U.S. population. In 1975, the NCI established the Cancer Information Service (CIS), a premieer resource for providing cancer information and education to the nation. The CIS is designed to maximize reach to the public by responding to the cancer needs of clients through several communication technologies, including a telephone service, e-mail, and real-time instant messaging. By offering cancer information to the public through one-on-one interactions with CIS information specialists, the CIS is in a unique position to fill the gap that lies between the preferred, interpersonal source of the health care provider and the actual, impersonal Internet. Cancer Information Service can play an important role in providing health care practitioners, health departments, caregivers, and researchers with up-to-date and accurate information about cancer and clinical trials. Currently, 10% of CIS callers are health professionals. Referring patients to the CIS can augment health practitioners' ability to convey important health information to patients. The CIS program uses NCI resources to educate clients on cancer prevention, early detection, treatment, and rehabilitation and smoking cessation in simple terms that they can understand. Additionally, the CIS works with organizations to develop educational programs and interventions to reach underserved populations. A unique component of this information and education program is its ability to contribute to the field of health communications research by collaborating in research studies throughout the U.S. Finally, since its inception in 1975, the CIS has assisted international organizations with starting a

  8. Assignment of Calibration Information to Deeper Phylogenetic Nodes is More Effective in Obtaining Precise and Accurate Divergence Time Estimates.

    PubMed

    Mello, Beatriz; Schrago, Carlos G

    2014-01-01

    Divergence time estimation has become an essential tool for understanding macroevolutionary events. Molecular dating aims to obtain reliable inferences, which, within a statistical framework, means jointly increasing the accuracy and precision of estimates. Bayesian dating methods exhibit the propriety of a linear relationship between uncertainty and estimated divergence dates. This relationship occurs even if the number of sites approaches infinity and places a limit on the maximum precision of node ages. However, how the placement of calibration information may affect the precision of divergence time estimates remains an open question. In this study, relying on simulated and empirical data, we investigated how the location of calibration within a phylogeny affects the accuracy and precision of time estimates. We found that calibration priors set at median and deep phylogenetic nodes were associated with higher precision values compared to analyses involving calibration at the shallowest node. The results were independent of the tree symmetry. An empirical mammalian dataset produced results that were consistent with those generated by the simulated sequences. Assigning time information to the deeper nodes of a tree is crucial to guarantee the accuracy and precision of divergence times. This finding highlights the importance of the appropriate choice of outgroups in molecular dating. PMID:24855333

  9. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment: Accurate ranges have given a large improvement in the lunar orbit and new selenophysical information.

    PubMed

    Bender, P L; Currie, D G; Poultney, S K; Alley, C O; Dicke, R H; Wilkinson, D T; Eckhardt, D H; Faller, J E; Kaula, W M; Mulholland, J D; Plotkin, H H; Silverberg, E C; Williams, J G

    1973-10-19

    The lunar ranging measurements now being made at the McDonald Observatory have an accuracy of 1 nsec in round-trip travel time. This corresponds to 15 cm in the one-way distance. The use of lasers with pulse-lengths of less than 1 nsec is expected to give an accuracy of 2 to 3 cm in the next few years. A new station is under construction in Hawaii, and additional stations in other countries are either in operation or under development. It is hoped that these stations will form the basis for a worldwide network to determine polar motion and earth rotation on a regular basis, and will assist in providing information about movement of the tectonic plates making up the earth's surface. Several mobile lunar ranging stations with telescopes having diameters of 1.0 m or less could, in the future, greatly extend the information obtainable about motions within and between the tectonic plates. The data obtained so far by the McDonald Observatory have been used to generate a new lunar ephemeris based on direct numerical integration of the equations of motion for the moon and planets. With this ephemeris, the range to the three Apollo retro-reflectors can be fit to an accuracy of 5 m by adjusting the differences in moments of inertia of the moon about its principal axes, the selenocentric coordinates of the reflectors, and the McDonald longitude. The accuracy of fitting the results is limited currently by errors of the order of an arc second in the angular orientation of the moon, as derived from the best available theory of how the moon rotates in response to the torques acting on it. Both a new calculation of the moon's orientation as a function of time based on direct numerical integration of the torque equations and a new analytic theory of the moon's orientation are expected to be available soon, and to improve considerably the accuracy of fitting the data. The accuracy already achieved routinely in lunar laser ranging represents a hundredfold improvement over any

  10. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment: Accurate ranges have given a large improvement in the lunar orbit and new selenophysical information.

    PubMed

    Bender, P L; Currie, D G; Poultney, S K; Alley, C O; Dicke, R H; Wilkinson, D T; Eckhardt, D H; Faller, J E; Kaula, W M; Mulholland, J D; Plotkin, H H; Silverberg, E C; Williams, J G

    1973-10-19

    The lunar ranging measurements now being made at the McDonald Observatory have an accuracy of 1 nsec in round-trip travel time. This corresponds to 15 cm in the one-way distance. The use of lasers with pulse-lengths of less than 1 nsec is expected to give an accuracy of 2 to 3 cm in the next few years. A new station is under construction in Hawaii, and additional stations in other countries are either in operation or under development. It is hoped that these stations will form the basis for a worldwide network to determine polar motion and earth rotation on a regular basis, and will assist in providing information about movement of the tectonic plates making up the earth's surface. Several mobile lunar ranging stations with telescopes having diameters of 1.0 m or less could, in the future, greatly extend the information obtainable about motions within and between the tectonic plates. The data obtained so far by the McDonald Observatory have been used to generate a new lunar ephemeris based on direct numerical integration of the equations of motion for the moon and planets. With this ephemeris, the range to the three Apollo retro-reflectors can be fit to an accuracy of 5 m by adjusting the differences in moments of inertia of the moon about its principal axes, the selenocentric coordinates of the reflectors, and the McDonald longitude. The accuracy of fitting the results is limited currently by errors of the order of an arc second in the angular orientation of the moon, as derived from the best available theory of how the moon rotates in response to the torques acting on it. Both a new calculation of the moon's orientation as a function of time based on direct numerical integration of the torque equations and a new analytic theory of the moon's orientation are expected to be available soon, and to improve considerably the accuracy of fitting the data. The accuracy already achieved routinely in lunar laser ranging represents a hundredfold improvement over any

  11. Subjective sense of memory strength and the objective amount of information accurately remembered are related to distinct neural correlates at encoding.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shaozheng; van Marle, Hein J F; Hermans, Erno J; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-06-15

    Although commonly used, the term memory strength is not well defined in humans. Besides durability, it has been conceptualized by retrieval characteristics, such as subjective confidence associated with retrieval, or objectively, by the amount of information accurately retrieved. Behaviorally, these measures are not necessarily correlated, indicating that distinct neural processes may underlie them. Thus, we aimed at disentangling neural activity at encoding associated with either a subsequent subjective sense of memory strength or with a subsequent objective amount of information remembered. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants were scanned while incidentally encoding a series of photographs of complex scenes. The next day, they underwent two memory tests, quantifying memory strength either subjectively (confidence on remembering the gist of a scene) or objectively (the number of details accurately remembered within a scene). Correlations between these measurements were mutually partialed out in subsequent memory analyses of fMRI data. Results revealed that activation in left ventral lateral prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction predicted subsequent confidence ratings. In contrast, parahippocampal and hippocampal activity predicted the number of details remembered. Our findings suggest that memory strength may reflect a functionally heterogeneous set of (at least two) phenomena. One phenomenon appears related to prefrontal and temporoparietal top-down modulations, resulting in the subjective sense of memory strength that is potentially based on gist memory. The other phenomenon is likely related to medial-temporal binding processes, determining the amount of information accurately encoded into memory. Thus, our study dissociated two distinct phenomena that are usually described as memory strength.

  12. Information theory of adaptation in neurons, behavior, and mood

    PubMed Central

    Sharpee, Tatyana O.; Calhoun, Adam J.; Chalasani, Sreekanth H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to make accurate predictions of future stimuli and consequences of one’s actions are crucial for the survival and appropriate decision-making. These predictions are constantly being made at different levels of the nervous system. This is evidenced by adaptation to stimulus parameters in sensory coding, and in learning of an up-to-date model of the environment at the behavioral level. This review will discuss recent findings that actions of neurons and animals are selected based on detailed stimulus history in such a way as to maximize information for achieving the task at hand. Information maximization dictates not only how sensory coding should adapt to various statistical aspects of stimuli, but also that reward function should adapt to match the predictive information from past to future. PMID:24709600

  13. Argon Cluster Sputtering Source for ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling of Insulating Materials: High Sputter Rate and Accurate Interfacial Information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoying; Liu, Bingwen; Zhao, Evan W; Jin, Ke; Du, Yingge; Neeway, James J; Ryan, Joseph V; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Kelvin H L; Hong, Mina; Le Guernic, Solenne; Thevuthasan, Suntharampilai; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

    2015-08-01

    The use of an argon cluster ion sputtering source has been demonstrated to perform superiorly relative to traditional oxygen and cesium ion sputtering sources for ToF-SIMS depth profiling of insulating materials. The superior performance has been attributed to effective alleviation of surface charging. A simulated nuclear waste glass (SON68) and layered hole-perovskite oxide thin films were selected as model systems because of their fundamental and practical significance. Our results show that high sputter rates and accurate interfacial information can be achieved simultaneously for argon cluster sputtering, whereas this is not the case for cesium and oxygen sputtering. Therefore, the implementation of an argon cluster sputtering source can significantly improve the analysis efficiency of insulating materials and, thus, can expand its applications to the study of glass corrosion, perovskite oxide thin film characterization, and many other systems of interest.

  14. A Regional Response to Climate Information Needs during the 1993 Flood.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, Kenneth E.; Changnon, Stanley A.; Hollinger, Steven E.; Reinke, Beth C.; Wendland, Wayne M.; Angel, James R.

    1995-12-01

    Effective responses by government agencies, businesses, and private industry to climate disasters such as the disastrous Mississippi River flood of 1993 hinge on the regional availability of diverse up-to-date weather, climate, and water information. In addition to the obvious need for accurate forecasts and warnings of severe weather and floods, other types of meteorologically based information can contribute to effective responses. Some examples of information requested during and after the 1993 flood include 1) hydroclimatic assessments of the magnitude of the event, 2) agricultural assessments of the impacts of heavy rains and flooding on corn and soybean production, and 3) probabilistic outlooks of the recurrence of flooding based on soil moisture conditions. Quick responses to these climate information needs necessitate 1) a real-time climate monitoring system, 2) physical models to assess effects and impacts, and 3) scientific expertise to address complex issues.

  15. IrisPlex: a sensitive DNA tool for accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour in the absence of ancestry information.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Susan; Liu, Fan; Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oven, Mannis; Lao, Oscar; Kayser, Manfred

    2011-06-01

    A new era of 'DNA intelligence' is arriving in forensic biology, due to the impending ability to predict externally visible characteristics (EVCs) from biological material such as those found at crime scenes. EVC prediction from forensic samples, or from body parts, is expected to help concentrate police investigations towards finding unknown individuals, at times when conventional DNA profiling fails to provide informative leads. Here we present a robust and sensitive tool, termed IrisPlex, for the accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour from DNA in future forensic applications. We used the six currently most eye colour-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that previously revealed prevalence-adjusted prediction accuracies of over 90% for blue and brown eye colour in 6168 Dutch Europeans. The single multiplex assay, based on SNaPshot chemistry and capillary electrophoresis, both widely used in forensic laboratories, displays high levels of genotyping sensitivity with complete profiles generated from as little as 31pg of DNA, approximately six human diploid cell equivalents. We also present a prediction model to correctly classify an individual's eye colour, via probability estimation solely based on DNA data, and illustrate the accuracy of the developed prediction test on 40 individuals from various geographic origins. Moreover, we obtained insights into the worldwide allele distribution of these six SNPs using the HGDP-CEPH samples of 51 populations. Eye colour prediction analyses from HGDP-CEPH samples provide evidence that the test and model presented here perform reliably without prior ancestry information, although future worldwide genotype and phenotype data shall confirm this notion. As our IrisPlex eye colour prediction test is capable of immediate implementation in forensic casework, it represents one of the first steps forward in the creation of a fully individualised EVC prediction system for future use in forensic DNA intelligence.

  16. Freedom of Information Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Freedom of Information Act( FOIA), 5 U.S.C.§ 552, as amended, generally provides that any person has a right to request access to Federal agency records. The USGS proactively promotes information disclosure as inherent to its mission of providing objective science to inform decisionmakers and the general public. USGS scientists disseminate up-to-date and historical scientific data that are critical to addressing national and global priorities.

  17. A laboratory information management system for DNA barcoding workflows.

    PubMed

    Vu, Thuy Duong; Eberhardt, Ursula; Szöke, Szániszló; Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a laboratory information management system for DNA sequences (LIMS) created and based on the needs of a DNA barcoding project at the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (Utrecht, the Netherlands). DNA barcoding is a global initiative for species identification through simple DNA sequence markers. We aim at generating barcode data for all strains (or specimens) included in the collection (currently ca. 80 k). The LIMS has been developed to better manage large amounts of sequence data and to keep track of the whole experimental procedure. The system has allowed us to classify strains more efficiently as the quality of sequence data has improved, and as a result, up-to-date taxonomic names have been given to strains and more accurate correlation analyses have been carried out. PMID:22344310

  18. A laboratory information management system for DNA barcoding workflows.

    PubMed

    Vu, Thuy Duong; Eberhardt, Ursula; Szöke, Szániszló; Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a laboratory information management system for DNA sequences (LIMS) created and based on the needs of a DNA barcoding project at the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (Utrecht, the Netherlands). DNA barcoding is a global initiative for species identification through simple DNA sequence markers. We aim at generating barcode data for all strains (or specimens) included in the collection (currently ca. 80 k). The LIMS has been developed to better manage large amounts of sequence data and to keep track of the whole experimental procedure. The system has allowed us to classify strains more efficiently as the quality of sequence data has improved, and as a result, up-to-date taxonomic names have been given to strains and more accurate correlation analyses have been carried out.

  19. Information-Seeking Habits of Education Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupp-Serrano, Karen; Robbins, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the information-seeking behavior of academic education faculty from twenty large public research universities. The investigation includes an examination of how frequently education faculty seek or access information, how they stay up-to-date on current developments in the field and identify less recent journal literature, how…

  20. Making Your Web Site an Information Clearinghouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houchin, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    University Web sites now offer a wide range of information, from up-to-date course catalogs and informational brochures to class notes for alumni. This article gives an array of ideas for enhancing the usefulness of a university's Web site. A sidebar discusses the pros and cons of linking the student newspaper to the university Web site. (JM)

  1. RAS Corner at the ATRF Library Keeps You Up-to-Date on the Research | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Robin Meckley, Contributing Writer The new RAS initiative recently undertaken at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research has prompted the Scientific Library to provide support in a creative way to the laboratories at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF), where the research is centered.

  2. Up-to-date state of storage techniques used for large numerical data files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chlouba, V.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for data storage and output in data banks and memory files are discussed along with a survey of equipment available for this. Topics discussed include magnetic tapes, magnetic disks, Terabit magnetic tape memory, Unicon 690 laser memory, IBM 1360 photostore, microfilm recording equipment, holographic recording, film readers, optical character readers, digital data storage techniques, and photographic recording. The individual types of equipment are summarized in tables giving the basic technical parameters.

  3. Is symptom-oriented follow-up still up to date?

    PubMed

    Mundhenke, Christoph; Moebus, Volker

    2013-10-01

    The main objective of following patients after the primary treatment of breast cancer is the detection of potentially curable events, particularly the detection of local recurrences and contralateral breast cancer. Additionally, medical counseling on therapies, psychosocial aspects, side effects of therapies, and lifestyle interventions is important to improve the quality of life. There is an ongoing discussion about whether early detection of asymptomatic metastasis could improve the course of disease. Today, the follow-up is still symptom-orientated. Intensified imaging and laboratory check-ups have not been beneficial for the patients' survival. A follow-up in the first 2-3 years is recommended every 3 months. Because of the decreasing incidence of recurrence from year 4, 6-monthly screening intervals are recommended. The screening should include a history, physical examination, and a consultation. Routine diagnostic imaging - except for mammography/ultrasound - is not indicated in asymptomatic patients. Innovative therapies for patients with metastatic breast cancer have been introduced. Therefore, measures of an intensified follow-up could change in the future as novel endocrine combination or targeted therapies in molecular subtypes could significantly improve the survival in early detected metastasis. In the future, more individualized follow-up programs are conceivable. However, this idea is so far not supported by the available data.

  4. [Up-to-date on the HELLP syndrome (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelets)].

    PubMed

    Medhioub Kaaniche, F; Chaari, A; Turki, O; Rgaieg, K; Baccouch, N; Zekri, M; Bahloul, M; Chelly, H; Ben Hamida, Ch; Bouaziz, M

    2016-06-01

    HELLP syndrome is an acronym for Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelets. It is generally considered in the literature as a particular clinical form of pre-eclampsia, a severe complication of the second half of pregnancy. However, this syndrome can occur in isolation in the absence of pre-eclampsia symptoms. Its pathophysiology remains still unclear. The clinical picture is often incomplete and fruste at first. To date, its diagnosis and management is still the subject of much controversy. Associated or not with a vascular and renal manifestations, the HELLP syndrome is a high-risk maternal disorder. The objective of this article is to review the pathophysiological and clinical data and current treatment.

  5. Empirical therapy in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus infections: An Up-To-Date approach.

    PubMed

    VanEperen, Alison S; Segreti, John

    2016-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be an important pathogen worldwide, with high prevalence of infection in both community and hospital settings. Timely and appropriate choice of empirical therapy in the setting of MRSA infection is imperative due to the high rate of associated morbidity and mortality with MRSA infections. Initial choices should be made based on the site and severity of the infection, most notably moderate skin and soft tissue infections which may be treated with oral antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, doxycycline/minocycline, linezolid) in the outpatient setting, versus choice of parenteral therapy in the inpatient setting of more invasive or severe disease. Though the current recommendations continue to strongly rely on vancomycin as a standard empiric choice in the setting of severe/invasive infections, alternative therapies exist with studies supporting their non-inferiority. This includes the use of linezolid in pneumonia and severe skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) and daptomycin for MRSA bacteremia, endocarditis, SSSIs and bone/joint infections. Additionally, concerns continue to arise in regards to vancomycin, such as increasing isolate MICs, and relatively high rates of clinical failures with vancomycin. Thus, the growing interest in vanomycin alternatives, such as ceftaroline, ceftobribole, dalbavancin, oritavancin, and tedizolid, and their potential role in treating MRSA infections.

  6. Differential role of Hedgehog signaling in human pancreatic (patho-) physiology: An up to date review.

    PubMed

    Klieser, Eckhard; Swierczynski, Stefan; Mayr, Christian; Jäger, Tarkan; Schmidt, Johanna; Neureiter, Daniel; Kiesslich, Tobias; Illig, Romana

    2016-05-15

    Since the discovery of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in drosophila melanogaster, our knowledge of the role of Hh in embryonic development, inflammation, and cancerogenesis in humans has dramatically increased over the last decades. This is the case especially concerning the pancreas, however, real therapeutic breakthroughs are missing until now. In general, Hh signaling is essential for pancreatic organogenesis, development, and tissue maturation. In the case of acute pancreatitis, Hh has a protective role, whereas in chronic pancreatitis, Hh interacts with pancreatic stellate cells, leading to destructive parenchym fibrosis and atrophy, as well as to irregular tissue remodeling with potency of initiating cancerogenesis. In vitro and in situ analysis of Hh in pancreatic cancer revealed that the Hh pathway participates in the development of pancreatic precursor lesions and ductal adenocarcinoma including critical interactions with the tumor microenvironment. The application of specific inhibitors of components of the Hh pathway is currently subject of ongoing clinical trials (phases 1 and 2). Furthermore, a combination of Hh pathway inhibitors and established chemotherapeutic drugs could also represent a promising therapeutic approach. In this review, we give a structured survey of the role of the Hh pathway in pancreatic development, pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinogenesis and pancreatic cancer as well as an overview of current clinical trials concerning Hh pathway inhibitors and pancreas cancer.

  7. Nosocomial rotavirus infection: An up to date evaluation of European studies.

    PubMed

    Gervasi, G; Capanna, A; Mita, V; Zaratti, L; Franco, E

    2016-09-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is worldwide considered as the most important viral agent of acute gastroenteritis in children less than 5 y. Since 2006, the availability of anti-RV vaccines has deeply modified the incidence and economic burden of RV infection. In Europe, some countries have introduced an anti-RV vaccination program in the last 10 y. Although community acquired RV (CARV) disease is the most studied condition of RV infection, recently some authors have highlighted the importance of nosocomial RV (nRV) disease as an emerging public health issue. The aim of this review is to summarize the epidemiology of both CARV and nRV, in order to discuss the difficulty of a clear evaluation of the burden of the disease in absence of comparable data. In particular, we focused our attention to European studies regarding nRV in terms of divergences related to definition, report of incidence rate and methodological issues.

  8. Three- and four-dimensional ultrasound in fetal echocardiography: an up-to-date overview.

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, B M E; van Vugt, J M G; Haak, M C

    2016-09-01

    Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are the most commonly overlooked lesions in prenatal screening programs. Real-time two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) is the conventionally used tool for fetal echocardiography. Although continuous improvements in the hardware and post-processing software have resulted in a good image quality even in late first trimester, 2DUS still has its limitations. Four-dimensional ultrasound with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) is an automated volume acquisition, recording a single three-dimensional (3D) volume throughout a complete cardiac cycle, which results in a four-dimensional (4D) volume. STIC has the potential to increase the detection rate of CHD. The aim of this study is to provide a practical overview of the possibilities and (dis)advantages of STIC. A review of literature and evaluation of the current status and clinical value of 3D/4D ultrasound in prenatal screening and diagnosis of congenital heart disease are presented.

  9. Reminder: Medical Surveillance Forms Must Be Up-to-Date | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Theresa Bell, Guest Writer​ If you work in a laboratory, or you have contact with animals or animal materials, you work with human biomaterials or infectious agents, or you are exposed to radiation or other hazards in your day-to-day duties, you should be enrolled in the appropriate medical surveillance program.

  10. Differential role of Hedgehog signaling in human pancreatic (patho-) physiology: An up to date review

    PubMed Central

    Klieser, Eckhard; Swierczynski, Stefan; Mayr, Christian; Jäger, Tarkan; Schmidt, Johanna; Neureiter, Daniel; Kiesslich, Tobias; Illig, Romana

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in drosophila melanogaster, our knowledge of the role of Hh in embryonic development, inflammation, and cancerogenesis in humans has dramatically increased over the last decades. This is the case especially concerning the pancreas, however, real therapeutic breakthroughs are missing until now. In general, Hh signaling is essential for pancreatic organogenesis, development, and tissue maturation. In the case of acute pancreatitis, Hh has a protective role, whereas in chronic pancreatitis, Hh interacts with pancreatic stellate cells, leading to destructive parenchym fibrosis and atrophy, as well as to irregular tissue remodeling with potency of initiating cancerogenesis. In vitro and in situ analysis of Hh in pancreatic cancer revealed that the Hh pathway participates in the development of pancreatic precursor lesions and ductal adenocarcinoma including critical interactions with the tumor microenvironment. The application of specific inhibitors of components of the Hh pathway is currently subject of ongoing clinical trials (phases 1 and 2). Furthermore, a combination of Hh pathway inhibitors and established chemotherapeutic drugs could also represent a promising therapeutic approach. In this review, we give a structured survey of the role of the Hh pathway in pancreatic development, pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinogenesis and pancreatic cancer as well as an overview of current clinical trials concerning Hh pathway inhibitors and pancreas cancer. PMID:27190692

  11. A mechanism for maintaining an up-to-date GenBank database via Usenet.

    PubMed

    Smith, R H; Gottesman, S; Hobbs, B; Lear, E; Kristofferson, D; Benton, D; Smith, P R

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an automated system for distributing updates to the GenBank nucleic acid sequence database, using the Usenet news system as the underlying transport mechanism. Our system allows new loci to be distributed as soon as the sequences are available, over existing networks, using existing Usenet software and infrastructure currently available on a wide range of computer systems. PMID:2004268

  12. [Changes in olfaction during ageing and in certain neurodegenerative diseases: up-to-date].

    PubMed

    Bianchi, A-J; Guépet-Sordet, H; Manckoundia, P

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction is a complex sensory system, and increasing interest is being shown in the link between olfaction and cognition, notably in the elderly. In this literature review, we revisit the specific neurophysiological features of the olfactory system and odorants that lead to a durable olfactory memory and an emotional memory, for which the implicit component produces subconscious olfactory conditioning. Olfaction is known to affect cognitive abilities and mood. We also consider the impairment of olfactory function due to ageing and to neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, through anatomopathological changes in the peripheral and central olfactory structures. The high frequency of these olfactory disorders as well as their early occurrence in Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease are in favour of their clinical detection in subjects suffering from these two neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we analyse the impact of olfactory stimulation on cognitive performance and attention. Current observational data from studies in elderly patients with Alzheimer-type dementia are limited to multiple sensory stimulation methods, such as the Snoezelen method, and aromatherapy. These therapies have shown benefits for dementia-related mood and behaviour disorders in the short term, with few side effects. Since olfactory chemosensory stimulation may be beneficial, it may be proposed in patients with dementia, especially Alzheimer-type dementia, as a complementary or even alternative therapy to existing medical strategies. PMID:25304170

  13. Management of perianal fistulas in Crohn’s disease: An up-to-date review

    PubMed Central

    Marzo, Manuela; Felice, Carla; Pugliese, Daniela; Andrisani, Gianluca; Mocci, Giammarco; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Guidi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Perianal disease is one of the most disabling manifestations of Crohn’s disease. A multidisciplinary approach of gastroenterologist, colorectal surgeon and radiologist is necessary for its management. A correct diagnosis, based on endoscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, endoanal ultrasound and examination under anesthesia, is crucial for perianal fistula treatment. Available medical and surgical therapies are discussed in this review, including new local treatment modalities that are under investigation. PMID:25663759

  14. Pharmacological Preventions of Brain Injury Following Experimental Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage: an Up-to-Date Review.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Tao, Yihao; Jiang, Bing; Chen, Qianwei; Hua, Feng; Zhang, John; Zhu, Gang; Chen, Zhi

    2016-02-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is defined as the rupture of immature blood vessels in the subependymal zone of premature infants with significant mortality and morbidity. Considering the notable social and ecological stress brought by GMH-induced brain injury and sequelae, safe and efficient pharmacological preventions are badly needed. Currently, several appropriate animal models are available to mimic the clinical outcomes of GMH in human patients. In the long run, hemorrhagic strokes are the research target. Previously, we found that minocycline was efficient to alleviate GMH-induced brain edema and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) in rats, which may be closely related to the activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R). However, how the two molecules correlate and the underlined molecular pathway remain unknown. To extensively understand current experimental GMH treatment, this literature review critically evaluates existing therapeutic strategies, potential treatments, and potentially involved molecular mechanisms. Each strategy has its own advantages and disadvantages. Some of the mechanisms are still controversial, requiring an increasing number of animal experiments before the therapeutic strategy would be widely accepted.

  15. Ovarian Stimulation Protocol in IVF: An Up-to-Date Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Pacchiarotti, Alessandro; Selman, Helmy; Valeri, Claudia; Napoletano, Simona; Sbracia, Marco; Antonini, Gabriele; Biagiotti, Giulio; Pacchiarotti, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    The Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) was born in order to help couples with infertility issues in having a baby. The first treatments of IVF used the spontaneous cycle of the women, with the retrieval of only one oocyte. Further studies have shown that it is possible to induce ovulation by administrating gonadotropins during the menstrual cycle, in order to obtain a higher number of oocytes. Many stimulation protocols have been introduced for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation of patients undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment. This review describe the different stimulation protocols using follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in combination with Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) either agonist or antagonist, oral supplementations and ovarian triggering. Using GnRH antagonist protocols have been demonstrated to improve significantly the clinical pregnancy rates for expected poor and high-responders, and in those women at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Two meta-analyses showed a better outcome in terms of the live birth rate when highly purified human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) was used for ovarian stimulation compared with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) in the GnRH agonist long protocol. One of the most efficient stimulation protocol is the use of a combined protocol of human derived urinary FSH (uFSH) and rFSH. Combined protocol has resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of mature metaphase II oocytes and grade 1 embryos when compared to either rFSH or uFSH alone. A significantly higher delivery rate was achieved in rFSH+uFSH compared to the other protocols in poor and normal responders. Studying the combination of melatonin with myo-inositol and folic acid has also showed a higher percentage of mature oocytes in the melatonin group and a higher percentage of G1 embryos as well. However, It remains a crucial step to confirm the efficacy of such protocols for clinical application and it is still needs to comparison studies on larger scale with more focused on the differences in patients' response criteria and additional confounding variables, in order to draw more defined conclusions.

  16. Pityriasis Alba--Common Disease, Enigmatic Entity: Up-to-Date Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Miazek, Nina; Michalek, Irmina; Pawlowska-Kisiel, Malgorzata; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Pityriasis alba (PA) is a skin disorder that affects children and adolescents. Although it is common worldwide, its incidence is markedly higher in darker skin phototypes. Its characteristic features include an extended, multistage course and spontaneous remissions and recurrences. Preceded by erythematous changes, patches of hypopigmented skin of up to a few centimeters in diameter appear on the upper body. Pruritus may accompany it. Even though its etiology is unknown, possible reported triggering factors include sunlight, beauty treatments, and microorganisms, among others. Calcineurin inhibitors play the most crucial role in PA pharmacotherapy. PA often coexists with atopic dermatitis and is considered one of its milder forms.

  17. [The up-to-date methods of management of NSAIDs-induced injuries of small intestine].

    PubMed

    Tkach, S M; Balabantseva, H P; Levchenko, A R

    2014-01-01

    In the article the incidence, pathogenesis, clinical featuries, diagnostic, prevention and treatment of NSAIDs-induced injuries of small intestine are presented. The different strategies of management of NSAID-induced enteropathy, such as use of PPI, COX-2-inhibitors, prostaglandins, antibiotics and probiotics, new combination of NSAIDs with phosphatidylcholine, NO or H2S, food supplements and other drugs are discussed.

  18. Editorial Commentary: Anatomy of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament - Are We Up to Date?

    PubMed

    Provencher, Matthew T

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review demonstrates that knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) anatomic landmarks continue to be better defined, but debate as to the precise location of the ACL femoral and tibial footprints persists. The ACL anatomy of an individual patient may ultimately be impossible to determine using generalized research data, but current research probably gets us pretty close.

  19. Histoplasmosis: Up-to-Date Evidence-Based Approach to Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Hage, Chadi A; Azar, Marwan M; Bahr, Nathan; Loyd, James; Wheat, L Joseph

    2015-10-01

    Histoplasmosis is the most common endemic mycosis in the North America, Central America, and many countries of South America and also occurs in China, India, Southeast Asia, Africa, Australia, and Europe. Clinical syndromes are not specific and histoplasmosis often is overlooked in the evaluation of patients with community-acquired pneumonia, chronic cavitary pneumonia resembling tuberculosis or anaerobic infection, granulomatous inflammatory diseases such as sarcoidosis or Crohn disease, and malignancy. The diagnosis depends on understanding the geographic distribution, common clinical presentations, and tests used for diagnosis of histoplasmosis. While histoplasmosis resolves without treatment in most patients, treatment is indicated in all immunocompromised patients and those with progressive disseminated disease or chronic pulmonary disease. Treatment is appropriate in most patients with acute pulmonary disease but rarely in those with other pulmonary or mediastinal manifestations. The preferred agents include liposomal amphotericin B for more severe cases and itraconazole for milder cases and "step-down" therapy following response to amphotericin B.

  20. An up-to-date overview of the most recent transcatheter implantable aortic valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Wiegerinck, Esther M A; Van Kesteren, Floortje; Van Mourik, Martijn S; Vis, Marije M; Baan, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has evolved towards the routine therapy for high-risk patients with severe aortic valve stenosis. Technical refinements in TAVI are rapidly evolving with a simultaneous expansion of the number of available devices. This review will present an overview of the current status of development of TAVI-prostheses; describes the technical features and applicability of each device and the clinical data available.

  1. Lophotrochozoa internal phylogeny: new insights from an up-to-date analysis of nuclear ribosomal genes

    PubMed Central

    Paps, Jordi; Baguñà, Jaume; Riutort, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Resolving the relationships among animal phyla is a key biological problem that remains to be solved. Morphology is unable to determine the relationships among most phyla and although molecular data have unveiled a new evolutionary scenario, they have their own limitations. Nuclear ribosomal genes (18S and 28S rDNA) have been used effectively for many years. However, they are considered of limited use for resolving deep divergences such as the origin of the bilaterians, due to certain drawbacks such as the long-branch attraction (LBA) problem. Here, we attempt to overcome these pitfalls by combining several methods suggested in previous studies and routinely used in contemporary standard phylogenetic analyses but that have not yet been applied to any bilaterian phylogeny based on these genes. The methods used include maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, the application of models with rate heterogeneity across sites, wide taxon sampling and compartmentalized analyses for each problematic clade. The results obtained show that the combination of the above-mentioned methodologies minimizes the LBA effect, and a new Lophotrochozoa phylogeny emerges. Also, the Acoela and Nemertodermatida are confirmed with maximum support as the first branching bilaterians. Ribosomal RNA genes are thus a reliable source for the study of deep divergences in the metazoan tree, provided that the data are treated carefully. PMID:19129141

  2. Nosocomial rotavirus infection: An up to date evaluation of European studies

    PubMed Central

    Gervasi, G.; Capanna, A.; Mita, V.; Zaratti, L.; Franco, E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rotavirus (RV) is worldwide considered as the most important viral agent of acute gastroenteritis in children less than 5 y. Since 2006, the availability of anti-RV vaccines has deeply modified the incidence and economic burden of RV infection. In Europe, some countries have introduced an anti-RV vaccination program in the last 10 y. Although community acquired RV (CARV) disease is the most studied condition of RV infection, recently some authors have highlighted the importance of nosocomial RV (nRV) disease as an emerging public health issue. The aim of this review is to summarize the epidemiology of both CARV and nRV, in order to discuss the difficulty of a clear evaluation of the burden of the disease in absence of comparable data. In particular, we focused our attention to European studies regarding nRV in terms of divergences related to definition, report of incidence rate and methodological issues. PMID:27185183

  3. Here Are the Greatest, Most Up-to-Date Ways to Project Enrollments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses both "soft" signs such as the sales of baby food, advertisements pitched to older populations, and business peoples' discussion of trends that might indicate population shifts, and hard data such as birth data, census data, building permits, and housing turnover. (IRT)

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric MALTomas: an up-to-date and therapy highlight.

    PubMed

    Santacroce, L; Cagiano, R; Del Prete, R; Bottalico, L; Sabatini, R; Carlaio, R G; Prejbeanu, R; Vermesan, H; Dragulescu, S I; Vermesan, D; Motoc, A; Losacco, T

    2008-01-01

    During the last 20 years Helicobacter pylori (Hp) has been, undoubtly, the star of gastroenterology and microbiology, so much to deserve the "Nobel prize 2005" for biology and medicine to its discoverers. More recently, an increased interest arised on Hp and its linkages with other medical fi elds such as immunology, surgery and dentistry. The outcome of the pathologies due to such bacterium is dependent on many factors, including bacterial genotype, host physiology and genetics, and environmental factors such as diet. In spite of its clear involvement in some pathologies like acute and chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, very little is known about another pathology recently proved to be closely associated to the infection by Hp: the gastric MALToma, which account for 7% of all newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The chronic infection of the gastric mucosa from Helicobacter pylori primes a complex pathogenic process which could determine the onset of the gastric cancer through some intermediary steps. On these bases, in 1994, the International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC) defined this bacterium a "class I carcinogenic agent" for gastric cancer. The MALT lymphomas are the most frequent lymphoid neoplasms of the digestive tract; we can also observe other and more rare lymphomatous tumours with specific clinical patterns, like the T-lymphoma associated with lymphomatous polyposis and enteropathy. The development of gastric lymphomas is usually preceded by the acquisition of lymphatic tissue, after inflammatory stimuli and particularly after the infection from Hp, which organizes itself with the characteristics of the MALT. Recently, a number of papers have highlighted the remarkable efficacy of Hp eradicating therapy in patients with low-grade MALT lymphoma of the stomach without other modalities, e.g. surgery and systemic chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to be helpful for a comprehensive understanding the possible connections between Hp and gastric MALT lymphoma, evaluating the best therapy strategies, surgical and non surgical, actually available for its treatment.

  5. Clinical and Rehabilitative Management of Retinitis Pigmentosa: Up-to-Date

    PubMed Central

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Sato, Giovanni; De Nadai, Katia; Romano, Mario R; Binotto, Andrea; Costagliola, Ciro

    2011-01-01

    The term retinitis pigmentosa (RP) indicates a heterogeneous group of genetic rare ocular diseases in which either rods or cones are prevalently damaged. RP represents the most common hereditary cause of blindness in people from 20 to 60 years old. In general, the different RP forms consist of progressive photo-receptorial neuro-degenerations, which are characterized by variable visual disabilities and considerable socio-sanitary burden. Sometimes, RP patients do not become visually impaired or legally blind until their 40-50 years of age and/or maintain a quite acceptable sight for all their life. Other individuals with RP become completely blind very early or in middle childhood. Although there is no treatment that can effectively cure RP, in some case-series the disease’s progression seems to be reducible by specific preventive approaches. In the most part of RP patients, the quality of vision can be considerably increased by means of nanometer-controlled filters. In the present review, the main aspects of the routine clinical and rehabilitative managements for RP patients are described, particularly focusing on the importance of specific referral Centers to practice a real multidisciplinary governance of these dramatic diseases. PMID:22131870

  6. [Is the training and continuing education for urologists in Germany still up to date?].

    PubMed

    Müller, S C; Strunk, T

    2011-08-01

    Besides its role in bladder and kidney cancer, urology plays a leading part in oncology particularly with regard to prostate cancer, the most frequent malignant tumor found in men. The multitude of hereditary anomalies of the urogenital tract and the resultant medical conditions, the importance of urinary tract infections including the still deadly urosepsis, urolithiasis which has become as widespread a condition as diabetes mellitus, and urinary incontinence as an increasing problem of a continuously aging population play such a large role in routine practice that every practicing physician must acquire the necessary skills for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Is our current curriculum for training and continuing education adequate for this task?The primary goal of a meaningful program for continuing education must be to impart the corresponding qualities to young colleagues to ensure optimal patient care. The specialist certification exam itself should invariably be based nationwide on an objective written test: the existing European Board of Urology exam would be ideally suited to facilitate a comparison with other countries across Europe. PMID:21713537

  7. Pityriasis Alba--Common Disease, Enigmatic Entity: Up-to-Date Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Miazek, Nina; Michalek, Irmina; Pawlowska-Kisiel, Malgorzata; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Pityriasis alba (PA) is a skin disorder that affects children and adolescents. Although it is common worldwide, its incidence is markedly higher in darker skin phototypes. Its characteristic features include an extended, multistage course and spontaneous remissions and recurrences. Preceded by erythematous changes, patches of hypopigmented skin of up to a few centimeters in diameter appear on the upper body. Pruritus may accompany it. Even though its etiology is unknown, possible reported triggering factors include sunlight, beauty treatments, and microorganisms, among others. Calcineurin inhibitors play the most crucial role in PA pharmacotherapy. PA often coexists with atopic dermatitis and is considered one of its milder forms. PMID:26477326

  8. The Path to an Up-to-date Absolute Gravity Reference System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmes, H.; Falk, R.; Wziontek, H.

    2014-12-01

    The determination of precise gravity field parameters is of great importance in a period in which earth sciences are achieving the necessary accuracy to monitor and document global change processes. This is the reason why experts from geodesy and metrology joined in a successful cooperation to make absolute gravity observations traceable to SI quantities, to improve the metrological kilogram definition and to monitor mass movements and smallest height changes for geodetic and geophysical applications. How can we determine such a gravity reference system and secure it over multiple decades? Precise knowledge of the gravity acceleration and definition of standards, models and corrections are an important prerequisite to the definition of the gravity system. Over more than three decades, the absolute gravity community cooperated successfully to obtain the gravity reference in comparisons at intervals of 4 years and to certify metrological equivalence between National Metrology Institutes. With increasing resolution of the absolute gravimeter sensors and new measurement principles it becomes obvious that such comparisons are not sufficient for all applications. Mainly for geodetic purposes it is necessary to sub-divide comparison intervals and maintain a connected network of gravity reference sites where compared absolute gravimeters operate together with superconducting gravimeters to derive a continuous gravity reference function. By means of this distributed monitoring of the gravity reference it will also be possible to relate observations of earlier absolute gravimeters to the present-day and to future instruments. It will be possible to include new sensors like atom interferometers and in future to relate the results of precise optical clocks. With co-located space geodetic sensors like GNSS, SLR and VLBI, these reference sites fulfill the conditions of a geodetic fundamental station as a component of IAG's Global Geodetic Observing System.

  9. Up-to-Date and with a Past: The "Duden" and Its History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Gerhard

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the origins and history of Konrad Duden's "Vollstandiges Orthographisches Worterbuch," the standard reference work on correct German spelling since the 1880s, which since the early 20th century has been referred to simply as "Duden." Also emphasized are the historical and cultural impact of "Duden" spelling guides in the 20th century. (24…

  10. Laboratories: Developing an up-to-Date Industrial LAN Course and Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borns, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    Uses a modular approach so the Local Area Network (LAN) can be easily dismantled and reassembled for each class. Notes the course is evolving to keep pace with rapid advances in networking technology although only in its second year. Expands the basic LAN through the addition of second generation personal computers. (MVL)

  11. Capsule endoscopy in clinical practice: concise up-to-date overview

    PubMed Central

    Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Douglas, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, the small bowel was considered a ‘no man’s land’ as the imaging modalities available for its investigation were laborious, invasive, costly, or involve significant radiation exposure. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has changed the field dramatically, over the last eight years. The established indications for small bowel WCE are obscure gastrointestinal bleed/anemia, Crohn’s disease, hereditary polyposis syndromes, and to a lesser extent, evaluation of side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and coeliac disease. We herein present an overview of the capsule examination, which seems to be a quickly improving area. PMID:21694834

  12. [Changes in olfaction during ageing and in certain neurodegenerative diseases: up-to-date].

    PubMed

    Bianchi, A-J; Guépet-Sordet, H; Manckoundia, P

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction is a complex sensory system, and increasing interest is being shown in the link between olfaction and cognition, notably in the elderly. In this literature review, we revisit the specific neurophysiological features of the olfactory system and odorants that lead to a durable olfactory memory and an emotional memory, for which the implicit component produces subconscious olfactory conditioning. Olfaction is known to affect cognitive abilities and mood. We also consider the impairment of olfactory function due to ageing and to neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, through anatomopathological changes in the peripheral and central olfactory structures. The high frequency of these olfactory disorders as well as their early occurrence in Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease are in favour of their clinical detection in subjects suffering from these two neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we analyse the impact of olfactory stimulation on cognitive performance and attention. Current observational data from studies in elderly patients with Alzheimer-type dementia are limited to multiple sensory stimulation methods, such as the Snoezelen method, and aromatherapy. These therapies have shown benefits for dementia-related mood and behaviour disorders in the short term, with few side effects. Since olfactory chemosensory stimulation may be beneficial, it may be proposed in patients with dementia, especially Alzheimer-type dementia, as a complementary or even alternative therapy to existing medical strategies.

  13. 41 CFR 105-64.106 - What is GSA's policy on information accuracy in a system of records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regional Offices-General Services Administration 64-GSA PRIVACY ACT RULES 64.1-Policies and... will ensure that all Privacy Act records are accurate, relevant, necessary, timely, and complete. All...) are reviewed to ensure they are relevant, necessary, accurate, up-to-date, and covered by...

  14. 41 CFR 105-64.106 - What is GSA's policy on information accuracy in a system of records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regional Offices-General Services Administration 64-GSA PRIVACY ACT RULES 64.1-Policies and... will ensure that all Privacy Act records are accurate, relevant, necessary, timely, and complete. All...) are reviewed to ensure they are relevant, necessary, accurate, up-to-date, and covered by...

  15. ERIC Directory of Education-Related Information Centers, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeg, Michael, Ed.; Taheri, Belinda, Ed.

    This directory is designed to help users identify information centers in education and related fields that can provide up-to-date information. It includes both federally and privately funded organizations that provide services and products such as: reference and referral; online searches; publications; information dissemination; technical…

  16. PGIS (Project Grant Information System) Taxonomy [Rough Draft].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North American Rockwell Information Systems Co., Arlington, VA.

    The Project Grant Information System (PGIS) is a computerized information indexing and retrieval system which supports the U.S. Office of Education. Its purpose is to provide OE officials with up-to-date information about the Office's discretionary grant programs and projects. The purpose of the Taxonomy is to provide: (1) those individuals who…

  17. Student Information Systems Demystified: The Increasing Demand for Accurate, Timely Data Means Schools and Districts Are Relying Heavily on SIS Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Todd

    2004-01-01

    Student information systems, one of the first applications of computer technology in education, are undergoing a significant transition yet again. The first major shift in SIS technologies occurred about 15 years ago when they evolved from mainframe programs to client-server solutions. Now, vendors across the board are offering centralized…

  18. RESIDENTIAL AIR CLEANERS: A SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication will provide up-to-date information on the types of air cleaners available to the consumer, provides available information on their general effectiveness in removing indoor air pollutants, discusses some factors to consider in deciding whether to use an air-clean...

  19. Energy Information Transfer in Virginia. A Planning Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickin, Patricia

    The Virginia Planning Conference for Solar Technology Information Transfer was held in Richmond in February 1978 to elicit suggestions on how to make Virginians aware of libraries as sources of energy information and how Virginia libraries can keep their energy materials and reference services up to date. A summary of this planning session and a…

  20. Information Files for Old Chestnuts and Chestnut Nags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetros, John G.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of an up-to-date information file is discussed, using the quest for the name of Paul Revere's horse as an example. A list of Famous Riders and Their Horses'' is included as an indication of the type material to be included in an information file. (SM)

  1. Selective Dissemination of Information and Retrospective Searches. Computer Based Information Services from RIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluchowicz, Zofia

    The purpose of this guide is to give an up-to-date presentation of the information service offered by the documentation center at the Royal Institute of Technology (RIT) and to facilitate the utilization of the service. The guide gives a general account of the multidisciplinary computerized current awareness service (SDI) and a detailed…

  2. Profitable capitation requires accurate costing.

    PubMed

    West, D A; Hicks, L L; Balas, E A; West, T D

    1996-01-01

    In the name of costing accuracy, nurses are asked to track inventory use on per treatment basis when more significant costs, such as general overhead and nursing salaries, are usually allocated to patients or treatments on an average cost basis. Accurate treatment costing and financial viability require analysis of all resources actually consumed in treatment delivery, including nursing services and inventory. More precise costing information enables more profitable decisions as is demonstrated by comparing the ratio-of-cost-to-treatment method (aggregate costing) with alternative activity-based costing methods (ABC). Nurses must participate in this costing process to assure that capitation bids are based upon accurate costs rather than simple averages. PMID:8788799

  3. Freedom of Information Act-Employee responsibilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The Freedom of Information Act( FOIA), 5 U.S.C. § 552, as amended, generally provides that any person has a right to request access to Federal agency records. The USGS proactively promotes information disclosure as inherent to its mission of providing objective science to inform decisionmakers and the general public. USGS scientists disseminate up-to-date and historical scientific data that are critical to addressing national and global priorities.

  4. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  5. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  6. Accurate Completion of Medical Report on Diagnosing Death.

    PubMed

    Savić, Slobodan; Alempijević, Djordje; Andjelić, Sladjana

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing death and issuing a Death Diagnosing Form (DDF) represents an activity that carries a great deal of public responsibility for medical professionals of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and is perpetually exposed to the control of the general public. Diagnosing death is necessary so as to confirm true, to exclude apparent death and consequentially to avoid burying a person alive, i.e. apparently dead. These expert-methodological guidelines based on the most up-to-date and medically based evidence have the goal of helping the physicians of the EMS in accurately filling out a medical report on diagnosing death. If the outcome of applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation measures is negative or when the person is found dead, the physician is under obligation to diagnose death and correctly fill out the DDF. It is also recommended to perform electrocardiography (EKG) and record asystole in at least two leads. In the process of diagnostics and treatment, it is a moral obligation of each Belgrade EMS physician to apply all available achievements and knowledge of modern medicine acquired from extensive international studies, which have been indeed the major theoretical basis for the creation of these expert-methodological guidelines. Those acting differently do so in accordance with their conscience and risk professional, and even criminal sanctions.

  7. Spectators or Patriots? Citizens in the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhawan, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    In theory, a strong democracy rests on robust citizen participation. The practice in most democracies is quite different. This gap presents a challenge, which can be narrowed by augmenting civic education to bring it up to date with the current information environment and thus give citizens the opportunity to participate. Robert Dahl's work on…

  8. Design and Development of Web-Based Information Literacy Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Shiao-Feng; Kuo, Jane

    2010-01-01

    The current study conducts a thorough content analysis of recently built or up-to-date high-quality web-based information literacy tutorials contributed by academic libraries in a peer-reviewed database, PRIMO. This research analyzes the topics/skills PRIMO tutorials consider essential and the teaching strategies they consider effective. The…

  9. Activity Sourcebook for Earth Science. Science Education Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Victor J., Ed.

    Designed to provide teachers of earth science with activities and information that will assist them in keeping their curricula up to date, this publication contains activities grouped into six chapters. Chapter titles are: (1) Weather and Climate, (2) Oceans, (3) The Earth and Its Surface, (4) Plate Tectonics, (5) Uses of Space Photography, and…

  10. 77 FR 69664 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... information collection: Voluntary Reporting of Planned Topical Report Submissions. 2. Current OMB approval... the TR program, the NRC staff needs up- to-date information on TR submittals. This additional... evaluation in licensing actions if the TR is approved by the staff; and (4) if a fee-exemption request...

  11. 78 FR 51181 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    .... chapter 3501 et seq.), ED is proposing a new information collection. DATES: Interested persons are invited... request (ICR) that is described below. The Department of Education is especially interested in public... guide is thoroughly informed by current practice and up-to-date learning from the field. Dated:...

  12. Innovative Approaches to Meeting Entrepreneurial Informational Needs: SBA Enters the XXI Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, George T.; Fernald, Lloyd W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This article points out the critical importance of up-to-date information for small business entrepreneurs and describes two innovative initiatives of the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA): the national electronic bulletin board system called "SBA On-Line" and Business Information Centers in field locations. (JDD)

  13. Biotechnology Education. Engaging the Learner: Embedding Information Literacy Skills into a Biotechnology Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Helena; Hockey, Julie

    2007-01-01

    One of the challenges of the Biotechnology industry is keeping up to date with the rapid pace of change and that much of the information, which students learn in their undergraduate studies, will be out of date in a few years. It is therefore crucial that Biotechnology students have the skills to access the relevant information for their studies…

  14. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  15. Accurate and Accidental Empathy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Michael

    The author offers two controversial criticisms of what are rapidly becoming standard assessment procedures for the measurement of empathic skill. First, he asserts that assessment procedures which attend exclusively to the accuracy with which subjects are able to characterize other people's feelings provide little or no useful information about…

  16. Accurate Optical Reference Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, N.

    2006-08-01

    Current and near future all-sky astrometric catalogs on the ICRF are reviewed with the emphasis on reference star data at optical wavelengths for user applications. The standard error of a Hipparcos Catalogue star position is now about 15 mas per coordinate. For the Tycho-2 data it is typically 20 to 100 mas, depending on magnitude. The USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC) observing program was completed in 2004 and reductions toward the final UCAC3 release are in progress. This all-sky reference catalogue will have positional errors of 15 to 70 mas for stars in the 10 to 16 mag range, with a high degree of completeness. Proper motions for the about 60 million UCAC stars will be derived by combining UCAC astrometry with available early epoch data, including yet unpublished scans of the complete set of AGK2, Hamburg Zone astrograph and USNO Black Birch programs. Accurate positional and proper motion data are combined in the Naval Observatory Merged Astrometric Dataset (NOMAD) which includes Hipparcos, Tycho-2, UCAC2, USNO-B1, NPM+SPM plate scan data for astrometry, and is supplemented by multi-band optical photometry as well as 2MASS near infrared photometry. The Milli-Arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (MAPS) mission is currently being planned at USNO. This is a micro-satellite to obtain 1 mas positions, parallaxes, and 1 mas/yr proper motions for all bright stars down to about 15th magnitude. This program will be supplemented by a ground-based program to reach 18th magnitude on the 5 mas level.

  17. Finding Good Health Information on the Internet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... get health information from magazines, TV, or the Internet. Some is reliable and up to date, some not. How can you tell the good from the bad? If you use the Web, look for an "about us" page. Check to see who runs the site. Focus on quality. Be skeptical. Things that sound too good to be true often ...

  18. The Fast-Paced iPad Revolution: Can Educators Stay up to Date and Relevant about These Ubiquitous Devices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peluso, Deanna C. C.

    2012-01-01

    Stepping into a modern day classroom, one will find that it is filled with a ubiquitous array of multimodal and digital resources, yet a majority of these revolutionary resources are likely not school issued, rather they were brought by the young people themselves. Digital mediums for communication, expression and multimodally engaging in one's…

  19. Up-to-date teaching and learning of quantum optics at the beginning of the XXIst century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladera, Celso L.

    2002-05-01

    The turn of the century has brought new perspectives for teaching Quantum Optics. Recent research results provide opportunities to educate specialists in the area with considerable less efforts than in the recent past. Important experiments can now be performed using cheaper optical sources. Full quantum electrodynamics approaches are often simpler to understand, and indeed more comprehensive than the semi-classical ones used before. This correlates well with the fact that it is easier to introduce quantum mechanics using Feynman's many path approach, the root of quantum electrodynamics, instead of the traditional picture based on a set of postulates. A set of cases is presented to demonstrate that full quantization of radiation and matter is not that hard to grasp by physics students with a background in quantum mechanics. The strong motivation achieved is reinforced with a set of medium cost experiments in which matter and radiation are seeing to interact, sometimes in surprising ways. Not to mention the motivating applications and high-technology potential of present quantum optics, the teaching of both introductory and advanced quantum optics can now be performed at the highest level with an effort which, if not less, is comparable with the required when using the semi-classical approach.

  20. [Is monotherapy with β-lactam antibiotics still up to date? New aspects for treatment of severe infections].

    PubMed

    Heizmann, P; Lode, H; Heizmann, W R

    2012-02-01

    Mortality of sepsis is still high. Crucial for therapeutic response are the early start of treatment as well as the choice of antibiotics or antibiotic combinations. β-lactam antibiotics with bactericidal mode of action are often recommended in guidelines. But this antibiotic class can trigger the immune system to a maximum by releasing cell wall components or exotoxins. This may lead to a worsening of the patient's clinical situation. In contrast, antibiotics with bacteriostatic action often inhibit bacterial protein synthesis with decrease of production of virulence factors and minimize release of cell wall components. The purpose of this review is to summarise the significance of some bacteriostatic antibiotics and to discuss whether a combination of bactericidal and bacteriostatic agents may improve the course of the illness.

  1. Up-to-date state and prospects for the development of geothermal resources of the North Caucasus region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    The modern state of production and use of geothermal resources of the region is evaluated and the low efficiency of their development is shown. Promising developmental technologies of hydrogeothermal resources of various energy potentials with attachment to concrete geothermal deposits are presented. Technologies on the complex development of hydrogeothermal resources with the use of water for drinking or industrial water supply, the thermal potential for various energy needs, and the extraction of the gas and mineral components dissolved in water are highly efficient technologies, which make it possible to solve important environmental, economical, and social problems of the region.

  2. [Up-to-date on the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Which adenoma to treat and how to do it?].

    PubMed

    Lahlaidi, K; Ariane, M M; Fontaine, E

    2014-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a state of the nature rather than a disease. It affects mainly men over 50 years and represents a public health problem. A literature review on the therapeutic management of benign prostatic hyperplasia was carried out from a selection of publications with the highest level of evidence. Medical treatment is based on herbal medicine, alpha-blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors. Surgical treatment is used in case of complications or failure of medical management. Surgical options are numerous. Transurethral prostate resection and prostate adenomectomy are the most usual procedures. Due to their significant morbidity, other less invasive procedures have recently been developed. The choice of treatment will depend on prostate volume and anatomy and patient's comorbidities.

  3. [The diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in children in XXI century. Is tuberculin skin test still up to date?].

    PubMed

    Bielecka, Teresa; Komorowska-Piotrowska, Anna; Mazur, Agnieszka; Feleszko, Wojciech

    2015-10-13

    Tuberculosis morbidity rates in Poland have been gradually decreasing. Nevertheless, there are approximately 8 thousand cases being registered annually, which includes almost 3 thousand massively infectious patients. In the last 3 years, around 100 cases/year have been reported among children below 14 years of age. Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be considered in all patients who present symptoms suggesting tuberculosis, have had recent contact with a person suffering from lung tuberculosis or are planned to undergo an immunosuppressive treatment. HIV infected patients are also supposed to have screening tests for M. tuberculosis infection performed. For over a 100 years tuberculin skin test (TST) was the only test capable of confirming tuberculous infection. TST is based on the assessment of skin reaction to intracutaneous injection of tuberculin. Due to cross-reaction to the injected tuberculin in BCG vaccinated individuals, the correct interpretation of the test is difficult. Since 13 years new immunological assays have been available. They are based on detecting interferon gamma (Interferon Gamma Release Assay - IGRA) concentration in blood serum, which has previously been incubated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens absent in the BCG strain. In infected individuals interferon gamma is intensively produced by memory cells in reaction to the contact with previously met Mycobacterium antigens. Many trials have proved IGRA's high sensitivity and, higher than TST, specificity. Recent guidelines promote the usage of IGRAs, even in children.

  4. [Up-to-Date Aspects of Antihypertensive Therapy from the Viewpoint of Cardio- and Nephroprotective Action: Olmesartan].

    PubMed

    Evdokimova, A G; Ryzhova, Yu V

    2015-01-01

    The literature data on possible optimization of the arterial hypertension management with organoprotective antihypertensive agents are reviewed. Omesartan is one of the most thoroughly investigated agents blocking the receptors to angiotensin-II that shows antihypertensive effect and has cardiovaso- and nephroprotective as well as pleotropic properties. The use of Olmesartan is based on the principles of proof medicine.

  5. [Evaluation of corneal biomechanics before and after up-to-date keratoplasty in patients with bullous keratopathy].

    PubMed

    Trufanov, S V; Antonov, A A; Malozhen, S A; Siplivyi, V I

    2015-01-01

    Цель — изучить биомеханические особенности роговицы у пациентов с буллезной кератопатией до и после кератопластики. Материал и методы. На основании данных пневмотонометрии с динамической двунаправленной апланацией роговицы изучили биомеханические свойства роговой оболочки глаза до и после кератопластики у 37 больных (37 глаз) буллезной кератопатией. В 17 случаях провели эндотелиальную кератопластику с удалением десцеметовой мембраны в модификации UTDSAEK (Ultrathin Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty), в 13 случаях — автоматизированную эндотелиальную кератопластику с фиксацией трансплантата под поверхностным лоскутом роговицы реципиента (ЭК-Л), в 7 случаях — мануальную частичную обратную грибовидную кератопластику (ЧОГКП). Исследование проводили до операции, через 1, 2, 6 мес и 1, 2, 3, 5 лет после кератопластики. Результаты. Показатели роговичного гистерезиса (Corneal Hysteresis, СН) и фактора резистентности роговицы (Corneal Resistance Factor, CRF) были достоверно снижены на глазах с буллезной кератопатией по сравнению со здоровыми глазами (p<0,05). После ЭК-Л, UTDSAEK и ЧОГКП биомеханические свойства роговицы к 6 мес частично восстанавливались и стабилизировались, но оставались достоверно ниже нормы (p<0,05). Разница этих показателей при разных видах кератопластики и в различные сроки после операции оказалась статистически недостоверна. На глазах с буллезной кератопатией средние значения компенсированного давления (Corneal-Compensated Intraocular Pressure, IOPcc) превышали средние значения внутриглазного давления, измеренного по Гольдману (Goldmann-Correlated Intraocular Pressure, IOPg), на 2,4 мм рт.ст. Через 1 мес после кератопластики разница этих показателей составляла 2,7; 4,3; 3,6 мм рт.ст., к 6 мес — 2,6; 2,4 и 3,6 мм рт.ст. при ЭК-Л, UTDSAEK и ЧОГКП соответственно (p<0,05). На парных глазах с клинически здоровой роговицей эти показатели не имели статистически достоверных различий. Заключение. Хронический отек роговицы ведет к нарушению ее вязкоэластических свойств. Значения СН и CRF достоверно снижены по сравнению со здоровым глазом. После изученных видов кератопластики биомеханические свойства роговицы частично восстанавливаются, но остаются ниже нормы на протяжении всего срока наблюдения (до 5 лет). Толщина роговицы на фоне ее хронического отека, а также после кератопластики не коррелирует с ее биомеханическими свойствами. Снижение жесткости роговицы на глазах с буллезной кератопатией и после кератопластики ведет к недооценке истинного уровня внутриглазного давления и может являться причиной несвоевременной диагностики сопутствующей глаукомы.

  6. Up-to-date observations of space energetic particles made by the Chinese satellite Fengyun-1 (B).

    PubMed

    Ye, Z h; Chen, G f; Zhu, G w; Shen, S z; Liang, J b; Huang, H j

    1994-10-01

    This paper presents the observational results of space energetic particles obtained by the Cosmic Ray Composition Monitor (CRCM) onboard the Chinese satellite, Fengyun-1(B). These results, including those of a few solar proton events, the geomagnetically trapped particles and the anomalous cosmic ray components, were obtained from 3 September 1990 to 15 February 1991. The observed elements include H, He, C, N, O and Fe of energies from 4-23 MeV/u. It was found that the proton fluxes of the inner Radiation Belt (IRB) increased obviously during the period of solar proton event (SPE). A few kinds of heavy ions (Z > or = 6) were also detected in the IRB. As to the anomalous cosmic ray component (ACRC), in addition to C, N and O, anomalous iron particles were also recorded.

  7. Characterizing physicians' information needs at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Lauren A; Cate, Olle Ten; Moorhead, Laura L; van Stiphout, Feikje; Kramer, Bianca M R; Ter Braak, Edith; Posley, Keith; Irby, David; O'Brien, Bridget C

    2014-11-01

    Physicians have many information needs that arise at the point of care yet go unmet for a variety of reasons, including uncertainty about which information resources to select. In this study, we aimed to identify the various types of physician information needs and how these needs relate to physicians' use of the database PubMed and the evidence summary tool UpToDate. We conducted semi-structured interviews with physicians (Stanford University, United States; n = 13; and University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands; n = 9), eliciting participants' descriptions of their information needs and related use of PubMed and/or UpToDate. Using thematic analysis, we identified six information needs: refreshing, confirming, logistics, teaching, idea generating and personal learning. Participants from both institutions similarly described their information needs and selection of resources. The identification of these six information needs and their relation to PubMed and UpToDate expands upon previously identified physician information needs and may be useful to medical educators designing evidence-based practice training for physicians.

  8. Keeping Up with Advancements in Health Information Technology.

    PubMed

    Fox, Brent I; Felkey, Bill G

    2016-04-01

    We all face an onslaught of information on a daily basis in our personal and professional lives. We view it as a significant part of our professional responsibility to help our colleagues stay abreast of the latest advancements related to health information technology (HIT). This month we explore some of the key resources that we find helpful for keeping up-to-date with emerging and disruptive technology.

  9. Hand-held digital books in radiology: convenient access to information.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, M P; Galvin, J R; Santer, D M; Erkonen, W E

    1995-02-01

    Radiologists need constant, convenient access to current information throughout the course of their daily work. Today most learning in radiology is obtained from the printed word in books, journals, and teaching files, supplemented by the spoken word in lectures and conferences. Although learning from printed material and lectures has been proved efficacious over time, these media share the disadvantage of not being conveniently available for reference during the course of daily work at the alternator or in the examination room when accurate and up-to-date information is needed the most. As a result, many important questions about patient care go unanswered. We have developed a technique--hand-held digital books--to lower this barrier to searching and retrieval. When radiologists have a digital library that can be carried with them, they will be able to incorporate current radiology information into their daily decision making. We describe a technique for creating hand-held digital books and their future use in radiology.

  10. NNLOPS accurate associated HW production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astill, William; Bizon, Wojciech; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2016-06-01

    We present a next-to-next-to-leading order accurate description of associated HW production consistently matched to a parton shower. The method is based on reweighting events obtained with the HW plus one jet NLO accurate calculation implemented in POWHEG, extended with the MiNLO procedure, to reproduce NNLO accurate Born distributions. Since the Born kinematics is more complex than the cases treated before, we use a parametrization of the Collins-Soper angles to reduce the number of variables required for the reweighting. We present phenomenological results at 13 TeV, with cuts suggested by the Higgs Cross section Working Group.

  11. Classification of Informal Settlements Through the Integration of 2d and 3d Features Extracted from Uav Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevaert, C. M.; Persello, C.; Sliuzas, R.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are capable of providing very high resolution and up-to-date information to support informal settlement upgrading projects. In order to provide accurate basemaps, urban scene understanding through the identification and classification of buildings and terrain is imperative. However, common characteristics of informal settlements such as small, irregular buildings with heterogeneous roof material and large presence of clutter challenge state-of-the-art algorithms. Especially the dense buildings and steeply sloped terrain cause difficulties in identifying elevated objects. This work investigates how 2D radiometric and textural features, 2.5D topographic features, and 3D geometric features obtained from UAV imagery can be integrated to obtain a high classification accuracy in challenging classification problems for the analysis of informal settlements. It compares the utility of pixel-based and segment-based features obtained from an orthomosaic and DSM with point-based and segment-based features extracted from the point cloud to classify an unplanned settlement in Kigali, Rwanda. Findings show that the integration of 2D and 3D features leads to higher classification accuracies.

  12. Accurate mask model for advanced nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zine El Abidine, Nacer; Sundermann, Frank; Yesilada, Emek; Ndiaye, El Hadji Omar; Mishra, Kushlendra; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Toublan, Olivier; Schanen, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    Standard OPC models consist of a physical optical model and an empirical resist model. The resist model compensates the optical model imprecision on top of modeling resist development. The optical model imprecision may result from mask topography effects and real mask information including mask ebeam writing and mask process contributions. For advanced technology nodes, significant progress has been made to model mask topography to improve optical model accuracy. However, mask information is difficult to decorrelate from standard OPC model. Our goal is to establish an accurate mask model through a dedicated calibration exercise. In this paper, we present a flow to calibrate an accurate mask enabling its implementation. The study covers the different effects that should be embedded in the mask model as well as the experiment required to model them.

  13. The high cost of accurate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Kathleen M; Weber, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    Many business thinkers believe it's the role of senior managers to scan the external environment to monitor contingencies and constraints, and to use that precise knowledge to modify the company's strategy and design. As these thinkers see it, managers need accurate and abundant information to carry out that role. According to that logic, it makes sense to invest heavily in systems for collecting and organizing competitive information. Another school of pundits contends that, since today's complex information often isn't precise anyway, it's not worth going overboard with such investments. In other words, it's not the accuracy and abundance of information that should matter most to top executives--rather, it's how that information is interpreted. After all, the role of senior managers isn't just to make decisions; it's to set direction and motivate others in the face of ambiguities and conflicting demands. Top executives must interpret information and communicate those interpretations--they must manage meaning more than they must manage information. So which of these competing views is the right one? Research conducted by academics Sutcliffe and Weber found that how accurate senior executives are about their competitive environments is indeed less important for strategy and corresponding organizational changes than the way in which they interpret information about their environments. Investments in shaping those interpretations, therefore, may create a more durable competitive advantage than investments in obtaining and organizing more information. And what kinds of interpretations are most closely linked with high performance? Their research suggests that high performers respond positively to opportunities, yet they aren't overconfident in their abilities to take advantage of those opportunities.

  14. [Information technologies in clinical cytology (a lecture)].

    PubMed

    Shabalova, I P; Dzhangirova, T V; Kasoian, K T

    2010-07-01

    The lecture is devoted to the urgent problem that is to increase the quality of cytological diagnosis, by diminishing the subjectivism factor via introduction of up-to-date computer information technologies into a cytologist's practice. Its main lines from the standardization of cytological specimen preparation to the registration of a cytologist's opinion and the assessment of the specialist's work quality at the laboratories that successfully use the capacities of the current information systems are described. Information technology capabilities to improve the interpretation of the cellular composition of cytological specimens are detailed. PMID:20799410

  15. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R; Holmes, William M

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models. PMID:27111139

  16. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Holmes, William M.

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models.

  17. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R; Holmes, William M

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models.

  18. A Time-Accurate Upwind Unstructured Finite Volume Method for Compressible Flow with Cure of Pathological Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.

    2007-01-01

    A time-accurate, upwind, finite volume method for computing compressible flows on unstructured grids is presented. The method is second order accurate in space and time and yields high resolution in the presence of discontinuities. For efficiency, the Roe approximate Riemann solver with an entropy correction is employed. In the basic Euler/Navier-Stokes scheme, many concepts of high order upwind schemes are adopted: the surface flux integrals are carefully treated, a Cauchy-Kowalewski time-stepping scheme is used in the time-marching stage, and a multidimensional limiter is applied in the reconstruction stage. However even with these up-to-date improvements, the basic upwind scheme is still plagued by the so-called "pathological behaviors," e.g., the carbuncle phenomenon, the expansion shock, etc. A solution to these limitations is presented which uses a very simple dissipation model while still preserving second order accuracy. This scheme is referred to as the enhanced time-accurate upwind (ETAU) scheme in this paper. The unstructured grid capability renders flexibility for use in complex geometry; and the present ETAU Euler/Navier-Stokes scheme is capable of handling a broad spectrum of flow regimes from high supersonic to subsonic at very low Mach number, appropriate for both CFD (computational fluid dynamics) and CAA (computational aeroacoustics). Numerous examples are included to demonstrate the robustness of the methods.

  19. New law requires 'medically accurate' lesson plans.

    PubMed

    1999-09-17

    The California Legislature has passed a bill requiring all textbooks and materials used to teach about AIDS be medically accurate and objective. Statements made within the curriculum must be supported by research conducted in compliance with scientific methods, and published in peer-reviewed journals. Some of the current lesson plans were found to contain scientifically unsupported and biased information. In addition, the bill requires material to be "free of racial, ethnic, or gender biases." The legislation is supported by a wide range of interests, but opposed by the California Right to Life Education Fund, because they believe it discredits abstinence-only material.

  20. New law requires 'medically accurate' lesson plans.

    PubMed

    1999-09-17

    The California Legislature has passed a bill requiring all textbooks and materials used to teach about AIDS be medically accurate and objective. Statements made within the curriculum must be supported by research conducted in compliance with scientific methods, and published in peer-reviewed journals. Some of the current lesson plans were found to contain scientifically unsupported and biased information. In addition, the bill requires material to be "free of racial, ethnic, or gender biases." The legislation is supported by a wide range of interests, but opposed by the California Right to Life Education Fund, because they believe it discredits abstinence-only material. PMID:11366835

  1. Nurses' Information Seeking Behavior for Clinical Practice: A Case Study in a Developing Country.

    PubMed

    Sarbaz, Masoumeh; Kimiafar, Khalil; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Taherzadeh, Zhila; Eslami, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    We used a valid questionnaire to survey Iranian nurses' seeking information behavior and their confidence on different information sources. The frequently used sources were Internet" and "personal experiences" (54.8% and 48.2% respectively). "English medical journals" (61.9%) and "English textbooks" (41.3%) were the least frequently used sources. Nurses felt high confidence in sources such as "International instructions/guidelines" (58.6%) and "English medical textbooks" (50.4%). The main reasons for selecting sources were easy accessibility, being up to date and reliability. Google, Pubmed and Up to Date were the most used electronic sources. In addition, there were differences in terms of using some of these resources and nurse' age and gender. In developing information sources for nurses, factors such as reliability level, availability, and updatedness of resources should be more emphasized.

  2. Nurses' Information Seeking Behavior for Clinical Practice: A Case Study in a Developing Country.

    PubMed

    Sarbaz, Masoumeh; Kimiafar, Khalil; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Taherzadeh, Zhila; Eslami, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    We used a valid questionnaire to survey Iranian nurses' seeking information behavior and their confidence on different information sources. The frequently used sources were Internet" and "personal experiences" (54.8% and 48.2% respectively). "English medical journals" (61.9%) and "English textbooks" (41.3%) were the least frequently used sources. Nurses felt high confidence in sources such as "International instructions/guidelines" (58.6%) and "English medical textbooks" (50.4%). The main reasons for selecting sources were easy accessibility, being up to date and reliability. Google, Pubmed and Up to Date were the most used electronic sources. In addition, there were differences in terms of using some of these resources and nurse' age and gender. In developing information sources for nurses, factors such as reliability level, availability, and updatedness of resources should be more emphasized. PMID:27332155

  3. Accurate documentation and wound measurement.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Sylvie

    This article, part 4 in a series on wound management, addresses the sometimes routine yet crucial task of documentation. Clear and accurate records of a wound enable its progress to be determined so the appropriate treatment can be applied. Thorough records mean any practitioner picking up a patient's notes will know when the wound was last checked, how it looked and what dressing and/or treatment was applied, ensuring continuity of care. Documenting every assessment also has legal implications, demonstrating due consideration and care of the patient and the rationale for any treatment carried out. Part 5 in the series discusses wound dressing characteristics and selection.

  4. Accurate calculation of the absolute free energy of binding for drug molecules† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02678d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Aldeghi, Matteo; Heifetz, Alexander; Bodkin, Michael J.; Knapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of binding affinities has been a central goal of computational chemistry for decades, yet remains elusive. Despite good progress, the required accuracy for use in a drug-discovery context has not been consistently achieved for drug-like molecules. Here, we perform absolute free energy calculations based on a thermodynamic cycle for a set of diverse inhibitors binding to bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) and demonstrate that a mean absolute error of 0.6 kcal mol–1 can be achieved. We also show a similar level of accuracy (1.0 kcal mol–1) can be achieved in pseudo prospective approach. Bromodomains are epigenetic mark readers that recognize acetylation motifs and regulate gene transcription, and are currently being investigated as therapeutic targets for cancer and inflammation. The unprecedented accuracy offers the exciting prospect that the binding free energy of drug-like compounds can be predicted for pharmacologically relevant targets. PMID:26798447

  5. Analyzing Information Seeking and Drug-Safety Alert Response by Health Care Professionals as New Methods for Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Pernek, Igor; Stiglic, Gregor; Leskovec, Jure; Strasberg, Howard R; Shah, Nigam Haresh

    2015-01-01

    Background Patterns in general consumer online search logs have been used to monitor health conditions and to predict health-related activities, but the multiple contexts within which consumers perform online searches make significant associations difficult to interpret. Physician information-seeking behavior has typically been analyzed through survey-based approaches and literature reviews. Activity logs from health care professionals using online medical information resources are thus a valuable yet relatively untapped resource for large-scale medical surveillance. Objective To analyze health care professionals’ information-seeking behavior and assess the feasibility of measuring drug-safety alert response from the usage logs of an online medical information resource. Methods Using two years (2011-2012) of usage logs from UpToDate, we measured the volume of searches related to medical conditions with significant burden in the United States, as well as the seasonal distribution of those searches. We quantified the relationship between searches and resulting page views. Using a large collection of online mainstream media articles and Web log posts we also characterized the uptake of a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) alert via changes in UpToDate search activity compared with general online media activity related to the subject of the alert. Results Diseases and symptoms dominate UpToDate searches. Some searches result in page views of only short duration, while others consistently result in longer-than-average page views. The response to an FDA alert for Celexa, characterized by a change in UpToDate search activity, differed considerably from general online media activity. Changes in search activity appeared later and persisted longer in UpToDate logs. The volume of searches and page view durations related to Celexa before the alert also differed from those after the alert. Conclusions Understanding the information-seeking behavior associated with online

  6. SPLASH: Accurate OH maser positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Andrew; Gomez, Jose F.; Jones, Paul; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James; Dawson, Joanne; Ellingsen, Simon; Breen, Shari; Imai, Hiroshi; Lowe, Vicki; Jones, Courtney

    2013-10-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) 18 cm lines are powerful and versatile probes of diffuse molecular gas, that may trace a largely unstudied component of the Galactic ISM. SPLASH (the Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl) is a large, unbiased and fully-sampled survey of OH emission, absorption and masers in the Galactic Plane that will achieve sensitivities an order of magnitude better than previous work. In this proposal, we request ATCA time to follow up OH maser candidates. This will give us accurate (~10") positions of the masers, which can be compared to other maser positions from HOPS, MMB and MALT-45 and will provide full polarisation measurements towards a sample of OH masers that have not been observed in MAGMO.

  7. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  8. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-03-29

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  9. Translating Knowledge into Action: Supporting Adaptation in Australia's Coastal Zone through Information Provision and Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palutikof, J. P.; Rissik, D.; Tonmoy, F. N.; Boulter, S.

    2015-12-01

    Adaptation to risks from climate change and sea-level rise is particularly important in Australia, where 70% of the population live in major coastal cities and 85% within 50km of the coast. Adaptation activity focuses at local government level and, in the absence of strong leadership from central government, the extent to which local councils have taken action to adapt is highly variable across the nation. Also, although a number of councils have proceeded as far as identifying their exposure to risk and considering adaptation options, this fails to translate into action. A principal reason for this is concern over the response from coastal residents to actions which may affect property values, and fear of litigation. A project is underway to support councils to understand their risks, evaluate adaptation options and proceed to action. This support will consist of a three-pronged framework: provision of information, a tool to support decision-making, and a community forum. Delivery involves research to understand the barriers to adaptation and how these may be overcome, optimal methods for delivery of information, and the information needs of organizations, action-takers and communities. The presentation will focus on the results of consultation undertaken to understand users' information needs around content and delivery, and how understanding of these needs has translated into design of the framework. A strongly preference was expressed to learn from peers, and a challenge for the framework is to understand how to inject adaptation knowledge which is up-to-date and accurate into peer-to-peer conversations. The community forum is one mechanism to achieve this. The basic structure and delivery mechanisms of the framework are shown in the attached.

  10. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Nathanial S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories—such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia—for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Methods Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Results Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Conclusions Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used

  11. Non-targeted analysis of electronics waste by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry: Using accurate mass information and mass defect analysis to explore the data.

    PubMed

    Ubukata, Masaaki; Jobst, Karl J; Reiner, Eric J; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Tao, Qingping; Hang, Jiliang; Wu, Zhanpin; Dane, A John; Cody, Robert B

    2015-05-22

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) offer the best possible separation of their respective techniques. Recent commercialization of combined GC×GC-HRMS systems offers new possibilities for the analysis of complex mixtures. However, such experiments yield enormous data sets that require new informatics tools to facilitate the interpretation of the rich information content. This study reports on the analysis of dust obtained from an electronics recycling facility by using GC×GC in combination with a new high-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. New software tools for (non-traditional) Kendrick mass defect analysis were developed in this research and greatly aided in the identification of compounds containing chlorine and bromine, elements that feature in most persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In essence, the mass defect plot serves as a visual aid from which halogenated compounds are recognizable on the basis of their mass defect and isotope patterns. Mass chromatograms were generated based on specific ions identified in the plots as well as region of the plot predominantly occupied by halogenated contaminants. Tentative identification was aided by database searches, complementary electron-capture negative ionization experiments and elemental composition determinations from the exact mass data. These included known and emerging flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromobenzene, tetrabromo bisphenol A and tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), as well as other legacy contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs).

  12. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  13. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  14. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  15. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  16. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  17. Mobile Gis: a Tool for Informal Settlement Occupancy Audit to Improve Integrated Human Settlement Implementation in Ekurhuleni, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokoena, B. T.; Musakwa, W.

    2016-06-01

    Upgrading and relocating people in informal settlements requires consistent commitment, good strategies and systems so as to improve the lives of those who live in them. In South Africa, in order to allocate subsidised housing to beneficiaries of an informal settlement, beneficiary administration needs to be completed to determine the number of people who qualify for a subsidised house. Conventional methods of occupancy audits are often unreliable, cumbersome and non-spatial. Accordingly, this study proposes the use of mobile GIS to conduct these audits to provide up-to-date, accurate, comprehensive and real-time data so as to facilitate the development of integrated human settlements. An occupancy audit was subsequently completed for one of the communities in the Ekurhuleni municipality, Gauteng province, using web-based mobile GIS as a solution to providing smart information through evidence based decision making. Fieldworkers accessed the off-line capturing module on a mobile device recording GPS coordinates, socio-economic information and photographs. The results of this audit indicated that only 56.86% of the households residing within the community could potentially benefit from receiving a subsidised house. Integrated residential development, which includes fully and partially subsidised housing, serviced stands and some fully bonded housing opportunities, would then be key to adequately providing access to suitable housing options within a project in a post-colonial South Africa, creating new post-1994 neighbourhoods, in line with policy. The use of mobile GIS therefore needs to be extended to other informal settlement upgrading projects in South Africa.

  18. Accurate On-Line Intervention Practices for Efficient Improvement of Reading Skills in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Minda B.

    2016-01-01

    Lifelong learning is the only way to sustain proficient learning in a rapidly changing world. Knowledge and information are exploding across the globe. We need accurate ways to facilitate the process of drawing external factual information into an internal perceptive advantage from which to interpret and argue new information. Accurate and…

  19. The importance of accurate atmospheric modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Dylan; Schroeder, John; Liang, Pang

    2014-11-01

    This paper will focus on the effect of atmospheric conditions on EO sensor performance using computer models. We have shown the importance of accurately modeling atmospheric effects for predicting the performance of an EO sensor. A simple example will demonstrated how real conditions for several sites in China will significantly impact on image correction, hyperspectral imaging, and remote sensing. The current state-of-the-art model for computing atmospheric transmission and radiance is, MODTRAN® 5, developed by the US Air Force Research Laboratory and Spectral Science, Inc. Research by the US Air Force, Navy and Army resulted in the public release of LOWTRAN 2 in the early 1970's. Subsequent releases of LOWTRAN and MODTRAN® have continued until the present. Please verify that (1) all pages are present, (2) all figures are correct, (3) all fonts and special characters are correct, and (4) all text and figures fit within the red margin lines shown on this review document. Complete formatting information is available at http://SPIE.org/manuscripts Return to the Manage Active Submissions page at http://spie.org/submissions/tasks.aspx and approve or disapprove this submission. Your manuscript will not be published without this approval. Please contact author_help@spie.org with any questions or concerns. The paper will demonstrate the importance of using validated models and local measured meteorological, atmospheric and aerosol conditions to accurately simulate the atmospheric transmission and radiance. Frequently default conditions are used which can produce errors of as much as 75% in these values. This can have significant impact on remote sensing applications.

  20. Accurate Mass Measurements in Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tao; Belov, Mikhail E.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-08-01

    To understand different aspects of life at the molecular level, one would think that ideally all components of specific processes should be individually isolated and studied in details. Reductionist approaches, i.e., studying one biological event at a one-gene or one-protein-at-a-time basis, indeed have made significant contributions to our understanding of many basic facts of biology. However, these individual “building blocks” can not be visualized as a comprehensive “model” of the life of cells, tissues, and organisms, without using more integrative approaches.1,2 For example, the emerging field of “systems biology” aims to quantify all of the components of a biological system to assess their interactions and to integrate diverse types of information obtainable from this system into models that could explain and predict behaviors.3-6 Recent breakthroughs in genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics are making this daunting task a reality.7-14 Proteomics, the systematic study of the entire complement of proteins expressed by an organism, tissue, or cell under a specific set of conditions at a specific time (i.e., the proteome), has become an essential enabling component of systems biology. While the genome of an organism may be considered static over short timescales, the expression of that genome as the actual gene products (i.e., mRNAs and proteins) is a dynamic event that is constantly changing due to the influence of environmental and physiological conditions. Exclusive monitoring of the transcriptomes can be carried out using high-throughput cDNA microarray analysis,15-17 however the measured mRNA levels do not necessarily correlate strongly with the corresponding abundances of proteins,18-20 The actual amount of functional proteins can be altered significantly and become independent of mRNA levels as a result of post-translational modifications (PTMs),21 alternative splicing,22,23 and protein turnover.24,25 Moreover, the functions of expressed

  1. Measuring Fisher information accurately in correlated neural populations.

    PubMed

    Kanitscheider, Ingmar; Coen-Cagli, Ruben; Kohn, Adam; Pouget, Alexandre

    2015-06-01

    Neural responses are known to be variable. In order to understand how this neural variability constrains behavioral performance, we need to be able to measure the reliability with which a sensory stimulus is encoded in a given population. However, such measures are challenging for two reasons: First, they must take into account noise correlations which can have a large influence on reliability. Second, they need to be as efficient as possible, since the number of trials available in a set of neural recording is usually limited by experimental constraints. Traditionally, cross-validated decoding has been used as a reliability measure, but it only provides a lower bound on reliability and underestimates reliability substantially in small datasets. We show that, if the number of trials per condition is larger than the number of neurons, there is an alternative, direct estimate of reliability which consistently leads to smaller errors and is much faster to compute. The superior performance of the direct estimator is evident both for simulated data and for neuronal population recordings from macaque primary visual cortex. Furthermore we propose generalizations of the direct estimator which measure changes in stimulus encoding across conditions and the impact of correlations on encoding and decoding, typically denoted by Ishuffle and Idiag respectively.

  2. Accurate lineshape spectroscopy and the Boltzmann constant

    PubMed Central

    Truong, G.-W.; Anstie, J. D.; May, E. F.; Stace, T. M.; Luiten, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopy has an illustrious history delivering serendipitous discoveries and providing a stringent testbed for new physical predictions, including applications from trace materials detection, to understanding the atmospheres of stars and planets, and even constraining cosmological models. Reaching fundamental-noise limits permits optimal extraction of spectroscopic information from an absorption measurement. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-limited spectrometer that delivers high-precision measurements of the absorption lineshape. These measurements yield a very accurate measurement of the excited-state (6P1/2) hyperfine splitting in Cs, and reveals a breakdown in the well-known Voigt spectral profile. We develop a theoretical model that accounts for this breakdown, explaining the observations to within the shot-noise limit. Our model enables us to infer the thermal velocity dispersion of the Cs vapour with an uncertainty of 35 p.p.m. within an hour. This allows us to determine a value for Boltzmann's constant with a precision of 6 p.p.m., and an uncertainty of 71 p.p.m. PMID:26465085

  3. Accurate SHAPE-directed RNA structure determination

    PubMed Central

    Deigan, Katherine E.; Li, Tian W.; Mathews, David H.; Weeks, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    Almost all RNAs can fold to form extensive base-paired secondary structures. Many of these structures then modulate numerous fundamental elements of gene expression. Deducing these structure–function relationships requires that it be possible to predict RNA secondary structures accurately. However, RNA secondary structure prediction for large RNAs, such that a single predicted structure for a single sequence reliably represents the correct structure, has remained an unsolved problem. Here, we demonstrate that quantitative, nucleotide-resolution information from a SHAPE experiment can be interpreted as a pseudo-free energy change term and used to determine RNA secondary structure with high accuracy. Free energy minimization, by using SHAPE pseudo-free energies, in conjunction with nearest neighbor parameters, predicts the secondary structure of deproteinized Escherichia coli 16S rRNA (>1,300 nt) and a set of smaller RNAs (75–155 nt) with accuracies of up to 96–100%, which are comparable to the best accuracies achievable by comparative sequence analysis. PMID:19109441

  4. Working well with the informal leaders in your practice.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Anyone with an up-to-date organizational chart can determine the formal leadership roles in a medical practice. What many practice administrators fail to realize, however, is that there is another, complementary leadership model that exists between the lines in an org chart: informal leadership. This article defines the term informal leadership and describes informal leaders' three bases of power. It suggests seven characteristics of informal leaders and the specific techniques a practice administrator can use to identify the real informal leaders in the practice. This article also offers practice administrators practical tips for dealing effectively with informal leaders who oppose them. It suggests strategies for counseling a reluctant informal leader and for developing the informal leaders in a medical practice. Finally, this article argues that informal leaders can be a source of great help for medical practices that have been downsized or restructured.

  5. The Nuclear Criticality Information System: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.

    1991-07-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) has served the criticality community for the past ten years with publications and with an online information system. NCIS provides a mean for widely distributed nuclear criticality specialists to communicate and work together instantly. Users of the system may receive assistance from all members of the NCIS community, which provides a much broader base of support than is available at any single site. When unified by NCIS, these diverse specialists provide a resource that has proven to be very useful in the safe handling of fissile material. NCIS also is a source of current nuclear criticality safety information; the rapid access of such up-to-date information on the handling of fissile materials outside of nuclear reactors is international in scope, extending beyond political and geographical boundaries.

  6. The Nuclear Criticality Information System: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.

    1991-07-01

    The US Department of Energy's Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) has served the criticality community for the past ten years with publications and with an online information system. NCIS provides a mean for widely distributed nuclear criticality specialists to communicate and work together instantly. Users of the system may receive assistance from all members of the NCIS community, which provides a much broader base of support than is available at any single site. When unified by NCIS, these diverse specialists provide a resource that has proven to be very useful in the safe handling of fissile material. NCIS also is a source of current nuclear criticality safety information; the rapid access of such up-to-date information on the handling of fissile materials outside of nuclear reactors is international in scope, extending beyond political and geographical boundaries.

  7. Up-to-date Review and Cases Report on Chondral Defects of Knee Treated by ACI Technique: Clinical-instrumental and Histological Results.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Giacomo; Ghilardi, Marco; Bottai, Vanna; Bugelli, Giulia; Guido, Giulio; Giannotti, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    The limited regenerative potential of a full thickness defect of the knee joint cartilage has certainly conditioned the development of therapeutic strategies that take into account all the aspects of the healing process. The most common treatments to repair chondral and osteochondral lesions are bone marrow stimulation, osteochondral autograft transplantation, autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. We like to emphasize the difference between a chondral and an osteochondral lesion because the difference is sometimes lost in the literature. In the context of treatment of injuries of the knee joint cartilage, the second-generation autologous chondrocyte transplant is a consolidated surgical method alternative to other techniques. Our experience with the transplantation of chondrocytes has had exceptional clinical results. We report 2 complete cases of a group of 22 in knee and ankle. These 2 cases had histological and instrumental evaluation. We cannot express conclusions, but can only make considerations, stating that, with the clinical functional result being equal, we obtained an excellent macroscopic result in both cases of second look. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a multiple surgical procedure with expensive chondrocyte culture, but even with this limitation, we think that it must be the choice in treating chondral lesions, especially in young patients. PMID:26055026

  8. Advances in psoriasis physiopathology and treatments: Up to date of mechanistic insights and perspectives of novel therapies based on innovative skin drug delivery systems (ISDDS).

    PubMed

    Sala, M; Elaissari, A; Fessi, H

    2016-10-10

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting mainly the skin but which can be complicated by psoriatic arthritis (PsA).This autoimmune skin disorder concerns 2-5% of the world population. To date, the physiopathology of psoriasis is not still completely elucidated but many researches are ongoing which have led for example to the discovery of the Th17/Th22 pathway. The conventional therapeutic approaches (local or systemic route) appeal to various classes of drugs with complex mechanisms of action and non-negligible side effects. Although there is no therapy capable to cure psoriasis, the current goal is to relieve symptoms as longer as possible with a good benefit/risk ratio. That is one of the principal limits of conventional antipsoriatic drugs. New formulations based on nanoencapsulation are a promising opportunity to answer to this limit by offering an optimization of the conventional antipsoriatic drug use (higher activity, lower side effects and frequency of application, etc.). Herein, we tried to put in perspective the mechanistic insights (histological and immunological views) proposed into scientific literature these last years in order to have a better comprehension of psoriasis physiopathology resulting in skin lesions and PsA. The therapeutic armamentarium and the different strategies in the management of psoriasis are discussed in greater details. To finish, the field of encapsulation in nanoparticles is broached in order to put forward recent advances in innovative skin drug delivery systems (ISDDSs) of antipsoriatic active agents for a better efficacy, safety and compliance.

  9. Clinical Psychology and Cardiovascular Disease: An Up-to-Date Clinical Practice Review for Assessment and Treatment of Anxiety and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Compare, Angelo; Germani, Elena; Proietti, Riccardo; Janeway, David

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present review is underline the association between cardiac diseases and anxiety and depression. In the first part of the article, there is a description of anxiety and depression from the definitions of DSM-IV TR. In the second part, the authors present the available tests and questionnaires to assess depression and anxiety in patients with cardiovascular disease. In the last part of the review different types of interventions are reported and compared; available interventions are pharmacological or psychological treatments. PMID:22016750

  10. Zumba: From Secondary Physical Education Classes to Adulthood Workouts: Staying up to Date with the Growing Trends of Physical Activity in and out of the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, Lindsey; Hall, Amber; Barney, David

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the background of Zumba, the need for it as a result of its growing popularity, the national standards it supports, and the necessary steps that need to be taken to properly implement Zumba in physical education programs. When taking a closer look at the standards that Zumba supports, it is evident that Zumba can serve as a…

  11. Primary Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults as a Risk Factor for Pulmonary Embolism: An Up-to-Date Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Ali, Alaa M.; Barbaryan, Aram; Prueksaritanond, Suartcha; Hussain, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Patients with nephrotic syndrome are at an increased risk for thrombotic events; deep venous thrombosis, renal vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism are quite common in patients with nephrotic syndrome. It is important to note that nephrotic syndrome secondary to membranous nephropathy may impose a greater thrombotic risk for unclear reasons. Increased platelet activation, enhanced red blood cell aggregation, and an imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors are thought to underlie the excessive thrombotic risk in patients with nephrotic syndrome. The current scientific literature suggests that patients with low serum albumin levels and membranous nephropathy may benefit from primary prophylactic anticoagulation. A thorough approach which includes accounting for all additional thrombotic risk factors is, therefore, essential. Patient counseling regarding the pros and cons of anticoagulation is of paramount importance. Future prospective randomized studies should address the question regarding the utility of primary thromboprophylaxis in patients with nephrotic syndrome. PMID:24829800

  12. ValidatorDB: database of up-to-date validation results for ligands and non-standard residues from the Protein Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Sehnal, David; Svobodová Vařeková, Radka; Pravda, Lukáš; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Geidl, Stanislav; Horský, Vladimír; Jaiswal, Deepti; Wimmerová, Michaela; Koča, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Following the discovery of serious errors in the structure of biomacromolecules, structure validation has become a key topic of research, especially for ligands and non-standard residues. ValidatorDB (freely available at http://ncbr.muni.cz/ValidatorDB) offers a new step in this direction, in the form of a database of validation results for all ligands and non-standard residues from the Protein Data Bank (all molecules with seven or more heavy atoms). Model molecules from the wwPDB Chemical Component Dictionary are used as reference during validation. ValidatorDB covers the main aspects of validation of annotation, and additionally introduces several useful validation analyses. The most significant is the classification of chirality errors, allowing the user to distinguish between serious issues and minor inconsistencies. Other such analyses are able to report, for example, completely erroneous ligands, alternate conformations or complete identity with the model molecules. All results are systematically classified into categories, and statistical evaluations are performed. In addition to detailed validation reports for each molecule, ValidatorDB provides summaries of the validation results for the entire PDB, for sets of molecules sharing the same annotation (three-letter code) or the same PDB entry, and for user-defined selections of annotations or PDB entries. PMID:25392418

  13. Do We Pay Enough Attention to Culture Conditions in Context of Perinatal Outcome after In Vitro Fertilization? Up-to-Date Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Marianowski, Piotr; Dąbrowski, Filip A; Zyguła, Aleksandra; Wielgoś, Mirosław; Szymusik, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Adverse perinatal outcomes in singleton IVF pregnancies have been most often explained by parental underlying diseases and so far laboratory conditions during embryo culture are still not explored well. The following review discusses the current state of knowledge on the influence of IVF laboratory procedures on the possible perinatal outcome. The role of improved media for human embryo culture is unquestionable. Addition of certain components to culture media and their effect on embryo survival and implantation rates have been taken into consideration recently and studied on animal model. Impact of media on perinatal outcome in IVF offspring has also been studied. It has been discovered that epigenetic changes and neonatal birth weight are probably associated with the use of specific culture media, as is the relation between placental size and its influence on perinatal outcome. There are still questions in the discussion about duration of embryo culture (cleavage stage versus blastocyst transfer). Some of the IVF methods, such as in vitro maturation of oocytes and freezing/thawing procedures, also require well-powered randomized controlled trials in order to define their exact impact on perinatal outcome. Constant further research is needed to assess the impact of laboratory environment on fetal and postnatal development.

  14. Successful laparoscopic management of a rare complication after embryo transfer: ovarian pregnancy. A case report and up-to-date literature review.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Turgut; Yucel, Burak; Aksoy, Huseyin; Ekemen, Suheyla

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian pregnancy (OP) after embryo transfer is very rare. Due to the rarity and the asymptomatic nature, there are still difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. The traditional operative treatment for OP has been oophorectomy. However, the desire to maintain reproductive capability and improvements in laparoscopy have more recently led to conservative laparoscopic techniques. This rare complication could be diagnosed early and managed by a conservative laparoscopic approach. Here we present a survey of the literature and a case of successful laparoscopic management of ovarian pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer. The current case is the first case in the literature in which ovarian pregnancy occurred after a single embryo transfer. We also summarize the literature about management of ovarian pregnancy after embryo transfer.

  15. [Up-to-date drug treatment of disseminated lung cancer--which other drugs are available in addition to conventional cytotoxic agents?].

    PubMed

    Koivunen, Jussi; Knuuttila, Aija; Mali, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    In addition to conventional cytotoxic agents, novel drug treatments have in the last few years been introduced for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Whereas some of the novel treatments have brought significant improvement in treatment outcome, the benefit brought about by the treatment has in some cases been quite small in comparison with the costs and adverse effects. In the present review we explore the goals of drug treatments of disseminated lung cancer, assessment of therapeutic benefits as well as most significant research results of novel drug treatments of the lastfew years In addition, we evaluate the effect of the novel drug treatments on Finnish treatment practices.

  16. Time to Say Goodbye to the 16 EPA PAHs? Toward an Up-to-Date Use of PACs for Environmental Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Jan T.; Achten, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The 16 EPA PAHs have played an exceptionally large role above all in environmental and analytical sciences in the last 40 years, but now there are good reasons to question their utility in many circumstances even though their use is so established and comfortable. Here we review the reasons why the list has been so successful and why sometimes it is seen as less relevant. Three groups of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are missing: larger and highly relevant PAHs, alkylated PACs, and compounds containing heteroatoms. Attempts to improve the situation for certain matrixes are known and here: (1) an updated list of PAHs (including the 16 EPA PAHs) for the evaluation of the toxicity in the environment (40 EnvPAHs); (2) a list of 23 NSO-heterocyclic compounds and 6 heterocyclic metabolites; and (3) lists of 10 oxy-PAHs and 10 nitro-PAHs are proposed for practical use in the future. A discussion in the scientific community about these lists is invited. Although the state of knowledge has improved dramatically since the introduction of the 16 EPA PAHs in the 1970s, this summary also shows that more research is needed about the toxicity, occurrence in the environment and chemical analysis, particularly of alkylated PAHs, higher molecular weight PAHs and substituted PACs such as amino-PAHs, cyano-PAHs, etc.. We also suggest that a long overdue discussion of an update of regulatory environmental PAH analysis is initiated. PMID:26823645

  17. A review of forty-five years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Thyroid cancer: reports up to date and a review.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, N; Ezaki, H; Dohi, K

    1991-03-01

    Evidence to date from a number of studies, indicates that there is an increased incidence of thyroid cancer among A-bomb survivors, and that the incidence rises with increase of dose and is especially predominant in females exposed at younger ages. Although 45 years have elapsed since A-bomb exposure, there are still some questions about the development of thyroid cancer: 1) Is the incidence now decreasing? 2) What factors, other than radiation exposure, are involved? 3) What is the incidence of multiple cancer, including thyroid cancer? With these questions in mind, it is apparent that studies in this field must continue for some time to come.

  18. Successful laparoscopic management of a rare complication after embryo transfer: ovarian pregnancy. A case report and up-to-date literature review

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Turgut; Aksoy, Huseyin; Ekemen, Suheyla

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian pregnancy (OP) after embryo transfer is very rare. Due to the rarity and the asymptomatic nature, there are still difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. The traditional operative treatment for OP has been oophorectomy. However, the desire to maintain reproductive capability and improvements in laparoscopy have more recently led to conservative laparoscopic techniques. This rare complication could be diagnosed early and managed by a conservative laparoscopic approach. Here we present a survey of the literature and a case of successful laparoscopic management of ovarian pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer. The current case is the first case in the literature in which ovarian pregnancy occurred after a single embryo transfer. We also summarize the literature about management of ovarian pregnancy after embryo transfer. PMID:26865895

  19. Do We Pay Enough Attention to Culture Conditions in Context of Perinatal Outcome after In Vitro Fertilization? Up-to-Date Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Adverse perinatal outcomes in singleton IVF pregnancies have been most often explained by parental underlying diseases and so far laboratory conditions during embryo culture are still not explored well. The following review discusses the current state of knowledge on the influence of IVF laboratory procedures on the possible perinatal outcome. The role of improved media for human embryo culture is unquestionable. Addition of certain components to culture media and their effect on embryo survival and implantation rates have been taken into consideration recently and studied on animal model. Impact of media on perinatal outcome in IVF offspring has also been studied. It has been discovered that epigenetic changes and neonatal birth weight are probably associated with the use of specific culture media, as is the relation between placental size and its influence on perinatal outcome. There are still questions in the discussion about duration of embryo culture (cleavage stage versus blastocyst transfer). Some of the IVF methods, such as in vitro maturation of oocytes and freezing/thawing procedures, also require well-powered randomized controlled trials in order to define their exact impact on perinatal outcome. Constant further research is needed to assess the impact of laboratory environment on fetal and postnatal development. PMID:26942190

  20. Home Page: The Mode of Transport through the Information Superhighway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lujan, Michelle R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the project with the Aeroacoustics Branch was to create and submit a home page for the internet about branch information. In order to do this, one must also become familiar with the way that the internet operates. Learning HyperText Markup Language (HTML), and the ability to create a document using this language was the final objective in order to place a home page on the internet (World Wide Web). A manual of instructions regarding maintenance of the home page, and how to keep it up to date was also necessary in order to provide branch members with the opportunity to make any pertinent changes.

  1. Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.

  2. Selecting accurate statements from the cognitive interview using confidence ratings.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Wayne T; Higham, Philip A

    2002-03-01

    Participants viewed a videotape of a simulated murder, and their recall (and confidence) was tested 1 week later with the cognitive interview. Results indicated that (a) the subset of statements assigned high confidence was more accurate than the full set of statements; (b) the accuracy benefit was limited to information that forensic experts considered relevant to an investigation, whereas peripheral information showed the opposite pattern; (c) the confidence-accuracy relationship was higher for relevant than for peripheral information; (d) the focused-retrieval phase was associated with a greater proportion of peripheral and a lesser proportion of relevant information than the other phases; and (e) only about 50% of the relevant information was elicited, and most of this was elicited in Phase 1.

  3. Geospatial data infrastructure: The development of metadata for geo-information in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Baiquan; Yan, Shiqiang; Wang, Qianju; Lian, Jian; Wu, Xiaoping; Ding, Keyong

    2014-03-01

    Stores of geoscience records are in constant flux. These stores are continually added to by new information, ideas and data, which are frequently revised. The geoscience record is in restrained by human thought and technology for handling information. Conventional methods strive, with limited success, to maintain geoscience records which are readily susceptible and renewable. The information system must adapt to the diversity of ideas and data in geoscience and their changes through time. In China, more than 400,000 types of important geological data are collected and produced in geological work during the last two decades, including oil, natural gas and marine data, mine exploration, geophysical, geochemical, remote sensing and important local geological survey and research reports. Numerous geospatial databases are formed and stored in National Geological Archives (NGA) with available formats of MapGIS, ArcGIS, ArcINFO, Metalfile, Raster, SQL Server, Access and JPEG. But there is no effective way to warrant that the quality of information is adequate in theory and practice for decision making. The need for fast, reliable, accurate and up-to-date information by providing the Geographic Information System (GIS) communities are becoming insistent for all geoinformation producers and users in China. Since 2010, a series of geoinformation projects have been carried out under the leadership of the Ministry of Land and Resources (MLR), including (1) Integration, update and maintenance of geoinformation databases; (2) Standards research on clusterization and industrialization of information services; (3) Platform construction of geological data sharing; (4) Construction of key borehole databases; (5) Product development of information services. "Nine-System" of the basic framework has been proposed for the development and improvement of the geospatial data infrastructure, which are focused on the construction of the cluster organization, cluster service, convergence

  4. Leveraging Two Kinect Sensors for Accurate Full-Body Motion Capture.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhiquan; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2015-09-22

    Accurate motion capture plays an important role in sports analysis, the medical field and virtual reality. Current methods for motion capture often suffer from occlusions, which limits the accuracy of their pose estimation. In this paper, we propose a complete system to measure the pose parameters of the human body accurately. Different from previous monocular depth camera systems, we leverage two Kinect sensors to acquire more information about human movements, which ensures that we can still get an accurate estimation even when significant occlusion occurs. Because human motion is temporally constant, we adopt a learning analysis to mine the temporal information across the posture variations. Using this information, we estimate human pose parameters accurately, regardless of rapid movement. Our experimental results show that our system can perform an accurate pose estimation of the human body with the constraint of information from the temporal domain.

  5. Leveraging Two Kinect Sensors for Accurate Full-Body Motion Capture

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhiquan; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2015-01-01

    Accurate motion capture plays an important role in sports analysis, the medical field and virtual reality. Current methods for motion capture often suffer from occlusions, which limits the accuracy of their pose estimation. In this paper, we propose a complete system to measure the pose parameters of the human body accurately. Different from previous monocular depth camera systems, we leverage two Kinect sensors to acquire more information about human movements, which ensures that we can still get an accurate estimation even when significant occlusion occurs. Because human motion is temporally constant, we adopt a learning analysis to mine the temporal information across the posture variations. Using this information, we estimate human pose parameters accurately, regardless of rapid movement. Our experimental results show that our system can perform an accurate pose estimation of the human body with the constraint of information from the temporal domain. PMID:26402681

  6. Analysing the Sustainability of Urban Development: A review on the Potential Use of Volunteered Geographic Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, N.; Ujang, U.; Desa, G.; Ariffin, A.

    2015-10-01

    The challenges of how to ensure sustainable urban development are currently one of the important agenda among governments around the world. The stakeholders require the latest and high volume of geographic information for the decision making process to efficiently respond to challenges, improve service delivery to citizens, and plan a successful future of the city. However, it is time-consuming and costly to get the available information and some of the information is not up-to-date. Recently, GeoWeb 2.0 technological advances have increased the number of volunteers from non-professional citizen to contribute to the collection, sharing, and distribution of geographic information. The information known as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) has generated another approach of spatial data sources that can give up-to-date, huge volume of data, and available geographic information in a low cost for various applications. With this in mind, this paper presents a review of literature based on the potential use of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in measuring sustainability of urban development. The review highlighted that social, economic, and environment as three pertinent pillars relating to the use of VGI for measurement sustainable urban development.

  7. OECD environment, health and safety programme: information on the world wide web.

    PubMed

    de Marcellus, Sally

    2003-08-21

    This article presents the computerised resources of the Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) Programme of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The main focus is the dissemination of tools for chemical safety assessment, which are used by OECD member countries, with the aim of promoting harmonization. The contents include the activities of the programme with special emphasis on dissemination of information via the web site (http://www.oecd.org/ehs) in the form of up-to-date information on activities, publications, directories, databases, contact points and links to other sites of importance. PMID:12909404

  8. The dream of health information for all

    PubMed Central

    Proaño, Alvaro; Ruiz, Eloy F; Porudominsky, Ruben; Tapia, Jose Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, an influential report in The Lancet suggested that open health information for all could be achieved by 2015. Unfortunately, this goal has not yet been accomplished. Despite progress in obtaining quality scientific articles in Latin America, it remains difficult to reliably access new and cutting-edge research. As graduating Peruvian medical students, we have confronted many obstacles in obtaining access to quality and up-to-date information and a constant tension between accessing "what is available" rather than "what we need". As we have learned, these limitations affect not only our own education but also the choices we make in the management of our patients. In the following article, we state our point of view regarding limitations in access to scientific articles in Peru and Latin America. PMID:27081475

  9. The dream of health information for all.

    PubMed

    Proaño, Alvaro; Ruiz, Eloy F; Porudominsky, Ruben; Tapia, Jose Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, an influential report in The Lancet suggested that open health information for all could be achieved by 2015. Unfortunately, this goal has not yet been accomplished. Despite progress in obtaining quality scientific articles in Latin America, it remains difficult to reliably access new and cutting-edge research. As graduating Peruvian medical students, we have confronted many obstacles in obtaining access to quality and up-to-date information and a constant tension between accessing "what is available" rather than "what we need". As we have learned, these limitations affect not only our own education but also the choices we make in the management of our patients. In the following article, we state our point of view regarding limitations in access to scientific articles in Peru and Latin America. PMID:27081475

  10. Modified chemiluminescent NO analyzer accurately measures NOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Installation of molybdenum nitric oxide (NO)-to-higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) converter in chemiluminescent gas analyzer and use of air purge allow accurate measurements of NOx in exhaust gases containing as much as thirty percent carbon monoxide (CO). Measurements using conventional analyzer are highly inaccurate for NOx if as little as five percent CO is present. In modified analyzer, molybdenum has high tolerance to CO, and air purge substantially quenches NOx destruction. In test, modified chemiluminescent analyzer accurately measured NO and NOx concentrations for over 4 months with no denegration in performance.

  11. Can Appraisers Rate Work Performance Accurately?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedge, Jerry W.; Laue, Frances J.

    The ability of individuals to make accurate judgments about others is examined and literature on this subject is reviewed. A wide variety of situational factors affects the appraisal of performance. It is generally accepted that the purpose of the appraisal influences the accuracy of the appraiser. The instrumentation, or tools, available to the…

  12. Accurate pointing of tungsten welding electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegelmeier, P.

    1971-01-01

    Thoriated-tungsten is pointed accurately and quickly by using sodium nitrite. Point produced is smooth and no effort is necessary to hold the tungsten rod concentric. The chemically produced point can be used several times longer than ground points. This method reduces time and cost of preparing tungsten electrodes.

  13. A Science Information Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, C. A.; Hawkins, I.; Malina, R. F.; Dow, K.; Murray, S.

    1994-12-01

    We have created a partnership of science museums, research institutions, teachers, and other centers of informal science education to enable access to the rich resources of remote sensing data available from NASA and other sources and to deliver this information to the general community. We are creating science resource centers in the nation's science museums and planetarium facilities, linking them together through a national Science Information Infrastructure (SII). The SII framework is being founded on Internet connections between the resource centers, which are in turn linked to research institutions. The most up-to-date and exciting science data, related information, and interpretive material will be available from the research institutions. The science museums will present this information in appropriate ways that respond to the needs and interest of the general public and K--12 communities. The science information will be available through the World Wide Web using a Mosaic interface that individuals will use to explore the on-line materials through self-guided learning modules. K--12 teachers will have access to the materials and, in a workshop forum, learn to find and use the information to create lesson plans and curricula for their classrooms. Eventually, as the connectivity of schools and libraries improves, students and teachers will have access to the resource centers from their own locations. The core partnership of the SII includes the Center for EUV Astrophysics (CEA), and Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Exploratorium, Lawrence Hall of Science, Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, Science Museum of Virginia, New York Hall of Science, Adler Museum of Chicago, University of California Museum of Paleontology, Boston Museum of Science, and the Earth Observing Satellite Company (EOSAT). A demonstration of the application of resource center materials in the K--12 community is being conducted through the Science On-Line project at the Center

  14. Light Field Imaging Based Accurate Image Specular Highlight Removal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoqian; Xu, Chenxue; Wang, Xingzheng; Zhang, Yongbing; Peng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Specular reflection removal is indispensable to many computer vision tasks. However, most existing methods fail or degrade in complex real scenarios for their individual drawbacks. Benefiting from the light field imaging technology, this paper proposes a novel and accurate approach to remove specularity and improve image quality. We first capture images with specularity by the light field camera (Lytro ILLUM). After accurately estimating the image depth, a simple and concise threshold strategy is adopted to cluster the specular pixels into "unsaturated" and "saturated" category. Finally, a color variance analysis of multiple views and a local color refinement are individually conducted on the two categories to recover diffuse color information. Experimental evaluation by comparison with existed methods based on our light field dataset together with Stanford light field archive verifies the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. PMID:27253083

  15. A catalog of isolated galaxy pairs with accurate radial velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamaraux, P.; Nottale, L.

    2016-07-01

    The present paper is devoted to the construction of a catalog of isolated galaxy pairs from the Uppsala Galaxy Catalog (UGC), using accurate radial velocities. The UGC lists 12 921 galaxies to δ > -2°30' and is complete to an apparent diameter of 1'. The criteria used to define the isolated galaxy pairs are based on velocity, interdistance, reciprocity and isolation information. A peculiar investigation has allowed to gather very accurate radial velocities for pair members, from high quality HI and optical measurements (median uncertainty on velocity differences 10 kms-1). Our final catalog contains 1005 galaxy pairs with ρ > 2.5, of which 509 have ρ > 5 (50% of the pairs, i.e. 8%of the UGC galaxies) and 273 are highly isolated with ρ > 10 (27% of the pairs, i.e. 4% of the UGC galaxies). Some global properties of the pair catalog are given.

  16. Methods for accurate homology modeling by global optimization.

    PubMed

    Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Jooyoung

    2012-01-01

    High accuracy protein modeling from its sequence information is an important step toward revealing the sequence-structure-function relationship of proteins and nowadays it becomes increasingly more useful for practical purposes such as in drug discovery and in protein design. We have developed a protocol for protein structure prediction that can generate highly accurate protein models in terms of backbone structure, side-chain orientation, hydrogen bonding, and binding sites of ligands. To obtain accurate protein models, we have combined a powerful global optimization method with traditional homology modeling procedures such as multiple sequence alignment, chain building, and side-chain remodeling. We have built a series of specific score functions for these steps, and optimized them by utilizing conformational space annealing, which is one of the most successful combinatorial optimization algorithms currently available.

  17. Accurate Development of Thermal Neutron Scattering Cross Section Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Hawari, Ayman; Dunn, Michael

    2014-06-10

    The objective of this project is to develop a holistic (fundamental and accurate) approach for generating thermal neutron scattering cross section libraries for a collection of important enutron moderators and reflectors. The primary components of this approach are the physcial accuracy and completeness of the generated data libraries. Consequently, for the first time, thermal neutron scattering cross section data libraries will be generated that are based on accurate theoretical models, that are carefully benchmarked against experimental and computational data, and that contain complete covariance information that can be used in propagating the data uncertainties through the various components of the nuclear design and execution process. To achieve this objective, computational and experimental investigations will be performed on a carefully selected subset of materials that play a key role in all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  18. Light Field Imaging Based Accurate Image Specular Highlight Removal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoqian; Xu, Chenxue; Wang, Xingzheng; Zhang, Yongbing; Peng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Specular reflection removal is indispensable to many computer vision tasks. However, most existing methods fail or degrade in complex real scenarios for their individual drawbacks. Benefiting from the light field imaging technology, this paper proposes a novel and accurate approach to remove specularity and improve image quality. We first capture images with specularity by the light field camera (Lytro ILLUM). After accurately estimating the image depth, a simple and concise threshold strategy is adopted to cluster the specular pixels into “unsaturated” and “saturated” category. Finally, a color variance analysis of multiple views and a local color refinement are individually conducted on the two categories to recover diffuse color information. Experimental evaluation by comparison with existed methods based on our light field dataset together with Stanford light field archive verifies the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. PMID:27253083

  19. Feedback about More Accurate versus Less Accurate Trials: Differential Effects on Self-Confidence and Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected by feedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On Day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of…

  20. Accurate object tracking system by integrating texture and depth cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ju-Chin; Lin, Yu-Hang

    2016-03-01

    A robust object tracking system that is invariant to object appearance variations and background clutter is proposed. Multiple instance learning with a boosting algorithm is applied to select discriminant texture information between the object and background data. Additionally, depth information, which is important to distinguish the object from a complicated background, is integrated. We propose two depth-based models that can compensate texture information to cope with both appearance variants and background clutter. Moreover, in order to reduce the risk of drifting problem increased for the textureless depth templates, an update mechanism is proposed to select more precise tracking results to avoid incorrect model updates. In the experiments, the robustness of the proposed system is evaluated and quantitative results are provided for performance analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed system can provide the best success rate and has more accurate tracking results than other well-known algorithms.

  1. Efficient and Accurate Indoor Localization Using Landmark Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, F.; Kealy, A.; Khoshelham, K.; Shang, J.

    2016-06-01

    Indoor localization is important for a variety of applications such as location-based services, mobile social networks, and emergency response. Fusing spatial information is an effective way to achieve accurate indoor localization with little or with no need for extra hardware. However, existing indoor localization methods that make use of spatial information are either too computationally expensive or too sensitive to the completeness of landmark detection. In this paper, we solve this problem by using the proposed landmark graph. The landmark graph is a directed graph where nodes are landmarks (e.g., doors, staircases, and turns) and edges are accessible paths with heading information. We compared the proposed method with two common Dead Reckoning (DR)-based methods (namely, Compass + Accelerometer + Landmarks and Gyroscope + Accelerometer + Landmarks) by a series of experiments. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve 73% accuracy with a positioning error less than 2.5 meters, which outperforms the other two DR-based methods.

  2. Accurate Monte Carlo modeling of cyclotrons for optimization of shielding and activation calculations in the biomedical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infantino, Angelo; Marengo, Mario; Baschetti, Serafina; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Longo Vaschetto, Vittorio; Lucconi, Giulia; Massucci, Piera; Vichi, Sara; Zagni, Federico; Mostacci, Domiziano

    2015-11-01

    Biomedical cyclotrons for production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radionuclides and radiotherapy with hadrons or ions are widely diffused and established in hospitals as well as in industrial facilities and research sites. Guidelines for site planning and installation, as well as for radiation protection assessment, are given in a number of international documents; however, these well-established guides typically offer analytic methods of calculation of both shielding and materials activation, in approximate or idealized geometry set up. The availability of Monte Carlo codes with accurate and up-to-date libraries for transport and interactions of neutrons and charged particles at energies below 250 MeV, together with the continuously increasing power of nowadays computers, makes systematic use of simulations with realistic geometries possible, yielding equipment and site specific evaluation of the source terms, shielding requirements and all quantities relevant to radiation protection. In this work, the well-known Monte Carlo code FLUKA was used to simulate two representative models of cyclotron for PET radionuclides production, including their targetry; and one type of proton therapy cyclotron including the energy selection system. Simulations yield estimates of various quantities of radiological interest, including the effective dose distribution around the equipment, the effective number of neutron produced per incident proton and the activation of target materials, the structure of the cyclotron, the energy degrader, the vault walls and the soil. The model was validated against experimental measurements and comparison with well-established reference data. Neutron ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was measured around a GE PETtrace cyclotron: an average ratio between experimental measurement and simulations of 0.99±0.07 was found. Saturation yield of 18F, produced by the well-known 18O(p,n)18F reaction, was calculated and compared with the IAEA recommended

  3. Feedback about more accurate versus less accurate trials: differential effects on self-confidence and activation.

    PubMed

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-06-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected byfeedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of two conditions: one group received feedback on the most accurate trials, whereas another group received feedback on the least accurate trials. On day 2, participants completed an anxiety questionnaire and performed a retention test. Shin conductance level, as a measure of arousal, was determined. The results indicated that feedback about more accurate trials resulted in more effective learning as well as increased self-confidence. Also, activation was a predictor of performance. PMID:22808705

  4. Two highly accurate methods for pitch calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniel, K.; Härtig, F.; Osawa, S.; Sato, O.

    2009-11-01

    Among profiles, helix and tooth thickness pitch is one of the most important parameters of an involute gear measurement evaluation. In principle, coordinate measuring machines (CMM) and CNC-controlled gear measuring machines as a variant of a CMM are suited for these kinds of gear measurements. Now the Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) and the German national metrology institute the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have each developed independently highly accurate pitch calibration methods applicable to CMM or gear measuring machines. Both calibration methods are based on the so-called closure technique which allows the separation of the systematic errors of the measurement device and the errors of the gear. For the verification of both calibration methods, NMIJ/AIST and PTB performed measurements on a specially designed pitch artifact. The comparison of the results shows that both methods can be used for highly accurate calibrations of pitch standards.

  5. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  6. Accurate Guitar Tuning by Cochlear Implant Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  7. Preparation and accurate measurement of pure ozone.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Christof; Simone, Daniela; Guinet, Mickaël

    2011-03-01

    Preparation of high purity ozone as well as precise and accurate measurement of its pressure are metrological requirements that are difficult to meet due to ozone decomposition occurring in pressure sensors. The most stable and precise transducer heads are heated and, therefore, prone to accelerated ozone decomposition, limiting measurement accuracy and compromising purity. Here, we describe a vacuum system and a method for ozone production, suitable to accurately determine the pressure of pure ozone by avoiding the problem of decomposition. We use an inert gas in a particularly designed buffer volume and can thus achieve high measurement accuracy and negligible degradation of ozone with purities of 99.8% or better. The high degree of purity is ensured by comprehensive compositional analyses of ozone samples. The method may also be applied to other reactive gases. PMID:21456766

  8. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  9. Accurate modeling of parallel scientific computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Townsend, James C.

    1988-01-01

    Scientific codes are usually parallelized by partitioning a grid among processors. To achieve top performance it is necessary to partition the grid so as to balance workload and minimize communication/synchronization costs. This problem is particularly acute when the grid is irregular, changes over the course of the computation, and is not known until load time. Critical mapping and remapping decisions rest on the ability to accurately predict performance, given a description of a grid and its partition. This paper discusses one approach to this problem, and illustrates its use on a one-dimensional fluids code. The models constructed are shown to be accurate, and are used to find optimal remapping schedules.

  10. Line gas sampling system ensures accurate analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Tremendous changes in the natural gas business have resulted in new approaches to the way natural gas is measured. Electronic flow measurement has altered the business forever, with developments in instrumentation and a new sensitivity to the importance of proper natural gas sampling techniques. This paper reports that YZ Industries Inc., Snyder, Texas, combined its 40 years of sampling experience with the latest in microprocessor-based technology to develop the KynaPak 2000 series, the first on-line natural gas sampling system that is both compact and extremely accurate. This means the composition of the sampled gas must be representative of the whole and related to flow. If so, relative measurement and sampling techniques are married, gas volumes are accurately accounted for and adjustments to composition can be made.

  11. A guide for medical information searches of bibliographic databases - psychiatric research as an example.

    PubMed

    Löhönen, Johanna; Isohanni, Matti; Nieminen, Pentti; Miettunen, Jouko

    2009-09-01

    Information overload, demanding work with strict time limits, and the extensive number of medical bibliographic databases and other research sources all underline the importance of being able to search for up-to-date information effectively. Medical journals play a key role in providing access to the latest information in medicine and health and bibliographic databases play an important role in accessing them. This paper sheds light on the role of the information search process and discusses how to approach key medical bibliographic databases and information sources, using the field of psychiatry as an example. Because of an increasing amount of information, the constant renewal within the discipline and a variety of services available, those seeking information must precisely define what kind of information they are looking for and from which sources the information needed may be found.

  12. Accurate maser positions for MALT-45

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Christopher; Bains, Indra; Voronkov, Maxim; Lo, Nadia; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Burton, Michael; Brooks, Kate; Green, James; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Ellingsen, Simon; Urquhart, James; Morgan, Larry; Rowell, Gavin; Walsh, Andrew; Loenen, Edo; Baan, Willem; Hill, Tracey; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Peretto, Nicolas; Jackson, James; Lowe, Vicki; Longmore, Steven

    2013-10-01

    MALT-45 is an untargeted survey, mapping the Galactic plane in CS (1-0), Class I methanol masers, SiO masers and thermal emission, and high frequency continuum emission. After obtaining images from the survey, a number of masers were detected, but without accurate positions. This project seeks to resolve each maser and its environment, with the ultimate goal of placing the Class I methanol maser into a timeline of high mass star formation.

  13. Accurate maser positions for MALT-45

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Christopher; Bains, Indra; Voronkov, Maxim; Lo, Nadia; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Burton, Michael; Brooks, Kate; Green, James; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Ellingsen, Simon; Urquhart, James; Morgan, Larry; Rowell, Gavin; Walsh, Andrew; Loenen, Edo; Baan, Willem; Hill, Tracey; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Peretto, Nicolas; Jackson, James; Lowe, Vicki; Longmore, Steven

    2013-04-01

    MALT-45 is an untargeted survey, mapping the Galactic plane in CS (1-0), Class I methanol masers, SiO masers and thermal emission, and high frequency continuum emission. After obtaining images from the survey, a number of masers were detected, but without accurate positions. This project seeks to resolve each maser and its environment, with the ultimate goal of placing the Class I methanol maser into a timeline of high mass star formation.

  14. Accurate Molecular Polarizabilities Based on Continuum Electrostatics

    PubMed Central

    Truchon, Jean-François; Nicholls, Anthony; Iftimie, Radu I.; Roux, Benoît; Bayly, Christopher I.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach for representing the intramolecular polarizability as a continuum dielectric is introduced to account for molecular electronic polarization. It is shown, using a finite-difference solution to the Poisson equation, that the Electronic Polarization from Internal Continuum (EPIC) model yields accurate gas-phase molecular polarizability tensors for a test set of 98 challenging molecules composed of heteroaromatics, alkanes and diatomics. The electronic polarization originates from a high intramolecular dielectric that produces polarizabilities consistent with B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ and experimental values when surrounded by vacuum dielectric. In contrast to other approaches to model electronic polarization, this simple model avoids the polarizability catastrophe and accurately calculates molecular anisotropy with the use of very few fitted parameters and without resorting to auxiliary sites or anisotropic atomic centers. On average, the unsigned error in the average polarizability and anisotropy compared to B3LYP are 2% and 5%, respectively. The correlation between the polarizability components from B3LYP and this approach lead to a R2 of 0.990 and a slope of 0.999. Even the F2 anisotropy, shown to be a difficult case for existing polarizability models, can be reproduced within 2% error. In addition to providing new parameters for a rapid method directly applicable to the calculation of polarizabilities, this work extends the widely used Poisson equation to areas where accurate molecular polarizabilities matter. PMID:23646034

  15. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  16. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcondes, Michel L.; Shukla, Gaurav; da Silveira, Pedro; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  17. Can blind persons accurately assess body size from the voice?

    PubMed

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    Vocal tract resonances provide reliable information about a speaker's body size that human listeners use for biosocial judgements as well as speech recognition. Although humans can accurately assess men's relative body size from the voice alone, how this ability is acquired remains unknown. In this study, we test the prediction that accurate voice-based size estimation is possible without prior audiovisual experience linking low frequencies to large bodies. Ninety-one healthy congenitally or early blind, late blind and sighted adults (aged 20-65) participated in the study. On the basis of vowel sounds alone, participants assessed the relative body sizes of male pairs of varying heights. Accuracy of voice-based body size assessments significantly exceeded chance and did not differ among participants who were sighted, or congenitally blind or who had lost their sight later in life. Accuracy increased significantly with relative differences in physical height between men, suggesting that both blind and sighted participants used reliable vocal cues to size (i.e. vocal tract resonances). Our findings demonstrate that prior visual experience is not necessary for accurate body size estimation. This capacity, integral to both nonverbal communication and speech perception, may be present at birth or may generalize from broader cross-modal correspondences. PMID:27095264

  18. Accurate whole human genome sequencing using reversible terminator chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bentley, David R; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Swerdlow, Harold P; Smith, Geoffrey P; Milton, John; Brown, Clive G; Hall, Kevin P; Evers, Dirk J; Barnes, Colin L; Bignell, Helen R; Boutell, Jonathan M; Bryant, Jason; Carter, Richard J; Keira Cheetham, R; Cox, Anthony J; Ellis, Darren J; Flatbush, Michael R; Gormley, Niall A; Humphray, Sean J; Irving, Leslie J; Karbelashvili, Mirian S; Kirk, Scott M; Li, Heng; Liu, Xiaohai; Maisinger, Klaus S; Murray, Lisa J; Obradovic, Bojan; Ost, Tobias; Parkinson, Michael L; Pratt, Mark R; Rasolonjatovo, Isabelle M J; Reed, Mark T; Rigatti, Roberto; Rodighiero, Chiara; Ross, Mark T; Sabot, Andrea; Sankar, Subramanian V; Scally, Aylwyn; Schroth, Gary P; Smith, Mark E; Smith, Vincent P; Spiridou, Anastassia; Torrance, Peta E; Tzonev, Svilen S; Vermaas, Eric H; Walter, Klaudia; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Lu; Alam, Mohammed D; Anastasi, Carole; Aniebo, Ify C; Bailey, David M D; Bancarz, Iain R; Banerjee, Saibal; Barbour, Selena G; Baybayan, Primo A; Benoit, Vincent A; Benson, Kevin F; Bevis, Claire; Black, Phillip J; Boodhun, Asha; Brennan, Joe S; Bridgham, John A; Brown, Rob C; Brown, Andrew A; Buermann, Dale H; Bundu, Abass A; Burrows, James C; Carter, Nigel P; Castillo, Nestor; Chiara E Catenazzi, Maria; Chang, Simon; Neil Cooley, R; Crake, Natasha R; Dada, Olubunmi O; Diakoumakos, Konstantinos D; Dominguez-Fernandez, Belen; Earnshaw, David J; Egbujor, Ugonna C; Elmore, David W; Etchin, Sergey S; Ewan, Mark R; Fedurco, Milan; Fraser, Louise J; Fuentes Fajardo, Karin V; Scott Furey, W; George, David; Gietzen, Kimberley J; Goddard, Colin P; Golda, George S; Granieri, Philip A; Green, David E; Gustafson, David L; Hansen, Nancy F; Harnish, Kevin; Haudenschild, Christian D; Heyer, Narinder I; Hims, Matthew M; Ho, Johnny T; Horgan, Adrian M; Hoschler, Katya; Hurwitz, Steve; Ivanov, Denis V; Johnson, Maria Q; James, Terena; Huw Jones, T A; Kang, Gyoung-Dong; Kerelska, Tzvetana H; Kersey, Alan D; Khrebtukova, Irina; Kindwall, Alex P; Kingsbury, Zoya; Kokko-Gonzales, Paula I; Kumar, Anil; Laurent, Marc A; Lawley, Cynthia T; Lee, Sarah E; Lee, Xavier; Liao, Arnold K; Loch, Jennifer A; Lok, Mitch; Luo, Shujun; Mammen, Radhika M; Martin, John W; McCauley, Patrick G; McNitt, Paul; Mehta, Parul; Moon, Keith W; Mullens, Joe W; Newington, Taksina; Ning, Zemin; Ling Ng, Bee; Novo, Sonia M; O'Neill, Michael J; Osborne, Mark A; Osnowski, Andrew; Ostadan, Omead; Paraschos, Lambros L; Pickering, Lea; Pike, Andrew C; Pike, Alger C; Chris Pinkard, D; Pliskin, Daniel P; Podhasky, Joe; Quijano, Victor J; Raczy, Come; Rae, Vicki H; Rawlings, Stephen R; Chiva Rodriguez, Ana; Roe, Phyllida M; Rogers, John; Rogert Bacigalupo, Maria C; Romanov, Nikolai; Romieu, Anthony; Roth, Rithy K; Rourke, Natalie J; Ruediger, Silke T; Rusman, Eli; Sanches-Kuiper, Raquel M; Schenker, Martin R; Seoane, Josefina M; Shaw, Richard J; Shiver, Mitch K; Short, Steven W; Sizto, Ning L; Sluis, Johannes P; Smith, Melanie A; Ernest Sohna Sohna, Jean; Spence, Eric J; Stevens, Kim; Sutton, Neil; Szajkowski, Lukasz; Tregidgo, Carolyn L; Turcatti, Gerardo; Vandevondele, Stephanie; Verhovsky, Yuli; Virk, Selene M; Wakelin, Suzanne; Walcott, Gregory C; Wang, Jingwen; Worsley, Graham J; Yan, Juying; Yau, Ling; Zuerlein, Mike; Rogers, Jane; Mullikin, James C; Hurles, Matthew E; McCooke, Nick J; West, John S; Oaks, Frank L; Lundberg, Peter L; Klenerman, David; Durbin, Richard; Smith, Anthony J

    2008-11-01

    DNA sequence information underpins genetic research, enabling discoveries of important biological or medical benefit. Sequencing projects have traditionally used long (400-800 base pair) reads, but the existence of reference sequences for the human and many other genomes makes it possible to develop new, fast approaches to re-sequencing, whereby shorter reads are compared to a reference to identify intraspecies genetic variation. Here we report an approach that generates several billion bases of accurate nucleotide sequence per experiment at low cost. Single molecules of DNA are attached to a flat surface, amplified in situ and used as templates for synthetic sequencing with fluorescent reversible terminator deoxyribonucleotides. Images of the surface are analysed to generate high-quality sequence. We demonstrate application of this approach to human genome sequencing on flow-sorted X chromosomes and then scale the approach to determine the genome sequence of a male Yoruba from Ibadan, Nigeria. We build an accurate consensus sequence from >30x average depth of paired 35-base reads. We characterize four million single-nucleotide polymorphisms and four hundred thousand structural variants, many of which were previously unknown. Our approach is effective for accurate, rapid and economical whole-genome re-sequencing and many other biomedical applications.

  19. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Marcondes, Michel L.; Shukla, Gaurav; Silveira, Pedro da; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2015-12-15

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  20. Accurately Mapping M31's Microlensing Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin

    2004-07-01

    We propose to augment an existing microlensing survey of M31 with source identifications provided by a modest amount of ACS {and WFPC2 parallel} observations to yield an accurate measurement of the masses responsible for microlensing in M31, and presumably much of its dark matter. The main benefit of these data is the determination of the physical {or "einstein"} timescale of each microlensing event, rather than an effective {"FWHM"} timescale, allowing masses to be determined more than twice as accurately as without HST data. The einstein timescale is the ratio of the lensing cross-sectional radius and relative velocities. Velocities are known from kinematics, and the cross-section is directly proportional to the {unknown} lensing mass. We cannot easily measure these quantities without knowing the amplification, hence the baseline magnitude, which requires the resolution of HST to find the source star. This makes a crucial difference because M31 lens m ass determinations can be more accurate than those towards the Magellanic Clouds through our Galaxy's halo {for the same number of microlensing events} due to the better constrained geometry in the M31 microlensing situation. Furthermore, our larger survey, just completed, should yield at least 100 M31 microlensing events, more than any Magellanic survey. A small amount of ACS+WFPC2 imaging will deliver the potential of this large database {about 350 nights}. For the whole survey {and a delta-function mass distribution} the mass error should approach only about 15%, or about 6% error in slope for a power-law distribution. These results will better allow us to pinpoint the lens halo fraction, and the shape of the halo lens spatial distribution, and allow generalization/comparison of the nature of halo dark matter in spiral galaxies. In addition, we will be able to establish the baseline magnitude for about 50, 000 variable stars, as well as measure an unprecedentedly deta iled color-magnitude diagram and luminosity

  1. Accurate upwind methods for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of piecewise linear methods for the numerical solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics is presented. These methods are uniformly second-order accurate, and can be considered as extensions of Godunov's scheme. With an appropriate definition of monotonicity preservation for the case of linear convection, it can be shown that they preserve monotonicity. Similar to Van Leer's MUSCL scheme, they consist of two key steps: a reconstruction step followed by an upwind step. For the reconstruction step, a monotonicity constraint that preserves uniform second-order accuracy is introduced. Computational efficiency is enhanced by devising a criterion that detects the 'smooth' part of the data where the constraint is redundant. The concept and coding of the constraint are simplified by the use of the median function. A slope steepening technique, which has no effect at smooth regions and can resolve a contact discontinuity in four cells, is described. As for the upwind step, existing and new methods are applied in a manner slightly different from those in the literature. These methods are derived by approximating the Euler equations via linearization and diagonalization. At a 'smooth' interface, Harten, Lax, and Van Leer's one intermediate state model is employed. A modification for this model that can resolve contact discontinuities is presented. Near a discontinuity, either this modified model or a more accurate one, namely, Roe's flux-difference splitting. is used. The current presentation of Roe's method, via the conceptually simple flux-vector splitting, not only establishes a connection between the two splittings, but also leads to an admissibility correction with no conditional statement, and an efficient approximation to Osher's approximate Riemann solver. These reconstruction and upwind steps result in schemes that are uniformly second-order accurate and economical at smooth regions, and yield high resolution at discontinuities.

  2. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  3. The first accurate description of an aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2006-12-01

    As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

  4. Accurate density functional thermochemistry for larger molecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavachari, K.; Stefanov, B. B.; Curtiss, L. A.; Lucent Tech.

    1997-06-20

    Density functional methods are combined with isodesmic bond separation reaction energies to yield accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules. Seven different density functionals are assessed for the evaluation of heats of formation, Delta H 0 (298 K), for a test set of 40 molecules composed of H, C, O and N. The use of bond separation energies results in a dramatic improvement in the accuracy of all the density functionals. The B3-LYP functional has the smallest mean absolute deviation from experiment (1.5 kcal mol/f).

  5. Universality: Accurate Checks in Dyson's Hierarchical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godina, J. J.; Meurice, Y.; Oktay, M. B.

    2003-06-01

    In this talk we present high-accuracy calculations of the susceptibility near βc for Dyson's hierarchical model in D = 3. Using linear fitting, we estimate the leading (γ) and subleading (Δ) exponents. Independent estimates are obtained by calculating the first two eigenvalues of the linearized renormalization group transformation. We found γ = 1.29914073 ± 10 -8 and, Δ = 0.4259469 ± 10-7 independently of the choice of local integration measure (Ising or Landau-Ginzburg). After a suitable rescaling, the approximate fixed points for a large class of local measure coincide accurately with a fixed point constructed by Koch and Wittwer.

  6. Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.

  7. Accurate basis set truncation for wavefunction embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Taylor A.; Goodpaster, Jason D.; Manby, Frederick R.; Miller, Thomas F.

    2013-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally exact framework for performing embedded subsystem electronic structure calculations, including DFT-in-DFT and wavefunction theory-in-DFT descriptions. In the interest of efficiency, it is desirable to truncate the atomic orbital basis set in which the subsystem calculation is performed, thus avoiding high-order scaling with respect to the size of the MO virtual space. In this study, we extend a recently introduced projection-based embedding method [F. R. Manby, M. Stella, J. D. Goodpaster, and T. F. Miller III, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2564 (2012)], 10.1021/ct300544e to allow for the systematic and accurate truncation of the embedded subsystem basis set. The approach is applied to both covalently and non-covalently bound test cases, including water clusters and polypeptide chains, and it is demonstrated that errors associated with basis set truncation are controllable to well within chemical accuracy. Furthermore, we show that this approach allows for switching between accurate projection-based embedding and DFT embedding with approximate kinetic energy (KE) functionals; in this sense, the approach provides a means of systematically improving upon the use of approximate KE functionals in DFT embedding.

  8. Accurate determination of characteristic relative permeability curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Michael H.; Benson, Sally M.

    2015-09-01

    A recently developed technique to accurately characterize sub-core scale heterogeneity is applied to investigate the factors responsible for flowrate-dependent effective relative permeability curves measured on core samples in the laboratory. The dependency of laboratory measured relative permeability on flowrate has long been both supported and challenged by a number of investigators. Studies have shown that this apparent flowrate dependency is a result of both sub-core scale heterogeneity and outlet boundary effects. However this has only been demonstrated numerically for highly simplified models of porous media. In this paper, flowrate dependency of effective relative permeability is demonstrated using two rock cores, a Berea Sandstone and a heterogeneous sandstone from the Otway Basin Pilot Project in Australia. Numerical simulations of steady-state coreflooding experiments are conducted at a number of injection rates using a single set of input characteristic relative permeability curves. Effective relative permeability is then calculated from the simulation data using standard interpretation methods for calculating relative permeability from steady-state tests. Results show that simplified approaches may be used to determine flowrate-independent characteristic relative permeability provided flow rate is sufficiently high, and the core heterogeneity is relatively low. It is also shown that characteristic relative permeability can be determined at any typical flowrate, and even for geologically complex models, when using accurate three-dimensional models.

  9. How Accurately can we Calculate Thermal Systems?

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D; Blomquist, R N; Dean, C; Heinrichs, D; Kalugin, M A; Lee, M; Lee, Y; MacFarlan, R; Nagaya, Y; Trkov, A

    2004-04-20

    I would like to determine how accurately a variety of neutron transport code packages (code and cross section libraries) can calculate simple integral parameters, such as K{sub eff}, for systems that are sensitive to thermal neutron scattering. Since we will only consider theoretical systems, we cannot really determine absolute accuracy compared to any real system. Therefore rather than accuracy, it would be more precise to say that I would like to determine the spread in answers that we obtain from a variety of code packages. This spread should serve as an excellent indicator of how accurately we can really model and calculate such systems today. Hopefully, eventually this will lead to improvements in both our codes and the thermal scattering models that they use in the future. In order to accomplish this I propose a number of extremely simple systems that involve thermal neutron scattering that can be easily modeled and calculated by a variety of neutron transport codes. These are theoretical systems designed to emphasize the effects of thermal scattering, since that is what we are interested in studying. I have attempted to keep these systems very simple, and yet at the same time they include most, if not all, of the important thermal scattering effects encountered in a large, water-moderated, uranium fueled thermal system, i.e., our typical thermal reactors.

  10. Accurate Stellar Parameters for Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, John Michael; Fischer, Debra; Basu, Sarbani; Valenti, Jeff A.

    2015-01-01

    A large impedement to our understanding of planet formation is obtaining a clear picture of planet radii and densities. Although determining precise ratios between planet and stellar host are relatively easy, determining accurate stellar parameters is still a difficult and costly undertaking. High resolution spectral analysis has traditionally yielded precise values for some stellar parameters but stars in common between catalogs from different authors or analyzed using different techniques often show offsets far in excess of their uncertainties. Most analyses now use some external constraint, when available, to break observed degeneracies between surface gravity, effective temperature, and metallicity which can otherwise lead to correlated errors in results. However, these external constraints are impossible to obtain for all stars and can require more costly observations than the initial high resolution spectra. We demonstrate that these discrepencies can be mitigated by use of a larger line list that has carefully tuned atomic line data. We use an iterative modeling technique that does not require external constraints. We compare the surface gravity obtained with our spectral synthesis modeling to asteroseismically determined values for 42 Kepler stars. Our analysis agrees well with only a 0.048 dex offset and an rms scatter of 0.05 dex. Such accurate stellar gravities can reduce the primary source of uncertainty in radii by almost an order of magnitude over unconstrained spectral analysis.

  11. Landspotting: collecting essential land cover information via an attractive internet game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Steffen; McCallum, Ian; Perger, Christoph; Christian, Schill; Florian, Kraxner; Erik, Lindquist; Michael, Obersteiner

    2010-05-01

    Based on the geo-wiki.org concept of collecting land cover information via crowdsourcing, we present a novel approach on how to get the crowd involved. Internet games as well as social networks are becoming increasingly popular and the full potential is yet to be exploited. However, thus far, few if any games provide anything other than entertainment. Can an attractive philanthropic game be created which uses the crowd to collect essential information needed to help to acquire better data to improve the understanding of the earth system? Since accurate and up to date information on global land cover plays a very important role in a number of different research fields such as climate change, monitoring of tropical deforestation, land use monitoring and land-use modelling, but still shows high levels of disagreement, the game will focus on how this essential land cover calibration and validation data can be collected in areas where uncertainty is currently highest. In the current version of the land spotting game, we combine uncertainty hotspot information from three global land cover datasets (GLC, MODIS and GlobCover). With an ever increasing amount of high resolution images available on Google Earth, it is becoming increasingly possible to distinguish land cover features with a high degree of accuracy. We first direct the landspotting game community to certain hotspots of land cover uncertainty and then ask them to enter/record the type of land cover they see (for this they will be able to acquire a certain number of points), possibly uploading pictures at that location (additional points will be received). Even though the development of the game "landspotting.org" is still underway, we illustrate what the functionality will be and what features are envisaged for the near future. Landspotting.org will be designed in such a way as to challenge users to help map out the remaining areas of confusion over the globe - possibly in the form of an adventure game. Users

  12. Automatic information timeliness assessment of diabetes web sites by evidence based medicine.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Rahime Belen; Taşkaya Temizel, Tuğba

    2014-11-01

    Studies on health domain have shown that health websites provide imperfect information and give recommendations which are not up to date with the recent literature even when their last modified dates are quite recent. In this paper, we propose a framework which assesses the timeliness of the content of health websites automatically by evidence based medicine. Our aim is to assess the accordance of website contents with the current literature and information timeliness disregarding the update time stated on the websites. The proposed method is based on automatic term recognition, relevance feedback and information retrieval techniques in order to generate time-aware structured queries. We tested the framework on diabetes health web sites which were archived between 2006 and 2013 by Archive-it using American Diabetes Association's (ADA) guidelines. The results showed that the proposed framework achieves 65% and 77% accuracy in detecting the timeliness of the web content according to years and pre-determined time intervals respectively. Information seekers and web site owners may benefit from the proposed framework in finding relevant and up-to-date diabetes web sites.

  13. Automatic classification and accurate size measurement of blank mask defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhamidipati, Samir; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Buck, Peter

    2015-07-01

    A blank mask and its preparation stages, such as cleaning or resist coating, play an important role in the eventual yield obtained by using it. Blank mask defects' impact analysis directly depends on the amount of available information such as the number of defects observed, their accurate locations and sizes. Mask usability qualification at the start of the preparation process, is crudely based on number of defects. Similarly, defect information such as size is sought to estimate eventual defect printability on the wafer. Tracking of defect characteristics, specifically size and shape, across multiple stages, can further be indicative of process related information such as cleaning or coating process efficiencies. At the first level, inspection machines address the requirement of defect characterization by detecting and reporting relevant defect information. The analysis of this information though is still largely a manual process. With advancing technology nodes and reducing half-pitch sizes, a large number of defects are observed; and the detailed knowledge associated, make manual defect review process an arduous task, in addition to adding sensitivity to human errors. Cases where defect information reported by inspection machine is not sufficient, mask shops rely on other tools. Use of CDSEM tools is one such option. However, these additional steps translate into increased costs. Calibre NxDAT based MDPAutoClassify tool provides an automated software alternative to the manual defect review process. Working on defect images generated by inspection machines, the tool extracts and reports additional information such as defect location, useful for defect avoidance[4][5]; defect size, useful in estimating defect printability; and, defect nature e.g. particle, scratch, resist void, etc., useful for process monitoring. The tool makes use of smart and elaborate post-processing algorithms to achieve this. Their elaborateness is a consequence of the variety and

  14. Highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-12-30

    Disclosed is a highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine, comprising a revolute joint, comprising a circular encoder wheel, having an axis of rotation; a plurality of marks disposed around at least a portion of the circumference of the encoder wheel; bearing means for supporting the encoder wheel, while permitting free rotation of the encoder wheel about the wheel's axis of rotation; and a sensor, rigidly attached to the bearing means, for detecting the motion of at least some of the marks as the encoder wheel rotates; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the encoder wheel, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the sensor, for converting the output of the sensor into a set of cylindrical coordinates representing the position of the probe tip relative to a reference cylindrical coordinate system.

  15. Practical aspects of spatially high accurate methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, Andrew G.; Mitchell, Curtis R.; Walters, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The computational qualities of high order spatially accurate methods for the finite volume solution of the Euler equations are presented. Two dimensional essentially non-oscillatory (ENO), k-exact, and 'dimension by dimension' ENO reconstruction operators are discussed and compared in terms of reconstruction and solution accuracy, computational cost and oscillatory behavior in supersonic flows with shocks. Inherent steady state convergence difficulties are demonstrated for adaptive stencil algorithms. An exact solution to the heat equation is used to determine reconstruction error, and the computational intensity is reflected in operation counts. Standard MUSCL differencing is included for comparison. Numerical experiments presented include the Ringleb flow for numerical accuracy and a shock reflection problem. A vortex-shock interaction demonstrates the ability of the ENO scheme to excel in simulating unsteady high-frequency flow physics.

  16. Toward Accurate and Quantitative Comparative Metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Nayfach, Stephen; Pollard, Katherine S

    2016-08-25

    Shotgun metagenomics and computational analysis are used to compare the taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities. Leveraging this approach to understand roles of microbes in human biology and other environments requires quantitative data summaries whose values are comparable across samples and studies. Comparability is currently hampered by the use of abundance statistics that do not estimate a meaningful parameter of the microbial community and biases introduced by experimental protocols and data-cleaning approaches. Addressing these challenges, along with improving study design, data access, metadata standardization, and analysis tools, will enable accurate comparative metagenomics. We envision a future in which microbiome studies are replicable and new metagenomes are easily and rapidly integrated with existing data. Only then can the potential of metagenomics for predictive ecological modeling, well-powered association studies, and effective microbiome medicine be fully realized. PMID:27565341

  17. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperaes in the range of about 1800.degree. to 2700.degree. C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  18. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  19. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  20. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception.

  1. Accurate Thermal Stresses for Beams: Normal Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Pilkey, Walter D.

    2003-01-01

    Formulations for a general theory of thermoelasticity to generate accurate thermal stresses for structural members of aeronautical vehicles were developed in 1954 by Boley. The formulation also provides three normal stresses and a shear stress along the entire length of the beam. The Poisson effect of the lateral and transverse normal stresses on a thermally loaded beam is taken into account in this theory by employing an Airy stress function. The Airy stress function enables the reduction of the three-dimensional thermal stress problem to a two-dimensional one. Numerical results from the general theory of thermoelasticity are compared to those obtained from strength of materials. It is concluded that the theory of thermoelasticity for prismatic beams proposed in this paper can be used instead of strength of materials when precise stress results are desired.

  2. Accurate Thermal Stresses for Beams: Normal Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Pilkey, Walter D.

    2002-01-01

    Formulations for a general theory of thermoelasticity to generate accurate thermal stresses for structural members of aeronautical vehicles were developed in 1954 by Boley. The formulation also provides three normal stresses and a shear stress along the entire length of the beam. The Poisson effect of the lateral and transverse normal stresses on a thermally loaded beam is taken into account in this theory by employing an Airy stress function. The Airy stress function enables the reduction of the three-dimensional thermal stress problem to a two-dimensional one. Numerical results from the general theory of thermoelasticity are compared to those obtained from strength of materials. It is concluded that the theory of thermoelasticity for prismatic beams proposed in this paper can be used instead of strength of materials when precise stress results are desired.

  3. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception. PMID:24549293

  4. Accurate Telescope Mount Positioning with MEMS Accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, L.; Jaskó, A.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the advantages and challenges of applying microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (MEMS accelerometers) in order to attain precise, accurate, and stateless positioning of telescope mounts. This provides a completely independent method from other forms of electronic, optical, mechanical or magnetic feedback or real-time astrometry. Our goal is to reach the subarcminute range which is considerably smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. Here we present how this subarcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors and we also detail how our procedures can be extended in order to attain even finer measurements. In addition, our paper discusses how can a complete system design be implemented in order to be a part of a telescope control system.

  5. Toward Accurate and Quantitative Comparative Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Nayfach, Stephen; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Shotgun metagenomics and computational analysis are used to compare the taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities. Leveraging this approach to understand roles of microbes in human biology and other environments requires quantitative data summaries whose values are comparable across samples and studies. Comparability is currently hampered by the use of abundance statistics that do not estimate a meaningful parameter of the microbial community and biases introduced by experimental protocols and data-cleaning approaches. Addressing these challenges, along with improving study design, data access, metadata standardization, and analysis tools, will enable accurate comparative metagenomics. We envision a future in which microbiome studies are replicable and new metagenomes are easily and rapidly integrated with existing data. Only then can the potential of metagenomics for predictive ecological modeling, well-powered association studies, and effective microbiome medicine be fully realized. PMID:27565341

  6. Accurate Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The NRAO Green Bank Telescope routinely observes at wavelengths from 3 mm to 1 m. As with all mm-wave telescopes, observing conditions depend upon the variable atmospheric water content. The site provides over 100 days/yr when opacities are low enough for good observing at 3 mm, but winds on the open-air structure reduce the time suitable for 3-mm observing where pointing is critical. Thus, to maximum productivity the observing wavelength needs to match weather conditions. For 6 years the telescope has used a dynamic scheduling system (recently upgraded; www.gb.nrao.edu/DSS) that requires accurate multi-day forecasts for winds and opacities. Since opacity forecasts are not provided by the National Weather Services (NWS), I have developed an automated system that takes available forecasts, derives forecasted opacities, and deploys the results on the web in user-friendly graphical overviews (www.gb.nrao.edu/ rmaddale/Weather). The system relies on the "North American Mesoscale" models, which are updated by the NWS every 6 hrs, have a 12 km horizontal resolution, 1 hr temporal resolution, run to 84 hrs, and have 60 vertical layers that extend to 20 km. Each forecast consists of a time series of ground conditions, cloud coverage, etc, and, most importantly, temperature, pressure, humidity as a function of height. I use the Liebe's MWP model (Radio Science, 20, 1069, 1985) to determine the absorption in each layer for each hour for 30 observing wavelengths. Radiative transfer provides, for each hour and wavelength, the total opacity and the radio brightness of the atmosphere, which contributes substantially at some wavelengths to Tsys and the observational noise. Comparisons of measured and forecasted Tsys at 22.2 and 44 GHz imply that the forecasted opacities are good to about 0.01 Nepers, which is sufficient for forecasting and accurate calibration. Reliability is high out to 2 days and degrades slowly for longer-range forecasts.

  7. Accurate masses for dispersion-supported galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joe; Martinez, Gregory D.; Bullock, James S.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Geha, Marla; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Simon, Joshua D.; Avedo, Frank F.

    2010-08-01

    We derive an accurate mass estimator for dispersion-supported stellar systems and demonstrate its validity by analysing resolved line-of-sight velocity data for globular clusters, dwarf galaxies and elliptical galaxies. Specifically, by manipulating the spherical Jeans equation we show that the mass enclosed within the 3D deprojected half-light radius r1/2 can be determined with only mild assumptions about the spatial variation of the stellar velocity dispersion anisotropy as long as the projected velocity dispersion profile is fairly flat near the half-light radius, as is typically observed. We find M1/2 = 3 G-1< σ2los > r1/2 ~= 4 G-1< σ2los > Re, where < σ2los > is the luminosity-weighted square of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion and Re is the 2D projected half-light radius. While deceptively familiar in form, this formula is not the virial theorem, which cannot be used to determine accurate masses unless the radial profile of the total mass is known a priori. We utilize this finding to show that all of the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies (MW dSphs) are consistent with having formed within a halo of a mass of approximately 3 × 109 Msolar, assuming a Λ cold dark matter cosmology. The faintest MW dSphs seem to have formed in dark matter haloes that are at least as massive as those of the brightest MW dSphs, despite the almost five orders of magnitude spread in luminosity between them. We expand our analysis to the full range of observed dispersion-supported stellar systems and examine their dynamical I-band mass-to-light ratios ΥI1/2. The ΥI1/2 versus M1/2 relation for dispersion-supported galaxies follows a U shape, with a broad minimum near ΥI1/2 ~= 3 that spans dwarf elliptical galaxies to normal ellipticals, a steep rise to ΥI1/2 ~= 3200 for ultra-faint dSphs and a more shallow rise to ΥI1/2 ~= 800 for galaxy cluster spheroids.

  8. A highly accurate heuristic algorithm for the haplotype assembly problem

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common form of genetic variation in human DNA. The sequence of SNPs in each of the two copies of a given chromosome in a diploid organism is referred to as a haplotype. Haplotype information has many applications such as gene disease diagnoses, drug design, etc. The haplotype assembly problem is defined as follows: Given a set of fragments sequenced from the two copies of a chromosome of a single individual, and their locations in the chromosome, which can be pre-determined by aligning the fragments to a reference DNA sequence, the goal here is to reconstruct two haplotypes (h1, h2) from the input fragments. Existing algorithms do not work well when the error rate of fragments is high. Here we design an algorithm that can give accurate solutions, even if the error rate of fragments is high. Results We first give a dynamic programming algorithm that can give exact solutions to the haplotype assembly problem. The time complexity of the algorithm is O(n × 2t × t), where n is the number of SNPs, and t is the maximum coverage of a SNP site. The algorithm is slow when t is large. To solve the problem when t is large, we further propose a heuristic algorithm on the basis of the dynamic programming algorithm. Experiments show that our heuristic algorithm can give very accurate solutions. Conclusions We have tested our algorithm on a set of benchmark datasets. Experiments show that our algorithm can give very accurate solutions. It outperforms most of the existing programs when the error rate of the input fragments is high. PMID:23445458

  9. Accurate free energy calculation along optimized paths.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changjun; Xiao, Yi

    2010-05-01

    The path-based methods of free energy calculation, such as thermodynamic integration and free energy perturbation, are simple in theory, but difficult in practice because in most cases smooth paths do not exist, especially for large molecules. In this article, we present a novel method to build the transition path of a peptide. We use harmonic potentials to restrain its nonhydrogen atom dihedrals in the initial state and set the equilibrium angles of the potentials as those in the final state. Through a series of steps of geometrical optimization, we can construct a smooth and short path from the initial state to the final state. This path can be used to calculate free energy difference. To validate this method, we apply it to a small 10-ALA peptide and find that the calculated free energy changes in helix-helix and helix-hairpin transitions are both self-convergent and cross-convergent. We also calculate the free energy differences between different stable states of beta-hairpin trpzip2, and the results show that this method is more efficient than the conventional molecular dynamics method in accurate free energy calculation.

  10. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10-12 at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, and T2 has been determined. For the ground state of H2 the estimated precision is 3 × 10-7 cm-1, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.

  11. Fast and Provably Accurate Bilateral Filtering.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Kunal N; Dabhade, Swapnil D

    2016-06-01

    The bilateral filter is a non-linear filter that uses a range filter along with a spatial filter to perform edge-preserving smoothing of images. A direct computation of the bilateral filter requires O(S) operations per pixel, where S is the size of the support of the spatial filter. In this paper, we present a fast and provably accurate algorithm for approximating the bilateral filter when the range kernel is Gaussian. In particular, for box and Gaussian spatial filters, the proposed algorithm can cut down the complexity to O(1) per pixel for any arbitrary S . The algorithm has a simple implementation involving N+1 spatial filterings, where N is the approximation order. We give a detailed analysis of the filtering accuracy that can be achieved by the proposed approximation in relation to the target bilateral filter. This allows us to estimate the order N required to obtain a given accuracy. We also present comprehensive numerical results to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is competitive with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of speed and accuracy. PMID:27093722

  12. Accurate, reliable prototype earth horizon sensor head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F.; Cohen, H.

    1973-01-01

    The design and performance is described of an accurate and reliable prototype earth sensor head (ARPESH). The ARPESH employs a detection logic 'locator' concept and horizon sensor mechanization which should lead to high accuracy horizon sensing that is minimally degraded by spatial or temporal variations in sensing attitude from a satellite in orbit around the earth at altitudes in the 500 km environ 1,2. An accuracy of horizon location to within 0.7 km has been predicted, independent of meteorological conditions. This corresponds to an error of 0.015 deg-at 500 km altitude. Laboratory evaluation of the sensor indicates that this accuracy is achieved. First, the basic operating principles of ARPESH are described; next, detailed design and construction data is presented and then performance of the sensor under laboratory conditions in which the sensor is installed in a simulator that permits it to scan over a blackbody source against background representing the earth space interface for various equivalent plant temperatures.

  13. Fast and Accurate Exhaled Breath Ammonia Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Solga, Steven F.; Mudalel, Matthew L.; Spacek, Lisa A.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations. PMID:24962141

  14. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-14

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10{sup −12} at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H{sub 2}, HD, HT, D{sub 2}, DT, and T{sub 2} has been determined. For the ground state of H{sub 2} the estimated precision is 3 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup −1}, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.

  15. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule.

    PubMed

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-14

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10(-12) at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, and T2 has been determined. For the ground state of H2 the estimated precision is 3 × 10(-7) cm(-1), which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels. PMID:25494728

  16. MEMS accelerometers in accurate mount positioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, László; Pál, András.; Jaskó, Attila

    2014-07-01

    In order to attain precise, accurate and stateless positioning of telescope mounts we apply microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (also known as MEMS accelerometers). In common practice, feedback from the mount position is provided by electronic, optical or magneto-mechanical systems or via real-time astrometric solution based on the acquired images. Hence, MEMS-based systems are completely independent from these mechanisms. Our goal is to investigate the advantages and challenges of applying such devices and to reach the sub-arcminute range { that is well smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. We present how this sub-arcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors. Basically, these sensors yield raw output within an accuracy of a few degrees. We show what kind of calibration procedures could exploit spherical and cylindrical constraints between accelerometer output channels in order to achieve the previously mentioned accuracy level. We also demonstrate how can our implementation be inserted in a telescope control system. Although this attainable precision is less than both the resolution of telescope mount drive mechanics and the accuracy of astrometric solutions, the independent nature of attitude determination could significantly increase the reliability of autonomous or remotely operated astronomical observations.

  17. PredPPCrys: Accurate Prediction of Sequence Cloning, Protein Production, Purification and Crystallization Propensity from Protein Sequences Using Multi-Step Heterogeneous Feature Fusion and Selection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huilin; Wang, Mingjun; Tan, Hao; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Ziding; Song, Jiangning

    2014-01-01

    X-ray crystallography is the primary approach to solve the three-dimensional structure of a protein. However, a major bottleneck of this method is the failure of multi-step experimental procedures to yield diffraction-quality crystals, including sequence cloning, protein material production, purification, crystallization and ultimately, structural determination. Accordingly, prediction of the propensity of a protein to successfully undergo these experimental procedures based on the protein sequence may help narrow down laborious experimental efforts and facilitate target selection. A number of bioinformatics methods based on protein sequence information have been developed for this purpose. However, our knowledge on the important determinants of propensity for a protein sequence to produce high diffraction-quality crystals remains largely incomplete. In practice, most of the existing methods display poorer performance when evaluated on larger and updated datasets. To address this problem, we constructed an up-to-date dataset as the benchmark, and subsequently developed a new approach termed ‘PredPPCrys’ using the support vector machine (SVM). Using a comprehensive set of multifaceted sequence-derived features in combination with a novel multi-step feature selection strategy, we identified and characterized the relative importance and contribution of each feature type to the prediction performance of five individual experimental steps required for successful crystallization. The resulting optimal candidate features were used as inputs to build the first-level SVM predictor (PredPPCrys I). Next, prediction outputs of PredPPCrys I were used as the input to build second-level SVM classifiers (PredPPCrys II), which led to significantly enhanced prediction performance. Benchmarking experiments indicated that our PredPPCrys method outperforms most existing procedures on both up-to-date and previous datasets. In addition, the predicted crystallization targets of

  18. Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response

    PubMed Central

    Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S.; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R.; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E.; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M. Eileen; Kogan, Scott C.; Downing, James R.; Lowe, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients. PMID:19339691

  19. Accurate eye center location through invariant isocentric patterns.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Roberto; Gevers, Theo

    2012-09-01

    Locating the center of the eyes allows for valuable information to be captured and used in a wide range of applications. Accurate eye center location can be determined using commercial eye-gaze trackers, but additional constraints and expensive hardware make these existing solutions unattractive and impossible to use on standard (i.e., visible wavelength), low-resolution images of eyes. Systems based solely on appearance are proposed in the literature, but their accuracy does not allow us to accurately locate and distinguish eye centers movements in these low-resolution settings. Our aim is to bridge this gap by locating the center of the eye within the area of the pupil on low-resolution images taken from a webcam or a similar device. The proposed method makes use of isophote properties to gain invariance to linear lighting changes (contrast and brightness), to achieve in-plane rotational invariance, and to keep low-computational costs. To further gain scale invariance, the approach is applied to a scale space pyramid. In this paper, we extensively test our approach for its robustness to changes in illumination, head pose, scale, occlusion, and eye rotation. We demonstrate that our system can achieve a significant improvement in accuracy over state-of-the-art techniques for eye center location in standard low-resolution imagery. PMID:22813958

  20. Use of information resources by veterinary practitioners.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, N L; Leysen, J M

    1991-01-01

    Veterinary practitioners are often isolated from easy access to information in medical or hospital libraries, making necessary the use of a variety of information resources. A survey was conducted to assess the extent to which various information resources were used within the veterinary profession. Most responding veterinarians were small-animal practitioners who used the veterinary literature, colleagues, diagnostic laboratories, continuing education courses, association meetings, and pharmaceutical representatives as sources of information. Books and other practitioners were the preferred information source in critical-care situations, followed closely by diagnostic laboratories and journals. For keeping up-to-date with current advances in veterinary medicine, journals, books, other practitioners, and continuing education were used. University extension services, veterinary medical libraries, and computer applications to information use were not important resources ot most of the respondents. Many veterinarians indicated that they would use library services if they knew more about them. With the trend toward computerization in veterinary practice, it is possible for libraries to help reduce the information isolation of many veterinary practices.

  1. The Clinical Impact of Accurate Cystine Calculi Characterization Using Dual-Energy Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Haley, William E; Ibrahim, El-Sayed H; Qu, Mingliang; Cernigliaro, Joseph G; Goldfarb, David S; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2015-01-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has recently been suggested as the imaging modality of choice for kidney stones due to its ability to provide information on stone composition. Standard postprocessing of the dual-energy images accurately identifies uric acid stones, but not other types. Cystine stones can be identified from DECT images when analyzed with advanced postprocessing. This case report describes clinical implications of accurate diagnosis of cystine stones using DECT.

  2. Measuring Population Health Using Electronic Health Records: Exploring Biases and Representativeness in a Community Health Information Exchange.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Brian E; Gibson, P Joseph; Frederickson Comer, Karen; Rosenman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Assessment is a core function of public health. Comprehensive clinical data may enhance community health assessment by providing up-to-date, representative data for use in public health programs and policies, especially when combined with community-level data relevant to social determinants. In this study we examine routinely collected and geospatially-enhanced EHR data to assess population health at various levels of geographic granularity available from a regional health information exchange. We present preliminary findings and discuss important biases in EHR data. Future work is needed to develop methods for correcting for those biases to support routine epidemiology work of public health.

  3. Making the case for a clinical information system: the chief information officer view.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Carole M

    2007-03-01

    Adequate decision support for clinicians and other caregivers requires accessible and reliable patient information. Powerful societal and economic forces are moving us toward an integrated, patient-centered health care information system that will allow caregivers to exchange up-to-date patient health information quickly and easily. These forces include patient safety, potential health care cost savings, empowerment of consumers (and their subsequent demands for quality), new federal policies, and growing regional health care initiatives. Underspending on health care information technologies has gone on for many years; and the creation and implementation of a comprehensive clinical information system will entail many difficulties, particularly in regard to patients' privacy and control of their information, standardization of electronic health records, cost of adopting information technology, unbalanced financial incentives, and the varying levels of preparation across caregivers. There will also be potential effects on the physician-patient relationship. Ultimately, an integrated system will require a concerted transformation of the health care industry that is akin to what the banking industry has accomplished with electronic automation. Critical care units provide a good starting point for how information system technologies can be used and electronic patient information collected, although the robust systems designed for intensive care units are not always used to their potential. PMID:17371748

  4. Making the case for a clinical information system: the chief information officer view.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Carole M

    2007-03-01

    Adequate decision support for clinicians and other caregivers requires accessible and reliable patient information. Powerful societal and economic forces are moving us toward an integrated, patient-centered health care information system that will allow caregivers to exchange up-to-date patient health information quickly and easily. These forces include patient safety, potential health care cost savings, empowerment of consumers (and their subsequent demands for quality), new federal policies, and growing regional health care initiatives. Underspending on health care information technologies has gone on for many years; and the creation and implementation of a comprehensive clinical information system will entail many difficulties, particularly in regard to patients' privacy and control of their information, standardization of electronic health records, cost of adopting information technology, unbalanced financial incentives, and the varying levels of preparation across caregivers. There will also be potential effects on the physician-patient relationship. Ultimately, an integrated system will require a concerted transformation of the health care industry that is akin to what the banking industry has accomplished with electronic automation. Critical care units provide a good starting point for how information system technologies can be used and electronic patient information collected, although the robust systems designed for intensive care units are not always used to their potential.

  5. Fast and accurate determination of modularity and its effect size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treviño, Santiago, III; Nyberg, Amy; Del Genio, Charo I.; Bassler, Kevin E.

    2015-02-01

    We present a fast spectral algorithm for community detection in complex networks. Our method searches for the partition with the maximum value of the modularity via the interplay of several refinement steps that include both agglomeration and division. We validate the accuracy of the algorithm by applying it to several real-world benchmark networks. On all these, our algorithm performs as well or better than any other known polynomial scheme. This allows us to extensively study the modularity distribution in ensembles of Erdős-Rényi networks, producing theoretical predictions for means and variances inclusive of finite-size corrections. Our work provides a way to accurately estimate the effect size of modularity, providing a z-score measure of it and enabling a more informative comparison of networks with different numbers of nodes and links.

  6. Towards Accurate Application Characterization for Exascale (APEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Simon David

    2015-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been engaged in hardware and software codesign activities for a number of years, indeed, it might be argued that prototyping of clusters as far back as the CPLANT machines and many large capability resources including ASCI Red and RedStorm were examples of codesigned solutions. As the research supporting our codesign activities has moved closer to investigating on-node runtime behavior a nature hunger has grown for detailed analysis of both hardware and algorithm performance from the perspective of low-level operations. The Application Characterization for Exascale (APEX) LDRD was a project concieved of addressing some of these concerns. Primarily the research was to intended to focus on generating accurate and reproducible low-level performance metrics using tools that could scale to production-class code bases. Along side this research was an advocacy and analysis role associated with evaluating tools for production use, working with leading industry vendors to develop and refine solutions required by our code teams and to directly engage with production code developers to form a context for the application analysis and a bridge to the research community within Sandia. On each of these accounts significant progress has been made, particularly, as this report will cover, in the low-level analysis of operations for important classes of algorithms. This report summarizes the development of a collection of tools under the APEX research program and leaves to other SAND and L2 milestone reports the description of codesign progress with Sandia’s production users/developers.

  7. Accurate paleointensities - the multi-method approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, Lennart

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of models describing rapid changes in the geomagnetic field over the past millennia critically depends on the availability of reliable paleointensity estimates. Over the past decade methods to derive paleointensities from lavas (the only recorder of the geomagnetic field that is available all over the globe and through geologic times) have seen significant improvements and various alternative techniques were proposed. The 'classical' Thellier-style approach was optimized and selection criteria were defined in the 'Standard Paleointensity Definitions' (Paterson et al, 2014). The Multispecimen approach was validated and the importance of additional tests and criteria to assess Multispecimen results must be emphasized. Recently, a non-heating, relative paleointensity technique was proposed -the pseudo-Thellier protocol- which shows great potential in both accuracy and efficiency, but currently lacks a solid theoretical underpinning. Here I present work using all three of the aforementioned paleointensity methods on suites of young lavas taken from the volcanic islands of Hawaii, La Palma, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and Terceira. Many of the sampled cooling units are <100 years old, the actual field strength at the time of cooling is therefore reasonably well known. Rather intuitively, flows that produce coherent results from two or more different paleointensity methods yield the most accurate estimates of the paleofield. Furthermore, the results for some flows pass the selection criteria for one method, but fail in other techniques. Scrutinizing and combing all acceptable results yielded reliable paleointensity estimates for 60-70% of all sampled cooling units - an exceptionally high success rate. This 'multi-method paleointensity approach' therefore has high potential to provide the much-needed paleointensities to improve geomagnetic field models for the Holocene.

  8. Important Nearby Galaxies without Accurate Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) and its offspring programs (e.g., THINGS, HERACLES, KINGFISH) have resulted in a fundamental change in our view of star formation and the ISM in galaxies, and together they represent the most complete multi-wavelength data set yet assembled for a large sample of nearby galaxies. These great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the goal of understanding the interstellar medium, the star formation process, and, more generally, galactic evolution at the present epoch. Nearby galaxies provide the basis for which we interpret the distant universe, and the SINGS sample represents the best studied nearby galaxies.Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of galaxies. Surprisingly, many of the SINGS spiral galaxies have numerous distance estimates resulting in confusion. We can rectify this situation for 8 of the SINGS spiral galaxies within 10 Mpc at a very low cost through measurements of the tip of the red giant branch. The proposed observations will provide an accuracy of better than 0.1 in distance modulus. Our sample includes such well known galaxies as M51 (the Whirlpool), M63 (the Sunflower), M104 (the Sombrero), and M74 (the archetypal grand design spiral).We are also proposing coordinated parallel WFC3 UV observations of the central regions of the galaxies, rich with high-mass UV-bright stars. As a secondary science goal we will compare the resolved UV stellar populations with integrated UV emission measurements used in calibrating star formation rates. Our observations will complement the growing HST UV atlas of high resolution images of nearby galaxies.

  9. Accurate Thermal Conductivities from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbogno, Christian

    2015-03-01

    In spite of significant research efforts, a first-principles determination of the thermal conductivity at high temperatures has remained elusive. On the one hand, Boltzmann transport techniques that include anharmonic effects in the nuclear dynamics only perturbatively become inaccurate or inapplicable under such conditions. On the other hand, non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) methods suffer from enormous finite-size artifacts in the computationally feasible supercells, which prevent an accurate extrapolation to the bulk limit of the thermal conductivity. In this work, we overcome this limitation by performing ab initio MD simulations in thermodynamic equilibrium that account for all orders of anharmonicity. The thermal conductivity is then assessed from the auto-correlation function of the heat flux using the Green-Kubo formalism. Foremost, we discuss the fundamental theory underlying a first-principles definition of the heat flux using the virial theorem. We validate our approach and in particular the techniques developed to overcome finite time and size effects, e.g., by inspecting silicon, the thermal conductivity of which is particularly challenging to converge. Furthermore, we use this framework to investigate the thermal conductivity of ZrO2, which is known for its high degree of anharmonicity. Our calculations shed light on the heat resistance mechanism active in this material, which eventually allows us to discuss how the thermal conductivity can be controlled by doping and co-doping. This work has been performed in collaboration with R. Ramprasad (University of Connecticut), C. G. Levi and C. G. Van de Walle (University of California Santa Barbara).

  10. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Battum, L. J.; Huizenga, H.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Heukelom, S.

    2016-01-01

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner’s transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner’s optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  11. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry.

    PubMed

    van Battum, L J; Huizenga, H; Verdaasdonk, R M; Heukelom, S

    2016-01-21

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner's transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner's optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  12. Chewing simulation with a physically accurate deformable model.

    PubMed

    Pascale, Andra Maria; Ruge, Sebastian; Hauth, Steffen; Kordaß, Bernd; Linsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, CAD/CAM software is being used to compute the optimal shape and position of a new tooth model meant for a patient. With this possible future application in mind, we present in this article an independent and stand-alone interactive application that simulates the human chewing process and the deformation it produces in the food substrate. Chewing motion sensors are used to produce an accurate representation of the jaw movement. The substrate is represented by a deformable elastic model based on the finite linear elements method, which preserves physical accuracy. Collision detection based on spatial partitioning is used to calculate the forces that are acting on the deformable model. Based on the calculated information, geometry elements are added to the scene to enhance the information available for the user. The goal of the simulation is to present a complete scene to the dentist, highlighting the points where the teeth came into contact with the substrate and giving information about how much force acted at these points, which therefore makes it possible to indicate whether the tooth is being used incorrectly in the mastication process. Real-time interactivity is desired and achieved within limits, depending on the complexity of the employed geometric models. The presented simulation is a first step towards the overall project goal of interactively optimizing tooth position and shape under the investigation of a virtual chewing process using real patient data (Fig 1). PMID:26389135

  13. Photoacoustic computed tomography without accurate ultrasonic transducer responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Qiwei; Wang, Kun; Xia, Jun; Zhu, Liren; Wang, Lihong V.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2015-03-01

    Conventional photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) image reconstruction methods assume that the object and surrounding medium are described by a constant speed-of-sound (SOS) value. In order to accurately recover fine structures, SOS heterogeneities should be quantified and compensated for during PACT reconstruction. To address this problem, several groups have proposed hybrid systems that combine PACT with ultrasound computed tomography (USCT). In such systems, a SOS map is reconstructed first via USCT. Consequently, this SOS map is employed to inform the PACT reconstruction method. Additionally, the SOS map can provide structural information regarding tissue, which is complementary to the functional information from the PACT image. We propose a paradigm shift in the way that images are reconstructed in hybrid PACT-USCT imaging. Inspired by our observation that information about the SOS distribution is encoded in PACT measurements, we propose to jointly reconstruct the absorbed optical energy density and SOS distributions from a combined set of USCT and PACT measurements, thereby reducing the two reconstruction problems into one. This innovative approach has several advantages over conventional approaches in which PACT and USCT images are reconstructed independently: (1) Variations in the SOS will automatically be accounted for, optimizing PACT image quality; (2) The reconstructed PACT and USCT images will possess minimal systematic artifacts because errors in the imaging models will be optimally balanced during the joint reconstruction; (3) Due to the exploitation of information regarding the SOS distribution in the full-view PACT data, our approach will permit high-resolution reconstruction of the SOS distribution from sparse array data.

  14. Ebola: Where Are the Facts? | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Since the first outbreak of Ebola in western Africa and the subsequent cases in the United States, a lot of information has been circulating about the virus. To keep NCI at Frederick employees informed, the Poster staff has compiled the following list of reputable websites that provide accurate and up-to-date information about Ebola: Global

  15. Measuring trends in performance across time: providing information to cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Margaret I; McAndrew, Alison; Harth, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Providing relevant, up-to-date information is identified as a quality standard of cancer care. Cancer programs need to be able to evaluate whether they are meeting the standard and to monitor their performance on an ongoing basis. Routine collection of clearly defined data, using reliable and valid measures, provides cancer program leaders with dependable information upon which to make decisions and monitor trends in performance over time. This article describes one cancer centre's experience in using standardized data collection regarding provision of patient information. The Cancer Patient Information Importance-Satisfaction Scale has been administered routinely in an outpatient setting over eight years. The profile we create from the data assists us in making informed decisions about patient education initiatives.

  16. Accurate theoretical chemistry with coupled pair models.

    PubMed

    Neese, Frank; Hansen, Andreas; Wennmohs, Frank; Grimme, Stefan

    2009-05-19

    Quantum chemistry has found its way into the everyday work of many experimental chemists. Calculations can predict the outcome of chemical reactions, afford insight into reaction mechanisms, and be used to interpret structure and bonding in molecules. Thus, contemporary theory offers tremendous opportunities in experimental chemical research. However, even with present-day computers and algorithms, we cannot solve the many particle Schrodinger equation exactly; inevitably some error is introduced in approximating the solutions of this equation. Thus, the accuracy of quantum chemical calculations is of critical importance. The affordable accuracy depends on molecular size and particularly on the total number of atoms: for orientation, ethanol has 9 atoms, aspirin 21 atoms, morphine 40 atoms, sildenafil 63 atoms, paclitaxel 113 atoms, insulin nearly 800 atoms, and quaternary hemoglobin almost 12,000 atoms. Currently, molecules with up to approximately 10 atoms can be very accurately studied by coupled cluster (CC) theory, approximately 100 atoms with second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), approximately 1000 atoms with density functional theory (DFT), and beyond that number with semiempirical quantum chemistry and force-field methods. The overwhelming majority of present-day calculations in the 100-atom range use DFT. Although these methods have been very successful in quantum chemistry, they do not offer a well-defined hierarchy of calculations that allows one to systematically converge to the correct answer. Recently a number of rather spectacular failures of DFT methods have been found-even for seemingly simple systems such as hydrocarbons, fueling renewed interest in wave function-based methods that incorporate the relevant physics of electron correlation in a more systematic way. Thus, it would be highly desirable to fill the gap between 10 and 100 atoms with highly correlated ab initio methods. We have found that one of the earliest (and now

  17. Spatial information semantic query based on SPARQL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhifeng; Huang, Lei; Zhai, Xiaofang

    2009-10-01

    How can the efficiency of spatial information inquiries be enhanced in today's fast-growing information age? We are rich in geospatial data but poor in up-to-date geospatial information and knowledge that are ready to be accessed by public users. This paper adopts an approach for querying spatial semantic by building an Web Ontology language(OWL) format ontology and introducing SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language(SPARQL) to search spatial semantic relations. It is important to establish spatial semantics that support for effective spatial reasoning for performing semantic query. Compared to earlier keyword-based and information retrieval techniques that rely on syntax, we use semantic approaches in our spatial queries system. Semantic approaches need to be developed by ontology, so we use OWL to describe spatial information extracted by the large-scale map of Wuhan. Spatial information expressed by ontology with formal semantics is available to machines for processing and to people for understanding. The approach is illustrated by introducing a case study for using SPARQL to query geo-spatial ontology instances of Wuhan. The paper shows that making use of SPARQL to search OWL ontology instances can ensure the result's accuracy and applicability. The result also indicates constructing a geo-spatial semantic query system has positive efforts on forming spatial query and retrieval.

  18. Seismic Waves, 4th order accurate

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-16

    SW4 is a program for simulating seismic wave propagation on parallel computers. SW4 colves the seismic wave equations in Cartesian corrdinates. It is therefore appropriate for regional simulations, where the curvature of the earth can be neglected. SW4 implements a free surface boundary condition on a realistic topography, absorbing super-grid conditions on the far-field boundaries, and a kinematic source model consisting of point force and/or point moment tensor source terms. SW4 supports a fully 3-D heterogeneous material model that can be specified in several formats. SW4 can output synthetic seismograms in an ASCII test format, or in the SAC finary format. It can also present simulation information as GMT scripts, whixh can be used to create annotated maps. Furthermore, SW4 can output the solution as well as the material model along 2-D grid planes.

  19. Seismic Waves, 4th order accurate

    2013-08-16

    SW4 is a program for simulating seismic wave propagation on parallel computers. SW4 colves the seismic wave equations in Cartesian corrdinates. It is therefore appropriate for regional simulations, where the curvature of the earth can be neglected. SW4 implements a free surface boundary condition on a realistic topography, absorbing super-grid conditions on the far-field boundaries, and a kinematic source model consisting of point force and/or point moment tensor source terms. SW4 supports a fully 3-Dmore » heterogeneous material model that can be specified in several formats. SW4 can output synthetic seismograms in an ASCII test format, or in the SAC finary format. It can also present simulation information as GMT scripts, whixh can be used to create annotated maps. Furthermore, SW4 can output the solution as well as the material model along 2-D grid planes.« less

  20. 77 FR 3800 - Accurate NDE & Inspection, LLC; Confirmatory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Accurate NDE & Inspection, LLC; Confirmatory Order In the Matter of Accurate NDE & Docket: 150... request ADR with the NRC in an attempt to resolve issues associated with this matter. In response, on August 9, 2011, Accurate NDE requested ADR to resolve this matter with the NRC. On September 28,...

  1. Learning accurate very fast decision trees from uncertain data streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chunquan; Zhang, Yang; Shi, Peng; Hu, Zhengguo

    2015-12-01

    Most existing works on data stream classification assume the streaming data is precise and definite. Such assumption, however, does not always hold in practice, since data uncertainty is ubiquitous in data stream applications due to imprecise measurement, missing values, privacy protection, etc. The goal of this paper is to learn accurate decision tree models from uncertain data streams for classification analysis. On the basis of very fast decision tree (VFDT) algorithms, we proposed an algorithm for constructing an uncertain VFDT tree with classifiers at tree leaves (uVFDTc). The uVFDTc algorithm can exploit uncertain information effectively and efficiently in both the learning and the classification phases. In the learning phase, it uses Hoeffding bound theory to learn from uncertain data streams and yield fast and reasonable decision trees. In the classification phase, at tree leaves it uses uncertain naive Bayes (UNB) classifiers to improve the classification performance. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-life datasets demonstrate the strong ability of uVFDTc to classify uncertain data streams. The use of UNB at tree leaves has improved the performance of uVFDTc, especially the any-time property, the benefit of exploiting uncertain information, and the robustness against uncertainty.

  2. Accurate Satellite-Derived Estimates of Tropospheric Ozone Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Vasilkov, Alexander P.; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Platnick, Steven; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Levelt, Pieternel F.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of the radiative forcing due to anthropogenically-produced tropospheric O3 are derived primarily from models. Here, we use tropospheric ozone and cloud data from several instruments in the A-train constellation of satellites as well as information from the GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System to accurately estimate the instantaneous radiative forcing from tropospheric O3 for January and July 2005. We improve upon previous estimates of tropospheric ozone mixing ratios from a residual approach using the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) by incorporating cloud pressure information from OMI. Since we cannot distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources with the satellite data, our estimates reflect the total forcing due to tropospheric O3. We focus specifically on the magnitude and spatial structure of the cloud effect on both the shortand long-wave radiative forcing. The estimates presented here can be used to validate present day O3 radiative forcing produced by models.

  3. Personalized Orthodontic Accurate Tooth Arrangement System with Complete Teeth Model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Dai, Ning; Liu, Yi; Fan, Qilei; Hou, Yulin; Jiang, Xiaotong

    2015-09-01

    The accuracy, validity and lack of relation information between dental root and jaw in tooth arrangement are key problems in tooth arrangement technology. This paper aims to describe a newly developed virtual, personalized and accurate tooth arrangement system based on complete information about dental root and skull. Firstly, a feature constraint database of a 3D teeth model is established. Secondly, for computed simulation of tooth movement, the reference planes and lines are defined by the anatomical reference points. The matching mathematical model of teeth pattern and the principle of the specific pose transformation of rigid body are fully utilized. The relation of position between dental root and alveolar bone is considered during the design process. Finally, the relative pose relationships among various teeth are optimized using the object mover, and a personalized therapeutic schedule is formulated. Experimental results show that the virtual tooth arrangement system can arrange abnormal teeth very well and is sufficiently flexible. The relation of position between root and jaw is favorable. This newly developed system is characterized by high-speed processing and quantitative evaluation of the amount of 3D movement of an individual tooth.

  4. Accurately measuring sea level change from space: an ESA climate change initiative for MSL closure budget studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeais, JeanFrancois; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-07-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV with regular updates, as required for climate studies. The program is now in its second phase of 3 year (following phase I during 2011-2013). The objectives are firstly to involve the climate research community, to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality. And secondly to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. This has led to the production of a first version of the Sea Level ECV which has benefited from yearly extensions and now covers the period 1993-2014. Within phase II, new altimeter standards have been developed and tested in order to reprocess the dataset with the best standards for climate studies. The reprocessed ECV will be released in summer 2016. We will present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 22 years climate time series are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product

  5. Retinal Connectomics: Towards Complete, Accurate Networks

    PubMed Central

    Marc, Robert E.; Jones, Bryan W.; Watt, Carl B.; Anderson, James R.; Sigulinsky, Crystal; Lauritzen, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Connectomics is a strategy for mapping complex neural networks based on high-speed automated electron optical imaging, computational assembly of neural data volumes, web-based navigational tools to explore 1012–1015 byte (terabyte to petabyte) image volumes, and annotation and markup tools to convert images into rich networks with cellular metadata. These collections of network data and associated metadata, analyzed using tools from graph theory and classification theory, can be merged with classical systems theory, giving a more completely parameterized view of how biologic information processing systems are implemented in retina and brain. Networks have two separable features: topology and connection attributes. The first findings from connectomics strongly validate the idea that the topologies complete retinal networks are far more complex than the simple schematics that emerged from classical anatomy. In particular, connectomics has permitted an aggressive refactoring of the retinal inner plexiform layer, demonstrating that network function cannot be simply inferred from stratification; exposing the complex geometric rules for inserting different cells into a shared network; revealing unexpected bidirectional signaling pathways between mammalian rod and cone systems; documenting selective feedforward systems, novel candidate signaling architectures, new coupling motifs, and the highly complex architecture of the mammalian AII amacrine cell. This is but the beginning, as the underlying principles of connectomics are readily transferrable to non-neural cell complexes and provide new contexts for assessing intercellular communication. PMID:24016532

  6. Chromatin States Accurately Classify Cell Differentiation Stages

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Jessica L.; Yuan, Guo-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression is controlled by the concerted interactions between transcription factors and chromatin regulators. While recent studies have identified global chromatin state changes across cell-types, it remains unclear to what extent these changes are co-regulated during cell-differentiation. Here we present a comprehensive computational analysis by assembling a large dataset containing genome-wide occupancy information of 5 histone modifications in 27 human cell lines (including 24 normal and 3 cancer cell lines) obtained from the public domain, followed by independent analysis at three different representations. We classified the differentiation stage of a cell-type based on its genome-wide pattern of chromatin states, and found that our method was able to identify normal cell lines with nearly 100% accuracy. We then applied our model to classify the cancer cell lines and found that each can be unequivocally classified as differentiated cells. The differences can be in part explained by the differential activities of three regulatory modules associated with embryonic stem cells. We also found that the “hotspot” genes, whose chromatin states change dynamically in accordance to the differentiation stage, are not randomly distributed across the genome but tend to be embedded in multi-gene chromatin domains, and that specialized gene clusters tend to be embedded in stably occupied domains. PMID:22363642

  7. Retinal connectomics: towards complete, accurate networks.

    PubMed

    Marc, Robert E; Jones, Bryan W; Watt, Carl B; Anderson, James R; Sigulinsky, Crystal; Lauritzen, Scott

    2013-11-01

    Connectomics is a strategy for mapping complex neural networks based on high-speed automated electron optical imaging, computational assembly of neural data volumes, web-based navigational tools to explore 10(12)-10(15) byte (terabyte to petabyte) image volumes, and annotation and markup tools to convert images into rich networks with cellular metadata. These collections of network data and associated metadata, analyzed using tools from graph theory and classification theory, can be merged with classical systems theory, giving a more completely parameterized view of how biologic information processing systems are implemented in retina and brain. Networks have two separable features: topology and connection attributes. The first findings from connectomics strongly validate the idea that the topologies of complete retinal networks are far more complex than the simple schematics that emerged from classical anatomy. In particular, connectomics has permitted an aggressive refactoring of the retinal inner plexiform layer, demonstrating that network function cannot be simply inferred from stratification; exposing the complex geometric rules for inserting different cells into a shared network; revealing unexpected bidirectional signaling pathways between mammalian rod and cone systems; documenting selective feedforward systems, novel candidate signaling architectures, new coupling motifs, and the highly complex architecture of the mammalian AII amacrine cell. This is but the beginning, as the underlying principles of connectomics are readily transferrable to non-neural cell complexes and provide new contexts for assessing intercellular communication. PMID:24016532

  8. Web information retrieval for health professionals.

    PubMed

    Ting, S L; See-To, Eric W K; Tse, Y K

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a Web Information Retrieval System (WebIRS), which is designed to assist the healthcare professionals to obtain up-to-date medical knowledge and information via the World Wide Web (WWW). The system leverages the document classification and text summarization techniques to deliver the highly correlated medical information to the physicians. The system architecture of the proposed WebIRS is first discussed, and then a case study on an application of the proposed system in a Hong Kong medical organization is presented to illustrate the adoption process and a questionnaire is administrated to collect feedback on the operation and performance of WebIRS in comparison with conventional information retrieval in the WWW. A prototype system has been constructed and implemented on a trial basis in a medical organization. It has proven to be of benefit to healthcare professionals through its automatic functions in classification and summarizing the medical information that the physicians needed and interested. The results of the case study show that with the use of the proposed WebIRS, significant reduction of searching time and effort, with retrieval of highly relevant materials can be attained.

  9. Accurate, Fully-Automated NMR Spectral Profiling for Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Ravanbakhsh, Siamak; Liu, Philip; Bjordahl, Trent C.; Mandal, Rupasri; Grant, Jason R.; Wilson, Michael; Eisner, Roman; Sinelnikov, Igor; Hu, Xiaoyu; Luchinat, Claudio; Greiner, Russell; Wishart, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases cause significant changes to the concentrations of small molecules (a.k.a. metabolites) that appear in a person’s biofluids, which means such diseases can often be readily detected from a person’s “metabolic profile"—i.e., the list of concentrations of those metabolites. This information can be extracted from a biofluids Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrum. However, due to its complexity, NMR spectral profiling has remained manual, resulting in slow, expensive and error-prone procedures that have hindered clinical and industrial adoption of metabolomics via NMR. This paper presents a system, BAYESIL, which can quickly, accurately, and autonomously produce a person’s metabolic profile. Given a 1D 1H NMR spectrum of a complex biofluid (specifically serum or cerebrospinal fluid), BAYESIL can automatically determine the metabolic profile. This requires first performing several spectral processing steps, then matching the resulting spectrum against a reference compound library, which contains the “signatures” of each relevant metabolite. BAYESIL views spectral matching as an inference problem within a probabilistic graphical model that rapidly approximates the most probable metabolic profile. Our extensive studies on a diverse set of complex mixtures including real biological samples (serum and CSF), defined mixtures and realistic computer generated spectra; involving > 50 compounds, show that BAYESIL can autonomously find the concentration of NMR-detectable metabolites accurately (~ 90% correct identification and ~ 10% quantification error), in less than 5 minutes on a single CPU. These results demonstrate that BAYESIL is the first fully-automatic publicly-accessible system that provides quantitative NMR spectral profiling effectively—with an accuracy on these biofluids that meets or exceeds the performance of trained experts. We anticipate this tool will usher in high-throughput metabolomics and enable a wealth of new applications

  10. Accurate, fully-automated NMR spectral profiling for metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Ravanbakhsh, Siamak; Liu, Philip; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Bjordahl, Trent C; Mandal, Rupasri; Grant, Jason R; Wilson, Michael; Eisner, Roman; Sinelnikov, Igor; Hu, Xiaoyu; Luchinat, Claudio; Greiner, Russell; Wishart, David S

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases cause significant changes to the concentrations of small molecules (a.k.a. metabolites) that appear in a person's biofluids, which means such diseases can often be readily detected from a person's "metabolic profile"-i.e., the list of concentrations of those metabolites. This information can be extracted from a biofluids Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrum. However, due to its complexity, NMR spectral profiling has remained manual, resulting in slow, expensive and error-prone procedures that have hindered clinical and industrial adoption of metabolomics via NMR. This paper presents a system, BAYESIL, which can quickly, accurately, and autonomously produce a person's metabolic profile. Given a 1D 1H NMR spectrum of a complex biofluid (specifically serum or cerebrospinal fluid), BAYESIL can automatically determine the metabolic profile. This requires first performing several spectral processing steps, then matching the resulting spectrum against a reference compound library, which contains the "signatures" of each relevant metabolite. BAYESIL views spectral matching as an inference problem within a probabilistic graphical model that rapidly approximates the most probable metabolic profile. Our extensive studies on a diverse set of complex mixtures including real biological samples (serum and CSF), defined mixtures and realistic computer generated spectra; involving > 50 compounds, show that BAYESIL can autonomously find the concentration of NMR-detectable metabolites accurately (~ 90% correct identification and ~ 10% quantification error), in less than 5 minutes on a single CPU. These results demonstrate that BAYESIL is the first fully-automatic publicly-accessible system that provides quantitative NMR spectral profiling effectively-with an accuracy on these biofluids that meets or exceeds the performance of trained experts. We anticipate this tool will usher in high-throughput metabolomics and enable a wealth of new applications of NMR in

  11. Beyond the Genetic Diagnosis: Providing Parents What They Want to Know.

    PubMed

    Saul, Robert A; Meredith, Stephanie Hall

    2016-07-01

    Clinicians need to provide accurate, up-to-date, and balanced information to parents following a prenatal or postnatal diagnosis of Down syndrome and other genetic conditions. Families want information about the genomic outcomes and medical issues, but they also want information about life outcomes and social supports. Because the anticipated outcomes of a condition can change significantly based on available social support, health care, and services, it is important for clinicians to stay up-to-date about new developments and credible, medically reviewed information about Down syndrome and other genetic conditions to access resources for clinical care. PMID:27368358

  12. Modeling and Management of Information Supporting Functional Dimension of Collaborative Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsarmanesh, Hamideh; Ermilova, Ekaterina; Msanjila, Simon S.; Camarinha-Matos, Luis M.

    Fluent creation of opportunity-based short-term Collaborative Networks (CNs) among organizations or individuals requires the availability of a variety of up-to-date information. A pre-established properly administrated strategic-alliance Collaborative Network (CN) can act as the breeding environment for creation/operation of opportunity-based CNs, and effectively addressing the complexity, dynamism, and scalability of their actors and domains. Administration of these environments however requires effective set of functionalities, founded on top of strong information management. The paper introduces main challenges of CNs and their management of information, and focuses on the Virtual organizations Breeding Environment (VBE), which represents a specific form of strategic-alliances. It then focuses on the needed functionalities for effective administration/management of VBEs, and exemplifies information management challenges for three of their subsystems handling the Ontology, the profiles and competencies, and the rational trust.

  13. Emergency and Disaster Information Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boszormenyi, Zsolt

    2010-05-01

    will be validated and reliable in all cases, to avoid the possible panic situation caused by unreal information. That is why we are trying to create and keep contact with all organisations, which can provide validated information for us, to operate the RSOE EDIS. Certainly we are publishing all incoming data and information at our website to provide up-to-date information to the citizens as well as we are publishing useful knowledge for them. We have a knowledge database, which contains all necessary information, which can help the citizens in an emergency situation. For the prevention and the most relevant information we are willing to amend our published data with the population information.

  14. Dialing Up Telecommunications Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Mary Ellen

    1993-01-01

    Describes how to find accurate, current information about telecommunications industries, products and services, rates and tariffs, and regulatory information using electronic information resources available from the private and public sectors. A sidebar article provides contact information for producers and service providers. (KRN)

  15. Canadian Cancer Society Information Services: lessons learned about complementary medicine information needs.

    PubMed

    Eng, J L; Monkman, D A; Verhoef, M J; Ramsum, D L; Bradbury, J

    2001-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in cancer patients is very common. However, currently valid and reliable information on CAM treatments for cancer is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify the information needs those who called the Canadian Cancer Society's Cancer Information Service (CIS) requesting information on CAM. CIS Information Specialists completed two-page questionnaires for 109 callers who inquired about CAM therapies. Findings show that the majority of callers were women between the ages of 30 and 59, and that most of their questions concerned the safety and/or effectiveness of herbs and compounds like Essiac and 714X. Information Specialists generally utilized one or more of four resources upon receiving a CAM-related call. These resources, while mostly Canadian and reviewed by content experts, are not specific to the type of cancer and are no longer the most up- to-date. To address this issue we have included an appendix that outlines some current CAM resources and websites for cancer patients.

  16. 34 CFR 303.117 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... includes accurate, up-to-date information about— (a) Public and private early intervention services..., and training and information centers, such as those funded under the Act) that provide assistance to infants and toddlers with disabilities eligible under part C of the Act and their families; and...

  17. 34 CFR 303.117 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... includes accurate, up-to-date information about— (a) Public and private early intervention services..., and training and information centers, such as those funded under the Act) that provide assistance to infants and toddlers with disabilities eligible under part C of the Act and their families; and...

  18. Infectious Diseases Update. Vol. 1. Current Issues in School and Community Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Wilma; And Others

    This booklet, designed to provide up-to-date, accurate information, focuses on selected viral diseases that are potentially serious, often not well understood, and periodically in the news media because of their continued impact on school and community health. General information is provided on viral diseases, the immune system, vaccines, and how…

  19. Nutritional Guide for Pregnant and Lactating Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelbard, Nancy

    Designed to provide accurate and up-to-date information about nutrition and health, this booklet is centered on the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating adolescents and on the role of schools and the California State Department of Education in meeting those needs. The first section presents information for pregnant adolescents regarding…

  20. Design and implementation of a telecare information platform.

    PubMed

    Li, Shing-Han; Wang, Ching-Yao; Lu, Wen-Hui; Lin, Yuan-Yuan; Yen, David C

    2012-06-01

    For the aging population and for people with dominant chronic diseases, countries all over the world are promoting an "Aging in Place" program with its primary focus on the implementation of telecare. In 2009, Taiwan held a "Health Care Value-Added Platinum Program" with the goal of promoting the development of "Telecare" services by integrating medical treatment, healthcare, information communication, medical equipment and materials and by linking related cross-discipline professions to enable people to familiarize themselves with preventive healthcare services offered in their household and community environments. In addition, this program can be utilized to effectively provide diversified healthcare service benefitting society as a whole. This study aims to promote a diversified telecare service network in Taiwan's household and community environments, establish telecare information platforms, build an internal network of various healthcare service modes, standardize externally interfacing telecare information networks, effectively utilize related healthcare service resources, and complete reasonable service resource links forming an up-to-date health information exchange network. To this end, the telecare information platform based on service oriented architecture (SOA) is designed to promote an open telecare information interface and sharing environment to assist in such tasks as developing healthcare information exchange services, integrating service resources among various different healthcare service modes, accessing externally complex community affairs information, supporting remote physiological information transmissions, and providing diversified remote innovative services. Information system architecture and system monitoring indices of various types of healthcare service modes are used for system integrations for future development and/or expansions.

  1. How Accurately Can We Calculate Neutrons Slowing Down In Water ?

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D E; Blomquist, R; Greene, M; Lent, E; MacFarlane, R; McKinley, S; Plechaty, E; Sublet, J C

    2006-03-30

    We have compared the results produced by a variety of currently available Monte Carlo neutron transport codes for the relatively simple problem of a fast source of neutrons slowing down and thermalizing in water. Initial comparisons showed rather large differences in the calculated flux; up to 80% differences. By working together we iterated to improve the results by: (1) insuring that all codes were using the same data, (2) improving the models used by the codes, and (3) correcting errors in the codes; no code is perfect. Even after a number of iterations we still found differences, demonstrating that our Monte Carlo and supporting codes are far from perfect; in particularly we found that the often overlooked nuclear data processing codes can be the weakest link in our systems of codes. The results presented here represent the today's state-of-the-art, in the sense that all of the Monte Carlo codes are modern, widely available and used codes. They all use the most up-to-date nuclear data, and the results are very recent, weeks or at most a few months old; these are the results that current users of these codes should expect to obtain from them. As such, the accuracy and limitations of the codes presented here should serve as guidelines to code users in interpreting their results for similar problems. We avoid crystal ball gazing, in the sense that we limit the scope of this report to what is available to code users today, and we avoid predicting future improvements that may or may not actual come to pass. An exception that we make is in presenting results for an improved thermal scattering model currently being testing using advanced versions of NJOY and MCNP that are not currently available to users, but are planned for release in the not too distant future. The other exception is to show comparisons between experimentally measured water cross sections and preliminary ENDF/B-VII thermal scattering law, S({alpha},{beta}) data; although these data are strictly

  2. Aperture taper determination for the half-scale accurate antenna reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Kevin M.

    1990-01-01

    A simulation is described of a proposed microwave reflectance measurement in which the half scale reflector is used in a compact range type of application. The simulation is used to determine an acceptable aperture taper for the reflector which will allow for accurate measurements. Information on the taper is used in the design of a feed for the reflector.

  3. Getting a Picture that Is Both Accurate and Stable: Situation Models and Epistemic Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Sascha; Richter, Tobias; Hoever, Inga

    2008-01-01

    Text comprehension entails the construction of a situation model that prepares individuals for situated action. In order to meet this function, situation model representations are required to be both accurate and stable. We propose a framework according to which comprehenders rely on epistemic validation to prevent inaccurate information from…

  4. Challenges in accurate quantitation of lysophosphatidic acids in human biofluids

    PubMed Central

    Onorato, Joelle M.; Shipkova, Petia; Minnich, Anne; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Easter, John; Tymiak, Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) are biologically active signaling molecules involved in the regulation of many cellular processes and have been implicated as potential mediators of fibroblast recruitment to the pulmonary airspace, pointing to possible involvement of LPA in the pathology of pulmonary fibrosis. LPAs have been measured in various biological matrices and many challenges involved with their analyses have been documented. However, little published information is available describing LPA levels in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We therefore conducted detailed investigations into the effects of extensive sample handling and sample preparation conditions on LPA levels in human BALF. Further, targeted lipid profiling of human BALF and plasma identified the most abundant lysophospholipids likely to interfere with LPA measurements. We present the findings from these investigations, highlighting the importance of well-controlled sample handling for the accurate quantitation of LPA. Further, we show that chromatographic separation of individual LPA species from their corresponding lysophospholipid species is critical to avoid reporting artificially elevated levels. The optimized sample preparation and LC/MS/MS method was qualified using a stable isotope-labeled LPA as a surrogate calibrant and used to determine LPA levels in human BALF and plasma from a Phase 0 clinical study comparing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients to healthy controls. PMID:24872406

  5. Slim hole MWD tool accurately measures downhole annular pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Burban, B.; Delahaye, T. )

    1994-02-14

    Measurement-while-drilling of downhole pressure accurately determines annular pressure losses from circulation and drillstring rotation and helps monitor swab and surge pressures during tripping. In early 1993, two slim-hole wells (3.4 in. and 3 in. diameter) were drilled with continuous real-time electromagnetic wave transmission of downhole temperature and annular pressure. The data were obtained during all stages of the drilling operation and proved useful for operations personnel. The use of real-time measurements demonstrated the characteristic hydraulic effects of pressure surges induced by drillstring rotation in the small slim-hole annulus under field conditions. The interest in this information is not restricted to the slim-hole geometry. Monitoring or estimating downhole pressure is a key element for drilling operations. Except in special cases, no real-time measurements of downhole annular pressure during drilling and tripping have been used on an operational basis. The hydraulic effects are significant in conventional-geometry wells (3 1/2-in. drill pipe in a 6-in. hole). This paper describes the tool and the results from the field test.

  6. Novel Cortical Thickness Pattern for Accurate Detection of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weihao; Yao, Zhijun; Hu, Bin; Gao, Xiang; Cai, Hanshu; Moore, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Brain network occupies an important position in representing abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Currently, most studies only focused on morphological features of regions of interest without exploring the interregional alterations. In order to investigate the potential discriminative power of a morphological network in AD diagnosis and to provide supportive evidence on the feasibility of an individual structural network study, we propose a novel approach of extracting the correlative features from magnetic resonance imaging, which consists of a two-step approach for constructing an individual thickness network with low computational complexity. Firstly, multi-distance combination is utilized for accurate evaluation of between-region dissimilarity; and then the dissimilarity is transformed to connectivity via calculation of correlation function. An evaluation of the proposed approach has been conducted with 189 normal controls, 198 MCI subjects, and 163 AD patients using machine learning techniques. Results show that the observed correlative feature suggests significant promotion in classification performance compared with cortical thickness, with accuracy of 89.88% and area of 0.9588 under receiver operating characteristic curve. We further improved the performance by integrating both thickness and apolipoprotein E ɛ4 allele information with correlative features. New achieved accuracies are 92.11% and 79.37% in separating AD from normal controls and AD converters from non-converters, respectively. Differences between using diverse distance measurements and various correlation transformation functions are also discussed to explore an optimal way for network establishment. PMID:26444768

  7. HOW ACCURATE IS OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE GALAXY BIAS?

    SciTech Connect

    More, Surhud

    2011-11-01

    Observations of the clustering of galaxies can provide useful information about the distribution of dark matter in the universe. In order to extract accurate cosmological parameters from galaxy surveys, it is important to understand how the distribution of galaxies is biased with respect to the matter distribution. The large-scale bias of galaxies can be quantified either by directly measuring the large-scale ({lambda} {approx}> 60 h{sup -1} Mpc) power spectrum of galaxies or by modeling the halo occupation distribution of galaxies using their clustering on small scales ({lambda} {approx}< 30 h{sup -1} Mpc). We compare the luminosity dependence of the galaxy bias (both the shape and the normalization) obtained by these methods and check for consistency. Our comparison reveals that the bias of galaxies obtained by the small-scale clustering measurements is systematically larger than that obtained from the large-scale power spectrum methods. We also find systematic discrepancies in the shape of the galaxy-bias-luminosity relation. We comment on the origin and possible consequences of these discrepancies which had remained unnoticed thus far.

  8. Head louse and other common infections in schools: head teachers' use of an information pack.

    PubMed

    Sampanthar, V; Rattigan, Christine; Fraser, Judith; Aston, Robert

    2002-01-01

    A descriptive study examined head teachers' use of an information pack about common childhood infections and its usefulness, particularly for head louse infection. The survey covered all 122 schools in one borough in the North West of England. Overall response was 73% and 83.3% of head teachers considered the pack helpful for teachers and parents. The study highlights schools' wish for information and help with common infections, especially head louse infections, from the public health and community health services. The authors recommend providing such information regularly each term or year for teachers and parents, putting head louse infection in context with other common childhood infections. Regular education sessions are recommended for head teachers and community health professionals involved with head louse infections. These measures should help ensure a consistent, evidence-based and up-to-date approach.

  9. Accurate description of calcium solvation in concentrated aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2014-07-17

    Calcium is one of the biologically most important ions; however, its accurate description by classical molecular dynamics simulations is complicated by strong electrostatic and polarization interactions with surroundings due to its divalent nature. Here, we explore the recently suggested approach for effectively accounting for polarization effects via ionic charge rescaling and develop a new and accurate parametrization of the calcium dication. Comparison to neutron scattering and viscosity measurements demonstrates that our model allows for an accurate description of concentrated aqueous calcium chloride solutions. The present model should find broad use in efficient and accurate modeling of calcium in aqueous environments, such as those encountered in biological and technological applications.

  10. Method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    DOEpatents

    Chalmers, S.A.; Killeen, K.P.; Lear, K.L.

    1995-03-14

    The authors report a method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The method uses a single reflectivity spectrum measurement to determine the structure of the partially completed VCSEL at a critical point of growth. This information, along with the extracted growth rates, allows imprecisions in growth parameters to be compensated for during growth of the remaining structure, which can then be completed with very accurate critical dimensions. Using this method, they can now routinely grow lasing VCSELs with Fabry-Perot cavity resonance wavelengths controlled to within 0.5%. 4 figs.

  11. Accurate localization and echocardiographic-pathologic correlation of tricuspid valve angiolipoma by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Misra, Satyajeet; Sinha, Prabhat K; Koshy, Thomas; Sandhyamani, Samavedam; Parija, Chandrabhanu; Gopal, Kirun

    2009-11-01

    Angiolipoma (angiolipohamartoma) of the tricuspid valve (TV) is a rare tumor which may be occasionally misdiagnosed as right atrial (RA) myxoma. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) provides accurate information regarding the size, shape, mobility as well as site of attachment of RA tumors and is a superior modality as compared to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Correct diagnosis of RA tumors has therapeutic significance and guides management of patients, as myxomas are generally more aggressively managed than lipomas. We describe a rare case of a pedunculated angiolipoma of the TV which was misdiagnosed as RA myxoma on TTE and discuss the echocardiographic-pathologic correlates of the tumor as well as its accurate localization by TEE.

  12. Method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    DOEpatents

    Chalmers, Scott A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Lear, Kevin L.

    1995-01-01

    We report a method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The method uses a single reflectivity spectrum measurement to determine the structure of the partially completed VCSEL at a critical point of growth. This information, along with the extracted growth rates, allows imprecisions in growth parameters to be compensated for during growth of the remaining structure, which can then be completed with very accurate critical dimensions. Using this method, we can now routinely grow lasing VCSELs with Fabry-Perot cavity resonance wavelengths controlled to within 0.5%.

  13. Tube dimpling tool assures accurate dip-brazed joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Heisman, R. M.

    1968-01-01

    Portable, hand-held dimpling tool assures accurate brazed joints between tubes of different diameters. Prior to brazing, the tool performs precise dimpling and nipple forming and also provides control and accurate measuring of the height of nipples and depth of dimples so formed.

  14. 31 CFR 205.24 - How are accurate estimates maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are accurate estimates maintained... Treasury-State Agreement § 205.24 How are accurate estimates maintained? (a) If a State has knowledge that an estimate does not reasonably correspond to the State's cash needs for a Federal assistance...

  15. Reference Books and Computerized Information Services: Partners in Librarianship

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Willis R.

    1972-01-01

    As a basis for thoughts on the roles of reference books and computerized information services in general, a comparison is made of the value to medical libraries of a comprehensive reference tool (the new dual media publication Biomedical Research in Progress) and a comprehensive information center file (the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, the national resource for information on research in progress). It is concluded that a detailed reference tool which is physically present for library users has several advantages, in particular the provision of both detailed and comprehensive retrieval of all biomedical research information at substantially less annual cost and with faster access time than is possible with comparable questions put to an information center. On the other hand, the information center is able to provide more up-to-date material in more flexible combinations. The recommendation is made that medical libraries avoid treating the comprehensive reference tool and the computerized information file as alternatives and instead view both as necessary and complementary to each other. Images PMID:5054308

  16. Spectroscopically Accurate Line Lists for Application in Sulphur Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, D. S.; Azzam, A. A. A.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Tennyson, J.

    2013-09-01

    Monitoring sulphur chemistry is thought to be of great importance for exoplanets. Doing this requires detailed knowledge of the spectroscopic properties of sulphur containing molecules such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) [1], sulphur dioxide (SO2), and sulphur trioxide (SO3). Each of these molecules can be found in terrestrial environments, produced in volcano emissions on Earth, and analysis of their spectroscopic data can prove useful to the characterisation of exoplanets, as well as the study of planets in our own solar system, with both having a possible presence on Venus. A complete, high temperature list of line positions and intensities for H32 2 S is presented. The DVR3D program suite is used to calculate the bound ro-vibration energy levels, wavefunctions, and dipole transition intensities using Radau coordinates. The calculations are based on a newly determined, spectroscopically refined potential energy surface (PES) and a new, high accuracy, ab initio dipole moment surface (DMS). Tests show that the PES enables us to calculate the line positions accurately and the DMS gives satisfactory results for line intensities. Comparisons with experiment as well as with previous theoretical spectra will be presented. The results of this study will form an important addition to the databases which are considered as sources of information for space applications; especially, in analysing the spectra of extrasolar planets, and remote sensing studies for Venus and Earth, as well as laboratory investigations and pollution studies. An ab initio line list for SO3 was previously computed using the variational nuclear motion program TROVE [2], and was suitable for modelling room temperature SO3 spectra. The calculations considered transitions in the region of 0-4000 cm-1 with rotational states up to J = 85, and includes 174,674,257 transitions. A list of 10,878 experimental transitions had relative intensities placed on an absolute scale, and were provided in a form suitable

  17. Accurate compressed look up table method for CGH in 3D holographic display.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chuan; Liu, Juan; Li, Xin; Xue, Gaolei; Jia, Jia; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-12-28

    Computer generated hologram (CGH) should be obtained with high accuracy and high speed in 3D holographic display, and most researches focus on the high speed. In this paper, a simple and effective computation method for CGH is proposed based on Fresnel diffraction theory and look up table. Numerical simulations and optical experiments are performed to demonstrate its feasibility. The proposed method can obtain more accurate reconstructed images with lower memory usage compared with split look up table method and compressed look up table method without sacrificing the computational speed in holograms generation, so it is called accurate compressed look up table method (AC-LUT). It is believed that AC-LUT method is an effective method to calculate the CGH of 3D objects for real-time 3D holographic display where the huge information data is required, and it could provide fast and accurate digital transmission in various dynamic optical fields in the future.

  18. Accurate compressed look up table method for CGH in 3D holographic display.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chuan; Liu, Juan; Li, Xin; Xue, Gaolei; Jia, Jia; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-12-28

    Computer generated hologram (CGH) should be obtained with high accuracy and high speed in 3D holographic display, and most researches focus on the high speed. In this paper, a simple and effective computation method for CGH is proposed based on Fresnel diffraction theory and look up table. Numerical simulations and optical experiments are performed to demonstrate its feasibility. The proposed method can obtain more accurate reconstructed images with lower memory usage compared with split look up table method and compressed look up table method without sacrificing the computational speed in holograms generation, so it is called accurate compressed look up table method (AC-LUT). It is believed that AC-LUT method is an effective method to calculate the CGH of 3D objects for real-time 3D holographic display where the huge information data is required, and it could provide fast and accurate digital transmission in various dynamic optical fields in the future. PMID:26831987

  19. Accurate deterministic solutions for the classic Boltzmann shock profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yubei

    The Boltzmann equation or Boltzmann transport equation is a classical kinetic equation devised by Ludwig Boltzmann in 1872. It is regarded as a fundamental law in rarefied gas dynamics. Rather than using macroscopic quantities such as density, temperature, and pressure to describe the underlying physics, the Boltzmann equation uses a distribution function in phase space to describe the physical system, and all the macroscopic quantities are weighted averages of the distribution function. The information contained in the Boltzmann equation is surprisingly rich, and the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics can be derived from it using series expansions. Moreover, the Boltzmann equation can reach regimes far from the capabilities of fluid dynamical equations, such as the realm of rarefied gases---the topic of this thesis. Although the Boltzmann equation is very powerful, it is extremely difficult to solve in most situations. Thus the only hope is to solve it numerically. But soon one finds that even a numerical simulation of the equation is extremely difficult, due to both the complex and high-dimensional integral in the collision operator, and the hyperbolic phase-space advection terms. For this reason, until few years ago most numerical simulations had to rely on Monte Carlo techniques. In this thesis I will present a new and robust numerical scheme to compute direct deterministic solutions of the Boltzmann equation, and I will use it to explore some classical gas-dynamical problems. In particular, I will study in detail one of the most famous and intrinsically nonlinear problems in rarefied gas dynamics, namely the accurate determination of the Boltzmann shock profile for a gas of hard spheres.

  20. A fast and accurate algorithm for diploid individual haplotype reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingli; Liang, Binbin

    2013-08-01

    Haplotypes can provide significant information in many research fields, including molecular biology and medical therapy. However, haplotyping is much more difficult than genotyping by using only biological techniques. With the development of sequencing technologies, it becomes possible to obtain haplotypes by combining sequence fragments. The haplotype reconstruction problem of diploid individual has received considerable attention in recent years. It assembles the two haplotypes for a chromosome given the collection of fragments coming from the two haplotypes. Fragment errors significantly increase the difficulty of the problem, and which has been shown to be NP-hard. In this paper, a fast and accurate algorithm, named FAHR, is proposed for haplotyping a single diploid individual. Algorithm FAHR reconstructs the SNP sites of a pair of haplotypes one after another. The SNP fragments that cover some SNP site are partitioned into two groups according to the alleles of the corresponding SNP site, and the SNP values of the pair of haplotypes are ascertained by using the fragments in the group that contains more SNP fragments. The experimental comparisons were conducted among the FAHR, the Fast Hare and the DGS algorithms by using the haplotypes on chromosome 1 of 60 individuals in CEPH samples, which were released by the International HapMap Project. Experimental results under different parameter settings indicate that the reconstruction rate of the FAHR algorithm is higher than those of the Fast Hare and the DGS algorithms, and the running time of the FAHR algorithm is shorter than those of the Fast Hare and the DGS algorithms. Moreover, the FAHR algorithm has high efficiency even for the reconstruction of long haplotypes and is very practical for realistic applications.

  1. AQUA-USERS: AQUAculture USEr Driven Operational Remote Sensing Information Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laanen, Marnix; Poser, Kathrin; Peters, Steef; de Reus, Nils; Ghebrehiwot, Semhar; Eleveld, Marieke; Miller, Peter; Groom, Steve; Clements, Oliver; Kurekin, Andrey; Martinez Vicente, Victor; Brotas, Vanda; Sa, Carolina; Couto, Andre; Brito, Ana; Amorim, Ana; Dale, Trine; Sorensen, Kai; Boye Hansen, Lars; Huber, Silvia; Kaas, Hanne; Andersson, Henrik; Icely, John; Fragoso, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    The FP7 project AQUA-USERS provides the aquaculture industry with user-relevant and timely information based on the most up-to-date satellite data and innovative optical in-situ measurements. Its key purpose is to develop an application that brings together satellite information on water quality and temperature with in-situ observations as well as relevant weather prediction and met-ocean data. The application and its underlying database are linked to a decision support system that includes a set of (user-determined) management options. Specific focus is on the development of indicators for aquaculture management including indicators for harmful algae bloom (HAB) events. The methods and services developed within AQUA-USERS are tested by the members of the user board, who represent different geographic areas and aquaculture production systems.

  2. Accurate calculation of diffraction-limited encircled and ensquared energy.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Torben B

    2015-09-01

    Mathematical properties of the encircled and ensquared energy functions for the diffraction-limited point-spread function (PSF) are presented. These include power series and a set of linear differential equations that facilitate the accurate calculation of these functions. Asymptotic expressions are derived that provide very accurate estimates for the relative amount of energy in the diffraction PSF that fall outside a square or rectangular large detector. Tables with accurate values of the encircled and ensquared energy functions are also presented. PMID:26368873

  3. Designing and Developing Technical Curriculum: Finding the Right Subject Matter Expert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattoon, Joseph Sterling

    2005-01-01

    Subject matter experts play an essential role in technical curriculum development by providing accurate and up-to-date information that matches education, training, and workforce needs. The Subject Matter Expert (SME) COMlist is proposed as a tool that enables instructional developers to evaluate an SME's capability and suitability to support…

  4. Using clinicians' search query data to monitor influenza epidemics.

    PubMed

    Santillana, Mauricio; Nsoesie, Elaine O; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Scales, David; Brownstein, John S

    2014-11-15

    Search query information from a clinician's database, UpToDate, is shown to predict influenza epidemics in the United States in a timely manner. Our results show that digital disease surveillance tools based on experts' databases may be able to provide an alternative, reliable, and stable signal for accurate predictions of influenza outbreaks.

  5. 78 FR 79458 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notice of an Updated System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Privacy Act systems to ensure that they are relevant, necessary, accurate, up-to-date, and covered by the.... DATES: Effective date: January 29, 2014. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Call or email the GSA Privacy... employee's Official Personnel Folder, including: a. Employee's name, Social Security Number, date of...

  6. The ABCs of School Choice, 2009-2010 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the 2009-2010 edition of the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice's "ABCs of School Choice". The "ABCs of School Choice" provides the latest in up-to-date and accurate information about the many school choice success stories taking place throughout the country. Readers will find this guide an essential resource on…

  7. 78 FR 79457 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notice of an Updated System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... systems to ensure that they are relevant, necessary, accurate, up-to-date, and covered by the appropriate legal or regulatory authority. DATES: Effective date: January 29, 2014. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT.... Employee's name, Social Security Number, home address, date of birth, sex, work schedule, and type...

  8. 75 FR 32233 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notice of Privacy Act System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... all such systems are relevant, necessary, accurate, up- to-date, and covered by the appropriate legal...--Employee Training Requests and Payment Records. DATES: Effective June 7, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... individual's name, date of birth, Social Security number, identification number (if known), approximate...

  9. 34 CFR 303.117 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES State Eligibility for a Grant and Requirements for a Statewide System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.117 Central directory. Each system must include a central directory that is... includes accurate, up-to-date information about— (a) Public and private early intervention...

  10. 23 CFR 500.109 - CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provides accurate, up-to-date information on transportation system operations and performance and assesses... SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.109 CMS. (a) For purposes of this part, congestion means the level at which transportation system performance is unacceptable due to excessive travel times and...

  11. The State of WAC/WID in 2010: Methods and Results of the U.S. Survey of the International WAC/WID Mapping Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaiss, Chris; Porter, Tara

    2010-01-01

    As writing across the curriculum (WAC) has matured and diversified as a concept and as an organizational structure in U.S. higher education, there has arisen a need for accurate, up-to-date information on the presence and characteristics of WAC and writing-in-the-disciplines (WID) programs. Following on the only previous nationwide survey of…

  12. Mapping loading rates and sources of reactive nitrogen across the United States suggests regional interactions with climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate, up-to-date information describing Nr inputs by source is needed for effective Nr management and for guiding Nr research. Here we present a new synthesis of spatial data describing present Nr inputs to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems across the conterminous US to hel...

  13. Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5. The Complete and Authoritative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelov, Steven P., Ed.; Hannemann, Robert E., Ed.

    This book, prepared by the American Academy of Pediatrics, is designed to provide parents with the most accurate and up-to-date information about the health and well-being of their young children from birth through age 5. The titles of the book's 30 chapters are: (1) "Preparing for a New Baby"; (2) "Birth and the First Moments After"; (3) "Basic…

  14. Washington State Asian Pacific American Organizations Resources Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Commission on Asian-American Affairs, Olympia.

    This resource directory was prepared to assist educators, the media, government officials, students, and the general public in locating accurate and up-to-date information about Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) in Washington State. It was also prepared to help APAs find the services that are available to them throughout the state. This guide lists…

  15. Trends in College Pricing, 2013. Trends in Higher Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about rising tuition and how students can afford to finance their major investments in postsecondary education are widespread. Solid insights into these questions require accurate and up-to-date information about prices. "Trends in College Pricing, 2013" reports on the prices charged by colleges and universities in 2013-14, how…

  16. 78 FR 78947 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... required input by vendors that manually enter invoice data into Wide Area Workflow (WAWF) (not those utilizing Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). By pre- populating fields with accurate and up-to-date contract information, vendors are required to input significantly less data. Additionally, SUS simultaneously...

  17. Accredited Institutions of Postsecondary Education, Programs, Candidates, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Alt, Kenneth A., Ed.

    A comprehensive guide to institutions of higher learning that are accredited by national and regional accrediting agencies, this annual volume has been published since 1964. Data in each entry have been provided by the accrediting bodies. Admissions officers, counselors, and employers rely upon the accurate and up-to-date information in this…

  18. The Special-Needs Reading List: An Annotated Guide to the Best Publications for Parents and Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Wilma K.

    This annotated resource guide lists books, periodicals, and organizations relevant to the needs of parents of children with disabilities. The books and periodicals were chosen as being up-to-date, accurate, written in parent-friendly language, written with a parent's information or support needs in mind, generally affordable, or considered a…

  19. Picturing Life in Japan. For Students in Grades Three through Five. Instructional Materials about Japan (IMAJ).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Sherry L.; Labbo, Linda D.

    This manual provides accurate, up-to-date information about contemporary life in Japan and provides opportunities for students to develop cross-cultural awareness. The content of the lessons includes concepts traditionally taught in elementary school social studies programs. Lessons provide multiple opportunities for students to develop a variety…

  20. General Information about Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate ...

  1. General Information about Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate ...

  2. General Information about Urethral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate ...

  3. Accurate Alignment of Plasma Channels Based on Laser Centroid Oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Osterhoff, Jens; Shiraishi, Satomi; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Toth, Csaba; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2011-03-23

    A technique has been developed to accurately align a laser beam through a plasma channel by minimizing the shift in laser centroid and angle at the channel outptut. If only the shift in centroid or angle is measured, then accurate alignment is provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel properties are scanned. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique is important for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.

  4. Finding accurate frontiers: A knowledge-intensive approach to relational learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pazzani, Michael; Brunk, Clifford

    1994-01-01

    An approach to analytic learning is described that searches for accurate entailments of a Horn Clause domain theory. A hill-climbing search, guided by an information based evaluation function, is performed by applying a set of operators that derive frontiers from domain theories. The analytic learning system is one component of a multi-strategy relational learning system. We compare the accuracy of concepts learned with this analytic strategy to concepts learned with an analytic strategy that operationalizes the domain theory.

  5. Informed Consent

    PubMed Central

    Manion, F.; Hsieh, K.; Harris, M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Despite efforts to provide standard definitions of terms such as “medical record”, “computer-based patient record”, “electronic medical record” and “electronic health record”, the terms are still used interchangeably. Initiatives like data and information governance, research biorepositories, and learning health systems require availability and reuse of data, as well as common understandings of the scope for specific purposes. Lacking widely shared definitions, utilization of the afore-mentioned terms in research informed consent documents calls to question whether all participants in the research process — patients, information technology and regulatory staff, and the investigative team — fully understand what data and information they are asking to obtain and agreeing to share. Objectives This descriptive study explored the terminology used in research informed consent documents when describing patient data and information, asking the question “Does the use of the term “medical record” in the context of a research informed consent document accurately represent the scope of the data involved?” Methods Informed consent document templates found on 17 Institutional Review Board (IRB) websites with Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) were searched for terms that appeared to be describing the data resources to be accessed. The National Library of Medicine’s (NLM) Terminology Services was searched for definitions provided by key standards groups that deposit terminologies with the NLM. Discussion The results suggest research consent documents are using outdated terms to describe patient information, health care terminology systems need to consider the context of research for use cases, and that there is significant work to be done to assure the HIPAA Omnibus Rule is applied to contemporary activities such as biorepositories and learning health systems. Conclusions “Medical record”, a term used extensively

  6. Accurately measuring MPI broadcasts in a computational grid

    SciTech Connect

    Karonis N T; de Supinski, B R

    1999-05-06

    An MPI library's implementation of broadcast communication can significantly affect the performance of applications built with that library. In order to choose between similar implementations or to evaluate available libraries, accurate measurements of broadcast performance are required. As we demonstrate, existing methods for measuring broadcast performance are either inaccurate or inadequate. Fortunately, we have designed an accurate method for measuring broadcast performance, even in a challenging grid environment. Measuring broadcast performance is not easy. Simply sending one broadcast after another allows them to proceed through the network concurrently, thus resulting in inaccurate per broadcast timings. Existing methods either fail to eliminate this pipelining effect or eliminate it by introducing overheads that are as difficult to measure as the performance of the broadcast itself. This problem becomes even more challenging in grid environments. Latencies a long different links can vary significantly. Thus, an algorithm's performance is difficult to predict from it's communication pattern. Even when accurate pre-diction is possible, the pattern is often unknown. Our method introduces a measurable overhead to eliminate the pipelining effect, regardless of variations in link latencies. choose between different available implementations. Also, accurate and complete measurements could guide use of a given implementation to improve application performance. These choices will become even more important as grid-enabled MPI libraries [6, 7] become more common since bad choices are likely to cost significantly more in grid environments. In short, the distributed processing community needs accurate, succinct and complete measurements of collective communications performance. Since successive collective communications can often proceed concurrently, accurately measuring them is difficult. Some benchmarks use knowledge of the communication algorithm to predict the

  7. [How up-to-date are metal-based resin-bonded fixed partial dentures in the era of full-ceramics and dental implants? A case report].

    PubMed

    Bühler-Frey, Christian; Marinello, Carlo P

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the success of preventive measures the replace¬ment of missing teeth in young patients with caries-free dentitions is a daily challenge for the clinician. The decision-making process concerning the different treatment options is difficult, based on several equivalent solutions. Thereby the significance of minimal invasive approaches is steadily increasing. In indicated cases, resin-bonded fixed partial dentures which were introduced in the last century still represent a well documented and minimally invasive procedure, even in the era of dental implants. In this article, clinical aspects of a conventional, metal-based resin-bonded fixed partial dentures are discussed according to the current literature and the clinical steps are presented in a clinical case.

  8. Accurately measuring dynamic coefficient of friction in ultraform finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Dennis; Echaves, Samantha; Pidgeon, Brendan; Travis, Nathan; Ellis, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    UltraForm Finishing (UFF) is a deterministic sub-aperture computer numerically controlled grinding and polishing platform designed by OptiPro Systems. UFF is used to grind and polish a variety of optics from simple spherical to fully freeform, and numerous materials from glasses to optical ceramics. The UFF system consists of an abrasive belt around a compliant wheel that rotates and contacts the part to remove material. This work aims to accurately measure the dynamic coefficient of friction (μ), how it changes as a function of belt wear, and how this ultimately affects material removal rates. The coefficient of friction has been examined in terms of contact mechanics and Preston's equation to determine accurate material removal rates. By accurately predicting changes in μ, polishing iterations can be more accurately predicted, reducing the total number of iterations required to meet specifications. We have established an experimental apparatus that can accurately measure μ by measuring triaxial forces during translating loading conditions or while manufacturing the removal spots used to calculate material removal rates. Using this system, we will demonstrate μ measurements for UFF belts during different states of their lifecycle and assess the material removal function from spot diagrams as a function of wear. Ultimately, we will use this system for qualifying belt-wheel-material combinations to develop a spot-morphing model to better predict instantaneous material removal functions.

  9. Radio Astronomers Set New Standard for Accurate Cosmic Distance Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    the distance to NGC 4258 as either 27 or 29 million light-years, depending on assumptions about the characteristics of this type of star in that galaxy. Other Cepheid-based galaxy distances were used to calculate the expansion rate of the universe, called the Hubble Constant, announced by a team of HST observers last week. "This difference could mean that there may be more uncertainty in Cepheid-determined distances than people have realized," said Moran. "Providing this directly-determined distance to one galaxy -- a distance that can serve as a milestone -- should be helpful in determining distances to other galaxies, and thus the Hubble Constant and the size and age of the universe" The VLBA is a system of ten radio-telescope antennas, each 25 meters (82 feet) in diameter, stretching some 5,000 miles from Mauna Kea in Hawaii to St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Operated from NRAO's Array Operations Center in Socorro, NM, the VLBA offers astronomers the greatest resolving power of any telescope anywhere. The NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Background information: Determining Cosmic Distances Determining cosmic distances obviously is vital to understanding the size of the universe. In turn, knowing the size of the universe is an important step in determining its age. "The size puts a limit on how much expansion could have occurred since the Big Bang, and thus tells us something about the age," said Moran. However, determining cosmic distances has proven to be a particularly thorny problem for astronomers. In the third century, B.C., the Greek astronomer Aristarchus devised a method of using trigonometry to determine the relative distances of the Moon and Sun, but in practice his method was difficult to use. Though a great first step, he missed the mark by a factor of 20. It wasn't until 1761 that trigonometric methods produced a relatively accurate distance to Venus, thus

  10. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    PubMed

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  11. Accurate Fiber Length Measurement Using Time-of-Flight Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra, Osama; Hussein, Hatem

    2016-06-01

    Fiber artifacts of very well-measured length are required for the calibration of optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR). In this paper accurate length measurement of different fiber lengths using the time-of-flight technique is performed. A setup is proposed to measure accurately lengths from 1 to 40 km at 1,550 and 1,310 nm using high-speed electro-optic modulator and photodetector. This setup offers traceability to the SI unit of time, the second (and hence to meter by definition), by locking the time interval counter to the Global Positioning System (GPS)-disciplined quartz oscillator. Additionally, the length of a recirculating loop artifact is measured and compared with the measurement made for the same fiber by the National Physical Laboratory of United Kingdom (NPL). Finally, a method is proposed to relatively correct the fiber refractive index to allow accurate fiber length measurement.

  12. Differential equation based method for accurate approximations in optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.

    1990-01-01

    A method to efficiently and accurately approximate the effect of design changes on structural response is described. The key to this method is to interpret sensitivity equations as differential equations that may be solved explicitly for closed form approximations, hence, the method is denoted the Differential Equation Based (DEB) method. Approximations were developed for vibration frequencies, mode shapes and static displacements. The DEB approximation method was applied to a cantilever beam and results compared with the commonly-used linear Taylor series approximations and exact solutions. The test calculations involved perturbing the height, width, cross-sectional area, tip mass, and bending inertia of the beam. The DEB method proved to be very accurate, and in most cases, was more accurate than the linear Taylor series approximation. The method is applicable to simultaneous perturbation of several design variables. Also, the approximations may be used to calculate other system response quantities. For example, the approximations for displacements are used to approximate bending stresses.

  13. A high order accurate difference scheme for complex flow fields

    SciTech Connect

    Dexun Fu; Yanwen Ma

    1997-06-01

    A high order accurate finite difference method for direct numerical simulation of coherent structure in the mixing layers is presented. The reason for oscillation production in numerical solutions is analyzed. It is caused by a nonuniform group velocity of wavepackets. A method of group velocity control for the improvement of the shock resolution is presented. In numerical simulation the fifth-order accurate upwind compact difference relation is used to approximate the derivatives in the convection terms of the compressible N-S equations, a sixth-order accurate symmetric compact difference relation is used to approximate the viscous terms, and a three-stage R-K method is used to advance in time. In order to improve the shock resolution the scheme is reconstructed with the method of diffusion analogy which is used to control the group velocity of wavepackets. 18 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  14. [Malaria and travelers: protection and information].

    PubMed

    Baudon, D; Martet, G

    1997-01-01

    With the increasing drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum especially to agents used for chemoprophylaxis, every precaution must be taken to protect travelers from contracting malaria. Prevention of mosquito bites is a fundamental goal that can be achieved by a variety of means including pyrethrinoid-impregnated bed nets, insecticide strips, liquid vaporizers, repellents, insecticide-impregnated garments, and air-conditioning. There are no contraindications for vector control. Chemoprophylaxis depends of individual criteria as determined by clinical and laboratory examinations and on travel conditions (destination, season, duration of stay, and local living conditions). Stand-by medication should be prescribed for self-treatment of fever in areas where medical care is not readily available. Chemoprophylaxis must be continued after the traveler returns and medical attention should be sought if symptoms occur. To ensure proper compliance with preventive measures, pre-travel counseling is a mandatory and integral part of prevention. Information provided to travelers must be clear, reliable, and up-to-date.

  15. Extracting Time-Accurate Acceleration Vectors From Nontrivial Accelerometer Arrangements.

    PubMed

    Franck, Jennifer A; Blume, Janet; Crisco, Joseph J; Franck, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Sports-related concussions are of significant concern in many impact sports, and their detection relies on accurate measurements of the head kinematics during impact. Among the most prevalent recording technologies are videography, and more recently, the use of single-axis accelerometers mounted in a helmet, such as the HIT system. Successful extraction of the linear and angular impact accelerations depends on an accurate analysis methodology governed by the equations of motion. Current algorithms are able to estimate the magnitude of acceleration and hit location, but make assumptions about the hit orientation and are often limited in the position and/or orientation of the accelerometers. The newly formulated algorithm presented in this manuscript accurately extracts the full linear and rotational acceleration vectors from a broad arrangement of six single-axis accelerometers directly from the governing set of kinematic equations. The new formulation linearizes the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term with a finite-difference approximation and provides a fast and accurate solution for all six components of acceleration over long time periods (>250 ms). The approximation of the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term provides an accurate computation of the rotational velocity as a function of time and allows for reconstruction of a multiple-impact signal. Furthermore, the algorithm determines the impact location and orientation and can distinguish between glancing, high rotational velocity impacts, or direct impacts through the center of mass. Results are shown for ten simulated impact locations on a headform geometry computed with three different accelerometer configurations in varying degrees of signal noise. Since the algorithm does not require simplifications of the actual impacted geometry, the impact vector, or a specific arrangement of accelerometer orientations, it can be easily applied to many impact investigations in which accurate kinematics need to

  16. Accurate stress resultants equations for laminated composite deep thick shells

    SciTech Connect

    Qatu, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    This paper derives accurate equations for the normal and shear force as well as bending and twisting moment resultants for laminated composite deep, thick shells. The stress resultant equations for laminated composite thick shells are shown to be different from those of plates. This is due to the fact the stresses over the thickness of the shell have to be integrated on a trapezoidal-like shell element to obtain the stress resultants. Numerical results are obtained and showed that accurate stress resultants are needed for laminated composite deep thick shells, especially if the curvature is not spherical.

  17. Must Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths be accurate at threshold?

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Zenghui; Burke, Kieron; Faassen, Meta van

    2009-09-21

    The exact ground-state Kohn-Sham (KS) potential for the helium atom is known from accurate wave function calculations of the ground-state density. The threshold for photoabsorption from this potential matches the physical system exactly. By carefully studying its absorption spectrum, we show the answer to the title question is no. To address this problem in detail, we generate a highly accurate simple fit of a two-electron spectrum near the threshold, and apply the method to both the experimental spectrum and that of the exact ground-state Kohn-Sham potential.

  18. Accurate upwind-monotone (nonoscillatory) methods for conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1992-01-01

    The well known MUSCL scheme of Van Leer is constructed using a piecewise linear approximation. The MUSCL scheme is second order accurate at the smooth part of the solution except at extrema where the accuracy degenerates to first order due to the monotonicity constraint. To construct accurate schemes which are free from oscillations, the author introduces the concept of upwind monotonicity. Several classes of schemes, which are upwind monotone and of uniform second or third order accuracy are then presented. Results for advection with constant speed are shown. It is also shown that the new scheme compares favorably with state of the art methods.

  19. FANSe: an accurate algorithm for quantitative mapping of large scale sequencing reads

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gong; Fedyunin, Ivan; Kirchner, Sebastian; Xiao, Chuanle; Valleriani, Angelo; Ignatova, Zoya

    2012-01-01

    The most crucial step in data processing from high-throughput sequencing applications is the accurate and sensitive alignment of the sequencing reads to reference genomes or transcriptomes. The accurate detection of insertions and deletions (indels) and errors introduced by the sequencing platform or by misreading of modified nucleotides is essential for the quantitative processing of the RNA-based sequencing (RNA-Seq) datasets and for the identification of genetic variations and modification patterns. We developed a new, fast and accurate algorithm for nucleic acid sequence analysis, FANSe, with adjustable mismatch allowance settings and ability to handle indels to accurately and quantitatively map millions of reads to small or large reference genomes. It is a seed-based algorithm which uses the whole read information for mapping and high sensitivity and low ambiguity are achieved by using short and non-overlapping reads. Furthermore, FANSe uses hotspot score to prioritize the processing of highly possible matches and implements modified Smith–Watermann refinement with reduced scoring matrix to accelerate the calculation without compromising its sensitivity. The FANSe algorithm stably processes datasets from various sequencing platforms, masked or unmasked and small or large genomes. It shows a remarkable coverage of low-abundance mRNAs which is important for quantitative processing of RNA-Seq datasets. PMID:22379138

  20. Prediction of Accurate Thermochemistry of Medium and Large Sized Radicals Using Connectivity-Based Hierarchy (CBH).

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Arkajyoti; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2014-10-14

    Accurate modeling of the chemical reactions in many diverse areas such as combustion, photochemistry, or atmospheric chemistry strongly depends on the availability of thermochemical information of the radicals involved. However, accurate thermochemical investigations of radical systems using state of the art composite methods have mostly been restricted to the study of hydrocarbon radicals of modest size. In an alternative approach, systematic error-canceling thermochemical hierarchy of reaction schemes can be applied to yield accurate results for such systems. In this work, we have extended our connectivity-based hierarchy (CBH) method to the investigation of radical systems. We have calibrated our method using a test set of 30 medium sized radicals to evaluate their heats of formation. The CBH-rad30 test set contains radicals containing diverse functional groups as well as cyclic systems. We demonstrate that the sophisticated error-canceling isoatomic scheme (CBH-2) with modest levels of theory is adequate to provide heats of formation accurate to ∼1.5 kcal/mol. Finally, we predict heats of formation of 19 other large and medium sized radicals for which the accuracy of available heats of formation are less well-known. PMID:26588131

  1. Accurate Cell Division in Bacteria: How Does a Bacterium Know Where its Middle Is?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Martin; Rutenberg, Andrew

    2004-03-01

    I will discuss the physical principles lying behind the acquisition of accurate positional information in bacteria. A good application of these ideas is to the rod-shaped bacterium E. coli which divides precisely at its cellular midplane. This positioning is controlled by the Min system of proteins. These proteins coherently oscillate from end to end of the bacterium. I will present a reaction-diffusion model that describes the diffusion of the Min proteins, and their binding/unbinding from the cell membrane. The system possesses an instability that spontaneously generates the Min oscillations, which control accurate placement of the midcell division site. I will then discuss the role of fluctuations in protein dynamics, and investigate whether fluctuations set optimal protein concentration levels. Finally I will examine cell division in a different bacteria, B. subtilis. where different physical principles are used to regulate accurate cell division. See: Howard, Rutenberg, de Vet: Dynamic compartmentalization of bacteria: accurate division in E. coli. Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 278102 (2001). Howard, Rutenberg: Pattern formation inside bacteria: fluctuations due to the low copy number of proteins. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 128102 (2003). Howard: A mechanism for polar protein localization in bacteria. J. Mol. Biol. 335 655-663 (2004).

  2. Online resources in pediatric surgery: the new era of medical information.

    PubMed

    Raigani, Siavash; Numanoglu, Alp; Schwachter, Marc; Ponsky, Todd A

    2014-08-01

    Tele-education has the potential to facilitate rapid sharing and dissemination of current research and knowledge among pediatric surgeons around the world. Classically, the exchange of surgical research occurred via national surgical conferences, articles published in peer-reviewed journals, and textbooks. The advent of Web 2.0 and the rapid pace of technologic advancement have allowed knowledge, education, and research to be exchanged online. Virtual symposiums act as online conferences where participants present and debate new research and surgical techniques in real-time web meetings. Resource libraries allow up-to-date information to be archived and viewed at the user's convenience, bypassing the need to wait long periods for paper publications. Tele-education allows pediatric surgeons to connect and share ideas around the world, while saving time and money.

  3. Programmable logic controller implementation of an auto-tuned predictive control based on minimal plant information.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Palomo, G; Rossiter, J A

    2011-01-01

    This paper makes two key contributions. First, it tackles the issue of the availability of constrained predictive control for low-level control loops. Hence, it describes how the constrained control algorithm is embedded in an industrial programmable logic controller (PLC) using the IEC 61131-3 programming standard. Second, there is a definition and implementation of a novel auto-tuned predictive controller; the key novelty is that the modelling is based on relatively crude but pragmatic plant information. Laboratory experiment tests were carried out in two bench-scale laboratory systems to prove the effectiveness of the combined algorithm and hardware solution. For completeness, the results are compared with a commercial proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller (also embedded in the PLC) using the most up to date auto-tuning rules.

  4. A Novel Information Retrieval Model for High-Throughput Molecular Medicine Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Wehbe, Firas H.; Brown, Steven H.; Massion, Pierre P.; Gadd, Cynthia S.; Masys, Daniel R.; Aliferis, Constantin F.

    2009-01-01

    Significant research has been devoted to predicting diagnosis, prognosis, and response to treatment using high-throughput assays. Rapid translation into clinical results hinges upon efficient access to up-to-date and high-quality molecular medicine modalities. We first explain why this goal is inadequately supported by existing databases and portals and then introduce a novel semantic indexing and information retrieval model for clinical bioinformatics. The formalism provides the means for indexing a variety of relevant objects (e.g. papers, algorithms, signatures, datasets) and includes a model of the research processes that creates and validates these objects in order to support their systematic presentation once retrieved. We test the applicability of the model by constructing proof-of-concept encodings and visual presentations of evidence and modalities in molecular profiling and prognosis of: (a) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and (b) breast cancer. PMID:19458790

  5. Advances in Navy pharmacy information technology: accessing Micromedex via the Composite Healthcare Computer System and local area networks.

    PubMed

    Koerner, S D; Becker, F

    1999-07-01

    The pharmacy profession has long used technology to more effectively bring health care to the patient. Navy pharmacy has embraced technology advances in its daily operations, from computers to dispensing robots. Evolving from the traditional role of compounding and dispensing specialists, pharmacists are establishing themselves as vital team members in direct patient care: on the ward, in ambulatory clinics, in specialty clinics, and in other specialty patient care programs (e.g., smoking cessation). An important part of the evolution is the timely access to the most up-to-date information available. Micromedex, Inc. (Denver, Colorado), has developed a number of computer CD-ROM-based full-text pharmacy, toxicology, emergency medicine, and patient education products. Micromedex is a recognized leader with regard to total pharmaceutical information availability. This article discusses the implementation of Micromedex products within the established Composite Healthcare Computer System and the subsequent use by and effect on the international Navy pharmacy community.

  6. Accurate and efficient halo-based galaxy clustering modelling with simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zheng; Guo, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Small- and intermediate-scale galaxy clustering can be used to establish the galaxy-halo connection to study galaxy formation and evolution and to tighten constraints on cosmological parameters. With the increasing precision of galaxy clustering measurements from ongoing and forthcoming large galaxy surveys, accurate models are required to interpret the data and extract relevant information. We introduce a method based on high-resolution N-body simulations to accurately and efficiently model the galaxy two-point correlation functions (2PCFs) in projected and redshift spaces. The basic idea is to tabulate all information of haloes in the simulations necessary for computing the galaxy 2PCFs within the framework of halo occupation distribution or conditional luminosity function. It is equivalent to populating galaxies to dark matter haloes and using the mock 2PCF measurements as the model predictions. Besides the accurate 2PCF calculations, the method is also fast and therefore enables an efficient exploration of the parameter space. As an example of the method, we decompose the redshift-space galaxy 2PCF into different components based on the type of galaxy pairs and show the redshift-space distortion effect in each component. The generalizations and limitations of the method are discussed.

  7. 75 FR 61709 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Education Type of Review: Extension. Title of Collection: Improving Literacy through School Libraries. OMB... of, the access to, and the use of up- to-date school library media resources in the elementary...

  8. Monitoring circuit accurately measures movement of solenoid valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Solenoid operated valve in a control system powered by direct current issued to accurately measure the valve travel. This system is currently in operation with a 28-vdc power system used for control of fluids in liquid rocket motor test facilities.

  9. Instrument accurately measures small temperature changes on test surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.; Miller, H. B.

    1966-01-01

    Calorimeter apparatus accurately measures very small temperature rises on a test surface subjected to aerodynamic heating. A continuous thin sheet of a sensing material is attached to a base support plate through which a series of holes of known diameter have been drilled for attaching thermocouples to the material.

  10. Quantifying Accurate Calorie Estimation Using the "Think Aloud" Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmstrup, Michael E.; Stearns-Bruening, Kay; Rozelle, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Clients often have limited time in a nutrition education setting. An improved understanding of the strategies used to accurately estimate calories may help to identify areas of focused instruction to improve nutrition knowledge. Methods: A "Think Aloud" exercise was recorded during the estimation of calories in a standard dinner meal…

  11. Second-order accurate difference schemes on highly irregular meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Manteuffel, T.A.; White, A.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper compact-as-possible second-order accurate difference schemes will be constructed for boundary-value problems of arbitrary order on highly irregular meshes. It will be shown that for equations of order (K) these schemes will have truncation error of order (3/endash/K). This phenomena is known as supraconvergence. 7 refs.

  12. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  13. What's Normal? Accurately and Efficiently Assessing Menstrual Function.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Darcie M; Beharry, Meera S

    2015-09-01

    Many young women are unsure of what constitutes normal menses. By asking focused questions, pediatric providers can quickly and accurately assess menstrual function and dispel anxiety and myths. In this article, we review signs and symptoms of normal versus pathologic menstrual functioning and provide suggestions to improve menstrual history taking.

  14. Benchmarking accurate spectral phase retrieval of single attosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hui; Le, Anh-Thu; Morishita, Toru; Yu, Chao; Lin, C. D.

    2015-02-01

    A single extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse or pulse train in the time domain is fully characterized if its spectral amplitude and phase are both determined. The spectral amplitude can be easily obtained from photoionization of simple atoms where accurate photoionization cross sections have been measured from, e.g., synchrotron radiations. To determine the spectral phase, at present the standard method is to carry out XUV photoionization in the presence of a dressing infrared (IR) laser. In this work, we examine the accuracy of current phase retrieval methods (PROOF and iPROOF) where the dressing IR is relatively weak such that photoelectron spectra can be accurately calculated by second-order perturbation theory. We suggest a modified method named swPROOF (scattering wave phase retrieval by omega oscillation filtering) which utilizes accurate one-photon and two-photon dipole transition matrix elements and removes the approximations made in PROOF and iPROOF. We show that the swPROOF method can in general retrieve accurate spectral phase compared to other simpler models that have been suggested. We benchmark the accuracy of these phase retrieval methods through simulating the spectrogram by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation numerically using several known single attosecond pulses with a fixed spectral amplitude but different spectral phases.

  15. Precise and Accurate Density Determination of Explosives Using Hydrostatic Weighing

    SciTech Connect

    B. Olinger

    2005-07-01

    Precise and accurate density determination requires weight measurements in air and water using sufficiently precise analytical balances, knowledge of the densities of air and water, knowledge of thermal expansions, availability of a density standard, and a method to estimate the time to achieve thermal equilibrium with water. Density distributions in pressed explosives are inferred from the densities of elements from a central slice.

  16. Second-order accurate nonoscillatory schemes for scalar conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1989-01-01

    Explicit finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of nonlinear scalar conservation laws is presented and analyzed. These schemes are uniformly second-order accurate and nonoscillatory in the sense that the number of extrema of the discrete solution is not increasing in time.

  17. Accurately Detecting Students' Lies regarding Relational Aggression by Correctional Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Marksteiner, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of correctional instructions when detecting lies about relational aggression. Based on models from the field of social psychology, we predict that correctional instruction will lead to a less pronounced lie bias and to more accurate lie detection. Seventy-five teachers received videotapes of students' true denial…

  18. How Accurate Are Judgments of Intelligence by Strangers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borkenau, Peter

    Whether judgments made by complete strangers as to the intelligence of subjects are accurate or merely illusory was studied in Germany. Target subjects were 50 female and 50 male adults recruited through a newspaper article. Eighteen judges, who did not know the subjects, were recruited from a university community. Videorecordings of the subjects,…

  19. Laser Guided Automated Calibrating System for Accurate Bracket Placement

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, A; Kumar, AJ; Mascarenhas, R; Husain, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: The basic premise of preadjusted bracket system is accurate bracket positioning. It is widely recognized that accurate bracket placement is of critical importance in the efficient application of biomechanics and in realizing the full potential of a preadjusted edgewise appliance. Aim: The purpose of this study was to design a calibrating system to accurately detect a point on a plane as well as to determine the accuracy of the Laser Guided Automated Calibrating (LGAC) System. Materials and Methods: To the lowest order of approximation a plane having two parallel lines is used to verify the accuracy of the system. On prescribing the distance of a point from the line, images of the plane are analyzed from controlled angles, calibrated and the point is identified with a laser marker. Results: The image was captured and analyzed using MATLAB ver. 7 software (The MathWorks Inc.). Each pixel in the image corresponded to a distance of 1cm/413 (10 mm/413) = 0.0242 mm (L/P). This implies any variations in distance above 0.024 mm can be measured and acted upon, and sets the highest possible accuracy for this system. Conclusion: A new automated system is introduced having an accuracy of 0.024 mm for accurate bracket placement. PMID:25745575

  20. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb, we incorporated Pb-contaminated soils or Pb acetate into diets for Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), fed the quail for 15 days, and ...

  1. Accurate momentum transfer cross section for the attractive Yukawa potential

    SciTech Connect

    Khrapak, S. A.

    2014-04-15

    Accurate expression for the momentum transfer cross section for the attractive Yukawa potential is proposed. This simple analytic expression agrees with the numerical results better than to within ±2% in the regime relevant for ion-particle collisions in complex (dusty) plasmas.

  2. A-B Similarity-Complementarity and Accurate Empathy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Sandra; McGinley, Hugh

    1983-01-01

    Rated the audio portions of videotaped segments of 32 dyadic interviews between A-type and B-type undergraduate males for accurate empathy using Truax's AE-Scale. Results indicated B-types elicited higher levels of empathy when they interacted with other B-types, while any dyad that contained an A-type resulted in less empathy. (JAC)

  3. Device accurately measures and records low gas-flow rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branum, L. W.

    1966-01-01

    Free-floating piston in a vertical column accurately measures and records low gas-flow rates. The system may be calibrated, using an adjustable flow-rate gas supply, a low pressure gage, and a sequence recorder. From the calibration rates, a nomograph may be made for easy reduction. Temperature correction may be added for further accuracy.

  4. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEAD TO QUAIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contami...

  5. An articulated statistical shape model for accurate hip joint segmentation.

    PubMed

    Kainmueller, Dagmar; Lamecker, Hans; Zachow, Stefan; Hege, Hans-Christian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework for fully automatic, robust and accurate segmentation of the human pelvis and proximal femur in CT data. We propose a composite statistical shape model of femur and pelvis with a flexible hip joint, for which we extend the common definition of statistical shape models as well as the common strategy for their adaptation. We do not analyze the joint flexibility statistically, but model it explicitly by rotational parameters describing the bent in a ball-and-socket joint. A leave-one-out evaluation on 50 CT volumes shows that image driven adaptation of our composite shape model robustly produces accurate segmentations of both proximal femur and pelvis. As a second contribution, we evaluate a fine grain multi-object segmentation method based on graph optimization. It relies on accurate initializations of femur and pelvis, which our composite shape model can generate. Simultaneous optimization of both femur and pelvis yields more accurate results than separate optimizations of each structure. Shape model adaptation and graph based optimization are embedded in a fully automatic framework. PMID:19964159

  6. Toward more accurate loss tangent measurements in reentrant cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, R. D.

    1980-05-01

    Karpova has described an absolute method for measurement of dielectric properties of a solid in a coaxial reentrant cavity. His cavity resonance equation yields very accurate results for dielectric constants. However, he presented only approximate expressions for the loss tangent. This report presents more exact expressions for that quantity and summarizes some experimental results.

  7. Patient information and education with modern media: the Spine Society of Europe Patient Line.

    PubMed

    Pellisé, Ferran; Sell, P

    2009-08-01

    The role of the patient as an active partner in health care, and not just a passive object of diagnostic testing and medical treatment, is widely accepted. Providing information to patients is considered a crucial issue and the central focus in patient educational activities. It is necessary to educate patients on the nature of the outcomes and the benefits and risks of the procedures to involve them in the decision-making process and enable them to achieve fully informed consent. Information materials must contain scientifically reliable information and be presented in a form that is acceptable and useful to patients. Given the mismatch between public beliefs and current evidence, strategies for changing the public perceptions are required. Traditional patient education programmes have to face the potential barriers of storage, access problems and the need to keep content materials up to date. A computer-based resource provides many advantages, including "just-in-time" availability and a private learning environment. The use of the Internet for patient information needs will continue to expand as Internet access becomes readily available. However, the problem is no longer in finding information, but in assessing the credibility and validity of it. Health Web sites should provide health information that is secure and trustworthy. The large majority of the Web sites providing information related to spinal disorders are of limited and poor quality. Patient Line (PL), a patient information section in the Web site of Eurospine, was born in 2005 to offer patients and the general population the accumulated expertise represented by the members of the society and provide up-to-date information related to spinal disorders. In areas where evidence is scarce, Patient Line provides a real-time opinion of the EuroSpine membership. The published data reflect the pragmatic and the common sense range of treatments offered by the Eurospine membership. The first chapters have been

  8. The WHO Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis. Coordinating Board of the WHO-IWGE.

    PubMed

    Vuitton, D A

    1997-12-01

    WHO Informal Working Groups on Echinococcosis were founded in 1985 and for 10 years, under the leadership of Prof. J. Eckert (Zurich, Switzerland), they contributed much to facilitate exchanges between interested scientists working in their respective areas. In 1995, the Veterinary Public Health Unit, at WHO, decided to modify the functioning of the Groups and to transform them into a single Group. The Working Group brings together all the scientists involved in research on Echinococcosis whatever their specialty, field of interest, or type of Echinococcosis studied. The aim of the Group is to establish international networks on relevant, up-to-date and/or important problems in Echinococcosis on the basis of i) international cooperation, ii) high scientific standards, and iii) accurate methodology. A Coordinator is designated by WHO and has a 4-year term. He/she is assisted by a Coordinating Board. This board is also proposed for a 4-year term, so that it can be regularly renewed. It, thus, will give an opportunity for closer association with the life of the Working Group to many scientists; the coordinator for the next term will be chosen from among the participants so that a continuity of action is ensured. The current networks deal with: "Standardization of the ultra-sound classification of hydatid cysts" (coordinator: C. Mcpherson); "Long-term follow-up of patients treated with PAIR" (coordinator: C. Filice); "Standardization of the staging/classification of patients with Alveolar Echinococcosis" (coordinator: P. Kern); "Vaccination of sheep for the prevention of Echinococcosis: pilot trials" (coordinator: M. Lightowlers); "Standardization of immunological tools for the detection of Echinococcus coproantigens in carnivores" (coordinator: P.S. Craig); "Educational material for Echinococcosis prevention/control" (coordinator: L. Garcia); and "Methodology for the evaluation of the economical cost of Echinococcosis" (coordinator: G. Battelli). Two new networks are

  9. [Use of information sources by recently graduated physicians of Lima].

    PubMed

    Mejia, Christian R; Caceres, Onice J; Vera, Claudia A; Nizama-Vía, Ayar; Curioso, Walter H; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the use of information sources by recently graduated physicians of Lima, Peru in 2011, a survey was conducted among graduated physicians at seven universities. They were asked about the use of search engines in the health area during their year of medical internship [last year of medical school]. Regular use was defined as the source being used once a week or daily. For 490 respondents, regularly used information sources were SciELO, accessed by 173 (36.4%); PubMed 165 (34.4%); HINARI 117 (25.5%); UpToDate 98 (22.3%); Cochrane Library 94 (20.6%); LILACS 91 (19.8%); a hospital institutional library 70 (15.0%); LIPECS 39 (8.7%); and Peru BVS 42 (9.3%). Only a minority regularly accessed information sources related to health. It is necessary to improve capacity in the efficient use of various resources of scientific information in a continuous way and that reaches students and health professionals. PMID:25597724

  10. [Use of information sources by recently graduated physicians of Lima].

    PubMed

    Mejia, Christian R; Caceres, Onice J; Vera, Claudia A; Nizama-Vía, Ayar; Curioso, Walter H; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the use of information sources by recently graduated physicians of Lima, Peru in 2011, a survey was conducted among graduated physicians at seven universities. They were asked about the use of search engines in the health area during their year of medical internship [last year of medical school]. Regular use was defined as the source being used once a week or daily. For 490 respondents, regularly used information sources were SciELO, accessed by 173 (36.4%); PubMed 165 (34.4%); HINARI 117 (25.5%); UpToDate 98 (22.3%); Cochrane Library 94 (20.6%); LILACS 91 (19.8%); a hospital institutional library 70 (15.0%); LIPECS 39 (8.7%); and Peru BVS 42 (9.3%). Only a minority regularly accessed information sources related to health. It is necessary to improve capacity in the efficient use of various resources of scientific information in a continuous way and that reaches students and health professionals.

  11. On the importance of having accurate data for astrophysical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lique, Francois

    2016-06-01

    The Herschel telescope and the ALMA and NOEMA interferometers have opened new windows of observation for wavelengths ranging from far infrared to sub-millimeter with spatial and spectral resolutions previously unmatched. To make the most of these observations, an accurate knowledge of the physical and chemical processes occurring in the interstellar and circumstellar media is essential.In this presentation, I will discuss what are the current needs of astrophysics in terms of molecular data and I will show that accurate molecular data are crucial for the proper determination of the physical conditions in molecular clouds.First, I will focus on collisional excitation studies that are needed for molecular lines modelling beyond the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) approach. In particular, I will show how new collisional data for the HCN and HNC isomers, two tracers of star forming conditions, have allowed solving the problem of their respective abundance in cold molecular clouds. I will also present the last collisional data that have been computed in order to analyse new highly resolved observations provided by the ALMA interferometer.Then, I will present the calculation of accurate rate constants for the F+H2 → HF+H and Cl+H2 ↔ HCl+H reactions, which have allowed a more accurate determination of the physical conditions in diffuse molecular clouds. I will also present the recent work on the ortho-para-H2 conversion due to hydrogen exchange that allow more accurate determination of the ortho-to-para-H2 ratio in the universe and that imply a significant revision of the cooling mechanism in astrophysical media.

  12. Firearms and health: the right to be armed with accurate information about the Second Amendment.

    PubMed

    Vernick, J S; Teret, S P

    1993-12-01

    An organized campaign by groups such as the National Rifle Association has sought to convince policymakers and others that the Second Amendment to the US Constitution grants an unfettered right to individuals to possess any firearm, free from federal or state regulation. Although advocates may debate the meaning that should be given to the Second Amendment, under the American legal system the meaning of any particular constitutional provision is determined by the controlling precedent of Supreme Court cases. Two cases, Presser v Illinois and United States v Miller, remain the Supreme Court's latest word on the meaning of the Second Amendment. In Presser, the Court held that the Second Amendment is applicable only to federal, not state, laws. In Miller and subsequent federal cases, any Second Amendment "right" to bear arms is closely linked to the preservation of state militias, upholding a variety of federal gun legislation. Unless the Supreme Court modifies or reverses its Presser and Miller decisions, health advocates should understand that the Second Amendment poses no obstacle to even broad gun control legislation. PMID:8259817

  13. Firearms and health: the right to be armed with accurate information about the Second Amendment.

    PubMed

    Vernick, J S; Teret, S P

    1993-12-01

    An organized campaign by groups such as the National Rifle Association has sought to convince policymakers and others that the Second Amendment to the US Constitution grants an unfettered right to individuals to possess any firearm, free from federal or state regulation. Although advocates may debate the meaning that should be given to the Second Amendment, under the American legal system the meaning of any particular constitutional provision is determined by the controlling precedent of Supreme Court cases. Two cases, Presser v Illinois and United States v Miller, remain the Supreme Court's latest word on the meaning of the Second Amendment. In Presser, the Court held that the Second Amendment is applicable only to federal, not state, laws. In Miller and subsequent federal cases, any Second Amendment "right" to bear arms is closely linked to the preservation of state militias, upholding a variety of federal gun legislation. Unless the Supreme Court modifies or reverses its Presser and Miller decisions, health advocates should understand that the Second Amendment poses no obstacle to even broad gun control legislation.

  14. Accurate human microsatellite genotypes from high-throughput resequencing data using informed error profiles

    PubMed Central

    Highnam, Gareth; Franck, Christopher; Martin, Andy; Stephens, Calvin; Puthige, Ashwin; Mittelman, David

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive sequences are biologically and clinically important because they can influence traits and disease, but repeats are challenging to analyse using short-read sequencing technology. We present a tool for genotyping microsatellite repeats called RepeatSeq, which uses Bayesian model selection guided by an empirically derived error model that incorporates sequence and read properties. Next, we apply RepeatSeq to high-coverage genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project to evaluate performance and accuracy. The software uses common formats, such as VCF, for compatibility with existing genome analysis pipelines. Source code and binaries are available at http://github.com/adaptivegenome/repeatseq. PMID:23090981

  15. Firearms and health: the right to be armed with accurate information about the Second Amendment.

    PubMed Central

    Vernick, J S; Teret, S P

    1993-01-01

    An organized campaign by groups such as the National Rifle Association has sought to convince policymakers and others that the Second Amendment to the US Constitution grants an unfettered right to individuals to possess any firearm, free from federal or state regulation. Although advocates may debate the meaning that should be given to the Second Amendment, under the American legal system the meaning of any particular constitutional provision is determined by the controlling precedent of Supreme Court cases. Two cases, Presser v Illinois and United States v Miller, remain the Supreme Court's latest word on the meaning of the Second Amendment. In Presser, the Court held that the Second Amendment is applicable only to federal, not state, laws. In Miller and subsequent federal cases, any Second Amendment "right" to bear arms is closely linked to the preservation of state militias, upholding a variety of federal gun legislation. Unless the Supreme Court modifies or reverses its Presser and Miller decisions, health advocates should understand that the Second Amendment poses no obstacle to even broad gun control legislation. PMID:8259817

  16. Mind-set and close relationships: when bias leads to (In)accurate predictions.

    PubMed

    Gagné, F M; Lydon, J E

    2001-07-01

    The authors investigated whether mind-set influences the accuracy of relationship predictions. Because people are more biased in their information processing when thinking about implementing an important goal, relationship predictions made in an implemental mind-set were expected to be less accurate than those made in a more impartial deliberative mind-set. In Study 1, open-ended thoughts of students about to leave for university were coded for mind-set. In Study 2, mind-set about a major life goal was assessed using a self-report measure. In Study 3, mind-set was experimentally manipulated. Overall, mind-set interacted with forecasts to predict relationship survival. Forecasts were more accurate in a deliberative mind-set than in an implemental mind-set. This effect was more pronounced for long-term than for short-term relationship survival. Finally, deliberatives were not pessimistic; implementals were unduly optimistic.

  17. Application of the accurate mass and time tag approach in studies of the human blood lipidome

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Jie; Sorensen, Christina M.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Jiang, Hongliang; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2008-08-15

    We report a preliminary demonstration of the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach for lipidomics. Initial data-dependent LC-MS/MS analyses of human plasma, erythrocyte, and lymphocyte lipids were performed in order to identify lipid molecular species in conjunction with complementary accurate mass and isotopic distribution information. Identified lipids were used to populate initial lipid AMT tag databases containing 250 and 45 entries for those species detected in positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI) modes, respectively. The positive ESI database was then utilized to identify human plasma, erythrocyte, and lymphocyte lipids in high-throughput quantitative LC-MS analyses based on the AMT tag approach. We were able to define the lipid profiles of human plasma, erythrocytes, and lymphocytes based on qualitative and quantitative differences in lipid abundance. In addition, we also report on the optimization of a reversed-phase LC method for the separation of lipids in these sample types.

  18. A parallel high-order accurate finite element nonlinear Stokes ice sheet model and benchmark experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, Wei; Ju, Lili; Gunzburger, Max; Price, Stephen; Ringler, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The numerical modeling of glacier and ice sheet evolution is a subject of growing interest, in part because of the potential for models to inform estimates of global sea level change. This paper focuses on the development of a numerical model that determines the velocity and pressure fields within an ice sheet. Our numerical model features a high-fidelity mathematical model involving the nonlinear Stokes system and combinations of no-sliding and sliding basal boundary conditions, high-order accurate finite element discretizations based on variable resolution grids, and highly scalable parallel solution strategies, all of which contribute to a numerical model that can achieve accurate velocity and pressure approximations in a highly efficient manner. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our model by analytical solution tests, established ice sheet benchmark experiments, and comparisons with other well-established ice sheet models.

  19. Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Woińska, Magdalena; Grabowsky, Simon; Dominiak, Paulina M.; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2016-01-01

    Precise and accurate structural information on hydrogen atoms is crucial to the study of energies of interactions important for crystal engineering, materials science, medicine, and pharmacy, and to the estimation of physical and chemical properties in solids. However, hydrogen atoms only scatter x-radiation weakly, so x-rays have not been used routinely to locate them accurately. Textbooks and teaching classes still emphasize that hydrogen atoms cannot be located with x-rays close to heavy elements; instead, neutron diffraction is needed. We show that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A–H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation. The precision of the determination is also comparable between x-ray and neutron diffraction results. This has been achieved at resolutions as low as 0.8 Å using Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR). We have applied HAR to 81 crystal structures of organic molecules and compared the A–H bond lengths with those from neutron measurements for A–H bonds sorted into bonds of the same class. We further show in a selection of inorganic compounds that hydrogen atoms can be located in bridging positions and close to heavy transition metals accurately and precisely. We anticipate that, in the future, conventional x-radiation sources at in-house diffractometers can be used routinely for locating hydrogen atoms in small molecules accurately instead of large-scale facilities such as spallation sources or nuclear reactors. PMID:27386545

  20. Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography.

    PubMed

    Woińska, Magdalena; Grabowsky, Simon; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2016-05-01

    Precise and accurate structural information on hydrogen atoms is crucial to the study of energies of interactions important for crystal engineering, materials science, medicine, and pharmacy, and to the estimation of physical and chemical properties in solids. However, hydrogen atoms only scatter x-radiation weakly, so x-rays have not been used routinely to locate them accurately. Textbooks and teaching classes still emphasize that hydrogen atoms cannot be located with x-rays close to heavy elements; instead, neutron diffraction is needed. We show that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A-H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation. The precision of the determination is also comparable between x-ray and neutron diffraction results. This has been achieved at resolutions as low as 0.8 Å using Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR). We have applied HAR to 81 crystal structures of organic molecules and compared the A-H bond lengths with those from neutron measurements for A-H bonds sorted into bonds of the same class. We further show in a selection of inorganic compounds that hydrogen atoms can be located in bridging positions and close to heavy transition metals accurately and precisely. We anticipate that, in the future, conventional x-radiation sources at in-house diffractometers can be used routinely for locating hydrogen atoms in small molecules accurately instead of large-scale facilities such as spallation sources or nuclear reactors. PMID:27386545

  1. Public directory data sources do not accurately characterize the food environment in two predominantly rural states.

    PubMed

    Longacre, Meghan R; Primack, Brian A; Owens, Peter M; Gibson, Lucinda; Beauregard, Sandy; Mackenzie, Todd A; Dalton, Madeline A

    2011-04-01

    Communities are being encouraged to develop locally based interventions to address environmental risk factors for obesity. Online public directories represent an affordable and easily accessible mechanism for mapping community food environments, but may have limited utility in rural areas. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of public directories vs rigorous onsite field verification to characterize the community food environment in 32 geographically dispersed towns from two rural states covering 1,237.6 square miles. Eight types of food outlets were assessed in 2007, including food markets and eating establishments, first using two publically available online directories followed by onsite field verification by trained coders. χ(2) and univariate binomial regression were used to determine whether the proportion of outlets accurately listed varied by food outlet type or town population. Among 1,340 identified outlets, only 36.9% were accurately listed through public directories; 29.6% were not listed but were located during field observation. Accuracy varied by outlet type, being most accurate for big box stores and least accurate for farm/produce stands. Overall, public directories accurately identified fewer than half of the food outlets. Accuracy was significantly lower for rural and small towns compared to mid-size and urban towns (P<0.001). In this geographic sample, public directories seriously misrepresented the actual distribution of food outlets, particularly for rural and small towns. To inform local obesity-prevention efforts, communities should strongly consider using field verification to characterize the food environment in low-population areas.

  2. Fast Monte Carlo Electron-Photon Transport Method and Application in Accurate Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Lijuan; Sun, Guangyao; Zheng, Huaqing; Song, Jing; Chen, Zhenping; Li, Gui

    2014-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) method is the most accurate computational method for dose calculation, but its wide application on clinical accurate radiotherapy is hindered due to its poor speed of converging and long computation time. In the MC dose calculation research, the main task is to speed up computation while high precision is maintained. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the calculation speed of MC method for electron-photon transport with high precision and ultimately to reduce the accurate radiotherapy dose calculation time based on normal computer to the level of several hours, which meets the requirement of clinical dose verification. Based on the existing Super Monte Carlo Simulation Program (SuperMC), developed by FDS Team, a fast MC method for electron-photon coupled transport was presented with focus on two aspects: firstly, through simplifying and optimizing the physical model of the electron-photon transport, the calculation speed was increased with slightly reduction of calculation accuracy; secondly, using a variety of MC calculation acceleration methods, for example, taking use of obtained information in previous calculations to avoid repeat simulation of particles with identical history; applying proper variance reduction techniques to accelerate MC method convergence rate, etc. The fast MC method was tested by a lot of simple physical models and clinical cases included nasopharyngeal carcinoma, peripheral lung tumor, cervical carcinoma, etc. The result shows that the fast MC method for electron-photon transport was fast enough to meet the requirement of clinical accurate radiotherapy dose verification. Later, the method will be applied to the Accurate/Advanced Radiation Therapy System ARTS as a MC dose verification module.

  3. Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography.

    PubMed

    Woińska, Magdalena; Grabowsky, Simon; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2016-05-01

    Precise and accurate structural information on hydrogen atoms is crucial to the study of energies of interactions important for crystal engineering, materials science, medicine, and pharmacy, and to the estimation of physical and chemical properties in solids. However, hydrogen atoms only scatter x-radiation weakly, so x-rays have not been used routinely to locate them accurately. Textbooks and teaching classes still emphasize that hydrogen atoms cannot be located with x-rays close to heavy elements; instead, neutron diffraction is needed. We show that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A-H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation. The precision of the determination is also comparable between x-ray and neutron diffraction results. This has been achieved at resolutions as low as 0.8 Å using Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR). We have applied HAR to 81 crystal structures of organic molecules and compared the A-H bond lengths with those from neutron measurements for A-H bonds sorted into bonds of the same class. We further show in a selection of inorganic compounds that hydrogen atoms can be located in bridging positions and close to heavy transition metals accurately and precisely. We anticipate that, in the future, conventional x-radiation sources at in-house diffractometers can be used routinely for locating hydrogen atoms in small molecules accurately instead of large-scale facilities such as spallation sources or nuclear reactors.

  4. DNA barcode data accurately assign higher spider taxa

    PubMed Central

    Coddington, Jonathan A.; Agnarsson, Ingi; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Čandek, Klemen; Driskell, Amy; Frick, Holger; Gregorič, Matjaž; Kostanjšek, Rok; Kropf, Christian; Kweskin, Matthew; Lokovšek, Tjaša; Pipan, Miha; Vidergar, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The use of unique DNA sequences as a method for taxonomic identification is no longer fundamentally controversial, even though debate continues on the best markers, methods, and technology to use. Although both existing databanks such as GenBank and BOLD, as well as reference taxonomies, are imperfect, in best case scenarios “barcodes” (whether single or multiple, organelle or nuclear, loci) clearly are an increasingly fast and inexpensive method of identification, especially as compared to manual identification of unknowns by increasingly rare expert taxonomists. Because most species on Earth are undescribed, a complete reference database at the species level is impractical in the near term. The question therefore arises whether unidentified species can, using DNA barcodes, be accurately assigned to more inclusive groups such as genera and families—taxonomic ranks of putatively monophyletic groups for which the global inventory is more complete and stable. We used a carefully chosen test library of CO1 sequences from 49 families, 313 genera, and 816 species of spiders to assess the accuracy of genus and family-level assignment. We used BLAST queries of each sequence against the entire library and got the top ten hits. The percent sequence identity was reported from these hits (PIdent, range 75–100%). Accurate assignment of higher taxa (PIdent above which errors totaled less than 5%) occurred for genera at PIdent values >95 and families at PIdent values ≥ 91, suggesting these as heuristic thresholds for accurate generic and familial identifications in spiders. Accuracy of identification increases with numbers of species/genus and genera/family in the library; above five genera per family and fifteen species per genus all higher taxon assignments were correct. We propose that using percent sequence identity between conventional barcode sequences may be a feasible and reasonably accurate method to identify animals to family/genus. However, the quality of

  5. DNA barcode data accurately assign higher spider taxa.

    PubMed

    Coddington, Jonathan A; Agnarsson, Ingi; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Čandek, Klemen; Driskell, Amy; Frick, Holger; Gregorič, Matjaž; Kostanjšek, Rok; Kropf, Christian; Kweskin, Matthew; Lokovšek, Tjaša; Pipan, Miha; Vidergar, Nina; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    The use of unique DNA sequences as a method for taxonomic identification is no longer fundamentally controversial, even though debate continues on the best markers, methods, and technology to use. Although both existing databanks such as GenBank and BOLD, as well as reference taxonomies, are imperfect, in best case scenarios "barcodes" (whether single or multiple, organelle or nuclear, loci) clearly are an increasingly fast and inexpensive method of identification, especially as compared to manual identification of unknowns by increasingly rare expert taxonomists. Because most species on Earth are undescribed, a complete reference database at the species level is impractical in the near term. The question therefore arises whether unidentified species can, using DNA barcodes, be accurately assigned to more inclusive groups such as genera and families-taxonomic ranks of putatively monophyletic groups for which the global inventory is more complete and stable. We used a carefully chosen test library of CO1 sequences from 49 families, 313 genera, and 816 species of spiders to assess the accuracy of genus and family-level assignment. We used BLAST queries of each sequence against the entire library and got the top ten hits. The percent sequence identity was reported from these hits (PIdent, range 75-100%). Accurate assignment of higher taxa (PIdent above which errors totaled less than 5%) occurred for genera at PIdent values >95 and families at PIdent values ≥ 91, suggesting these as heuristic thresholds for accurate generic and familial identifications in spiders. Accuracy of identification increases with numbers of species/genus and genera/family in the library; above five genera per family and fifteen species per genus all higher taxon assignments were correct. We propose that using percent sequence identity between conventional barcode sequences may be a feasible and reasonably accurate method to identify animals to family/genus. However, the quality of the

  6. Disambiguating past events: Accurate source memory for time and context depends on different retrieval processes.

    PubMed

    Persson, Bjorn M; Ainge, James A; O'Connor, Akira R

    2016-07-01

    Current animal models of episodic memory are usually based on demonstrating integrated memory for what happened, where it happened, and when an event took place. These models aim to capture the testable features of the definition of human episodic memory which stresses the temporal component of the memory as a unique piece of source information that allows us to disambiguate one memory from another. Recently though, it has been suggested that a more accurate model of human episodic memory would include contextual rather than temporal source information, as humans' memory for time is relatively poor. Here, two experiments were carried out investigating human memory for temporal and contextual source information, along with the underlying dual process retrieval processes, using an immersive virtual environment paired with a 'Remember-Know' memory task. Experiment 1 (n=28) showed that contextual information could only be retrieved accurately using recollection, while temporal information could be retrieved using either recollection or familiarity. Experiment 2 (n=24), which used a more difficult task, resulting in reduced item recognition rates and therefore less potential for contamination by ceiling effects, replicated the pattern of results from Experiment 1. Dual process theory predicts that it should only be possible to retrieve source context from an event using recollection, and our results are consistent with this prediction. That temporal information can be retrieved using familiarity alone suggests that it may be incorrect to view temporal context as analogous to other typically used source contexts. This latter finding supports the alternative proposal that time since presentation may simply be reflected in the strength of memory trace at retrieval - a measure ideally suited to trace strength interrogation using familiarity, as is typically conceptualised within the dual process framework. PMID:27174312

  7. An Accurate Link Correlation Estimator for Improving Wireless Protocol Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Xu, Xianghua; Dong, Wei; Bu, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Wireless link correlation has shown significant impact on the performance of various sensor network protocols. Many works have been devoted to exploiting link correlation for protocol improvements. However, the effectiveness of these designs heavily relies on the accuracy of link correlation measurement. In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art link correlation measurement and analyze the limitations of existing works. We then propose a novel lightweight and accurate link correlation estimation (LACE) approach based on the reasoning of link correlation formation. LACE combines both long-term and short-term link behaviors for link correlation estimation. We implement LACE as a stand-alone interface in TinyOS and incorporate it into both routing and flooding protocols. Simulation and testbed results show that LACE: (1) achieves more accurate and lightweight link correlation measurements than the state-of-the-art work; and (2) greatly improves the performance of protocols exploiting link correlation. PMID:25686314

  8. An accurate link correlation estimator for improving wireless protocol performance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Xu, Xianghua; Dong, Wei; Bu, Jiajun

    2015-02-12

    Wireless link correlation has shown significant impact on the performance of various sensor network protocols. Many works have been devoted to exploiting link correlation for protocol improvements. However, the effectiveness of these designs heavily relies on the accuracy of link correlation measurement. In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art link correlation measurement and analyze the limitations of existing works. We then propose a novel lightweight and accurate link correlation estimation (LACE) approach based on the reasoning of link correlation formation. LACE combines both long-term and short-term link behaviors for link correlation estimation. We implement LACE as a stand-alone interface in TinyOS and incorporate it into both routing and flooding protocols. Simulation and testbed results show that LACE: (1) achieves more accurate and lightweight link correlation measurements than the state-of-the-art work; and (2) greatly improves the performance of protocols exploiting link correlation.

  9. Accurate determination of the amino acid content of selected feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2009-01-01

    The accurate determination of the amino acid content is important. In the present study, a least-squares non-linear regression model of the amino acid content determined over multiple hydrolysis times was used to accurately determine the content of amino acids in five different feedstuffs. These values were compared with 24-h hydrolysis values determined for the same feedstuffs. Overall, approximately two-thirds of the amino acids determined in this study (aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and arginine) using 24-h hydrolysis were in good agreement (<3% difference). When examined across feedstuffs, the concentration of serine was underestimated by the 24-h hydrolysis method by 4.8%, while the concentrations of histidine and lysine were overestimated by 3.9% and 3.1%, respectively.

  10. Method for Accurately Calibrating a Spectrometer Using Broadband Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Stephen; Youngquist, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for performing very fine calibration of a spectrometer. This process is particularly useful for modern miniature charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometers where a typical factory wavelength calibration has been performed and a finer, more accurate calibration is desired. Typically, the factory calibration is done with a spectral line source that generates light at known wavelengths, allowing specific pixels in the CCD array to be assigned wavelength values. This method is good to about 1 nm across the spectrometer s wavelength range. This new method appears to be accurate to about 0.1 nm, a factor of ten improvement. White light is passed through an unbalanced Michelson interferometer, producing an optical signal with significant spectral variation. A simple theory can be developed to describe this spectral pattern, so by comparing the actual spectrometer output against this predicted pattern, errors in the wavelength assignment made by the spectrometer can be determined.

  11. Library preparation for highly accurate population sequencing of RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Ashley; Andino, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Circular resequencing (CirSeq) is a novel technique for efficient and highly accurate next-generation sequencing (NGS) of RNA virus populations. The foundation of this approach is the circularization of fragmented viral RNAs, which are then redundantly encoded into tandem repeats by ‘rolling-circle’ reverse transcription. When sequenced, the redundant copies within each read are aligned to derive a consensus sequence of their initial RNA template. This process yields sequencing data with error rates far below the variant frequencies observed for RNA viruses, facilitating ultra-rare variant detection and accurate measurement of low-frequency variants. Although library preparation takes ~5 d, the high-quality data generated by CirSeq simplifies downstream data analysis, making this approach substantially more tractable for experimentalists. PMID:24967624

  12. A fast and accurate method for echocardiography strain rate imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Vahid; Sahba, Nima; Hajebi, Nima; Nambakhsh, Mohammad Saleh

    2009-02-01

    Recently Strain and strain rate imaging have proved their superiority with respect to classical motion estimation methods in myocardial evaluation as a novel technique for quantitative analysis of myocardial function. Here in this paper, we propose a novel strain rate imaging algorithm using a new optical flow technique which is more rapid and accurate than the previous correlation-based methods. The new method presumes a spatiotemporal constancy of intensity and Magnitude of the image. Moreover the method makes use of the spline moment in a multiresolution approach. Moreover cardiac central point is obtained using a combination of center of mass and endocardial tracking. It is proved that the proposed method helps overcome the intensity variations of ultrasound texture while preserving the ability of motion estimation technique for different motions and orientations. Evaluation is performed on simulated, phantom (a contractile rubber balloon) and real sequences and proves that this technique is more accurate and faster than the previous methods.

  13. Accurate nuclear radii and binding energies from a chiral interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ekstrom, Jan A.; Jansen, G. R.; Wendt, Kyle A.; Hagen, Gaute; Papenbrock, Thomas F.; Carlsson, Boris; Forssen, Christian; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Navratil, Petr; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2015-05-01

    With the goal of developing predictive ab initio capability for light and medium-mass nuclei, two-nucleon and three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory are optimized simultaneously to low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering data, as well as binding energies and radii of few-nucleon systems and selected isotopes of carbon and oxygen. Coupled-cluster calculations based on this interaction, named NNLOsat, yield accurate binding energies and radii of nuclei up to 40Ca, and are consistent with the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. In addition, the low-lying collective Jπ=3- states in 16O and 40Ca are described accurately, while spectra for selected p- and sd-shell nuclei are in reasonable agreement with experiment.

  14. Accurate nuclear radii and binding energies from a chiral interaction

    DOE PAGES

    Ekstrom, Jan A.; Jansen, G. R.; Wendt, Kyle A.; Hagen, Gaute; Papenbrock, Thomas F.; Carlsson, Boris; Forssen, Christian; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Navratil, Petr; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2015-05-01

    With the goal of developing predictive ab initio capability for light and medium-mass nuclei, two-nucleon and three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory are optimized simultaneously to low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering data, as well as binding energies and radii of few-nucleon systems and selected isotopes of carbon and oxygen. Coupled-cluster calculations based on this interaction, named NNLOsat, yield accurate binding energies and radii of nuclei up to 40Ca, and are consistent with the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. In addition, the low-lying collective Jπ=3- states in 16O and 40Ca are described accurately, while spectra for selected p- and sd-shellmore » nuclei are in reasonable agreement with experiment.« less

  15. Uniformly high order accurate essentially non-oscillatory schemes 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.; Engquist, B.; Osher, S.; Chakravarthy, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper (a third in a series) the construction and the analysis of essentially non-oscillatory shock capturing methods for the approximation of hyperbolic conservation laws are presented. Also presented is a hierarchy of high order accurate schemes which generalizes Godunov's scheme and its second order accurate MUSCL extension to arbitrary order of accuracy. The design involves an essentially non-oscillatory piecewise polynomial reconstruction of the solution from its cell averages, time evolution through an approximate solution of the resulting initial value problem, and averaging of this approximate solution over each cell. The reconstruction algorithm is derived from a new interpolation technique that when applied to piecewise smooth data gives high-order accuracy whenever the function is smooth but avoids a Gibbs phenomenon at discontinuities. Unlike standard finite difference methods this procedure uses an adaptive stencil of grid points and consequently the resulting schemes are highly nonlinear.

  16. Note-accurate audio segmentation based on MPEG-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellhausen, Jens

    2003-12-01

    Segmenting audio data into the smallest musical components is the basis for many further meta data extraction algorithms. For example, an automatic music transcription system needs to know where the exact boundaries of each tone are. In this paper a note accurate audio segmentation algorithm based on MPEG-7 low level descriptors is introduced. For a reliable detection of different notes, both features in the time and the frequency domain are used. Because of this, polyphonic instrument mixes and even melodies characterized by human voices can be examined with this alogrithm. For testing and verification of the note accurate segmentation, a simple music transcription system was implemented. The dominant frequency within each segment is used to build a MIDI file representing the processed audio data.

  17. Groundtruth approach to accurate quantitation of fluorescence microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Mascio-Kegelmeyer, L; Tomascik-Cheeseman, L; Burnett, M S; van Hummelen, P; Wyrobek, A J

    2000-12-01

    To more accurately measure fluorescent signals from microarrays, we calibrated our acquisition and analysis systems by using groundtruth samples comprised of known quantities of red and green gene-specific DNA probes hybridized to cDNA targets. We imaged the slides with a full-field, white light CCD imager and analyzed them with our custom analysis software. Here we compare, for multiple genes, results obtained with and without preprocessing (alignment, color crosstalk compensation, dark field subtraction, and integration time). We also evaluate the accuracy of various image processing and analysis techniques (background subtraction, segmentation, quantitation and normalization). This methodology calibrates and validates our system for accurate quantitative measurement of microarrays. Specifically, we show that preprocessing the images produces results significantly closer to the known ground-truth for these samples.

  18. Accurate Parameter Estimation for Unbalanced Three-Phase System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid is an intelligent power generation and control console in modern electricity networks, where the unbalanced three-phase power system is the commonly used model. Here, parameter estimation for this system is addressed. After converting the three-phase waveforms into a pair of orthogonal signals via the α β-transformation, the nonlinear least squares (NLS) estimator is developed for accurately finding the frequency, phase, and voltage parameters. The estimator is realized by the Newton-Raphson scheme, whose global convergence is studied in this paper. Computer simulations show that the mean square error performance of NLS method can attain the Cramér-Rao lower bound. Moreover, our proposal provides more accurate frequency estimation when compared with the complex least mean square (CLMS) and augmented CLMS. PMID:25162056

  19. Fixed-Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle for Accurate Corridor Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2015-08-01

    In this study we present a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) equipped with precise position and attitude sensors that together with a pre-calibrated camera enables accurate corridor mapping. The design of the platform is based on widely available model components to which we integrate an open-source autopilot, customized mass-market camera and navigation sensors. We adapt the concepts of system calibration from larger mapping platforms to MAV and evaluate them practically for their achievable accuracy. We present case studies for accurate mapping without ground control points: first for a block configuration, later for a narrow corridor. We evaluate the mapping accuracy with respect to checkpoints and digital terrain model. We show that while it is possible to achieve pixel (3-5 cm) mapping accuracy in both cases, precise aerial position control is sufficient for block configuration, the precise position and attitude control is required for corridor mapping.

  20. Accurate adjoint design sensitivities for nano metal optics.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2015-09-01

    We present a method for obtaining accurate numerical design sensitivities for metal-optical nanostructures. Adjoint design sensitivity analysis, long used in fluid mechanics and mechanical engineering for both optimization and structural analysis, is beginning to be used for nano-optics design, but it fails for sharp-cornered metal structures because the numerical error in electromagnetic simulations of metal structures is highest at sharp corners. These locations feature strong field enhancement and contribute strongly to design sensitivities. By using high-accuracy FEM calculations and rounding sharp features to a finite radius of curvature we obtain highly-accurate design sensitivities for 3D metal devices. To provide a bridge to the existing literature on adjoint methods in other fields, we derive the sensitivity equations for Maxwell's equations in the PDE framework widely used in fluid mechanics. PMID:26368483

  1. Accurate parameter estimation for unbalanced three-phase system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; So, Hing Cheung

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid is an intelligent power generation and control console in modern electricity networks, where the unbalanced three-phase power system is the commonly used model. Here, parameter estimation for this system is addressed. After converting the three-phase waveforms into a pair of orthogonal signals via the α β-transformation, the nonlinear least squares (NLS) estimator is developed for accurately finding the frequency, phase, and voltage parameters. The estimator is realized by the Newton-Raphson scheme, whose global convergence is studied in this paper. Computer simulations show that the mean square error performance of NLS method can attain the Cramér-Rao lower bound. Moreover, our proposal provides more accurate frequency estimation when compared with the complex least mean square (CLMS) and augmented CLMS.

  2. A robust and accurate formulation of molecular and colloidal electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Klaseboer, Evert; Chan, Derek Y. C.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a re-formulation of the boundary integral method for the Debye-Hückel model of molecular and colloidal electrostatics that removes the mathematical singularities that have to date been accepted as an intrinsic part of the conventional boundary integral equation method. The essence of the present boundary regularized integral equation formulation consists of subtracting a known solution from the conventional boundary integral method in such a way as to cancel out the singularities associated with the Green's function. This approach better reflects the non-singular physical behavior of the systems on boundaries with the benefits of the following: (i) the surface integrals can be evaluated accurately using quadrature without any need to devise special numerical integration procedures, (ii) being able to use quadratic or spline function surface elements to represent the surface more accurately and the variation of the functions within each element is represented to a consistent level of precision by appropriate interpolation functions, (iii) being able to calculate electric fields, even at boundaries, accurately and directly from the potential without having to solve hypersingular integral equations and this imparts high precision in calculating the Maxwell stress tensor and consequently, intermolecular or colloidal forces, (iv) a reliable way to handle geometric configurations in which different parts of the boundary can be very close together without being affected by numerical instabilities, therefore potentials, fields, and forces between surfaces can be found accurately at surface separations down to near contact, and (v) having the simplicity of a formulation that does not require complex algorithms to handle singularities will result in significant savings in coding effort and in the reduction of opportunities for coding errors. These advantages are illustrated using examples drawn from molecular and colloidal electrostatics.

  3. Strategy Guideline. Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-06-01

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  4. Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2011-06-01

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  5. A robust and accurate formulation of molecular and colloidal electrostatics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang; Klaseboer, Evert; Chan, Derek Y C

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a re-formulation of the boundary integral method for the Debye-Hückel model of molecular and colloidal electrostatics that removes the mathematical singularities that have to date been accepted as an intrinsic part of the conventional boundary integral equation method. The essence of the present boundary regularized integral equation formulation consists of subtracting a known solution from the conventional boundary integral method in such a way as to cancel out the singularities associated with the Green's function. This approach better reflects the non-singular physical behavior of the systems on boundaries with the benefits of the following: (i) the surface integrals can be evaluated accurately using quadrature without any need to devise special numerical integration procedures, (ii) being able to use quadratic or spline function surface elements to represent the surface more accurately and the variation of the functions within each element is represented to a consistent level of precision by appropriate interpolation functions, (iii) being able to calculate electric fields, even at boundaries, accurately and directly from the potential without having to solve hypersingular integral equations and this imparts high precision in calculating the Maxwell stress tensor and consequently, intermolecular or colloidal forces, (iv) a reliable way to handle geometric configurations in which different parts of the boundary can be very close together without being affected by numerical instabilities, therefore potentials, fields, and forces between surfaces can be found accurately at surface separations down to near contact, and (v) having the simplicity of a formulation that does not require complex algorithms to handle singularities will result in significant savings in coding effort and in the reduction of opportunities for coding errors. These advantages are illustrated using examples drawn from molecular and colloidal electrostatics. PMID:27497538

  6. A time-accurate multiple-grid algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jespersen, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    A time-accurate multiple-grid algorithm is described. The algorithm allows one to take much larger time steps with an explicit time-marching scheme than would otherwise be the case. Sample calculations of a scalar advection equation and the Euler equations for an oscillating airfoil are shown. For the oscillating airfoil, time steps an order of magnitude larger than the single-grid algorithm are possible.

  7. Accurate Insertion Loss Measurements of the Juno Patch Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Chen, Jacqueline; Hodges, Richard; Demas, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two independent methods for estimating the insertion loss of patch array antennas that were developed for the Juno Microwave Radiometer instrument. One method is based principally on pattern measurements while the other method is based solely on network analyzer measurements. The methods are accurate to within 0.1 dB for the measured antennas and show good agreement (to within 0.1dB) of separate radiometric measurements.

  8. Accurate vessel segmentation with constrained B-snake.

    PubMed

    Yuanzhi Cheng; Xin Hu; Ji Wang; Yadong Wang; Tamura, Shinichi

    2015-08-01

    We describe an active contour framework with accurate shape and size constraints on the vessel cross-sectional planes to produce the vessel segmentation. It starts with a multiscale vessel axis tracing in a 3D computed tomography (CT) data, followed by vessel boundary delineation on the cross-sectional planes derived from the extracted axis. The vessel boundary surface is deformed under constrained movements on the cross sections and is voxelized to produce the final vascular segmentation. The novelty of this paper lies in the accurate contour point detection of thin vessels based on the CT scanning model, in the efficient implementation of missing contour points in the problematic regions and in the active contour model with accurate shape and size constraints. The main advantage of our framework is that it avoids disconnected and incomplete segmentation of the vessels in the problematic regions that contain touching vessels (vessels in close proximity to each other), diseased portions (pathologic structure attached to a vessel), and thin vessels. It is particularly suitable for accurate segmentation of thin and low contrast vessels. Our method is evaluated and demonstrated on CT data sets from our partner site, and its results are compared with three related methods. Our method is also tested on two publicly available databases and its results are compared with the recently published method. The applicability of the proposed method to some challenging clinical problems, the segmentation of the vessels in the problematic regions, is demonstrated with good results on both quantitative and qualitative experimentations; our segmentation algorithm can delineate vessel boundaries that have level of variability similar to those obtained manually.

  9. Radiometrically accurate thermal imaging in the Landsat program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansing, Jack C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Methods of calibrating Landsat TM thermal IR data have been developed so that the residual error is reduced to 0.9 K (1 standard deviation). Methods for verifying the radiometric performance of TM on orbit and ground calibration methods are discussed. The preliminary design of the enhanced TM for Landsat-6 is considered. A technique for accurately reducing raw data from the Landsat-5 thermal band is described in detail.

  10. Accurate Method for Determining Adhesion of Cantilever Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Michalske, T.A.; de Boer, M.P.

    1999-01-08

    Using surface micromachined samples, we demonstrate the accurate measurement of cantilever beam adhesion by using test structures which are adhered over long attachment lengths. We show that this configuration has a deep energy well, such that a fracture equilibrium is easily reached. When compared to the commonly used method of determining the shortest attached beam, the present method is much less sensitive to variations in surface topography or to details of capillary drying.

  11. A fourth order accurate adaptive mesh refinement method forpoisson's equation

    SciTech Connect

    Barad, Michael; Colella, Phillip

    2004-08-20

    We present a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) method for computing solutions to Poisson's equation in two and three dimensions. It is based on a conservative, finite-volume formulation of the classical Mehrstellen methods. This is combined with finite volume AMR discretizations to obtain a method that is fourth-order accurate in solution error, and with easily verifiable solvability conditions for Neumann and periodic boundary conditions.

  12. The highly accurate anteriolateral portal for injecting the knee

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The extended knee lateral midpatellar portal for intraarticular injection of the knee is accurate but is not practical for all patients. We hypothesized that a modified anteriolateral portal where the synovial membrane of the medial femoral condyle is the target would be highly accurate and effective for intraarticular injection of the knee. Methods 83 subjects with non-effusive osteoarthritis of the knee were randomized to intraarticular injection using the modified anteriolateral bent knee versus the standard lateral midpatellar portal. After hydrodissection of the synovial membrane with lidocaine using a mechanical syringe (reciprocating procedure device), 80 mg of triamcinolone acetonide were injected into the knee with a 2.0-in (5.1-cm) 21-gauge needle. Baseline pain, procedural pain, and pain at outcome (2 weeks and 6 months) were determined with the 10 cm Visual Analogue Pain Score (VAS). The accuracy of needle placement was determined by sonographic imaging. Results The lateral midpatellar and anteriolateral portals resulted in equivalent clinical outcomes including procedural pain (VAS midpatellar: 4.6 ± 3.1 cm; anteriolateral: 4.8 ± 3.2 cm; p = 0.77), pain at outcome (VAS midpatellar: 2.6 ± 2.8 cm; anteriolateral: 1.7 ± 2.3 cm; p = 0.11), responders (midpatellar: 45%; anteriolateral: 56%; p = 0.33), duration of therapeutic effect (midpatellar: 3.9 ± 2.4 months; anteriolateral: 4.1 ± 2.2 months; p = 0.69), and time to next procedure (midpatellar: 7.3 ± 3.3 months; anteriolateral: 7.7 ± 3.7 months; p = 0.71). The anteriolateral portal was 97% accurate by real-time ultrasound imaging. Conclusion The modified anteriolateral bent knee portal is an effective, accurate, and equivalent alternative to the standard lateral midpatellar portal for intraarticular injection of the knee. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00651625 PMID:21447197

  13. An accurate and robust gyroscope-gased pedometer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yoong P; Brown, Ian T; Khoo, Joshua C T

    2008-01-01

    Pedometers are known to have steps estimation issues. This is mainly attributed to their innate acceleration based measuring sensory. A micro-machined gyroscope (better immunity to acceleration) based pedometer is proposed. Through syntactic data recognition of apriori knowledge of human shank's dynamics and temporally précised detection of heel strikes permitted by Wavelet decomposition, an accurate and robust pedometer is acquired. PMID:19163737

  14. Accurate and occlusion-robust multi-view stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhaokun; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Fraser, Clive S.

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes an accurate multi-view stereo method for image-based 3D reconstruction that features robustness in the presence of occlusions. The new method offers improvements in dealing with two fundamental image matching problems. The first concerns the selection of the support window model, while the second centers upon accurate visibility estimation for each pixel. The support window model is based on an approximate 3D support plane described by a depth and two per-pixel depth offsets. For the visibility estimation, the multi-view constraint is initially relaxed by generating separate support plane maps for each support image using a modified PatchMatch algorithm. Then the most likely visible support image, which represents the minimum visibility of each pixel, is extracted via a discrete Markov Random Field model and it is further augmented by parameter clustering. Once the visibility is estimated, multi-view optimization taking into account all redundant observations is conducted to achieve optimal accuracy in the 3D surface generation for both depth and surface normal estimates. Finally, multi-view consistency is utilized to eliminate any remaining observational outliers. The proposed method is experimentally evaluated using well-known Middlebury datasets, and results obtained demonstrate that it is amongst the most accurate of the methods thus far reported via the Middlebury MVS website. Moreover, the new method exhibits a high completeness rate.

  15. BASIC: A Simple and Accurate Modular DNA Assembly Method.

    PubMed

    Storch, Marko; Casini, Arturo; Mackrow, Ben; Ellis, Tom; Baldwin, Geoff S

    2017-01-01

    Biopart Assembly Standard for Idempotent Cloning (BASIC) is a simple, accurate, and robust DNA assembly method. The method is based on linker-mediated DNA assembly and provides highly accurate DNA assembly with 99 % correct assemblies for four parts and 90 % correct assemblies for seven parts [1]. The BASIC standard defines a single entry vector for all parts flanked by the same prefix and suffix sequences and its idempotent nature means that the assembled construct is returned in the same format. Once a part has been adapted into the BASIC format it can be placed at any position within a BASIC assembly without the need for reformatting. This allows laboratories to grow comprehensive and universal part libraries and to share them efficiently. The modularity within the BASIC framework is further extended by the possibility of encoding ribosomal binding sites (RBS) and peptide linker sequences directly on the linkers used for assembly. This makes BASIC a highly versatile library construction method for combinatorial part assembly including the construction of promoter, RBS, gene variant, and protein-tag libraries. In comparison with other DNA assembly standards and methods, BASIC offers a simple robust protocol; it relies on a single entry vector, provides for easy hierarchical assembly, and is highly accurate for up to seven parts per assembly round [2]. PMID:27671933

  16. Method and apparatus for accurately manipulating an object during microelectrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Parvin, B.A.; Maestre, M.F.; Fish, R.H.; Johnston, W.E.

    1997-09-23

    An apparatus using electrophoresis provides accurate manipulation of an object on a microscope stage for further manipulations and reactions. The present invention also provides an inexpensive and easily accessible means to move an object without damage to the object. A plurality of electrodes are coupled to the stage in an array whereby the electrode array allows for distinct manipulations of the electric field for accurate manipulations of the object. There is an electrode array control coupled to the plurality of electrodes for manipulating the electric field. In an alternative embodiment, a chamber is provided on the stage to hold the object. The plurality of electrodes are positioned in the chamber, and the chamber is filled with fluid. The system can be automated using visual servoing, which manipulates the control parameters, i.e., x, y stage, applying the field, etc., after extracting the significant features directly from image data. Visual servoing includes an imaging device and computer system to determine the location of the object. A second stage having a plurality of tubes positioned on top of the second stage, can be accurately positioned by visual servoing so that one end of one of the plurality of tubes surrounds at least part of the object on the first stage. 11 figs.

  17. Method and apparatus for accurately manipulating an object during microelectrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Parvin, Bahram A.; Maestre, Marcos F.; Fish, Richard H.; Johnston, William E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus using electrophoresis provides accurate manipulation of an object on a microscope stage for further manipulations add reactions. The present invention also provides an inexpensive and easily accessible means to move an object without damage to the object. A plurality of electrodes are coupled to the stage in an array whereby the electrode array allows for distinct manipulations of the electric field for accurate manipulations of the object. There is an electrode array control coupled to the plurality of electrodes for manipulating the electric field. In an alternative embodiment, a chamber is provided on the stage to hold the object. The plurality of electrodes are positioned in the chamber, and the chamber is filled with fluid. The system can be automated using visual servoing, which manipulates the control parameters, i.e., x, y stage, applying the field, etc., after extracting the significant features directly from image data. Visual servoing includes an imaging device and computer system to determine the location of the object. A second stage having a plurality of tubes positioned on top of the second stage, can be accurately positioned by visual servoing so that one end of one of the plurality of tubes surrounds at least part of the object on the first stage.

  18. BASIC: A Simple and Accurate Modular DNA Assembly Method.

    PubMed

    Storch, Marko; Casini, Arturo; Mackrow, Ben; Ellis, Tom; Baldwin, Geoff S

    2017-01-01

    Biopart Assembly Standard for Idempotent Cloning (BASIC) is a simple, accurate, and robust DNA assembly method. The method is based on linker-mediated DNA assembly and provides highly accurate DNA assembly with 99 % correct assemblies for four parts and 90 % correct assemblies for seven parts [1]. The BASIC standard defines a single entry vector for all parts flanked by the same prefix and suffix sequences and its idempotent nature means that the assembled construct is returned in the same format. Once a part has been adapted into the BASIC format it can be placed at any position within a BASIC assembly without the need for reformatting. This allows laboratories to grow comprehensive and universal part libraries and to share them efficiently. The modularity within the BASIC framework is further extended by the possibility of encoding ribosomal binding sites (RBS) and peptide linker sequences directly on the linkers used for assembly. This makes BASIC a highly versatile library construction method for combinatorial part assembly including the construction of promoter, RBS, gene variant, and protein-tag libraries. In comparison with other DNA assembly standards and methods, BASIC offers a simple robust protocol; it relies on a single entry vector, provides for easy hierarchical assembly, and is highly accurate for up to seven parts per assembly round [2].

  19. Fractionating Polymer Microspheres as Highly Accurate Density Standards.

    PubMed

    Bloxham, William H; Hennek, Jonathan W; Kumar, Ashok A; Whitesides, George M

    2015-07-21

    This paper describes a method of isolating small, highly accurate density-standard beads and characterizing their densities using accurate and experimentally traceable techniques. Density standards have a variety of applications, including the characterization of density gradients, which are used to separate objects in a variety of fields. Glass density-standard beads can be very accurate (±0.0001 g cm(-3)) but are too large (3-7 mm in diameter) for many applications. When smaller density standards are needed, commercial polymer microspheres are often used. These microspheres have standard deviations in density ranging from 0.006 to 0.021 g cm(-3); these distributions in density make these microspheres impractical for applications demanding small steps in density. In this paper, commercial microspheres are fractionated using aqueous multiphase systems (AMPS), aqueous mixture of polymers and salts that spontaneously separate into phases having molecularly sharp steps in density, to isolate microspheres having much narrower distributions in density (standard deviations from 0.0003 to 0.0008 g cm(-3)) than the original microspheres. By reducing the heterogeneity in densities, this method reduces the uncertainty in the density of any specific bead and, therefore, improves the accuracy within the limits of the calibration standards used to characterize the distributions in density.

  20. Accurate thermochemistry for medium-sized and large molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavachari, K.; Stefanov, B.B.; Curtiss, L.A.

    1997-12-31

    Accurate techniques such as Gaussian-2 (G2) theory have been proposed in recent years to evaluate the thermochemistry of small molecules from first-principles. However, as the molecules get larger, the errors in G2 theory and similar approaches tend to accumulate. For example, the computed heats of formation of benzene and naphthalene with G2 and G2(MP2) theories, respectively, have errors of 3.9 and 7.2 kcal/mol. In this work, we explore strategies for computing accurate heats of formation for medium-sized and large molecules. In our first scheme, G2 theory is combined with isodesmic bond separation reaction energies to yield accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules. For a test set of 40 molecules composed of H, C, O, and N, our method yields enthalpies of formation, {Delta}H{sub f}{sup 0}(298 K), with a mean absolute deviation from experiment of only 0.5 kcal/mol. This is an improvement of a factor of three over the deviation of 1.5 kcal/mol seen in standard G2 theory.