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Sample records for accurate up-to-date information

  1. UP-TORR: online tool for accurate and Up-to-Date annotation of RNAi Reagents.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanhui; Roesel, Charles; Flockhart, Ian; Perkins, Lizabeth; Perrimon, Norbert; Mohr, Stephanie E

    2013-09-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely adopted tool for loss-of-function studies but RNAi results only have biological relevance if the reagents are appropriately mapped to genes. Several groups have designed and generated RNAi reagent libraries for studies in cells or in vivo for Drosophila and other species. At first glance, matching RNAi reagents to genes appears to be a simple problem, as each reagent is typically designed to target a single gene. In practice, however, the reagent-gene relationship is complex. Although the sequences of oligonucleotides used to generate most types of RNAi reagents are static, the reference genome and gene annotations are regularly updated. Thus, at the time a researcher chooses an RNAi reagent or analyzes RNAi data, the most current interpretation of the RNAi reagent-gene relationship, as well as related information regarding specificity (e.g., predicted off-target effects), can be different from the original interpretation. Here, we describe a set of strategies and an accompanying online tool, UP-TORR (for Updated Targets of RNAi Reagents; www.flyrnai.org/up-torr), useful for accurate and up-to-date annotation of cell-based and in vivo RNAi reagents. Importantly, UP-TORR automatically synchronizes with gene annotations daily, retrieving the most current information available, and for Drosophila, also synchronizes with the major reagent collections. Thus, UP-TORR allows users to choose the most appropriate RNAi reagents at the onset of a study, as well as to perform the most appropriate analyses of results of RNAi-based studies.

  2. Medical information about diabetes--how to keep up to date.

    PubMed

    Gadsby, R; Hall, H E; Court, R A

    2010-12-01

    Diabet. Med. 27, 1335-1340 (2010) ABSTRACT: There is a vast amount of new medical information published on diabetes each year; the number of systematic reviews on diabetes is also increasing rapidly. It is therefore difficult for clinicians keep up to date with the new evidence. It is suggested that reading the full National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines on diabetes will bring you up to date with information as at the date of the evidence cut-off, which is usually approximately 1 year before publication. Also regularly visiting 'NHS Evidence--diabetes', an online resource that offers a foraging service, surveying the literature and alerting clinicians to all the new important and useful information, enables the busy clinician to manage information overload and help keep up to date.

  3. How psychiatric trainees keep up to date: survey of psychiatric trainees' use of journals and other information sources.

    PubMed

    Walker-Tilley, Tom; Bainton, John; Fernando, Matthew; Wong, Yimlun; Ko, Ba; Warner, James; Nilforooshan, Ramin

    2016-02-01

    Aims and method To gather information about psychiatric trainees' use of different information sources and academic materials, a questionnaire was distributed at the London Deanery Annual Psychiatry Trainee Conference and the training programmes of two teaching trusts. Results Participants returned 202 out of a total of 300 completed questionnaires (67%). Websites were the most commonly accessed information source ahead of textbooks, abstracts and journals. Year of training correlated positively with journal use and negatively with textbook use. Year of training also correlated positively with frequency of reading three journals published by the Royal College of Psychiatrists and with specific reasons for consulting journals, namely to improve clinical practice and inform trainees' own research. Clinical implications Respondents reported consulting websites more frequently than more traditional information sources but journals are still a widely used source of information for trainee clinicians. It is important that trainees continue to be equipped with skills to identify and access high-quality information at the point of clinical uncertainty.

  4. Is Your Curriculum Up-to-Date.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Thomas A.

    The dramatic changes that occurred in information technology in the 1990s have rendered the curricular offerings of many college and university information systems and computer science programs obselete. This paper identifies some of the most desirable skills in the current technology environment. By being astute innovators with college curricula,…

  5. Pharmacist perception and use of UpToDate®.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Katie L; Beckett, Robert D; Sheehan, Amy Heck

    2014-10-01

    A cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 1,199 pharmacists was conducted to describe pharmacists' use and perception of UpToDate®. Of 472 (39%) respondents, 217 (46%) reported using UpToDate. Most respondents who used or had heard of UpToDate indicated willingness to change a treatment plan based on UpToDate recommendations (77%). Many believed that UpToDate is updated weekly (31%) or monthly (49%) and that all articles undergo external peer review (51%). In conclusion, the majority of respondents reported that they would adjust drug therapy based on UpToDate recommendations; however, many pharmacists may hold misconceptions regarding the updating and peer-review processes.

  6. Keeping PCs up to Date Can Be Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    The "joy" of computer maintenance takes many forms. These days, automation is the byword. Operating systems such as Microsoft Windows and utility suites such as Symantec's Norton Internet Security let you automatically keep crucial parts of your computer system up to date. It's fun to watch the technology keep tabs on itself. This document offers…

  7. The up-to-date management of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Anob M

    2015-08-01

    There have been a number of developments in the management of venous thromboembolism over the past few years. Old questions, such as thrombolysis, have been revisited in recent trials. New initiatives, such as ambulatory care pathways, are being established across the country. This conference brought together doctors from the UK, USA, Spain and Australia to review the up-to-date management of venous thromboembolism.

  8. How residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant and UpToDate

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Jason; Lim, Tow Keang

    2008-01-01

    Background In this era of evidence-based medicine, doctors are increasingly using information technology to acquire medical knowledge. This study evaluates how residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant (PDA) and the online resource UpToDate. Methods This is a questionnaire survey of all residents and interns in a tertiary teaching hospital. Results Out of 168 doctors, 134 (79.8%) responded to the questionnaire. Only 54 doctors (40.3%) owned a PDA. Although these owners perceived that the PDA was most useful for providing drug information, followed by medical references, scheduling and medical calculators, the majority of them did not actually have medical software applications downloaded on their PDAs. The greatest concerns highlighted for the PDA were the fear of loss and breakage, and the preference for working with desktop computers and paper. Meanwhile, only 76 doctors (56.7%) used UpToDate, even though the hospital had an institutional subscription for it. Although 93.4% of these users would recommend UpToDate to a colleague, only 57.9% stated that the use of UpToDate had led to a change in their management of patients. Conclusion Although UpToDate and various PDA software applications were deemed useful by some of the residents and interns in our study, both digital tools were under-utilised. More should be done to facilitate the use of medical software applications on PDAs, to promote awareness of tools for evidence-based medicine such as UpToDate, and to facilitate the application of evidence-based medicine in daily clinical practice. PMID:18625038

  9. Up-to-date use of honey for burns treatment.

    PubMed

    Zbuchea, A

    2014-03-31

    Made by bees from the nectar of flowers, used since ancient times to treat wounds and burns, honey has lately acquired a growing interest from the international scientific community and has been the subject of many specialized studies and communications. This article highlights the up-to-date knowledge on qualities, properties and mode of appliance of honey in the treatment of wounds of various etiologies, particularly burns, through an extensive retrospective analysis of data from the literature. This article aims to review and provide a synthesis of current issues regarding the complex action of honey on burn wounds, evidenced by in vitro studies, laboratory experiments and clinical trials published in the specialized literature. The present work analyzes extensively the anti-infectious and anti-inflammatory properties of honey, as well as its favorable effect on wound regeneration. Effectiveness of topical administration of honey is evidenced both by a series of experiments on laboratory animals and by clinical trials. This article also draws the attention of both medical staff and patients to the possibility of using this product, and to its acceptability in practice.

  10. Biomarkers in Multiple Sclerosis: An Up-to-Date Overview

    PubMed Central

    Katsavos, Serafeim; Anagnostouli, Maria

    2013-01-01

    During the last decades, the effort of establishing satisfactory biomarkers for multiple sclerosis has been proven to be very difficult, due to the clinical and pathophysiological complexities of the disease. Recent knowledge acquired in the domains of genomics-immunogenetics and neuroimmunology, as well as the evolution in neuroimaging, has provided a whole new list of biomarkers. This variety, though, leads inevitably to confusion in the effort of decision making concerning strategic and individualized therapeutics. In this paper, our primary goal is to provide the reader with a list of the most important characteristics that a biomarker must possess in order to be considered as reliable. Additionally, up-to-date biomarkers are further divided into three subgroups, genetic-immunogenetic, laboratorial, and imaging. The most important representatives of each category are presented in the text and for the first time in a summarizing workable table, in a critical way, estimating their diagnostic potential and their efficacy to correlate with phenotypical expression, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, disability, and therapeutical response. Special attention is given to the “gold standards” of each category, like HLA-DRB1∗ polymorphisms, oligoclonal bands, vitamin D, and conventional and nonconventional imaging techniques. Moreover, not adequately established but quite promising, recently characterized biomarkers, like TOB-1 polymorphisms, are further discussed. PMID:23401777

  11. Up-to-date use of honey for burns treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zbuchea, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Made by bees from the nectar of flowers, used since ancient times to treat wounds and burns, honey has lately acquired a growing interest from the international scientific community and has been the subject of many specialized studies and communications. This article highlights the up-to-date knowledge on qualities, properties and mode of appliance of honey in the treatment of wounds of various etiologies, particularly burns, through an extensive retrospective analysis of data from the literature. This article aims to review and provide a synthesis of current issues regarding the complex action of honey on burn wounds, evidenced by in vitro studies, laboratory experiments and clinical trials published in the specialized literature. The present work analyzes extensively the anti-infectious and anti-inflammatory properties of honey, as well as its favorable effect on wound regeneration. Effectiveness of topical administration of honey is evidenced both by a series of experiments on laboratory animals and by clinical trials. This article also draws the attention of both medical staff and patients to the possibility of using this product, and to its acceptability in practice. PMID:25249844

  12. How to get the most from the medical literature: keeping up to date in nephrology.

    PubMed

    Cullis, Jeremy; Webster, Angela C

    2010-04-01

    Best clinical practice means being up to date with the latest research, trials, guidelines and patient perspectives. Recent developments in the Internet, specifically Web 2.0 and its tools offer numerous opportunities for the doctor to keep up to date with all types of information, from professional news to the latest clinical research. Many clinicians are time-poor, and may not have had the opportunity to learn about newer technological innovations, or to understand how they can be used to save clinician's time and energy, while making information management more efficient. In this paper we will examine Web 2.0, including the use of RSS, and suggest a number of different websites that offer free access to nephrology news.

  13. Critique of the analysis of UpToDate.com on the treatment of painful vertebral compression fractures: time to update UpToDate.

    PubMed

    Beall, D P; McRoberts, W P; Berven, S H; Ledlie, J T; Tutton, S M; Parsons, B P

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of painful vertebral compression fractures has changed substantially since the introduction of vertebroplasty in the mid-1980s and balloon kyphoplasty in the late 1990s. Both procedures were widely accepted with the vertebral fractures treated reaching 150,000 per annum in 2009 prior to the publication of 2 randomized controlled trials comparing vertebroplasty with a sham treatment published in the New England Journal of Medicine in August 2009. Since then, there has been a flood of information on vertebral augmentation and balloon kyphoplasty. It is worth evaluating this information especially because it relates to current recommendations that are often followed blindly by medical and administrative groups unfamiliar with either the procedure or the high level of evidence surrounding vertebral augmentation. To streamline the evaluation of some current recommendations, we limited the analysis to the recommendations found on UpToDate.com. This Web site is an evidence-based, peer-reviewed source of information available for patients, doctors, health insurance companies, and population-based medical decision-making.

  14. Up-to-date and precise estimates of cancer patient survival: model-based period analysis.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Hermann; Hakulinen, Timo

    2006-10-01

    Monitoring of progress in cancer patient survival by cancer registries should be as up-to-date as possible. Period analysis has been shown to provide more up-to-date survival estimates than do traditional methods of survival analysis. However, there is a trade-off between up-to-dateness and the precision of period estimates, in that increasing the up-to-dateness of survival estimates by restricting the analysis to a relatively short, recent time period, such as the most recent calendar year for which cancer registry data are available, goes along with a loss of precision. The authors propose a model-based approach to maximize the up-to-dateness of period estimates at minimal loss of precision. The approach is illustrated for monitoring of 5-year relative survival of patients diagnosed with one of 20 common forms of cancer in Finland between 1953 and 2002 by use of data from the nationwide Finnish Cancer Registry. It is shown that the model-based approach provides survival estimates that are as up-to-date as the most up-to-date conventional period estimates and at the same time much more precise than the latter. The modeling approach may further enhance the use of period analysis for deriving up-to-date cancer survival rates.

  15. Employment and Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Children's Up-to-Date Vaccination Status.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiwei; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Hill, Holly A; Yankey, David

    2017-04-01

    This study examined whether additional information on parents' employment and household characteristics would help explain the differences in children's up-to-date (UTD) vaccination status using the 2008 National Immunization Survey and its associated Socioeconomic Status Module. After controlling for basic sociodemographic factors in multivariable analyses, parent's work schedules and ease of taking time off from work were not associated with UTD vaccination status among 19- to 35-month-old children. We also conducted a stratified analysis to test the heterogeneous effects of the factors among children at 3 age-restricted maternal education levels and found the benefit of paid sick leave had a significant association only among families where the mother had a college degree. Families who had moved since the child's birth, especially if the mother had high school or lower education, were less likely to have children UTD on the vaccine series.

  16. [Keeping up to date with the relevant literature: 'really simple syndication'-(RSS)-feeds within PubMed].

    PubMed

    Leclercq, E; Kremer, L C M

    2008-01-26

    For clinicians, researchers and policy makers in healthcare, it is important to keep up to date with the newest medical-scientific information. The large amount of new information makes this a difficult task. There are various techniques for keeping up to date, for instance reading systematic reviews, searching the literature at regular intervals oneself, and using the e-mail alerting services of, for example, PubMed. A new possibility is to be alerted to new scientific publications, for example, via a 'really simple syndication' (RSS)-feed. This option is now also made available by PubMed. In addition to PubMed, many other websites can now be searched systematically for new information by a RSS reader. With RSS feeds the user can be alerted to new information much faster than by an e-mail alerting service, so that one can anticipate new developments more rapidly.

  17. Answers to Questions Posed During Daily Patient Care Are More Likely to Be Answered by UpToDate Than PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Stalenhoef, Anton FH; de Vries Robbé, Pieter F; Overbeke, A John PM

    2008-01-01

    Background UpToDate and PubMed are popular sources for medical information. Data regarding the efficiency of PubMed and UpToDate in daily medical care are lacking. Objective The purpose of this observational study was to describe the percentage of answers retrieved by these information sources, comparing search results with regard to different medical topics and the time spent searching for an answer. Methods A total of 40 residents and 30 internists in internal medicine working in an academic medical center searched PubMed and UpToDate using an observation portal during daily medical care. The information source used for searching and the time needed to find an answer to the question were recorded by the portal. Information was provided by searchers regarding the topic of the question, the situation that triggered the question, and whether an answer was found. Results We analyzed 1305 patient-related questions sent to PubMed and/or UpToDate between October 1, 2005 and March 31, 2007 using our portal. A complete answer was found in 594/1125 (53%) questions sent to PubMed or UpToDate. A partial or full answer was obtained in 729/883 (83%) UpToDate searches and 152/242 (63%) PubMed searches (P < .001). UpToDate answered more questions than PubMed on all major medical topics, but a significant difference was detected only when the question was related to etiology (P < .001) or therapy (P = .002). Time to answer was 241 seconds (SD 24) for UpToDate and 291 seconds (SD 7) for PubMed. Conclusions Specialists and residents in internal medicine generally use less than 5 minutes to answer patient-related questions in daily care. More questions are answered using UpToDate than PubMed on all major medical topics. PMID:18926978

  18. FASTSNP: an always up-to-date and extendable service for SNP function analysis and prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hsiang-Yu; Chiou, Jen-Jie; Tseng, Wen-Hsien; Liu, Chia-Hung; Liu, Chuan-Kun; Lin, Yi-Jung; Wang, Hui-Hung; Yao, Adam; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Hsu, Chun-Nan

    2006-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) prioritization based on the phenotypic risk is essential for association studies. Assessment of the risk requires access to a variety of heterogeneous biological databases and analytical tools. FASTSNP (function analysis and selection tool for single nucleotide polymorphisms) is a web server that allows users to efficiently identify and prioritize high-risk SNPs according to their phenotypic risks and putative functional effects. A unique feature of FASTSNP is that the functional effect information used for SNP prioritization is always up-to-date, because FASTSNP extracts the information from 11 external web servers at query time using a team of web wrapper agents. Moreover, FASTSNP is extendable by simply deploying more Web wrapper agents. To validate the results of our prioritization, we analyzed 1569 SNPs from the SNP500Cancer database. The results show that SNPs with a high predicted risk exhibit low allele frequencies for the minor alleles, consistent with a well-known finding that a strong selective pressure exists for functional polymorphisms. We have been using FASTSNP for 2 years and FASTSNP enables us to discover a novel promoter polymorphism. FASTSNP is available at . PMID:16845089

  19. Non-hormonal topical treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy: an up-to-date overview.

    PubMed

    Sinha, A; Ewies, A A A

    2013-06-01

    Vulvovaginal atrophy-related symptoms exert a negative impact on the quality of life of up to 50% of postmenopausal women. Many of them decline to use topical vaginal estrogen, which is the standard effective therapy, due to the adverse publicity over recent years, and seek for alternatives. Further, there are no safety studies to support the use of topical vaginal estrogen in breast cancer survivors, and it is considered as contraindicated by many health-care professionals. Vaginal moisturizers and lubricants as well as regular sexual activity may be helpful to such women. Vaginal moisturizers may have an equivalent efficacy to topical vaginal estrogen and should be offered to women wishing to avoid the use of hormonal therapy. Lubricants are usually used during sexual intercourse to provide temporary relief from vaginal dryness and dyspareunia; however, they have no long-term therapeutic effects. We provide in this systematic review up-to-date information, for women and health-care professionals, about the use, safety and efficacy of the available vaginal moisturizers and lubricants.

  20. Is the 2003 ISSVD terminology and classification of vulvodynia up-to-date? A neurobiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Micheletti, L; Radici, G; Lynch, P J

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to determine if the 2003 International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) terminology and classification of vulval pain is up-to-date, according to a current and widely accepted neurobiological pain classification, which divides pain into nociceptive, inflammatory and pathological pain with the latter subdivided into neuropathic and dysfunctional pain. Nociceptive pain is protective, adaptive, high-threshold pain provoked by noxious stimuli. Inflammatory pain is protective, adaptive, low-threshold pain associated with peripheral tissue damage and inflammation. Pathological pain is non-protective, maladaptive, low-threshold pain caused by structural damage to the nervous system (neuropathic pain) or by its abnormal function (dysfunctional pain). The 2003 ISSVD vulval pain classification should be revised in terms of current neurobiological pain information. Inflammatory vulval pain occurs as a result of specific infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic disorders. Neuropathic vulval pain arises following a specific neurological disorder, responsible for structural damage to the nervous system. Vulvodynia is dysfunctional vulval pain, caused by abnormal function of the nervous system itself.

  1. Up-to-date review of nuclear medicine applications in pediatric thoracic imaging.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Neha S; Grant, Frederick D; Lim, Ruth; Lee, Edward Y

    2016-04-16

    Nuclear medicine has an important role in the evaluation of various congenital and acquired pediatric chest diseases. Although the radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine examinations used in children are broadly the same as in adults, there are some key differences in clinical indications and underlying disorders. This article provides the reader with an up-to-date review of practice of nuclear medicine as it relates to the pediatric chest, including its current role and future applications.

  2. Positive linking: a survival guide on how to keep up-to-date with pediatric infectious diseases literature using Internet technology.

    PubMed

    Loher-Niederer, Anita; Maccora, Janet; Ritz, Nicole

    2013-07-01

    A large number of medical journals publish an increasing number of articles each year. Keeping up-to-date with pediatric literature seems therefore an almost impossible task. For clinicians and researchers, who all have long, busy and tightly scheduled working days, time to find relevant new publications is scarce. The internet now offers numerous tools and opportunities that can help sort through this wealth of information, making it possible to keep up-to-date with relevant literature. In this article, we describe some of the different tools on offer and provide a selection of links and websites that facilitate efficient information management.

  3. Up-to-Date Applications of Microarrays and Their Way to Commercialization

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Sarah; Muekusch, Sandra; Seitz, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses up-to-date applications of Protein Microarrays. Protein Microarrays play a significant role in basic research as well as in clinical applications and are applicable in a lot of fields, e.g., DNA, proteins and small molecules. Additionally they are on the way to enter clinics in routine diagnostics. Protein Microarrays can be powerful tools to improve healthcare. An overview of basic characteristics to mediate essential knowledge of this technique is given. To reach this goal, some challenges still have to be addressed. A few applications of Protein Microarrays in a medical context are shown. Finally, an outlook, where the potential of Protein Microarrays is depicted and speculations how the future of Protein Microarrays will look like are made. PMID:27600220

  4. Up-to-date approach to manage keloids and hypertrophic scars: A useful guide

    PubMed Central

    Arno, Anna I.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Barret, Juan P.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars occur anywhere from 30 to 90% of patients, and are characterized by pathologically excessive dermal fibrosis and aberrant wound healing. Both entities have different clinical and histochemical characteristics, and unfortunately still represent a great challenge for clinicians due to lack of efficacious treatments. Current advances in molecular biology and genetics reveal new preventive and therapeutical options which represent a hope to manage this highly prevalent, chronic and disabling problem, with long-term beneficial outcomes and improvement of quality of life. While we wait for these translational clinical products to be marketed, however, it is imperative to know the basics of the currently existing wide array of strategies to deal with excessive scars: from the classical corticotherapy, to the most recent botulinum toxin and lasers. The main aim of this review paper is to offer a useful up-to-date guideline to prevent and treat keloids and hypertrophic scars. PMID:24767715

  5. Up-to-Date Applications of Microarrays and Their Way to Commercialization.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Sarah; Muekusch, Sandra; Seitz, Harald

    2015-04-23

    This review addresses up-to-date applications of Protein Microarrays. Protein Microarrays play a significant role in basic research as well as in clinical applications and are applicable in a lot of fields, e.g., DNA, proteins and small molecules. Additionally they are on the way to enter clinics in routine diagnostics. Protein Microarrays can be powerful tools to improve healthcare. An overview of basic characteristics to mediate essential knowledge of this technique is given. To reach this goal, some challenges still have to be addressed. A few applications of Protein Microarrays in a medical context are shown. Finally, an outlook, where the potential of Protein Microarrays is depicted and speculations how the future of Protein Microarrays will look like are made.

  6. Pediatric Subtalar Joint Synovial Chondromatosis Report of a Case and an Up-to-date Review.

    PubMed

    Saibaba, Balaji; Sudesh, Pebam; Govindan, Gokul; Prakash, Mahesh

    2015-09-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare, usually benign disorder affecting the population predominantly in the third and fourth decades of life and mainly involving the large weightbearing joints of the lower limb-the knees and the hip. In this report, we highlight an unusual pediatric clinical presentation of synovial osteochondromatosis involving the subtalar joint and discuss its surgical management; we also provide a comprehensive up-to-date literature review of the disorder. This patient was successfully treated with en masse surgical excision. He has been doing well, with complete pain relief and improved range of motion at 1-year follow-up. An exceptional involvement of the subtalar joint and an unusual presentation in the pediatric age group makes this case unique.

  7. Up-to-date approach to manage keloids and hypertrophic scars: a useful guide.

    PubMed

    Arno, Anna I; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Barret, Juan P; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-11-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars occur anywhere from 30 to 90% of patients, and are characterized by pathologically excessive dermal fibrosis and aberrant wound healing. Both entities have different clinical and histochemical characteristics, and unfortunately still represent a great challenge for clinicians due to lack of efficacious treatments. Current advances in molecular biology and genetics reveal new preventive and therapeutical options which represent a hope to manage this highly prevalent, chronic and disabling problem, with long-term beneficial outcomes and improvement of quality of life. While we wait for these translational clinical products to be marketed, however, it is imperative to know the basics of the currently existing wide array of strategies to deal with excessive scars: from the classical corticotherapy, to the most recent botulinum toxin and lasers. The main aim of this review paper is to offer a useful up-to-date guideline to prevent and treat keloids and hypertrophic scars.

  8. Up-to-Date Information on Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and affects all the components of the lung. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most predominant pulmonary manifestation and has been identified as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in RA. Clinically significant RA-ILD occurs in approximately 10% of RA patients. Several risk factors, such as old age, male gender, and smoking, have been reported to date. Histologically, the proportion of the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern is higher in RA-ILD than in ILD associated with other connective tissue diseases, and RA-ILD also shows nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and organizing pneumonia patterns. High-resolution computed tomography scans are highly predictive of the histological UIP pattern with a specificity of 96%–100%. Acute exacerbation, which is the acute deterioration of the respiratory status characterized by newly developed bilateral infiltrates with unknown etiologies, has been reported in RA-ILD. Although acute exacerbation of RA-ILD has high mortality, similar to that of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, its incidence is lower in RA-ILD than in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A consensus treatment has not yet been established. Current therapeutic regimens typically include corticosteroids with or without cytotoxic agents. Recent large longitudinal studies reported that the prognosis of RA-ILD was poor with a median survival of 2.6–3.0 years. Furthermore, histological and/or radiological patterns, such as UIP or non-UIP, have significant prognostic implications. RA-ILD patients with histological or radiological UIP patterns have poorer prognoses than those with non-UIP patterns. This review assessed the characteristics of RA-ILD by overviewing recent studies in the field and focused on the clinical significance of histological and/or radiological patterns in RA-ILD. PMID:27279757

  9. Up-to-Date Information on Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and affects all the components of the lung. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most predominant pulmonary manifestation and has been identified as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in RA. Clinically significant RA-ILD occurs in approximately 10% of RA patients. Several risk factors, such as old age, male gender, and smoking, have been reported to date. Histologically, the proportion of the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern is higher in RA-ILD than in ILD associated with other connective tissue diseases, and RA-ILD also shows nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and organizing pneumonia patterns. High-resolution computed tomography scans are highly predictive of the histological UIP pattern with a specificity of 96%-100%. Acute exacerbation, which is the acute deterioration of the respiratory status characterized by newly developed bilateral infiltrates with unknown etiologies, has been reported in RA-ILD. Although acute exacerbation of RA-ILD has high mortality, similar to that of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, its incidence is lower in RA-ILD than in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A consensus treatment has not yet been established. Current therapeutic regimens typically include corticosteroids with or without cytotoxic agents. Recent large longitudinal studies reported that the prognosis of RA-ILD was poor with a median survival of 2.6-3.0 years. Furthermore, histological and/or radiological patterns, such as UIP or non-UIP, have significant prognostic implications. RA-ILD patients with histological or radiological UIP patterns have poorer prognoses than those with non-UIP patterns. This review assessed the characteristics of RA-ILD by overviewing recent studies in the field and focused on the clinical significance of histological and/or radiological patterns in RA-ILD.

  10. Cognitive impairment in childhood onset epilepsy: up-to-date information about its causes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment associated with childhood-onset epilepsy is an important consequence in the developing brain owing to its negative effects on neurodevelopmental and social outcomes. While the cause of cognitive impairment in epilepsy appears to be multifactorial, epilepsy-related factors such as type of epilepsy and underlying etiology, age at onset, frequency of seizures, duration of epilepsy, and its treatment are considered important. In recent studies, antecedent cognitive impairment before the first recognized seizure and microstructural and functional alteration of the brain at onset of epilepsy suggest the presence of a common neurobiological mechanism between epilepsy and cognitive comorbidity. However, the overall impact of cognitive comorbidity in children with epilepsy and the independent contribution of each of these factors to cognitive impairment have not been clearly delineated. This review article focuses on the significant contributors to cognitive impairment in children with epilepsy. PMID:27186225

  11. Correlation Between UpToDate Searches and Reported Cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome During Outbreaks in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Thorner, Anna R; Cao, Bin; Jiang, Terrence; Warner, Amy J; Bonis, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  UpToDate is an online clinical decision support resource that is used extensively by clinicians around the world. Digital surveillance techniques have shown promise to aid with the detection and monitoring of infectious disease outbreaks. We sought to determine whether UpToDate searches for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) could be used to detect and monitor MERS outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. Methods.  We analyzed daily searches related to MERS in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during 3 outbreaks in these cities in 2014 and 2015 and compared them with reported cases during the same periods. We also compared UpToDate MERS searches in the affected cities to those in a composite of 4 negative control cities for the 2 outbreaks in 2014. Results.  UpToDate MERS searches during all 3 MERS outbreaks in Saudi Arabia showed a correlation to reported cases. In addition, UpToDate MERS search volume in Jeddah and Riyadh during the outbreak periods in 2014 was significantly higher than the concurrent search volume in the 4 negative control cities. In contrast, during the baseline periods, there was no difference between UpToDate searches for MERS in the affected cities compared with the negative control cities. Conclusions.  UpToDate search activity seems to be useful for detecting and monitoring outbreaks of MERS in Saudi Arabia.

  12. [Up-to-date findings in the host defence mechanism to cryptococcus infection].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Keiko; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a medically important opportunistic fungal pathogen with a polysaccharide capsule surrounding the yeast-like cells. In hosts with impaired cell-mediated immunity such as AIDS, uncontrolled infection causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis. In immunocompetent individuals, the host immune response usually limits the growth of the fungal pathogen at the primary infected site, where it may persist, without completely eradicated, in a latent state because of its ability to escape from killing by macrophages. Th1 response in adaptive immunity is essential for the host defense to cryptococcal infection, in which interferon (IFN)-γ polarizes innate macrophages into fungicidal M1 macrophages. Recently, we found that caspase recruitment domain family member (CARD9), an adaptor protein in a signal transduction triggered by C-type lectin receptors, plays a key role in the early production of IFN-γ at the site of infection by recruiting NK cells and CD4(+) and CD8(+) memory-phenotype T cells. We also found that IL-4 produced by Th2 cells stimulates broncoepithelial cells to secrete mucin, which may lead to promotion in the mucociliary clearance of C. neoformans. Here, we summarize the up-to-date findings in the host defense mechanism to this infection with focusing on our recent data.

  13. [Up-to-date applicability of interferon-γ release assays for the diagnosis of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Domínguez, José; Latorre, Irene

    2015-07-01

    Utility of the in-vitro immunodiagnostic methods, based on the detection of interferon-γ released by T-cells after specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen stimulation (IGRA), has been an improvement in the accuracy of the latent tuberculosis infection diagnosis. IGRA have a well-known higher specificity than the tuberculin skin testing (TST). Moreover, they can obtain a larger number of positive results than the TST in immunocompromised patients. IGRA have shown a high correlation with M. tuberculosis exposure, but their positive and negative predictive value are similar than those obtained by TST. Nevertheless, given their high specificity, they allow reducing number of unnecessary preventive treatments. In addition, these in-vitro techniques are less affected than TST by the different immunosuppressing status. In this review is discussed up-to-date applicability of IGRA in different patient groups: contact studies, pediatric population, immunosuppressed patients, health care workers and active tuberculosis patients. Furthermore, it has been included possible future directions for latent tuberculosis infection and active tuberculosis diagnosis.

  14. Nano-chitosan particles in anticancer drug delivery: An up-to-date review.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Pooja R; Sunil, Dhanya

    2017-02-27

    Cancer is one of the most awful lethal diseases all over the world and the success of its current chemotherapeutic treatment strategies is limited due to several associated drawbacks. The exploration of cancer cell physiology and its microenvironment have exposed the potential of various classes of nanocarriers to deliver anticancer chemotherapeutic agents at the tumor target site. These nanocarriers must evade the immune surveillance system and achieve target selectivity. Besides, they must gain access in to the interior of cancerous cells, evade endosomal entrapment and discharge the drugs in a sustained manner. Chitosan, the second naturally abundant polysaccharide is a biocompatible, biodegradable and mucoadhesive cationic polymer which has been exploited extensively in the last few years in the effective delivery of anticancer chemotherapeutics to the target tumor cells. Therapeutic agent-loaded surface modified chitosan nanoparticles are established to be more stable, permeable and bioactive. This review will provide an up-to-date evidence-based background on recent pharmaceutical advancements in the transformation of chitosan nanoparticles for smart anticancer therapeutic drug delivery.

  15. Surveying the familiarity and usage of up-to-date database among nurses working in the hospitals affiliated with Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, A H; AghazadeAsl, E; Bigdeli, Z; SakiMalehi, A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The evidence-based databases provide the details of the latest scientific findings of research on an individual subject. Factual databases have gained a significant attention regarding the importance and application of evidence-based medical information. Therefore, the purpose of present study was to investigate the level of familiarity by using an Up-To-Date database among the nurses working at the hospitals affiliated with Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medial Sciences, and by this, making ground for cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness analyses. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical research, conducted on a sample of 293 nurses selected from a population of 1246 nurses, working at the hospitals affiliated with Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. For the data collection, a researcher built questionnaire was used, and its validity and reliability were confirmed, its Cronbach's alpha coefficient being calculated as 0.71. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and Kruskal-Wallis test were run. Results: According to the findings, the majority of the nurses were female, having a Bachelor's degree. The nurses had a mid-familiarity with the Up-To-Date database, and most of them used this database in a very limited manner. When using the Up-To-Date database, their primary goal was to update their information and to answer to the clinical questions of the patients. Conclusions: According to the findings, it could be concluded that the access to the recent and up-to-date information in the domain of nursing required the training of the nurses with the necessary skills in information use, to be able to obtain updated information from evidence-based databases and other information resources.

  16. A study of high velocity molecular outflows with an up-to-date sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Wei, Y.; Zhao, M.; Shi, Y.; Yu, W.; Qin, S.; Huang, M.

    2004-11-01

    A statistical study of the properties of molecular outflows is performed based on an up-to-date sample. 391 outflows were identified in published articles or preprints before February 28, 2003. The parameters of position, morphology, mass, energy, outflow dynamics and central source luminosity are presented for each outflow source. Outflow lobe polarity is known for all the sources, and 84% are found to be bipolar. The sources are divided into low mass and high mass groups according to either the available bolometric luminosity of the central source or the outflow mass. The pace of discovery of outflows over the past seven years has increased much more rapidly than in previous periods. Surveys for outflows are still continuing. The number of high-mass outflows detected (139) has considerably increased, showing that they are commonly associated with massive as well as low mass stars. Energetic mass ejection may be a common aspect of the formation of high mass as well as low mass stars. Outflow masses are correlated strongly with bolometric luminosity of the center sources, which was obtained for the first time. There are also correlations between the central source luminosity and the parameters of mechanical luminosity and the thrust or force necessary to drive the outflow. The results show that flow mass, momentum and energy depend on the nature of the central source. Despite their similarity, there are differences between the high mass and low mass outflows. Low mass outflows are more collimated than high mass outflows. On average, the mass of high mass sources can be more than two orders of magnitude larger than those of low mass outflows. The relation between flow mass and dynamical time appears to differ for the two types of outflows. Low mass sources make up 90% of outflows associated with HH objects while high mass outflows make up 61% of the sources associated with H_2O masers. Sources with characteristics of collapse or infall comprise 12% of the entire

  17. Cancer incidence predictions in the North of Portugal: keeping population-based cancer registration up to date.

    PubMed

    Castro, Clara; Antunes, Luís; Lunet, Nuno; Bento, Maria José

    2016-09-01

    Decision making towards cancer prevention and control requires monitoring of trends in cancer incidence and accurate estimation of its burden in different settings. We aimed to estimate the number of incident cases in northern Portugal for 2015 and 2020 (all cancers except nonmelanoma skin and for the 15 most frequent tumours). Cancer cases diagnosed in 1994-2009 were collected by the North Region Cancer Registry of Portugal (RORENO) and corresponding population figures were obtained from Statistics Portugal. JoinPoint regression was used to analyse incidence trends. Population projections until 2020 were derived by RORENO. Predictions were performed using the Poisson regression models proposed by Dyba and Hakulinen. The number of incident cases is expected to increase by 18.7% in 2015 and by 37.6% in 2020, with lower increments among men than among women. For most cancers considered, the number of cases will keep rising up to 2020, although decreasing trends of age-standardized rates are expected for some tumours. Cervix was the only cancer with a decreasing number of incident cases in the entire period. Thyroid and lung cancers were among those with the steepest increases in the number of incident cases expected for 2020, especially among women. In 2020, the top five cancers are expected to account for 82 and 62% of all cases diagnosed in men and women, respectively. This study contributes to a broader understanding of cancer burden in the north of Portugal and provides the basis for keeping population-based incidence estimates up to date.

  18. [Capsulotomy/capsulectomy in phacosurgery: evolution and up-to-date technology (communication 2)].

    PubMed

    Toropygin, S G; Moshetova, L K

    2010-01-01

    The review gives information on the development, current techniques, and complications of capsulotomy (capsulectomy) in the surgery of cataract. It discusses the elaboration of the authors' low-energy femtosecond laser procedure for anterior and posterior capsulotomy.

  19. [Capsulotomy/capsulectomy in phacosurgery: evolution of development and up-to-date technology (communication 1)].

    PubMed

    Toropygin, S G; Moshetova, L K

    2010-01-01

    The review gives information on the anatomy and functions of the lenticular capsule, the evolution of development, and current techniques of capsulotomy (capsulectomy) in the surgery of cataract. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of anterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, Kloeti radiofrequency bipolar capsulotomy, vitrectorhexis, Fugo plasma blade, and other anterior lenticular capsule opening techniques.

  20. Up-to-date tools for risk assessment before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Elsawy, M; Sorror, M L

    2016-10-01

    Cure of malignant and non-malignant hematological diseases is potentially possible after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Accurate evaluation of the risk-benefit ratio for an individual patient could improve the decision-making process about transplant, which ultimately would increase the likelihood of success. Several transplant-related models were designed in an effort to optimize decision-making about suitable candidates for allogeneic HCT. In 1998, The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) developed a five-component pretransplantation risk scoring system for patients with CML. The EBMT score was later tested in patients with various hematological disorders, and it was shown to stratify risks of mortality after allogeneic HCT. More recent research efforts focused on models that assess health status before HCT. A HCT-specific comorbidity index was designed to assign weights to 17 relevant comorbidities that were shown to independently predict non-relapse mortality. Performance status scales and comprehensive geriatric assessment tools might uncover additional overall health limitations that affect long-term survival among older recipients of allogeneic HCT. Other models include the pretransplantation assessment of mortality score that summarizes the impacts of eight different pretransplantation patient- and disease-specific variables into a 50-point model that predicts survival. The disease-risk index captures the impact of primary diagnoses and disease status on relapse and survival following allogeneic HCT. The values and limitations of each model are discussed herein. We also provide insight on how to use these models in the clinic to decide about offering allogeneic HCT with the most suitable conditioning regimen intensity.

  1. Dynamic perfusion assessment during perforator flap surgery: an up-to-date

    PubMed Central

    MUNTEAN, MAXIMILIAN VLAD; MUNTEAN, VALENTIN; ARDELEAN, FILIP; GEORGESCU, ALEXANDRU

    2015-01-01

    Flap monitoring technology has progressed alongside flap design. The highly variable vascular anatomy and the complexity associated with modern perforator flaps demands dynamic, real-time, intraoperative information about the vessel location, perfusion patterns and flap physiology. Although most surgeons still assess flap perfusion and viability based solely on clinical experience, studies have shown that results may be highly variable and often misleading. Poor judgment of intraoperative perfusion leads to major complications. Employing dynamic perfusion imaging during flap reconstruction has led to a reduced complication rate, lower morbidity, shorter hospital stay, and an overall better result. With the emergence of multiple systems capable of intraoperative flap evaluation, the purpose of this article is to review the two systems that have been widely accepted and are currently used by plastic surgeons: Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT). PMID:26609259

  2. ppiTrim: constructing non-redundant and up-to-date interactomes.

    PubMed

    Stojmirović, Aleksandar; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Robust advances in interactome analysis demand comprehensive, non-redundant and consistently annotated data sets. By non-redundant, we mean that the accounting of evidence for every interaction should be faithful: each independent experimental support is counted exactly once, no more, no less. While many interactions are shared among public repositories, none of them contains the complete known interactome for any model organism. In addition, the annotations of the same experimental result by different repositories often disagree. This brings up the issue of which annotation to keep while consolidating evidences that are the same. The iRefIndex database, including interactions from most popular repositories with a standardized protein nomenclature, represents a significant advance in all aspects, especially in comprehensiveness. However, iRefIndex aims to maintain all information/annotation from original sources and requires users to perform additional processing to fully achieve the aforementioned goals. Another issue has to do with protein complexes. Some databases represent experimentally observed complexes as interactions with more than two participants, while others expand them into binary interactions using spoke or matrix model. To avoid untested interaction information buildup, it is preferable to replace the expanded protein complexes, either from spoke or matrix models, with a flat list of complex members. To address these issues and to achieve our goals, we have developed ppiTrim, a script that processes iRefIndex to produce non-redundant, consistently annotated data sets of physical interactions. Our script proceeds in three stages: mapping all interactants to gene identifiers and removing all undesired raw interactions, deflating potentially expanded complexes, and reconciling for each interaction the annotation labels among different source databases. As an illustration, we have processed the three largest organismal data sets: yeast, human and

  3. Up-to-date Critical Review of the Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    AKTEKİN, Berrin

    2015-01-01

    The classification of epileptic seizures and epilepsies is a subject of interest in various medical disciplines (such as neurology, pediatric neurology, molecular biology and genetics, neurosurgery, pharmacology, radiology, histopathology), and each of them requires a different approach in their practice. In last 15 years, enormous amount of debate in which irrelevant to actual level of knowledge, were ongoing in the literature. Epilepsy classification is a fundamental tool that impacts not only daily clinical practice but also research era and education. The current lack of consensus in this field causes a serious obstacle in patient management, student and resident education, and information sharing among different scientific interest groups. The comparison of different classification proposals by means of positive and negative aspects is beyond the scope of discussion in this article; therefore, I will try to give a brief summary of our current level of understanding. Main issues regarding the classifications proposal are as follows: Concepts of epileptic seizure/epilepsy/syndromeFocal & generalized epilepsy conceptIdiopathic, genetic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (structural/metabolic) concepts

  4. Processing Raw HST Data With Up-to-Date Calibration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Warren

    2007-01-01

    On-the-Fly Reprocessing (OTFR) is a collection of data-processing routines that work within the context of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pipeline data-flow system. The purpose served by OTFR is to generate, on demand, scientifically useful data products from raw HST data stored in an archive. First, on the basis of the requested final data products, OTFR retrieves the corresponding sets of raw data from the archives. Next, OTFR processes the raw data sets to remove artifacts and to establish proper header and other template information. Finally, the calibration routines appropriate to the specific data sets are invoked to produce the requested data products, and the data products are released to an archive distribution system for transmission to the requesting party. OTFR offers two notable advantages: (1) Inasmuch as calibrated data occupy about 8 times as much storage space as do raw data, by obviating storage of calibrated data, OTFR reduces the storage capacity needed by the archive; and (2) the calibration routines can be updated to give requesters the benefit of the most recent calibrations.

  5. MyProteinNet: build up-to-date protein interaction networks for organisms, tissues and user-defined contexts

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Omer; Flom, Dvir; Barshir, Ruth; Smoly, Ilan; Tirman, Shoval; Yeger-Lotem, Esti

    2015-01-01

    The identification of the molecular pathways active in specific contexts, such as disease states or drug responses, often requires an extensive view of the potential interactions between a subset of proteins. This view is not easily obtained: it requires the integration of context-specific protein list or expression data with up-to-date data of protein interactions that are typically spread across multiple databases. The MyProteinNet web server allows users to easily create such context-sensitive protein interaction networks. Users can automatically gather and consolidate data from up to 11 different databases to create a generic protein interaction network (interactome). They can score the interactions based on reliability and filter them by user-defined contexts including molecular expression and protein annotation. The output of MyProteinNet includes the generic and filtered interactome files, together with a summary of their network attributes. MyProteinNet is particularly geared toward building human tissue interactomes, by maintaining tissue expression profiles from multiple resources. The ability of MyProteinNet to facilitate the construction of up-to-date, context-specific interactomes and its applicability to 11 different organisms and to tens of human tissues, make it a powerful tool in meaningful analysis of protein networks. MyProteinNet is available at http://netbio.bgu.ac.il/myproteinnet. PMID:25990735

  6. MyProteinNet: build up-to-date protein interaction networks for organisms, tissues and user-defined contexts.

    PubMed

    Basha, Omer; Flom, Dvir; Barshir, Ruth; Smoly, Ilan; Tirman, Shoval; Yeger-Lotem, Esti

    2015-07-01

    The identification of the molecular pathways active in specific contexts, such as disease states or drug responses, often requires an extensive view of the potential interactions between a subset of proteins. This view is not easily obtained: it requires the integration of context-specific protein list or expression data with up-to-date data of protein interactions that are typically spread across multiple databases. The MyProteinNet web server allows users to easily create such context-sensitive protein interaction networks. Users can automatically gather and consolidate data from up to 11 different databases to create a generic protein interaction network (interactome). They can score the interactions based on reliability and filter them by user-defined contexts including molecular expression and protein annotation. The output of MyProteinNet includes the generic and filtered interactome files, together with a summary of their network attributes. MyProteinNet is particularly geared toward building human tissue interactomes, by maintaining tissue expression profiles from multiple resources. The ability of MyProteinNet to facilitate the construction of up-to-date, context-specific interactomes and its applicability to 11 different organisms and to tens of human tissues, make it a powerful tool in meaningful analysis of protein networks. MyProteinNet is available at http://netbio.bgu.ac.il/myproteinnet.

  7. 77 FR 26550 - Notice of Need To File Updated Information for Some Closed Captioning Exemption Petitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... provided in their previously submitted petition is still accurate and up-to-date, (2) update previously... FCC that its previously submitted petition and supporting information is accurate and up-to-date; (2... interested in continuing to request a closed captioning exemption for its programming must include...

  8. Surgical versus non-surgical management for primary patellar dislocations: an up-to-date meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaozuo; Kang, Kai; Li, Tong; Lu, Bo; Dong, Jiangtao; Gao, Shijun

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this up-to-date meta-analysis was to compare the effects of surgical versus non-surgical treatment of patients following primary patellar dislocation and to provide the best evidence currently available. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using multiple databases, including Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Registry of Clinical Trials. All databases were searched from the earliest records to May 2013. Eligible studies were selected, and data were extracted by two independent investigators. The primary outcome variable was the frequency of recurrent patellar dislocation. The other outcomes included knee function scores, patient-rated outcomes, and radiographic examination. If appropriate, meta-analysis of these variables was performed. Nine independent trials were found to match the inclusion criteria. The pooled results demonstrated that the incidence of recurrent patellar dislocation and Hughston visual analog scale was significantly lower in the surgical treatment group than that in the non-surgical treatment group (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups in frequency of subsequent surgical interventions, percentage of excellent or good subjective opinion, Kujala score, pain score on visual analog scale, and severity of patellofemoral joint osteoarthrosis (P > 0.05). This up-to-date meta-analysis indicates that surgical treatment was associated with a lower risk of recurrent patellar dislocation, but a lower Hughston VAS than non-surgical treatment for primary patellar dislocation. More large high-quality trials and further studies are needed to overcome the limitations of small sample sizes, and varieties of different surgical procedures or non-surgical management strategies adopted in the included trials.

  9. Form and Style: Theses, Reports, Term Papers. Eighth Edition. Up-to-Date Information on Chicago, MLA, and APA Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, William Giles; And Others

    The eighth edition of this manual, which incorporates recent changes in bibliographical format made by "The Chicago Manual of Style" and the Modern Language Association of America, provides guidance to writers of research papers and reports in college, graduate school, business, government, and the professions. The review of the…

  10. Evolutionary history of the Tricladida and the Platyhelminthes: an up-to-date phylogenetic and systematic account.

    PubMed

    Riutort, Marta; Álvarez-Presas, Marta; Lázaro, Eva; Solà, Eduard; Paps, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Within the free-living platyhelminths, the triclads, or planarians, are the best-known group, largely as a result of long-standing and intensive research on regeneration, pattern formation and Hox gene expression. However, the group's evolutionary history has been long debated, with controversies ranging from their phyletic structure and position within the Metazoa to the relationships among species within the Tricladida. Over the the last decade, with the advent of molecular phylogenies, some of these issues have begun to be resolved. Here, we present an up-to-date summary of the main phylogenetic changes and novelties with some comments on their evolutionary implications. The phylum has been split into two groups, and the position of the main group (the Rhabdithophora and the Catenulida), close to the Annelida and the Mollusca within the Lophotrochozoa, is now clear. Their internal relationships, although not totally resolved, have been clarified. Tricladida systematics has also experienced a revolution since the implementation of molecular data. The terrestrial planarians have been demonstrated to have emerged from one of the freshwater families, giving a different view of their evolution and greatly altering their classification. The use of molecular data is also facilitating the identification of Tricladida species by DNA barcoding, allowing better knowledge of their distribution and genetic diversity. Finally, molecular phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses, taking advantage of recent data, are beginning to give a clear picture of the recent history of the Dugesia and Schmidtea species in the Mediterranean.

  11. Mechanism of inflammation in age-related macular degeneration: an up-to-date on genetic landmarks.

    PubMed

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Sorrentino, Francesco S; Romano, Mario R; Costagliola, Ciro; Semeraro, Francesco; Incorvaia, Carlo; D'Angelo, Sergio; Perri, Paolo; De Nadai, Katia; Bonomo Roversi, Elia; Franceschelli, Paola; Sebastiani, Adolfo; Rubini, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over 50 years of age, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of legal blindness in Western countries. Although the aging represents the main determinant of AMD, it must be considered a multifaceted disease caused by interactions among environmental risk factors and genetic backgrounds. Mounting evidence and/or arguments document the crucial role of inflammation and immune-mediated processes in the pathogenesis of AMD. Proinflammatory effects secondary to chronic inflammation (e.g., alternative complement activation) and heterogeneous types of oxidative stress (e.g., impaired cholesterol homeostasis) can result in degenerative damages at the level of crucial macular structures, that is photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch's membrane. In the most recent years, the association of AMD with genes, directly or indirectly, involved in immunoinflammatory pathways is increasingly becoming an essential core for AMD knowledge. Starting from the key basic-research notions detectable at the root of AMD pathogenesis, the present up-to-date paper reviews the best-known and/or the most attractive genetic findings linked to the mechanisms of inflammation of this complex disease.

  12. The hearts of competitive athletes: an up-to-date overview of exercise-induced cardiac adaptations.

    PubMed

    Dores, Hélder; Freitas, António; Malhotra, Aneil; Mendes, Miguel; Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Intense and regular physical exercise is responsible for various cardiac changes (electrical, structural and functional) that represent physiological adaptation to exercise training. This remodeling, commonly referred to as 'athlete's heart', can overlap with several pathological entities, in which sudden cardiac death may be the first clinical presentation. Although pre-competitive screening can identify athletes with life-threatening cardiovascular abnormalities, there are no widely used standardized pre-participation programs and those currently implemented are controversial. Data from personal and family history, features of physical examination and changes in the 12-lead electrocardiogram can raise the suspicion of cardiac disease and lead to early detection of entities such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, interpreting the electrocardiogram is often challenging, because some changes are considered physiological in athletes. Thus, clinical decision-making in such cases can prove difficult: missing a condition associated with an increased risk of life-threatening events, or conversely, mislabeling an athlete with a disease that leads to unnecessary disqualification, are both situations to avoid. This paper provides an up-to-date review of the physiological cardiac effects of exercise training and highlights key points that should be taken into consideration in the assessment of young competitive athletes.

  13. Approaching system equilibrium with accurate or not accurate feedback information in a two-route system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-mei; Xie, Dong-fan; Li, Qi

    2015-02-01

    With the development of intelligent transport system, advanced information feedback strategies have been developed to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the capacity. However, previous strategies provide accurate information to travelers and our simulation results show that accurate information brings negative effects, especially in delay case. Because travelers prefer to the best condition route with accurate information, and delayed information cannot reflect current traffic condition but past. Then travelers make wrong routing decisions, causing the decrease of the capacity and the increase of oscillations and the system deviating from the equilibrium. To avoid the negative effect, bounded rationality is taken into account by introducing a boundedly rational threshold BR. When difference between two routes is less than the BR, routes have equal probability to be chosen. The bounded rationality is helpful to improve the efficiency in terms of capacity, oscillation and the gap deviating from the system equilibrium.

  14. L-Carnitine moiety assay: an up-to-date reappraisal covering the commonest methods for various applications.

    PubMed

    Marzo, A; Curti, S

    1997-11-21

    L-Carnitine and its esters are typical endogenous substances. Their homeostatic equilibria are effectively controlled by various mechanisms which include rate-limiting enteral absorption, a multicomponent endogenous pool which is regulated according to a mammillary metabolism, an asymmetric body distribution and a saturable tubular reabsorption process leading to renal thresholds. In formal pharmacokinetic and metabolic investigations, the whole L-carnitine pool should be investigated, owing to the rapid interchange process between the various components of the pool. Free L-carnitine, as well as its acyl esters, must therefore be considered from an analytical viewpoint. L-Carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine and total L-carnitine (the latter as an expression of the whole pool) can easily be assayed by enzyme or radioenzyme methods. Propionyl-L-carnitine and other esters containing fatty acids with more than three carbon atoms can be assayed using various HPLC approaches. Tandem mass spectrometry is another excellent approach to the assay of carnitine and its short-chain, medium-chain and long-chain esters. As L-carnitine contains a chiral carbon atom, the enantioselectivity of the assays is also considered in this review. Metabolites produced by enteral bacteria, namely tri-, di- and mono-methylamine, gamma-butyrobetaine, along with other systemic metabolites, namely trimethylamine N-oxide and N-nitroso dimethylamine, are very important in quantitative and toxicokinetic terms and require specific assay methods. This review covers the commonest methods of assaying carnitine and its esters, their impurities and pre-systemic and systemic metabolites and gives analytical details and information on their applications in pharmaceutics, biochemistry, pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics.

  15. [Heart failure - up to date].

    PubMed

    Müller-Edenborn, Björn; Eriksson, Urs

    2013-08-21

    Heart failure is a common disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality as well as increasing socio-economic costs. General practitioners take care of most of the affected patients. Knowledge on pathophysiology and modern treatment concepts are decisive for rational decision making. Patient management focuses on longer survival and higher quality of life. Major goals include reductions in unnecessary hospital admissions as well as appropriate and timely involvement of heart failure specialists.

  16. [Amyloidosis: Up-to-date].

    PubMed

    Magy-Bertrand, N

    2016-08-01

    Amyloidosis is mainly a systemic disease belonging to protein-folding diseases. The past 10 years have shown significant progress in typing and the clinical management of amyloidosis, in the identification of novel prognostic markers for risk-stratification, and also in the development of new therapeutic agents. Biological molecular techniques are now able to type amyloidosis which were unidentified. Cardiac MRI and biomarkers allow a precise risk-stratification, especially in AL amyloidosis. If necessary, this prognostic evaluation may lead to rapid changes in the chemotherapy treatment. Emerging treatments rely on biotherapies, gene therapy, immunotherapy and blocking analogous agents. They give hope about an increase of survival of patients with systemic amyloidosis.

  17. Ultra-accurate collaborative information filtering via directed user similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q.; Song, W.-J.; Liu, J.-G.

    2014-07-01

    A key challenge of the collaborative filtering (CF) information filtering is how to obtain the reliable and accurate results with the help of peers' recommendation. Since the similarities from small-degree users to large-degree users would be larger than the ones in opposite direction, the large-degree users' selections are recommended extensively by the traditional second-order CF algorithms. By considering the users' similarity direction and the second-order correlations to depress the influence of mainstream preferences, we present the directed second-order CF (HDCF) algorithm specifically to address the challenge of accuracy and diversity of the CF algorithm. The numerical results for two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix, show that the accuracy of the new algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art CF algorithms. Comparing with the CF algorithm based on random walks proposed by Liu et al. (Int. J. Mod. Phys. C, 20 (2009) 285) the average ranking score could reach 0.0767 and 0.0402, which is enhanced by 27.3% and 19.1% for MovieLens and Netflix, respectively. In addition, the diversity, precision and recall are also enhanced greatly. Without relying on any context-specific information, tuning the similarity direction of CF algorithms could obtain accurate and diverse recommendations. This work suggests that the user similarity direction is an important factor to improve the personalized recommendation performance.

  18. An up-to-date GNSS velocity field of the Upper Rhine Graben: an active seismic region without observed present deformations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Frédéric; Henrion, Eric; Ulrich, Patrice

    2016-04-01

    The Rhine Graben is the central, most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system (ECRIS) of Oligocene age, which extends from the North Sea through Germany and France to the Mediterranean coast over a distance of some 1000 km. Within GURN the focus will be on the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). The URG is a 300 km long and 40 km wide SSW-NNE trending rift, extending from Basel (Switzerland) to Frankfurt (Germany). It is limited to the west by the Vosges mountains and to the east by the Black Forest. The graben is bounded to the north by the uplifted area of the Rhenish Massif. To the south, the Leymen, Ferrette and Vendlincourt folds represent the northern-most structural front of the Jura fold and thrust belt. In this study, we will present an up-to-date GNSS velocity field of the area based on a network of about 70 stations older than 5 years and ranging up to 12 years. The processing of the final velocity field go through some of corrections due to the use of a permanent GNSS network. An antenna switch generally induce a jump in the data which we have to correct. We also have to correct the outliers in the time series. The last step is to analyze the quality of the series based on the support and environment of the site, if the series is too biased by a flicker noise, we decide to reject it. The results seem to clearly indicate the lack of consistent horizontal velocities (on average 0.38mm/yr) in the URG, which could be not true fort vertical velocities.

  19. Treatment-related fatigue with sorafenib, sunitinib and pazopanib in patients with advanced solid tumors: an up-to-date review and meta-analysis of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Matteo; Conti, Alessandro; Massari, Francesco; Arnaldi, Giorgio; Iacovelli, Roberto; Rizzo, Mimma; De Giorgi, Ugo; Trementino, Laura; Procopio, Giuseppe; Tortora, Giampaolo; Cascinu, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is the most common symptom associated with cancer and cancer treatment. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis to determine the incidence and relative risk (RR) of fatigue in patients (pts) with cancer treated with sorafenib (SO), sunitinib (SU) and pazopanib (PZ). PubMed databases were searched for articles published till August 2013. Eligible studies were selected according to PRISMA statement. Summary incidence, RR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-effects or fixed-effects models based on the heterogeneity of selected studies. Fifteen studies were included in our analysis. A total of 6,996 pts was enrolled: 2,260 had renal cell carcinomas (RCC), 1,691 non-small cell lung cancers, 1,290 breast cancers, 823 hepatocellular carcinomas, 362 soft tissue sarcomas, 304 gastrointestinal solid tumors, 165 neuroendocrine tumors and 101 melanomas. When stratified by drug, SO registered lower incidence and RR of all and high-grade fatigue when compared to SU, whereas the difference between SO and PZ was significant only for all-grade fatigue (p < 0.001). The difference between SU and PZ was significant for high-grade (p < 0.001) but not for all-grade fatigue (p = 0.52). In RCC pts, PZ showed the lower incidence and RR of all and high-grade fatigue. The differences were significant for SU vs. SO (p < 0.001), SU vs. PZ (p < 0.001) and SO vs. PZ (p < 0.001). Treatment with SO, SU and PZ is associated with an increased incidence of fatigue in pts with cancer. Early and appropriate management is required to avoid unnecessary dose reductions and transitory or definitive treatment discontinuations.

  20. A new accurate pill recognition system using imprint information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Kamata, Sei-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Great achievements in modern medicine benefit human beings. Also, it has brought about an explosive growth of pharmaceuticals that current in the market. In daily life, pharmaceuticals sometimes confuse people when they are found unlabeled. In this paper, we propose an automatic pill recognition technique to solve this problem. It functions mainly based on the imprint feature of the pills, which is extracted by proposed MSWT (modified stroke width transform) and described by WSC (weighted shape context). Experiments show that our proposed pill recognition method can reach an accurate rate up to 92.03% within top 5 ranks when trying to classify more than 10 thousand query pill images into around 2000 categories.

  1. Building accurate geometric models from abundant range imaging information

    SciTech Connect

    Diegert, C.; Sackos, J.; Nellums, R.

    1997-05-01

    The authors define two simple metrics for accuracy of models built from range imaging information. They apply the metric to a model built from a recent range image taken at the Laser Radar Development and Evaluation Facility (LDERF), Eglin AFB, using a Scannerless Range Imager (SRI) from Sandia National Laboratories. They also present graphical displays of the residual information produced as a byproduct of this measurement, and discuss mechanisms that these data suggest for further improvement in the performance of this already impressive SRI.

  2. The Good, the Strong, and the Accurate: Preschoolers' Evaluations of Informant Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaro, Maria; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Much recent evidence shows that preschoolers are sensitive to the accuracy of an informant. Faced with two informants, one of whom names familiar objects accurately and the other inaccurately, preschoolers subsequently prefer to learn the names and functions of unfamiliar objects from the more accurate informant. This study examined the inference…

  3. A Compendium of Up-to-Date Research on Topics Ranging from Software to Program Evaluation. NADE Research Report, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Curtis; And Others

    This collection of essays focuses on various aspects of research and instruction related to developmental education. The collection includes: (1) "Evaluating Instructional Software for Developmental Education," by Curtis Miles, which includes information on types of microcomputer software, developmental student characteristics, microcomputer…

  4. Human factors involved in perception and action in a natural stereoscopic world: an up-to-date review with guidelines for stereoscopic displays and stereoscopic virtual reality (VR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Bayas, Luis

    2001-06-01

    In stereoscopic perception of a three-dimensional world, binocular disparity might be thought of as the most important cue to 3D depth perception. Nevertheless, in reality there are many other factors involved before the 'final' conscious and subconscious stereoscopic perception, such as luminance, contrast, orientation, color, motion, and figure-ground extraction (pop-out phenomenon). In addition, more complex perceptual factors exist, such as attention and its duration (an equivalent of 'brain zooming') in relation to physiological central vision, In opposition to attention to peripheral vision and the brain 'top-down' information in relation to psychological factors like memory of previous experiences and present emotions. The brain's internal mapping of a pure perceptual world might be different from the internal mapping of a visual-motor space, which represents an 'action-directed perceptual world.' In addition, psychological factors (emotions and fine adjustments) are much more involved in a stereoscopic world than in a flat 2D-world, as well as in a world using peripheral vision (like VR, using a curved perspective representation, and displays, as natural vision does) as opposed to presenting only central vision (bi-macular stereoscopic vision) as in the majority of typical stereoscopic displays. Here is presented the most recent and precise information available about the psycho-neuro- physiological factors involved in the perception of stereoscopic three-dimensional world, with an attempt to give practical, functional, and pertinent guidelines for building more 'natural' stereoscopic displays.

  5. OneGeology - The most appropriate model to achieve access to up-to-date geoscience data using a distributed data system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komac, Marko; Duffy, Tim; Robida, Francois; Harrison, Matt; Allison, Lee

    2015-04-01

    OneGeology is an initiative of Geological Survey Organisations (GSO) around the globe that dates back to Brighton, UK in 2007. Since then OneGeology has been a leader in developing geological online map data using a new international standard - a geological exchange language known as the 'GeoSciML' (currently version 3.2 exists, which enables instant interoperability of the data). Increased use of this new language allows geological data to be shared and integrated across the planet with other organisations. One of very important goals of OneGeology was a transfer of valuable know-how to the developing world, hence shortening the digital learning curve. In autumn 2013 OneGeology was transformed into a Consortium with a clearly defined governance structure, making its structure more official, its operability more flexible and its membership more open where in addition to GSO also to other type of organisations that manage geoscience data can join and contribute. The next stage of the OneGeology initiative will hence be focused into increasing the openness and richness of that data from individual countries to create a multi-thematic global geological data resource on the rocks beneath our feet. Authoritative information on hazards and minerals will help to prevent natural disasters, explore for resources (water, minerals and energy) and identify risks to human health on a planetary scale. With this new stage also renewed OneGeology objectives were defined and these are 1) to be the provider of geosciences data globally, 2) to ensure exchange of know-how and skills so all can participate, and 3) to use the global profile of 1G to increase awareness of the geosciences and their relevance among professional and general public. We live in a digital world that enables prompt access to vast amounts of open access data. Understanding our world, the geology beneath our feet and environmental challenges related to geology calls for accessibility of geoscience data and One

  6. Wisconsin Occupational Information System. Annual Progress Report. July 14, 1976-July 13, 1977. Second Year of Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Roger H.; And Others

    The 1977 activities and progress of the Wisconsin Occupational Information System (WOIS) are described in this second annual report. An introduction presents an overview of WOIS, including a description of the computerized system, which is designed to provide quick, accurate, up-to-date occupational information for career decision making to a…

  7. [Abdominal bloating: an up-to-date].

    PubMed

    Ducrotté, P

    2009-10-01

    Bloating is a common symptom, especially in women. In the clinical practice, it remains a therapeutic challenge. Since recently, its pathophysiology is better understood: an impaired transit of gas (particularly in the small bowel) or a visceral hypersensitivity leading to the induction of an abdominal discomfort despite a normal volume of gas are two of the main causes, far more frequent than an excessive production of gas. Moreover, bloating can be related to abnormal viscera-somatic reflexes promoting both an abdomino-phrenic dyssynergia and the relaxation of the muscles of the abdominal wall. From a therapeutic point of view, the efficacy of the gas absorbants remains to be more documented. Besides the treatment of a constipation and the avoidance of nutrients either highly fermentable or rich in fructose, other therapeutic options include prokinetics and drugs acting on visceral sensitivity. Probiotics are another promising option. In some centers, a non pharmacological therapeutic approach, mainly based on hypnosis, is discussed.

  8. [Hereditary spastic paraplegia: up to date].

    PubMed

    Takiyama, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders that are clinically characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs. HSP genetic loci are designated SPG1-72 in order of their discovery. In 206 Japanese families with autosomal dominant HSP, SPG4 was the most common form, accounting for 38%, followed by SPG3A (5%), SPG31 (5%), SPG10 (2%), and SPG8 (1%). We have identified novel mutations in the C12orf65 gene and the LYST gene in several Japanese families with autosomal recessive HSP. JASPAC will facilitate gene discovery and mechanistic understanding of HSP. The future challenge will be the establishment of treatment of HSP.

  9. Congenital scoliosis: an up-to-date

    PubMed Central

    Burnei, G; Gavriliu, S; Vlad, C; Georgescu, I; Ghita, RA; Dughilă, C; Japie, EM; Onilă, A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital scoliosis represents a spinal malformation due to defects of formation, segmentation or mixed ones. It is characterized by a longitudinal and rotational imbalance. 54 patients were analyzed and 39 out of them were operated by various approaches with anterior and posterior instrumentations during 2000 and 2012. The impossibility to appoint some patients encountered in the daily practice into the known classifications, allowed us to purpose two categories of congenital scoliosis related to the predominance of spinal deviances in the coronal and transversal views. No certain etiology of congenital scoliosis has been identified until today. The susceptibility of some polygenic defects is obvious due to the presence of a sum of defects associated to most of the congenital scoliosis cases and the rarity of the presence of a unique defect. The diagnosis requires a thorough clinical and imaging examination in order to establish an individualized therapeutic strategy. The treatment of congenital scoliosis is different from the adolescent idiopathic one. Therapeutic criteria are significantly different. It is essential to assess the difference in growth of the concavity related to the convexity when choosing a particular procedure. The magnitude of the curve and the progressive rate are fundamental issues to the surgeon PMID:26351546

  10. [Lupus nephritis: up-to-date].

    PubMed

    Karras, A

    2015-02-01

    Renal involvement is frequent during natural history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and has a major prognostic value in this systemic disease. Screening for renal symptoms, such as proteinuria, micro-haematuria or renal failure must be performed at initial diagnosis and repeated during subsequent follow-ups. Any significant abnormality of these parameters may reveal active glomerulonephritis (GN) and should lead to a renal biopsy, which will significantly impact the therapeutic choices. Proliferative GN, defined as class III or IV by the actual histo-pathological classification, is the most severe form of SLE-associated nephropathy and can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in up to 60% of cases, according to ethnicity and follow-up duration. Standard induction treatment of active proliferative GN includes corticosteroids combined with an immunosuppressive drug, which can either be cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Even though, recent biotherapies have not yet proved their efficacy in the field of lupus nephritis, new protocols are expected, aiming higher remission rates and avoidance of high-dose corticosteroids regimens. When remission is achieved in proliferative GN, a maintenance therapy is required to decrease the risk of relapse, using either azathioprine or MMF. Immunosuppressive drugs are responsible for an increased risk of infectious or neoplastic complications but cardiovascular disease is actually one of the main causes of mortality among lupus patients, especially for patients with SLE-related kidney disease, well before reaching ESRD.

  11. Hypertension up to date: SPRINT to SPYRAL.

    PubMed

    Kulenthiran, Saarraaken; Ewen, Sebastian; Böhm, Michael; Mahfoud, Felix

    2017-03-22

    Hypertension is the most common chronic cardiovascular condition with increasing prevalence all over the world. Treatment of patients at risk requires a multimodal therapeutic concept to adjust blood pressure, including systematic identification of secondary causes of hypertension or pseudo-resistance, lifestyle modification, polypharmacy, and as well as accompanying risk factors and comorbidities. The present review discusses recent studies on patients with increased cardiovascular risk potentially influencing future treatment strategies. It covers blood pressure targets in patients at risk (SPRINT), novel treatment options such as angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors, discusses the treatment of patients with impaired glucose tolerance, and appreciates novelties in controlling therapy-resistant hypertension by fourth-line pharmacotherapies (PATHWAY), as well as new interventional approaches.

  12. Gastrointestinal stem cell up-to-date.

    PubMed

    Pirvulet, V

    2015-01-01

    Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract depends on stem cells with properties of self-renewal, clonogenicity, and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential gastric, intestinal, colonic stem cells new markers and the signaling pathways provide hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. This review provides an overview of the different types of stem cells, focusing on tissue-restricted adult stem cells.

  13. 77 FR 71599 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... accurate counts of duals on a current basis. Form Number: CMS-10143 (OCN 0938-0958). Frequency: Monthly... corresponding PRA package to offer CMS and state partners robust, up- to-date, and current information to be... enrollment history, services received, appropriateness of services received based on enrollment status...

  14. Single-sideband modulator accurately reproduces phase information in 2-Mc signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strenglein, H. F.

    1966-01-01

    Phase-locked oscillator system employing solid state components acts as a single-sideband modulator to accurately reproduce phase information in 2-Mc signals. This system is useful in telemetry, aircraft communications and position-finding stations, and VHF test circuitry.

  15. Higher Education in France: A Handbook of Information Concerning Fields of Study in Each Institution. Bulletin, 1952, No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Edith

    1952-01-01

    Advising students who wish to study in other countries is often difficult because accurate, up-to-date, and detailed information about the offerings in their higher institutions is frequently unavailable. A student wishing to study in a given country needs to know what the several institutions offer not only in his own subject area but also in…

  16. Accurate protein structure modeling using sparse NMR data and homologous structure information.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James M; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G; Liu, Gaohua; Rossi, Paolo; Tang, Yuefeng; Mills, Jeffrey L; Szyperski, Thomas; Montelione, Gaetano T; Baker, David

    2012-06-19

    While information from homologous structures plays a central role in X-ray structure determination by molecular replacement, such information is rarely used in NMR structure determination because it can be incorrect, both locally and globally, when evolutionary relationships are inferred incorrectly or there has been considerable evolutionary structural divergence. Here we describe a method that allows robust modeling of protein structures of up to 225 residues by combining (1)H(N), (13)C, and (15)N backbone and (13)Cβ chemical shift data, distance restraints derived from homologous structures, and a physically realistic all-atom energy function. Accurate models are distinguished from inaccurate models generated using incorrect sequence alignments by requiring that (i) the all-atom energies of models generated using the restraints are lower than models generated in unrestrained calculations and (ii) the low-energy structures converge to within 2.0 Å backbone rmsd over 75% of the protein. Benchmark calculations on known structures and blind targets show that the method can accurately model protein structures, even with very remote homology information, to a backbone rmsd of 1.2-1.9 Å relative to the conventional determined NMR ensembles and of 0.9-1.6 Å relative to X-ray structures for well-defined regions of the protein structures. This approach facilitates the accurate modeling of protein structures using backbone chemical shift data without need for side-chain resonance assignments and extensive analysis of NOESY cross-peak assignments.

  17. Cas9-chromatin binding information enables more accurate CRISPR off-target prediction

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ritambhara; Kuscu, Cem; Quinlan, Aaron; Qi, Yanjun; Adli, Mazhar

    2015-01-01

    The CRISPR system has become a powerful biological tool with a wide range of applications. However, improving targeting specificity and accurately predicting potential off-targets remains a significant goal. Here, we introduce a web-based CRISPR/Cas9 Off-target Prediction and Identification Tool (CROP-IT) that performs improved off-target binding and cleavage site predictions. Unlike existing prediction programs that solely use DNA sequence information; CROP-IT integrates whole genome level biological information from existing Cas9 binding and cleavage data sets. Utilizing whole-genome chromatin state information from 125 human cell types further enhances its computational prediction power. Comparative analyses on experimentally validated datasets show that CROP-IT outperforms existing computational algorithms in predicting both Cas9 binding as well as cleavage sites. With a user-friendly web-interface, CROP-IT outputs scored and ranked list of potential off-targets that enables improved guide RNA design and more accurate prediction of Cas9 binding or cleavage sites. PMID:26032770

  18. The utility of accurate mass and LC elution time information in the analysis of complex proteomes

    SciTech Connect

    Norbeck, Angela D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Daly, Don S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-08-01

    Theoretical tryptic digests of all predicted proteins from the genomes of three organisms of varying complexity were evaluated for specificity and possible utility of combined peptide accurate mass and predicted LC normalized elution time (NET) information. The uniqueness of each peptide was evaluated using its combined mass (+/- 5 ppm and 1 ppm) and NET value (no constraint, +/- 0.05 and 0.01 on a 0-1 NET scale). The set of peptides both underestimates actual biological complexity due to the lack of specific modifications, and overestimates the expected complexity since many proteins will not be present in the sample or observable on the mass spectrometer because of dynamic range limitations. Once a peptide is identified from an LCMS/MS experiment, its mass and elution time is representative of a unique fingerprint for that peptide. The uniqueness of that fingerprint in comparison to that for the other peptides present is indicative of the ability to confidently identify that peptide based on accurate mass and NET measurements. These measurements can be made using HPLC coupled with high resolution MS in a high-throughput manner. Results show that for organisms with comparatively small proteomes, such as Deinococcus radiodurans, modest mass and elution time accuracies are generally adequate for peptide identifications. For more complex proteomes, increasingly accurate easurements are required. However, the majority of proteins should be uniquely identifiable by using LC-MS with mass accuracies within +/- 1 ppm and elution time easurements within +/- 0.01 NET.

  19. The utility of accurate mass and LC elution time information in the analysis of complex proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Norbeck, Angela D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical tryptic digests of all predicted proteins from the genomes of three organisms of varying complexity were evaluated for specificity and possible utility of combined peptide accurate mass and predicted LC normalized elution time (NET) information. The uniqueness of each peptide was evaluated using its combined mass (+/− 5 ppm and 1 ppm) and NET value (no constraint, +/− 0.05 and 0.01 on a 0–1 NET scale). The set of peptides both underestimates actual biological complexity due to the lack of specific modifications, and overestimates the expected complexity since many proteins will not be present in the sample or observable on the mass spectrometer because of dynamic range limitations. Once a peptide is identified from an LC-MS/MS experiment, its mass and elution time is representative of a unique fingerprint for that peptide. The uniqueness of that fingerprint in comparison to that for the other peptides present is indicative of the ability to confidently identify that peptide based on accurate mass and NET measurements. These measurements can be made using HPLC coupled with high resolution MS in a high-throughput manner. Results show that for organisms with comparatively small proteomes, such as Deinococcus radiodurans, modest mass and elution time accuracies are generally adequate for peptide identifications. For more complex proteomes, increasingly accurate measurements are required. However, the majority of proteins should be uniquely identifiable by using LC-MS with mass accuracies within +/− 1 ppm and elution time measurements within +/− 0.01 NET. PMID:15979333

  20. Highly Accurate Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions via Incorporating Evolutionary Information and Physicochemical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng-Wei; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Gui, Jie; Nie, Ru

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) occur at almost all levels of cell functions and play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Thus, identification of PPIs is critical for deciphering the molecular mechanisms and further providing insight into biological processes. Although a variety of high-throughput experimental techniques have been developed to identify PPIs, existing PPI pairs by experimental approaches only cover a small fraction of the whole PPI networks, and further, those approaches hold inherent disadvantages, such as being time-consuming, expensive, and having high false positive rate. Therefore, it is urgent and imperative to develop automatic in silico approaches to predict PPIs efficiently and accurately. In this article, we propose a novel mixture of physicochemical and evolutionary-based feature extraction method for predicting PPIs using our newly developed discriminative vector machine (DVM) classifier. The improvements of the proposed method mainly consist in introducing an effective feature extraction method that can capture discriminative features from the evolutionary-based information and physicochemical characteristics, and then a powerful and robust DVM classifier is employed. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that DVM model is applied to the field of bioinformatics. When applying the proposed method to the Yeast and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) datasets, we obtain excellent prediction accuracies of 94.35% and 90.61%, respectively. The computational results indicate that our method is effective and robust for predicting PPIs, and can be taken as a useful supplementary tool to the traditional experimental methods for future proteomics research. PMID:27571061

  1. Accurate refinement of docked protein complexes using evolutionary information and deep learning.

    PubMed

    Akbal-Delibas, Bahar; Farhoodi, Roshanak; Pomplun, Marc; Haspel, Nurit

    2016-06-01

    One of the major challenges for protein docking methods is to accurately discriminate native-like structures from false positives. Docking methods are often inaccurate and the results have to be refined and re-ranked to obtain native-like complexes and remove outliers. In a previous work, we introduced AccuRefiner, a machine learning based tool for refining protein-protein complexes. Given a docked complex, the refinement tool produces a small set of refined versions of the input complex, with lower root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) of atomic positions with respect to the native structure. The method employs a unique ranking tool that accurately predicts the RMSD of docked complexes with respect to the native structure. In this work, we use a deep learning network with a similar set of features and five layers. We show that a properly trained deep learning network can accurately predict the RMSD of a docked complex with 1.40 Å error margin on average, by approximating the complex relationship between a wide set of scoring function terms and the RMSD of a docked structure. The network was trained on 35000 unbound docking complexes generated by RosettaDock. We tested our method on 25 different putative docked complexes produced also by RosettaDock for five proteins that were not included in the training data. The results demonstrate that the high accuracy of the ranking tool enables AccuRefiner to consistently choose the refinement candidates with lower RMSD values compared to the coarsely docked input structures.

  2. Effects of local information on group behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, S.; Arora, N.; Sen, S.

    1996-12-31

    Researchers in the field of Distributed Artificial Intelligence have studied the effects of local decision-making on overall system performance in both cooperative and self-interested agent groups. The performance of individual agents depends critically on the quality of information available to it about local and global goals and resources. Whereas in general it is assumed that the more accurate and up-to-date the available information, the better is the expected performance of the individual and the group, this conclusion can be challenged in a number of scenarios.

  3. Polyallelic structural variants can provide accurate, highly informative genetic markers focused on diagnosis and therapeutic targets: Accuracy vs. Precision.

    PubMed

    Roses, A D

    2016-02-01

    Structural variants (SVs) include all insertions, deletions, and rearrangements in the genome, with several common types of nucleotide repeats including single sequence repeats, short tandem repeats, and insertion-deletion length variants. Polyallelic SVs provide highly informative markers for association studies with well-phenotyped cohorts. SVs can influence gene regulation by affecting epigenetics, transcription, splicing, and/or translation. Accurate assays of polyallelic SV loci are required to define the range and allele frequency of variable length alleles.

  4. 16 CFR 1101.32 - Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable steps to assure information is... to the best of the submitter's knowledge and belief, provided that: (i) The confirmation is made by... physician; or (v) The confirmation is made by a parent or guardian of a child involved in an...

  5. 16 CFR 1101.32 - Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable steps to assure information is... to the best of the submitter's knowledge and belief, provided that: (i) The confirmation is made by... physician; or (v) The confirmation is made by a parent or guardian of a child involved in an...

  6. 16 CFR 1101.32 - Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reasonable steps to assure information is... to the best of the submitter's knowledge and belief, provided that: (i) The confirmation is made by... physician; or (v) The confirmation is made by a parent or guardian of a child involved in an...

  7. 16 CFR 1101.32 - Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reasonable steps to assure information is... to the best of the submitter's knowledge and belief, provided that: (i) The confirmation is made by... physician; or (v) The confirmation is made by a parent or guardian of a child involved in an...

  8. 16 CFR 1101.32 - Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reasonable steps to assure information is... to the best of the submitter's knowledge and belief, provided that: (i) The confirmation is made by... physician; or (v) The confirmation is made by a parent or guardian of a child involved in an...

  9. Exploratory Movement Generates Higher-Order Information That Is Sufficient for Accurate Perception of Scaled Egocentric Distance

    PubMed Central

    Mantel, Bruno; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Campbell, Alain; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2015-01-01

    Body movement influences the structure of multiple forms of ambient energy, including optics and gravito-inertial force. Some researchers have argued that egocentric distance is derived from inferential integration of visual and non-visual stimulation. We suggest that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in perceptual stimulation as higher-order patterns that extend across optics and inertia. We formalize a pattern that specifies the egocentric distance of a stationary object across higher-order relations between optics and inertia. This higher-order parameter is created by self-generated movement of the perceiver in inertial space relative to the illuminated environment. For this reason, we placed minimal restrictions on the exploratory movements of our participants. We asked whether humans can detect and use the information available in this higher-order pattern. Participants judged whether a virtual object was within reach. We manipulated relations between body movement and the ambient structure of optics and inertia. Judgments were precise and accurate when the higher-order optical-inertial parameter was available. When only optic flow was available, judgments were poor. Our results reveal that participants perceived egocentric distance from the higher-order, optical-inertial consequences of their own exploratory activity. Analysis of participants’ movement trajectories revealed that self-selected movements were complex, and tended to optimize availability of the optical-inertial pattern that specifies egocentric distance. We argue that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in higher-order patterns of ambient energy, that self-generated movement can generate these higher-order patterns, and that these patterns can be detected and used to support perception of egocentric distance that is precise and accurate. PMID:25856410

  10. Honey bees can perform accurately directed waggle dances based solely on information from a homeward trip.

    PubMed

    Edrich, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Honey bees were displaced several 100 m from their hive to an unfamiliar site and provisioned with honey. After feeding, almost two-thirds of the bees flew home to their hive within a 50 min observation time. About half of these returning, bees signalled the direction of the release site in waggle dances thus demonstrating that the dance can be guided entirely by information gathered on a single homeward trip. The likely reason for the bees' enthusiastic dancing on their initial return from this new site was the highly rewarding honeycomb that they were given there. The attractive nature of the site is confirmed by many of these bees revisiting the site and continuing to forage there.

  11. Accurately decoding visual information from fMRI data obtained in a realistic virtual environment

    PubMed Central

    Floren, Andrew; Naylor, Bruce; Miikkulainen, Risto; Ress, David

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional interactive virtual environments (VEs) are a powerful tool for brain-imaging based cognitive neuroscience that are presently under-utilized. This paper presents machine-learning based methods for identifying brain states induced by realistic VEs with improved accuracy as well as the capability for mapping their spatial topography on the neocortex. VEs provide the ability to study the brain under conditions closer to the environment in which humans evolved, and thus to probe deeper into the complexities of human cognition. As a test case, we designed a stimulus to reflect a military combat situation in the Middle East, motivated by the potential of using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Each subject experienced moving through the virtual town where they encountered 1–6 animated combatants at different locations, while fMRI data was collected. To analyze the data from what is, compared to most studies, more complex and less controlled stimuli, we employed statistical machine learning in the form of Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis (MVPA) with special attention given to artificial Neural Networks (NN). Extensions to NN that exploit the block structure of the stimulus were developed to improve the accuracy of the classification, achieving performances from 58 to 93% (chance was 16.7%) with six subjects. This demonstrates that MVPA can decode a complex cognitive state, viewing a number of characters, in a dynamic virtual environment. To better understand the source of this information in the brain, a novel form of sensitivity analysis was developed to use NN to quantify the degree to which each voxel contributed to classification. Compared with maps produced by general linear models and the searchlight approach, these sensitivity maps revealed a more diverse pattern of information relevant to the classification of cognitive state. PMID:26106315

  12. Review of up-to date digital cameras interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkemann, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    Over the past 15 years, various interfaces on digital industrial cameras have been available on the market. This tutorial will give an overview of interfaces such as LVDS (RS644), Channel Link and Camera Link. In addition, other interfaces such as FireWire, Gigabit Ethernet, and now USB 3.0 have become more popular. Owing to their ease of use, these interfaces cover most of the market. Nevertheless, for certain applications and especially for higher bandwidths, Camera Link and CoaXPress are very useful. This tutorial will give a description of the advantages and disadvantages, comment on bandwidths, and provide recommendations on when to use which interface.

  13. Spanish Navy Up to Date Data in DCS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    therapeutic measures. Final results are similar to another world navies diving centres Bibliography: 1.- Pujante, A.; Inoriza, J; Viqueira, A. Estudio de 121... casos de enfermedad descompresiva Medicina Clinica, vol . 94, n` 7, 1990 2.- Rivera, J.C. Decompression sickness among divers: An analysis of 935

  14. Keeping Teachers Up-to-Date in Ag Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruwelheide, Kenneth L.

    1977-01-01

    Describes one of Montana State University's Agricultural and Industrial Education Department teacher workshops for vocational agriculture teachers. The planning, organization, and evaluation of the workshop (which covered farm tractor maintenance) are briefly described. (SH)

  15. [Management of severe ulcerative colitis: An up-to-date].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Rocha, Cristian; Ibáñez, Patricio; Molina, María Elena; Klaassen, Julieta; Valenzuela, Andrea; Candia, Roberto; Bellolio, Felipe; Zúñiga, Álvaro; Miguieles, Rodrigo; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Chianale, José; Álvarez-Lobos, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the colon, with alternating periods of remission and activity. Exacerbations can be severe and associated with complications and mortality. Diagnosis of severe UC is based on clinical, biochemical and endoscopic variables. Patients with severe UC must be hospitalized. First line therapy is the use of intravenous corticoids which achieve clinical remission in most patients. However, 25% of patients will be refractory to corticoids, situation that should be evaluated at the third day of therapy. In patients without response, cytomegalovirus infection must be quickly ruled out to escalate to second line therapy with biological drugs or cyclosporine. Total colectomy must not be delayed if there is no response to second line therapy, if there is a contraindication for second line therapies or there are complications such as: megacolon, perforation or massive bleeding. An active management with quick escalation on therapy allows to decrease the prolonged exposure to corticoids, reduce colectomy rates and its perioperative complications.

  16. Colleges Struggle to Keep "Smart" Classrooms up to Date

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debolt, David

    2008-01-01

    Colleges have been building so-called smart classrooms for years, equipping them with computerized projectors, digital whiteboards, and other tools. Now some of those once-high-tech rooms are starting to show their age at many colleges. At the Auraria Higher Education Center, a facility used by three colleges in Denver, a group of high-school…

  17. Pneumothorax: an up to date “introduction”

    PubMed Central

    Papagiannis, Antonios; Lazaridis, George; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Lampaki, Sofia; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    The pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air or gas in the pleural space that separates the lung from the chest wall. Like pleural effusion where a large abnormal concentration of fluid (>100 mL) is liquid buildup in that space, pneumothorax may interfere with normal breathing. A medical term that it is used is the collapsed lung, although that term may also refer to atelectasis. There are two major types of pneumothorax; there is one that occurs without an apparent cause and in the absence of significant lung disease, while the so called; “secondary” pneumothorax occurs in the presence of existing lung pathology. In a minority of cases, the amount of air in the chest increases markedly when a one-way valve is formed by an area of damaged tissue, leading to a third type of pneumothorax, called “tensioned”. PMID:25861608

  18. Bringing the cross-correlation method up to date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statler, Thomas

    1995-03-01

    The cross-correlation (XC) method of Tonry & Davis (1979, AJ, 84, 1511) is generalized to arbitrary parametrized line profiles. In the new algorithm the correlation function itself, rather than the observed galaxy spectrum, is fitted by the model line profile: this removes much of the complication in the error analysis caused by template mismatch. Like the Fourier correlation quotient (FCQ) method of Bender (1990, A&A, 229, 441), the inferred line profiles are, up to a normalization constant, independent of template mismatch as long as there are no blended lines. The standard reduced chi2 is a good measure of the fit of the inferred velocity distribution, largely decoupled from the fit of the spectral template. The updated XC method performs as well as other recently developed methods, with the added virtue of conceptual simplicity.

  19. Up-to-date status of food irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    1993-07-01

    The last decade has witnessed significant advancement of the acceptance of food irradiation processing. At present 37 countries have approved one or more food items for human consumption and 25 countries have commercialized this process. More developing countries are showing keen interest to introduce irradiation processing in order to reduce post-harvest food losses, to increase export potentials and to ensure safety of food to their people. Although progress towards acceptance of food irradiation by the industry is slow, actual market trials have shown that once consumers have understood this technology, they are willing to buy irradiated foods. This paper deals with the latest developments in the field of food irradiation with particular reference to legislation, consumer acceptance, commercialization and potential application in developing countries. This paper also deals with the role played by the International Organizations, aimed at facilitating the acceptance of food irradiation.

  20. [Optic Disk Drusen: Historical and Up-To-Date Aspects].

    PubMed

    Nentwich, M M; Maertz, J; Rudolph, G

    2016-03-01

    Optic disc drusen are an important differential diagnosis in the diagnostic evaluation of a prominent optic nerve head. Drusen of the optic disc occur in 0.34 to 2.4 % of human individuals and manifest themselves bilaterally in three of four cases. Drusen are found six times more often within histological sections than on funduscopic examination. It is known that optic disc drusen can occur in familial clusters without any other pathological ophthalmic findings. They can also be associated with retinitis pigmentosa, or with the Joubert or Alagille syndromes. Non-invasive diagnostic tools include fundus-autofluorescence (AF), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ultrasound. Drusen of the optic nerve head are asymptomatic in most cases, though transient ischemia can lead to transient visual impairment. In particular, superficial drusen can lead to profound visual field defects in adulthood. Regular ophthalmological follow-up examinations with tonometry and perimetry are recommended for the early detection of visual field defects. Radial optic neurotomy (RON) seems to be a therapeutic option in patients with acute deterioration of the visual field.

  1. Acute liver failure: An up-to-date approach.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Filipe S; Marcelino, Paulo; Bagulho, Luís; Karvellas, Constantine J

    2017-01-19

    Acute liver failure is a rare but potentially devastating disease. Throughout the last few decades, acute liver failure outcomes have been improving in the context of the optimized overall management. This positive trend has been associated with the earlier recognition of this condition, the improvement of the intensive care unit management, and the developments in emergent liver transplantation. Accordingly, we aimed to review the current diagnostic and therapeutic approach to this syndrome, especially in the intensive care unit setting.

  2. [Infections in cystic fibrosis: Up-to-date].

    PubMed

    Marguet, C; Lémée, L; Morisse-Pradier, H; Couderc, L

    2016-12-01

    This review focused on the news in CF airways infection. International guidelines were provided for the care of non tuberculous mycobacteria, and recent studies stressed on the benefit effect of azithromycin or combined antibiotics. The identification of multiresistant environmental bacteria in airways made to account for little-known consequences. Early diagnosis and eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus methi-R were still a concern, and reports were proposed. However, the studies on staphylococcus methi-R should be interpreted as regards the European or American continent. Thus, levofloxacine has demonstrated its efficacy without enhancing the efficiency. This drug will increase the choice for treating the patient, but no study were provided on the expected modification of the patient microbiota and the known risk of emergent resistance to antibiotics. Lastly, this review underlined that the CF practitioner was encouraged to search and not underestimate the presence of fungus, of which the not so well studied Aspergillus fumigatus.

  3. Neurotoxicity induced by mephedrone: An up-to-date review.

    PubMed

    Pantano, Flaminia; Tittarelli, Roberta; Mannocchi, Giulio; Pacifici, Roberta; di Luca, Alessandro; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Marinelli, Enrico

    2016-11-30

    Mephedrone is a β-ketoamphetamine belonging to the family of synthetic cathinones, an emerging class of designer drugs known for their hallucinogenic and psychostimulant properties as well as for their abuse potential. The aim of this review was to examine the emerging scientific literature on the possible mephedrone-induced neurotoxicity, yet not well defined due to the limited number of experimental studies, mainly carried on animal models. Relevant scientific articles were identified from international literature databases (Medline, Scopus, etc.) using the keywords: "Mephedrone", "4-MMC," "neurotoxicity," "neuropharmacology", "patents", "monoamine transporters" and "neurochemical effects". Of the 498 sources initially found, only 36 papers were suitable for the review. Neurotoxic effect of mephedrone on 5-HT and DA systems remains controversial. Although some studies in animal models reported no damage to DA nerve endings in the striatum and no significant changes in brain monoamine levels, some others suggested a rapid reduction in 5-HT and DA transporter function. Persistent serotonergic deficits were observed after binge like treatment in a warm environment and in both serotonergic and dopaminergic nerve endings at high ambient temperature. Oxidative stress cytotoxicity and an increase in frontal cortex lipid peroxidation were also reported. In vitro cytotoxic properties were also observed, suggesting that mephedrone may act as a reductant agent and can also determine changes in mitochondrial respiration. However, due to the differences in the design of the experiments, including temperature and animal model used, the results are difficult to compare. Further studies on toxicology and pharmacology of mephedrone are therefore necessary to establish an appropriate treatment for substance abuse and eventual consequences for public health.

  4. Medical management of urinary calculi: up to date 2016.

    PubMed

    Marangella, Martino

    2016-09-26

    Nephrolithiasis (NL) is one of the most prevalent nontransmissible diseases in western countries. It is being associated with other frequent diseases, including osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, through a putative common link with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance or altered mineral metabolism. This review will focus on classification, physicochemical basis, risk factors, laboratory and imaging investigations, medical management.Classification as to stone composition includes calcium, uric acid (UA), cystine (Cys), infected, 2-8 dihydroxyadenine and rare NL. According to pathophysiology, NL is classified as primary, secondary to systemic diseases or drugs, caused by renal or metabolic hereditary disorders.A stone can only form in supersaturated environment, and this is sufficient in UA, Cys and infected NL, but not in Ca-NL, which results from the imbalance between supersaturation and inhibition. All types are characterized by derangements of peculiar risk factors. Laboratory investigations aim at identifying type of NL, underlying risk factors and state of saturation, and pathophysiology. This justifies a rationale therapy able to dissolve some types of stones and/or produce reduction in recurrence rate in others.Medical management includes alkali and allopurinol for UA nephrolithiasis (UA-NL), thiols and alkali in Cys-NL, dietary and pharmacological intervention for Ca-NL. Thiazides and alkaline citrate salts are the most widely used drugs in Ca-NL, where they proved efficient to prevent new stones. Other drugs have only been used in particular subsets.Proper medical management and modern urological approaches have already notably improved clinical outcomes. Future studies will further clarify mechanisms of NL with expected new and targeted therapeutic options.

  5. Bringing the cross-correlation method up to date

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The cross-correlation (XC) method of Tonry & Davis (1979, AJ, 84, 1511) is generalized to arbitrary parametrized line profiles. In the new algorithm the correlation function itself, rather than the observed galaxy spectrum, is fitted by the model line profile: this removes much of the complication in the error analysis caused by template mismatch. Like the Fourier correlation quotient (FCQ) method of Bender (1990, A&A, 229, 441), the inferred line profiles are, up to a normalization constant, independent of template mismatch as long as there are no blended lines. The standard reduced chi(exp 2) is a good measure of the fit of the inferred velocity distribution, largely decoupled from the fit of the spectral template. The updated XC method performs as well as other recently developed methods, with the added virtue of conceptual simplicity.

  6. Chronic subdural hematoma - an up-to-date concept.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoji; Ohno, Kikuo

    2013-06-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is prevalent among elderly populations worldwide, and its mysterious pathogenesis has been discussed in the literature for decades. The issues remaining to be solved in regard to CSDH include the initiating events; the bleeding into the subdural space and the formation of the outer and inner membranes, its development; increase and liquefaction of hematoma, the optimal treatments, and the natural history. The pathophysiology is becoming more clear due to recent findings from computed tomography studies and human models of CSDH. In this work, we review previous studies on CSDH and present a new integrated concept about the development of this common condition after head injuries.

  7. Preferential access to genetic information from endogenous hominin ancient DNA and accurate quantitative SNP-typing via SPEX

    PubMed Central

    Brotherton, Paul; Sanchez, Juan J.; Cooper, Alan; Endicott, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of targeted genetic loci from ancient, forensic and clinical samples is usually built upon polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated sequence data. However, many studies have shown that PCR amplification from poor-quality DNA templates can create sequence artefacts at significant levels. With hominin (human and other hominid) samples, the pervasive presence of highly PCR-amplifiable human DNA contaminants in the vast majority of samples can lead to the creation of recombinant hybrids and other non-authentic artefacts. The resulting PCR-generated sequences can then be difficult, if not impossible, to authenticate. In contrast, single primer extension (SPEX)-based approaches can genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms from ancient fragments of DNA as accurately as modern DNA. A single SPEX-type assay can amplify just one of the duplex DNA strands at target loci and generate a multi-fold depth-of-coverage, with non-authentic recombinant hybrids reduced to undetectable levels. Crucially, SPEX-type approaches can preferentially access genetic information from damaged and degraded endogenous ancient DNA templates over modern human DNA contaminants. The development of SPEX-type assays offers the potential for highly accurate, quantitative genotyping from ancient hominin samples. PMID:19864251

  8. Providing accurate near real-time fire alerts for Protected Areas through NASA FIRMS: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Wong, M.; Murphy, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) is at the forefront of providing global near real-time (NRT) MODIS thermal anomalies / hotspot location data to end-users . FIRMS serves the data via an interactive Web GIS named Web Fire Mapper, downloads of NRT active fire, archive data downloads for MODIS hotspots dating back to 1999 and a hotspot email alert system The FIRMS Email Alerts system has been successfully alerting users of fires in their area of interest in near real-time and/or via daily and weekly email summaries, with an option to receive MODIS hotspot data as a text file (CSV) attachment. Currently, there are more than 7000 email alert subscriptions from more than 100 countries. Specifically, the email alerts system is designed to generate and send an email alert for any region or area on the globe, with a special focus on providing alerts for protected areas worldwide. For many protected areas, email alerts are particularly useful for early fire detection, monitoring on going fires, as well as allocating resources to protect wildlife and natural resources of particular value. For protected areas, FIRMS uses the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) supplied by United Nations Environment Program - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). Maintaining the most up-to-date, accurate boundary geometry for the protected areas for the email alerts is a challenge as the WDPA is continuously updated due to changing boundaries, merging or delisting of certain protected areas. Because of this dynamic nature of the protected areas database, the FIRMS protected areas database is frequently out-of-date with the most current version of WDPA database. To maintain the most up-to-date boundary information for protected areas and to be in compliance with the WDPA terms and conditions, FIRMS needs to constantly update its database of protected areas. Currently, FIRMS strives to keep its database up to date by downloading the most recent

  9. 75 FR 33805 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... may warrant. Given that state and local governments now account for about 12 percent of total Gross Domestic Product, it may be important at times to survey these governments for up-to-date information...

  10. Evaluating Health Information

    MedlinePlus

    Millions of consumers get health information from magazines, TV or the Internet. Some of the information is reliable and up to date; some is not. ... a branch of the government, a university, a health organization, a hospital or a business? Focus on ...

  11. Finding Good Health Information on the Internet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... MedlinePlus Advantage Finding Good Health Information on the Internet Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Millions ... get health information from magazines, TV, or the Internet. Some is reliable and up to date, some ...

  12. The role of cognitive switching in head-up displays. [to determine pilot ability to accurately extract information from either of two sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, E.

    1979-01-01

    The pilot's ability to accurately extract information from either one or both of two superimposed sources of information was determined. Static, aerial, color 35 mm slides of external runway environments and slides of corresponding static head-up display (HUD) symbology were used as the sources. A three channel tachistoscope was utilized to show either the HUD alone, the scene alone, or the two slides superimposed. Cognitive performance of the pilots was assessed by determining the percentage of correct answers given to two HUD related questions, two scene related questions, or one HUD and one scene related question.

  13. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment: Accurate ranges have given a large improvement in the lunar orbit and new selenophysical information.

    PubMed

    Bender, P L; Currie, D G; Poultney, S K; Alley, C O; Dicke, R H; Wilkinson, D T; Eckhardt, D H; Faller, J E; Kaula, W M; Mulholland, J D; Plotkin, H H; Silverberg, E C; Williams, J G

    1973-10-19

    The lunar ranging measurements now being made at the McDonald Observatory have an accuracy of 1 nsec in round-trip travel time. This corresponds to 15 cm in the one-way distance. The use of lasers with pulse-lengths of less than 1 nsec is expected to give an accuracy of 2 to 3 cm in the next few years. A new station is under construction in Hawaii, and additional stations in other countries are either in operation or under development. It is hoped that these stations will form the basis for a worldwide network to determine polar motion and earth rotation on a regular basis, and will assist in providing information about movement of the tectonic plates making up the earth's surface. Several mobile lunar ranging stations with telescopes having diameters of 1.0 m or less could, in the future, greatly extend the information obtainable about motions within and between the tectonic plates. The data obtained so far by the McDonald Observatory have been used to generate a new lunar ephemeris based on direct numerical integration of the equations of motion for the moon and planets. With this ephemeris, the range to the three Apollo retro-reflectors can be fit to an accuracy of 5 m by adjusting the differences in moments of inertia of the moon about its principal axes, the selenocentric coordinates of the reflectors, and the McDonald longitude. The accuracy of fitting the results is limited currently by errors of the order of an arc second in the angular orientation of the moon, as derived from the best available theory of how the moon rotates in response to the torques acting on it. Both a new calculation of the moon's orientation as a function of time based on direct numerical integration of the torque equations and a new analytic theory of the moon's orientation are expected to be available soon, and to improve considerably the accuracy of fitting the data. The accuracy already achieved routinely in lunar laser ranging represents a hundredfold improvement over any

  14. Information theory of adaptation in neurons, behavior, and mood

    PubMed Central

    Sharpee, Tatyana O.; Calhoun, Adam J.; Chalasani, Sreekanth H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to make accurate predictions of future stimuli and consequences of one’s actions are crucial for the survival and appropriate decision-making. These predictions are constantly being made at different levels of the nervous system. This is evidenced by adaptation to stimulus parameters in sensory coding, and in learning of an up-to-date model of the environment at the behavioral level. This review will discuss recent findings that actions of neurons and animals are selected based on detailed stimulus history in such a way as to maximize information for achieving the task at hand. Information maximization dictates not only how sensory coding should adapt to various statistical aspects of stimuli, but also that reward function should adapt to match the predictive information from past to future. PMID:24709600

  15. Information Problems and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, R.

    1972-01-01

    The first part of the paper deals with statute law and describes the inadequacy of the official Statutes Revised' system for maintaining up-to-date records. There is a similar lack of official retrieval tools for tracing information on case law. The problems of factual information retrieval are dealt with briefly. (Author/NH)

  16. Parathyroid Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish . ... the PDQ cancer information summaries and keep them up to date. These Boards are made up of experts in ...

  17. Argon Cluster Sputtering Source for ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling of Insulating Materials: High Sputter Rate and Accurate Interfacial Information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoying; Liu, Bingwen; Zhao, Evan W; Jin, Ke; Du, Yingge; Neeway, James J; Ryan, Joseph V; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Kelvin H L; Hong, Mina; Le Guernic, Solenne; Thevuthasan, Suntharampilai; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

    2015-08-01

    The use of an argon cluster ion sputtering source has been demonstrated to perform superiorly relative to traditional oxygen and cesium ion sputtering sources for ToF-SIMS depth profiling of insulating materials. The superior performance has been attributed to effective alleviation of surface charging. A simulated nuclear waste glass (SON68) and layered hole-perovskite oxide thin films were selected as model systems because of their fundamental and practical significance. Our results show that high sputter rates and accurate interfacial information can be achieved simultaneously for argon cluster sputtering, whereas this is not the case for cesium and oxygen sputtering. Therefore, the implementation of an argon cluster sputtering source can significantly improve the analysis efficiency of insulating materials and, thus, can expand its applications to the study of glass corrosion, perovskite oxide thin film characterization, and many other systems of interest.

  18. SnowyOwl: accurate prediction of fungal genes by using RNA-Seq and homology information to select among ab initio models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Locating the protein-coding genes in novel genomes is essential to understanding and exploiting the genomic information but it is still difficult to accurately predict all the genes. The recent availability of detailed information about transcript structure from high-throughput sequencing of messenger RNA (RNA-Seq) delineates many expressed genes and promises increased accuracy in gene prediction. Computational gene predictors have been intensively developed for and tested in well-studied animal genomes. Hundreds of fungal genomes are now or will soon be sequenced. The differences of fungal genomes from animal genomes and the phylogenetic sparsity of well-studied fungi call for gene-prediction tools tailored to them. Results SnowyOwl is a new gene prediction pipeline that uses RNA-Seq data to train and provide hints for the generation of Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based gene predictions and to evaluate the resulting models. The pipeline has been developed and streamlined by comparing its predictions to manually curated gene models in three fungal genomes and validated against the high-quality gene annotation of Neurospora crassa; SnowyOwl predicted N. crassa genes with 83% sensitivity and 65% specificity. SnowyOwl gains sensitivity by repeatedly running the HMM gene predictor Augustus with varied input parameters and selectivity by choosing the models with best homology to known proteins and best agreement with the RNA-Seq data. Conclusions SnowyOwl efficiently uses RNA-Seq data to produce accurate gene models in both well-studied and novel fungal genomes. The source code for the SnowyOwl pipeline (in Python) and a web interface (in PHP) is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/snowyowl/. PMID:24980894

  19. Freedom of Information Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Freedom of Information Act( FOIA), 5 U.S.C.§ 552, as amended, generally provides that any person has a right to request access to Federal agency records. The USGS proactively promotes information disclosure as inherent to its mission of providing objective science to inform decisionmakers and the general public. USGS scientists disseminate up-to-date and historical scientific data that are critical to addressing national and global priorities.

  20. 40 CFR 68.48 - Safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety information. 68.48 Section 68...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 2 Prevention Program § 68.48 Safety information. (a) The owner or operator shall compile and maintain the following up-to-date safety information related to...

  1. 40 CFR 68.48 - Safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety information. 68.48 Section 68...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 2 Prevention Program § 68.48 Safety information. (a) The owner or operator shall compile and maintain the following up-to-date safety information related to...

  2. 40 CFR 68.48 - Safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety information. 68.48 Section 68...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 2 Prevention Program § 68.48 Safety information. (a) The owner or operator shall compile and maintain the following up-to-date safety information related to...

  3. 40 CFR 68.48 - Safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety information. 68.48 Section 68...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 2 Prevention Program § 68.48 Safety information. (a) The owner or operator shall compile and maintain the following up-to-date safety information related to...

  4. 40 CFR 68.48 - Safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety information. 68.48 Section 68...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 2 Prevention Program § 68.48 Safety information. (a) The owner or operator shall compile and maintain the following up-to-date safety information related to...

  5. IrisPlex: a sensitive DNA tool for accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour in the absence of ancestry information.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Susan; Liu, Fan; Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oven, Mannis; Lao, Oscar; Kayser, Manfred

    2011-06-01

    A new era of 'DNA intelligence' is arriving in forensic biology, due to the impending ability to predict externally visible characteristics (EVCs) from biological material such as those found at crime scenes. EVC prediction from forensic samples, or from body parts, is expected to help concentrate police investigations towards finding unknown individuals, at times when conventional DNA profiling fails to provide informative leads. Here we present a robust and sensitive tool, termed IrisPlex, for the accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour from DNA in future forensic applications. We used the six currently most eye colour-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that previously revealed prevalence-adjusted prediction accuracies of over 90% for blue and brown eye colour in 6168 Dutch Europeans. The single multiplex assay, based on SNaPshot chemistry and capillary electrophoresis, both widely used in forensic laboratories, displays high levels of genotyping sensitivity with complete profiles generated from as little as 31pg of DNA, approximately six human diploid cell equivalents. We also present a prediction model to correctly classify an individual's eye colour, via probability estimation solely based on DNA data, and illustrate the accuracy of the developed prediction test on 40 individuals from various geographic origins. Moreover, we obtained insights into the worldwide allele distribution of these six SNPs using the HGDP-CEPH samples of 51 populations. Eye colour prediction analyses from HGDP-CEPH samples provide evidence that the test and model presented here perform reliably without prior ancestry information, although future worldwide genotype and phenotype data shall confirm this notion. As our IrisPlex eye colour prediction test is capable of immediate implementation in forensic casework, it represents one of the first steps forward in the creation of a fully individualised EVC prediction system for future use in forensic DNA intelligence.

  6. Weight-Control Information Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... from our online catalog . ​ Tips for Healthy Eating & Physical Activity For Adults For Pregnancy For Parents For Older ... topics.​​​​​ ​Discover up-to-date information on nutrition, physical activity, and weight control WIN Health Topics A-Z ...

  7. A laboratory information management system for DNA barcoding workflows.

    PubMed

    Vu, Thuy Duong; Eberhardt, Ursula; Szöke, Szániszló; Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a laboratory information management system for DNA sequences (LIMS) created and based on the needs of a DNA barcoding project at the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (Utrecht, the Netherlands). DNA barcoding is a global initiative for species identification through simple DNA sequence markers. We aim at generating barcode data for all strains (or specimens) included in the collection (currently ca. 80 k). The LIMS has been developed to better manage large amounts of sequence data and to keep track of the whole experimental procedure. The system has allowed us to classify strains more efficiently as the quality of sequence data has improved, and as a result, up-to-date taxonomic names have been given to strains and more accurate correlation analyses have been carried out.

  8. [Extraction of buildings three-dimensional information from high-resolution satellite imagery based on Barista software].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei-feng; Hu, Yuan-man; He, Hong-shi

    2010-05-01

    The demand for accurate and up-to-date spatial information of urban buildings is becoming more and more important for urban planning, environmental protection, and other vocations. Today's commercial high-resolution satellite imagery offers the potential to extract the three-dimensional information of urban buildings. This paper extracted the three-dimensional information of urban buildings from QuickBird imagery, and validated the precision of the extraction based on Barista software. It was shown that the extraction of three-dimensional information of the buildings from high-resolution satellite imagery based on Barista software had the advantages of low professional level demand, powerful universality, simple operation, and high precision. One pixel level of point positioning and height determination accuracy could be achieved if the digital elevation model (DEM) and sensor orientation model had higher precision and the off-Nadir View Angle was relatively perfect.

  9. Information-Seeking Habits of Education Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupp-Serrano, Karen; Robbins, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the information-seeking behavior of academic education faculty from twenty large public research universities. The investigation includes an examination of how frequently education faculty seek or access information, how they stay up-to-date on current developments in the field and identify less recent journal literature, how…

  10. ERIC Directory of Education-Related Information Centers, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeg, Michael, Ed.; Taheri, Belinda, Ed.

    This directory is designed to help users identify information centers in education and related fields that can provide up-to-date information. It includes both federally and privately funded organizations that provide services and products such as: reference and referral; online searches; publications; information dissemination; technical…

  11. Reminder: Medical Surveillance Forms Must Be Up-to-Date | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Theresa Bell, Guest Writer? If you work in a laboratory, or you have contact with animals or animal materials, you work with human biomaterials or infectious agents, or you are exposed to radiation or other hazards in your day-to-day duties, you should be enrolled in the appropriate medical surveillance program.

  12. A comparison of genes involved in sphingan biosynthesis brought up to date.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Jochen; Sperl, Nadine; Sieber, Volker

    2014-09-01

    Microbial polysaccharides have a wide range of functional properties and show high relevance in industrial applications. The possibility to create tailor-made polysaccharides by genetic engineering will further enhance the product portfolio and may open new fields of application. Here, we have examined in detail the recently sequenced genome of the welan-producing strain Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 31555 to identify the complete welan cluster and further genes involved in EPS production. The corresponding genes were compared on the nucleotide and amino acid sequence level to the EPS clusters of the described gellan-producing Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461, diutan-producing Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 53159, and the S-88-producing Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 31554 strains. We also compared the previously mentioned strains to each other and included the genes upstream of the main cluster in gellan and welan cluster. The cluster organization of Sphingomonas strain S-7 was also compared based on previous hybridization experiments, without nucleotide sequences. We have found that the occurrence of genes in all biosynthesis clusters is connected to the structures of the various produced sphingans. Along these lines, homologous genes responsible for the assembly of the identical repeating unit generally show high sequence identity, whereas genes for putative side chain attachment urf31, urf31.4, and urf34 vary more in distinct areas. Moreover, gene clusters for biosynthesis of diutan, welan, gellan, and S-88 as well as S-7 are similar in general organization but differ in location and arrangement of some genes. Finally, we summarized genetic and mutational engineering approaches toward modified sphingan variants as described in literature.

  13. Pelvic fracture in multiple trauma: are we still up-to-date with massive fluid resuscitation?

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Markus; Kristen, Alexander; Culemann, Ulf; Koehler, Daniel; Histing, Tina; Holstein, Joerg H; Pizanis, Antonius; Pohlemann, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Until today the mortality of complex pelvic trauma remains unacceptably high. On the one hand this could be attributed to a biological limit of the survivable trauma load, on the other hand side an ongoing inadequate treatment might be conceivable too. For the management of multiple trauma patients with life-threatening pelvic fractures, there is ongoing international debate on the adequate therapeutic strategy, e.g. arterial embolization or pelvic packing, as well as aggressive or restrained volume therapy. Whereas traditional pelvis-specific trauma algorithms still recommend massive fluid resuscitation, there is upcoming evidence that a restrained volume therapy in the preclinical setting may improve trauma outcomes. Less intravenous fluid administration may also reduce haemodilution and concomitant trauma-associated coagulopathy. After linking the data of the TraumaRegister DGU(®) and the German Pelvic Injury Register, for the first time, the initial fluid management for complex pelvic traumas as well as for different Tile/OTA types of pelvic ring fractures could be addressed. Unfortunately, the results could not answer the question of the adequate fluid resuscitation but confirmed the actuality of massive fluid resuscitation in the prehospital and emergency room setting. Low-volume resuscitation seems not yet accepted in practice in managing multiple trauma patients with pelvic fractures at least in Germany. Nevertheless, prevention of exsanguination and of complications like multiple organ dysfunction syndrome still poses a major challenge in the management of complex pelvic ring injuries. Even nowadays, fluid management for trauma, not only for pelvic fractures, remains a controversial area and further research is mandatory.

  14. An up-to-date instrumentation system for detection, location and characterization of AE signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcredi, D.; Sala, A.; Tornelli, C.

    1988-11-01

    An acoustic emission data overseeing system (AEDOS) has been developed for detection, location, and multiparametrical analysis of AE events such as amplitude, rise time, duration, energy, and delay time. The equipment comprises three main sections: the 'in field part' to detect and condition the AE events; the 'front end' that collects all the signals, makes the first screening among the signals, and measures the main parameters of the events; and the 'computer' to set up the system, to store the data, to analyze and display parametric isthograms, graphics, and location maps, and to supply an easy menu driven interface to the operator. A detailed functional description including performance specification of the system is given.

  15. Benign tracheal stenosis a case report and up to date management

    PubMed Central

    Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysa; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Charalampidis, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    Benign tracheal stenosis is situation that occurs usually after stress is applied to a certain area in the trachea during the intubation of a patient or inflammation caused during an infection. In the current case report we will present a 65-year-old man with a benign tracheal stenosis due to a 15-day intubation with a high pressure and low volume intubation tube. Current methodology was applied in his case with an excellent result with a 1-year follow up. Cryotherapy, electrocautery-knife, balloon dilation and semi-rigid bronchoscopic technique were applied. Currently there are several techniques that can be used by pulmonary physicians or ear, nose and throat experts. It remains for the treating physician to choose its method based on his training, equipment and tissue damage. PMID:27999785

  16. E-cigarettes: an up to date review and discussion of the controversy.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Zachary; Goebel, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) present a novel method for nicotine delivery that is reportedly advantageous when compared to traditional cigarette usage. Manufacturers and consumers claim reduced chemical exposure, decreased symptom profiles, and efficacy in smoking reduction and cessation greater than conventional nicotine replacement therapies (NRT). However these products present new challenges and concerns to legislators, clinicians, and public health advocates. Questions of authority in state and federal legislation, establishing product quality control, assessing long-term studies on e-cigarettes and quantifying usefulness in harm reduction represent only a portion of the many unanswered topics being discussed. The purpose of this article is to assess the literature on e-cigarettes and establish perceptions and attitudes on this controversial subject.

  17. IFNs-signaling effects on lung cancer: an up-to-date pathways-specific review.

    PubMed

    Galani, Vasiliki; Kastamoulas, Michalis; Varouktsi, Anna; Lampri, Evangeli; Mitselou, Antigoni; Arvanitis, Dimitrios L

    2016-07-14

    IFNs have found important applications in clinical medicine, including the treatment of lung malignancies. The biological effect of the IFN-receptor signaling is regulated essentially by three factors: the expression profile of the IFN itself, the profile of the receptor, and the expression of target genes. IFNs initiate their signaling by binding to specific receptors. The activated IFNs can directly induce gene transcription and/or multiple downstream signaling that both induce diverse cellular responses including the cell cycle arrest and the apoptosis in tumor cells. We provided evidence that IFN-γ enhances the pro cell death effects of Fas/CD95 in human neoplastic alveolar epithelial cell line, A549. We also found that p27 protein plays a pivotal role in the inducing cell death of IFNγ-CH-11-treated A549 cells, since it is involved in the Ras/Raf signaling pathway. This article discusses recent insights into these possible additional functions of IFNs in lung cancer treatment.

  18. Lophotrochozoa internal phylogeny: new insights from an up-to-date analysis of nuclear ribosomal genes

    PubMed Central

    Paps, Jordi; Baguñà, Jaume; Riutort, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Resolving the relationships among animal phyla is a key biological problem that remains to be solved. Morphology is unable to determine the relationships among most phyla and although molecular data have unveiled a new evolutionary scenario, they have their own limitations. Nuclear ribosomal genes (18S and 28S rDNA) have been used effectively for many years. However, they are considered of limited use for resolving deep divergences such as the origin of the bilaterians, due to certain drawbacks such as the long-branch attraction (LBA) problem. Here, we attempt to overcome these pitfalls by combining several methods suggested in previous studies and routinely used in contemporary standard phylogenetic analyses but that have not yet been applied to any bilaterian phylogeny based on these genes. The methods used include maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, the application of models with rate heterogeneity across sites, wide taxon sampling and compartmentalized analyses for each problematic clade. The results obtained show that the combination of the above-mentioned methodologies minimizes the LBA effect, and a new Lophotrochozoa phylogeny emerges. Also, the Acoela and Nemertodermatida are confirmed with maximum support as the first branching bilaterians. Ribosomal RNA genes are thus a reliable source for the study of deep divergences in the metazoan tree, provided that the data are treated carefully. PMID:19129141

  19. The field of health communication today: an up-to-date report.

    PubMed

    Rogers, E M

    1996-01-01

    One important starting point for the field of health communication was the Stanford Heart Disease Prevention Program, a multiyear community intervention that began 25 years ago. Health communication is a specialty field of communication study that includes the media agenda-setting process for health issues; media advocacy for health; scientific communication among biomedical scientists; doctor-patient communication; and, particularly, the design and evaluation of preventive health communication campaigns, the focus of this article. Health communication study today is a well-established, expanding specialty in the United States and abroad.

  20. RAS Corner at the ATRF Library Keeps You Up-to-Date on the Research | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Robin Meckley, Contributing Writer The new RAS initiative recently undertaken at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research has prompted the Scientific Library to provide support in a creative way to the laboratories at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF), where the research is centered.

  1. Differential role of Hedgehog signaling in human pancreatic (patho-) physiology: An up to date review

    PubMed Central

    Klieser, Eckhard; Swierczynski, Stefan; Mayr, Christian; Jäger, Tarkan; Schmidt, Johanna; Neureiter, Daniel; Kiesslich, Tobias; Illig, Romana

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in drosophila melanogaster, our knowledge of the role of Hh in embryonic development, inflammation, and cancerogenesis in humans has dramatically increased over the last decades. This is the case especially concerning the pancreas, however, real therapeutic breakthroughs are missing until now. In general, Hh signaling is essential for pancreatic organogenesis, development, and tissue maturation. In the case of acute pancreatitis, Hh has a protective role, whereas in chronic pancreatitis, Hh interacts with pancreatic stellate cells, leading to destructive parenchym fibrosis and atrophy, as well as to irregular tissue remodeling with potency of initiating cancerogenesis. In vitro and in situ analysis of Hh in pancreatic cancer revealed that the Hh pathway participates in the development of pancreatic precursor lesions and ductal adenocarcinoma including critical interactions with the tumor microenvironment. The application of specific inhibitors of components of the Hh pathway is currently subject of ongoing clinical trials (phases 1 and 2). Furthermore, a combination of Hh pathway inhibitors and established chemotherapeutic drugs could also represent a promising therapeutic approach. In this review, we give a structured survey of the role of the Hh pathway in pancreatic development, pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinogenesis and pancreatic cancer as well as an overview of current clinical trials concerning Hh pathway inhibitors and pancreas cancer. PMID:27190692

  2. [Pharmacological significance of alpha lipoic acid in up to date treatment of diabetic neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Becić, Fahir; Kapić, Elvedina; Rakanović-Todić, Maida

    2008-01-01

    Alpha lipoic acid is important intramolecular redox system. It is coenzyme of piruvate dehydrogenase and ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. Alpha lipoic acid has enzymatic and cytoprotective effect. It has key role in citric acid cycle, as a coenzyme. Therapeutic efficacy of alpha lipoic acid in diabetic neuropathy is based on reaction with free radicals and lipophylic antioxydans properties. Clinical studies results showed efficacy and safety of alpha liponic acid application in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  3. An Up-to-date Approach to a Patient with a Suspected Autoinflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lidar, Merav; Giat, Eitan

    2017-01-01

    Autoinflammatory diseases (AID) are characterized by seemingly unprovoked self-limited attacks of fever and systemic inflammation potentially leading to amyloidosis. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common AID and therefore the most studied. Besides FMF, the other main hereditary AID are tumor necrosis factor-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD), and cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndrome (CAPS). These hereditary diseases result from a mutant gene that is involved in the regulation of inflammation, resulting in a characteristic clinical phenotype. The differential diagnosis of AID can be challenging due to a wide overlap in clinical manifestations. Moreover, a considerable proportion of patients present with autoinflammatory symptoms but without a pathogenetic variant on genetic analysis. Furthermore, non-hereditary AID, such as the periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome, which is the most common AID in children worldwide, must be excluded in certain circumstances. Herein we shall review the main AID and describe a practical approach to diagnosis in a patient with a clinical suspicion of AID. PMID:28178435

  4. Up to date concepts about Von Willebrand disease and the diagnose of this hemostatic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Buga-Corbu, I; Arion, C

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The authors review the current data in literature regarding the recent knowledge about hemostase, coagulation and clinical and laboratory diagnostic algorithms of hemostatic disorders. They also present the pathological classification of bleeding disorders - the basis to clinical approach of these diseases. Abbreviations: AD=autosomal dominant; Ag=antigen; DNA=deoxyribonucleic acid; ADAMTS13=serum metalloproteinase; AR=autosomal recessive; Arg=arginine; RNA=ribonucleic acid; VWD=von Willebrand disease; Cys=cysteine; C1—C9=factors of the seric complement; ELISA=enzyme linked immuno assay; FI---FXIII=plasmatic factors of coagulation; Glu=glutamines; Pg=platelet glycoprotein; HMW=high molecular weight; IL=interleukin; SLE=systemic lupus erythematosus; Met=methionine; PFA=automated study test of platelets aggregation; RCo=ristocetin cofactor; RI PA=ristocetin induced platelet aggregation; Tyr=tyrosine; VWF= von Willebrand factor PMID:25408749

  5. Histoplasmosis: Up-to-Date Evidence-Based Approach to Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Hage, Chadi A; Azar, Marwan M; Bahr, Nathan; Loyd, James; Wheat, L Joseph

    2015-10-01

    Histoplasmosis is the most common endemic mycosis in the North America, Central America, and many countries of South America and also occurs in China, India, Southeast Asia, Africa, Australia, and Europe. Clinical syndromes are not specific and histoplasmosis often is overlooked in the evaluation of patients with community-acquired pneumonia, chronic cavitary pneumonia resembling tuberculosis or anaerobic infection, granulomatous inflammatory diseases such as sarcoidosis or Crohn disease, and malignancy. The diagnosis depends on understanding the geographic distribution, common clinical presentations, and tests used for diagnosis of histoplasmosis. While histoplasmosis resolves without treatment in most patients, treatment is indicated in all immunocompromised patients and those with progressive disseminated disease or chronic pulmonary disease. Treatment is appropriate in most patients with acute pulmonary disease but rarely in those with other pulmonary or mediastinal manifestations. The preferred agents include liposomal amphotericin B for more severe cases and itraconazole for milder cases and "step-down" therapy following response to amphotericin B.

  6. Operator-related risk factors of anastomotic leaks after colorectal surgery: an up-to-date

    PubMed Central

    CAZIUC, ALEXANDRA; DINDELEGAN, GEORGE CALIN; MIRONIUC, AUREL

    2015-01-01

    Digestive fistulas are a major complication after digestive surgery. Anastomotic leakage increases the hospitalization time, the prognosis and survival rate after colorectal surgical interventions. The factors involved are either systemic (determined by the patients’ co-morbidities), or local (vicious surgical technique or the injuries produced by the disease that requires the anastomosis). Although there are many studies regarding the risk factors of anastomotic leaks, there is no consensus for the role played by each one of them in the healing process of digestive sutures. Most authors sustain that the importance of systemic factors is secondary, the main role being played by the surgeon and the local conditions of the anastomosis. Knowledge of the risk factors can lead to new methods of reducing the incidence of anastomotic leaks by improving vascularization, limiting the tension and the duration of surgery, and by new surgical techniques used for digestive sutures. PMID:26528059

  7. Trevor's disease: up-to-date review of the literature with case series.

    PubMed

    Gökkuş, Kemal; Atmaca, Halil; Sagtas, Ergin; Saylik, Murat; Aydin, Ahmet T

    2016-04-14

    Trevor's disease, also known as dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica, is a rare nonhereditary skeletal development disorder that affects epiphyses. This type of dysplastic lesion was first reported by Mouchet and Berlot in 1926 under the name 'tarsomegaly'. The main aim of this study is to raise awareness of Trevor's disease among orthopedic surgeons and underline some important aspects of treatment by a detailed presentation of four different possible manifestations of the disease. Four different treatment methods were used on four different patients (three localized in hindfoot ankle region and one classic Trevor's disease case). Treatment methods, localization of the sides involved, different characteristics of entire lower extremity, asymetry, distal femoral lateral epiphysis involvement, and hip involvement were analyzed thoroughly and the results were compared with those found in the most recent literature. Of our four patients, three were localized (hind foot ankle) cases and one was a classic dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica with hemimelic distribution of the entire lower extremity. We used arthroscopic resection, observation, excision, and temporary hemiepiphysiodesis treatment methods in each of our cases. Clinical follow-up results were reported to be between good and excellent. In sum, our opinion is that the treatment for this condition should be customized according to lesion localization and lesion size. Majority of cases with ankle involvement show good prognosis following excision. Observation is also an alternative in patients who refuse surgery. If an intra-articular lesion is present, the surgeon should perform an arthroscopy for assessment of lesion surface. If the lesion is adapted to the joint curvature, it should be left alone and hemiepiphysiodesis should be considered for correction. The most risky involvements that are related to deformities and limb-length discrepancies are the hip and the knee. This is usually the result of corrective osteotomy targeted at the supracondylar femoral area in immature skeletons. Hemiepiphysiodesis might be a more feasible option in those cases as it provides the surgeon with the choice to remove the staples when necessary.

  8. Benign tracheal stenosis a case report and up to date management.

    PubMed

    Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysa; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Charalampidis, Charalampos

    2016-11-01

    Benign tracheal stenosis is situation that occurs usually after stress is applied to a certain area in the trachea during the intubation of a patient or inflammation caused during an infection. In the current case report we will present a 65-year-old man with a benign tracheal stenosis due to a 15-day intubation with a high pressure and low volume intubation tube. Current methodology was applied in his case with an excellent result with a 1-year follow up. Cryotherapy, electrocautery-knife, balloon dilation and semi-rigid bronchoscopic technique were applied. Currently there are several techniques that can be used by pulmonary physicians or ear, nose and throat experts. It remains for the treating physician to choose its method based on his training, equipment and tissue damage.

  9. Three- and four-dimensional ultrasound in fetal echocardiography: an up-to-date overview.

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, B M E; van Vugt, J M G; Haak, M C

    2016-09-01

    Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are the most commonly overlooked lesions in prenatal screening programs. Real-time two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) is the conventionally used tool for fetal echocardiography. Although continuous improvements in the hardware and post-processing software have resulted in a good image quality even in late first trimester, 2DUS still has its limitations. Four-dimensional ultrasound with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) is an automated volume acquisition, recording a single three-dimensional (3D) volume throughout a complete cardiac cycle, which results in a four-dimensional (4D) volume. STIC has the potential to increase the detection rate of CHD. The aim of this study is to provide a practical overview of the possibilities and (dis)advantages of STIC. A review of literature and evaluation of the current status and clinical value of 3D/4D ultrasound in prenatal screening and diagnosis of congenital heart disease are presented.

  10. Up-to-date state of storage techniques used for large numerical data files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chlouba, V.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for data storage and output in data banks and memory files are discussed along with a survey of equipment available for this. Topics discussed include magnetic tapes, magnetic disks, Terabit magnetic tape memory, Unicon 690 laser memory, IBM 1360 photostore, microfilm recording equipment, holographic recording, film readers, optical character readers, digital data storage techniques, and photographic recording. The individual types of equipment are summarized in tables giving the basic technical parameters.

  11. Pityriasis Alba--Common Disease, Enigmatic Entity: Up-to-Date Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Miazek, Nina; Michalek, Irmina; Pawlowska-Kisiel, Malgorzata; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Pityriasis alba (PA) is a skin disorder that affects children and adolescents. Although it is common worldwide, its incidence is markedly higher in darker skin phototypes. Its characteristic features include an extended, multistage course and spontaneous remissions and recurrences. Preceded by erythematous changes, patches of hypopigmented skin of up to a few centimeters in diameter appear on the upper body. Pruritus may accompany it. Even though its etiology is unknown, possible reported triggering factors include sunlight, beauty treatments, and microorganisms, among others. Calcineurin inhibitors play the most crucial role in PA pharmacotherapy. PA often coexists with atopic dermatitis and is considered one of its milder forms.

  12. [Up-to-date on the HELLP syndrome (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelets)].

    PubMed

    Medhioub Kaaniche, F; Chaari, A; Turki, O; Rgaieg, K; Baccouch, N; Zekri, M; Bahloul, M; Chelly, H; Ben Hamida, Ch; Bouaziz, M

    2016-06-01

    HELLP syndrome is an acronym for Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelets. It is generally considered in the literature as a particular clinical form of pre-eclampsia, a severe complication of the second half of pregnancy. However, this syndrome can occur in isolation in the absence of pre-eclampsia symptoms. Its pathophysiology remains still unclear. The clinical picture is often incomplete and fruste at first. To date, its diagnosis and management is still the subject of much controversy. Associated or not with a vascular and renal manifestations, the HELLP syndrome is a high-risk maternal disorder. The objective of this article is to review the pathophysiological and clinical data and current treatment.

  13. Traumatic pneumorrachis after isolated closed head injuries: An up-to-date review.

    PubMed

    Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios F; Singh, Ranjodh; Stefanopoulos, Panagiotis; Petsanas, Adamantios; Hadjigeorgiou, Fivos G; Fountas, Kostas

    2016-12-01

    Pneumorrachis (PR) is characterized by the presence of air within the spinal canal. It can be classified descriptively into internal or intradural and external or epidural. The causes of PR can be divided as iatrogenic, nontraumatic and traumatic. In the present study, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all previous cases of PR after an isolate head injury. Two additional cases were also reported. We concluded, that PR after isolated head injuries is a rare but likely an underdiagnosed entity. It is a marker of severe injury and the majority of such patients have a poor outcome. Although, PR is usually asymptomatic and reabsorbs spontaneously, prompt recognition and management of the underlying cause is essential. Therefore, clinicians should maintain a high level of suspicion for serious underlying injury in cases where initial radiological imaging reveals intraspinal air.

  14. Ureteroscopy for management of stone disease: an up to date on surgical technique and disposable devices.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Fabio C; Marchini, Giovanni S; Pedro, Renato N; Monga, Manoj

    2016-12-01

    The surgical management of urinary stone disease developed substantially over the past decades and advanced minimally invasive techniques have been successfully introduced into clinical practice. Retrograde ureteroscopy and ureterorrenoscopy have become the first-line option for treatment of ureteral and renal stones worldwide with high success rates allied with a low morbidity profile. In this review, we will discuss some key points in ureteroscopy for stone disease, such as the access to upper urinary tract, including balloon and catheter dilation; how to choose and use some disposable devices (hydrophilic versus PTFE guide wires, ureteral catheters, and laser fiber setting); and lastly present and compare different techniques for kidney or ureteral stone treatment (dusting versus basketing).

  15. Making human cardiomyocytes up to date: Derivation, maturation state and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kolanowski, Tomasz J; Antos, Christopher L; Guan, Kaomei

    2017-03-24

    In vitro generation of cardiomyocytes (CMs) from human cells opens the possibility to develop patient-specific therapies to various cardiomyopathies. By establishing the in vitro reprograming methods that produce human CMs, we learn about what is involved in the development of specific CM subtypes. In this review, we summarize the latest achievements in CM generation technologies, emphasizing the differentiation methods of specific CM subtypes. We also relate the biological properties and functions of the in vitro-generated CMs to those of their in vivo counterparts. Furthermore, we describe the main problem of current CM derivation methods - maturation of CMs. We subsequently discuss biochemical and physical stimuli that are used to overcome the maturation problems of in vitro-derived CMs. As a result, a more holistic approach with controllable environment and timing of specific stimuli for creation of more mature engineered heart tissues is described as well. Finally, we propose a novel approach in which enhancing energy transfer mechanisms in the immature CMs might help to overcome the current hurdle of incomplete in vitro differentiation.

  16. Is symptom-oriented follow-up still up to date?

    PubMed

    Mundhenke, Christoph; Moebus, Volker

    2013-10-01

    The main objective of following patients after the primary treatment of breast cancer is the detection of potentially curable events, particularly the detection of local recurrences and contralateral breast cancer. Additionally, medical counseling on therapies, psychosocial aspects, side effects of therapies, and lifestyle interventions is important to improve the quality of life. There is an ongoing discussion about whether early detection of asymptomatic metastasis could improve the course of disease. Today, the follow-up is still symptom-orientated. Intensified imaging and laboratory check-ups have not been beneficial for the patients' survival. A follow-up in the first 2-3 years is recommended every 3 months. Because of the decreasing incidence of recurrence from year 4, 6-monthly screening intervals are recommended. The screening should include a history, physical examination, and a consultation. Routine diagnostic imaging - except for mammography/ultrasound - is not indicated in asymptomatic patients. Innovative therapies for patients with metastatic breast cancer have been introduced. Therefore, measures of an intensified follow-up could change in the future as novel endocrine combination or targeted therapies in molecular subtypes could significantly improve the survival in early detected metastasis. In the future, more individualized follow-up programs are conceivable. However, this idea is so far not supported by the available data.

  17. Nosocomial rotavirus infection: An up to date evaluation of European studies.

    PubMed

    Gervasi, G; Capanna, A; Mita, V; Zaratti, L; Franco, E

    2016-09-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is worldwide considered as the most important viral agent of acute gastroenteritis in children less than 5 y. Since 2006, the availability of anti-RV vaccines has deeply modified the incidence and economic burden of RV infection. In Europe, some countries have introduced an anti-RV vaccination program in the last 10 y. Although community acquired RV (CARV) disease is the most studied condition of RV infection, recently some authors have highlighted the importance of nosocomial RV (nRV) disease as an emerging public health issue. The aim of this review is to summarize the epidemiology of both CARV and nRV, in order to discuss the difficulty of a clear evaluation of the burden of the disease in absence of comparable data. In particular, we focused our attention to European studies regarding nRV in terms of divergences related to definition, report of incidence rate and methodological issues.

  18. An Up-to-date Approach to a Patient with a Suspected Autoinflammatory Disease.

    PubMed

    Lidar, Merav; Giat, Eitan

    2017-01-30

    Autoinflammatory diseases (AID) are characterized by seemingly unprovoked self-limited attacks of fever and systemic inflammation potentially leading to amyloidosis. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common AID and therefore the most studied. Besides FMF, the other main hereditary AID are tumor necrosis factor-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD), and cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndrome (CAPS). These hereditary diseases result from a mutant gene that is involved in the regulation of inflammation, resulting in a characteristic clinical phenotype. The differential diagnosis of AID can be challenging due to a wide overlap in clinical manifestations. Moreover, a considerable proportion of patients present with autoinflammatory symptoms but without a pathogenetic variant on genetic analysis. Furthermore, non-hereditary AID, such as the periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome, which is the most common AID in children worldwide, must be excluded in certain circumstances. Herein we shall review the main AID and describe a practical approach to diagnosis in a patient with a clinical suspicion of AID.

  19. Mitochondrial tyrosine phosphoproteome: new insights from an up-to-date analysis.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Luca; Salvi, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is a newcomer in the mitochondrial signaling and is currently emerging as an important mechanism for regulating mitochondrial processes. But to what extent? By analyzing an updated draft of the mitochondrial tyrosine phosphoproteome, the following observations can be drawn: more than a hundred mitochondrial proteins undergo tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphotyrosine proteins are distributed in each of the submitochondrial compartments, and mitochondrial tyrosine phosphorylated proteins are involved in a variety of functions as metabolism (electron transport chain, Krebs cycle, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism), solute and protein transport, mitochondrial translation machinery, quality protein assessment, oxidative stress, apoptosis, fission, and other. This large and varied collection suggests that tyrosine phosphorylation could be a widespread mechanism in modulating mitochondrial functions. Moreover the in silico model is here used to explore potential effects of tyrosine phosphorylation on selected mitochondrial proteins pointing out some future perspectives in this field.

  20. An up-to-date overview of minimally invasive treatment methods in ureteropelvic junction obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Orcun; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Over the last two decades, minimally invasive treatment options for ureteropelvic junction obstruction have been developed and are bcoming more popular. Multiple series of laparoscopic pyeloplasty have demonstrated high success rates and low perioperative morbidity in pediatric and adult populations, for both the transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches. In this review, we aimed to analyze the current status of minimally invasive therapy of ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Material and methods A PubMed database search was conducted to examine minimally invasive treatments of ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Results A large number of cases have been reported for adult patients, confirming that robotic pyeloplasty represents a viable option for either primary or secondary repair. Comparative studies demonstrate similar success and complication rates between minimally invasive and open pyeloplasty in both the adult and pediatric populations. A clear advantage, in terms of hospital stay, of minimally invasive over open pyeloplasty was observed only in the adult population. Conclusions Studies have shown that minimally invasive pyeloplasty techniques are a safe, effective, and feasible in adult and pediatric populations. PMID:26251754

  1. [Maria Sandrucci: up-to-date with science, supporter of equal rights].

    PubMed

    Farnetani, I; Farnetani, F; Bona, G; Mussa, G C

    2011-04-01

    This is the first scientific study on Mary Sandrucci, who has been director of the Pediatric Clinic of the University of Turin from 1965-1966 up to 31 December 1989. Prof. Sandrucci led major studies on congenital heart disease, was the first Italian and among the first in Europe to describe phocomelia cases, to report on valuable studies antibiotics, uric acid, pediatric nephrology, nuclear medicine and genetics. She promoted the development of pediatric specialties, but at the same time promoted the study and practice of paediatrics as a whole. This study describes the past half century of medicine, history of Italian pediatrics and progress of the conquest of rights and equal opportunities for women.

  2. RESIDENTIAL AIR CLEANERS: A SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication will provide up-to-date information on the types of air cleaners available to the consumer, provides available information on their general effectiveness in removing indoor air pollutants, discusses some factors to consider in deciding whether to use an air-clean...

  3. Information Files for Old Chestnuts and Chestnut Nags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetros, John G.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of an up-to-date information file is discussed, using the quest for the name of Paul Revere's horse as an example. A list of Famous Riders and Their Horses'' is included as an indication of the type material to be included in an information file. (SM)

  4. Energy Information Transfer in Virginia. A Planning Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickin, Patricia

    The Virginia Planning Conference for Solar Technology Information Transfer was held in Richmond in February 1978 to elicit suggestions on how to make Virginians aware of libraries as sources of energy information and how Virginia libraries can keep their energy materials and reference services up to date. A summary of this planning session and a…

  5. Selective Dissemination of Information and Retrospective Searches. Computer Based Information Services from RIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluchowicz, Zofia

    The purpose of this guide is to give an up-to-date presentation of the information service offered by the documentation center at the Royal Institute of Technology (RIT) and to facilitate the utilization of the service. The guide gives a general account of the multidisciplinary computerized current awareness service (SDI) and a detailed…

  6. Lost in translation: preclinical studies on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine provide information on mechanisms of action, but do not allow accurate prediction of adverse events in humans

    PubMed Central

    Green, AR; King, MV; Shortall, SE; Fone, KCF

    2012-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) induces both acute adverse effects and long-term neurotoxic loss of brain 5-HT neurones in laboratory animals. However, when choosing doses, most preclinical studies have paid little attention to the pharmacokinetics of the drug in humans or animals. The recreational use of MDMA and current clinical investigations of the drug for therapeutic purposes demand better translational pharmacology to allow accurate risk assessment of its ability to induce adverse events. Recent pharmacokinetic studies on MDMA in animals and humans are reviewed and indicate that the risks following MDMA ingestion should be re-evaluated. Acute behavioural and body temperature changes result from rapid MDMA-induced monoamine release, whereas long-term neurotoxicity is primarily caused by metabolites of the drug. Therefore acute physiological changes in humans are fairly accurately mimicked in animals by appropriate dosing, although allometric dosing calculations have little value. Long-term changes require MDMA to be metabolized in a similar manner in experimental animals and humans. However, the rate of metabolism of MDMA and its major metabolites is slower in humans than rats or monkeys, potentially allowing endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms to function in a species specific manner. Furthermore acute hyperthermia in humans probably limits the chance of recreational users ingesting sufficient MDMA to produce neurotoxicity, unlike in the rat. MDMA also inhibits the major enzyme responsible for its metabolism in humans thereby also assisting in preventing neurotoxicity. These observations question whether MDMA alone produces long-term 5-HT neurotoxicity in human brain, although when taken in combination with other recreational drugs it may induce neurotoxicity. LINKED ARTICLES This article is commented on by Parrott, pp. 1518–1520 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01941.x and to view the the

  7. Student Information Systems Demystified: The Increasing Demand for Accurate, Timely Data Means Schools and Districts Are Relying Heavily on SIS Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Todd

    2004-01-01

    Student information systems, one of the first applications of computer technology in education, are undergoing a significant transition yet again. The first major shift in SIS technologies occurred about 15 years ago when they evolved from mainframe programs to client-server solutions. Now, vendors across the board are offering centralized…

  8. Freedom of Information Act-Employee responsibilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The Freedom of Information Act( FOIA), 5 U.S.C. § 552, as amended, generally provides that any person has a right to request access to Federal agency records. The USGS proactively promotes information disclosure as inherent to its mission of providing objective science to inform decisionmakers and the general public. USGS scientists disseminate up-to-date and historical scientific data that are critical to addressing national and global priorities.

  9. Activity Sourcebook for Earth Science. Science Education Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Victor J., Ed.

    Designed to provide teachers of earth science with activities and information that will assist them in keeping their curricula up to date, this publication contains activities grouped into six chapters. Chapter titles are: (1) Weather and Climate, (2) Oceans, (3) The Earth and Its Surface, (4) Plate Tectonics, (5) Uses of Space Photography, and…

  10. Design and Development of Web-Based Information Literacy Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Shiao-Feng; Kuo, Jane

    2010-01-01

    The current study conducts a thorough content analysis of recently built or up-to-date high-quality web-based information literacy tutorials contributed by academic libraries in a peer-reviewed database, PRIMO. This research analyzes the topics/skills PRIMO tutorials consider essential and the teaching strategies they consider effective. The…

  11. Spectators or Patriots? Citizens in the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhawan, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    In theory, a strong democracy rests on robust citizen participation. The practice in most democracies is quite different. This gap presents a challenge, which can be narrowed by augmenting civic education to bring it up to date with the current information environment and thus give citizens the opportunity to participate. Robert Dahl's work on…

  12. A program for the accurate generation of ephemerides for Halley's Comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekelund, J. E.; Yeomans, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    This is a discussion of an orbit determination computer program designed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to support the International Halley Watch and the European Space Agency's Giotto flight project to comet Halley. The program processes observational data received from the Astrometric Network of the International Halley Watch for the purpose of generating very accurate, up-to-date cometary ephemerides for Halley. An accurate comet ephemeris is essential if the Giotto spacecraft is to be navigated closely enough to the comet to satisfy its encounter objectives. Features discussed include the modelling of the nongravitational properties of Halley and the associated variational equations. The software has been implemented on several computers including the Honeywell and Siemens computers at the European Space Operations Center in Darmstadt, West Germany.

  13. Biotechnology Education. Engaging the Learner: Embedding Information Literacy Skills into a Biotechnology Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Helena; Hockey, Julie

    2007-01-01

    One of the challenges of the Biotechnology industry is keeping up to date with the rapid pace of change and that much of the information, which students learn in their undergraduate studies, will be out of date in a few years. It is therefore crucial that Biotechnology students have the skills to access the relevant information for their studies…

  14. Accurate Completion of Medical Report on Diagnosing Death.

    PubMed

    Savić, Slobodan; Alempijević, Djordje; Andjelić, Sladjana

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing death and issuing a Death Diagnosing Form (DDF) represents an activity that carries a great deal of public responsibility for medical professionals of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and is perpetually exposed to the control of the general public. Diagnosing death is necessary so as to confirm true, to exclude apparent death and consequentially to avoid burying a person alive, i.e. apparently dead. These expert-methodological guidelines based on the most up-to-date and medically based evidence have the goal of helping the physicians of the EMS in accurately filling out a medical report on diagnosing death. If the outcome of applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation measures is negative or when the person is found dead, the physician is under obligation to diagnose death and correctly fill out the DDF. It is also recommended to perform electrocardiography (EKG) and record asystole in at least two leads. In the process of diagnostics and treatment, it is a moral obligation of each Belgrade EMS physician to apply all available achievements and knowledge of modern medicine acquired from extensive international studies, which have been indeed the major theoretical basis for the creation of these expert-methodological guidelines. Those acting differently do so in accordance with their conscience and risk professional, and even criminal sanctions.

  15. Informal settlement classification using point-cloud and image-based features from UAV data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevaert, C. M.; Persello, C.; Sliuzas, R.; Vosselman, G.

    2017-03-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are capable of providing very high resolution and up-to-date information to support informal settlement upgrading projects. In order to provide accurate basemaps, urban scene understanding through the identification and classification of buildings and terrain is imperative. However, common characteristics of informal settlements such as small, irregular buildings with heterogeneous roof material and large presence of clutter challenge state-of-the-art algorithms. Furthermore, it is of interest to analyse which fundamental attributes are suitable for describing these objects in different geographic locations. This work investigates how 2D radiometric and textural features, 2.5D topographic features, and 3D geometric features obtained from UAV imagery can be integrated to obtain a high classification accuracy in challenging classification problems for the analysis of informal settlements. UAV datasets from informal settlements in two different countries are compared in order to identify salient features for specific objects in heterogeneous urban environments. Findings show that the integration of 2D and 3D features leads to an overall accuracy of 91.6% and 95.2% respectively for informal settlements in Kigali, Rwanda and Maldonado, Uruguay.

  16. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  17. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  18. 75 FR 16895 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency... Street, NW., Washington, DC 20503, Attention: NHTSA Desk Officer. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms... maintenance costs of keeping the data up to date, etc. as tests come in throughout the year. In the...

  19. Characterizing physicians' information needs at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Lauren A; Cate, Olle Ten; Moorhead, Laura L; van Stiphout, Feikje; Kramer, Bianca M R; Ter Braak, Edith; Posley, Keith; Irby, David; O'Brien, Bridget C

    2014-11-01

    Physicians have many information needs that arise at the point of care yet go unmet for a variety of reasons, including uncertainty about which information resources to select. In this study, we aimed to identify the various types of physician information needs and how these needs relate to physicians' use of the database PubMed and the evidence summary tool UpToDate. We conducted semi-structured interviews with physicians (Stanford University, United States; n = 13; and University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands; n = 9), eliciting participants' descriptions of their information needs and related use of PubMed and/or UpToDate. Using thematic analysis, we identified six information needs: refreshing, confirming, logistics, teaching, idea generating and personal learning. Participants from both institutions similarly described their information needs and selection of resources. The identification of these six information needs and their relation to PubMed and UpToDate expands upon previously identified physician information needs and may be useful to medical educators designing evidence-based practice training for physicians.

  20. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  1. Volunteered Geographic Information for Disaster Management with Application to Earthquake Disaster Databank & Sharing Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Zhang, W. C.; Deng, C.; Nie, N.; Yi, L.

    2017-02-01

    All phases of disaster management require up-to-date and accurate information. Different in-situ and remote sensor systems help to monitor dynamic properties such as air quality, water level or inundated areas. The rapid emergence of web-based services has facilitated the collection, dissemination, and cartographic representation of spatial information from the public, giving rise to the idea of using Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) to aid disaster management. In this study, with a brief review on the concept and the development of disaster management, opportunities and challenges for applying VGI in disaster management were explored. The challenges, including Data availability, Data quality, Data management and Legal issues of using VGI for disaster management, were discussed in detail with particular emphasis on the actual needs of disaster management practice in China. Three different approaches to assure VGI data quality, namely the classification and authority design of volunteers, a government-led VGI data acquisition framework for disaster management and a quality assessment system for VGI, respectively, were presented and discussed. As a case study, a prototype of VGI oriented earthquake disaster databank & sharing platform, an open WebGIS system for volunteers and other interested individuals collaboratively create and manage the earthquake disaster related information, was proposed, to provide references for improving the level of earthquake emergency response and disaster mitigation in China.

  2. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with P significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. The bioaccessibility of the Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter 24%, or present as Pb sulfate 18%. Ad

  3. Accurate spectral color measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1999-08-01

    Surface color measurement is of importance in a very wide range of industrial applications including paint, paper, printing, photography, textiles, plastics and so on. For a demanding color measurements spectral approach is often needed. One can measure a color spectrum with a spectrophotometer using calibrated standard samples as a reference. Because it is impossible to define absolute color values of a sample, we always work with approximations. The human eye can perceive color difference as small as 0.5 CIELAB units and thus distinguish millions of colors. This 0.5 unit difference should be a goal for the precise color measurements. This limit is not a problem if we only want to measure the color difference of two samples, but if we want to know in a same time exact color coordinate values accuracy problems arise. The values of two instruments can be astonishingly different. The accuracy of the instrument used in color measurement may depend on various errors such as photometric non-linearity, wavelength error, integrating sphere dark level error, integrating sphere error in both specular included and specular excluded modes. Thus the correction formulas should be used to get more accurate results. Another question is how many channels i.e. wavelengths we are using to measure a spectrum. It is obvious that the sampling interval should be short to get more precise results. Furthermore, the result we get is always compromise of measuring time, conditions and cost. Sometimes we have to use portable syste or the shape and the size of samples makes it impossible to use sensitive equipment. In this study a small set of calibrated color tiles measured with the Perkin Elmer Lamda 18 and the Minolta CM-2002 spectrophotometers are compared. In the paper we explain the typical error sources of spectral color measurements, and show which are the accuracy demands a good colorimeter should have.

  4. 75 FR 8300 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non- Tariff Trade... of increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI works closely with... maintain a current, up-to-date list of non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports...

  5. 78 FR 14770 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non- Tariff Trade.... One aspect of increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI works... maintain a current, up-to- date list of non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports...

  6. [Bio-psycho-social history--is it still up to date in the time of media communication?].

    PubMed

    Buddeberg, C

    2006-07-01

    Specialization in medicine changes the kind of communication between doctor and patient. The direct personal communication is quite often complemented by the indirect communication via interactive media. A clinical investigation still demands a broad bio-psycho-social anamnesis which should encompass the history of the illness, the patient, and his/her ailment. The bio-psycho-social anamnesis is subdivided into nine steps: Joining, "map", actual disease, former illnesses, family history, personal development, social anamnesis, overview of the functioning of the systems, finalization of the anamnesis. The different steps are explained, and adequate techniques of exploration are described. How to conduct a professional doctor-patient conversation and exploration can similarly be learnt as the techniques of a physical investigation. These communication skills should be continuously taught during the education of medical students as well as during the further training of physicians.

  7. [A very up-to-date stage in the fate of infectious diseases: parasitic and fungal opportunistic infections].

    PubMed

    Ambroise-Thomas, P; Grillot, R

    1995-04-01

    Opportunistic parasitosis and mycosis are becoming ever more widespread, mainly under the influence of major immunodeficiencies, either acquired (AIDS) or therapeutic. In this general overview, their main aspects, both clinical and epidemiological, are underlined. In terms of epidemiology, three types of phenomena have been observed: 1) emergence of human parasitosis unknown before (microsporidiosis due to Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoom hellem or Septata intestinalis); 2) among the human parasites already known, identification of very pathogenic strains (Toxoplasma gondii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans); 3) origin probably or certainly nosocomial of certain infections (pneumocystosis; toxoplasmosis and visceral leishmaniasis transmitted during bone-marrow or organ transplantations). The development of deep mycosis (invasive aspergillosis) is particularly promoted by granulopenia and alterations in the phagocytosis. On the other hand, opportunistic protozoosis (toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis) and helminthiasis (strongyloidosis due to Strongyloides stercolaris) are related, above all, to disorders in cellular immunity (deficit of CD4+, mainly). Finally, several of these infections may be characterised by a variety of clinical pictures and outcome, depending on the contributory factors (immunodeficit or not) which led to the development of the infection.

  8. Up-to-date observations of space energetic particles made by the Chinese satellite Fengyun-1 (B).

    PubMed

    Ye, Z h; Chen, G f; Zhu, G w; Shen, S z; Liang, J b; Huang, H j

    1994-10-01

    This paper presents the observational results of space energetic particles obtained by the Cosmic Ray Composition Monitor (CRCM) onboard the Chinese satellite, Fengyun-1(B). These results, including those of a few solar proton events, the geomagnetically trapped particles and the anomalous cosmic ray components, were obtained from 3 September 1990 to 15 February 1991. The observed elements include H, He, C, N, O and Fe of energies from 4-23 MeV/u. It was found that the proton fluxes of the inner Radiation Belt (IRB) increased obviously during the period of solar proton event (SPE). A few kinds of heavy ions (Z > or = 6) were also detected in the IRB. As to the anomalous cosmic ray component (ACRC), in addition to C, N and O, anomalous iron particles were also recorded.

  9. Methionine synthase A2756G polymorphism and breast cancer risk: an up-to-date meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shanliang; Xu, Jinjin; Li, Wenjing; Chen, Zhiyuan; Ma, Tengfei; Zhao, Jianhua

    2013-09-25

    The methionine synthase (MTR) gene polymorphism A2756G has been linked to the risk of developing breast cancer, but the available results were inconsistent and underpowered. To derive a more precise estimation of the association between A2756G and breast cancer risk, an updated meta-analysis of 16 available studies with 9866 cases and 11,702 controls estimating the association between MTR A2756G and breast cancer risk was conducted. The quality of these studies was generally good except 2 studies with a lowest score 4 according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The results suggested that there is no significant association between A2756G and breast cancer risk in overall results. In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, source of controls (population or hospital-based), Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in controls, sample size (≥1000 and <1000 subjects), and menopausal status, the 2756G allele was associated with a decreased risk in Caucasians, PB (population-based) subgroup, and large studies. But the associations disappeared after removing the studies not in HWE. On the contrary, an increased risk was found in small studies. In conclusion, the findings suggest that MTR A2756G polymorphism is not associated with altered susceptibility to breast cancer, while the observed decreased risk in Caucasians, PB subgroup, and large studies and increased risk in small studies may be due to selection bias or other unknown factors.

  10. Up-to-date modification of the anaerobic sludge digestion process introducing a separate sludge digestion mode.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Ochi, S; Mizuochi, M

    2001-01-01

    Sewage treatment plants in Japan are subjected to advanced treatment to remove nutrients and hence control eutrophication problems in lakes and bays. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the separate digestion treatment mode for sludge generated from advanced wastewater treatment. In the separate digestion only primary sludge is digested and the excess activated sludge is directly dewatered. Separate digestion can reduce the return load of nutrients to approximately one third, and has major potential for the beneficial use of sludge.

  11. [Effects of alcohol on the upper gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas--an up-to-date overview].

    PubMed

    Siegmund, S V; Singer, M V

    2005-08-01

    The oesophagus, stomach and pancreas are primary target organs for ethanol-related diseases. In the oesophagus and stomach, ethanol induces motility disorders and mucosal lesions that are dose-dependent and reversible under acute conditions. Chronic consumption of alcohol causes a significant increase in the risk for squamous carcinoma of the oesophagus. All of these effects are mainly caused by direct contact of alcohol or its metabolite acetaldehyde with the mucosa. Non-alcoholic components are responsible for many effects of alcoholic beverages, including the powerful stimulation of gastric acid secretion by beverages that are produced by fermentation. In the exocrine pancreas, alcohol induces secretory alterations that are mainly affected by the manner and duration of alcohol exposure, the additional administration of food, the type of beverage or the basal secretory state of the gland. Because the pancreas is not topically exposed to ethanol, these ethanol effects on pancreatic secretion are primarily caused by systemic cholinergic mechanisms of the vagus nerve. Chronic alcohol abuse may cause chronic alcoholic pancreatitis after recurrent subclinical inflammatory episodes. Genetic predispositions are believed to play an additional role in the pathomechanism of the disease. In contrast to the cardiovascular system, moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages does not have any beneficial health effects on the oesophagus, stomach or pancreas. Future research needs to define the exact molecular mechanisms and the role of different genetic predispositions for alcohol-induced diseases as well as the effects of the non-alcoholic components of alcoholic beverages.

  12. Any role for probiotics in the therapy or prevention of autoimmune diseases? Up-to-date review.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Öner

    2013-08-06

    Probiotic use as capable preventive and therapeutic strategy in different diseases varying from allergic to autoimmune disease (AD) has been recently reported. Three interacting factors including an aberrant intestinal microbiota, a "leaky" intestinal mucosal barrier, and altered intestinal immune responsiveness have been suggested to be able to create a "perfect environment" for AD development. Regulation of intestinal microflora composition by probiotics offers the possibility to influence the development of mucosal/systemic immunity besides ADs. Moreover, with various strains of probiotics, development and/or stimulation of T helper type 2 (Th2)-mediated immune responses causing exacerbation of atopic disease have been described. Similarly, certain probiotics are known to stimulate Th1 immunity, which has been suggested as one of the mechanisms by which they can suppress Th2-mediated allergic diseases. Consequently, this presumed that excessive immunostimulation might aggravate or induce Th1-mediated immune responses and diseases such as type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and it might cause an additional safety issue. Although there is a large amount of conflicting data on the preventive/therapeutic effects of probiotics in ADs, there is fairly promising evidence to recommend as well. Thus, probiotic use cannot be generally recommended for primary prevention and therapy of ADs for now.

  13. Coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer: findings from a large up-to-date meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Je, Youjin; Giovannucci, Edward

    2012-10-01

    Several epidemiological studies have examined the association between coffee drinking and risk of endometrial cancer. To provide a quantitative assessment of this association, we conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies published up to October 2011 through a search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and the reference lists of retrieved article. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model, and generalized least square trend estimation was used to assess dose-response relationships. A total of 16 studies (10 case-control and six cohort studies) on coffee intake with 6,628 endometrial cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RR of endometrial cancer for the highest versus lowest categories of coffee intake was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.62-0.81; p for heterogeneity = 0.13). By study design, the pooled RRs were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.55-0.87) for case-control studies and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.61-0.80) for cohort studies. By geographic region, the inverse association was stronger for three Japanese studies (pooled RR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.25-0.63) than five studies from USA/Canada (pooled RR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.60-0.79) or eight studies from Europe (pooled RR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63-0.99). An increment of one cup per day of coffee intake conferred a pooled RR of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90-0.95). In conclusion, our findings suggest that increased coffee intake is associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer, consistently observed for cohort and case-control studies. More large studies are needed to determine subgroups to obtain more benefits from coffee drinking in relation to endometrial cancer risk.

  14. Doxepin up-to-date: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy with particular reference to depression.

    PubMed

    Pinder, R M; Brogden, R N; Speight, T M; Avery, G S

    1977-03-01

    Doxepin is closely related in structure and general pharmacological properties to other tricyclic antidepressant drugs such as amitriptyline and imipramine. It combines antidepressant activity with a sedative effect and in this respect resembles amitriptyline, with which it shares a similar profile of clinical action. The mood elevating effect of doxepin appears to be similar to that of amitriptyline but is probably less marked than that of imipramine and in some studies has been slower to take effect than imipramine. At dosages which have achieved a similar overall response rate, doxepin tends to cause fewer or less troublesome side-effects than imipramine, amitriptyline or amitriptyline-prephenazine. The more marked sedative properties of doxepin make it more useful than imipramine in depressed patients with sleep distrubances and in depression associated with anxiety. The benzodiazepines remain the drugs of choice in anxiety states. but when anxiety is accompained by significant depression, doxepin is more effective than chlordiazepoxide or diazepam. Doxepin is usually well tolerated, and in particular by the elderly and those with cardiovascular disease. Side-effects are similar in nature to those of other tricyclic antidepressants, with dry mouth, drowsiness and constipation being the most common. Postural hypotension is uncommon. Although doxepin appears to cause fewer cardiovascular side-effects in usual therapeutic doses, it has an intrinsic cardiotoxicity on overdosage similar to other tricyclics.

  15. Up-to-date UBV light and O-C curves analyses of the eclipsing binary V477 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deǧirmenci, Ö. L.; Gülmen, Ö.; Sezer, C.; Ibanoǧlu, C.; Çakırlı, Ö.

    2003-10-01

    New and complete UBV light curves and times of minimum are presented for the Algol-type eclipsing binary V477 Cygni (Sp. A3 V+F5 V, mv =8.5, P=2.347 days). The binary orbit of the system is highly eccentric and the system shows an apsidal motion. Using the Wilson-Devinney method, two photometric models, without (MODEL A) and with (MODEL B) third-body light contribution to the total light of the system, are obtained. Period analysis also gives some slender evidence for the unseen third-body in the system with the orbital period of about 157 years. In the MODEL A approximation the apsidal motion period is obtained to be 371 years while it is about 434 years in the MODEL B approximation. The photometric mass ratio (q ~ 0.75) is in good agreement with the spectroscopic value given by Popper (\\cite{Popper1968}). The masses we obtained are 1.80+/-0.10 Msun and 1.35+/-0.08 Msun and the radii are 1.60+/-0.03 Rsun and 1.42+/-0.03 Rsun for the primary and secondary components, respectively. Absolute dimensions have been compared with the models using a moderate amount of convective overshooting and mass loss given by Claret & Giménez (\\cite{Claret1991}). In the log M - log R diagram both components are located above but close to the ZAMS. It is possible to say from the log Te - log L diagram that the secondary component is just coming to the main sequence while the primary is slightly evolved from the ZAMS. The theoretical evolutionary models give an age of 6.4*E8 yrs for the system. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.73.128.5) or via http:/ / cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr /cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/409/959

  16. An up-to-date review of theories of shock therapies: are convulsive shock therapies "moral treatments"?

    PubMed

    Berkwitz, N J

    1974-11-01

    About four decades ago, empirically developed shock therapies were introduced as treatments for mental disorders. However, there still remains today a wide disagreement as to why these procedures are effective. It has long been known that the behavior in lower animals can be altered by the use of planned psychologcal methods. Likewise psychological procedures (employing such factors as suggestion and fear) had been used by preliterate man all through the ages in the treatment of mental illness. During the past century various types of pre-modern shock therapies using suggestion, fear or excitation were used in different forms. Electricity was the most common form used and favorable effects from its use were reported. These treatments were often referred to as "moral treatment" (as having psychological rather than physical effects). Employing the hypothesis that pharmacologic shock therapies could be categorized mainly as forms of central stimulation or excitation and sedation, the writer used Faradic electric stimulation (similar to currents frequently used in the past century) plus a rapidly acting intravenous drug for sedation. This procedure was used by the writer before he had learned that Cerletti and Bini had advocated the use of electric stimulation to produce immediate convulsions as a substitute for metrazol. The fact that definite improvement was observed with the Faradic stimulation and sedation led the writer to believe that the use of fear and suggestion were likewise the paramount therapeutic factors of modern shock therapy. One should discriminate the fear and anxiety which are frequent symptoms in mental disorders from the fear and anxiety a patient usually shows as he anticipates the treatment as an imminent danger or as a punishment. The purpose of this paper is not to attempt to prove which form ofhock treatment i is best,t rabuher to demonstrate the similarity of the modus peranodi in all forms of shock therapies.

  17. Up-to-Date Workflow for Plant (Phospho)proteomics Identifies Differential Drought-Responsive Phosphorylation Events in Maize Leaves.

    PubMed

    Vu, Lam Dai; Stes, Elisabeth; Van Bel, Michiel; Nelissen, Hilde; Maddelein, Davy; Inzé, Dirk; Coppens, Frederik; Martens, Lennart; Gevaert, Kris; De Smet, Ive

    2016-12-02

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most common post-translational modifications (PTMs), which can regulate protein activity and localization as well as protein-protein interactions in numerous cellular processes. Phosphopeptide enrichment techniques enable plant researchers to acquire insight into phosphorylation-controlled signaling networks in various plant species. Most phosphoproteome analyses of plant samples still involve stable isotope labeling, peptide fractionation, and demand a lot of mass spectrometry (MS) time. Here, we present a simple workflow to probe, map, and catalogue plant phosphoproteomes, requiring relatively low amounts of starting material, no labeling, no fractionation, and no excessive analysis time. Following optimization of the different experimental steps on Arabidopsis thaliana samples, we transferred our workflow to maize, a major monocot crop, to study signaling upon drought stress. In addition, we included normalization to protein abundance to identify true phosphorylation changes. Overall, we identified a set of new phosphosites in both Arabidopsis thaliana and maize, some of which are differentially phosphorylated upon drought. All data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003634, but to provide easy access to our model plant and crop data sets, we created an online database, Plant PTM Viewer ( bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/webtools/ptm_viewer/ ), where all phosphosites identified in our study can be consulted.

  18. Multi-Target Directed Indole Based Hybrid Molecules in Cancer Therapy: An Up-To-Date Evidence-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Sunil, Dhanya; Kamath, Pooja R

    2016-09-27

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease and most of its types still remain incurable, in spite of enormous efforts to explicate various tumor pathophysiology. The anti-cancer drug discovery paradigm "one-compound-one-target" has failed and subsequently shifted to two-drug cocktail and recently the "multi-target approach" in order to design and develop agents able to act simultaneously on multiple intracellular constituents and signaling pathways. Novel hybrid compounds are now designed by incorporating two covalently linked independently acting pharmacores, each efficient at combating cancer. They can deliver synergistic effects from the dual action of both independently acting moieties by interacting with multiple targets. These composite molecules are also less prone to drug resistance, leading to an improved pharmacological potency than each individual moiety. As indole nucleus is a central component of many natural and synthetic molecules with extensive biological activity, this review incorporates a variety of such hybrid compounds with indole moiety as one of the active units, where better therapeutic effect has been successfully achieved, by either simultaneous or sequential action of individual functional pharmacore. The current limitations and challenges encountered in the development of these hybrid agents are also discussed.

  19. The Fast-Paced iPad Revolution: Can Educators Stay up to Date and Relevant about These Ubiquitous Devices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peluso, Deanna C. C.

    2012-01-01

    Stepping into a modern day classroom, one will find that it is filled with a ubiquitous array of multimodal and digital resources, yet a majority of these revolutionary resources are likely not school issued, rather they were brought by the young people themselves. Digital mediums for communication, expression and multimodally engaging in one's…

  20. Posterior tibial tendon impingement due to os subtibiale: a case report and up-to-date review.

    PubMed

    Turan, Adil; Kose, Ozkan; Acar, Baver; Unal, Melih

    2017-05-01

    Os subtibiale is a rare accessory ossicle located at the tip of the medial malleolus. Although this small ossicle usually has no clinical significance, in some cases it may be a source of ankle pain. Symptomatic os subtibiale is an extremely rare diagnosis, and few cases have been reported to date. The case presented is of a 35-year-old female patient with symptomatic os subtibiale, with a discussion of the diagnosis, clinical findings, and treatment options.

  1. Toll-like receptors as a key regulator of mesenchymal stem cell function: An up-to-date review.

    PubMed

    Shirjang, Solmaz; Mansoori, Behzad; Solali, Saeed; Hagh, Majid Farshdousti; Shamsasenjan, Karim

    2016-12-26

    Understanding the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the immunomodulation potential, differentiation, migration, and survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is absolutely vital to fully exploiting their MSC-based therapeutic potential. Furthermore, through recognition of exogenous or endogenous ligands produced upon injury, TLRs have been linked to allograft rejection and maintenance of chronic inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis. Characterizing the effect of TLRs in biological control of MSCs fate and function could improve our knowledge about the MSC-based cell therapy and immunotherapy. In this paper, we outline the impacts of TLR activation and mechanisms on MSCs immunomodulatory functions, differentiation, migration, and survivability. Moreover, we indicate that the expression patterns of TLRs in MSCs from different sources.

  2. [Evaluation of corneal biomechanics before and after up-to-date keratoplasty in patients with bullous keratopathy].

    PubMed

    Trufanov, S V; Antonov, A A; Malozhen, S A; Siplivyi, V I

    2015-01-01

    Цель — изучить биомеханические особенности роговицы у пациентов с буллезной кератопатией до и после кератопластики. Материал и методы. На основании данных пневмотонометрии с динамической двунаправленной апланацией роговицы изучили биомеханические свойства роговой оболочки глаза до и после кератопластики у 37 больных (37 глаз) буллезной кератопатией. В 17 случаях провели эндотелиальную кератопластику с удалением десцеметовой мембраны в модификации UTDSAEK (Ultrathin Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty), в 13 случаях — автоматизированную эндотелиальную кератопластику с фиксацией трансплантата под поверхностным лоскутом роговицы реципиента (ЭК-Л), в 7 случаях — мануальную частичную обратную грибовидную кератопластику (ЧОГКП). Исследование проводили до операции, через 1, 2, 6 мес и 1, 2, 3, 5 лет после кератопластики. Результаты. Показатели роговичного гистерезиса (Corneal Hysteresis, СН) и фактора резистентности роговицы (Corneal Resistance Factor, CRF) были достоверно снижены на глазах с буллезной кератопатией по сравнению со здоровыми глазами (p<0,05). После ЭК-Л, UTDSAEK и ЧОГКП биомеханические свойства роговицы к 6 мес частично восстанавливались и стабилизировались, но оставались достоверно ниже нормы (p<0,05). Разница этих показателей при разных видах кератопластики и в различные сроки после операции оказалась статистически недостоверна. На глазах с буллезной кератопатией средние значения компенсированного давления (Corneal-Compensated Intraocular Pressure, IOPcc) превышали средние значения внутриглазного давления, измеренного по Гольдману (Goldmann-Correlated Intraocular Pressure, IOPg), на 2,4 мм рт.ст. Через 1 мес после кератопластики разница этих показателей составляла 2,7; 4,3; 3,6 мм рт.ст., к 6 мес — 2,6; 2,4 и 3,6 мм рт.ст. при ЭК-Л, UTDSAEK и ЧОГКП соответственно (p<0,05). На парных глазах с клинически здоровой роговицей эти показатели не имели статистически достоверных различий. Заключение. Хронический отек роговицы ведет к нарушению ее вязкоэластических свойств. Значения СН и CRF достоверно снижены по сравнению со здоровым глазом. После изученных видов кератопластики биомеханические свойства роговицы частично восстанавливаются, но остаются ниже нормы на протяжении всего срока наблюдения (до 5 лет). Толщина роговицы на фоне ее хронического отека, а также после кератопластики не коррелирует с ее биомеханическими свойствами. Снижение жесткости роговицы на глазах с буллезной кератопатией и после кератопластики ведет к недооценке истинного уровня внутриглазного давления и может являться причиной несвоевременной диагностики сопутствующей глаукомы.

  3. Viking observation of water vapor on Mars: Revision from up-to-date spectroscopy and atmospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, A. A.; Trokhimovsky, S.; Korablev, O.; Montmessin, F.

    2010-07-01

    A reanalysis of the Mars Atmospheric Water Detector (MAWD, Viking 1 and 2 Orbiters) Planetary Data System (PDS) data set (Jakosky, B.M., Farmer, C.B. [1982]. J. Geophys. Res. 87 (B4), 2999-3019) is presented taking into account a new spectroscopic database and improved atmospheric model assumptions. Starting from HITRAN 2004 edition and later (Rothman, L.S., and 29 colleagues [2005]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 96, 139-204), the number of lines in the 1.38-μm band has been significantly increased, and their parameters have been modified. The implication of this new spectroscopic data and atmospheric model based on Martian Climate Database (MCD, Forget, F., Hourdin, F., Fournier, R., Hourdin, C., Talagrand, O., Collins, M., Lewis, S.R., Read, P.L., Huot, J.-P. [1999]. J. Geophys. Res. 104 (E10), 24155-24176) gives a significant impact on the H 2O retrieval: the total H 2O abundance after the reanalysis has decreased twofold in all seasons and most of geographic locations. Overall decrease is associated with larger cumulative strength of the band in HITRAN 2004; low saturation height of water profiles imposed by MCD significantly contributes to decrease of summer polar maximum. Revised MAWD data are compared with later H 2O measurements on Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars-Express (MEX). A good agreement with SPICAM/MEX near-IR (1.38-μm band) measurements is found. However, both sets of near-IR measurements are systematically below TES/MGS results obtained in thermal infrared, with a factor of 1.5-2.0. This difference might be associated with remaining ambiguity of the near IR spectral data, and of line broadening in CO 2 in both spectral ranges. The reanalyzed MAWD data are in much better agreement with later measurements suggesting more homogeneous, and significantly dryer water cycle on Mars, with no signature of change between the Viking epoch (MY12-14) and MGS-Mars-Express measurements (MY24-29).

  4. Up-to-date state and prospects for the development of geothermal resources of the North Caucasus region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    The modern state of production and use of geothermal resources of the region is evaluated and the low efficiency of their development is shown. Promising developmental technologies of hydrogeothermal resources of various energy potentials with attachment to concrete geothermal deposits are presented. Technologies on the complex development of hydrogeothermal resources with the use of water for drinking or industrial water supply, the thermal potential for various energy needs, and the extraction of the gas and mineral components dissolved in water are highly efficient technologies, which make it possible to solve important environmental, economical, and social problems of the region.

  5. Classification of Informal Settlements Through the Integration of 2d and 3d Features Extracted from Uav Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevaert, C. M.; Persello, C.; Sliuzas, R.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are capable of providing very high resolution and up-to-date information to support informal settlement upgrading projects. In order to provide accurate basemaps, urban scene understanding through the identification and classification of buildings and terrain is imperative. However, common characteristics of informal settlements such as small, irregular buildings with heterogeneous roof material and large presence of clutter challenge state-of-the-art algorithms. Especially the dense buildings and steeply sloped terrain cause difficulties in identifying elevated objects. This work investigates how 2D radiometric and textural features, 2.5D topographic features, and 3D geometric features obtained from UAV imagery can be integrated to obtain a high classification accuracy in challenging classification problems for the analysis of informal settlements. It compares the utility of pixel-based and segment-based features obtained from an orthomosaic and DSM with point-based and segment-based features extracted from the point cloud to classify an unplanned settlement in Kigali, Rwanda. Findings show that the integration of 2D and 3D features leads to higher classification accuracies.

  6. Integrating complementary information for photorealistic representation of large-scale environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinhui

    2007-12-01

    and detailed edges. We then enhance the models with high-resolution facade textures to improve the visual quality, and update them with dynamic textures from videos to capture the most up-to-date environment information. The representation results have accurate surfaces, detailed edges, overview colors, ground view textures and real-time imagery information.

  7. Summarizing drug information in Medline citations.

    PubMed

    Fiszman, Marcelo; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Kilicoglu, Halil

    2006-01-01

    Adverse drug events and drug-drug interactions are a major concern in patient care. Although databases exist to provide information about drugs, they are not always up-to-date and complete (particularly regarding pharmacogenetics). We propose a methodology based on automatic summarization to identify drug information in Medline citations and present results to the user in a convenient form. We evaluate the method on a selection of citations discussing ten drugs ranging from the proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole to the vasoconstrictor sumatriptan. We suggest that automatic summarization can provide a valuable adjunct to curated drug databases in supporting quality patient care.

  8. Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galant, D. C.; Goorvitch, D.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schrodinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.

  9. Informational influences on physician referrals.

    PubMed

    Beltramini, R F; Sirsi, A K

    1992-01-01

    Today's health care marketers are devoting significant resources to increase physician referrals, an area vital to their continued survival. The goal of this investigation was to integrate the findings of previous research on physician referrals, and to provide an up-to-date assessment of those influences underlying physician referral behavior. A questionnaire was mailed to 1,800 physicians differing in specialty and years in practice. Three informational influences were found to affect physician referrals: Program Information, Patient Input, and Location. The results suggest a need for specialists and other organizations interested in managing physician referrals to (a) establish and maintain a network of relationships among those physicians referring patients and specialists being referred to through personal communication, (b) maintain a pool of knowledgeable professionals willing to supply relevant and current information to physicians, and (c) provide complete and prompt feedback information to the referring physician. Managerial implications and directions for future research are also discussed.

  10. The high cost of accurate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Kathleen M; Weber, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    Many business thinkers believe it's the role of senior managers to scan the external environment to monitor contingencies and constraints, and to use that precise knowledge to modify the company's strategy and design. As these thinkers see it, managers need accurate and abundant information to carry out that role. According to that logic, it makes sense to invest heavily in systems for collecting and organizing competitive information. Another school of pundits contends that, since today's complex information often isn't precise anyway, it's not worth going overboard with such investments. In other words, it's not the accuracy and abundance of information that should matter most to top executives--rather, it's how that information is interpreted. After all, the role of senior managers isn't just to make decisions; it's to set direction and motivate others in the face of ambiguities and conflicting demands. Top executives must interpret information and communicate those interpretations--they must manage meaning more than they must manage information. So which of these competing views is the right one? Research conducted by academics Sutcliffe and Weber found that how accurate senior executives are about their competitive environments is indeed less important for strategy and corresponding organizational changes than the way in which they interpret information about their environments. Investments in shaping those interpretations, therefore, may create a more durable competitive advantage than investments in obtaining and organizing more information. And what kinds of interpretations are most closely linked with high performance? Their research suggests that high performers respond positively to opportunities, yet they aren't overconfident in their abilities to take advantage of those opportunities.

  11. How utilities can achieve more accurate decommissioning cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.

    1999-07-01

    The number of commercial nuclear power plants that are undergoing decommissioning coupled with the economic pressure of deregulation has increased the focus on adequate funding for decommissioning. The introduction of spent-fuel storage and disposal of low-level radioactive waste into the cost analysis places even greater concern as to the accuracy of the fund calculation basis. The size and adequacy of the decommissioning fund have also played a major part in the negotiations for transfer of plant ownership. For all of these reasons, it is important that the operating plant owner reduce the margin of error in the preparation of decommissioning cost estimates. To data, all of these estimates have been prepared via the building block method. That is, numerous individual calculations defining the planning, engineering, removal, and disposal of plant systems and structures are performed. These activity costs are supplemented by the period-dependent costs reflecting the administration, control, licensing, and permitting of the program. This method will continue to be used in the foreseeable future until adequate performance data are available. The accuracy of the activity cost calculation is directly related to the accuracy of the inventory of plant system component, piping and equipment, and plant structural composition. Typically, it is left up to the cost-estimating contractor to develop this plant inventory. The data are generated by searching and analyzing property asset records, plant databases, piping and instrumentation drawings, piping system isometric drawings, and component assembly drawings. However, experience has shown that these sources may not be up to date, discrepancies may exist, there may be missing data, and the level of detail may not be sufficient. Again, typically, the time constraints associated with the development of the cost estimate preclude perfect resolution of the inventory questions. Another problem area in achieving accurate cost

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder Updates – Relevant Information for Early Interventionists to Consider

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Meares, Paula; MacDonald, Megan; McGee, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication skills as well as repetitive, restricted or stereotyped behaviors (1). Early interventionists are often found at the forefront of assessment, evaluation, and early intervention services for children with ASD. The role of an early intervention specialist may include assessing developmental history, providing group and individual counseling, working in partnership with families on home, school, and community environments, mobilizing school and community resources, and assisting in the development of positive early intervention strategies (2, 3). The commonality among these roles resides in the importance of providing up-to-date, relevant information to families and children. The purpose of this review is to provide pertinent up-to-date knowledge for early interventionists to help inform practice in working with individuals with ASD, including common behavioral models of intervention. PMID:27840812

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder Updates - Relevant Information for Early Interventionists to Consider.

    PubMed

    Allen-Meares, Paula; MacDonald, Megan; McGee, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication skills as well as repetitive, restricted or stereotyped behaviors (1). Early interventionists are often found at the forefront of assessment, evaluation, and early intervention services for children with ASD. The role of an early intervention specialist may include assessing developmental history, providing group and individual counseling, working in partnership with families on home, school, and community environments, mobilizing school and community resources, and assisting in the development of positive early intervention strategies (2, 3). The commonality among these roles resides in the importance of providing up-to-date, relevant information to families and children. The purpose of this review is to provide pertinent up-to-date knowledge for early interventionists to help inform practice in working with individuals with ASD, including common behavioral models of intervention.

  14. A Time-Accurate Upwind Unstructured Finite Volume Method for Compressible Flow with Cure of Pathological Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.

    2007-01-01

    A time-accurate, upwind, finite volume method for computing compressible flows on unstructured grids is presented. The method is second order accurate in space and time and yields high resolution in the presence of discontinuities. For efficiency, the Roe approximate Riemann solver with an entropy correction is employed. In the basic Euler/Navier-Stokes scheme, many concepts of high order upwind schemes are adopted: the surface flux integrals are carefully treated, a Cauchy-Kowalewski time-stepping scheme is used in the time-marching stage, and a multidimensional limiter is applied in the reconstruction stage. However even with these up-to-date improvements, the basic upwind scheme is still plagued by the so-called "pathological behaviors," e.g., the carbuncle phenomenon, the expansion shock, etc. A solution to these limitations is presented which uses a very simple dissipation model while still preserving second order accuracy. This scheme is referred to as the enhanced time-accurate upwind (ETAU) scheme in this paper. The unstructured grid capability renders flexibility for use in complex geometry; and the present ETAU Euler/Navier-Stokes scheme is capable of handling a broad spectrum of flow regimes from high supersonic to subsonic at very low Mach number, appropriate for both CFD (computational fluid dynamics) and CAA (computational aeroacoustics). Numerous examples are included to demonstrate the robustness of the methods.

  15. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Nathanial S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories—such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia—for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Methods Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Results Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Conclusions Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used

  16. Translating Knowledge into Action: Supporting Adaptation in Australia's Coastal Zone through Information Provision and Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palutikof, J. P.; Rissik, D.; Tonmoy, F. N.; Boulter, S.

    2015-12-01

    Adaptation to risks from climate change and sea-level rise is particularly important in Australia, where 70% of the population live in major coastal cities and 85% within 50km of the coast. Adaptation activity focuses at local government level and, in the absence of strong leadership from central government, the extent to which local councils have taken action to adapt is highly variable across the nation. Also, although a number of councils have proceeded as far as identifying their exposure to risk and considering adaptation options, this fails to translate into action. A principal reason for this is concern over the response from coastal residents to actions which may affect property values, and fear of litigation. A project is underway to support councils to understand their risks, evaluate adaptation options and proceed to action. This support will consist of a three-pronged framework: provision of information, a tool to support decision-making, and a community forum. Delivery involves research to understand the barriers to adaptation and how these may be overcome, optimal methods for delivery of information, and the information needs of organizations, action-takers and communities. The presentation will focus on the results of consultation undertaken to understand users' information needs around content and delivery, and how understanding of these needs has translated into design of the framework. A strongly preference was expressed to learn from peers, and a challenge for the framework is to understand how to inject adaptation knowledge which is up-to-date and accurate into peer-to-peer conversations. The community forum is one mechanism to achieve this. The basic structure and delivery mechanisms of the framework are shown in the attached.

  17. New law requires 'medically accurate' lesson plans.

    PubMed

    1999-09-17

    The California Legislature has passed a bill requiring all textbooks and materials used to teach about AIDS be medically accurate and objective. Statements made within the curriculum must be supported by research conducted in compliance with scientific methods, and published in peer-reviewed journals. Some of the current lesson plans were found to contain scientifically unsupported and biased information. In addition, the bill requires material to be "free of racial, ethnic, or gender biases." The legislation is supported by a wide range of interests, but opposed by the California Right to Life Education Fund, because they believe it discredits abstinence-only material.

  18. Mobile Gis: a Tool for Informal Settlement Occupancy Audit to Improve Integrated Human Settlement Implementation in Ekurhuleni, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokoena, B. T.; Musakwa, W.

    2016-06-01

    Upgrading and relocating people in informal settlements requires consistent commitment, good strategies and systems so as to improve the lives of those who live in them. In South Africa, in order to allocate subsidised housing to beneficiaries of an informal settlement, beneficiary administration needs to be completed to determine the number of people who qualify for a subsidised house. Conventional methods of occupancy audits are often unreliable, cumbersome and non-spatial. Accordingly, this study proposes the use of mobile GIS to conduct these audits to provide up-to-date, accurate, comprehensive and real-time data so as to facilitate the development of integrated human settlements. An occupancy audit was subsequently completed for one of the communities in the Ekurhuleni municipality, Gauteng province, using web-based mobile GIS as a solution to providing smart information through evidence based decision making. Fieldworkers accessed the off-line capturing module on a mobile device recording GPS coordinates, socio-economic information and photographs. The results of this audit indicated that only 56.86% of the households residing within the community could potentially benefit from receiving a subsidised house. Integrated residential development, which includes fully and partially subsidised housing, serviced stands and some fully bonded housing opportunities, would then be key to adequately providing access to suitable housing options within a project in a post-colonial South Africa, creating new post-1994 neighbourhoods, in line with policy. The use of mobile GIS therefore needs to be extended to other informal settlement upgrading projects in South Africa.

  19. Non-targeted analysis of electronics waste by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry: Using accurate mass information and mass defect analysis to explore the data.

    PubMed

    Ubukata, Masaaki; Jobst, Karl J; Reiner, Eric J; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Tao, Qingping; Hang, Jiliang; Wu, Zhanpin; Dane, A John; Cody, Robert B

    2015-05-22

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) offer the best possible separation of their respective techniques. Recent commercialization of combined GC×GC-HRMS systems offers new possibilities for the analysis of complex mixtures. However, such experiments yield enormous data sets that require new informatics tools to facilitate the interpretation of the rich information content. This study reports on the analysis of dust obtained from an electronics recycling facility by using GC×GC in combination with a new high-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. New software tools for (non-traditional) Kendrick mass defect analysis were developed in this research and greatly aided in the identification of compounds containing chlorine and bromine, elements that feature in most persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In essence, the mass defect plot serves as a visual aid from which halogenated compounds are recognizable on the basis of their mass defect and isotope patterns. Mass chromatograms were generated based on specific ions identified in the plots as well as region of the plot predominantly occupied by halogenated contaminants. Tentative identification was aided by database searches, complementary electron-capture negative ionization experiments and elemental composition determinations from the exact mass data. These included known and emerging flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromobenzene, tetrabromo bisphenol A and tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), as well as other legacy contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs).

  20. On numerically accurate finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagtegaal, J. C.; Parks, D. M.; Rice, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A general criterion for testing a mesh with topologically similar repeat units is given, and the analysis shows that only a few conventional element types and arrangements are, or can be made suitable for computations in the fully plastic range. Further, a new variational principle, which can easily and simply be incorporated into an existing finite element program, is presented. This allows accurate computations to be made even for element designs that would not normally be suitable. Numerical results are given for three plane strain problems, namely pure bending of a beam, a thick-walled tube under pressure, and a deep double edge cracked tensile specimen. The effects of various element designs and of the new variational procedure are illustrated. Elastic-plastic computation at finite strain are discussed.

  1. Accurate ab Initio Spin Densities.

    PubMed

    Boguslawski, Katharina; Marti, Konrad H; Legeza, Ors; Reiher, Markus

    2012-06-12

    We present an approach for the calculation of spin density distributions for molecules that require very large active spaces for a qualitatively correct description of their electronic structure. Our approach is based on the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm to calculate the spin density matrix elements as a basic quantity for the spatially resolved spin density distribution. The spin density matrix elements are directly determined from the second-quantized elementary operators optimized by the DMRG algorithm. As an analytic convergence criterion for the spin density distribution, we employ our recently developed sampling-reconstruction scheme [J. Chem. Phys.2011, 134, 224101] to build an accurate complete-active-space configuration-interaction (CASCI) wave function from the optimized matrix product states. The spin density matrix elements can then also be determined as an expectation value employing the reconstructed wave function expansion. Furthermore, the explicit reconstruction of a CASCI-type wave function provides insight into chemically interesting features of the molecule under study such as the distribution of α and β electrons in terms of Slater determinants, CI coefficients, and natural orbitals. The methodology is applied to an iron nitrosyl complex which we have identified as a challenging system for standard approaches [J. Chem. Theory Comput.2011, 7, 2740].

  2. Home Page: The Mode of Transport through the Information Superhighway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lujan, Michelle R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the project with the Aeroacoustics Branch was to create and submit a home page for the internet about branch information. In order to do this, one must also become familiar with the way that the internet operates. Learning HyperText Markup Language (HTML), and the ability to create a document using this language was the final objective in order to place a home page on the internet (World Wide Web). A manual of instructions regarding maintenance of the home page, and how to keep it up to date was also necessary in order to provide branch members with the opportunity to make any pertinent changes.

  3. 78 FR 34604 - Submitting Complete and Accurate Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    .... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is publishing for comment a petition for rulemaking (PRM) filed with... into ADAMS. The Petition The NRC has received a PRM (ADAMS Accession No. ML13113A443) requesting the... been docketed as PRM-50-107. The full text of the incoming petition is available at...

  4. Use of DBMS in Multi-step Information Systems for LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Data are obtained by the thematic mapper on LANDSAT 4 in seven bands and are telemetered and electronically recorded at ground station where the data must be geometrically and rediometrically corrected before a photographic image is produced. Current system characteristics for processing this information are described including the menu for data products reports. The tracking system provides up-to-date and complete information and requires that production stages adhere to the inherent DBMS structure. The concept can be applied to any procedures requiring status information.

  5. Accurate On-Line Intervention Practices for Efficient Improvement of Reading Skills in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Minda B.

    2016-01-01

    Lifelong learning is the only way to sustain proficient learning in a rapidly changing world. Knowledge and information are exploding across the globe. We need accurate ways to facilitate the process of drawing external factual information into an internal perceptive advantage from which to interpret and argue new information. Accurate and…

  6. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  7. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  8. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  9. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  10. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  11. Geospatial data infrastructure: The development of metadata for geo-information in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Baiquan; Yan, Shiqiang; Wang, Qianju; Lian, Jian; Wu, Xiaoping; Ding, Keyong

    2014-03-01

    Stores of geoscience records are in constant flux. These stores are continually added to by new information, ideas and data, which are frequently revised. The geoscience record is in restrained by human thought and technology for handling information. Conventional methods strive, with limited success, to maintain geoscience records which are readily susceptible and renewable. The information system must adapt to the diversity of ideas and data in geoscience and their changes through time. In China, more than 400,000 types of important geological data are collected and produced in geological work during the last two decades, including oil, natural gas and marine data, mine exploration, geophysical, geochemical, remote sensing and important local geological survey and research reports. Numerous geospatial databases are formed and stored in National Geological Archives (NGA) with available formats of MapGIS, ArcGIS, ArcINFO, Metalfile, Raster, SQL Server, Access and JPEG. But there is no effective way to warrant that the quality of information is adequate in theory and practice for decision making. The need for fast, reliable, accurate and up-to-date information by providing the Geographic Information System (GIS) communities are becoming insistent for all geoinformation producers and users in China. Since 2010, a series of geoinformation projects have been carried out under the leadership of the Ministry of Land and Resources (MLR), including (1) Integration, update and maintenance of geoinformation databases; (2) Standards research on clusterization and industrialization of information services; (3) Platform construction of geological data sharing; (4) Construction of key borehole databases; (5) Product development of information services. "Nine-System" of the basic framework has been proposed for the development and improvement of the geospatial data infrastructure, which are focused on the construction of the cluster organization, cluster service, convergence

  12. The dream of health information for all

    PubMed Central

    Proaño, Alvaro; Ruiz, Eloy F; Porudominsky, Ruben; Tapia, Jose Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, an influential report in The Lancet suggested that open health information for all could be achieved by 2015. Unfortunately, this goal has not yet been accomplished. Despite progress in obtaining quality scientific articles in Latin America, it remains difficult to reliably access new and cutting-edge research. As graduating Peruvian medical students, we have confronted many obstacles in obtaining access to quality and up-to-date information and a constant tension between accessing "what is available" rather than "what we need". As we have learned, these limitations affect not only our own education but also the choices we make in the management of our patients. In the following article, we state our point of view regarding limitations in access to scientific articles in Peru and Latin America. PMID:27081475

  13. Analysing the Sustainability of Urban Development: A review on the Potential Use of Volunteered Geographic Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, N.; Ujang, U.; Desa, G.; Ariffin, A.

    2015-10-01

    The challenges of how to ensure sustainable urban development are currently one of the important agenda among governments around the world. The stakeholders require the latest and high volume of geographic information for the decision making process to efficiently respond to challenges, improve service delivery to citizens, and plan a successful future of the city. However, it is time-consuming and costly to get the available information and some of the information is not up-to-date. Recently, GeoWeb 2.0 technological advances have increased the number of volunteers from non-professional citizen to contribute to the collection, sharing, and distribution of geographic information. The information known as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) has generated another approach of spatial data sources that can give up-to-date, huge volume of data, and available geographic information in a low cost for various applications. With this in mind, this paper presents a review of literature based on the potential use of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in measuring sustainability of urban development. The review highlighted that social, economic, and environment as three pertinent pillars relating to the use of VGI for measurement sustainable urban development.

  14. Energy Research Information System projects report. Volume 5, number 2. Report for August-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.

    1980-12-01

    The Energy Research Information System (ERIS) is a service administered by the Old West Regional Commission in response to the need for current information on research activities in the region's rapidly growing and changing field of energy. The purpose of ERIS is to compile and make available to the users in the Region an up-to-date inventory of ongoing and recently completed energy-related research projects. The subject areas covered are: reclamation, energy conversion, and land use research, socioeconomic impact and renewable energy development which do not necessarily involve research.

  15. Zumba: From Secondary Physical Education Classes to Adulthood Workouts: Staying up to Date with the Growing Trends of Physical Activity in and out of the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, Lindsey; Hall, Amber; Barney, David

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the background of Zumba, the need for it as a result of its growing popularity, the national standards it supports, and the necessary steps that need to be taken to properly implement Zumba in physical education programs. When taking a closer look at the standards that Zumba supports, it is evident that Zumba can serve as a…

  16. Clinical Psychology and Cardiovascular Disease: An Up-to-Date Clinical Practice Review for Assessment and Treatment of Anxiety and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Compare, Angelo; Germani, Elena; Proietti, Riccardo; Janeway, David

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present review is underline the association between cardiac diseases and anxiety and depression. In the first part of the article, there is a description of anxiety and depression from the definitions of DSM-IV TR. In the second part, the authors present the available tests and questionnaires to assess depression and anxiety in patients with cardiovascular disease. In the last part of the review different types of interventions are reported and compared; available interventions are pharmacological or psychological treatments. PMID:22016750

  17. Time to Say Goodbye to the 16 EPA PAHs? Toward an Up-to-Date Use of PACs for Environmental Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Jan T.; Achten, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The 16 EPA PAHs have played an exceptionally large role above all in environmental and analytical sciences in the last 40 years, but now there are good reasons to question their utility in many circumstances even though their use is so established and comfortable. Here we review the reasons why the list has been so successful and why sometimes it is seen as less relevant. Three groups of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are missing: larger and highly relevant PAHs, alkylated PACs, and compounds containing heteroatoms. Attempts to improve the situation for certain matrixes are known and here: (1) an updated list of PAHs (including the 16 EPA PAHs) for the evaluation of the toxicity in the environment (40 EnvPAHs); (2) a list of 23 NSO-heterocyclic compounds and 6 heterocyclic metabolites; and (3) lists of 10 oxy-PAHs and 10 nitro-PAHs are proposed for practical use in the future. A discussion in the scientific community about these lists is invited. Although the state of knowledge has improved dramatically since the introduction of the 16 EPA PAHs in the 1970s, this summary also shows that more research is needed about the toxicity, occurrence in the environment and chemical analysis, particularly of alkylated PAHs, higher molecular weight PAHs and substituted PACs such as amino-PAHs, cyano-PAHs, etc.. We also suggest that a long overdue discussion of an update of regulatory environmental PAH analysis is initiated. PMID:26823645

  18. Up-to-date Review and Cases Report on Chondral Defects of Knee Treated by ACI Technique: Clinical-instrumental and Histological Results.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Giacomo; Ghilardi, Marco; Bottai, Vanna; Bugelli, Giulia; Guido, Giulio; Giannotti, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    The limited regenerative potential of a full thickness defect of the knee joint cartilage has certainly conditioned the development of therapeutic strategies that take into account all the aspects of the healing process. The most common treatments to repair chondral and osteochondral lesions are bone marrow stimulation, osteochondral autograft transplantation, autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. We like to emphasize the difference between a chondral and an osteochondral lesion because the difference is sometimes lost in the literature. In the context of treatment of injuries of the knee joint cartilage, the second-generation autologous chondrocyte transplant is a consolidated surgical method alternative to other techniques. Our experience with the transplantation of chondrocytes has had exceptional clinical results. We report 2 complete cases of a group of 22 in knee and ankle. These 2 cases had histological and instrumental evaluation. We cannot express conclusions, but can only make considerations, stating that, with the clinical functional result being equal, we obtained an excellent macroscopic result in both cases of second look. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a multiple surgical procedure with expensive chondrocyte culture, but even with this limitation, we think that it must be the choice in treating chondral lesions, especially in young patients.

  19. Do We Pay Enough Attention to Culture Conditions in Context of Perinatal Outcome after In Vitro Fertilization? Up-to-Date Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Marianowski, Piotr; Dąbrowski, Filip A; Zyguła, Aleksandra; Wielgoś, Mirosław; Szymusik, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Adverse perinatal outcomes in singleton IVF pregnancies have been most often explained by parental underlying diseases and so far laboratory conditions during embryo culture are still not explored well. The following review discusses the current state of knowledge on the influence of IVF laboratory procedures on the possible perinatal outcome. The role of improved media for human embryo culture is unquestionable. Addition of certain components to culture media and their effect on embryo survival and implantation rates have been taken into consideration recently and studied on animal model. Impact of media on perinatal outcome in IVF offspring has also been studied. It has been discovered that epigenetic changes and neonatal birth weight are probably associated with the use of specific culture media, as is the relation between placental size and its influence on perinatal outcome. There are still questions in the discussion about duration of embryo culture (cleavage stage versus blastocyst transfer). Some of the IVF methods, such as in vitro maturation of oocytes and freezing/thawing procedures, also require well-powered randomized controlled trials in order to define their exact impact on perinatal outcome. Constant further research is needed to assess the impact of laboratory environment on fetal and postnatal development.

  20. Defense Infrastructure. Army’s Approach for Acquiring Land Is Not Guided by Up-to-Date Strategic Plan or Always Communicated Effectively

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    tortoise and Lane Mountain milk- vetch plant—both endangered species—and the Army proposed to purchase some land elsewhere to be used to protect the...desert tortoise and the milk- vetch . The Army noted that no community development had been planned for the area the Army wanted to acquire, so it...environmental impacts, noting that the potential losses of the desert tortoise and Lane Mountain milk- vetch plant were the most significant

  1. QuEChERS, a sample preparation technique that is “catching on”: an up-to-date interview with its inventors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The technique of QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) is only 7 years old, yet it is revolutionizing the manner in which multiresidue, multiclass pesticide analysis (and perhaps beyond) is performed. Columnist Ron Majors sits down with inventors Steve Lehotay and Michelangelo An...

  2. Economic feasibility of microalgal bacterial floc production for wastewater treatment and biomass valorization: A detailed up-to-date analysis of up-scaled pilot results.

    PubMed

    Vulsteke, Elien; Van Den Hende, Sofie; Bourez, Lode; Capoen, Henk; Rousseau, Diederik P L; Albrecht, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The economic potential of outdoor microalgal bacterial floc (MaB-floc) raceway ponds as wastewater treatment technology and bioresource of biomass for fertilizer, shrimp feed, phycobiliproteins and biogas in Northwest Europe is assessed. This assessment is based on cost data provided by industry experts, on experimental data obtained from pilot-scale outdoor MaB-floc ponds treating aquaculture and food-industry effluents, and from different biomass valorization tests. MaB-floc ponds exhibit a cost-performance of EUR 0.25-0.50m(-3) wastewater which is similar to conventional wastewater treatment technologies. The production cost of MaB-flocs in aquaculture and food industry effluent is EUR 5.29 and 8.07kg(-1)TSS, respectively. Capital costs and pond mixing costs are the major expenses. Commercializing MaB-flocs as aquaculture feed generates substantial revenues, but the largest profit potential lies in production of high-purity phycobiliproteins from MaB-flocs. These results highlight the large economic potential of MaB-floc technology, and justify its further development.

  3. Advances in psoriasis physiopathology and treatments: Up to date of mechanistic insights and perspectives of novel therapies based on innovative skin drug delivery systems (ISDDS).

    PubMed

    Sala, M; Elaissari, A; Fessi, H

    2016-10-10

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting mainly the skin but which can be complicated by psoriatic arthritis (PsA).This autoimmune skin disorder concerns 2-5% of the world population. To date, the physiopathology of psoriasis is not still completely elucidated but many researches are ongoing which have led for example to the discovery of the Th17/Th22 pathway. The conventional therapeutic approaches (local or systemic route) appeal to various classes of drugs with complex mechanisms of action and non-negligible side effects. Although there is no therapy capable to cure psoriasis, the current goal is to relieve symptoms as longer as possible with a good benefit/risk ratio. That is one of the principal limits of conventional antipsoriatic drugs. New formulations based on nanoencapsulation are a promising opportunity to answer to this limit by offering an optimization of the conventional antipsoriatic drug use (higher activity, lower side effects and frequency of application, etc.). Herein, we tried to put in perspective the mechanistic insights (histological and immunological views) proposed into scientific literature these last years in order to have a better comprehension of psoriasis physiopathology resulting in skin lesions and PsA. The therapeutic armamentarium and the different strategies in the management of psoriasis are discussed in greater details. To finish, the field of encapsulation in nanoparticles is broached in order to put forward recent advances in innovative skin drug delivery systems (ISDDSs) of antipsoriatic active agents for a better efficacy, safety and compliance.

  4. Accurate lineshape spectroscopy and the Boltzmann constant

    PubMed Central

    Truong, G.-W.; Anstie, J. D.; May, E. F.; Stace, T. M.; Luiten, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopy has an illustrious history delivering serendipitous discoveries and providing a stringent testbed for new physical predictions, including applications from trace materials detection, to understanding the atmospheres of stars and planets, and even constraining cosmological models. Reaching fundamental-noise limits permits optimal extraction of spectroscopic information from an absorption measurement. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-limited spectrometer that delivers high-precision measurements of the absorption lineshape. These measurements yield a very accurate measurement of the excited-state (6P1/2) hyperfine splitting in Cs, and reveals a breakdown in the well-known Voigt spectral profile. We develop a theoretical model that accounts for this breakdown, explaining the observations to within the shot-noise limit. Our model enables us to infer the thermal velocity dispersion of the Cs vapour with an uncertainty of 35 p.p.m. within an hour. This allows us to determine a value for Boltzmann's constant with a precision of 6 p.p.m., and an uncertainty of 71 p.p.m. PMID:26465085

  5. Accurate upper body rehabilitation system using kinect.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sanjana; Bhowmick, Brojeshwar; Chakravarty, Kingshuk; Sinha, Aniruddha; Das, Abhijit

    2016-08-01

    The growing importance of Kinect as a tool for clinical assessment and rehabilitation is due to its portability, low cost and markerless system for human motion capture. However, the accuracy of Kinect in measuring three-dimensional body joint center locations often fails to meet clinical standards of accuracy when compared to marker-based motion capture systems such as Vicon. The length of the body segment connecting any two joints, measured as the distance between three-dimensional Kinect skeleton joint coordinates, has been observed to vary with time. The orientation of the line connecting adjoining Kinect skeletal coordinates has also been seen to differ from the actual orientation of the physical body segment. Hence we have proposed an optimization method that utilizes Kinect Depth and RGB information to search for the joint center location that satisfies constraints on body segment length and as well as orientation. An experimental study have been carried out on ten healthy participants performing upper body range of motion exercises. The results report 72% reduction in body segment length variance and 2° improvement in Range of Motion (ROM) angle hence enabling to more accurate measurements for upper limb exercises.

  6. Accurate, reproducible measurement of blood pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, N R; Chockalingam, A; Fodor, J G; McKay, D W

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of mild hypertension and the treatment of hypertension require accurate measurement of blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are altered by various factors that influence the patient, the techniques used and the accuracy of the sphygmomanometer. The variability of readings can be reduced if informed patients prepare in advance by emptying their bladder and bowel, by avoiding over-the-counter vasoactive drugs the day of measurement and by avoiding exposure to cold, caffeine consumption, smoking and physical exertion within half an hour before measurement. The use of standardized techniques to measure blood pressure will help to avoid large systematic errors. Poor technique can account for differences in readings of more than 15 mm Hg and ultimately misdiagnosis. Most of the recommended procedures are simple and, when routinely incorporated into clinical practice, require little additional time. The equipment must be appropriate and in good condition. Physicians should have a suitable selection of cuff sizes readily available; the use of the correct cuff size is essential to minimize systematic errors in blood pressure measurement. Semiannual calibration of aneroid sphygmomanometers and annual inspection of mercury sphygmomanometers and blood pressure cuffs are recommended. We review the methods recommended for measuring blood pressure and discuss the factors known to produce large differences in blood pressure readings. PMID:2192791

  7. Informed consent for surgery: risk discussion and documentation

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Melissa; Pitt, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Summary Informed consent for surgery has become a critical component of surgical practice. There are specific legal requirements for what has to be disclosed to patients and for the accompanying documentation. The hospital consent for surgery form with the patient’s signature is a small part of the process. A quality assurance review of the documentation of informed consent by our surgical group indicated major deficiencies and prompted this article (and its Appendix containing further information). Our intent was to inform surgeons about modern standards and to discuss particular challenges. Informed consent for surgery entails what surgeons communicate to their patients about the proposed surgery and is a key element in the trust patients have in surgeons. It is of increasing importance, and we must keep up to date with patient and legal expectations. PMID:28234594

  8. Communication of Information with Sub-particles (Sub-strings) from Fifth Dimension of the Universe (Information) as the "Fundamental Symmetry" in the Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Ghsem; Amirshahkarami, Abdolazim; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-11-01

    All fundamental particles (strings) getting information from their four animated sub-particles (sub-strings) after processing by them for motion. It seems that the source of information which particles and dark mater/energy are floating in it and whispering to its communication may be "fifth dimension" of the nature after space-time dimensions. In other words, the space-time can be the universe's hardware and information's dimension can be dynamic software of the universe which has always become up to date. Communication of information has a vital role in creation and evolution of the universe, may be as the "fundamental symmetry" in the nature, which began before the spark to B.B. (Convection Bang), and leads other symmetries and supersymmetry as well as other phenomena. Duration of the before Planck time, from 0 ->10-44 second, and its correspondence space which its result was generation of the very hot and energetic point for the B.B. / C.B. needed to communication of information. It seems that this fifth dimension has appeared for leading the processes before and after Planck time. How this dimension of the nature appeared and has always become up to date? AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

  9. Nonexposure Accurate Location K-Anonymity Algorithm in LBS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR. PMID:24605060

  10. Nonexposure accurate location K-anonymity algorithm in LBS.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jinying; Zhang, Fengli

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR.

  11. Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.

  12. Control of neglected tropical diseases in Asia Pacific: implications for health information priorities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Poverty magnifies limitations posed by traditional biases and environmental risks. Any approach towards disease control needs to recognise that socially embedded vulnerabilities can be as powerful as externally imposed infections. Asia Pacific has a specific panorama of infectious diseases, which, in common with other endemic areas, have a tendency to emerge or re-emerge if not carefully monitored. Sustained control aiming at elimination requires strong emphasis on surveillance and response. Well-designed informatics platforms can improve support systems and strengthen control activities, as they rapidly locate high-risk areas and provide detailed, up-to-date information on the performance of ongoing control programmes. PMID:23849136

  13. Use of a Nephrology Information System for the Medical Auditing of a Large End Stage Renal Disease Program

    PubMed Central

    Dumler, Francis

    1990-01-01

    A Nephrology Information System has been developed in-house at Henry Ford Hospital for use in the care of a large chronic maintenance hemodialysis patient population. A significant advantage of the integrated system described here is that the same database is used for patient care, auditing of the quality of care provided, clinical research and administrative tasks. Modular design, ad-hoc reporting, an interface with statistical support, and the ability to receive information automatically facilitates up to date download of data and provides flexibility for continuous growth. It is hoped that systems such as the one described here will result in the formation of a national databank for chronic dialysis patients.

  14. Computational Time-Accurate Body Movement: Methodology, Validation, and Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    used that had a leading-edge sweep angle of 45 deg and a NACA 64A010 symmetrical airfoil section. A cross section of the pylon is a symmetrical...25 2. Information Flow for the Time-Accurate Store Trajectory Prediction Process . . . . . . . . . 26 3. Pitch Rates for NACA -0012 Airfoil...section are comparisons of the computational results to data for a NACA -0012 airfoil following a predefined pitching motion. Validation of the

  15. Landspotting: collecting essential land cover information via an attractive internet game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Steffen; McCallum, Ian; Perger, Christoph; Christian, Schill; Florian, Kraxner; Erik, Lindquist; Michael, Obersteiner

    2010-05-01

    Based on the geo-wiki.org concept of collecting land cover information via crowdsourcing, we present a novel approach on how to get the crowd involved. Internet games as well as social networks are becoming increasingly popular and the full potential is yet to be exploited. However, thus far, few if any games provide anything other than entertainment. Can an attractive philanthropic game be created which uses the crowd to collect essential information needed to help to acquire better data to improve the understanding of the earth system? Since accurate and up to date information on global land cover plays a very important role in a number of different research fields such as climate change, monitoring of tropical deforestation, land use monitoring and land-use modelling, but still shows high levels of disagreement, the game will focus on how this essential land cover calibration and validation data can be collected in areas where uncertainty is currently highest. In the current version of the land spotting game, we combine uncertainty hotspot information from three global land cover datasets (GLC, MODIS and GlobCover). With an ever increasing amount of high resolution images available on Google Earth, it is becoming increasingly possible to distinguish land cover features with a high degree of accuracy. We first direct the landspotting game community to certain hotspots of land cover uncertainty and then ask them to enter/record the type of land cover they see (for this they will be able to acquire a certain number of points), possibly uploading pictures at that location (additional points will be received). Even though the development of the game "landspotting.org" is still underway, we illustrate what the functionality will be and what features are envisaged for the near future. Landspotting.org will be designed in such a way as to challenge users to help map out the remaining areas of confusion over the globe - possibly in the form of an adventure game. Users

  16. Automatic information timeliness assessment of diabetes web sites by evidence based medicine.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Rahime Belen; Taşkaya Temizel, Tuğba

    2014-11-01

    Studies on health domain have shown that health websites provide imperfect information and give recommendations which are not up to date with the recent literature even when their last modified dates are quite recent. In this paper, we propose a framework which assesses the timeliness of the content of health websites automatically by evidence based medicine. Our aim is to assess the accordance of website contents with the current literature and information timeliness disregarding the update time stated on the websites. The proposed method is based on automatic term recognition, relevance feedback and information retrieval techniques in order to generate time-aware structured queries. We tested the framework on diabetes health web sites which were archived between 2006 and 2013 by Archive-it using American Diabetes Association's (ADA) guidelines. The results showed that the proposed framework achieves 65% and 77% accuracy in detecting the timeliness of the web content according to years and pre-determined time intervals respectively. Information seekers and web site owners may benefit from the proposed framework in finding relevant and up-to-date diabetes web sites.

  17. Regulatory agencies' recommendations for medicine information leaflets: Are they in line with research findings?

    PubMed

    Young, Amber; Tordoff, June; Smith, Alesha

    2017-03-04

    The design of medicine information leaflets can determine whether a leaflet will be read or discarded by patients. It may also influence patients' ability to understand the information about their medicines within the leaflet. Researchers compared regulatory agencies' recommendations for medicine information leaflet design from New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Europe, and the United States against recommended good design principles to determine the appropriateness, comprehensiveness, and consistency of their recommendations. Recommendations for medicine information leaflets varied between the regulatory agencies. There were some inconsistencies between the recommendations and some gaps were identified. There was little regulatory guidance given to creators of medicine information leaflets in New Zealand compared to other countries, and this could lead to manufacturer-produced information leaflets of a poorer quality. Up-to-date and enforceable guidance for creators of medicine information leaflets should be provided in all countries to ensure they are of an appropriate standard.

  18. Accurate Monte Carlo modeling of cyclotrons for optimization of shielding and activation calculations in the biomedical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infantino, Angelo; Marengo, Mario; Baschetti, Serafina; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Longo Vaschetto, Vittorio; Lucconi, Giulia; Massucci, Piera; Vichi, Sara; Zagni, Federico; Mostacci, Domiziano

    2015-11-01

    Biomedical cyclotrons for production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radionuclides and radiotherapy with hadrons or ions are widely diffused and established in hospitals as well as in industrial facilities and research sites. Guidelines for site planning and installation, as well as for radiation protection assessment, are given in a number of international documents; however, these well-established guides typically offer analytic methods of calculation of both shielding and materials activation, in approximate or idealized geometry set up. The availability of Monte Carlo codes with accurate and up-to-date libraries for transport and interactions of neutrons and charged particles at energies below 250 MeV, together with the continuously increasing power of nowadays computers, makes systematic use of simulations with realistic geometries possible, yielding equipment and site specific evaluation of the source terms, shielding requirements and all quantities relevant to radiation protection. In this work, the well-known Monte Carlo code FLUKA was used to simulate two representative models of cyclotron for PET radionuclides production, including their targetry; and one type of proton therapy cyclotron including the energy selection system. Simulations yield estimates of various quantities of radiological interest, including the effective dose distribution around the equipment, the effective number of neutron produced per incident proton and the activation of target materials, the structure of the cyclotron, the energy degrader, the vault walls and the soil. The model was validated against experimental measurements and comparison with well-established reference data. Neutron ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was measured around a GE PETtrace cyclotron: an average ratio between experimental measurement and simulations of 0.99±0.07 was found. Saturation yield of 18F, produced by the well-known 18O(p,n)18F reaction, was calculated and compared with the IAEA recommended

  19. Accurate pointing of tungsten welding electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegelmeier, P.

    1971-01-01

    Thoriated-tungsten is pointed accurately and quickly by using sodium nitrite. Point produced is smooth and no effort is necessary to hold the tungsten rod concentric. The chemically produced point can be used several times longer than ground points. This method reduces time and cost of preparing tungsten electrodes.

  20. Light Field Imaging Based Accurate Image Specular Highlight Removal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoqian; Xu, Chenxue; Wang, Xingzheng; Zhang, Yongbing; Peng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Specular reflection removal is indispensable to many computer vision tasks. However, most existing methods fail or degrade in complex real scenarios for their individual drawbacks. Benefiting from the light field imaging technology, this paper proposes a novel and accurate approach to remove specularity and improve image quality. We first capture images with specularity by the light field camera (Lytro ILLUM). After accurately estimating the image depth, a simple and concise threshold strategy is adopted to cluster the specular pixels into “unsaturated” and “saturated” category. Finally, a color variance analysis of multiple views and a local color refinement are individually conducted on the two categories to recover diffuse color information. Experimental evaluation by comparison with existed methods based on our light field dataset together with Stanford light field archive verifies the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. PMID:27253083

  1. Accurate Development of Thermal Neutron Scattering Cross Section Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Hawari, Ayman; Dunn, Michael

    2014-06-10

    The objective of this project is to develop a holistic (fundamental and accurate) approach for generating thermal neutron scattering cross section libraries for a collection of important enutron moderators and reflectors. The primary components of this approach are the physcial accuracy and completeness of the generated data libraries. Consequently, for the first time, thermal neutron scattering cross section data libraries will be generated that are based on accurate theoretical models, that are carefully benchmarked against experimental and computational data, and that contain complete covariance information that can be used in propagating the data uncertainties through the various components of the nuclear design and execution process. To achieve this objective, computational and experimental investigations will be performed on a carefully selected subset of materials that play a key role in all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  2. Efficient and Accurate Indoor Localization Using Landmark Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, F.; Kealy, A.; Khoshelham, K.; Shang, J.

    2016-06-01

    Indoor localization is important for a variety of applications such as location-based services, mobile social networks, and emergency response. Fusing spatial information is an effective way to achieve accurate indoor localization with little or with no need for extra hardware. However, existing indoor localization methods that make use of spatial information are either too computationally expensive or too sensitive to the completeness of landmark detection. In this paper, we solve this problem by using the proposed landmark graph. The landmark graph is a directed graph where nodes are landmarks (e.g., doors, staircases, and turns) and edges are accessible paths with heading information. We compared the proposed method with two common Dead Reckoning (DR)-based methods (namely, Compass + Accelerometer + Landmarks and Gyroscope + Accelerometer + Landmarks) by a series of experiments. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve 73% accuracy with a positioning error less than 2.5 meters, which outperforms the other two DR-based methods.

  3. 36 CFR 1202.26 - Who will make sure that my record is accurate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Collecting Information § 1202.26 Who will make sure that my record is accurate? The system manager ensures that...

  4. Feedback about More Accurate versus Less Accurate Trials: Differential Effects on Self-Confidence and Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected by feedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On Day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of…

  5. Accurate Guitar Tuning by Cochlear Implant Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  6. New model accurately predicts reformate composition

    SciTech Connect

    Ancheyta-Juarez, J.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. )

    1994-01-31

    Although naphtha reforming is a well-known process, the evolution of catalyst formulation, as well as new trends in gasoline specifications, have led to rapid evolution of the process, including: reactor design, regeneration mode, and operating conditions. Mathematical modeling of the reforming process is an increasingly important tool. It is fundamental to the proper design of new reactors and revamp of existing ones. Modeling can be used to optimize operating conditions, analyze the effects of process variables, and enhance unit performance. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo has developed a model of the catalytic reforming process that accurately predicts reformate composition at the higher-severity conditions at which new reformers are being designed. The new AA model is more accurate than previous proposals because it takes into account the effects of temperature and pressure on the rate constants of each chemical reaction.

  7. Accurate colorimetric feedback for RGB LED clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Kwong; Ashdown, Ian

    2006-08-01

    We present an empirical model of LED emission spectra that is applicable to both InGaN and AlInGaP high-flux LEDs, and which accurately predicts their relative spectral power distributions over a wide range of LED junction temperatures. We further demonstrate with laboratory measurements that changes in LED spectral power distribution with temperature can be accurately predicted with first- or second-order equations. This provides the basis for a real-time colorimetric feedback system for RGB LED clusters that can maintain the chromaticity of white light at constant intensity to within +/-0.003 Δuv over a range of 45 degrees Celsius, and to within 0.01 Δuv when dimmed over an intensity range of 10:1.

  8. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  9. An Accurate, Simplified Model Intrabeam Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl LF

    2002-05-23

    Beginning with the general Bjorken-Mtingwa solution for intrabeam scattering (IBS) we derive an accurate, greatly simplified model of IBS, valid for high energy beams in normal storage ring lattices. In addition, we show that, under the same conditions, a modified version of Piwinski's IBS formulation (where {eta}{sub x,y}{sup 2}/{beta}{sub x,y} has been replaced by {Eta}{sub x,y}) asymptotically approaches the result of Bjorken-Mtingwa.

  10. An accurate registration technique for distorted images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delapena, Michele; Shaw, Richard A.; Linde, Peter; Dravins, Dainis

    1990-01-01

    Accurate registration of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) images is crucial because the variability of the geometrical distortions that are introduced by the SEC-Vidicon cameras ensures that raw science images are never perfectly aligned with the Intensity Transfer Functions (ITFs) (i.e., graded floodlamp exposures that are used to linearize and normalize the camera response). A technique for precisely registering IUE images which uses a cross correlation of the fixed pattern that exists in all raw IUE images is described.

  11. On accurate determination of contact angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.

    1992-01-01

    Methods are proposed that exploit a microgravity environment to obtain highly accurate measurement of contact angle. These methods, which are based on our earlier mathematical results, do not require detailed measurement of a liquid free-surface, as they incorporate discontinuous or nearly-discontinuous behavior of the liquid bulk in certain container geometries. Physical testing is planned in the forthcoming IML-2 space flight and in related preparatory ground-based experiments.

  12. Accurate documentation, correct coding, and compliance: it's your best defense!

    PubMed

    Coles, T S; Babb, E F

    1999-07-01

    This article focuses on the need for physicians to maintain an awareness of regulatory policy and the law impacting the federal government's medical insurance programs, and to internalize and apply this knowledge in their practices. Basic information concerning selected fraud and abuse statutes and the civil monetary penalties and sanctions for noncompliance is discussed. The application of accurate documentation and correct coding principles, as well as the rationale for implementating an effective compliance plan in order to prevent fraud and abuse and/or minimize disciplinary action from government regulatory agencies, are emphasized.

  13. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  14. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcondes, Michel L.; Shukla, Gaurav; da Silveira, Pedro; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  15. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Marcondes, Michel L.; Shukla, Gaurav; Silveira, Pedro da; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2015-12-15

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  16. Accurate upwind methods for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of piecewise linear methods for the numerical solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics is presented. These methods are uniformly second-order accurate, and can be considered as extensions of Godunov's scheme. With an appropriate definition of monotonicity preservation for the case of linear convection, it can be shown that they preserve monotonicity. Similar to Van Leer's MUSCL scheme, they consist of two key steps: a reconstruction step followed by an upwind step. For the reconstruction step, a monotonicity constraint that preserves uniform second-order accuracy is introduced. Computational efficiency is enhanced by devising a criterion that detects the 'smooth' part of the data where the constraint is redundant. The concept and coding of the constraint are simplified by the use of the median function. A slope steepening technique, which has no effect at smooth regions and can resolve a contact discontinuity in four cells, is described. As for the upwind step, existing and new methods are applied in a manner slightly different from those in the literature. These methods are derived by approximating the Euler equations via linearization and diagonalization. At a 'smooth' interface, Harten, Lax, and Van Leer's one intermediate state model is employed. A modification for this model that can resolve contact discontinuities is presented. Near a discontinuity, either this modified model or a more accurate one, namely, Roe's flux-difference splitting. is used. The current presentation of Roe's method, via the conceptually simple flux-vector splitting, not only establishes a connection between the two splittings, but also leads to an admissibility correction with no conditional statement, and an efficient approximation to Osher's approximate Riemann solver. These reconstruction and upwind steps result in schemes that are uniformly second-order accurate and economical at smooth regions, and yield high resolution at discontinuities.

  17. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  18. Emergency and Disaster Information Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boszormenyi, Zsolt

    2010-05-01

    will be validated and reliable in all cases, to avoid the possible panic situation caused by unreal information. That is why we are trying to create and keep contact with all organisations, which can provide validated information for us, to operate the RSOE EDIS. Certainly we are publishing all incoming data and information at our website to provide up-to-date information to the citizens as well as we are publishing useful knowledge for them. We have a knowledge database, which contains all necessary information, which can help the citizens in an emergency situation. For the prevention and the most relevant information we are willing to amend our published data with the population information.

  19. The first accurate description of an aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2006-12-01

    As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

  20. Determining accurate distances to nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanos, Alceste Zoe

    2005-11-01

    Determining accurate distances to nearby or distant galaxies is a very simple conceptually, yet complicated in practice, task. Presently, distances to nearby galaxies are only known to an accuracy of 10-15%. The current anchor galaxy of the extragalactic distance scale is the Large Magellanic Cloud, which has large (10-15%) systematic uncertainties associated with it, because of its morphology, its non-uniform reddening and the unknown metallicity dependence of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation. This work aims to determine accurate distances to some nearby galaxies, and subsequently help reduce the error in the extragalactic distance scale and the Hubble constant H 0 . In particular, this work presents the first distance determination of the DIRECT Project to M33 with detached eclipsing binaries. DIRECT aims to obtain a new anchor galaxy for the extragalactic distance scale by measuring direct, accurate (to 5%) distances to two Local Group galaxies, M31 and M33, with detached eclipsing binaries. It involves a massive variability survey of these galaxies and subsequent photometric and spectroscopic follow-up of the detached binaries discovered. In this work, I also present a catalog of variable stars discovered in one of the DIRECT fields, M31Y, which includes 41 eclipsing binaries. Additionally, we derive the distance to the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal galaxy, with ~100 RR Lyrae found in our first CCD variability study of this galaxy. A "hybrid" method of discovering Cepheids with ground-based telescopes is described next. It involves applying the image subtraction technique on the images obtained from ground-based telescopes and then following them up with the Hubble Space Telescope to derive Cepheid period-luminosity distances. By re-analyzing ESO Very Large Telescope data on M83 (NGC 5236), we demonstrate that this method is much more powerful for detecting variability, especially in crowded fields. I finally present photometry for the Wolf-Rayet binary WR 20a

  1. Accurate colon residue detection algorithm with partial volume segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Liang, Zhengrong; Zhang, PengPeng; Kutcher, Gerald J.

    2004-05-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Earlier detection and removal of polyps can dramatically reduce the chance of developing malignant tumor. Due to some limitations of optical colonoscopy used in clinic, many researchers have developed virtual colonoscopy as an alternative technique, in which accurate colon segmentation is crucial. However, partial volume effect and existence of residue make it very challenging. The electronic colon cleaning technique proposed by Chen et al is a very attractive method, which is also kind of hard segmentation method. As mentioned in their paper, some artifacts were produced, which might affect the accurate colon reconstruction. In our paper, instead of labeling each voxel with a unique label or tissue type, the percentage of different tissues within each voxel, which we call a mixture, was considered in establishing a maximum a posterior probability (MAP) image-segmentation framework. A Markov random field (MRF) model was developed to reflect the spatial information for the tissue mixtures. The spatial information based on hard segmentation was used to determine which tissue types are in the specific voxel. Parameters of each tissue class were estimated by the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm during the MAP tissue-mixture segmentation. Real CT experimental results demonstrated that the partial volume effects between four tissue types have been precisely detected. Meanwhile, the residue has been electronically removed and very smooth and clean interface along the colon wall has been obtained.

  2. Accurate taxonomic assignment of short pyrosequencing reads.

    PubMed

    Clemente, José C; Jansson, Jesper; Valiente, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguities in the taxonomy dependent assignment of pyrosequencing reads are usually resolved by mapping each read to the lowest common ancestor in a reference taxonomy of all those sequences that match the read. This conservative approach has the drawback of mapping a read to a possibly large clade that may also contain many sequences not matching the read. A more accurate taxonomic assignment of short reads can be made by mapping each read to the node in the reference taxonomy that provides the best precision and recall. We show that given a suffix array for the sequences in the reference taxonomy, a short read can be mapped to the node of the reference taxonomy with the best combined value of precision and recall in time linear in the size of the taxonomy subtree rooted at the lowest common ancestor of the matching sequences. An accurate taxonomic assignment of short reads can thus be made with about the same efficiency as when mapping each read to the lowest common ancestor of all matching sequences in a reference taxonomy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on several metagenomic datasets of marine and gut microbiota.

  3. Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.

  4. Accurate pose estimation for forensic identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merckx, Gert; Hermans, Jeroen; Vandermeulen, Dirk

    2010-04-01

    In forensic authentication, one aims to identify the perpetrator among a series of suspects or distractors. A fundamental problem in any recognition system that aims for identification of subjects in a natural scene is the lack of constrains on viewing and imaging conditions. In forensic applications, identification proves even more challenging, since most surveillance footage is of abysmal quality. In this context, robust methods for pose estimation are paramount. In this paper we will therefore present a new pose estimation strategy for very low quality footage. Our approach uses 3D-2D registration of a textured 3D face model with the surveillance image to obtain accurate far field pose alignment. Starting from an inaccurate initial estimate, the technique uses novel similarity measures based on the monogenic signal to guide a pose optimization process. We will illustrate the descriptive strength of the introduced similarity measures by using them directly as a recognition metric. Through validation, using both real and synthetic surveillance footage, our pose estimation method is shown to be accurate, and robust to lighting changes and image degradation.

  5. Sparse and accurate high resolution SAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Duc; Zhao, Kexin; Rowe, William; Li, Jian

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the usage of an adaptive method, the Iterative Adaptive Approach (IAA), in combination with a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to reconstruct high resolution SAR images that are both sparse and accurate. IAA is a nonparametric weighted least squares algorithm that is robust and user parameter-free. IAA has been shown to reconstruct SAR images with excellent side lobes suppression and high resolution enhancement. We first reconstruct the SAR images using IAA, and then we enforce sparsity by using MAP with a sparsity inducing prior. By coupling these two methods, we can produce a sparse and accurate high resolution image that are conducive for feature extractions and target classification applications. In addition, we show how IAA can be made computationally efficient without sacrificing accuracies, a desirable property for SAR applications where the size of the problems is quite large. We demonstrate the success of our approach using the Air Force Research Lab's "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set Version 1.0" challenge dataset. Via the widely used FFT, individual vehicles contained in the scene are barely recognizable due to the poor resolution and high side lobe nature of FFT. However with our approach clear edges, boundaries, and textures of the vehicles are obtained.

  6. Accurate basis set truncation for wavefunction embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Taylor A.; Goodpaster, Jason D.; Manby, Frederick R.; Miller, Thomas F.

    2013-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally exact framework for performing embedded subsystem electronic structure calculations, including DFT-in-DFT and wavefunction theory-in-DFT descriptions. In the interest of efficiency, it is desirable to truncate the atomic orbital basis set in which the subsystem calculation is performed, thus avoiding high-order scaling with respect to the size of the MO virtual space. In this study, we extend a recently introduced projection-based embedding method [F. R. Manby, M. Stella, J. D. Goodpaster, and T. F. Miller III, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2564 (2012)], 10.1021/ct300544e to allow for the systematic and accurate truncation of the embedded subsystem basis set. The approach is applied to both covalently and non-covalently bound test cases, including water clusters and polypeptide chains, and it is demonstrated that errors associated with basis set truncation are controllable to well within chemical accuracy. Furthermore, we show that this approach allows for switching between accurate projection-based embedding and DFT embedding with approximate kinetic energy (KE) functionals; in this sense, the approach provides a means of systematically improving upon the use of approximate KE functionals in DFT embedding.

  7. Library "Science" Rules: Revolution and Evolution in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrence E., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Presents guidelines to help school library media specialists create and maintain an attractive, accurate, and current collection of science resources. Discusses weeding; calling for help; and collection rebuilding. Describes several valuable resources for accurate and up-to-date science information. (AEF)

  8. Usefulness of a Regional Health Care Information System in primary care: a case study.

    PubMed

    Maass, Marianne C; Asikainen, Paula; Mäenpää, Tiina; Wanne, Olli; Suominen, Tarja

    2008-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe some benefits and possible cost consequences of computer based access to specialised health care information. A before-after activity analysis regarding 20 diabetic patients' clinical appointments was performed in a Health Centre in Satakunta region in Finland. Cost data, an interview, time-and-motion studies, and flow charts based on modelling were applied. Access to up-to-date diagnostic information reduced redundant clinical re-appointments, repeated tests, and mail orders for missing data. Timely access to diagnostic information brought about several benefits regarding workflow, patient care, and disease management. These benefits resulted in theoretical net cost savings. The study results indicated that Regional Information Systems may be useful tools to support performance and improve efficiency. However, further studies are required in order to verify how the monetary savings would impact the performance of Health Care Units.

  9. Ebola: Where Are the Facts? | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Since the first outbreak of Ebola in western Africa and the subsequent cases in the United States, a lot of information has been circulating about the virus. To keep NCI at Frederick employees informed, the Poster staff has compiled the following list of reputable websites that provide accurate and up-to-date information about Ebola: Global

  10. Automatic classification and accurate size measurement of blank mask defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhamidipati, Samir; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Buck, Peter

    2015-07-01

    A blank mask and its preparation stages, such as cleaning or resist coating, play an important role in the eventual yield obtained by using it. Blank mask defects' impact analysis directly depends on the amount of available information such as the number of defects observed, their accurate locations and sizes. Mask usability qualification at the start of the preparation process, is crudely based on number of defects. Similarly, defect information such as size is sought to estimate eventual defect printability on the wafer. Tracking of defect characteristics, specifically size and shape, across multiple stages, can further be indicative of process related information such as cleaning or coating process efficiencies. At the first level, inspection machines address the requirement of defect characterization by detecting and reporting relevant defect information. The analysis of this information though is still largely a manual process. With advancing technology nodes and reducing half-pitch sizes, a large number of defects are observed; and the detailed knowledge associated, make manual defect review process an arduous task, in addition to adding sensitivity to human errors. Cases where defect information reported by inspection machine is not sufficient, mask shops rely on other tools. Use of CDSEM tools is one such option. However, these additional steps translate into increased costs. Calibre NxDAT based MDPAutoClassify tool provides an automated software alternative to the manual defect review process. Working on defect images generated by inspection machines, the tool extracts and reports additional information such as defect location, useful for defect avoidance[4][5]; defect size, useful in estimating defect printability; and, defect nature e.g. particle, scratch, resist void, etc., useful for process monitoring. The tool makes use of smart and elaborate post-processing algorithms to achieve this. Their elaborateness is a consequence of the variety and

  11. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  12. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperaes in the range of about 1800.degree. to 2700.degree. C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  13. LSM: perceptually accurate line segment merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Naila; Khan, Nazar

    2016-11-01

    Existing line segment detectors tend to break up perceptually distinct line segments into multiple segments. We propose an algorithm for merging such broken segments to recover the original perceptually accurate line segments. The algorithm proceeds by grouping line segments on the basis of angular and spatial proximity. Then those line segment pairs within each group that satisfy unique, adaptive mergeability criteria are successively merged to form a single line segment. This process is repeated until no more line segments can be merged. We also propose a method for quantitative comparison of line segment detection algorithms. Results on the York Urban dataset show that our merged line segments are closer to human-marked ground-truth line segments compared to state-of-the-art line segment detection algorithms.

  14. Highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-12-30

    Disclosed is a highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine, comprising a revolute joint, comprising a circular encoder wheel, having an axis of rotation; a plurality of marks disposed around at least a portion of the circumference of the encoder wheel; bearing means for supporting the encoder wheel, while permitting free rotation of the encoder wheel about the wheel's axis of rotation; and a sensor, rigidly attached to the bearing means, for detecting the motion of at least some of the marks as the encoder wheel rotates; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the encoder wheel, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the sensor, for converting the output of the sensor into a set of cylindrical coordinates representing the position of the probe tip relative to a reference cylindrical coordinate system.

  15. Practical aspects of spatially high accurate methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, Andrew G.; Mitchell, Curtis R.; Walters, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The computational qualities of high order spatially accurate methods for the finite volume solution of the Euler equations are presented. Two dimensional essentially non-oscillatory (ENO), k-exact, and 'dimension by dimension' ENO reconstruction operators are discussed and compared in terms of reconstruction and solution accuracy, computational cost and oscillatory behavior in supersonic flows with shocks. Inherent steady state convergence difficulties are demonstrated for adaptive stencil algorithms. An exact solution to the heat equation is used to determine reconstruction error, and the computational intensity is reflected in operation counts. Standard MUSCL differencing is included for comparison. Numerical experiments presented include the Ringleb flow for numerical accuracy and a shock reflection problem. A vortex-shock interaction demonstrates the ability of the ENO scheme to excel in simulating unsteady high-frequency flow physics.

  16. Toward Accurate and Quantitative Comparative Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Nayfach, Stephen; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Shotgun metagenomics and computational analysis are used to compare the taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities. Leveraging this approach to understand roles of microbes in human biology and other environments requires quantitative data summaries whose values are comparable across samples and studies. Comparability is currently hampered by the use of abundance statistics that do not estimate a meaningful parameter of the microbial community and biases introduced by experimental protocols and data-cleaning approaches. Addressing these challenges, along with improving study design, data access, metadata standardization, and analysis tools, will enable accurate comparative metagenomics. We envision a future in which microbiome studies are replicable and new metagenomes are easily and rapidly integrated with existing data. Only then can the potential of metagenomics for predictive ecological modeling, well-powered association studies, and effective microbiome medicine be fully realized. PMID:27565341

  17. Obtaining accurate translations from expressed sequence tags.

    PubMed

    Wasmuth, James; Blaxter, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The genomes of an increasing number of species are being investigated through the generation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs). However, ESTs are prone to sequencing errors and typically define incomplete transcripts, making downstream annotation difficult. Annotation would be greatly improved with robust polypeptide translations. Many current solutions for EST translation require a large number of full-length gene sequences for training purposes, a resource that is not available for the majority of EST projects. As part of our ongoing EST programs investigating these "neglected" genomes, we have developed a polypeptide prediction pipeline, prot4EST. It incorporates freely available software to produce final translations that are more accurate than those derived from any single method. We describe how this integrated approach goes a long way to overcoming the deficit in training data.

  18. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  19. Accurate radio positions with the Tidbinbilla interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batty, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Jauncey, D. L.; Rayner, P. T.

    1979-01-01

    The Tidbinbilla interferometer (Batty et al., 1977) is designed specifically to provide accurate radio position measurements of compact radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere with high sensitivity. The interferometer uses the 26-m and 64-m antennas of the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla, near Canberra. The two antennas are separated by 200 m on a north-south baseline. By utilizing the existing antennas and the low-noise traveling-wave masers at 2.29 GHz, it has been possible to produce a high-sensitivity instrument with a minimum of capital expenditure. The north-south baseline ensures that a good range of UV coverage is obtained, so that sources lying in the declination range between about -80 and +30 deg may be observed with nearly orthogonal projected baselines of no less than about 1000 lambda. The instrument also provides high-accuracy flux density measurements for compact radio sources.

  20. Magnetic ranging tool accurately guides replacement well

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.B.; Wesson, J.P. )

    1992-12-21

    This paper reports on magnetic ranging surveys and directional drilling technology which accurately guided a replacement well bore to intersect a leaking gas storage well with casing damage. The second well bore was then used to pump cement into the original leaking casing shoe. The repair well bore kicked off from the surface hole, bypassed casing damage in the middle of the well, and intersected the damaged well near the casing shoe. The repair well was subsequently completed in the gas storage zone near the original well bore, salvaging the valuable bottom hole location in the reservoir. This method would prevent the loss of storage gas, and it would prevent a potential underground blowout that could permanently damage the integrity of the storage field.

  1. Design and implementation of a telecare information platform.

    PubMed

    Li, Shing-Han; Wang, Ching-Yao; Lu, Wen-Hui; Lin, Yuan-Yuan; Yen, David C

    2012-06-01

    For the aging population and for people with dominant chronic diseases, countries all over the world are promoting an "Aging in Place" program with its primary focus on the implementation of telecare. In 2009, Taiwan held a "Health Care Value-Added Platinum Program" with the goal of promoting the development of "Telecare" services by integrating medical treatment, healthcare, information communication, medical equipment and materials and by linking related cross-discipline professions to enable people to familiarize themselves with preventive healthcare services offered in their household and community environments. In addition, this program can be utilized to effectively provide diversified healthcare service benefitting society as a whole. This study aims to promote a diversified telecare service network in Taiwan's household and community environments, establish telecare information platforms, build an internal network of various healthcare service modes, standardize externally interfacing telecare information networks, effectively utilize related healthcare service resources, and complete reasonable service resource links forming an up-to-date health information exchange network. To this end, the telecare information platform based on service oriented architecture (SOA) is designed to promote an open telecare information interface and sharing environment to assist in such tasks as developing healthcare information exchange services, integrating service resources among various different healthcare service modes, accessing externally complex community affairs information, supporting remote physiological information transmissions, and providing diversified remote innovative services. Information system architecture and system monitoring indices of various types of healthcare service modes are used for system integrations for future development and/or expansions.

  2. Influence of pansharpening techniques in obtaining accurate vegetation thematic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarrola-Ulzurrun, Edurne; Gonzalo-Martin, Consuelo; Marcello-Ruiz, Javier

    2016-10-01

    In last decades, there have been a decline in natural resources, becoming important to develop reliable methodologies for their management. The appearance of very high resolution sensors has offered a practical and cost-effective means for a good environmental management. In this context, improvements are needed for obtaining higher quality of the information available in order to get reliable classified images. Thus, pansharpening enhances the spatial resolution of the multispectral band by incorporating information from the panchromatic image. The main goal in the study is to implement pixel and object-based classification techniques applied to the fused imagery using different pansharpening algorithms and the evaluation of thematic maps generated that serve to obtain accurate information for the conservation of natural resources. A vulnerable heterogenic ecosystem from Canary Islands (Spain) was chosen, Teide National Park, and Worldview-2 high resolution imagery was employed. The classes considered of interest were set by the National Park conservation managers. 7 pansharpening techniques (GS, FIHS, HCS, MTF based, Wavelet `à trous' and Weighted Wavelet `à trous' through Fractal Dimension Maps) were chosen in order to improve the data quality with the goal to analyze the vegetation classes. Next, different classification algorithms were applied at pixel-based and object-based approach, moreover, an accuracy assessment of the different thematic maps obtained were performed. The highest classification accuracy was obtained applying Support Vector Machine classifier at object-based approach in the Weighted Wavelet `à trous' through Fractal Dimension Maps fused image. Finally, highlight the difficulty of the classification in Teide ecosystem due to the heterogeneity and the small size of the species. Thus, it is important to obtain accurate thematic maps for further studies in the management and conservation of natural resources.

  3. Higher order accurate partial implicitization: An unconditionally stable fourth-order-accurate explicit numerical technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The previously obtained second-order-accurate partial implicitization numerical technique used in the solution of fluid dynamic problems was modified with little complication to achieve fourth-order accuracy. The Von Neumann stability analysis demonstrated the unconditional linear stability of the technique. The order of the truncation error was deduced from the Taylor series expansions of the linearized difference equations and was verified by numerical solutions to Burger's equation. For comparison, results were also obtained for Burger's equation using a second-order-accurate partial-implicitization scheme, as well as the fourth-order scheme of Kreiss.

  4. Does a pneumotach accurately characterize voice function?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Gage; Krane, Michael

    2016-11-01

    A study is presented which addresses how a pneumotach might adversely affect clinical measurements of voice function. A pneumotach is a device, typically a mask, worn over the mouth, in order to measure time-varying glottal volume flow. By measuring the time-varying difference in pressure across a known aerodynamic resistance element in the mask, the glottal volume flow waveform is estimated. Because it adds aerodynamic resistance to the vocal system, there is some concern that using a pneumotach may not accurately portray the behavior of the voice. To test this hypothesis, experiments were performed in a simplified airway model with the principal dimensions of an adult human upper airway. A compliant constriction, fabricated from silicone rubber, modeled the vocal folds. Variations of transglottal pressure, time-averaged volume flow, model vocal fold vibration amplitude, and radiated sound with subglottal pressure were performed, with and without the pneumotach in place, and differences noted. Acknowledge support of NIH Grant 2R01DC005642-10A1.

  5. Accurate thermoplasmonic simulation of metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Da-Miao; Liu, Yan-Nan; Tian, Fa-Lin; Pan, Xiao-Min; Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Thermoplasmonics leads to enhanced heat generation due to the localized surface plasmon resonances. The measurement of heat generation is fundamentally a complicated task, which necessitates the development of theoretical simulation techniques. In this paper, an efficient and accurate numerical scheme is proposed for applications with complex metallic nanostructures. Light absorption and temperature increase are, respectively, obtained by solving the volume integral equation (VIE) and the steady-state heat diffusion equation through the method of moments (MoM). Previously, methods based on surface integral equations (SIEs) were utilized to obtain light absorption. However, computing light absorption from the equivalent current is as expensive as O(NsNv), where Ns and Nv, respectively, denote the number of surface and volumetric unknowns. Our approach reduces the cost to O(Nv) by using VIE. The accuracy, efficiency and capability of the proposed scheme are validated by multiple simulations. The simulations show that our proposed method is more efficient than the approach based on SIEs under comparable accuracy, especially for the case where many incidents are of interest. The simulations also indicate that the temperature profile can be tuned by several factors, such as the geometry configuration of array, beam direction, and light wavelength.

  6. Accurate method for computing correlated color temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Changjun; Cui, Guihua; Melgosa, Manuel; Ruan, Xiukai; Zhang, Yaoju; Ma, Long; Xiao, Kaida; Luo, M Ronnier

    2016-06-27

    For the correlated color temperature (CCT) of a light source to be estimated, a nonlinear optimization problem must be solved. In all previous methods available to compute CCT, the objective function has only been approximated, and their predictions have achieved limited accuracy. For example, different unacceptable CCT values have been predicted for light sources located on the same isotemperature line. In this paper, we propose to compute CCT using the Newton method, which requires the first and second derivatives of the objective function. Following the current recommendation by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) for the computation of tristimulus values (summations at 1 nm steps from 360 nm to 830 nm), the objective function and its first and second derivatives are explicitly given and used in our computations. Comprehensive tests demonstrate that the proposed method, together with an initial estimation of CCT using Robertson's method [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1528-1535 (1968)], gives highly accurate predictions below 0.0012 K for light sources with CCTs ranging from 500 K to 106 K.

  7. Accurate Theoretical Thermochemistry for Fluoroethyl Radicals.

    PubMed

    Ganyecz, Ádám; Kállay, Mihály; Csontos, József

    2017-02-09

    An accurate coupled-cluster (CC) based model chemistry was applied to calculate reliable thermochemical quantities for hydrofluorocarbon derivatives including radicals 1-fluoroethyl (CH3-CHF), 1,1-difluoroethyl (CH3-CF2), 2-fluoroethyl (CH2F-CH2), 1,2-difluoroethyl (CH2F-CHF), 2,2-difluoroethyl (CHF2-CH2), 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl (CF3-CH2), 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl (CF3-CHF), and pentafluoroethyl (CF3-CF2). The model chemistry used contains iterative triple and perturbative quadruple excitations in CC theory, as well as scalar relativistic and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. To obtain heat of formation values with better than chemical accuracy perturbative quadruple excitations and scalar relativistic corrections were inevitable. Their contributions to the heats of formation steadily increase with the number of fluorine atoms in the radical reaching 10 kJ/mol for CF3-CF2. When discrepancies were found between the experimental and our values it was always possible to resolve the issue by recalculating the experimental result with currently recommended auxiliary data. For each radical studied here this study delivers the best heat of formation as well as entropy data.

  8. Accurate, reliable prototype earth horizon sensor head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F.; Cohen, H.

    1973-01-01

    The design and performance is described of an accurate and reliable prototype earth sensor head (ARPESH). The ARPESH employs a detection logic 'locator' concept and horizon sensor mechanization which should lead to high accuracy horizon sensing that is minimally degraded by spatial or temporal variations in sensing attitude from a satellite in orbit around the earth at altitudes in the 500 km environ 1,2. An accuracy of horizon location to within 0.7 km has been predicted, independent of meteorological conditions. This corresponds to an error of 0.015 deg-at 500 km altitude. Laboratory evaluation of the sensor indicates that this accuracy is achieved. First, the basic operating principles of ARPESH are described; next, detailed design and construction data is presented and then performance of the sensor under laboratory conditions in which the sensor is installed in a simulator that permits it to scan over a blackbody source against background representing the earth space interface for various equivalent plant temperatures.

  9. Accurate methods for large molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Mark S; Mullin, Jonathan M; Pruitt, Spencer R; Roskop, Luke B; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V; Boatz, Jerry A

    2009-07-23

    Three exciting new methods that address the accurate prediction of processes and properties of large molecular systems are discussed. The systematic fragmentation method (SFM) and the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method both decompose a large molecular system (e.g., protein, liquid, zeolite) into small subunits (fragments) in very different ways that are designed to both retain the high accuracy of the chosen quantum mechanical level of theory while greatly reducing the demands on computational time and resources. Each of these methods is inherently scalable and is therefore eminently capable of taking advantage of massively parallel computer hardware while retaining the accuracy of the corresponding electronic structure method from which it is derived. The effective fragment potential (EFP) method is a sophisticated approach for the prediction of nonbonded and intermolecular interactions. Therefore, the EFP method provides a way to further reduce the computational effort while retaining accuracy by treating the far-field interactions in place of the full electronic structure method. The performance of the methods is demonstrated using applications to several systems, including benzene dimer, small organic species, pieces of the alpha helix, water, and ionic liquids.

  10. Accurate equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Demaison, Jean; Craig, Norman C; Groner, Peter; Écija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J; Lesarri, Alberto; Rudolph, Heinz Dieter

    2015-03-05

    Extended and improved microwave (MW) measurements are reported for the isotopologues of piperidine. New ground state (GS) rotational constants are fitted to MW transitions with quartic centrifugal distortion constants taken from ab initio calculations. Predicate values for the geometric parameters of piperidine and cyclohexane are found from a high level of ab initio theory including adjustments for basis set dependence and for correlation of the core electrons. Equilibrium rotational constants are obtained from GS rotational constants corrected for vibration-rotation interactions and electronic contributions. Equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane are fitted by the mixed estimation method. In this method, structural parameters are fitted concurrently to predicate parameters (with appropriate uncertainties) and moments of inertia (with uncertainties). The new structures are regarded as being accurate to 0.001 Å and 0.2°. Comparisons are made between bond parameters in equatorial piperidine and cyclohexane. Another interesting result of this study is that a structure determination is an effective way to check the accuracy of the ground state experimental rotational constants.

  11. Noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring: how accurate is enough?

    PubMed

    Rice, Mark J; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Morey, Timothy E

    2013-10-01

    Evaluating the accuracy of medical devices has traditionally been a blend of statistical analyses, at times without contextualizing the clinical application. There have been a number of recent publications on the accuracy of a continuous noninvasive hemoglobin measurement device, the Masimo Radical-7 Pulse Co-oximeter, focusing on the traditional statistical metrics of bias and precision. In this review, which contains material presented at the Innovations and Applications of Monitoring Perfusion, Oxygenation, and Ventilation (IAMPOV) Symposium at Yale University in 2012, we critically investigated these metrics as applied to the new technology, exploring what is required of a noninvasive hemoglobin monitor and whether the conventional statistics adequately answer our questions about clinical accuracy. We discuss the glucose error grid, well known in the glucose monitoring literature, and describe an analogous version for hemoglobin monitoring. This hemoglobin error grid can be used to evaluate the required clinical accuracy (±g/dL) of a hemoglobin measurement device to provide more conclusive evidence on whether to transfuse an individual patient. The important decision to transfuse a patient usually requires both an accurate hemoglobin measurement and a physiologic reason to elect transfusion. It is our opinion that the published accuracy data of the Masimo Radical-7 is not good enough to make the transfusion decision.

  12. Fast and accurate exhaled breath ammonia measurement.

    PubMed

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A; Risby, Terence H

    2014-06-11

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations.

  13. Accurate Fission Data for Nuclear Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solders, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Lantz, M.; Mattera, A.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.

    2014-05-01

    The Accurate fission data for nuclear safety (AlFONS) project aims at high precision measurements of fission yields, using the renewed IGISOL mass separator facility in combination with a new high current light ion cyclotron at the University of Jyväskylä. The 30 MeV proton beam will be used to create fast and thermal neutron spectra for the study of neutron induced fission yields. Thanks to a series of mass separating elements, culminating with the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, it is possible to achieve a mass resolving power in the order of a few hundred thousands. In this paper we present the experimental setup and the design of a neutron converter target for IGISOL. The goal is to have a flexible design. For studies of exotic nuclei far from stability a high neutron flux (1012 neutrons/s) at energies 1 - 30 MeV is desired while for reactor applications neutron spectra that resembles those of thermal and fast nuclear reactors are preferred. It is also desirable to be able to produce (semi-)monoenergetic neutrons for benchmarking and to study the energy dependence of fission yields. The scientific program is extensive and is planed to start in 2013 with a measurement of isomeric yield ratios of proton induced fission in uranium. This will be followed by studies of independent yields of thermal and fast neutron induced fission of various actinides.

  14. A new and accurate continuum description of moving fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, S. T.; Baker, R. E.; Simpson, M. J.

    2017-03-01

    Processes that involve moving fronts of populations are prevalent in ecology and cell biology. A common approach to describe these processes is a lattice-based random walk model, which can include mechanisms such as crowding, birth, death, movement and agent–agent adhesion. However, these models are generally analytically intractable and it is computationally expensive to perform sufficiently many realisations of the model to obtain an estimate of average behaviour that is not dominated by random fluctuations. To avoid these issues, both mean-field (MF) and corrected mean-field (CMF) continuum descriptions of random walk models have been proposed. However, both continuum descriptions are inaccurate outside of limited parameter regimes, and CMF descriptions cannot be employed to describe moving fronts. Here we present an alternative description in terms of the dynamics of groups of contiguous occupied lattice sites and contiguous vacant lattice sites. Our description provides an accurate prediction of the average random walk behaviour in all parameter regimes. Critically, our description accurately predicts the persistence or extinction of the population in situations where previous continuum descriptions predict the opposite outcome. Furthermore, unlike traditional MF models, our approach provides information about the spatial clustering within the population and, subsequently, the moving front.

  15. Accurate three-dimensional documentation of distinct sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mahesh K.; Dutta, Ashish; Subramanian, Venkatesh K.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most critical aspects of documenting distinct sites is acquiring detailed and accurate range information. Several three-dimensional (3-D) acquisition techniques are available, but each has its own limitations. This paper presents a range data fusion method with the aim to enhance the descriptive contents of the entire 3-D reconstructed model. A kernel function is introduced for supervised classification of the range data using a kernelized support vector machine. The classification method is based on the local saliency features of the acquired range data. The range data acquired from heterogeneous range sensors are transformed into a defined common reference frame. Based on the segmentation criterion, the fusion of range data is performed by integrating finer regions of range data acquired from a laser range scanner with the coarser region of Kinect's range data. After fusion, the Delaunay triangulation algorithm is applied to generate the highly accurate, realistic 3-D model of the scene. Finally, experimental results show the robustness of the proposed approach.

  16. Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response

    PubMed Central

    Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S.; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R.; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E.; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M. Eileen; Kogan, Scott C.; Downing, James R.; Lowe, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients. PMID:19339691

  17. Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M Eileen; Kogan, Scott C; Downing, James R; Lowe, Scott W

    2009-04-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients.

  18. Method for Accurate Surface Temperature Measurements During Fast Induction Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larregain, Benjamin; Vanderesse, Nicolas; Bridier, Florent; Bocher, Philippe; Arkinson, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    A robust method is proposed for the measurement of surface temperature fields during induction heating. It is based on the original coupling of temperature-indicating lacquers and a high-speed camera system. Image analysis tools have been implemented to automatically extract the temporal evolution of isotherms. This method was applied to the fast induction treatment of a 4340 steel spur gear, allowing the full history of surface isotherms to be accurately documented for a sequential heating, i.e., a medium frequency preheating followed by a high frequency final heating. Three isotherms, i.e., 704, 816, and 927°C, were acquired every 0.3 ms with a spatial resolution of 0.04 mm per pixel. The information provided by the method is described and discussed. Finally, the transformation temperature Ac1 is linked to the temperature on specific locations of the gear tooth.

  19. Fast and accurate automated cell boundary determination for fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, Stephen Hugo; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Tseng, Yiider

    2013-07-01

    Detailed measurement of cell phenotype information from digital fluorescence images has the potential to greatly advance biomedicine in various disciplines such as patient diagnostics or drug screening. Yet, the complexity of cell conformations presents a major barrier preventing effective determination of cell boundaries, and introduces measurement error that propagates throughout subsequent assessment of cellular parameters and statistical analysis. State-of-the-art image segmentation techniques that require user-interaction, prolonged computation time and specialized training cannot adequately provide the support for high content platforms, which often sacrifice resolution to foster the speedy collection of massive amounts of cellular data. This work introduces a strategy that allows us to rapidly obtain accurate cell boundaries from digital fluorescent images in an automated format. Hence, this new method has broad applicability to promote biotechnology.

  20. Photoacoustic computed tomography without accurate ultrasonic transducer responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Qiwei; Wang, Kun; Xia, Jun; Zhu, Liren; Wang, Lihong V.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2015-03-01

    Conventional photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) image reconstruction methods assume that the object and surrounding medium are described by a constant speed-of-sound (SOS) value. In order to accurately recover fine structures, SOS heterogeneities should be quantified and compensated for during PACT reconstruction. To address this problem, several groups have proposed hybrid systems that combine PACT with ultrasound computed tomography (USCT). In such systems, a SOS map is reconstructed first via USCT. Consequently, this SOS map is employed to inform the PACT reconstruction method. Additionally, the SOS map can provide structural information regarding tissue, which is complementary to the functional information from the PACT image. We propose a paradigm shift in the way that images are reconstructed in hybrid PACT-USCT imaging. Inspired by our observation that information about the SOS distribution is encoded in PACT measurements, we propose to jointly reconstruct the absorbed optical energy density and SOS distributions from a combined set of USCT and PACT measurements, thereby reducing the two reconstruction problems into one. This innovative approach has several advantages over conventional approaches in which PACT and USCT images are reconstructed independently: (1) Variations in the SOS will automatically be accounted for, optimizing PACT image quality; (2) The reconstructed PACT and USCT images will possess minimal systematic artifacts because errors in the imaging models will be optimally balanced during the joint reconstruction; (3) Due to the exploitation of information regarding the SOS distribution in the full-view PACT data, our approach will permit high-resolution reconstruction of the SOS distribution from sparse array data.

  1. A Technique Using Calibrated Photography and Photoshop for Accurate Shade Analysis and Communication.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Edward A; Figueira, Johan; Goldstein, Ronald E

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews the critical aspects of controlling the shade-taking environment and discusses various modalities introduced throughout the years to acquire and communicate shade information. Demonstrating a highly calibrated digital photographic technique for capturing shade information, this article shows how to use Photoshop® to standardize images and extract color information from the tooth and shade tab for use by a ceramist for an accurate shade-matching restoration.

  2. Accurate orbit propagation with planetary close encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baù, Giulio; Milani Comparetti, Andrea; Guerra, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    We tackle the problem of accurately propagating the motion of those small bodies that undergo close approaches with a planet. The literature is lacking on this topic and the reliability of the numerical results is not sufficiently discussed. The high-frequency components of the perturbation generated by a close encounter makes the propagation particularly challenging both from the point of view of the dynamical stability of the formulation and the numerical stability of the integrator. In our approach a fixed step-size and order multistep integrator is combined with a regularized formulation of the perturbed two-body problem. When the propagated object enters the region of influence of a celestial body, the latter becomes the new primary body of attraction. Moreover, the formulation and the step-size will also be changed if necessary. We present: 1) the restarter procedure applied to the multistep integrator whenever the primary body is changed; 2) new analytical formulae for setting the step-size (given the order of the multistep, formulation and initial osculating orbit) in order to control the accumulation of the local truncation error and guarantee the numerical stability during the propagation; 3) a new definition of the region of influence in the phase space. We test the propagator with some real asteroids subject to the gravitational attraction of the planets, the Yarkovsky and relativistic perturbations. Our goal is to show that the proposed approach improves the performance of both the propagator implemented in the OrbFit software package (which is currently used by the NEODyS service) and of the propagator represented by a variable step-size and order multistep method combined with Cowell's formulation (i.e. direct integration of position and velocity in either the physical or a fictitious time).

  3. Important Nearby Galaxies without Accurate Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) and its offspring programs (e.g., THINGS, HERACLES, KINGFISH) have resulted in a fundamental change in our view of star formation and the ISM in galaxies, and together they represent the most complete multi-wavelength data set yet assembled for a large sample of nearby galaxies. These great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the goal of understanding the interstellar medium, the star formation process, and, more generally, galactic evolution at the present epoch. Nearby galaxies provide the basis for which we interpret the distant universe, and the SINGS sample represents the best studied nearby galaxies.Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of galaxies. Surprisingly, many of the SINGS spiral galaxies have numerous distance estimates resulting in confusion. We can rectify this situation for 8 of the SINGS spiral galaxies within 10 Mpc at a very low cost through measurements of the tip of the red giant branch. The proposed observations will provide an accuracy of better than 0.1 in distance modulus. Our sample includes such well known galaxies as M51 (the Whirlpool), M63 (the Sunflower), M104 (the Sombrero), and M74 (the archetypal grand design spiral).We are also proposing coordinated parallel WFC3 UV observations of the central regions of the galaxies, rich with high-mass UV-bright stars. As a secondary science goal we will compare the resolved UV stellar populations with integrated UV emission measurements used in calibrating star formation rates. Our observations will complement the growing HST UV atlas of high resolution images of nearby galaxies.

  4. Accurate paleointensities - the multi-method approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, Lennart

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of models describing rapid changes in the geomagnetic field over the past millennia critically depends on the availability of reliable paleointensity estimates. Over the past decade methods to derive paleointensities from lavas (the only recorder of the geomagnetic field that is available all over the globe and through geologic times) have seen significant improvements and various alternative techniques were proposed. The 'classical' Thellier-style approach was optimized and selection criteria were defined in the 'Standard Paleointensity Definitions' (Paterson et al, 2014). The Multispecimen approach was validated and the importance of additional tests and criteria to assess Multispecimen results must be emphasized. Recently, a non-heating, relative paleointensity technique was proposed -the pseudo-Thellier protocol- which shows great potential in both accuracy and efficiency, but currently lacks a solid theoretical underpinning. Here I present work using all three of the aforementioned paleointensity methods on suites of young lavas taken from the volcanic islands of Hawaii, La Palma, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and Terceira. Many of the sampled cooling units are <100 years old, the actual field strength at the time of cooling is therefore reasonably well known. Rather intuitively, flows that produce coherent results from two or more different paleointensity methods yield the most accurate estimates of the paleofield. Furthermore, the results for some flows pass the selection criteria for one method, but fail in other techniques. Scrutinizing and combing all acceptable results yielded reliable paleointensity estimates for 60-70% of all sampled cooling units - an exceptionally high success rate. This 'multi-method paleointensity approach' therefore has high potential to provide the much-needed paleointensities to improve geomagnetic field models for the Holocene.

  5. Accurate glucose detection in a small etalon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Joerg; Kuebler, Sebastian; Recht, Michael; Torres, Francisco; Roe, Jeffrey; Kiesel, Peter; Bruce, Richard

    2010-02-01

    We are developing a continuous glucose monitor for subcutaneous long-term implantation. This detector contains a double chamber Fabry-Perot-etalon that measures the differential refractive index (RI) between a reference and a measurement chamber at 850 nm. The etalon chambers have wavelength dependent transmission maxima which dependent linearly on the RI of their contents. An RI difference of ▵n=1.5.10-6 changes the spectral position of a transmission maximum by 1pm in our measurement. By sweeping the wavelength of a single-mode Vertical-Cavity-Surface-Emitting-Laser (VCSEL) linearly in time and detecting the maximum transmission peaks of the etalon we are able to measure the RI of a liquid. We have demonstrated accuracy of ▵n=+/-3.5.10-6 over a ▵n-range of 0 to 1.75.10-4 and an accuracy of 2% over a ▵nrange of 1.75.10-4 to 9.8.10-4. The accuracy is primarily limited by the reference measurement. The RI difference between the etalon chambers is made specific to glucose by the competitive, reversible release of Concanavalin A (ConA) from an immobilized dextran matrix. The matrix and ConA bound to it, is positioned outside the optical detection path. ConA is released from the matrix by reacting with glucose and diffuses into the optical path to change the RI in the etalon. Factors such as temperature affect the RI in measurement and detection chamber equally but do not affect the differential measurement. A typical standard deviation in RI is +/-1.4.10-6 over the range 32°C to 42°C. The detector enables an accurate glucose specific concentration measurement.

  6. Accurate Biomass Estimation via Bayesian Adaptive Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, K.; Knuth, K.; Castle, P.

    2005-12-01

    and IKONOS imagery and the 3-D volume estimates. The combination of these then allow for a rapid and hopefully very accurate estimation of biomass.

  7. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Battum, L. J.; Huizenga, H.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Heukelom, S.

    2016-01-01

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner’s transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner’s optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  8. Towards Accurate Application Characterization for Exascale (APEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Simon David

    2015-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been engaged in hardware and software codesign activities for a number of years, indeed, it might be argued that prototyping of clusters as far back as the CPLANT machines and many large capability resources including ASCI Red and RedStorm were examples of codesigned solutions. As the research supporting our codesign activities has moved closer to investigating on-node runtime behavior a nature hunger has grown for detailed analysis of both hardware and algorithm performance from the perspective of low-level operations. The Application Characterization for Exascale (APEX) LDRD was a project concieved of addressing some of these concerns. Primarily the research was to intended to focus on generating accurate and reproducible low-level performance metrics using tools that could scale to production-class code bases. Along side this research was an advocacy and analysis role associated with evaluating tools for production use, working with leading industry vendors to develop and refine solutions required by our code teams and to directly engage with production code developers to form a context for the application analysis and a bridge to the research community within Sandia. On each of these accounts significant progress has been made, particularly, as this report will cover, in the low-level analysis of operations for important classes of algorithms. This report summarizes the development of a collection of tools under the APEX research program and leaves to other SAND and L2 milestone reports the description of codesign progress with Sandia’s production users/developers.

  9. Nutritional Guide for Pregnant and Lactating Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelbard, Nancy

    Designed to provide accurate and up-to-date information about nutrition and health, this booklet is centered on the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating adolescents and on the role of schools and the California State Department of Education in meeting those needs. The first section presents information for pregnant adolescents regarding…

  10. Infectious Diseases Update. Vol. 1. Current Issues in School and Community Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Wilma; And Others

    This booklet, designed to provide up-to-date, accurate information, focuses on selected viral diseases that are potentially serious, often not well understood, and periodically in the news media because of their continued impact on school and community health. General information is provided on viral diseases, the immune system, vaccines, and how…

  11. Accurately measuring sea level change from space: an ESA Climate Change Initiative for MSL closure budget studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeais, JeanFrancois; Cazenave, Anny; Ablain, Michael; Larnicol, Gilles; Benveniste, Jerome; Johannessen, Johnny; Timms, Gary; Andersen, Ole; Cipollini, Paolo; Roca, Monica; Rudenko, Sergei; Fernandes, Joana; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Quartly, Graham; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Meyssignac, Benoit; Scharffenberg, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV with regular updates, as required for climate studies. The program is now in its second phase of 3 year (following phase I during 2011-2013). The objectives are firstly to involve the climate research community, to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality. And secondly to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. This has led to the production of the Sea Level ECV which has benefited from yearly extensions and now covers the period 1993-2014. We will firstly present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 22 years climate time series are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product validation, performed by several groups of the ocean and climate modeling community. At last, new altimeter standards have been developed and the best one have been recently selected in order to produce a full

  12. Accurately measuring sea level change from space: an ESA climate change initiative for MSL closure budget studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeais, JeanFrancois; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-07-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV with regular updates, as required for climate studies. The program is now in its second phase of 3 year (following phase I during 2011-2013). The objectives are firstly to involve the climate research community, to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality. And secondly to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. This has led to the production of a first version of the Sea Level ECV which has benefited from yearly extensions and now covers the period 1993-2014. Within phase II, new altimeter standards have been developed and tested in order to reprocess the dataset with the best standards for climate studies. The reprocessed ECV will be released in summer 2016. We will present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 22 years climate time series are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product

  13. Seismic Waves, 4th order accurate

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-16

    SW4 is a program for simulating seismic wave propagation on parallel computers. SW4 colves the seismic wave equations in Cartesian corrdinates. It is therefore appropriate for regional simulations, where the curvature of the earth can be neglected. SW4 implements a free surface boundary condition on a realistic topography, absorbing super-grid conditions on the far-field boundaries, and a kinematic source model consisting of point force and/or point moment tensor source terms. SW4 supports a fully 3-D heterogeneous material model that can be specified in several formats. SW4 can output synthetic seismograms in an ASCII test format, or in the SAC finary format. It can also present simulation information as GMT scripts, whixh can be used to create annotated maps. Furthermore, SW4 can output the solution as well as the material model along 2-D grid planes.

  14. Learning accurate very fast decision trees from uncertain data streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chunquan; Zhang, Yang; Shi, Peng; Hu, Zhengguo

    2015-12-01

    Most existing works on data stream classification assume the streaming data is precise and definite. Such assumption, however, does not always hold in practice, since data uncertainty is ubiquitous in data stream applications due to imprecise measurement, missing values, privacy protection, etc. The goal of this paper is to learn accurate decision tree models from uncertain data streams for classification analysis. On the basis of very fast decision tree (VFDT) algorithms, we proposed an algorithm for constructing an uncertain VFDT tree with classifiers at tree leaves (uVFDTc). The uVFDTc algorithm can exploit uncertain information effectively and efficiently in both the learning and the classification phases. In the learning phase, it uses Hoeffding bound theory to learn from uncertain data streams and yield fast and reasonable decision trees. In the classification phase, at tree leaves it uses uncertain naive Bayes (UNB) classifiers to improve the classification performance. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-life datasets demonstrate the strong ability of uVFDTc to classify uncertain data streams. The use of UNB at tree leaves has improved the performance of uVFDTc, especially the any-time property, the benefit of exploiting uncertain information, and the robustness against uncertainty.

  15. Accurate Satellite-Derived Estimates of Tropospheric Ozone Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Vasilkov, Alexander P.; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Platnick, Steven; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Levelt, Pieternel F.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of the radiative forcing due to anthropogenically-produced tropospheric O3 are derived primarily from models. Here, we use tropospheric ozone and cloud data from several instruments in the A-train constellation of satellites as well as information from the GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System to accurately estimate the instantaneous radiative forcing from tropospheric O3 for January and July 2005. We improve upon previous estimates of tropospheric ozone mixing ratios from a residual approach using the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) by incorporating cloud pressure information from OMI. Since we cannot distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources with the satellite data, our estimates reflect the total forcing due to tropospheric O3. We focus specifically on the magnitude and spatial structure of the cloud effect on both the shortand long-wave radiative forcing. The estimates presented here can be used to validate present day O3 radiative forcing produced by models.

  16. Personalized Orthodontic Accurate Tooth Arrangement System with Complete Teeth Model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Dai, Ning; Liu, Yi; Fan, Qilei; Hou, Yulin; Jiang, Xiaotong

    2015-09-01

    The accuracy, validity and lack of relation information between dental root and jaw in tooth arrangement are key problems in tooth arrangement technology. This paper aims to describe a newly developed virtual, personalized and accurate tooth arrangement system based on complete information about dental root and skull. Firstly, a feature constraint database of a 3D teeth model is established. Secondly, for computed simulation of tooth movement, the reference planes and lines are defined by the anatomical reference points. The matching mathematical model of teeth pattern and the principle of the specific pose transformation of rigid body are fully utilized. The relation of position between dental root and alveolar bone is considered during the design process. Finally, the relative pose relationships among various teeth are optimized using the object mover, and a personalized therapeutic schedule is formulated. Experimental results show that the virtual tooth arrangement system can arrange abnormal teeth very well and is sufficiently flexible. The relation of position between root and jaw is favorable. This newly developed system is characterized by high-speed processing and quantitative evaluation of the amount of 3D movement of an individual tooth.

  17. Combining heterogeneous data sources for accurate functional annotation of proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Combining heterogeneous sources of data is essential for accurate prediction of protein function. The task is complicated by the fact that while sequence-based features can be readily compared across species, most other data are species-specific. In this paper, we present a multi-view extension to GOstruct, a structured-output framework for function annotation of proteins. The extended framework can learn from disparate data sources, with each data source provided to the framework in the form of a kernel. Our empirical results demonstrate that the multi-view framework is able to utilize all available information, yielding better performance than sequence-based models trained across species and models trained from collections of data within a given species. This version of GOstruct participated in the recent Critical Assessment of Functional Annotations (CAFA) challenge; since then we have significantly improved the natural language processing component of the method, which now provides performance that is on par with that provided by sequence information. The GOstruct framework is available for download at http://strut.sourceforge.net. PMID:23514123

  18. Translating genomic information into clinical medicine: Lung cancer as a paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Mia A.; Lovly, Christine M.; Pao, William

    2012-01-01

    We are currently in an era of rapidly expanding knowledge about the genetic landscape and architectural blueprints of various cancers. These discoveries have led to a new taxonomy of malignant diseases based upon clinically relevant molecular alterations in addition to histology or tissue of origin. The new molecularly based classification holds the promise of rational rather than empiric approaches for the treatment of cancer patients. However, the accelerated pace of discovery and the expanding number of targeted anti-cancer therapies present a significant challenge for healthcare practitioners to remain informed and up-to-date on how to apply cutting-edge discoveries into daily clinical practice. In this Perspective, we use lung cancer as a paradigm to discuss challenges related to translating genomic information into the clinic, and we present one approach we took at Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center to address these challenges. PMID:23019146

  19. [Hypertext and expertext: how to navigate on an ocean of information].

    PubMed

    Mommaerts, J L

    1996-01-01

    Computers have made possible an explosive increase of information flow. In this ocean of information it becomes more and more easy to get lost. Computers again may provide answers to this problem. This article describes principles of small-volume hypertext, large-volume hypertext and expertext as up-to-date navigation tools for the beginning as well as the advanced skipper. In addition, it is argued that the orthodontist should take responsibility in guiding these developments on his or her domain. He can do this by getting acquainted with the possibilities and choosing the right software. Ultimately, technology should not be developed for its own sake, but for the benefit of orthodontists and their patients.

  20. AQUA-USERS: AQUAculture USEr Driven Operational Remote Sensing Information Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laanen, Marnix; Poser, Kathrin; Peters, Steef; de Reus, Nils; Ghebrehiwot, Semhar; Eleveld, Marieke; Miller, Peter; Groom, Steve; Clements, Oliver; Kurekin, Andrey; Martinez Vicente, Victor; Brotas, Vanda; Sa, Carolina; Couto, Andre; Brito, Ana; Amorim, Ana; Dale, Trine; Sorensen, Kai; Boye Hansen, Lars; Huber, Silvia; Kaas, Hanne; Andersson, Henrik; Icely, John; Fragoso, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    The FP7 project AQUA-USERS provides the aquaculture industry with user-relevant and timely information based on the most up-to-date satellite data and innovative optical in-situ measurements. Its key purpose is to develop an application that brings together satellite information on water quality and temperature with in-situ observations as well as relevant weather prediction and met-ocean data. The application and its underlying database are linked to a decision support system that includes a set of (user-determined) management options. Specific focus is on the development of indicators for aquaculture management including indicators for harmful algae bloom (HAB) events. The methods and services developed within AQUA-USERS are tested by the members of the user board, who represent different geographic areas and aquaculture production systems.

  1. 77 FR 3800 - Accurate NDE & Inspection, LLC; Confirmatory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Accurate NDE & Inspection, LLC; Confirmatory Order In the Matter of Accurate NDE & Docket: 150... request ADR with the NRC in an attempt to resolve issues associated with this matter. In response, on August 9, 2011, Accurate NDE requested ADR to resolve this matter with the NRC. On September 28,...

  2. Retinal Connectomics: Towards Complete, Accurate Networks

    PubMed Central

    Marc, Robert E.; Jones, Bryan W.; Watt, Carl B.; Anderson, James R.; Sigulinsky, Crystal; Lauritzen, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Connectomics is a strategy for mapping complex neural networks based on high-speed automated electron optical imaging, computational assembly of neural data volumes, web-based navigational tools to explore 1012–1015 byte (terabyte to petabyte) image volumes, and annotation and markup tools to convert images into rich networks with cellular metadata. These collections of network data and associated metadata, analyzed using tools from graph theory and classification theory, can be merged with classical systems theory, giving a more completely parameterized view of how biologic information processing systems are implemented in retina and brain. Networks have two separable features: topology and connection attributes. The first findings from connectomics strongly validate the idea that the topologies complete retinal networks are far more complex than the simple schematics that emerged from classical anatomy. In particular, connectomics has permitted an aggressive refactoring of the retinal inner plexiform layer, demonstrating that network function cannot be simply inferred from stratification; exposing the complex geometric rules for inserting different cells into a shared network; revealing unexpected bidirectional signaling pathways between mammalian rod and cone systems; documenting selective feedforward systems, novel candidate signaling architectures, new coupling motifs, and the highly complex architecture of the mammalian AII amacrine cell. This is but the beginning, as the underlying principles of connectomics are readily transferrable to non-neural cell complexes and provide new contexts for assessing intercellular communication. PMID:24016532

  3. Accurate attitude determination of the LACE satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miglin, M. F.; Campion, R. E.; Lemos, P. J.; Tran, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) satellite, launched in February 1990 by the Naval Research Laboratory, uses a magnetic damper on a gravity gradient boom and a momentum wheel with its axis perpendicular to the plane of the orbit to stabilize and maintain its attitude. Satellite attitude is determined using three types of sensors: a conical Earth scanner, a set of sun sensors, and a magnetometer. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI), on board LACE, consists of two intensified CCD cameras and a gimbal led pointing mirror. The primary purpose of the UVPI is to image rocket plumes from space in the ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. Secondary objectives include imaging stars, atmospheric phenomena, and ground targets. The problem facing the UVPI experimenters is that the sensitivity of the LACF satellite attitude sensors is not always adequate to correctly point the UVPI cameras. Our solution is to point the UVPI cameras at known targets and use the information thus gained to improve attitude measurements. This paper describes the three methods developed to determine improved attitude values using the UVPI for both real-time operations and post observation analysis.

  4. Defense Infrastructure: More Accurate Data Would Allow DOD to Improve the Tracking, Management, and Security of Its Leased Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    DEFENSE INFRASTRUCTURE More Accurate Data Would Allow DOD to Improve the Tracking, Management , and Security of Its...Accurate Data Would Allow DOD to Improve the Tracking, Management , and Security of Its Leased Facilities Why GAO Did This Study Overreliance on... data were sufficiently reliable to provide a basis for managing leases and externally reporting information on leases. We drew a statistical random

  5. Spurious Consensus and Opinion Revision: Why Might People Be More Confident in Their Less Accurate Judgments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaniv, Ilan; Choshen-Hillel, Shoham; Milyavsky, Maxim

    2009-01-01

    In the interest of improving their decision making, individuals revise their opinions on the basis of samples of opinions obtained from others. However, such a revision process may lead decision makers to experience greater confidence in their less accurate judgments. The authors theorize that people tend to underestimate the informative value of…

  6. Information needs of the rural physician: a descriptive study.

    PubMed Central

    Dee, C; Blazek, R

    1993-01-01

    The study was designed to describe the information needs and the information-seeking behavior of rural physicians. Data were collected from twelve rural physicians in Central Florida through face-to-face interviews and observation. From a review of 144 patient charts, 48 produced unique, factual patient care questions. Seventy-five percent of the questions were on treatment, 14.7% on diagnosis, 8.3% on etiology, and 2.1% on the psychological aspects of disease. All physicians in the survey relied on colleagues; eleven attended medical meetings; nine subscribed to medical journals, and nine owned medical textbooks. Of the physicians with access to a hospital library, two used the library frequently while ten seldom used the library. Lack of time due to heavy workloads was an obstacle to systematic information retrieval. Rural physicians need immediate access to high-quality, synthesized answers to specific patient care questions at the time of patient contact. Information must be concise and up-to-date, although not necessarily state-of-the-art. A database composed of selected textbooks with integrated keyword access would meet the criteria. In addition, a computerized expert system focused on rural physicians' information needs is a possible remedy for the existing problem. PMID:8374579

  7. Towards accurate and precise estimates of lion density.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Nicholas B; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M

    2016-12-13

    Reliable estimates of animal density are fundamental to our understanding of ecological processes and population dynamics. Furthermore, their accuracy is vital to conservation biology since wildlife authorities rely on these figures to make decisions. However, it is notoriously difficult to accurately estimate density for wide-ranging species such as carnivores that occur at low densities. In recent years, significant progress has been made in density estimation of Asian carnivores, but the methods have not been widely adapted to African carnivores. African lions (Panthera leo) provide an excellent example as although abundance indices have been shown to produce poor inferences, they continue to be used to estimate lion density and inform management and policy. In this study we adapt a Bayesian spatially explicit capture-recapture model to estimate lion density in the Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) and surrounding conservancies in Kenya. We utilize sightings data from a three-month survey period to produce statistically rigorous spatial density estimates. Overall posterior mean lion density was estimated to be 16.85 (posterior standard deviation = 1.30) lions over one year of age per 100km(2) with a sex ratio of 2.2♀:1♂. We argue that such methods should be developed, improved and favored over less reliable methods such as track and call-up surveys. We caution against trend analyses based on surveys of differing reliability and call for a unified framework to assess lion numbers across their range in order for better informed management and policy decisions to be made. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Accurate color images: from expensive luxury to essential resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, David R.; Cupitt, John

    2002-06-01

    Over ten years ago the National Gallery in London began a program to make digital images of paintings in the collection using a colorimetric imaging system. This was to provide a permanent record of the state of paintings against which future images could be compared to determine if any changes had occurred. It quickly became apparent that such images could be used not only for scientific purposes, but also in applications where transparencies were then being used, for example as source materials for printed books and catalogues or for computer-based information systems. During the 1990s we were involved in the development of a series of digital cameras that have combined the high color accuracy of the original 'scientific' imaging system with the familiarity and portability of a medium format camera. This has culminated in the program of digitization now in progress at the National Gallery. By the middle of 2001 we will have digitized all the major paintings in the collection at a resolution of 10,000 pixels along their longest dimension and with calibrated color; we are on target to digitize the whole collection by the end of 2002. The images are available on-line within the museum for consultation and so that Gallery departments can use the images in printed publications and on the Gallery's web- site. We describe the development of the imaging systems used at National Gallery and how the research we have conducted into high-resolution accurate color imaging has developed from being a peripheral, if harmless, research activity to becoming a central part of the Gallery's information and publication strategy. Finally, we discuss some outstanding issues, such as interfacing our color management procedures with the systems used by external organizations.

  9. Accredited Institutions of Postsecondary Education, Programs, Candidates, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Alt, Kenneth A., Ed.

    A comprehensive guide to institutions of higher learning that are accredited by national and regional accrediting agencies, this annual volume has been published since 1964. Data in each entry have been provided by the accrediting bodies. Admissions officers, counselors, and employers rely upon the accurate and up-to-date information in this…

  10. Trends in College Pricing, 2013. Trends in Higher Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about rising tuition and how students can afford to finance their major investments in postsecondary education are widespread. Solid insights into these questions require accurate and up-to-date information about prices. "Trends in College Pricing, 2013" reports on the prices charged by colleges and universities in 2013-14, how…

  11. 78 FR 78947 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... required input by vendors that manually enter invoice data into Wide Area Workflow (WAWF) (not those utilizing Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). By pre- populating fields with accurate and up-to-date contract information, vendors are required to input significantly less data. Additionally, SUS simultaneously...

  12. Mapping loading rates and sources of reactive nitrogen across the United States suggests regional interactions with climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate, up-to-date information describing Nr inputs by source is needed for effective Nr management and for guiding Nr research. Here we present a new synthesis of spatial data describing present Nr inputs to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems across the conterminous US to hel...

  13. Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5. The Complete and Authoritative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelov, Steven P., Ed.; Hannemann, Robert E., Ed.

    This book, prepared by the American Academy of Pediatrics, is designed to provide parents with the most accurate and up-to-date information about the health and well-being of their young children from birth through age 5. The titles of the book's 30 chapters are: (1) "Preparing for a New Baby"; (2) "Birth and the First Moments…

  14. The State of WAC/WID in 2010: Methods and Results of the U.S. Survey of the International WAC/WID Mapping Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaiss, Chris; Porter, Tara

    2010-01-01

    As writing across the curriculum (WAC) has matured and diversified as a concept and as an organizational structure in U.S. higher education, there has arisen a need for accurate, up-to-date information on the presence and characteristics of WAC and writing-in-the-disciplines (WID) programs. Following on the only previous nationwide survey of…

  15. The ABCs of School Choice, 2009-2010 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the 2009-2010 edition of the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice's "ABCs of School Choice". The "ABCs of School Choice" provides the latest in up-to-date and accurate information about the many school choice success stories taking place throughout the country. Readers will find this guide an…

  16. Using clinicians' search query data to monitor influenza epidemics.

    PubMed

    Santillana, Mauricio; Nsoesie, Elaine O; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Scales, David; Brownstein, John S

    2014-11-15

    Search query information from a clinician's database, UpToDate, is shown to predict influenza epidemics in the United States in a timely manner. Our results show that digital disease surveillance tools based on experts' databases may be able to provide an alternative, reliable, and stable signal for accurate predictions of influenza outbreaks.

  17. 75 FR 52749 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records Notices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    .... This action is intended to make these notices clearer, more accurate, and up-to-date. DATES: This... Security (DHS) Secure Flight requirements to include an individual traveler's date of birth and sex; that... include information about individuals such as name, address, employment status, age, date of...

  18. 75 FR 32233 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notice of Privacy Act System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... all such systems are relevant, necessary, accurate, up- to-date, and covered by the appropriate legal...--Employee Training Requests and Payment Records. DATES: Effective June 7, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... individual's name, date of birth, Social Security number, identification number (if known), approximate...

  19. The Special-Needs Reading List: An Annotated Guide to the Best Publications for Parents and Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Wilma K.

    This annotated resource guide lists books, periodicals, and organizations relevant to the needs of parents of children with disabilities. The books and periodicals were chosen as being up-to-date, accurate, written in parent-friendly language, written with a parent's information or support needs in mind, generally affordable, or considered a…

  20. Washington State Asian Pacific American Organizations Resources Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Commission on Asian-American Affairs, Olympia.

    This resource directory was prepared to assist educators, the media, government officials, students, and the general public in locating accurate and up-to-date information about Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) in Washington State. It was also prepared to help APAs find the services that are available to them throughout the state. This guide lists…

  1. Designing and Developing Technical Curriculum: Finding the Right Subject Matter Expert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattoon, Joseph Sterling

    2005-01-01

    Subject matter experts play an essential role in technical curriculum development by providing accurate and up-to-date information that matches education, training, and workforce needs. The Subject Matter Expert (SME) COMlist is proposed as a tool that enables instructional developers to evaluate an SME's capability and suitability to support…

  2. Picturing Life in Japan. For Students in Grades Three through Five. Instructional Materials about Japan (IMAJ).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Sherry L.; Labbo, Linda D.

    This manual provides accurate, up-to-date information about contemporary life in Japan and provides opportunities for students to develop cross-cultural awareness. The content of the lessons includes concepts traditionally taught in elementary school social studies programs. Lessons provide multiple opportunities for students to develop a variety…

  3. Children in Japan at Home and at School. For Students in Kindergarten-Second Grade. Instructional Materials about Japan (IMAJ).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Sherry L.; Labbo, Linda D.

    This manual provides accurate, up-to-date information about contemporary life in Japan and provides opportunities for students to develop cross-cultural awareness. The content of the lessons includes concepts traditionally taught in elementary school social studies programs. Lessons provide multiple opportunities for students to develop a variety…

  4. Concurrent and Accurate Short Read Mapping on Multicore Processors.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Héctor; Tárraga, Joaquín; Medina, Ignacio; Barrachina, Sergio; Castillo, Maribel; Dopazo, Joaquín; Quintana-Ortí, Enrique S

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a parallel aligner with a work-flow organization for fast and accurate mapping of RNA sequences on servers equipped with multicore processors. Our software, HPG Aligner SA (HPG Aligner SA is an open-source application. The software is available at http://www.opencb.org, exploits a suffix array to rapidly map a large fraction of the RNA fragments (reads), as well as leverages the accuracy of the Smith-Waterman algorithm to deal with conflictive reads. The aligner is enhanced with a careful strategy to detect splice junctions based on an adaptive division of RNA reads into small segments (or seeds), which are then mapped onto a number of candidate alignment locations, providing crucial information for the successful alignment of the complete reads. The experimental results on a platform with Intel multicore technology report the parallel performance of HPG Aligner SA, on RNA reads of 100-400 nucleotides, which excels in execution time/sensitivity to state-of-the-art aligners such as TopHat 2+Bowtie 2, MapSplice, and STAR.

  5. Economic Value Of Accurate Assessments Of Hydrological Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajami, N. K.; Sunding, D. L.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    The improvement of techniques to assist in the sustainable management of water resource systems is a crucial issue since our limited resources are under ever increasing pressure. A proper understanding of the sources and effects of uncertainty is needed to achieve goals related to improvements in reliability and sustainability in water resource management and planning. To date, many hydrological techniques have been developed to improve the quality and accuracy of hydrological forecasts and to assess the uncertainty associated with these forecasts. The economic value of improvements in calculations of uncertainty associated with hydrological forecasts from the water supply and demand management perspective remains largely unknown. We first explore the effect of more accurate assessments of hydrological uncertainty on the management of water resources by using an integrated approach to identify and quantify the sources of uncertainty. Subsequently, we analyze the value of a more reliable water supply forecast by studying the change in moments of the distribution of final surface water deliveries. This allows us to calculate the economic value of improving the information about uncertainty provided to stakeholders, especially during drought spells.

  6. Accurate SHAPE-directed RNA secondary structure modeling, including pseudoknots

    PubMed Central

    Hajdin, Christine E.; Bellaousov, Stanislav; Huggins, Wayne; Leonard, Christopher W.; Mathews, David H.; Weeks, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    A pseudoknot forms in an RNA when nucleotides in a loop pair with a region outside the helices that close the loop. Pseudoknots occur relatively rarely in RNA but are highly overrepresented in functionally critical motifs in large catalytic RNAs, in riboswitches, and in regulatory elements of viruses. Pseudoknots are usually excluded from RNA structure prediction algorithms. When included, these pairings are difficult to model accurately, especially in large RNAs, because allowing this structure dramatically increases the number of possible incorrect folds and because it is difficult to search the fold space for an optimal structure. We have developed a concise secondary structure modeling approach that combines SHAPE (selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) experimental chemical probing information and a simple, but robust, energy model for the entropic cost of single pseudoknot formation. Structures are predicted with iterative refinement, using a dynamic programming algorithm. This melded experimental and thermodynamic energy function predicted the secondary structures and the pseudoknots for a set of 21 challenging RNAs of known structure ranging in size from 34 to 530 nt. On average, 93% of known base pairs were predicted, and all pseudoknots in well-folded RNAs were identified. PMID:23503844

  7. Raman Spectroscopy as an Accurate Probe of Defects in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Nieva, Joaquin; Barros, Eduardo; Saito, Riichiro; Dresselhaus, Mildred

    2014-03-01

    Raman Spectroscopy has proved to be an invaluable non-destructive technique that allows us to obtain intrinsic information about graphene. Furthermore, defect-induced Raman features, namely the D and D' bands, have previously been used to assess the purity of graphitic samples. However, quantitative studies of the signatures of the different types of defects on the Raman spectra is still an open problem. Experimental results already suggest that the Raman intensity ratio ID /ID' may allow us to identify the nature of the defects. We study from a theoretical point of view the power and limitations of Raman spectroscopy in the study of defects in graphene. We derive an analytic model that describes the Double Resonance Raman process of disordered graphene samples, and which explicitly shows the role played by both the defect-dependent parameters as well as the experimentally-controlled variables. We compare our model with previous Raman experiments, and use it to guide new ways in which defects in graphene can be accurately probed with Raman spectroscopy. We acknowledge support from NSF grant DMR1004147.

  8. Can numerical simulations accurately predict hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid films?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denner, Fabian; Charogiannis, Alexandros; Pradas, Marc; van Wachem, Berend G. M.; Markides, Christos N.; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the dynamics of hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid film flows is an active field of research in fluid dynamics and non-linear science in general. Numerical simulations offer a powerful tool to study hydrodynamic instabilities in film flows and can provide deep insights into the underlying physical phenomena. However, the direct comparison of numerical results and experimental results is often hampered by several reasons. For instance, in numerical simulations the interface representation is problematic and the governing equations and boundary conditions may be oversimplified, whereas in experiments it is often difficult to extract accurate information on the fluid and its behavior, e.g. determine the fluid properties when the liquid contains particles for PIV measurements. In this contribution we present the latest results of our on-going, extensive study on hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid film flows, which includes direct numerical simulations, low-dimensional modelling as well as experiments. The major focus is on wave regimes, wave height and wave celerity as a function of Reynolds number and forcing frequency of a falling liquid film. Specific attention is paid to the differences in numerical and experimental results and the reasons for these differences. The authors are grateful to the EPSRC for their financial support (Grant EP/K008595/1).

  9. Programmable logic controller implementation of an auto-tuned predictive control based on minimal plant information.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Palomo, G; Rossiter, J A

    2011-01-01

    This paper makes two key contributions. First, it tackles the issue of the availability of constrained predictive control for low-level control loops. Hence, it describes how the constrained control algorithm is embedded in an industrial programmable logic controller (PLC) using the IEC 61131-3 programming standard. Second, there is a definition and implementation of a novel auto-tuned predictive controller; the key novelty is that the modelling is based on relatively crude but pragmatic plant information. Laboratory experiment tests were carried out in two bench-scale laboratory systems to prove the effectiveness of the combined algorithm and hardware solution. For completeness, the results are compared with a commercial proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller (also embedded in the PLC) using the most up to date auto-tuning rules.

  10. Strategic planning for information services at multi-facility health systems.

    PubMed

    Bridle, J G

    1990-12-01

    Without benefit of an up-to-date, in-depth appraisal of any specific multi-facility's organization, the healthcare facility's mission statement and philosophy, and a detailed understanding of the current situation within each of the IS divisions and/or Data Processing departments, it is merely possible to generically assess the needs in light of today's readily available technology, and to subjectively and logically apply ones past experience to determine a preferred approach. Therefore, this overview of strategic planning considerations ought to be used with caution. A workable plan requires extensive on-going effort, and comes alive only when it is adopted by management. In the event that no previous information services planning activity has occurred within the organization, or where a prior strategic plan is more than three years old, prudent advice would include a strong recommendation to begin such a process without delay.

  11. Method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    DOEpatents

    Chalmers, S.A.; Killeen, K.P.; Lear, K.L.

    1995-03-14

    The authors report a method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The method uses a single reflectivity spectrum measurement to determine the structure of the partially completed VCSEL at a critical point of growth. This information, along with the extracted growth rates, allows imprecisions in growth parameters to be compensated for during growth of the remaining structure, which can then be completed with very accurate critical dimensions. Using this method, they can now routinely grow lasing VCSELs with Fabry-Perot cavity resonance wavelengths controlled to within 0.5%. 4 figs.

  12. Method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    DOEpatents

    Chalmers, Scott A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Lear, Kevin L.

    1995-01-01

    We report a method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The method uses a single reflectivity spectrum measurement to determine the structure of the partially completed VCSEL at a critical point of growth. This information, along with the extracted growth rates, allows imprecisions in growth parameters to be compensated for during growth of the remaining structure, which can then be completed with very accurate critical dimensions. Using this method, we can now routinely grow lasing VCSELs with Fabry-Perot cavity resonance wavelengths controlled to within 0.5%.

  13. Accurate fundamental parameters for 23 bright solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruntt, H.; Bedding, T. R.; Quirion, P.-O.; Lo Curto, G.; Carrier, F.; Smalley, B.; Dall, T. H.; Arentoft, T.; Bazot, M.; Butler, R. P.

    2010-07-01

    We combine results from interferometry, asteroseismology and spectroscopy to determine accurate fundamental parameters of 23 bright solar-type stars, from spectral type F5 to K2 and luminosity classes III-V. For some stars we can use direct techniques to determine the mass, radius, luminosity and effective temperature, and we compare with indirect methods that rely on photometric calibrations or spectroscopic analyses. We use the asteroseismic information available in the literature to infer an indirect mass with an accuracy of 4-15 per cent. From indirect methods we determine luminosity and radius to 3 per cent. We find evidence that the luminosity from the indirect method is slightly overestimated (~ 5 per cent) for the coolest stars, indicating that their bolometric corrections (BCs) are too negative. For Teff we find a slight offset of -40 +/- 20K between the spectroscopic method and the direct method, meaning the spectroscopic temperatures are too high. From the spectroscopic analysis we determine the detailed chemical composition for 13 elements, including Li, C and O. The metallicity ranges from [Fe/H] = -1.7 to +0.4, and there is clear evidence for α-element enhancement in the metal-poor stars. We find no significant offset between the spectroscopic surface gravity and the value from combining asteroseismology with radius estimates. From the spectroscopy we also determine v sin i and we present a new calibration of macroturbulence and microturbulence. From the comparison between the results from the direct and spectroscopic methods we claim that we can determine Teff, log g and [Fe/H] with absolute accuracies of 80K, 0.08 and 0.07dex. Photometric calibrations of Strömgren indices provide accurate results for Teff and [Fe/H] but will be more uncertain for distant stars when interstellar reddening becomes important. The indirect methods are important to obtain reliable estimates of the fundamental parameters of relatively faint stars when interferometry

  14. A prompt information retrieval system on handheld devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yo-Ping; Yen, Wei; Lin, Shi-Hung

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an intelligent bird information retrieval system which aims to construct a mobility-learning activity under the up-to-date wireless technology. The system consists of a Tablet PC and PDAs with wireless networking capabilities. The PDA is equipped with a friendly retrieval interface and a good learning environment. In our system, users only need to click the buttons or input the keywords to retrieve bird information. Besides, users can discuss or share their information and knowledge via the wireless network. Our system saves bird information in four categories including "Introduction," "Images," "Sound," "Streaming Media," and "Ecological Memo." The integral knowledge helps users understand more about birds. Data mining and fuzzy association rules are applied to recommend users those birds they may be interested in. A streaming server on the Tablet PC is built to provide the streaming media for PDA users. By this way, PDA users can enjoy the multimedia from Tablet PC in real time without downloading completely. Finally, the system is a perfect tool for outdoor teaching and can be easily extended to provide navigation and touring services for national parks or museums.

  15. [Use of information sources by recently graduated physicians of Lima].

    PubMed

    Mejia, Christian R; Caceres, Onice J; Vera, Claudia A; Nizama-Vía, Ayar; Curioso, Walter H; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the use of information sources by recently graduated physicians of Lima, Peru in 2011, a survey was conducted among graduated physicians at seven universities. They were asked about the use of search engines in the health area during their year of medical internship [last year of medical school]. Regular use was defined as the source being used once a week or daily. For 490 respondents, regularly used information sources were SciELO, accessed by 173 (36.4%); PubMed 165 (34.4%); HINARI 117 (25.5%); UpToDate 98 (22.3%); Cochrane Library 94 (20.6%); LILACS 91 (19.8%); a hospital institutional library 70 (15.0%); LIPECS 39 (8.7%); and Peru BVS 42 (9.3%). Only a minority regularly accessed information sources related to health. It is necessary to improve capacity in the efficient use of various resources of scientific information in a continuous way and that reaches students and health professionals.

  16. ChemEx: information extraction system for chemical data curation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Manual chemical data curation from publications is error-prone, time consuming, and hard to maintain up-to-date data sets. Automatic information extraction can be used as a tool to reduce these problems. Since chemical structures usually described in images, information extraction needs to combine structure image recognition and text mining together. Results We have developed ChemEx, a chemical information extraction system. ChemEx processes both text and images in publications. Text annotator is able to extract compound, organism, and assay entities from text content while structure image recognition enables translation of chemical raster images to machine readable format. A user can view annotated text along with summarized information of compounds, organism that produces those compounds, and assay tests. Conclusions ChemEx facilitates and speeds up chemical data curation by extracting compounds, organisms, and assays from a large collection of publications. The software and corpus can be downloaded from http://www.biotec.or.th/isl/ChemEx. PMID:23282330

  17. A predictable and accurate technique with elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Barghi, N; Ontiveros, J C

    1999-08-01

    A method for obtaining more predictable and accurate final impressions with polyvinylsiloxane impression materials in conjunction with stock trays is proposed and tested. Heavy impression material is used in advance for construction of a modified custom tray, while extra-light material is used for obtaining a more accurate final impression.

  18. Tube dimpling tool assures accurate dip-brazed joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Heisman, R. M.

    1968-01-01

    Portable, hand-held dimpling tool assures accurate brazed joints between tubes of different diameters. Prior to brazing, the tool performs precise dimpling and nipple forming and also provides control and accurate measuring of the height of nipples and depth of dimples so formed.

  19. Spectroscopically Accurate Line Lists for Application in Sulphur Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, D. S.; Azzam, A. A. A.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Tennyson, J.

    2013-09-01

    Monitoring sulphur chemistry is thought to be of great importance for exoplanets. Doing this requires detailed knowledge of the spectroscopic properties of sulphur containing molecules such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) [1], sulphur dioxide (SO2), and sulphur trioxide (SO3). Each of these molecules can be found in terrestrial environments, produced in volcano emissions on Earth, and analysis of their spectroscopic data can prove useful to the characterisation of exoplanets, as well as the study of planets in our own solar system, with both having a possible presence on Venus. A complete, high temperature list of line positions and intensities for H32 2 S is presented. The DVR3D program suite is used to calculate the bound ro-vibration energy levels, wavefunctions, and dipole transition intensities using Radau coordinates. The calculations are based on a newly determined, spectroscopically refined potential energy surface (PES) and a new, high accuracy, ab initio dipole moment surface (DMS). Tests show that the PES enables us to calculate the line positions accurately and the DMS gives satisfactory results for line intensities. Comparisons with experiment as well as with previous theoretical spectra will be presented. The results of this study will form an important addition to the databases which are considered as sources of information for space applications; especially, in analysing the spectra of extrasolar planets, and remote sensing studies for Venus and Earth, as well as laboratory investigations and pollution studies. An ab initio line list for SO3 was previously computed using the variational nuclear motion program TROVE [2], and was suitable for modelling room temperature SO3 spectra. The calculations considered transitions in the region of 0-4000 cm-1 with rotational states up to J = 85, and includes 174,674,257 transitions. A list of 10,878 experimental transitions had relative intensities placed on an absolute scale, and were provided in a form suitable

  20. Advances in Navy pharmacy information technology: accessing Micromedex via the Composite Healthcare Computer System and local area networks.

    PubMed

    Koerner, S D; Becker, F

    1999-07-01

    The pharmacy profession has long used technology to more effectively bring health care to the patient. Navy pharmacy has embraced technology advances in its daily operations, from computers to dispensing robots. Evolving from the traditional role of compounding and dispensing specialists, pharmacists are establishing themselves as vital team members in direct patient care: on the ward, in ambulatory clinics, in specialty clinics, and in other specialty patient care programs (e.g., smoking cessation). An important part of the evolution is the timely access to the most up-to-date information available. Micromedex, Inc. (Denver, Colorado), has developed a number of computer CD-ROM-based full-text pharmacy, toxicology, emergency medicine, and patient education products. Micromedex is a recognized leader with regard to total pharmaceutical information availability. This article discusses the implementation of Micromedex products within the established Composite Healthcare Computer System and the subsequent use by and effect on the international Navy pharmacy community.

  1. Information retrieval patterns and needs among practicing general surgeons: a statewide experience.

    PubMed

    Shelstad, K R; Clevenger, F W

    1996-10-01

    Information retrieval has progressed from a reliance on traditional print sources to the modern era of computer databases and online networks. Surgeons, many from remote areas not served by professional medical libraries, must develop and maintain skills in information retrieval and management in both electronic and standard formats. One hundred thirty-three New Mexico general surgeons were surveyed to identify their information-seeking patterns in five areas: retrieval purposes, retrieval sources, barriers to access, techniques used, and continuing education needs. Ninety-nine (74.4%) surgeons responded to the survey. Ninety-five percent utilize professional meetings, the medical literature, and physician colleagues as information sources. Only 17% utilize the outreach services of the state's only medical school library. Common retrieval barriers were practice demands (71%), isolation from medical schools (30%), computer illiteracy (28%), and rural environment (25%). Continuing education topics related to information management would be valuable to 61% of the surgeons. Sixty-nine percent believe their current ability to access biomedical information is adequate, despite most frequently accessing their personal libraries for information related to decision-making or patient management. These data suggest that, despite significant information needs, surgeons have not embraced newer forms of information retrieval. It is imperative that surgeons acquire and maintain modern information retrieval skills as a means of remaining up-to-date in their profession. Professional surgical organizations and medical librarians should collaborate on these continuing education ventures.

  2. The WHO Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis. Coordinating Board of the WHO-IWGE.

    PubMed

    Vuitton, D A

    1997-12-01

    WHO Informal Working Groups on Echinococcosis were founded in 1985 and for 10 years, under the leadership of Prof. J. Eckert (Zurich, Switzerland), they contributed much to facilitate exchanges between interested scientists working in their respective areas. In 1995, the Veterinary Public Health Unit, at WHO, decided to modify the functioning of the Groups and to transform them into a single Group. The Working Group brings together all the scientists involved in research on Echinococcosis whatever their specialty, field of interest, or type of Echinococcosis studied. The aim of the Group is to establish international networks on relevant, up-to-date and/or important problems in Echinococcosis on the basis of i) international cooperation, ii) high scientific standards, and iii) accurate methodology. A Coordinator is designated by WHO and has a 4-year term. He/she is assisted by a Coordinating Board. This board is also proposed for a 4-year term, so that it can be regularly renewed. It, thus, will give an opportunity for closer association with the life of the Working Group to many scientists; the coordinator for the next term will be chosen from among the participants so that a continuity of action is ensured. The current networks deal with: "Standardization of the ultra-sound classification of hydatid cysts" (coordinator: C. Mcpherson); "Long-term follow-up of patients treated with PAIR" (coordinator: C. Filice); "Standardization of the staging/classification of patients with Alveolar Echinococcosis" (coordinator: P. Kern); "Vaccination of sheep for the prevention of Echinococcosis: pilot trials" (coordinator: M. Lightowlers); "Standardization of immunological tools for the detection of Echinococcus coproantigens in carnivores" (coordinator: P.S. Craig); "Educational material for Echinococcosis prevention/control" (coordinator: L. Garcia); and "Methodology for the evaluation of the economical cost of Echinococcosis" (coordinator: G. Battelli). Two new networks are

  3. Accurate compressed look up table method for CGH in 3D holographic display.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chuan; Liu, Juan; Li, Xin; Xue, Gaolei; Jia, Jia; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-12-28

    Computer generated hologram (CGH) should be obtained with high accuracy and high speed in 3D holographic display, and most researches focus on the high speed. In this paper, a simple and effective computation method for CGH is proposed based on Fresnel diffraction theory and look up table. Numerical simulations and optical experiments are performed to demonstrate its feasibility. The proposed method can obtain more accurate reconstructed images with lower memory usage compared with split look up table method and compressed look up table method without sacrificing the computational speed in holograms generation, so it is called accurate compressed look up table method (AC-LUT). It is believed that AC-LUT method is an effective method to calculate the CGH of 3D objects for real-time 3D holographic display where the huge information data is required, and it could provide fast and accurate digital transmission in various dynamic optical fields in the future.

  4. Problems in publishing accurate color in IEEE journals.

    PubMed

    Vrhel, Michael J; Trussell, H J

    2002-01-01

    To demonstrate the performance of color image processing algorithms, it is desirable to be able to accurately display color images in archival publications. In poster presentations, the authors have substantial control of the printing process, although little control of the illumination. For journal publication, the authors must rely on professional intermediaries (printers) to accurately reproduce their results. Our previous work describes requirements for accurately rendering images using your own equipment. This paper discusses the problems of dealing with intermediaries and offers suggestions for improved communication and rendering.

  5. Fabricating an Accurate Implant Master Cast: A Technique Report.

    PubMed

    Balshi, Thomas J; Wolfinger, Glenn J; Alfano, Stephen G; Cacovean, Jeannine N; Balshi, Stephen F

    2015-12-01

    The technique for fabricating an accurate implant master cast following the 12-week healing period after Teeth in a Day® dental implant surgery is detailed. The clinical, functional, and esthetic details captured during the final master impression are vital to creating an accurate master cast. This technique uses the properties of the all-acrylic resin interim prosthesis to capture these details. This impression captures the relationship between the remodeled soft tissue and the interim prosthesis. This provides the laboratory technician with an accurate orientation of the implant replicas in the master cast with which a passive fitting restoration can be fabricated.

  6. Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library ▸ Hay fever and pollen counts Share | Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts This article has ... Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Seasonal allergic rhinitis known as hay fever is caused by pollen carried in the air ...

  7. Digital system accurately controls velocity of electromechanical drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, G. B.

    1965-01-01

    Digital circuit accurately regulates electromechanical drive mechanism velocity. The gain and phase characteristics of digital circuits are relatively unimportant. Control accuracy depends only on the stability of the input signal frequency.

  8. WARP: accurate retrieval of shapes using phase of fourier descriptors and time warping distance.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Ilaria; Ciaccia, Paolo; Patella, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Effective and efficient retrieval of similar shapes from large image databases is still a challenging problem in spite of the high relevance that shape information can have in describing image contents. In this paper, we propose a novel Fourier-based approach, called WARP, for matching and retrieving similar shapes. The unique characteristics of WARP are the exploitation of the phase of Fourier coefficients and the use of the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) distance to compare shape descriptors. While phase information provides a more accurate description of object boundaries than using only the amplitude of Fourier coefficients, the DTW distance permits us to accurately match images even in the presence of (limited) phase shiftings. In terms of classical precision/recall measures, we experimentally demonstrate that WARP can gain, say, up to 35 percent in precision at a 20 percent recall level with respect to Fourier-based techniques that use neither phase nor DTW distance.

  9. Accurate tracking of high dynamic vehicles with translated GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blankshain, Kenneth M.

    The GPS concept and the translator processing system (TPS) which were developed for accurate and cost-effective tracking of various types of high dynamic expendable vehicles are described. A technique used by the translator processing system (TPS) to accomplish very accurate high dynamic tracking is presented. Automatic frequency control and fast Fourier transform processes are combined to track 100 g acceleration and 100 g/s jerk with 1-sigma velocity measurement error less than 1 ft/sec.

  10. Accurate Alignment of Plasma Channels Based on Laser Centroid Oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Osterhoff, Jens; Shiraishi, Satomi; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Toth, Csaba; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2011-03-23

    A technique has been developed to accurately align a laser beam through a plasma channel by minimizing the shift in laser centroid and angle at the channel outptut. If only the shift in centroid or angle is measured, then accurate alignment is provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel properties are scanned. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique is important for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.

  11. Finding accurate frontiers: A knowledge-intensive approach to relational learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pazzani, Michael; Brunk, Clifford

    1994-01-01

    An approach to analytic learning is described that searches for accurate entailments of a Horn Clause domain theory. A hill-climbing search, guided by an information based evaluation function, is performed by applying a set of operators that derive frontiers from domain theories. The analytic learning system is one component of a multi-strategy relational learning system. We compare the accuracy of concepts learned with this analytic strategy to concepts learned with an analytic strategy that operationalizes the domain theory.

  12. Firearms and health: the right to be armed with accurate information about the Second Amendment.

    PubMed Central

    Vernick, J S; Teret, S P

    1993-01-01

    An organized campaign by groups such as the National Rifle Association has sought to convince policymakers and others that the Second Amendment to the US Constitution grants an unfettered right to individuals to possess any firearm, free from federal or state regulation. Although advocates may debate the meaning that should be given to the Second Amendment, under the American legal system the meaning of any particular constitutional provision is determined by the controlling precedent of Supreme Court cases. Two cases, Presser v Illinois and United States v Miller, remain the Supreme Court's latest word on the meaning of the Second Amendment. In Presser, the Court held that the Second Amendment is applicable only to federal, not state, laws. In Miller and subsequent federal cases, any Second Amendment "right" to bear arms is closely linked to the preservation of state militias, upholding a variety of federal gun legislation. Unless the Supreme Court modifies or reverses its Presser and Miller decisions, health advocates should understand that the Second Amendment poses no obstacle to even broad gun control legislation. PMID:8259817

  13. Communication of Information with Sub-particles (Sub-strings) from Fifth Dimension of the Universe (Information) as the ``Fundamental Symmetry'' in the Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Ghasem; Amirshahkarami, Abdolazim; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-10-01

    Fundamental particles (strings) getting processed information from their four animated sub-particles (sub-strings) for their motion [Gholibeigian, APS, 2015, abstract #L1.027]. It seems that the source of information which particles and dark mater/energy are floating in it and whispering to its communication for getting order may be ``fifth dimension'' of the nature in addition of space-time dimensions. In other words, space-time can be the universe's hardware and information's dimension can be dynamic software of the universe which has always become up to date. Communication of information which has a vital role in creation and evolution of the universe, may be as the ``fundamental symmetry'' in the nature, which sparked to B.B. (Convection Bang). Communication of information leads other symmetries and supersymmetry as well as other phenomena in Universe. Before Planck time, from 0 ->10-44 second, and its correspondence space needed communication of information for preparing the B.B. So, this fifth dimension has appeared for leading the processes before and after Planck time. AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

  14. Geographic Information System Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Chad; Casad, Christopher; Floriano, Luis G.; Hill, Tracie; Johnson, Rashida K.; Locklear, J. Mark; Penn, Stephen; Rhoulac, Tori; Shay, Adam H.; Taylor, Antone; Thorpe, Karina

    1995-01-01

    Data was collected in order to further NASA Langley Research Center's Geographic Information System(GIS). Information on LaRC's communication, electrical, and facility configurations was collected. Existing data was corrected through verification, resulting in more accurate databases. In addition, Global Positioning System(GPS) points were used in order to accurately impose buildings on digitized images. Overall, this project will help the Imaging and CADD Technology Team (ICTT) prove GIS to be a valuable resource for LaRC.

  15. Education resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Peter S; Lipshultz, Dawn; Matten, Wayne T; McGinnis, Scott D; Pechous, Steven; Romiti, Monica L; Tao, Tao; Valjavec-Gratian, Majda; Sayers, Eric W

    2010-11-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) hosts 39 literature and molecular biology databases containing almost half a billion records. As the complexity of these data and associated resources and tools continues to expand, so does the need for educational resources to help investigators, clinicians, information specialists and the general public make use of the wealth of public data available at the NCBI. This review describes the educational resources available at NCBI via the NCBI Education page (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Education/). These resources include materials designed for new users, such as About NCBI and the NCBI Guide, as well as documentation, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) and writings on the NCBI Bookshelf such as the NCBI Help Manual and the NCBI Handbook. NCBI also provides teaching materials such as tutorials, problem sets and educational tools such as the Amino Acid Explorer, PSSM Viewer and Ebot. NCBI also offers training programs including the Discovery Workshops, webinars and tutorials at conferences. To help users keep up-to-date, NCBI produces the online NCBI News and offers RSS feeds and mailing lists, along with a presence on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube.

  16. Preparing routine health information systems for immediate health responses to disasters.

    PubMed

    Aung, Eindra; Whittaker, Maxine

    2013-08-01

    During disaster times, we need specific information to rapidly plan a disaster response, especially in sudden-onset disasters. Due to the inadequate capacity of Routine Health Information Systems (RHIS), many developing countries face a lack of quality pre-disaster health-related data and efficient post-disaster data processes in the immediate aftermath of a disaster. Considering the significance of local capacity during the early stages of disaster response, RHIS at local, provincial/state and national levels need to be strengthened so that they provide relief personnel up-to-date information to plan, organize and monitor immediate relief activities. RHIS professionals should be aware of specific information needs in disaster response (according to the Sphere Project's Humanitarian Minimum Standards) and requirements in data processes to fulfil those information needs. Preparing RHIS for disasters can be guided by key RHIS-strengthening frameworks; and disaster preparedness must be incorporated into countries' RHIS. Mechanisms must be established in non-disaster times and maintained between RHIS and information systems of non-health sectors for exchanging disaster-related information and sharing technologies and cost.

  17. Preparing routine health information systems for immediate health responses to disasters

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Eindra; Whittaker, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    During disaster times, we need specific information to rapidly plan a disaster response, especially in sudden-onset disasters. Due to the inadequate capacity of Routine Health Information Systems (RHIS), many developing countries face a lack of quality pre-disaster health-related data and efficient post-disaster data processes in the immediate aftermath of a disaster. Considering the significance of local capacity during the early stages of disaster response, RHIS at local, provincial/state and national levels need to be strengthened so that they provide relief personnel up-to-date information to plan, organize and monitor immediate relief activities. RHIS professionals should be aware of specific information needs in disaster response (according to the Sphere Project’s Humanitarian Minimum Standards) and requirements in data processes to fulfil those information needs. Preparing RHIS for disasters can be guided by key RHIS-strengthening frameworks; and disaster preparedness must be incorporated into countries’ RHIS. Mechanisms must be established in non-disaster times and maintained between RHIS and information systems of non-health sectors for exchanging disaster-related information and sharing technologies and cost. PMID:23002249

  18. Accurately measuring dynamic coefficient of friction in ultraform finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Dennis; Echaves, Samantha; Pidgeon, Brendan; Travis, Nathan; Ellis, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    UltraForm Finishing (UFF) is a deterministic sub-aperture computer numerically controlled grinding and polishing platform designed by OptiPro Systems. UFF is used to grind and polish a variety of optics from simple spherical to fully freeform, and numerous materials from glasses to optical ceramics. The UFF system consists of an abrasive belt around a compliant wheel that rotates and contacts the part to remove material. This work aims to accurately measure the dynamic coefficient of friction (μ), how it changes as a function of belt wear, and how this ultimately affects material removal rates. The coefficient of friction has been examined in terms of contact mechanics and Preston's equation to determine accurate material removal rates. By accurately predicting changes in μ, polishing iterations can be more accurately predicted, reducing the total number of iterations required to meet specifications. We have established an experimental apparatus that can accurately measure μ by measuring triaxial forces during translating loading conditions or while manufacturing the removal spots used to calculate material removal rates. Using this system, we will demonstrate μ measurements for UFF belts during different states of their lifecycle and assess the material removal function from spot diagrams as a function of wear. Ultimately, we will use this system for qualifying belt-wheel-material combinations to develop a spot-morphing model to better predict instantaneous material removal functions.

  19. Radio Astronomers Set New Standard for Accurate Cosmic Distance Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    the distance to NGC 4258 as either 27 or 29 million light-years, depending on assumptions about the characteristics of this type of star in that galaxy. Other Cepheid-based galaxy distances were used to calculate the expansion rate of the universe, called the Hubble Constant, announced by a team of HST observers last week. "This difference could mean that there may be more uncertainty in Cepheid-determined distances than people have realized," said Moran. "Providing this directly-determined distance to one galaxy -- a distance that can serve as a milestone -- should be helpful in determining distances to other galaxies, and thus the Hubble Constant and the size and age of the universe" The VLBA is a system of ten radio-telescope antennas, each 25 meters (82 feet) in diameter, stretching some 5,000 miles from Mauna Kea in Hawaii to St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Operated from NRAO's Array Operations Center in Socorro, NM, the VLBA offers astronomers the greatest resolving power of any telescope anywhere. The NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Background information: Determining Cosmic Distances Determining cosmic distances obviously is vital to understanding the size of the universe. In turn, knowing the size of the universe is an important step in determining its age. "The size puts a limit on how much expansion could have occurred since the Big Bang, and thus tells us something about the age," said Moran. However, determining cosmic distances has proven to be a particularly thorny problem for astronomers. In the third century, B.C., the Greek astronomer Aristarchus devised a method of using trigonometry to determine the relative distances of the Moon and Sun, but in practice his method was difficult to use. Though a great first step, he missed the mark by a factor of 20. It wasn't until 1761 that trigonometric methods produced a relatively accurate distance to Venus, thus

  20. Gap between technically accurate information and socially appropriate information for structural health monitoring system installed into tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mita, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the structural health monitoring system for tall buildings is now widely recognized by at least structural engineers and managers at large real estate companies to ensure the structural safety immediately after a large earthquake and appeal the quantitative safety of buildings to potential tenants. Some leading real estate companies decided to install the system into all tall buildings. Considering this tendency, a pilot project for the west area of Shinjuku Station supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency was started by the author team to explore a possibility of using the system to provide safe spaces for commuters and residents. The system was installed into six tall buildings. From our experience, it turned out that viewing only from technological aspects was not sufficient for the system to be accepted and to be really useful. Safe spaces require not only the structural safety but also the soundness of key functions of the building. We need help from social scientists, medical doctors, city planners etc. to further improve the integrity of the system.

  1. Are Normally Sighted, Visually Impaired, and Blind Pedestrians Accurate and Reliable at Making Street Crossing Decisions?

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Shirin E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to measure the accuracy and reliability of normally sighted, visually impaired, and blind pedestrians at making street crossing decisions using visual and/or auditory information. Methods. Using a 5-point rating scale, safety ratings for vehicular gaps of different durations were measured along a two-lane street of one-way traffic without a traffic signal. Safety ratings were collected from 12 normally sighted, 10 visually impaired, and 10 blind subjects for eight different gap times under three sensory conditions: (1) visual plus auditory information, (2) visual information only, and (3) auditory information only. Accuracy and reliability in street crossing decision-making were calculated for each subject under each sensory condition. Results. We found that normally sighted and visually impaired pedestrians were accurate and reliable in their street crossing decision-making ability when using either vision plus hearing or vision only (P > 0.05). Under the hearing only condition, all subjects were reliable (P > 0.05) but inaccurate with their street crossing decisions (P < 0.05). Compared to either the normally sighted (P = 0.018) or visually impaired subjects (P = 0.019), blind subjects were the least accurate with their street crossing decisions under the hearing only condition. Conclusions. Our data suggested that visually impaired pedestrians can make accurate and reliable street crossing decisions like those of normally sighted pedestrians. When using auditory information only, all subjects significantly overestimated the vehicular gap time. Our finding that blind pedestrians performed significantly worse than either the normally sighted or visually impaired subjects under the hearing only condition suggested that they may benefit from training to improve their detection ability and/or interpretation of vehicular gap times. PMID:22427593

  2. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    PubMed

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  3. Accurate Fiber Length Measurement Using Time-of-Flight Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra, Osama; Hussein, Hatem

    2016-06-01

    Fiber artifacts of very well-measured length are required for the calibration of optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR). In this paper accurate length measurement of different fiber lengths using the time-of-flight technique is performed. A setup is proposed to measure accurately lengths from 1 to 40 km at 1,550 and 1,310 nm using high-speed electro-optic modulator and photodetector. This setup offers traceability to the SI unit of time, the second (and hence to meter by definition), by locking the time interval counter to the Global Positioning System (GPS)-disciplined quartz oscillator. Additionally, the length of a recirculating loop artifact is measured and compared with the measurement made for the same fiber by the National Physical Laboratory of United Kingdom (NPL). Finally, a method is proposed to relatively correct the fiber refractive index to allow accurate fiber length measurement.

  4. Differential equation based method for accurate approximations in optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.

    1990-01-01

    A method to efficiently and accurately approximate the effect of design changes on structural response is described. The key to this method is to interpret sensitivity equations as differential equations that may be solved explicitly for closed form approximations, hence, the method is denoted the Differential Equation Based (DEB) method. Approximations were developed for vibration frequencies, mode shapes and static displacements. The DEB approximation method was applied to a cantilever beam and results compared with the commonly-used linear Taylor series approximations and exact solutions. The test calculations involved perturbing the height, width, cross-sectional area, tip mass, and bending inertia of the beam. The DEB method proved to be very accurate, and in most cases, was more accurate than the linear Taylor series approximation. The method is applicable to simultaneous perturbation of several design variables. Also, the approximations may be used to calculate other system response quantities. For example, the approximations for displacements are used to approximate bending stresses.

  5. Accurate Cell Division in Bacteria: How Does a Bacterium Know Where its Middle Is?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Martin; Rutenberg, Andrew

    2004-03-01

    I will discuss the physical principles lying behind the acquisition of accurate positional information in bacteria. A good application of these ideas is to the rod-shaped bacterium E. coli which divides precisely at its cellular midplane. This positioning is controlled by the Min system of proteins. These proteins coherently oscillate from end to end of the bacterium. I will present a reaction-diffusion model that describes the diffusion of the Min proteins, and their binding/unbinding from the cell membrane. The system possesses an instability that spontaneously generates the Min oscillations, which control accurate placement of the midcell division site. I will then discuss the role of fluctuations in protein dynamics, and investigate whether fluctuations set optimal protein concentration levels. Finally I will examine cell division in a different bacteria, B. subtilis. where different physical principles are used to regulate accurate cell division. See: Howard, Rutenberg, de Vet: Dynamic compartmentalization of bacteria: accurate division in E. coli. Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 278102 (2001). Howard, Rutenberg: Pattern formation inside bacteria: fluctuations due to the low copy number of proteins. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 128102 (2003). Howard: A mechanism for polar protein localization in bacteria. J. Mol. Biol. 335 655-663 (2004).

  6. Prediction of Accurate Thermochemistry of Medium and Large Sized Radicals Using Connectivity-Based Hierarchy (CBH).

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Arkajyoti; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2014-10-14

    Accurate modeling of the chemical reactions in many diverse areas such as combustion, photochemistry, or atmospheric chemistry strongly depends on the availability of thermochemical information of the radicals involved. However, accurate thermochemical investigations of radical systems using state of the art composite methods have mostly been restricted to the study of hydrocarbon radicals of modest size. In an alternative approach, systematic error-canceling thermochemical hierarchy of reaction schemes can be applied to yield accurate results for such systems. In this work, we have extended our connectivity-based hierarchy (CBH) method to the investigation of radical systems. We have calibrated our method using a test set of 30 medium sized radicals to evaluate their heats of formation. The CBH-rad30 test set contains radicals containing diverse functional groups as well as cyclic systems. We demonstrate that the sophisticated error-canceling isoatomic scheme (CBH-2) with modest levels of theory is adequate to provide heats of formation accurate to ∼1.5 kcal/mol. Finally, we predict heats of formation of 19 other large and medium sized radicals for which the accuracy of available heats of formation are less well-known.

  7. FANSe: an accurate algorithm for quantitative mapping of large scale sequencing reads

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gong; Fedyunin, Ivan; Kirchner, Sebastian; Xiao, Chuanle; Valleriani, Angelo; Ignatova, Zoya

    2012-01-01

    The most crucial step in data processing from high-throughput sequencing applications is the accurate and sensitive alignment of the sequencing reads to reference genomes or transcriptomes. The accurate detection of insertions and deletions (indels) and errors introduced by the sequencing platform or by misreading of modified nucleotides is essential for the quantitative processing of the RNA-based sequencing (RNA-Seq) datasets and for the identification of genetic variations and modification patterns. We developed a new, fast and accurate algorithm for nucleic acid sequence analysis, FANSe, with adjustable mismatch allowance settings and ability to handle indels to accurately and quantitatively map millions of reads to small or large reference genomes. It is a seed-based algorithm which uses the whole read information for mapping and high sensitivity and low ambiguity are achieved by using short and non-overlapping reads. Furthermore, FANSe uses hotspot score to prioritize the processing of highly possible matches and implements modified Smith–Watermann refinement with reduced scoring matrix to accelerate the calculation without compromising its sensitivity. The FANSe algorithm stably processes datasets from various sequencing platforms, masked or unmasked and small or large genomes. It shows a remarkable coverage of low-abundance mRNAs which is important for quantitative processing of RNA-Seq datasets. PMID:22379138

  8. FANSe: an accurate algorithm for quantitative mapping of large scale sequencing reads.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gong; Fedyunin, Ivan; Kirchner, Sebastian; Xiao, Chuanle; Valleriani, Angelo; Ignatova, Zoya

    2012-06-01

    The most crucial step in data processing from high-throughput sequencing applications is the accurate and sensitive alignment of the sequencing reads to reference genomes or transcriptomes. The accurate detection of insertions and deletions (indels) and errors introduced by the sequencing platform or by misreading of modified nucleotides is essential for the quantitative processing of the RNA-based sequencing (RNA-Seq) datasets and for the identification of genetic variations and modification patterns. We developed a new, fast and accurate algorithm for nucleic acid sequence analysis, FANSe, with adjustable mismatch allowance settings and ability to handle indels to accurately and quantitatively map millions of reads to small or large reference genomes. It is a seed-based algorithm which uses the whole read information for mapping and high sensitivity and low ambiguity are achieved by using short and non-overlapping reads. Furthermore, FANSe uses hotspot score to prioritize the processing of highly possible matches and implements modified Smith-Watermann refinement with reduced scoring matrix to accelerate the calculation without compromising its sensitivity. The FANSe algorithm stably processes datasets from various sequencing platforms, masked or unmasked and small or large genomes. It shows a remarkable coverage of low-abundance mRNAs which is important for quantitative processing of RNA-Seq datasets.

  9. Extracting Time-Accurate Acceleration Vectors From Nontrivial Accelerometer Arrangements.

    PubMed

    Franck, Jennifer A; Blume, Janet; Crisco, Joseph J; Franck, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Sports-related concussions are of significant concern in many impact sports, and their detection relies on accurate measurements of the head kinematics during impact. Among the most prevalent recording technologies are videography, and more recently, the use of single-axis accelerometers mounted in a helmet, such as the HIT system. Successful extraction of the linear and angular impact accelerations depends on an accurate analysis methodology governed by the equations of motion. Current algorithms are able to estimate the magnitude of acceleration and hit location, but make assumptions about the hit orientation and are often limited in the position and/or orientation of the accelerometers. The newly formulated algorithm presented in this manuscript accurately extracts the full linear and rotational acceleration vectors from a broad arrangement of six single-axis accelerometers directly from the governing set of kinematic equations. The new formulation linearizes the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term with a finite-difference approximation and provides a fast and accurate solution for all six components of acceleration over long time periods (>250 ms). The approximation of the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term provides an accurate computation of the rotational velocity as a function of time and allows for reconstruction of a multiple-impact signal. Furthermore, the algorithm determines the impact location and orientation and can distinguish between glancing, high rotational velocity impacts, or direct impacts through the center of mass. Results are shown for ten simulated impact locations on a headform geometry computed with three different accelerometer configurations in varying degrees of signal noise. Since the algorithm does not require simplifications of the actual impacted geometry, the impact vector, or a specific arrangement of accelerometer orientations, it can be easily applied to many impact investigations in which accurate kinematics need to

  10. Sources of Information on HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health for Couples Living with HIV in Rural Southern Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Gombachika, Belinda Chimphamba; Chirwa, Ellen; Malata, Address; Maluwa, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    With wider access to antiretroviral therapy, people living with HIV are reconsidering their reproductive decisions: remarrying and having children. The purpose of the paper is to explore sources of information for reproductive decision used by couples living with HIV in patrilineal and matrilineal districts of Malawi. Data were collected from forty couples from July to December 2010. Our results illuminate five specific issues: some of the informants (1) remarry after divorce/death of a spouse, (2) establish new marriage relationship with spouses living with HIV, and (3) have children hence the need for information to base their decisions. There are (4) shared and interactive couple decisions, and (5) informal networks of people living with HIV are the main sources of information. In addition, in matrilineal community, cultural practices about remarriage set up structures that constrained information availability unlike in patrilineal community where information on sexual and reproductive health, HIV, and AIDS was disseminated during remarriage counselling. However, both sources are not able to provide comprehensive information due to complexity and lack of up to date information. Therefore, health workers should, offer people living with HIV comprehensive information that takes into consideration the cultural specificity of groups, and empower already existing and accepted local structures with sexual and reproductive health, HIV, and AIDS knowledge. PMID:23662206

  11. Accurate stress resultants equations for laminated composite deep thick shells

    SciTech Connect

    Qatu, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    This paper derives accurate equations for the normal and shear force as well as bending and twisting moment resultants for laminated composite deep, thick shells. The stress resultant equations for laminated composite thick shells are shown to be different from those of plates. This is due to the fact the stresses over the thickness of the shell have to be integrated on a trapezoidal-like shell element to obtain the stress resultants. Numerical results are obtained and showed that accurate stress resultants are needed for laminated composite deep thick shells, especially if the curvature is not spherical.

  12. Must Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths be accurate at threshold?

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Zenghui; Burke, Kieron; Faassen, Meta van

    2009-09-21

    The exact ground-state Kohn-Sham (KS) potential for the helium atom is known from accurate wave function calculations of the ground-state density. The threshold for photoabsorption from this potential matches the physical system exactly. By carefully studying its absorption spectrum, we show the answer to the title question is no. To address this problem in detail, we generate a highly accurate simple fit of a two-electron spectrum near the threshold, and apply the method to both the experimental spectrum and that of the exact ground-state Kohn-Sham potential.

  13. Accurate torque-speed performance prediction for brushless dc motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gipper, Patrick D.

    Desirable characteristics of the brushless dc motor (BLDCM) have resulted in their application for electrohydrostatic (EH) and electromechanical (EM) actuation systems. But to effectively apply the BLDCM requires accurate prediction of performance. The minimum necessary performance characteristics are motor torque versus speed, peak and average supply current and efficiency. BLDCM nonlinear simulation software specifically adapted for torque-speed prediction is presented. The capability of the software to quickly and accurately predict performance has been verified on fractional to integral HP motor sizes, and is presented. Additionally, the capability of torque-speed prediction with commutation angle advance is demonstrated.

  14. Accurate upwind-monotone (nonoscillatory) methods for conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1992-01-01

    The well known MUSCL scheme of Van Leer is constructed using a piecewise linear approximation. The MUSCL scheme is second order accurate at the smooth part of the solution except at extrema where the accuracy degenerates to first order due to the monotonicity constraint. To construct accurate schemes which are free from oscillations, the author introduces the concept of upwind monotonicity. Several classes of schemes, which are upwind monotone and of uniform second or third order accuracy are then presented. Results for advection with constant speed are shown. It is also shown that the new scheme compares favorably with state of the art methods.

  15. In-line sensor for accurate rf power measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahan, D.; Hopkins, M. B.

    2005-10-01

    An in-line sensor has been constructed with 50Ω characteristic impedance to accurately measure rf power dissipated in a matched or unmatched load with a view to being implemented as a rf discharge diagnostic. The physical construction and calibration technique are presented. The design is a wide band, hybrid directional coupler/current-voltage sensor suitable for fundamental and harmonic power measurements. A comparison with a standard wattmeter using dummy load impedances shows that this in-line sensor is significantly more accurate in mismatched conditions.

  16. In-line sensor for accurate rf power measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gahan, D.; Hopkins, M.B.

    2005-10-15

    An in-line sensor has been constructed with 50 {omega} characteristic impedance to accurately measure rf power dissipated in a matched or unmatched load with a view to being implemented as a rf discharge diagnostic. The physical construction and calibration technique are presented. The design is a wide band, hybrid directional coupler/current-voltage sensor suitable for fundamental and harmonic power measurements. A comparison with a standard wattmeter using dummy load impedances shows that this in-line sensor is significantly more accurate in mismatched conditions.

  17. Time-Accurate Numerical Simulations of Synthetic Jet Quiescent Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupesh, K-A. B.; Ravi, B. R.; Mittal, R.; Raju, R.; Gallas, Q.; Cattafesta, L.

    2007-01-01

    The unsteady evolution of three-dimensional synthetic jet into quiescent air is studied by time-accurate numerical simulations using a second-order accurate mixed explicit-implicit fractional step scheme on Cartesian grids. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations of synthetic jet are carried out at a Reynolds number (based on average velocity during the discharge phase of the cycle V(sub j), and jet width d) of 750 and Stokes number of 17.02. The results obtained are assessed against PIV and hotwire measurements provided for the NASA LaRC workshop on CFD validation of synthetic jets.

  18. Theorizing Information for Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether information science has a theory of information. Highlights include guides to information and its theory; constructivism; information outside information science; process theories; cognitive views of information; measuring information; meaning; and misinformation. (Contains 89 references.) (LRW)

  19. Accurate and efficient halo-based galaxy clustering modelling with simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zheng; Guo, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Small- and intermediate-scale galaxy clustering can be used to establish the galaxy-halo connection to study galaxy formation and evolution and to tighten constraints on cosmological parameters. With the increasing precision of galaxy clustering measurements from ongoing and forthcoming large galaxy surveys, accurate models are required to interpret the data and extract relevant information. We introduce a method based on high-resolution N-body simulations to accurately and efficiently model the galaxy two-point correlation functions (2PCFs) in projected and redshift spaces. The basic idea is to tabulate all information of haloes in the simulations necessary for computing the galaxy 2PCFs within the framework of halo occupation distribution or conditional luminosity function. It is equivalent to populating galaxies to dark matter haloes and using the mock 2PCF measurements as the model predictions. Besides the accurate 2PCF calculations, the method is also fast and therefore enables an efficient exploration of the parameter space. As an example of the method, we decompose the redshift-space galaxy 2PCF into different components based on the type of galaxy pairs and show the redshift-space distortion effect in each component. The generalizations and limitations of the method are discussed.

  20. Predictors of online health information seeking behavior: Changes between 2002 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert

    2016-12-01

    The Internet has become an important and preferred source of health information. Although the literature has highlighted several key predictors that influence an individual's online health information seeking behavior, insufficient attention has been paid to the changes in the predictors' roles and effects over time. This study explores and compares the effects that specific predictors had on online health information seeking behavior over a period of 10 years by integrating and analyzing two Pew datasets collected in 2002 and 2012. Hierarchical regression analyses indicate that socio-demographic factors and overall health condition are significant predictors that had an increasing impact on online health information seeking behavior. However, the impact of Internet usage decreased significantly from 2002 to 2012. A comparison across time contributes to a vertical understanding of the changes in online health information seeking behavior and its predictors and helps health professionals and researchers tailor their informational interventions to meet the up-to-date needs and preferences of users.

  1. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEAD TO QUAIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contami...

  2. Device accurately measures and records low gas-flow rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branum, L. W.

    1966-01-01

    Free-floating piston in a vertical column accurately measures and records low gas-flow rates. The system may be calibrated, using an adjustable flow-rate gas supply, a low pressure gage, and a sequence recorder. From the calibration rates, a nomograph may be made for easy reduction. Temperature correction may be added for further accuracy.

  3. Ultrasonic system for accurate distance measurement in the air.

    PubMed

    Licznerski, Tomasz J; Jaroński, Jarosław; Kosz, Dariusz

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a system that accurately measures the distance travelled by ultrasound waves through the air. The simple design of the system and its obtained accuracy provide a tool for non-contact distance measurements required in the laser's optical system that investigates the surface of the eyeball.

  4. A Self-Instructional Device for Conditioning Accurate Prosody.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buiten, Roger; Lane, Harlan

    1965-01-01

    A self-instructional device for conditioning accurate prosody in second-language learning is described in this article. The Speech Auto-Instructional Device (SAID) is electro-mechanical and performs three functions: SAID (1) presents to the student tape-recorded pattern sentences that are considered standards in prosodic performance; (2) processes…

  5. Monitoring circuit accurately measures movement of solenoid valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Solenoid operated valve in a control system powered by direct current issued to accurately measure the valve travel. This system is currently in operation with a 28-vdc power system used for control of fluids in liquid rocket motor test facilities.

  6. Instrument accurately measures small temperature changes on test surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.; Miller, H. B.

    1966-01-01

    Calorimeter apparatus accurately measures very small temperature rises on a test surface subjected to aerodynamic heating. A continuous thin sheet of a sensing material is attached to a base support plate through which a series of holes of known diameter have been drilled for attaching thermocouples to the material.

  7. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  8. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb, we incorporated Pb-contaminated soils or Pb acetate into diets for Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), fed the quail for 15 days, and ...

  9. Ellipsoidal-mirror reflectometer accurately measures infrared reflectance of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, S. T.; Richmond, J. C.

    1967-01-01

    Reflectometer accurately measures the reflectance of specimens in the infrared beyond 2.5 microns and under geometric conditions approximating normal irradiation and hemispherical viewing. It includes an ellipsoidal mirror, a specially coated averaging sphere associated with a detector for minimizing spatial and angular sensitivity, and an incident flux chopper.

  10. Second-order accurate nonoscillatory schemes for scalar conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1989-01-01

    Explicit finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of nonlinear scalar conservation laws is presented and analyzed. These schemes are uniformly second-order accurate and nonoscillatory in the sense that the number of extrema of the discrete solution is not increasing in time.

  11. Foresight begins with FMEA. Delivering accurate risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Passey, R D

    1999-03-01

    If sufficient factors are taken into account and two- or three-stage analysis is employed, failure mode and effect analysis represents an excellent technique for delivering accurate risk assessments for products and processes, and for relating them to legal liability. This article describes a format that facilitates easy interpretation.

  12. How Accurate Are Judgments of Intelligence by Strangers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borkenau, Peter

    Whether judgments made by complete strangers as to the intelligence of subjects are accurate or merely illusory was studied in Germany. Target subjects were 50 female and 50 male adults recruited through a newspaper article. Eighteen judges, who did not know the subjects, were recruited from a university community. Videorecordings of the subjects,…

  13. Quantifying Accurate Calorie Estimation Using the "Think Aloud" Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmstrup, Michael E.; Stearns-Bruening, Kay; Rozelle, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Clients often have limited time in a nutrition education setting. An improved understanding of the strategies used to accurately estimate calories may help to identify areas of focused instruction to improve nutrition knowledge. Methods: A "Think Aloud" exercise was recorded during the estimation of calories in a standard dinner meal…

  14. Preparing Rapid, Accurate Construction Cost Estimates with a Personal Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstel, Sanford M.

    1986-01-01

    An inexpensive and rapid method for preparing accurate cost estimates of construction projects in a university setting, using a personal computer, purchased software, and one estimator, is described. The case against defined estimates, the rapid estimating system, and adjusting standard unit costs are discussed. (MLW)

  15. Accurately Detecting Students' Lies regarding Relational Aggression by Correctional Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Marksteiner, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of correctional instructions when detecting lies about relational aggression. Based on models from the field of social psychology, we predict that correctional instruction will lead to a less pronounced lie bias and to more accurate lie detection. Seventy-five teachers received videotapes of students' true denial…

  16. Hash: a Program to Accurately Predict Protein Hα Shifts from Neighboring Backbone Shifts3

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jianyang; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce Randall

    2012-01-01

    Chemical shifts provide not only peak identities for analyzing NMR data, but also an important source of conformational information for studying protein structures. Current structural studies requiring Hα chemical shifts suffer from the following limitations. (1) For large proteins, the Hα chemical shifts can be difficult to assign using conventional NMR triple-resonance experiments, mainly due to the fast transverse relaxation rate of Cα that restricts the signal sensitivity. (2) Previous chemical shift prediction approaches either require homologous models with high sequence similarity or rely heavily on accurate backbone and side-chain structural coordinates. When neither sequence homologues nor structural coordinates are available, we must resort to other information to predict Hα chemical shifts. Predicting accurate Hα chemical shifts using other obtainable information, such as the chemical shifts of nearby backbone atoms (i.e., adjacent atoms in the sequence), can remedy the above dilemmas, and hence advance NMR-based structural studies of proteins. By specifically exploiting the dependencies on chemical shifts of nearby backbone atoms, we propose a novel machine learning algorithm, called Hash, to predict Hα chemical shifts. Hash combines a new fragment-based chemical shift search approach with a non-parametric regression model, called the generalized additive model, to effectively solve the prediction problem. We demonstrate that the chemical shifts of nearby backbone atoms provide a reliable source of information for predicting accurate Hα chemical shifts. Our testing results on different possible combinations of input data indicate that Hash has a wide rage of potential NMR applications in structural and biological studies of proteins. PMID:23242797

  17. Planar Near-Field Phase Retrieval Using GPUs for Accurate THz Far-Field Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkin, Gary

    2013-04-01

    With a view to using Phase Retrieval to accurately predict Terahertz antenna far-field from near-field intensity measurements, this paper reports on three fundamental advances that achieve very low algorithmic error penalties. The first is a new Gaussian beam analysis that provides accurate initial complex aperture estimates including defocus and astigmatic phase errors, based only on first and second moment calculations. The second is a powerful noise tolerant near-field Phase Retrieval algorithm that combines Anderson's Plane-to-Plane (PTP) with Fienup's Hybrid-Input-Output (HIO) and Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) to achieve increased accuracy at reduced scan separations. The third advance employs teraflop Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) to achieve practically real time near-field phase retrieval and to obtain the optimum aperture constraint without any a priori information.

  18. Accurate Non-parametric Estimation of Recent Effective Population Size from Segments of Identity by Descent.

    PubMed

    Browning, Sharon R; Browning, Brian L

    2015-09-03

    Existing methods for estimating historical effective population size from genetic data have been unable to accurately estimate effective population size during the most recent past. We present a non-parametric method for accurately estimating recent effective population size by using inferred long segments of identity by descent (IBD). We found that inferred segments of IBD contain information about effective population size from around 4 generations to around 50 generations ago for SNP array data and to over 200 generations ago for sequence data. In human populations that we examined, the estimates of effective size were approximately one-third of the census size. We estimate the effective population size of European-ancestry individuals in the UK four generations ago to be eight million and the effective population size of Finland four generations ago to be 0.7 million. Our method is implemented in the open-source IBDNe software package.

  19. Accurate Prediction of One-Dimensional Protein Structure Features Using SPINE-X.

    PubMed

    Faraggi, Eshel; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Accurate prediction of protein secondary structure and other one-dimensional structure features is essential for accurate sequence alignment, three-dimensional structure modeling, and function prediction. SPINE-X is a software package to predict secondary structure as well as accessible surface area and dihedral angles ϕ and ψ. For secondary structure SPINE-X achieves an accuracy of between 81 and 84 % depending on the dataset and choice of tests. The Pearson correlation coefficient for accessible surface area prediction is 0.75 and the mean absolute error from the ϕ and ψ dihedral angles are 20(∘) and 33(∘), respectively. The source code and a Linux executables for SPINE-X are available from Research and Information Systems at http://mamiris.com .

  20. Accurate Non-parametric Estimation of Recent Effective Population Size from Segments of Identity by Descent

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Sharon R.; Browning, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Existing methods for estimating historical effective population size from genetic data have been unable to accurately estimate effective population size during the most recent past. We present a non-parametric method for accurately estimating recent effective population size by using inferred long segments of identity by descent (IBD). We found that inferred segments of IBD contain information about effective population size from around 4 generations to around 50 generations ago for SNP array data and to over 200 generations ago for sequence data. In human populations that we examined, the estimates of effective size were approximately one-third of the census size. We estimate the effective population size of European-ancestry individuals in the UK four generations ago to be eight million and the effective population size of Finland four generations ago to be 0.7 million. Our method is implemented in the open-source IBDNe software package. PMID:26299365

  1. Application of the accurate mass and time tag approach in studies of the human blood lipidome

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jie; Sorensen, Christina M.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Jiang, Hongliang; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2008-01-01

    We report a preliminary demonstration of the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach for lipidomics. Initial data-dependent LC-MS/MS analyses of human plasma, erythrocyte, and lymphocyte lipids were performed in order to identify lipid molecular species in conjunction with complementary accurate mass and isotopic distribution information. Identified lipids were used to populate initial lipid AMT tag databases containing 250 and 45 entries for those species detected in positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI) modes, respectively. The positive ESI database was then utilized to identify human plasma, erythrocyte, and lymphocyte lipids in high-throughput LC-MS analyses based on the AMT tag approach. We were able to define the lipid profiles of human plasma, erythrocytes, and lymphocytes based on qualitative and quantitative differences in lipid abundance. PMID:18502191

  2. Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography.

    PubMed

    Woińska, Magdalena; Grabowsky, Simon; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2016-05-01

    Precise and accurate structural information on hydrogen atoms is crucial to the study of energies of interactions important for crystal engineering, materials science, medicine, and pharmacy, and to the estimation of physical and chemical properties in solids. However, hydrogen atoms only scatter x-radiation weakly, so x-rays have not been used routinely to locate them accurately. Textbooks and teaching classes still emphasize that hydrogen atoms cannot be located with x-rays close to heavy elements; instead, neutron diffraction is needed. We show that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A-H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation. The precision of the determination is also comparable between x-ray and neutron diffraction results. This has been achieved at resolutions as low as 0.8 Å using Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR). We have applied HAR to 81 crystal structures of organic molecules and compared the A-H bond lengths with those from neutron measurements for A-H bonds sorted into bonds of the same class. We further show in a selection of inorganic compounds that hydrogen atoms can be located in bridging positions and close to heavy transition metals accurately and precisely. We anticipate that, in the future, conventional x-radiation sources at in-house diffractometers can be used routinely for locating hydrogen atoms in small molecules accurately instead of large-scale facilities such as spallation sources or nuclear reactors.

  3. Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Woińska, Magdalena; Grabowsky, Simon; Dominiak, Paulina M.; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2016-01-01

    Precise and accurate structural information on hydrogen atoms is crucial to the study of energies of interactions important for crystal engineering, materials science, medicine, and pharmacy, and to the estimation of physical and chemical properties in solids. However, hydrogen atoms only scatter x-radiation weakly, so x-rays have not been used routinely to locate them accurately. Textbooks and teaching classes still emphasize that hydrogen atoms cannot be located with x-rays close to heavy elements; instead, neutron diffraction is needed. We show that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A–H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation. The precision of the determination is also comparable between x-ray and neutron diffraction results. This has been achieved at resolutions as low as 0.8 Å using Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR). We have applied HAR to 81 crystal structures of organic molecules and compared the A–H bond lengths with those from neutron measurements for A–H bonds sorted into bonds of the same class. We further show in a selection of inorganic compounds that hydrogen atoms can be located in bridging positions and close to heavy transition metals accurately and precisely. We anticipate that, in the future, conventional x-radiation sources at in-house diffractometers can be used routinely for locating hydrogen atoms in small molecules accurately instead of large-scale facilities such as spallation sources or nuclear reactors. PMID:27386545

  4. Fast Monte Carlo Electron-Photon Transport Method and Application in Accurate Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Lijuan; Sun, Guangyao; Zheng, Huaqing; Song, Jing; Chen, Zhenping; Li, Gui

    2014-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) method is the most accurate computational method for dose calculation, but its wide application on clinical accurate radiotherapy is hindered due to its poor speed of converging and long computation time. In the MC dose calculation research, the main task is to speed up computation while high precision is maintained. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the calculation speed of MC method for electron-photon transport with high precision and ultimately to reduce the accurate radiotherapy dose calculation time based on normal computer to the level of several hours, which meets the requirement of clinical dose verification. Based on the existing Super Monte Carlo Simulation Program (SuperMC), developed by FDS Team, a fast MC method for electron-photon coupled transport was presented with focus on two aspects: firstly, through simplifying and optimizing the physical model of the electron-photon transport, the calculation speed was increased with slightly reduction of calculation accuracy; secondly, using a variety of MC calculation acceleration methods, for example, taking use of obtained information in previous calculations to avoid repeat simulation of particles with identical history; applying proper variance reduction techniques to accelerate MC method convergence rate, etc. The fast MC method was tested by a lot of simple physical models and clinical cases included nasopharyngeal carcinoma, peripheral lung tumor, cervical carcinoma, etc. The result shows that the fast MC method for electron-photon transport was fast enough to meet the requirement of clinical accurate radiotherapy dose verification. Later, the method will be applied to the Accurate/Advanced Radiation Therapy System ARTS as a MC dose verification module.

  5. Public directory data sources do not accurately characterize the food environment in two predominantly rural states.

    PubMed

    Longacre, Meghan R; Primack, Brian A; Owens, Peter M; Gibson, Lucinda; Beauregard, Sandy; Mackenzie, Todd A; Dalton, Madeline A

    2011-04-01

    Communities are being encouraged to develop locally based interventions to address environmental risk factors for obesity. Online public directories represent an affordable and easily accessible mechanism for mapping community food environments, but may have limited utility in rural areas. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of public directories vs rigorous onsite field verification to characterize the community food environment in 32 geographically dispersed towns from two rural states covering 1,237.6 square miles. Eight types of food outlets were assessed in 2007, including food markets and eating establishments, first using two publically available online directories followed by onsite field verification by trained coders. χ(2) and univariate binomial regression were used to determine whether the proportion of outlets accurately listed varied by food outlet type or town population. Among 1,340 identified outlets, only 36.9% were accurately listed through public directories; 29.6% were not listed but were located during field observation. Accuracy varied by outlet type, being most accurate for big box stores and least accurate for farm/produce stands. Overall, public directories accurately identified fewer than half of the food outlets. Accuracy was significantly lower for rural and small towns compared to mid-size and urban towns (P<0.001). In this geographic sample, public directories seriously misrepresented the actual distribution of food outlets, particularly for rural and small towns. To inform local obesity-prevention efforts, communities should strongly consider using field verification to characterize the food environment in low-population areas.

  6. LSimpute: accurate estimation of missing values in microarray data with least squares methods.

    PubMed

    Bø, Trond Hellem; Dysvik, Bjarte; Jonassen, Inge

    2004-02-20

    Microarray experiments generate data sets with information on the expression levels of thousands of genes in a set of biological samples. Unfortunately, such experiments often produce multiple missing expression values, normally due to various experimental problems. As many algorithms for gene expression analysis require a complete data matrix as input, the missing values have to be estimated in order to analyze the available data. Alternatively, genes and arrays can be removed until no missing values remain. However, for genes or arrays with only a small number of missing values, it is desirable to impute those values. For the subsequent analysis to be as informative as possible, it is essential that the estimates for the missing gene expression values are accurate. A small amount of badly estimated missing values in the data might be enough for clustering methods, such as hierachical clustering or K-means clustering, to produce misleading results. Thus, accurate methods for missing value estimation are needed. We present novel methods for estimation of missing values in microarray data sets that are based on the least squares principle, and that utilize correlations between both genes and arrays. For this set of methods, we use the common reference name LSimpute. We compare the estimation accuracy of our methods with the widely used KNNimpute on three complete data matrices from public data sets by randomly knocking out data (labeling as missing). From these tests, we conclude that our LSimpute methods produce estimates that consistently are more accurate than those obtained using KNNimpute. Additionally, we examine a more classic approach to missing value estimation based on expectation maximization (EM). We refer to our EM implementations as EMimpute, and the estimate errors using the EMimpute methods are compared with those our novel methods produce. The results indicate that on average, the estimates from our best performing LSimpute method are at least as

  7. Accurate stochastic reconstruction of heterogeneous microstructures by limited x-ray tomographic projections.

    PubMed

    Li, Hechao; Kaira, Shashank; Mertens, James; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Jiao, Yang

    2016-12-01

    An accurate knowledge of the complex microstructure of a heterogeneous material is crucial for its performance prediction, prognosis and optimization. X-ray tomography has provided a nondestructive means for microstructure characterization in 3D and 4D (i.e. structural evolution over time), in which a material is typically reconstructed from a large number of tomographic projections using filtered-back-projection (FBP) method or algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART). Here, we present in detail a stochastic optimization procedure that enables one to accurately reconstruct material microstructure from a small number of absorption contrast x-ray tomographic projections. This discrete tomography reconstruction procedure is in contrast to the commonly used FBP and ART, which usually requires thousands of projections for accurate microstructure rendition. The utility of our stochastic procedure is first demonstrated by reconstructing a wide class of two-phase heterogeneous materials including sandstone and hard-particle packing from simulated limited-angle projections in both cone-beam and parallel beam projection geometry. It is then applied to reconstruct tailored Sn-sphere-clay-matrix systems from limited-angle cone-beam data obtained via a lab-scale tomography facility at Arizona State University and parallel-beam synchrotron data obtained at Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, we examine the information content of tomography data by successively incorporating larger number of projections and quantifying the accuracy of the reconstructions. We show that only a small number of projections (e.g. 20-40, depending on the complexity of the microstructure of interest and desired resolution) are necessary for accurate material reconstructions via our stochastic procedure, which indicates its high efficiency in using limited structural information. The ramifications of the stochastic reconstruction procedure in 4D materials science are also

  8. DNA barcode data accurately assign higher spider taxa.

    PubMed

    Coddington, Jonathan A; Agnarsson, Ingi; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Čandek, Klemen; Driskell, Amy; Frick, Holger; Gregorič, Matjaž; Kostanjšek, Rok; Kropf, Christian; Kweskin, Matthew; Lokovšek, Tjaša; Pipan, Miha; Vidergar, Nina; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    The use of unique DNA sequences as a method for taxonomic identification is no longer fundamentally controversial, even though debate continues on the best markers, methods, and technology to use. Although both existing databanks such as GenBank and BOLD, as well as reference taxonomies, are imperfect, in best case scenarios "barcodes" (whether single or multiple, organelle or nuclear, loci) clearly are an increasingly fast and inexpensive method of identification, especially as compared to manual identification of unknowns by increasingly rare expert taxonomists. Because most species on Earth are undescribed, a complete reference database at the species level is impractical in the near term. The question therefore arises whether unidentified species can, using DNA barcodes, be accurately assigned to more inclusive groups such as genera and families-taxonomic ranks of putatively monophyletic groups for which the global inventory is more complete and stable. We used a carefully chosen test library of CO1 sequences from 49 families, 313 genera, and 816 species of spiders to assess the accuracy of genus and family-level assignment. We used BLAST queries of each sequence against the entire library and got the top ten hits. The percent sequence identity was reported from these hits (PIdent, range 75-100%). Accurate assignment of higher taxa (PIdent above which errors totaled less than 5%) occurred for genera at PIdent values >95 and families at PIdent values ≥ 91, suggesting these as heuristic thresholds for accurate generic and familial identifications in spiders. Accuracy of identification increases with numbers of species/genus and genera/family in the library; above five genera per family and fifteen species per genus all higher taxon assignments were correct. We propose that using percent sequence identity between conventional barcode sequences may be a feasible and reasonably accurate method to identify animals to family/genus. However, the quality of the

  9. DNA barcode data accurately assign higher spider taxa

    PubMed Central

    Coddington, Jonathan A.; Agnarsson, Ingi; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Čandek, Klemen; Driskell, Amy; Frick, Holger; Gregorič, Matjaž; Kostanjšek, Rok; Kropf, Christian; Kweskin, Matthew; Lokovšek, Tjaša; Pipan, Miha; Vidergar, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The use of unique DNA sequences as a method for taxonomic identification is no longer fundamentally controversial, even though debate continues on the best markers, methods, and technology to use. Although both existing databanks such as GenBank and BOLD, as well as reference taxonomies, are imperfect, in best case scenarios “barcodes” (whether single or multiple, organelle or nuclear, loci) clearly are an increasingly fast and inexpensive method of identification, especially as compared to manual identification of unknowns by increasingly rare expert taxonomists. Because most species on Earth are undescribed, a complete reference database at the species level is impractical in the near term. The question therefore arises whether unidentified species can, using DNA barcodes, be accurately assigned to more inclusive groups such as genera and families—taxonomic ranks of putatively monophyletic groups for which the global inventory is more complete and stable. We used a carefully chosen test library of CO1 sequences from 49 families, 313 genera, and 816 species of spiders to assess the accuracy of genus and family-level assignment. We used BLAST queries of each sequence against the entire library and got the top ten hits. The percent sequence identity was reported from these hits (PIdent, range 75–100%). Accurate assignment of higher taxa (PIdent above which errors totaled less than 5%) occurred for genera at PIdent values >95 and families at PIdent values ≥ 91, suggesting these as heuristic thresholds for accurate generic and familial identifications in spiders. Accuracy of identification increases with numbers of species/genus and genera/family in the library; above five genera per family and fifteen species per genus all higher taxon assignments were correct. We propose that using percent sequence identity between conventional barcode sequences may be a feasible and reasonably accurate method to identify animals to family/genus. However, the quality of

  10. Canonical information analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2015-03-01

    Canonical correlation analysis is an established multivariate statistical method in which correlation between linear combinations of multivariate sets of variables is maximized. In canonical information analysis introduced here, linear correlation as a measure of association between variables is replaced by the information theoretical, entropy based measure mutual information, which is a much more general measure of association. We make canonical information analysis feasible for large sample problems, including for example multispectral images, due to the use of a fast kernel density estimator for entropy estimation. Canonical information analysis is applied successfully to (1) simple simulated data to illustrate the basic idea and evaluate performance, (2) fusion of weather radar and optical geostationary satellite data in a situation with heavy precipitation, and (3) change detection in optical airborne data. The simulation study shows that canonical information analysis is as accurate as and much faster than algorithms presented in previous work, especially for large sample sizes. URL:

  11. A user-editable web-based platform to streamline clinical information flow.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Mark; Siddiqui, Ammar; Pak, Theodore; Hu, Kevin; Ciccariello, Chloe; Knabben, Vinicius; Chiang, David; Thomas, David C; Meah, Yasmin S

    2015-01-01

    Frequent turnover of staff in medical clinics creates challenges in the maintenance of clinical protocols, workflows, and information management. Care coordination between providers in such a setting can be complex; disruptions in communication may lead to poorer health outcomes and patient satisfaction. Furthermore, protocols change frequently in response to new guidelines, which demands rapid updates to maintain compliance. To address these challenges, we developed an intuitive, end-user editable web-based knowledge management system optimized for use on mobile devices. The resulting system served as a point of care information storage and retrieval tool that providers can reference quickly for operational tasks. Since launch, the platform has allowed our clinic to consolidate knowledge banks, standardize staff training, and streamline information flow during clinic, and is now used extensively by clinic staff. During a one-year period, 175 new pages have been created and 1686 edits have been submitted by users. We posit that a mobile platform for clinical information flow management has significant potential to improve information maintenance and facilitate transfer of up-to-date clinical protocols to new personnel.

  12. Quality of Breast Cancer Information on the Internet by African Organizations: An Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to appraise the quality of information on BC available at websites run by organizations in Africa. Methods. Three searches were conducted using Google search engine to generate a list of websites. The identified websites were assessed using European Commission (EC) quality criteria for health-related websites, which comprises different assessment areas including, completeness, transparency and honesty, authority, privacy and data protection, updating of information, accountability, and accessibility. Results. Thirteen (13) websites were included in the evaluation. Majority of the websites evaluated had low scores on the completeness and transparency of their websites. Scores on accessibility were however moderate and high for most of the websites. Breast cancer-specific organizations provided the highest quality information, particularly in terms of completeness. The overall lowest and highest quality scores were 9 and 43 out of 63, respectively, and 77% of the included websites scored less than 50% of the total quality score. Conclusion. This review has provided evidence of inadequate and inaccurate BC information provided by some cancer organizations in Africa. Considerable effort is required to make BC information on the Internet a valuable and up-to-date source for both professionals and patients. PMID:28168059

  13. Communicating immunization science: the genesis and evolution of the National Network for Immunization Information.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Christy J W; Willett, Kristen L; Kreps, Gary L

    2012-01-01

    For 10 years, the National Network for Immunization Information (NNii) has pursued its goal to "provide the public, health professionals, policy makers, and the media with up-to-date, scientifically valid information related to immunizations to help them understand the issues and to make informed decisions." This investigation provides a critical evaluation of the strategic communication planning and implementation of NNii from conception to present day. The study uses a case study methodology, developing a systematic analysis of organizational documents, the media environment, and in-depth interviews by applying Weick's model of organizing as an interpretive framework. Iterative data analysis included open coding, axial coding, and thematic saturation. Themes were compared with phases of strategic communication and present study propositions. Major themes identified included the organization's informative nature, funding credibility, nonbranding, reflective evaluation, collaborative partnerships, and media strategy. NNii meets the requirements of requisite variety, nonsummativity, and organizational flexibility proposed by Weick's model of organizing. However, a lack of systematic evaluation of organization goals prevents it from adapting communication tactics and strategies. In addition, the authors recommend that NNii, while maintaining its informative nature, adopt persuasive strategies to attract and retain the attention of its target audiences.

  14. Local Debonding and Fiber Breakage in Composite Materials Modeled Accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2001-01-01

    A prerequisite for full utilization of composite materials in aerospace components is accurate design and life prediction tools that enable the assessment of component performance and reliability. Such tools assist both structural analysts, who design and optimize structures composed of composite materials, and materials scientists who design and optimize the composite materials themselves. NASA Glenn Research Center's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) software package (http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/LPB/mac) addresses this need for composite design and life prediction tools by providing a widely applicable and accurate approach to modeling composite materials. Furthermore, MAC/GMC serves as a platform for incorporating new local models and capabilities that are under development at NASA, thus enabling these new capabilities to progress rapidly to a stage in which they can be employed by the code's end users.

  15. Accurate adjoint design sensitivities for nano metal optics.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2015-09-07

    We present a method for obtaining accurate numerical design sensitivities for metal-optical nanostructures. Adjoint design sensitivity analysis, long used in fluid mechanics and mechanical engineering for both optimization and structural analysis, is beginning to be used for nano-optics design, but it fails for sharp-cornered metal structures because the numerical error in electromagnetic simulations of metal structures is highest at sharp corners. These locations feature strong field enhancement and contribute strongly to design sensitivities. By using high-accuracy FEM calculations and rounding sharp features to a finite radius of curvature we obtain highly-accurate design sensitivities for 3D metal devices. To provide a bridge to the existing literature on adjoint methods in other fields, we derive the sensitivity equations for Maxwell's equations in the PDE framework widely used in fluid mechanics.

  16. An Accurate Link Correlation Estimator for Improving Wireless Protocol Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Xu, Xianghua; Dong, Wei; Bu, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Wireless link correlation has shown significant impact on the performance of various sensor network protocols. Many works have been devoted to exploiting link correlation for protocol improvements. However, the effectiveness of these designs heavily relies on the accuracy of link correlation measurement. In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art link correlation measurement and analyze the limitations of existing works. We then propose a novel lightweight and accurate link correlation estimation (LACE) approach based on the reasoning of link correlation formation. LACE combines both long-term and short-term link behaviors for link correlation estimation. We implement LACE as a stand-alone interface in TinyOS and incorporate it into both routing and flooding protocols. Simulation and testbed results show that LACE: (1) achieves more accurate and lightweight link correlation measurements than the state-of-the-art work; and (2) greatly improves the performance of protocols exploiting link correlation. PMID:25686314

  17. Multimodal spatial calibration for accurately registering EEG sensor positions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; Chen, Jian; Chen, Shengyong; Xiao, Gang; Li, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a fast and accurate calibration method to calibrate multiple multimodal sensors using a novel photogrammetry system for fast localization of EEG sensors. The EEG sensors are placed on human head and multimodal sensors are installed around the head to simultaneously obtain all EEG sensor positions. A multiple views' calibration process is implemented to obtain the transformations of multiple views. We first develop an efficient local repair algorithm to improve the depth map, and then a special calibration body is designed. Based on them, accurate and robust calibration results can be achieved. We evaluate the proposed method by corners of a chessboard calibration plate. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve good performance, which can be further applied to EEG source localization applications on human brain.

  18. Accurate measurement of the helical twisting power of chiral dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosa, Tamas; Bodnar, Volodymyr; Taheri, Bahman; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2002-03-01

    We propose a method for the accurate determination of the helical twisting power (HTP) of chiral dopants. In the usual Cano-wedge method, the wedge angle is determined from the far-field separation of laser beams reflected from the windows of the test cell. Here we propose to use an optical fiber based spectrometer to accurately measure the cell thickness. Knowing the cell thickness at the positions of the disclination lines allows determination of the HTP. We show that this extension of the Cano-wedge method greatly increases the accuracy with which the HTP is determined. We show the usefulness of this method by determining the HTP of ZLI811 in a variety of hosts with negative dielectric anisotropy.

  19. Accurate van der Waals coefficients from density functional theory

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jianmin; Perdew, John P.; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn

    2012-01-01

    The van der Waals interaction is a weak, long-range correlation, arising from quantum electronic charge fluctuations. This interaction affects many properties of materials. A simple and yet accurate estimate of this effect will facilitate computer simulation of complex molecular materials and drug design. Here we develop a fast approach for accurate evaluation of dynamic multipole polarizabilities and van der Waals (vdW) coefficients of all orders from the electron density and static multipole polarizabilities of each atom or other spherical object, without empirical fitting. Our dynamic polarizabilities (dipole, quadrupole, octupole, etc.) are exact in the zero- and high-frequency limits, and exact at all frequencies for a metallic sphere of uniform density. Our theory predicts dynamic multipole polarizabilities in excellent agreement with more expensive many-body methods, and yields therefrom vdW coefficients C6, C8, C10 for atom pairs with a mean absolute relative error of only 3%. PMID:22205765

  20. Library preparation for highly accurate population sequencing of RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Ashley; Andino, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Circular resequencing (CirSeq) is a novel technique for efficient and highly accurate next-generation sequencing (NGS) of RNA virus populations. The foundation of this approach is the circularization of fragmented viral RNAs, which are then redundantly encoded into tandem repeats by ‘rolling-circle’ reverse transcription. When sequenced, the redundant copies within each read are aligned to derive a consensus sequence of their initial RNA template. This process yields sequencing data with error rates far below the variant frequencies observed for RNA viruses, facilitating ultra-rare variant detection and accurate measurement of low-frequency variants. Although library preparation takes ~5 d, the high-quality data generated by CirSeq simplifies downstream data analysis, making this approach substantially more tractable for experimentalists. PMID:24967624

  1. Accurate nuclear radii and binding energies from a chiral interaction

    DOE PAGES

    Ekstrom, Jan A.; Jansen, G. R.; Wendt, Kyle A.; ...

    2015-05-01

    With the goal of developing predictive ab initio capability for light and medium-mass nuclei, two-nucleon and three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory are optimized simultaneously to low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering data, as well as binding energies and radii of few-nucleon systems and selected isotopes of carbon and oxygen. Coupled-cluster calculations based on this interaction, named NNLOsat, yield accurate binding energies and radii of nuclei up to 40Ca, and are consistent with the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. In addition, the low-lying collective Jπ=3- states in 16O and 40Ca are described accurately, while spectra for selected p- and sd-shellmore » nuclei are in reasonable agreement with experiment.« less

  2. Fixed-Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle for Accurate Corridor Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2015-08-01

    In this study we present a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) equipped with precise position and attitude sensors that together with a pre-calibrated camera enables accurate corridor mapping. The design of the platform is based on widely available model components to which we integrate an open-source autopilot, customized mass-market camera and navigation sensors. We adapt the concepts of system calibration from larger mapping platforms to MAV and evaluate them practically for their achievable accuracy. We present case studies for accurate mapping without ground control points: first for a block configuration, later for a narrow corridor. We evaluate the mapping accuracy with respect to checkpoints and digital terrain model. We show that while it is possible to achieve pixel (3-5 cm) mapping accuracy in both cases, precise aerial position control is sufficient for block configuration, the precise position and attitude control is required for corridor mapping.

  3. Uniformly high order accurate essentially non-oscillatory schemes 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.; Engquist, B.; Osher, S.; Chakravarthy, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper (a third in a series) the construction and the analysis of essentially non-oscillatory shock capturing methods for the approximation of hyperbolic conservation laws are presented. Also presented is a hierarchy of high order accurate schemes which generalizes Godunov's scheme and its second order accurate MUSCL extension to arbitrary order of accuracy. The design involves an essentially non-oscillatory piecewise polynomial reconstruction of the solution from its cell averages, time evolution through an approximate solution of the resulting initial value problem, and averaging of this approximate solution over each cell. The reconstruction algorithm is derived from a new interpolation technique that when applied to piecewise smooth data gives high-order accuracy whenever the function is smooth but avoids a Gibbs phenomenon at discontinuities. Unlike standard finite difference methods this procedure uses an adaptive stencil of grid points and consequently the resulting schemes are highly nonlinear.

  4. Groundtruth approach to accurate quantitation of fluorescence microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Mascio-Kegelmeyer, L; Tomascik-Cheeseman, L; Burnett, M S; van Hummelen, P; Wyrobek, A J

    2000-12-01

    To more accurately measure fluorescent signals from microarrays, we calibrated our acquisition and analysis systems by using groundtruth samples comprised of known quantities of red and green gene-specific DNA probes hybridized to cDNA targets. We imaged the slides with a full-field, white light CCD imager and analyzed them with our custom analysis software. Here we compare, for multiple genes, results obtained with and without preprocessing (alignment, color crosstalk compensation, dark field subtraction, and integration time). We also evaluate the accuracy of various image processing and analysis techniques (background subtraction, segmentation, quantitation and normalization). This methodology calibrates and validates our system for accurate quantitative measurement of microarrays. Specifically, we show that preprocessing the images produces results significantly closer to the known ground-truth for these samples.

  5. Accurate determination of the sedimentation flux of concentrated suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J.; Rakotomalala, N.; Salin, D.

    1995-10-01

    Flow rate jumps are used to generate propagating concentration variations in a counterflow stabilized suspension (a liquid fluidized bed). An acoustic technique is used to measure accurately the resulting concentration profiles through the bed. Depending on the experimental conditions, we have observed self-sharpening, or/and self-spreading concentration fronts. Our data are analyzed in the framework of Kynch's theory, providing an accurate determination of the sedimentation flux [CU(C); U(C) is the hindered sedimentation velocity of the suspension] and its derivatives in the concentration range 30%-60%. In the vicinity of the packing concentration, controlling the flow rate has allowed us to increase the maximum packing up to 60%.

  6. Accurate nuclear radii and binding energies from a chiral interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ekstrom, Jan A.; Jansen, G. R.; Wendt, Kyle A.; Hagen, Gaute; Papenbrock, Thomas F.; Carlsson, Boris; Forssen, Christian; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Navratil, Petr; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2015-05-01

    With the goal of developing predictive ab initio capability for light and medium-mass nuclei, two-nucleon and three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory are optimized simultaneously to low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering data, as well as binding energies and radii of few-nucleon systems and selected isotopes of carbon and oxygen. Coupled-cluster calculations based on this interaction, named NNLOsat, yield accurate binding energies and radii of nuclei up to 40Ca, and are consistent with the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. In addition, the low-lying collective Jπ=3- states in 16O and 40Ca are described accurately, while spectra for selected p- and sd-shell nuclei are in reasonable agreement with experiment.

  7. Efficient and accurate computation of the incomplete Airy functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, E. D.; Marhefka, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    The incomplete Airy integrals serve as canonical functions for the uniform ray optical solutions to several high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems that involve a class of integrals characterized by two stationary points that are arbitrarily close to one another or to an integration endpoint. Integrals with such analytical properties describe transition region phenomena associated with composite shadow boundaries. An efficient and accurate method for computing the incomplete Airy functions would make the solutions to such problems useful for engineering purposes. In this paper a convergent series solution for the incomplete Airy functions is derived. Asymptotic expansions involving several terms are also developed and serve as large argument approximations. The combination of the series solution with the asymptotic formulae provides for an efficient and accurate computation of the incomplete Airy functions. Validation of accuracy is accomplished using direct numerical integration data.

  8. Accurate taxonomy assignments from 16S rRNA sequences produced by highly parallel pyrosequencers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zongzhi; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Andersen, Gary L.; Knight, Rob

    2008-01-01

    The recent introduction of massively parallel pyrosequencers allows rapid, inexpensive analysis of microbial community composition using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences. However, a major challenge is to design a workflow so that taxonomic information can be accurately and rapidly assigned to each read, so that the composition of each community can be linked back to likely ecological roles played by members of each species, genus, family or phylum. Here, we use three large 16S rRNA datasets to test whether taxonomic information based on the full-length sequences can be recaptured by short reads that simulate the pyrosequencer outputs. We find that different taxonomic assignment methods vary radically in their ability to recapture the taxonomic information in full-length 16S rRNA sequences: most methods are sensitive to the region of the 16S rRNA gene that is targeted for sequencing, but many combinations of methods and rRNA regions produce consistent and accurate results. To process large datasets of partial 16S rRNA sequences obtained from surveys of various microbial communities, including those from human body habitats, we recommend the use of Greengenes or RDP classifier with fragments of at least 250 bases, starting from one of the primers R357, R534, R798, F343 or F517. PMID:18723574

  9. Storytelling and environmental information: connecting schoolchildren and herpetofauna in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Fanini, Lucia; Fahd, Soumia

    2009-06-01

    Northwestern Morocco is undergoing a sudden change in the level of infrastructure growth and pressure on the environment from increased tourism. The ongoing changes are raising questions about how the ecosystem will react, and the relevant drivers of these changes. The Oued Laou valley in north-west Morocco hosts high landscape, species and human cultural diversity. The Talassemtane National Park has been established to preserve the environment in this region; however, what information tools are available to children regarding this environment? The ecosystem is illustrated here using three components: herpetofauna (representing ecosystem components), problems related to water quantity and quality (representing interactions within ecosystem components) and Talassemtane National Park (representing a case of ecosystem management). A children's book was written on this topic, and when the book was delivered to pupils, a questionnaire was included, aimed at determining their sources of environmental information. The results identified major changes in the sources of information utilized by children in this part of Morocco, a clear role of schools in explaining ecosystem components, and an increasing role of TV in environmental information supply. The role of the family was found to be less important than TV or school. Another major source of pupils' environmental knowledge is personal observation and hands-on experience, both for rural and urban children. Children are willing to discover and understand complex systems, and researchers should be encouraged to supply children with correct and up-to-date information on environmental systems, focusing at first on the local environment, as a background for sustainable development.

  10. Strategy Guideline. Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-06-01

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  11. Optical Fiber Geometry: Accurate Measurement of Cladding Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Young, Matt; Hale, Paul D.; Mechels, Steven E.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed three instruments for accurate measurement of optieal fiber cladding diameter: a contact micrometer, a scanning confocal microscope, and a white-light interference microscope. Each instrument has an estimated uncertainty (3 standard deviations) of 50 nm or less, but the confocal microscope may display a 20 nm systematic error as well. The micrometer is used to generate Standard Reference Materials that are commercially available. PMID:28053467

  12. Accurate Insertion Loss Measurements of the Juno Patch Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Chen, Jacqueline; Hodges, Richard; Demas, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two independent methods for estimating the insertion loss of patch array antennas that were developed for the Juno Microwave Radiometer instrument. One method is based principally on pattern measurements while the other method is based solely on network analyzer measurements. The methods are accurate to within 0.1 dB for the measured antennas and show good agreement (to within 0.1dB) of separate radiometric measurements.

  13. Note: Fast, small, accurate 90° rotator for a polarizer.

    PubMed

    Shelton, David P; O'Donnell, William M; Norton, James L

    2011-03-01

    A permanent magnet stepper motor is modified to hold a dichroic polarizer inside the motor. Rotation of the polarizer by 90° ± 0.04° is accomplished within 80 ms. This device is used for measurements of the intensity ratio for two orthogonal linear polarized components of a light beam. The two selected polarizations can be rapidly alternated to allow for signal drift compensation, and the two selected polarizations are accurately orthogonal.

  14. A robust and accurate formulation of molecular and colloidal electrostatics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang; Klaseboer, Evert; Chan, Derek Y C

    2016-08-07

    This paper presents a re-formulation of the boundary integral method for the Debye-Hückel model of molecular and colloidal electrostatics that removes the mathematical singularities that have to date been accepted as an intrinsic part of the conventional boundary integral equation method. The essence of the present boundary regularized integral equation formulation consists of subtracting a known solution from the conventional boundary integral method in such a way as to cancel out the singularities associated with the Green's function. This approach better reflects the non-singular physical behavior of the systems on boundaries with the benefits of the following: (i) the surface integrals can be evaluated accurately using quadrature without any need to devise special numerical integration procedures, (ii) being able to use quadratic or spline function surface elements to represent the surface more accurately and the variation of the functions within each element is represented to a consistent level of precision by appropriate interpolation functions, (iii) being able to calculate electric fields, even at boundaries, accurately and directly from the potential without having to solve hypersingular integral equations and this imparts high precision in calculating the Maxwell stress tensor and consequently, intermolecular or colloidal forces, (iv) a reliable way to handle geometric configurations in which different parts of the boundary can be very close together without being affected by numerical instabilities, therefore potentials, fields, and forces between surfaces can be found accurately at surface separations down to near contact, and (v) having the simplicity of a formulation that does not require complex algorithms to handle singularities will result in significant savings in coding effort and in the reduction of opportunities for coding errors. These advantages are illustrated using examples drawn from molecular and colloidal electrostatics.

  15. A robust and accurate formulation of molecular and colloidal electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Klaseboer, Evert; Chan, Derek Y. C.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a re-formulation of the boundary integral method for the Debye-Hückel model of molecular and colloidal electrostatics that removes the mathematical singularities that have to date been accepted as an intrinsic part of the conventional boundary integral equation method. The essence of the present boundary regularized integral equation formulation consists of subtracting a known solution from the conventional boundary integral method in such a way as to cancel out the singularities associated with the Green's function. This approach better reflects the non-singular physical behavior of the systems on boundaries with the benefits of the following: (i) the surface integrals can be evaluated accurately using quadrature without any need to devise special numerical integration procedures, (ii) being able to use quadratic or spline function surface elements to represent the surface more accurately and the variation of the functions within each element is represented to a consistent level of precision by appropriate interpolation functions, (iii) being able to calculate electric fields, even at boundaries, accurately and directly from the potential without having to solve hypersingular integral equations and this imparts high precision in calculating the Maxwell stress tensor and consequently, intermolecular or colloidal forces, (iv) a reliable way to handle geometric configurations in which different parts of the boundary can be very close together without being affected by numerical instabilities, therefore potentials, fields, and forces between surfaces can be found accurately at surface separations down to near contact, and (v) having the simplicity of a formulation that does not require complex algorithms to handle singularities will result in significant savings in coding effort and in the reduction of opportunities for coding errors. These advantages are illustrated using examples drawn from molecular and colloidal electrostatics.

  16. An All-Fragments Grammar for Simple and Accurate Parsing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-21

    present a simple but accurate parser which exploits both large tree fragments and symbol refinement. We parse with all fragments of the training set...in contrast to much recent work on tree selection in data-oriented parsing and tree -substitution grammar learning. We require only simple...which exploits both large tree fragments and sym- bol refinement. We parse with all fragments of the training set, in contrast to much recent work on

  17. Accurate Scientific Visualization in Research and Physics Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, Tim

    2011-10-01

    Accurate visualization is key in the expression and comprehension of physical principles. Many 3D animation software packages come with built-in numerical methods for a variety of fundamental classical systems. Scripting languages give access to low-level computational functionality, thereby revealing a virtual physics laboratory for teaching and research. Specific examples will be presented: Galilean relativistic hair, energy conservation in complex systems, scattering from a central force, and energy transfer in bi-molecular reactions.

  18. Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2011-06-01

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  19. Multigrid time-accurate integration of Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnone, Andrea; Liou, Meng-Sing; Povinelli, Louis A.

    1993-01-01

    Efficient acceleration techniques typical of explicit steady-state solvers are extended to time-accurate calculations. Stability restrictions are greatly reduced by means of a fully implicit time discretization. A four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme with local time stepping, residual smoothing, and multigridding is used instead of traditional time-expensive factorizations. Some applications to natural and forced unsteady viscous flows show the capability of the procedure.

  20. Accurate Method for Determining Adhesion of Cantilever Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Michalske, T.A.; de Boer, M.P.

    1999-01-08

    Using surface micromachined samples, we demonstrate the accurate measurement of cantilever beam adhesion by using test structures which are adhered over long attachment lengths. We show that this configuration has a deep energy well, such that a fracture equilibrium is easily reached. When compared to the commonly used method of determining the shortest attached beam, the present method is much less sensitive to variations in surface topography or to details of capillary drying.

  1. Accurate vessel segmentation with constrained B-snake.

    PubMed

    Yuanzhi Cheng; Xin Hu; Ji Wang; Yadong Wang; Tamura, Shinichi

    2015-08-01

    We describe an active contour framework with accurate shape and size constraints on the vessel cross-sectional planes to produce the vessel segmentation. It starts with a multiscale vessel axis tracing in a 3D computed tomography (CT) data, followed by vessel boundary delineation on the cross-sectional planes derived from the extracted axis. The vessel boundary surface is deformed under constrained movements on the cross sections and is voxelized to produce the final vascular segmentation. The novelty of this paper lies in the accurate contour point detection of thin vessels based on the CT scanning model, in the efficient implementation of missing contour points in the problematic regions and in the active contour model with accurate shape and size constraints. The main advantage of our framework is that it avoids disconnected and incomplete segmentation of the vessels in the problematic regions that contain touching vessels (vessels in close proximity to each other), diseased portions (pathologic structure attached to a vessel), and thin vessels. It is particularly suitable for accurate segmentation of thin and low contrast vessels. Our method is evaluated and demonstrated on CT data sets from our partner site, and its results are compared with three related methods. Our method is also tested on two publicly available databases and its results are compared with the recently published method. The applicability of the proposed method to some challenging clinical problems, the segmentation of the vessels in the problematic regions, is demonstrated with good results on both quantitative and qualitative experimentations; our segmentation algorithm can delineate vessel boundaries that have level of variability similar to those obtained manually.

  2. Discrete sensors distribution for accurate plantar pressure analyses.

    PubMed

    Claverie, Laetitia; Ille, Anne; Moretto, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of discrete sensors under the footprint for accurate plantar pressure analyses. For this purpose, two different sensor layouts have been tested and compared, to determine which was the most accurate to monitor plantar pressure with wireless devices in research and/or clinical practice. Ten healthy volunteers participated in the study (age range: 23-58 years). The barycenter of pressures (BoP) determined from the plantar pressure system (W-inshoe®) was compared to the center of pressures (CoP) determined from a force platform (AMTI) in the medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. Then, the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) obtained from both W-inshoe® and force platform was compared for both layouts for each subject. The BoP and vGRF determined from the plantar pressure system data showed good correlation (SCC) with those determined from the force platform data, notably for the second sensor organization (ML SCC= 0.95; AP SCC=0.99; vGRF SCC=0.91). The study demonstrates that an adjusted placement of removable sensors is key to accurate plantar pressure analyses. These results are promising for a plantar pressure recording outside clinical or laboratory settings, for long time monitoring, real time feedback or for whatever activity requiring a low-cost system.

  3. Method and apparatus for accurately manipulating an object during microelectrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Parvin, Bahram A.; Maestre, Marcos F.; Fish, Richard H.; Johnston, William E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus using electrophoresis provides accurate manipulation of an object on a microscope stage for further manipulations add reactions. The present invention also provides an inexpensive and easily accessible means to move an object without damage to the object. A plurality of electrodes are coupled to the stage in an array whereby the electrode array allows for distinct manipulations of the electric field for accurate manipulations of the object. There is an electrode array control coupled to the plurality of electrodes for manipulating the electric field. In an alternative embodiment, a chamber is provided on the stage to hold the object. The plurality of electrodes are positioned in the chamber, and the chamber is filled with fluid. The system can be automated using visual servoing, which manipulates the control parameters, i.e., x, y stage, applying the field, etc., after extracting the significant features directly from image data. Visual servoing includes an imaging device and computer system to determine the location of the object. A second stage having a plurality of tubes positioned on top of the second stage, can be accurately positioned by visual servoing so that one end of one of the plurality of tubes surrounds at least part of the object on the first stage.

  4. Method and apparatus for accurately manipulating an object during microelectrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Parvin, B.A.; Maestre, M.F.; Fish, R.H.; Johnston, W.E.

    1997-09-23

    An apparatus using electrophoresis provides accurate manipulation of an object on a microscope stage for further manipulations and reactions. The present invention also provides an inexpensive and easily accessible means to move an object without damage to the object. A plurality of electrodes are coupled to the stage in an array whereby the electrode array allows for distinct manipulations of the electric field for accurate manipulations of the object. There is an electrode array control coupled to the plurality of electrodes for manipulating the electric field. In an alternative embodiment, a chamber is provided on the stage to hold the object. The plurality of electrodes are positioned in the chamber, and the chamber is filled with fluid. The system can be automated using visual servoing, which manipulates the control parameters, i.e., x, y stage, applying the field, etc., after extracting the significant features directly from image data. Visual servoing includes an imaging device and computer system to determine the location of the object. A second stage having a plurality of tubes positioned on top of the second stage, can be accurately positioned by visual servoing so that one end of one of the plurality of tubes surrounds at least part of the object on the first stage. 11 figs.

  5. Selecting MODFLOW cell sizes for accurate flow fields.

    PubMed

    Haitjema, H; Kelson, V; de Lange, W

    2001-01-01

    Contaminant transport models often use a velocity field derived from a MODFLOW flow field. Consequently, the accuracy of MODFLOW in representing a ground water flow field determines in part the accuracy of the transport predictions, particularly when advective transport is dominant. We compared MODFLOW ground water flow rates and MODPATH particle traces (advective transport) for a variety of conceptual models and different grid spacings to exact or approximate analytic solutions. All of our numerical experiments concerned flow in a single confined or semiconfined aquifer. While MODFLOW appeared robust in terms of both local and global water balance, we found that ground water flow rates, particle traces, and associated ground water travel times are accurate only when sufficiently small cells are used. For instance, a minimum of four or five cells are required to accurately model total ground water inflow in tributaries or other narrow surface water bodies that end inside the model domain. Also, about 50 cells are needed to represent zones of differing transmissivities or an incorrect flow field and (locally) inaccurate ground water travel times may result. Finally, to adequately represent leakage through aquitards or through the bottom of surface water bodies it was found that the maximum allowable cell dimensions should not exceed a characteristic leakage length lambda, which is defined as the square root of the aquifer transmissivity times the resistance of the aquitard or stream bottom. In some cases a cell size of one-tenth of lambda is necessary to obtain accurate results.

  6. Accurately measuring volcanic plume velocity with multiple UV spectrometers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Jones, Glyn; Horton, Keith A.; Elias, Tamar; Garbeil, Harold; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J; Sutton, A. Jeff; Harris, Andrew J. L.

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental problem with all ground-based remotely sensed measurements of volcanic gas flux is the difficulty in accurately measuring the velocity of the gas plume. Since a representative wind speed and direction are used as proxies for the actual plume velocity, there can be considerable uncertainty in reported gas flux values. Here we present a method that uses at least two time-synchronized simultaneously recording UV spectrometers (FLYSPECs) placed a known distance apart. By analyzing the time varying structure of SO2 concentration signals at each instrument, the plume velocity can accurately be determined. Experiments were conducted on Kīlauea (USA) and Masaya (Nicaragua) volcanoes in March and August 2003 at plume velocities between 1 and 10 m s−1. Concurrent ground-based anemometer measurements differed from FLYSPEC-measured plume speeds by up to 320%. This multi-spectrometer method allows for the accurate remote measurement of plume velocity and can therefore greatly improve the precision of volcanic or industrial gas flux measurements.

  7. Interacting with image hierarchies for fast and accurate object segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, David V.; Eberly, David H.; Hemminger, Bradley M.; Pizer, Stephen M.; Faith, R. E.; Kurak, Charles; Livingston, Mark

    1994-05-01

    Object definition is an increasingly important area of medical image research. Accurate and fairly rapid object definition is essential for measuring the size and, perhaps more importantly, the change in size of anatomical objects such as kidneys and tumors. Rapid and fairly accurate object definition is essential for 3D real-time visualization including both surgery planning and Radiation oncology treatment planning. One approach to object definition involves the use of 3D image hierarchies, such as Eberly's Ridge Flow. However, the image hierarchy segmentation approach requires user interaction in selecting regions and subtrees. Further, visualizing and comprehending the anatomy and the selected portions of the hierarchy can be problematic. In this paper we will describe the Magic Crayon tool which allows a user to define rapidly and accurately various anatomical objects by interacting with image hierarchies such as those generated with Eberly's Ridge Flow algorithm as well as other 3D image hierarchies. Preliminary results suggest that fairly complex anatomical objects can be segmented in under a minute with sufficient accuracy for 3D surgery planning, 3D radiation oncology treatment planning, and similar applications. Potential modifications to the approach for improved accuracy are summarized.

  8. On the Accurate Prediction of CME Arrival At the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Hess, Phillip

    2016-07-01

    We will discuss relevant issues regarding the accurate prediction of CME arrival at the Earth, from both observational and theoretical points of view. In particular, we clarify the importance of separating the study of CME ejecta from the ejecta-driven shock in interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). For a number of CME-ICME events well observed by SOHO/LASCO, STEREO-A and STEREO-B, we carry out the 3-D measurements by superimposing geometries onto both the ejecta and sheath separately. These measurements are then used to constrain a Drag-Based Model, which is improved through a modification of including height dependence of the drag coefficient into the model. Combining all these factors allows us to create predictions for both fronts at 1 AU and compare with actual in-situ observations. We show an ability to predict the sheath arrival with an average error of under 4 hours, with an RMS error of about 1.5 hours. For the CME ejecta, the error is less than two hours with an RMS error within an hour. Through using the best observations of CMEs, we show the power of our method in accurately predicting CME arrival times. The limitation and implications of our accurate prediction method will be discussed.

  9. Differential equation based method for accurate approximations in optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a method to efficiently and accurately approximate the effect of design changes on structural response. The key to this new method is to interpret sensitivity equations as differential equations that may be solved explicitly for closed form approximations, hence, the method is denoted the Differential Equation Based (DEB) method. Approximations were developed for vibration frequencies, mode shapes and static displacements. The DEB approximation method was applied to a cantilever beam and results compared with the commonly-used linear Taylor series approximations and exact solutions. The test calculations involved perturbing the height, width, cross-sectional area, tip mass, and bending inertia of the beam. The DEB method proved to be very accurate, and in msot cases, was more accurate than the linear Taylor series approximation. The method is applicable to simultaneous perturbation of several design variables. Also, the approximations may be used to calculate other system response quantities. For example, the approximations for displacement are used to approximate bending stresses.

  10. Dynamical correction of control laws for marine ships' accurate steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veremey, Evgeny I.

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this work is the analytical synthesis problem for marine vehicles autopilots design. Despite numerous known methods for a solution, the mentioned problem is very complicated due to the presence of an extensive population of certain dynamical conditions, requirements and restrictions, which must be satisfied by the appropriate choice of a steering control law. The aim of this paper is to simplify the procedure of the synthesis, providing accurate steering with desirable dynamics of the control system. The approach proposed here is based on the usage of a special unified multipurpose control law structure that allows decoupling a synthesis into simpler particular optimization problems. In particular, this structure includes a dynamical corrector to support the desirable features for the vehicle's motion under the action of sea wave disturbances. As a result, a specialized new method for the corrector design is proposed to provide an accurate steering or a trade-off between accurate steering and economical steering of the ship. This method guaranties a certain flexibility of the control law with respect to an actual environment of the sailing; its corresponding turning can be realized in real time onboard.

  11. [Spectroscopy technique and ruminant methane emissions accurate inspecting].

    PubMed

    Shang, Zhan-Huan; Guo, Xu-Sheng; Long, Rui-Jun

    2009-03-01

    The increase in atmospheric CH4 concentration, on the one hand through the radiation process, will directly cause climate change, and on the other hand, cause a lot of changes in atmospheric chemical processes, indirectly causing climate change. The rapid growth of atmospheric methane has gained attention of governments and scientists. All countries in the world now deal with global climate change as an important task of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, but the need for monitoring the concentration of methane gas, in particular precision monitoring, can be scientifically formulated to provide a scientific basis for emission reduction measures. So far, CH4 gas emissions of different animal production systems have received extensive research. The methane emission by ruminant reported in the literature is only estimation. This is due to the various factors that affect the methane production in ruminant, there are various variables associated with the techniques for measuring methane production, the techniques currently developed to measure methane are unable to accurately determine the dynamics of methane emission by ruminant, and therefore there is an urgent need to develop an accurate method for this purpose. Currently, spectroscopy technique has been used and is relatively a more accurate and reliable method. Various spectroscopy techniques such as modified infrared spectroscopy methane measuring system, laser and near-infrared sensory system are able to achieve the objective of determining the dynamic methane emission by both domestic and grazing ruminant. Therefore spectroscopy technique is an important methane measuring technique, and contributes to proposing reduction methods of methane.

  12. Accurate and simple calibration of DLP projector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilm, Jakob; Olesen, Oline V.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-03-01

    Much work has been devoted to the calibration of optical cameras, and accurate and simple methods are now available which require only a small number of calibration targets. The problem of obtaining these parameters for light projectors has not been studied as extensively and most current methods require a camera and involve feature extraction from a known projected pattern. In this work we present a novel calibration technique for DLP Projector systems based on phase shifting profilometry projection onto a printed calibration target. In contrast to most current methods, the one presented here does not rely on an initial camera calibration, and so does not carry over the error into projector calibration. A radial interpolation scheme is used to convert features coordinates into projector space, thereby allowing for a very accurate procedure. This allows for highly accurate determination of parameters including lens distortion. Our implementation acquires printed planar calibration scenes in less than 1s. This makes our method both fast and convenient. We evaluate our method in terms of reprojection errors and structured light image reconstruction quality.

  13. Accurate genome relative abundance estimation based on shotgun metagenomic reads.

    PubMed

    Xia, Li C; Cram, Jacob A; Chen, Ting; Fuhrman, Jed A; Sun, Fengzhu

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimation of microbial community composition based on metagenomic sequencing data is fundamental for subsequent metagenomics analysis. Prevalent estimation methods are mainly based on directly summarizing alignment results or its variants; often result in biased and/or unstable estimates. We have developed a unified probabilistic framework (named GRAMMy) by explicitly modeling read assignment ambiguities, genome size biases and read distributions along the genomes. Maximum likelihood method is employed to compute Genome Relative Abundance of microbial communities using the Mixture Model theory (GRAMMy). GRAMMy has been demonstrated to give estimates that are accurate and robust across both simulated and real read benchmark datasets. We applied GRAMMy to a collection of 34 metagenomic read sets from four metagenomics projects and identified 99 frequent species (minimally 0.5% abundant in at least 50% of the data-sets) in the human gut samples. Our results show substantial improvements over previous studies, such as adjusting the over-estimated abundance for Bacteroides species for human gut samples, by providing a new reference-based strategy for metagenomic sample comparisons. GRAMMy can be used flexibly with many read assignment tools (mapping, alignment or composition-based) even with low-sensitivity mapping results from huge short-read datasets. It will be increasingly useful as an accurate and robust tool for abundance estimation with the growing size of read sets and the expanding database of reference genomes.

  14. Accurate modelling of unsteady flows in collapsible tubes.

    PubMed

    Marchandise, Emilie; Flaud, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    The context of this paper is the development of a general and efficient numerical haemodynamic tool to help clinicians and researchers in understanding of physiological flow phenomena. We propose an accurate one-dimensional Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RK-DG) method coupled with lumped parameter models for the boundary conditions. The suggested model has already been successfully applied to haemodynamics in arteries and is now extended for the flow in collapsible tubes such as veins. The main difference with cardiovascular simulations is that the flow may become supercritical and elastic jumps may appear with the numerical consequence that scheme may not remain monotone if no limiting procedure is introduced. We show that our second-order RK-DG method equipped with an approximate Roe's Riemann solver and a slope-limiting procedure allows us to capture elastic jumps accurately. Moreover, this paper demonstrates that the complex physics associated with such flows is more accurately modelled than with traditional methods such as finite difference methods or finite volumes. We present various benchmark problems that show the flexibility and applicability of the numerical method. Our solutions are compared with analytical solutions when they are available and with solutions obtained using other numerical methods. Finally, to illustrate the clinical interest, we study the emptying process in a calf vein squeezed by contracting skeletal muscle in a normal and pathological subject. We compare our results with experimental simulations and discuss the sensitivity to parameters of our model.

  15. The Block recursion library: accurate calculation of resolvent submatrices using the block recursion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, T. J.; Haydock, Roger

    1991-04-01

    The Block Recursion Library, a collection of FORTRAN subroutines, calculates submatrices of the resolvent of a linear operator. The resolvent, in matrix theory, is a powerful tool for extracting information about solutions of linear systems. The routines use the block recursion method and achieve high accuracy for very large systems of coupled equations. This technique is a generalization of the scalar recursion method, an accurate technique for finding the local density of states. A sample program uses these routines to find the quantum mechanical transmittance of a randomly disordered two-dimensional cluster of atoms.

  16. READSCAN: a fast and scalable pathogen discovery program with accurate genome relative abundance estimation

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Mamoon; Pain, Arnab

    2013-01-01

    Summary: READSCAN is a highly scalable parallel program to identify non-host sequences (of potential pathogen origin) and estimate their genome relative abundance in high-throughput sequence datasets. READSCAN accurately classified human and viral sequences on a 20.1 million reads simulated dataset in <27 min using a small Beowulf compute cluster with 16 nodes (Supplementary Material). Availability: http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/readscan Contact: arnab.pain@kaust.edu.sa or raeece.naeem@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23193222

  17. Mathematics of Information Processing and the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    The mathematics of information processing and the Internet can be organized around four fundamental themes: (1) access (finding information easily); (2) security (keeping information confidential); (3) accuracy (ensuring accurate information); and (4) efficiency (data compression). In this article, the author discusses each theme with reference to…

  18. A powerful test of independent assortment that determines genome-wide significance quickly and accurately

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, W C L; Hager, V R

    2016-01-01

    In the analysis of DNA sequences on related individuals, most methods strive to incorporate as much information as possible, with little or no attention paid to the issue of statistical significance. For example, a modern workstation can easily handle the computations needed to perform a large-scale genome-wide inheritance-by-descent (IBD) scan, but accurate assessment of the significance of that scan is often hindered by inaccurate approximations and computationally intensive simulation. To address these issues, we developed gLOD—a test of co-segregation that, for large samples, models chromosome-specific IBD statistics as a collection of stationary Gaussian processes. With this simple model, the parametric bootstrap yields an accurate and rapid assessment of significance—the genome-wide corrected P-value. Furthermore, we show that (i) under the null hypothesis, the limiting distribution of the gLOD is the standard Gumbel distribution; (ii) our parametric bootstrap simulator is approximately 40 000 times faster than gene-dropping methods, and it is more powerful than methods that approximate the adjusted P-value; and, (iii) the gLOD has the same statistical power as the widely used maximum Kong and Cox LOD. Thus, our approach gives researchers the ability to determine quickly and accurately the significance of most large-scale IBD scans, which may contain multiple traits, thousands of families and tens of thousands of DNA sequences. PMID:27245422

  19. Fast and Accurate Semiautomatic Segmentation of Individual Teeth from Dental CT Images.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho Chul; Choi, Chankyu; Shin, Juneseuk; Lee, Jeongjin; Shin, Yeong-Gil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast and accurate semiautomatic method to effectively distinguish individual teeth from the sockets of teeth in dental CT images. Parameter values of thresholding and shapes of the teeth are propagated to the neighboring slice, based on the separated teeth from reference images. After the propagation of threshold values and shapes of the teeth, the histogram of the current slice was analyzed. The individual teeth are automatically separated and segmented by using seeded region growing. Then, the newly generated separation information is iteratively propagated to the neighboring slice. Our method was validated by ten sets of dental CT scans, and the results were compared with the manually segmented result and conventional methods. The average error of absolute value of volume measurement was 2.29 ± 0.56%, which was more accurate than conventional methods. Boosting up the speed with the multicore processors was shown to be 2.4 times faster than a single core processor. The proposed method identified the individual teeth accurately, demonstrating that it can give dentists substantial assistance during dental surgery.

  20. Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; He, Hongshen

    2016-01-01

    Humans and non-human primates are extremely sensitive to snakes as exemplified by their ability to detect pictures of snakes more quickly than those of other animals. These findings are consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which hypothesizes that as predators, snakes were a major source of evolutionary selection that favored expansion of the visual system of primates for rapid snake detection. Many snakes use camouflage to conceal themselves from both prey and their own predators, making it very challenging to detect them. If snakes have acted as a selective pressure on primate visual systems, they should be more easily detected than other animals under difficult visual conditions. Here we tested whether humans discerned images of snakes more accurately than those of non-threatening animals (e.g., birds, cats, or fish) under conditions of less perceptual information by presenting a series of degraded images with the Random Image Structure Evolution technique (interpolation of random noise). We find that participants recognize mosaic images of snakes, which were regarded as functionally equivalent to camouflage, more accurately than those of other animals under dissolved conditions. The present study supports the Snake Detection Theory by showing that humans have a visual system that accurately recognizes snakes under less discernible visual conditions.