Exact kinetic energy enables accurate evaluation of weak interactions by the FDE-vdW method
Sinha, Debalina; Pavanello, Michele
2015-08-28
The correlation energy of interaction is an elusive and sought-after interaction between molecular systems. By partitioning the response function of the system into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE)-vdW method provides a computationally amenable nonlocal correlation functional based on the adiabatic connection fluctuation dissipation theorem applied to subsystem density functional theory. In reproducing potential energy surfaces of weakly interacting dimers, we show that FDE-vdW, either employing semilocal or exact nonadditive kinetic energy functionals, is in quantitative agreement with high-accuracy coupled cluster calculations (overall mean unsigned error of 0.5 kcal/mol). When employing the exact kinetic energy (which we term the Kohn-Sham (KS)-vdW method), the binding energies are generally closer to the benchmark, and the energy surfaces are also smoother.
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Lee, T. D.
1957-06-01
Experimental results on the non-conservation of parity and charge conservation in weak interactions are reviewed. The two-component theory of the neutrino is discussed. Lepton reactions are examined under the assumption of the law of conservation of leptons and that the neutrino is described by a two- component theory. From the results of this examination, the universal Fermi interactions are analyzed. Although reactions involving the neutrino can be described, the same is not true of reactions which do not involve the lepton, as the discussion of the decay of K mesons and hyperons shows. The question of the invariance of time reversal is next examined. (J.S.R.)
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Lee, T. D.
1970-07-01
While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.
Weak interactions and presupernova evolution
Aufderheide, M.B. State Univ. of New York . Dept. of Physics)
1991-02-19
The role of weak interactions, particularly electron capture and {beta}{sup {minus}} decay, in presupernova evolution is discussed. The present uncertainty in these rates is examined and the possibility of improving the situation is addressed. 12 refs., 4 figs.
Cosmology and the weak interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schramm, David N.
1989-01-01
The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. Two of its most publicized comological connections are emphasized: big bang nucleosynthesis and dark matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of neutrine flavors, N(sub nu) is approximately 3 which in now being confirmed. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galacty and structure formation in the universe. The role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure is demonstrated.
Cosmology and the weak interaction
Schramm, D.N. ):)
1989-12-01
The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.
Detecting weakly interacting massive particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drukier, A. K.; Gelmini, G. B.
The growing synergy between astrophysics, particle physics, and low background experiments strengthens the possibility of detecting astrophysical non-baryonic matter. The idea of direct detection is that an incident, massive weakly interacting particle could collide with a nucleus and transfer an energy that could be measured. The present low levels of background achieved by the PNL/USC Ge detector represent a new technology which yields interesting bounds on Galactic cold dark matter and on light bosons emitted from the Sun. Further improvements require the development of cryogenic detectors. The authors analyse the practicality of such detectors, their optimalization and background suppression using the "annual modulation effect".
A Universe without Weak Interactions
Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad
2006-04-07
A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.
Elementary Particles and Weak Interactions
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Lee, T. D.; Yang, C. N.
1957-01-01
Some general patterns of interactions between various elementary particles are reviewed and some general questions concerning the symmetry properties of these particles are studied. Topics are included on the theta-tau puzzle, experimental limits on the validity of parity conservation, some general discussions on the consequences due to possible non-invariance under P, C, and T, various possible experimental tests on invariance under P, C, and T, a two-component theory of the neutrino, a possible law of conservation of leptons and the universal Fermi interactions, and time reversal invariance and Mach's principle. (M.H.R.)
Spin effects in the weak interaction
Freedman, S.J. Chicago Univ., IL . Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)
1990-01-01
Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.
Molecular Handshake: Recognition through Weak Noncovalent Interactions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murthy, Parvathi S.
2006-01-01
The weak noncovalent interactions between substances, the handshake in the form of electrostatic interactions, van der Waals' interactions or hydrogen bonding is universal to all living and nonliving matter. They significantly influence the molecular and bulk properties and behavior of matter. Their transient nature affects chemical reactions and…
Some Topics in Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bjorken, James D.
1982-01-01
The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * LECTURE I QUANTUM-ELECTRODYNAMICS TESTS; TESTS OF Jμ Jμ STRUCTURE IN WEAK INTERACTIONS; HIGHER-ORDER WEAK INTERACTIONS * LECTURE II PHENOMENOLOGY OF DEEP-INELASTIC PROCESSES; NO FINAL-STATE HADRONS OBSERVED * LECTURE III LIGHT-CONE COMMUTATORS; MODELS OF THE STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS * LECTURE IV HADRON FINAL STATES IN DEEP-INELASTIC PROCESSES; GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS * LECTURE V INCLUSIVE PROCESSES AT VERY HIGH TRANSVERSE MOMENTUM * REFERENCES
Interaction barriers for light, weakly bound projectiles
Kolata, J. J.; Aguilera, E. F.
2009-02-15
A parametrization of the interaction-barrier model of C. Y. Wong [Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 766 (1973)] is given for light, weakly bound projectiles and also for the exotic 'halo' nuclei {sup 6}He and {sup 8}B. Comparisons are made with the original parametrization. The extremely anomalous behavior of the interaction radius and barrier curvature for halo nuclei is discussed.
Hadronic Weak Interaction Studies at the SNS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fomin, Nadia
2016-03-01
Neutrons have been a useful probe in many fields of science, as well as an important physical system for study in themselves. Modern neutron sources provide extraordinary opportunities to study a wide variety of physics topics. Among them is a detailed study of the weak interaction. An overview of studies of the hadronic weak (quark-quark) as well as semi-leptonic (quark-lepton) interactions at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is presented. These measurements, done in few-nucleon systems, are finally letting us gain knowledge of the hadronic weak interaction without the contributions from nuclear effects. Forthcoming results from the NPDGamma experiment will, due to the simplicity of the neutron, provide an unambiguous measurement of the long range pion-nucleon weak coupling (often referred to as hπ), which will finally test the theoretical predictions. Results from NPDGamma and future results from the n +3 He experiment will need to be complemented by additional measurements to completely describe the hadronic weak interaction.
Resource Letter WI-1: Weak Interactions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holstein, Barry R.
1977-01-01
Provides a listing of sources of literature and teaching aids to improve course content in the fields of: weak interactions, beta decay, orbital electron capture, muon capture, semileptonic decay, nonleptonic processes, parity violation in nuclei, neutrino physics, and parity violation in atomic physics. (SL)
Francium Spectroscopy for Weak Interaction Studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orozco, Luis
2014-05-01
Francium, a radioactive element, is the heaviest alkali. Its atomic and nuclear structure makes it an ideal laboratory to study the weak interaction. Laser trapping and cooling in-line with the superconducting LINAC accelerator at Stony Brook opened the precision study of its atomic structure. I will present our proposal and progress towards weak interaction measurements at TRIUMF, the National Canadian Accelerator in Vancouver. These include the commissioning run of the Francium Trapping Facility, hyperfine anomaly measurements on a chain of Fr isotopes, the nuclear anapole moment through parity non-conserving transitions in the ground state hyperfine manifold. These measurements should shed light on the nucleon-nucleon weak interaction. This work is done by the FrPNC collaboration: S. Aubin College of William and Mary, J. A. Behr TRIUMF, R. Collister U. Manitoba, E. Gomez UASLP, G. Gwinner U. Manitoba, M. R. Pearson TRIUMF, L. A. Orozco UMD, M. Tandecki TRIUMF, J. Zhang UMD Supported by NSF and DOE from the USA; TRIUMF, NRC and NSERC from Canada; and CONACYT from Mexico
A Macroscopic Realization of the Weak Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishimori, Arito
2003-01-01
A.J.Leggett suggested in 1977 that a permanent electric dipole moment due to the parity-nonconserving electron-nucleon interaction, even though it is extremely small, could be measured in the superfluid He-3 B because the moment should be proportional to the size of the sample in this system. If this moment is observed, it will be the first example of a macroscopic realization of the weak interaction. In our planned experiments, a high electric field of up to 6 kV/cm is applied between two parallel electrodes in the He-3 sample. We expect to observe the NMR frequency of the lowest-lying spin-wave mode trapped by the liquid crystal-like texture of the B phase rotation axis in our geometry. The interaction of the electric field and the macroscopic permanent electric dipole moment, which is oriented along the rotation axis, will cause a small change in the texture and hence a small increase in the frequency of the spin wave mode. Besides the basic ideas, we present the purpose and the design of our first cell that is under construction.
Neutron Measurements and the Weak Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction
Snow, W. M.
2005-01-01
The weak interaction between nucleons remains one of the most poorly-understood sectors of the Standard Model. A quantitative description of this interaction is needed to understand weak interaction phenomena in atomic, nuclear, and hadronic systems. This paper summarizes briefly what is known about the weak nucleon-nucleon interaction, tries to place this phenomenon in the context of other studies of the weak and strong interactions, and outlines a set of measurements involving low energy neutrons which can lead to significant experimental progress. PMID:27308120
Exclusive processes in strong and weak interactions
Tsokos, K.
1983-01-01
Evolution equations for flavor singlet mesons are derived; these are solved in terms of Gegenbauer polynomials. These results have been applied to exclusive processes at large momentum transfer which involve flavor singlet mesons and glueballs - two glueball decays of the Upsilon, radiative psi decays and two-photon processes involving the eta. Exclusive, weak decays of heavy mesons are examined and the heavy mass scaling behavior of decay rates is obtained.
Weak interactions, omnivory and emergent food-web properties.
Emmerson, Mark; Yearsley, Jon M.
2004-01-01
Empirical studies have shown that, in real ecosystems, species-interaction strengths are generally skewed in their distribution towards weak interactions. Some theoretical work also suggests that weak interactions, especially in omnivorous links, are important for the local stability of a community at equilibrium. However, the majority of theoretical studies use uniform distributions of interaction strengths to generate artificial communities for study. We investigate the effects of the underlying interaction-strength distribution upon the return time, permanence and feasibility of simple Lotka-Volterra equilibrium communities. We show that a skew towards weak interactions promotes local and global stability only when omnivory is present. It is found that skewed interaction strengths are an emergent property of stable omnivorous communities, and that this skew towards weak interactions creates a dynamic constraint maintaining omnivory. Omnivory is more likely to occur when omnivorous interactions are skewed towards weak interactions. However, a skew towards weak interactions increases the return time to equilibrium, delays the recovery of ecosystems and hence decreases the stability of a community. When no skew is imposed, the set of stable omnivorous communities shows an emergent distribution of skewed interaction strengths. Our results apply to both local and global concepts of stability and are robust to the definition of a feasible community. These results are discussed in the light of empirical data and other theoretical studies, in conjunction with their broader implications for community assembly. PMID:15101699
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratcliffe, H.; Brady, C. S.; Che Rozenan, M. B.; Nakariakov, V. M.
2014-12-01
Quasilinear theory has long been used to treat the problem of a weak electron beam interacting with plasma and generating Langmuir waves. Its extension to weak-turbulence theory treats resonant interactions of these Langmuir waves with other plasma wave modes, in particular, ion-sound waves. These are strongly damped in plasma of equal ion and electron temperatures, as sometimes seen in, for example, the solar corona and wind. Weak turbulence theory is derived in the weak damping limit, with a term describing ion-sound wave damping then added. In this paper, we use the EPOCH particle-in-cell code to numerically test weak turbulence theory for a range of electron-ion temperature ratios. We find that in the cold ion limit, the results agree well, but for increasing ion temperature the three-wave resonance becomes broadened in proportion to the ion-sound wave damping rate. Additionally, we establish lower limits on the number of simulation particles needed to accurately reproduce the electron and wave distributions in their saturated states and to reproduce their intermediate states and time evolution. These results should be taken into consideration in, for example, simulations of plasma wave generation in the solar corona of Type III solar radio bursts from the corona to the solar wind and in weak turbulence investigations of ion-acoustic lines in the ionosphere.
Ratcliffe, H. Brady, C. S.; Che Rozenan, M. B.; Nakariakov, V. M.
2014-12-15
Quasilinear theory has long been used to treat the problem of a weak electron beam interacting with plasma and generating Langmuir waves. Its extension to weak-turbulence theory treats resonant interactions of these Langmuir waves with other plasma wave modes, in particular, ion-sound waves. These are strongly damped in plasma of equal ion and electron temperatures, as sometimes seen in, for example, the solar corona and wind. Weak turbulence theory is derived in the weak damping limit, with a term describing ion-sound wave damping then added. In this paper, we use the EPOCH particle-in-cell code to numerically test weak turbulence theory for a range of electron-ion temperature ratios. We find that in the cold ion limit, the results agree well, but for increasing ion temperature the three-wave resonance becomes broadened in proportion to the ion-sound wave damping rate. Additionally, we establish lower limits on the number of simulation particles needed to accurately reproduce the electron and wave distributions in their saturated states and to reproduce their intermediate states and time evolution. These results should be taken into consideration in, for example, simulations of plasma wave generation in the solar corona of Type III solar radio bursts from the corona to the solar wind and in weak turbulence investigations of ion-acoustic lines in the ionosphere.
An accurate and practical method for inference of weak gravitational lensing from galaxy images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernstein, Gary M.; Armstrong, Robert; Krawiec, Christina; March, Marisa C.
2016-07-01
We demonstrate highly accurate recovery of weak gravitational lensing shear using an implementation of the Bayesian Fourier Domain (BFD) method proposed by Bernstein & Armstrong, extended to correct for selection biases. The BFD formalism is rigorously correct for Nyquist-sampled, background-limited, uncrowded images of background galaxies. BFD does not assign shapes to galaxies, instead compressing the pixel data D into a vector of moments M, such that we have an analytic expression for the probability P(M|g) of obtaining the observations with gravitational lensing distortion g along the line of sight. We implement an algorithm for conducting BFD's integrations over the population of unlensed source galaxies which measures ≈10 galaxies s-1 core-1 with good scaling properties. Initial tests of this code on ≈109 simulated lensed galaxy images recover the simulated shear to a fractional accuracy of m = (2.1 ± 0.4) × 10-3, substantially more accurate than has been demonstrated previously for any generally applicable method. Deep sky exposures generate a sufficiently accurate approximation to the noiseless, unlensed galaxy population distribution assumed as input to BFD. Potential extensions of the method include simultaneous measurement of magnification and shear; multiple-exposure, multiband observations; and joint inference of photometric redshifts and lensing tomography.
Space-time structure of weak and electromagnetic interactions
Hestenes, D.
1982-02-01
The generator of electromagnetic gauge transformations in the Dirac equation has a unique geometric interpretation and a unique extension to the generators of the gauge group SU(2) x U(1) for the Weinberg--Salam theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions. It follows that internal symmetries of the weak interactions can be interpreted as space-time symmetries of spinor fields in the Dirac algebra. The possibilities for interpreting strong interaction symmetries in a similar way are highly restricted.
Weak-wave analysis of shock interaction with a slipstream
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barger, Raymond L.
1988-01-01
A weak wave analysis of shock interaction with a slipstream is presented. The theory is compared to that for the acoustic case and to the exact nonlinear analysis. Sample calculations indicate that the weak wave theory yields a good approximation to the exact solution when the shock waves are sufficiently weak that the associated entropy increase is negligible. A qualitative discussion of the case of counterflowing streams is also included.
Cosmological constraints on the properties of weakly interacting massive particles
Steigman, G.; Turner, M.S.
1984-10-01
Considerations of the age and density of, as well as the evolution of structure in, the Universe lead to constraints on the masses and lifetimes of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). 26 references.
SU(3) gauge model of weak and electromagnetic interactions
Pugh, R.E.
1980-02-01
An SU(3) gauge model of weak and electromagnetic interactions is based on the fundamental triplet (e/sup +/,e/sup -/,..nu../sub e/)/sub L/. The Weinberg angle is predicted to be 30/sup 0/. The extension of the model to hadrons requires the use of Han-Nambu quarks.
Weak interactions of quarks and leptons: experimental status
Wojcicki, S.
1984-09-01
The present experimental status of weak interactions is discussed with emphasis on the problems and questions and on the possible lines of future investigations. Major topics include; (1) the quark mixing matrix, (2) CP violation, (3) rare decays, (4) the lepton sector, and (5) right handed currents. 118 references. (WHK)
ISOLTRAP Mass Measurements for Weak-Interaction Studies
Kellerbauer, A.; Delahaye, P.; Herlert, A.; Audi, G.; Guenaut, C.; Lunney, D.; Beck, D.; Herfurth, F.; Kluge, H.-J.; Mukherjee, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Weber, C.; Yazidjian, C.; Blaum, K.; Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S.; George, S.; Schweikhard, L.
2006-04-26
The conserved-vector-current (CVC) hypothesis of the weak interaction and the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix are two fundamental postulates of the Standard Model. While existing data on CVC supports vector current conservation, the unitarity test of the CKM matrix currently fails by more than two standard deviations. High-precision mass measurements performed with the ISOLTRAP experiment at ISOLDE/CERN provide crucial input for these fundamental studies by greatly improving our knowledge of the decay energy of super-allowed {beta} decays. Recent results of mass measurements on the {beta} emitters 18Ne, 22Mg, 34Ar, and 74Rb as pertaining to weak-interaction studies are presented.
Microcanonical fluctuations of the condensate in weakly interacting Bose gases
Idziaszek, Zbigniew
2005-05-15
We study fluctuations of the number of Bose condensed atoms in a weakly interacting homogeneous and trapped gases. For a homogeneous system we apply the particle-number-conserving formulation of the Bogoliubov theory and calculate the condensate fluctuations within the canonical and the microcanonical ensembles. We demonstrate that, at least in the low-temperature regime, predictions of the particle-number-conserving and traditional, nonconserving theory are identical, and lead to the anomalous scaling of fluctuations. Furthermore, the microcanonical fluctuations differ from the canonical ones by a quantity which scales normally in the number of particles, thus predictions of both ensembles are equivalent in the thermodynamic limit. We observe a similar behavior for a weakly interacting gas in a harmonic trap. This is in contrast to the trapped, ideal gas, where microcanonical and canonical fluctuations are different in the thermodynamic limit.
Weak-interaction processes in core-collapse supernovae
Langanke, K.
2015-02-24
Weak interaction processes play an important role for the dynamics of a core-collapse supernova. Due to progress of nuclear modeling and constrained by data it has been possible to improve the rates of these processes for supernova conditions decisively. This manuscript describes the recent advances and the current status in deriving electron capture rates on nuclei and of inelastic neutrino-nucleus scattering for applications in supernova simulations and briefly discusses their impact on such studies.
Accurate nuclear radii and binding energies from a chiral interaction
Ekstrom, Jan A.; Jansen, G. R.; Wendt, Kyle A.; Hagen, Gaute; Papenbrock, Thomas F.; Carlsson, Boris; Forssen, Christian; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Navratil, Petr; Nazarewicz, Witold
2015-05-01
With the goal of developing predictive ab initio capability for light and medium-mass nuclei, two-nucleon and three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory are optimized simultaneously to low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering data, as well as binding energies and radii of few-nucleon systems and selected isotopes of carbon and oxygen. Coupled-cluster calculations based on this interaction, named NNLO_{sat}, yield accurate binding energies and radii of nuclei up to ^{40}Ca, and are consistent with the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. In addition, the low-lying collective J^{π}=3^{-} states in ^{16}O and ^{40}Ca are described accurately, while spectra for selected p- and sd-shell nuclei are in reasonable agreement with experiment.
Accurate nuclear radii and binding energies from a chiral interaction
Ekstrom, Jan A.; Jansen, G. R.; Wendt, Kyle A.; Hagen, Gaute; Papenbrock, Thomas F.; Carlsson, Boris; Forssen, Christian; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Navratil, Petr; Nazarewicz, Witold
2015-05-01
With the goal of developing predictive ab initio capability for light and medium-mass nuclei, two-nucleon and three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory are optimized simultaneously to low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering data, as well as binding energies and radii of few-nucleon systems and selected isotopes of carbon and oxygen. Coupled-cluster calculations based on this interaction, named NNLOsat, yield accurate binding energies and radii of nuclei up to 40Ca, and are consistent with the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. In addition, the low-lying collective Jπ=3- states in 16O and 40Ca are described accurately, while spectra for selected p- and sd-shellmore » nuclei are in reasonable agreement with experiment.« less
Differentiation of optical isomers through enhanced weak-field interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aronowitz, S.
1980-01-01
The influence of weak field interaction terms due to the cooperative effects which arise from a macroscopic assemblage of interacting sites is studied. Differential adsorption of optical isomers onto an achiral surface is predicted to occur if the surface was continuous and sufficiently large. However, the quantity of discontinuous crystal surfaces did not enhance the percentage of differentiation and thus the procedure of using large quantities of small particles was not a viable technique for obtaining a detectable differentiation of optical isomers on an achiral surface.
Introduction to weak interaction theories with dynamical symmetry breaking
Lane, K.D.; Peskin, M.E.
1980-07-01
A straightforward introduction to theories of the weak interactions with dynamical symmetry breaking-theories of technicolor or hypercolor is presented. The intent is to inform experimentalists, but also to goad theorists. The motivation for considering theories of this type is described. The structure that such a theory must possess, including new gauge interactions at mass scales of 1-100 TeV is then outlined. Despite their reliance on phenomena at such enormous energies, these theories contain new phenomena observable at currently accessible energies. Three such effects which are especially likely to be observed are described.
Free Expansion of a Weakly-Interacting Dipolar Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takushi Nishimura,; Tomoyuki Maruyama,
2010-08-01
We theoretically investigate a polarized dipolar Fermi gas in free expansion. The inter-particle dipolar interaction deforms phase-space distribution in trap and also in the expansion. We exactly predict the minimal quadrupole deformation in the expansion for the high-temperature Maxwell-Boltzmann and zero-temperature Thomas-Fermi gases in the Hartree-Fock and Landau-Vlasov approaches. In conclusion, we provide a proper approach to develop the time-of-flight method for the weakly-interacting dipolar Fermi gas and also reveal a scaling law associated with the Liouville’s theorem in the long-time behaviors of the both gases.
Efficient and accurate treatment of weak pairs in local CCSD(T) calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masur, Oliver; Usvyat, Denis; Schütz, Martin
2013-10-01
Local coupled cluster theory is based on (i) a restriction of the list of pairs (or triples) of occupied molecular orbitals, and (ii) a truncation of the virtual space to orbital pair (or triple) specific subspaces. The latter is motivated by an exponential decay of the contributions to the pair energy with respect to the distance between related local occupied and virtual orbitals; the former only by a polynomial R-6 decay with respect to the distance R between the two occupied orbitals of the pair. Consequently, the restriction of the pair list is more critical, and contributions of pairs should not be neglected unless the corresponding interorbital distance is really large. In local coupled cluster theory pairs are usually discriminated on the basis of the interorbital distance, or the size of the 2nd order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) estimate of the pair energy. Only strong pairs are treated at the full coupled cluster level, while weak pairs are treated just at the level of MP2. Yet MP2 might be problematic in certain cases, for example, π-stacking is badly described by MP2, etc. We propose to substitute the MP2 treatment of weak pairs by an approach based on ring-CCD by including third-order diagrams with R-6 decay behavior. Such an approach is clearly superior; it provides higher accuracy, while the computational cost is not significantly higher than that of a MP2 based treatment of weak pairs.
Interaction of Oblique Instability Waves with Weak Streamwise Vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M. E.; Wundrow, David W.
1994-01-01
This paper is concerned with the effect of a weak spanwise-variable mean-flow distortion on the growth of oblique instability waves in a Blasius boundary layer. The streamwise component of the distortion velocity initially grows linearly with increasing streamwise distance, reaches a maximum, and eventually decays through the action of viscosity. This decay occurs slowly and allows the distortion to destabilize the Blasius flow over a relatively large streamwise region. It is shown that even relatively weak distortions can cause certain oblique Rayleigh instability waves to grow much faster than the usual two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves that would be the dominant instability modes in the absence of the distortion. The oblique instability waves can then become large enough to interact nonlinearly within a common critical layer. It is shown that the resulting nonlinearity is weak and that the common amplitude of the interacting oblique waves is governed by the amplitude evolution equation derived in Goldstein & Choi (1989). The implications of these results for Klebanoff-type transition are discussed.
Limits Of Quantum Information In Weak Interaction Processes Of Hyperons
Hiesmayr, B. C.
2015-01-01
We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay Σ+→ pπ0). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities where α is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated, the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this information theoretic insight we show how entanglement can be measured in these systems and why Bell’s nonlocality (in contradiction to common misconception in literature) cannot be revealed in hyperon decays. Last but not least we study under which circumstances contextuality can be revealed. PMID:26144247
Weak nuclear interactions in neon-21 and neon-18
Von Lintig, Richard David
1981-01-01
The results of two experiments involving weak meson exchange among nucleons are reviewed. Measurements are described of the circular polarization of 2.789 MeV gamma rays associated with the 2.789/2.796 MeV parity mixed doublet in /sup 21/Ne. Also reported are measurements of the 0/sup +/ - 0/sup -/ beta decay from /sup 18/Ne to the 1.081 MeV 0/sup -/ state of /sup 18/F, itself part of a spin-zero doublet of considerable interest for parity mixing. The significance of the results to the theory of weak non-leptonic interactions is examined. An argument is repeated that more careful interpretation of the results in terms of the fundamental weak interaction is needed. The circular polarization of the 2.789 MeV radiation from /sup 21/Ne is (20 +- 26) x 10/sup -4/, a small result in view of the enhancement of this effect due to narrow doublet separation and the forbidden character of the transition. Simultaneous measurements of the circular polarization of 2.439 MeV radiation, which should not exhibit the parity violating effect even if the 1/2/sup -/ (2.789 MeV) state contains a significant parity impurity, indicate an absence of bias in the measurements. The relative probability of the 0/sup +/ - 0/sup -/ (1.081 MeV) decay from /sup 18/Ne is (2.26 +- .37) x 10/sup -4/. The two-body (or meson exchange) contribution to this transition is the isospin analog of parity mixing between the 1042-keV (J/sup ..pi../;T = 0/sup +/;1) and 1081-keV (J/sup ..pi../;T = 0/sup -/;0) states of /sup 18/F. The theoretical relation which has been shown to exist between these two weak interaction phenomena is recounted, so that the importance of the beta-decay measurement to non-leptonic weak interaction physics can be appreciated.
Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF for weak interaction studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Gomez, E.; Aubin, S.; Frpnc Collaboration
2014-05-01
We present the current status of the Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF. After successfully commissioning the capture chamber we are now in the process of finishing the science chamber where weak interaction measurements on Fr will be performed. We require transfer of the cold atoms from the capture chamber to the science chamber where they can be re-trapped for precision spectroscopy. The modular design of the science chamber allows for microwave studies for the anapole moment measurement and optical studies for the weak charge measurements using atomic parity non-conservation. We will present our current status and the plans for the commissioning run of the science chamber. Work supported by NSERC and NRC from Canada, NSF and DOE from USA, CONACYT from Mexico.
Interactive Isogeometric Volume Visualization with Pixel-Accurate Geometry.
Fuchs, Franz G; Hjelmervik, Jon M
2016-02-01
A recent development, called isogeometric analysis, provides a unified approach for design, analysis and optimization of functional products in industry. Traditional volume rendering methods for inspecting the results from the numerical simulations cannot be applied directly to isogeometric models. We present a novel approach for interactive visualization of isogeometric analysis results, ensuring correct, i.e., pixel-accurate geometry of the volume including its bounding surfaces. The entire OpenGL pipeline is used in a multi-stage algorithm leveraging techniques from surface rendering, order-independent transparency, as well as theory and numerical methods for ordinary differential equations. We showcase the efficiency of our approach on different models relevant to industry, ranging from quality inspection of the parametrization of the geometry, to stress analysis in linear elasticity, to visualization of computational fluid dynamics results. PMID:26731454
Interactive Isogeometric Volume Visualization with Pixel-Accurate Geometry.
Fuchs, Franz G; Hjelmervik, Jon M
2016-02-01
A recent development, called isogeometric analysis, provides a unified approach for design, analysis and optimization of functional products in industry. Traditional volume rendering methods for inspecting the results from the numerical simulations cannot be applied directly to isogeometric models. We present a novel approach for interactive visualization of isogeometric analysis results, ensuring correct, i.e., pixel-accurate geometry of the volume including its bounding surfaces. The entire OpenGL pipeline is used in a multi-stage algorithm leveraging techniques from surface rendering, order-independent transparency, as well as theory and numerical methods for ordinary differential equations. We showcase the efficiency of our approach on different models relevant to industry, ranging from quality inspection of the parametrization of the geometry, to stress analysis in linear elasticity, to visualization of computational fluid dynamics results.
Atom Interferometry with a Weakly Interacting Bose-Einstein Condensate
Fattori, M.; D'Errico, C.; Roati, G.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G.; Zaccanti, M.; Jona-Lasinio, M.; Modugno, M.
2008-02-29
We demonstrate the operation of an atom interferometer based on a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We strongly reduce the interaction induced decoherence that usually limits interferometers based on trapped condensates by tuning the s-wave scattering length almost to zero via a magnetic Feshbach resonance. We employ a {sup 39}K condensate trapped in an optical lattice, where Bloch oscillations are forced by gravity. The fine-tuning of the scattering length down to 0.1 a{sub 0} and the micrometric sizes of the atomic sample make our system a very promising candidate for measuring forces with high spatial resolution. Our technique can be in principle extended to other measurement schemes opening new possibilities in the field of trapped atom interferometry.
Optimal parameters of gyrotrons with weak electron-wave interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glyavin, M. Yu.; Oparina, Yu. S.; Savilov, A. V.; Sedov, A. S.
2016-09-01
In low-power gyrotrons with weak electron-wave interaction, there is a problem of determining the optimal length of the operating cavity, which is found as a result of a tradeoff between the enhancement of the electron efficiency and the increase in the Ohmic loss share with increasing cavity length. In fact, this is the problem of an optimal ratio between the diffraction and Ohmic Q-factors of the operating gyrotron mode, which determines the share of the radiated rf power lost in the cavity wall. In this paper, this problem is studied on the basis of a universal set of equations, which are appropriate for a wide class of electron oscillators with low efficiencies of the electron-wave interaction.
Low-temperature Glauber dynamics under weak competing interactions.
Grynberg, M D
2015-03-01
We consider the low but nonzero-temperature regimes of the Glauber dynamics in a chain of Ising spins with first- and second-neighbor interactions J1,J2. For 0<-J2/|J1|<1 it is known that at T=0 the dynamics is both metastable and noncoarsening, while being always ergodic and coarsening in the limit of T→0+. Based on finite-size scaling analyses of relaxation times, here we argue that in that latter situation the asymptotic kinetics of small or weakly frustrated -J2/|J1| ratios is characterized by an almost ballistic dynamic exponent z≃1.03(2) and arbitrarily slow velocities of growth. By contrast, for noncompeting interactions the coarsening length scales are estimated to be almost diffusive. PMID:25871076
Calculating the annihilation rate of weakly interacting massive particles.
Baumgart, Matthew; Rothstein, Ira Z; Vaidya, Varun
2015-05-29
We develop a formalism that allows one to systematically calculate the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) annihilation rate into gamma rays whose energy far exceeds the weak scale. A factorization theorem is presented which separates the radiative corrections stemming from initial-state potential interactions from loops involving the final state. This separation allows us to go beyond the fixed order calculation, which is polluted by large infrared logarithms. For the case of Majorana WIMPs transforming in the adjoint representation of SU(2), we present the result for the resummed rate at leading double-log accuracy in terms of two initial-state partial-wave matrix elements and one hard matching coefficient. For a given model, one may calculate the cross section by finding the tree level matching coefficient and determining the value of a local four-fermion operator. The effects of resummation can be as large as 100% for a 20 TeV WIMP. However, for lighter WIMP masses relevant for the thermal relic scenario, leading-log resummation modifies the Sudakov factors only at the 10% level. Furthermore, given comparably sized Sommerfeld factors, the total effect of radiative corrections on the semi-inclusive photon annihilation rate is found to be percent level. The generalization of the formalism to other types of WIMPs is discussed.
Structural consequences of weak interactions in dispirooxindole derivatives.
Ravikumar, Krishnan; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Nanubolu, Jagadeesh Babu; Karthik, Govindaraju; Reddy, Basi Venkata Subba
2015-11-01
Spiro scaffolds are being increasingly utilized in drug discovery due to their inherent three-dimensionality and structural variations, resulting in new synthetic routes to introduce spiro building blocks into more pharmaceutically active molecules. Multicomponent cascade reactions, involving the in situ generation of carbonyl ylides from α-diazocarbonyl compounds and aldehydes, and 1,3-dipolar cycloadditon with 3-arylideneoxindoles gave a novel class of dispirooxindole derivatives, namely 1,1''-dibenzyl-5'-(4-chlorophenyl)-4'-phenyl-4',5'-dihydrodispiro[indoline-3,2'-furan-3',3''-indoline]-2,2''-dione, C44H33ClN2O3, (I), 1''-acetyl-1-benzyl-5'-(4-chlorophenyl)-4'-phenyl-4',5'-dihydrodispiro[indoline-3,2'-furan-3',3''-indoline]-2,2''-dione, C39H29ClN2O4, (II), 1''-acetyl-1-benzyl-4',5'-diphenyl-4',5'-dihydrodispiro[indoline-3,2'-furan-3',3''-indoline]-2,2''-dione, C39H30N2O4, (III), and 1''-acetyl-1-benzyl-4',5'-diphenyl-4',5'-dihydrodispiro[indoline-3,2'-furan-3',3''-indoline]-2,2''-dione acetonitrile hemisolvate, C39H30N2O4·0.5C2H3N, (IV). All four compounds exist as racemic mixtures of the SSSR and RRRS stereoisomers. In these structures, the two H atoms of the dihydrofuran ring and the two substituted oxindole rings are in a trans orientation, facilitating intramolecular C-H···O and π-π interactions. These weak interactions play a prominent role in the structural stability and aid the highly regio- and diastereoselective synthesis. In each of the four structures, the molecular assembly in the crystal is also governed by weak noncovalent interactions. Compound (IV) is the solvated analogue of (III) and the two compounds show similar structural features. PMID:26524175
Stroboscopic prethermalization in weakly interacting periodically driven systems.
Canovi, Elena; Kollar, Marcus; Eckstein, Martin
2016-01-01
Time-periodic driving provides a promising route toward engineering nontrivial states in quantum many-body systems. However, while it has been shown that the dynamics of integrable, noninteracting systems can synchronize with the driving into a nontrivial periodic motion, generic nonintegrable systems are expected to heat up until they display a trivial infinite-temperature behavior. In this paper we show that a quasiperiodic time evolution over many periods can also emerge in weakly interacting systems, with a clear separation of the timescales for synchronization and the eventual approach of the infinite-temperature state. This behavior is the analog of prethermalization in quenched systems. The synchronized state can be described using a macroscopic number of approximate constants of motion. We corroborate these findings with numerical simulations for the driven Hubbard model.
Squeezing in the weakly interacting uniform Bose-Einstein condensate
Haque, Masudul; Ruckenstein, Andrei E.
2006-10-15
We investigate the presence of squeezing in the weakly repulsive uniform Bose gas, in both the condensate mode and in the nonzero opposite-momenta mode pairs, using two different variational formulations. We explore the U(1) symmetry breaking and Goldstone's theorem in the context of a squeezed coherent variational wave function and present the associated Ward identity. We show that squeezing of the condensate mode is absent at the mean field Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov level and emerges as a result of fluctuations about mean field as a finite volume effect, which vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. On the other hand, the squeezing of the excitations about the condensate survives the thermodynamic limit and is interpreted in terms of density-phase variables using a number-conserving formulation of the interacting Bose gas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schütz, Martin; Masur, Oliver; Usvyat, Denis
2014-06-01
In order to arrive at linear scaling of the computational cost with molecular size, local coupled cluster methods discriminate pairs of local molecular orbitals according to the spatial separation R of the latter. Only strong pairs are treated at the full coupled cluster level, whereas for weak pairs a lower level of theory (usually Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order, MP2) is used. Yet an MP2 treatment of weak pairs is inadequate in certain situations (for example, for describing π-stacking), which calls for an improved but still inexpensive method for dealing with the weak pairs. In a previous contribution, we proposed as a substituent for MP2 the LrCCD3 method, which is based on ring coupled cluster doubles (ring-CCD) and includes all third-order diagrams with energy contributions decaying not quicker than R-6. In the present work, we explore a still more accurate method, which is based on the same principles. It turned out to be essential to abandon the restriction to ring-CCD, i.e., to include further CCD diagrams beyond the ring approximation. The occurring intermediates turn out to be formally very similar to LMP2 density matrices, such that an efficient evaluation of these non-ring CCD diagrams is possible. Furthermore, a computationally cheap a posteriori estimate for the fourth-order singles contribution to the weak pair energy, which also exhibits a decay behavior of R-6, is introduced. The resulting method, denoted as LCCD[S]-R-6, indeed provides a substantial improvement in accuracy over the previous LrCCD3 method at a relatively modest additional computational cost.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jie; Herbert, John M.
2015-07-01
A novel formulation of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is derived, based on non-orthogonal, absolutely-localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs). We call this approach TDDFT(MI), in reference to ALMO-based methods for describing molecular interactions (MI) that have been developed for ground-state applications. TDDFT(MI) is intended for efficient excited-state calculations in systems composed of multiple, weakly interacting chromophores. The efficiency is based upon (1) a local excitation approximation; (2) monomer-based, singly-excited basis states; (3) an efficient localization procedure; and (4) a one-step Davidson method to solve the TDDFT(MI) working equation. We apply this methodology to study molecular dimers, water clusters, solvated chromophores, and aggregates of naphthalene diimide that form the building blocks of self-assembling organic nanotubes. Absolute errors of 0.1-0.3 eV with respect to supersystem methods are achievable for these systems, especially for cases involving an excited chromophore that is weakly coupled to several explicit solvent molecules. Excited-state calculations in an aggregate of nine naphthalene diimide monomers are ˜40 times faster than traditional TDDFT calculations.
Kadlubanski, Pawel; Calderón-Mojica, Katherine; Rodriguez, Weyshla A; Majumdar, D; Roszak, Szczepan; Leszczynski, Jerzy
2013-08-22
Density functional and Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation (MP2) calculations have been carried out on various model cation-π complexes formed through the interactions of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and NH4(+) cations with benzene, p-methylphenol, and 3-methylindole. Partial hydration of the metal cations was also considered in these model studies to monitor the effect of hydration of cations in cation-π interactions. The binding energies of these complexes were computed from the fully optimized structures using coupled cluster calculations including triple excitations (CCSD(T)) and Gaussian-G4-MP2 (G4MP2) techniques. An analysis of the charge sharing between the donor (the π-systems) and the acceptors (the cations) together with the partitioning of total interaction energies revealed that the strong and weak cation-π interactions have similar electrostatic interaction properties. Further decomposition of such electrostatic terms into their multipolar components showed the importance of the charge-dipole, charge-quadrupole, and charge-octopole terms in shaping the electrostatic forces in such interactions. The computed vibrational spectra of the complexes were analyzed for the specific cation-π interaction modes and have been shown to contain the signature of higher order electrostatic interaction energy components (quadrupole and octopole) in such interactions. PMID:23895641
Visualizing an ultra-weak protein-protein interaction in phosphorylation signaling.
Xing, Qiong; Huang, Peng; Yang, Ju; Sun, Jian-Qiang; Gong, Zhou; Dong, Xu; Guo, Da-Chuan; Chen, Shao-Min; Yang, Yu-Hong; Wang, Yan; Yang, Ming-Hui; Yi, Ming; Ding, Yi-Ming; Liu, Mai-Li; Zhang, Wei-Ping; Tang, Chun
2014-10-20
Proteins interact with each other to fulfill their functions. The importance of weak protein-protein interactions has been increasingly recognized. However, owing to technical difficulties, ultra-weak interactions remain to be characterized. Phosphorylation can take place via a K(D)≈25 mM interaction between two bacterial enzymes. Using paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy and with the introduction of a novel Gd(III)-based probe, we determined the structure of the resulting complex to atomic resolution. The structure accounts for the mechanism of phosphoryl transfer between the two enzymes and demonstrates the physical basis for their ultra-weak interaction. Further, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that the complex has a lifetime in the micro- to millisecond regimen. Hence such interaction is termed a fleeting interaction. From mathematical modeling, we propose that an ultra-weak fleeting interaction enables rapid flux of phosphoryl signal, providing a high effective protein concentration.
Weak interaction rate Coulomb corrections in big bang nucleosynthesis
Smith, Christel J.; Fuller, George M.
2010-03-15
We have applied a fully relativistic Coulomb wave correction to the weak reactions in the full Kawano/Wagoner big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) code. We have also added the zero-temperature radiative correction. We find that using this higher accuracy Coulomb correction results in good agreement with previous work, giving only a modest {approx}0.04% increase in helium mass fraction over correction prescriptions applied previously in BBN calculations. We have calculated the effect of these corrections on other light element abundance yields in BBN, and we have studied these yields as functions of electron neutrino lepton number. This has allowed insights into the role of the weak neutron-proton interconversion processes in the setting of the neutron-to-proton ratio during the BBN epoch. We find that the lepton capture processes' contributions to this ratio are only second order in the Coulomb correction.
Left-right symmetry in weak interactions: present status
Senjanovic, G.
1983-01-01
The basic features of the left-right symmetric electroweak theory are reviewed. The experimental situation regarding the scale M/sub R/ of the breakdown of parity is summarized. I further discuss in detail the connection with weak and strong CP violation and especially, grand unification. Also covered are the issues of cosmological domain walls and the compositeness of quarks and leptons. 57 references.
Accurate first principles model potentials for intermolecular interactions.
Gordon, Mark S; Smith, Quentin A; Xu, Peng; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V
2013-01-01
The general effective fragment potential (EFP) method provides model potentials for any molecule that is derived from first principles, with no empirically fitted parameters. The EFP method has been interfaced with most currently used ab initio single-reference and multireference quantum mechanics (QM) methods, ranging from Hartree-Fock and coupled cluster theory to multireference perturbation theory. The most recent innovations in the EFP model have been to make the computationally expensive charge transfer term much more efficient and to interface the general EFP dispersion and exchange repulsion interactions with QM methods. Following a summary of the method and its implementation in generally available computer programs, these most recent new developments are discussed.
The FrPNC Experiment, weak interaction studies in Francium at TRIUMF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez, E.; Aubin, S.; Collister, R.; Behr, J. A.; Gwinner, G.; Orozco, L. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Tandecki, M.; Sheng, D.; Zhang, J.
2012-09-01
Francium is an excellent system to study the nuclear weak force due to its large nucleus and relatively simple atomic structure. The FrPNC experiment has a facility to produce cold trapped atomic francium samples for parity non-conservation studies. We are preparing to measure both the nuclear spin independent and dependent parts of the weak interaction in francium. The first one gives information about weak neutral currents at low energies, while the second one is sensitive to weak interactions between nucleons. We present the current status of the experiment.
Transition temperature of a weakly interacting Bose gas
Kao, Yee-Mou; Jiang, T. F.
2006-04-15
We report a theoretical study of the transition temperature of a trapped interacting dilute Bose gas. The system is treated like a two-fluid model consisting of a thermal component and a condensate component. Through the calculation of the energy spectra, the origins of various effects on the transition temperature are derived. We found that the interactive shift is affected by both the thermal component and the condensate component. The latter effect, which is about 34% of the former, has never been reported so far. With these two effects, our calculated interactive shift agrees very well with the recent measurement.
Weak interactions in the assembly of strongly chemisorbed molecules.
Goubert, Guillaume; Demers-Carpentier, Vincent; Masini, Federico; Dong, Yi; Lemay, J C; McBreen, P H
2011-08-28
The intermolecular structure of bimolecular complexes formed on Pt(111) at room temperature through CH···O interactions between 1-methylnaphthalene or 1-ethylnaphthalene and 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone is directed by the partial dehydrogenation of the alkyl groups. PMID:21735010
Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics
Carruthers, P.; Thews, R.L.
1990-08-29
This paper deals with research being conducted at the University of Arizona in the theory of strong and weak interactions. Topics in Quantum chromodynamics, quantum electrodynamics, symmetry principle, hadronic structure of the photon and other are discussed. (LSP)
Weak Interaction Measurements with Optically Trapped Radioactive Atoms
Vieira, D.J.; Crane, S.G.; Guckert, R.; Zhao, X.; Brice, S.J.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hime, A.; Tupa, D.
1999-07-16
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project is to apply the latest in magneto-optical and pure magnetic trapping technology to concentrate, cool, confine, and polarize radioactive atoms for precise electroweak interaction measurements. In particular, the authors have concentrated their efforts on the trapping of {sup 82}Rb for a parity-violating, beta-asymmetry measurement. Progress has been made in successfully trapping of up to 6 million {sup 82}Rb(t{sub 1/2}=75s) atoms in a magneto-optical trap coupled to a mass separator. This represents a two order of magnitude improvement in the number trapped radioactive atoms over all previous work. They have also measured the atomic hyperfine structure of {sup 82}Rb and demonstrated the MOT-to-MOT transfer and accumulation of atoms in a second trap. Finally, they have constructed and tested a time-orbiting-potential magnetic trap that will serve as a rotating beacon of spin-polarized nuclei and a beta-telescope detection system. Prototype experiments are now underway with the initial goal of making a 1% measurements of the beta-asymmetry parameter A which would match the world's best measurements.
Comparative study of weak interactions in molecular crystals: H-H bonds vs hydrogen bonds.
Wolstenholme, David J; Cameron, T Stanley
2006-07-20
The crystal structures of tetraphenylphosphonium squarate, bianthrone, and bis(benzophenone)azine are shown to contain a variety of C-H(delta+)...(delta+)H-C interactions, as well as a variety of C-H...O and C-H...C(pi) interactions. Each of these molecules possesses interactions that can possibly be characterized as either H-H bonds or weak hydrogen bonds based on the first four criteria proposed by Koch and Popelier. These interactions have been completely characterized topologically after the multipole refinement of the structures. It appears that weak interactions of the form C-H(delta+)...(delta+)H-C possess certain correlations between the various properties of the electron density at the bond critical points. The coexistence of the three types of interactions makes it possible to establish similarities and differences in the correlations of these weak interactions. This all leads to a better understanding of H-H interactions and how they fit into the hierarchy of weak interactions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yeh, Yu-Fang
2016-01-01
Animation is one of the useful contemporary educational technologies in teaching complex subjects. There is a growing interest in proper use of learner-technology interaction to promote learning quality for different groups of learner needs. The purpose of this study is to investigate if an interaction approach supports weak learners, who have…
Navier-Stokes simulations of blade-vortex interaction using high-order accurate upwind schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, Man Mohan
1987-01-01
Conventional, spatially second-order-accurate, finite-difference schemes are much too dissipative for calculations involving vortices that travel large distances (relative to some measure of the size of the vortex). This study presents a fifth-order-accurate upwind-biased scheme that preserves vortex structure for much longer times than existing second-order-accurate central and upwind difference schemes. Vortex calculations demonstrating this aspect of the fifth-order scheme are also presented. The method is then applied to the blade-vortex interaction problem. Results for strong interactions wherein the vortex impinges directly on the airfoil or a shock associated with the airfoil are presented. None of these calculations required any modeling of the shape, size, and trajectory of the interacting vortex.
Zhao, Xiaopeng Song, Kun
2014-10-15
Metamaterials are artificial media designed to control electromagnetic wave propagation. Due to resonance, most present-day metamaterials inevitably suffer from narrow bandwidth, extremely limiting their practical applications. On the basis of tailored properties, a metamaterial within which each distinct unit cell resonates at its inherent frequency and has almost no coupling effect with the other ones, termed as weak interaction system, can be formulated. The total response of a weak interaction system can be treated as an overlap of the single resonance spectrum of each type of different unit cells. This intriguing feature therefore makes it possible to accomplish multiband or broadband metamaterials in a simple way. By introducing defects into metamaterials to form a weak interaction system, multiband and broadband electromagnetic metamaterials have first been experimentally demonstrated by our group. The similar concept can also be readily extended to acoustic and seismic metamaterials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Xiaopeng; Song, Kun
2014-10-01
Metamaterials are artificial media designed to control electromagnetic wave propagation. Due to resonance, most present-day metamaterials inevitably suffer from narrow bandwidth, extremely limiting their practical applications. On the basis of tailored properties, a metamaterial within which each distinct unit cell resonates at its inherent frequency and has almost no coupling effect with the other ones, termed as weak interaction system, can be formulated. The total response of a weak interaction system can be treated as an overlap of the single resonance spectrum of each type of different unit cells. This intriguing feature therefore makes it possible to accomplish multiband or broadband metamaterials in a simple way. By introducing defects into metamaterials to form a weak interaction system, multiband and broadband electromagnetic metamaterials have first been experimentally demonstrated by our group. The similar concept can also be readily extended to acoustic and seismic metamaterials.
Insights into the Complexity of Weak Intermolecular Interactions Interfering in Host-Guest Systems.
Zhang, Dawei; Chatelet, Bastien; Serrano, Eloisa; Perraud, Olivier; Dutasta, Jean-Pierre; Robert, Vincent; Martinez, Alexandre
2015-10-01
The recognition properties of heteroditopic hemicryptophane hosts towards anions, cations, and neutral pairs, combining both cation-π and anion-π interaction sites, were investigated to probe the complexity of interfering weak intermolecular interactions. It is suggested from NMR experiments, and supported by CASSCF/CASPT2 calculations, that the binding constants of anions can be modulated by a factor of up to 100 by varying the fluorination sites on the electron-poor aromatic rings. Interestingly, this subtle chemical modification can also reverse the sign of cooperativity in ion-pair recognition. Wavefunction calculations highlight how short- and long-range interactions interfere in this recognition process, suggesting that a disruption of anion-π interactions can occur in the presence of a co-bound cation. Such molecules can be viewed as prototypes for examining complex processes controlled by the competition of weak interactions.
Probing the weak interaction of proteins with neutral and zwitterionic antifouling polymers.
Wu, Jiang; Zhao, Chao; Hu, Rundong; Lin, Weifeng; Wang, Qiuming; Zhao, Jun; Bilinovich, Stephanie M; Leeper, Thomas C; Li, Lingyan; Cheung, Harry M; Chen, Shengfu; Zheng, Jie
2014-02-01
Protein-polymer interactions are of great interest in a wide range of scientific and technological applications. Neutral poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (pSBMA) are two well-known nonfouling materials that exhibit strong surface resistance to proteins. However, it still remains unclear or unexplored how PEG and pSBMA interact with proteins in solution. In this work, we examine the interactions between two model proteins (bovine serum albumin and lysozyme) and two typical antifouling polymers of PEG and pSBMA in aqueous solution using fluorescence spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. The effect of protein:polymer mass ratios on the interactions is also examined. Collective data clearly demonstrate the existence of weak hydrophobic interactions between PEG and proteins, while there are no detectable interactions between pSBMA and proteins. The elimination of protein interaction with pSBMA could be due to an enhanced surface hydration of zwitterionic groups in pSBMA. New evidence is given to demonstrate the interactions between PEG and proteins, which are often neglected in the literature because the PEG-protein interactions are weak and reversible, as well as the structural change caused by hydrophobic interaction. This work provides a better fundamental understanding of the intrinsic structure-activity relationship of polymers underlying polymer-protein interactions, which are important for designing new biomaterials for biosensor, medical diagnostics and drug delivery applications. PMID:24120846
Interacting weak topological insulators and their transition to Dirac semimetal phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sangiovanni, Giorgio; Hanke, Werner; Li, Gang; Trauzettel, Bjoern
Topological insulators in the presence of strong Coulomb interaction constitute novel phases of matter. Transitions between these phases can be driven by single-particle or many-body effects. On the basis of ab-initio calculations, we identify a concrete material, i.e. Ca2PtO4, that turns out to be a hole-doped weak topological insulator. Interestingly, the Pt- d orbitals in this material are relevant for the band inversion that gives rise to the topological phase. Therefore, Coulomb interaction should be of importance in Ca2PtO4. To study the influence of interactions on the weak topological insulating phase, we look at a toy model corresponding to a layer-stacked 3D version of the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model with local interactions. For small to intermediate interaction strength, we discover novel interaction-driven topological phase transitions between the weak topological insulator and two Dirac semimetal phases. The latter correspond to gapless topological phases. For strong interactions, the system eventually becomes a Mott insulator. DFG Grant No. Ha 1537/23-1 within the Forschergruppe FOR 1162, SPP Grant Ha 1537/24-2, SFB 1170 ``ToCoTronics'', SPP 1666, the Helmholtz Foundation (VITI), the ``Elitenetzwerk Bayern'' (ENB graduate school on ``Topological insulators'').
Strong orbital interaction in a weak CH-π hydrogen bonding system.
Li, Jianfu; Zhang, Rui-Qin
2016-03-01
For the first time, the intermolecular orbital interaction between benzene and methane in the benzene-methane complex, a representative of weak interaction system, has been studied by us using ab initio calculations based on different methods and basis sets. Our results demonstrate obvious intermolecular orbital interaction between benzene and methane involving orbital overlaps including both occupied and unoccupied orbitals. Similar to interatomic orbital interaction, the intermolecular interaction of orbitals forms "bonding" and "antibonding" orbitals. In the interaction between occupied orbitals, the total energy of the complex increases because of the occupation of the antibonding orbital. The existence of the CH-π hydrogen bond between benzene and methane causes a decrease in rest energy level, leading to at least -1.51 kcal/mol intermolecular interaction energy. Our finding extends the concept of orbital interaction from the intramolecular to the intermolecular regime and gives a reliable explanation of the deep orbital reformation in the benzene-methane complex.
Interaction of a weak discontinuity with elementary waves of Riemann problema)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radha, R.; Sharma, V. D.
2012-01-01
We study the interaction of a weak discontinuity wave with the elementary waves of the Riemann problem for the one-dimensional Euler equations governing the flow of ideal polytropic gases, and investigate the effects of initial states, and the shock strength on the jumps in shock acceleration and the reflected and transmitted waves.
A weakly nonlinear theory for wave-vortex interactions in curved channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singer, Bart A.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Zang, Thomas A.
1992-01-01
A weakly nonlinear theory is developed to study the interaction of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves and Dean vortices in curved channel flow. The predictions obtained from the theory agree well with results obtained from direct numerical simulations of curved channel flow, especially for low amplitude disturbances. Some discrepancies in the results of a previous theory with direct numerical simulations are resolved.
Weakly Hydrated Surfaces and the Binding Interactions of Small Biological Solutes
Brady, J. W.; Tavagnacco, L.; Ehrlich, L.; Chen, M.; Schnupf, U.; Himmel, M. E.; Saboungi, M. L.; Cesaro, A.
2012-04-01
Extended planar hydrophobic surfaces, such as are found in the side chains of the amino acids histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, exhibit an affinity for the weakly hydrated faces of glucopyranose. In addition, molecular species such as these, including indole, caffeine, and imidazole, exhibit a weak tendency to pair together by hydrophobic stacking in aqueous solution. These interactions can be partially understood in terms of recent models for the hydration of extended hydrophobic faces and should provide insight into the architecture of sugar-binding sites in proteins.
Kim, Sung-Jo; Kim, Jong-Hyun
2014-04-21
We have investigated interactions of colloidal particles with weak homeotropic anchoring energy in homogeneous nematic liquid crystal cells. Particle-wall and inter-particle interactions were observed experimentally and analyzed using typical dipole-dipole and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions, including substrate effects as the image charges. Both experimental results matched well with the calculated results for the effective particle radius reflecting the weak anchoring. The effective radius is reduced by the amount of extrapolation length than the actual particle radius. The effective radii of polyethylene micro-particles were reduced to a coefficient ζ (0.78 ≥ ζ ≥ 0.52) times the actual radius with anchoring coefficients in the range of 3.8 × 10(-6) to 1.4 × 10(-6) J m(-2). The anchoring energy of the particles is, therefore, a key component for explaining liquid crystal colloidal systems.
Crowley, James D.; Steele, Ian M.; Bosnich, B.
2008-10-03
Molecular receptors consisting of two parallel-disposed terpy-M-Cl units (M = Pd{sup 2+}, Pt{sup 2+}) are used to form host-guest adducts with aromatic molecules and with neutral square-planar Pt{sup 2+} complexes. Host-guest formation is controlled by several factors including {pi}-{pi} interactions and, in some cases, weak Pt-Pt interactions between the host and the guest. This latter interaction was examined by comparing the host-guest stability of adducts formed by isoelectronic Pt{sup 2+} and Au{sup 3+} complexes with the Pt{sup 2+} receptor. Consistently, the former is more stable.
Real-time single-molecule coimmunoprecipitation of weak protein-protein interactions.
Lee, Hong-Won; Ryu, Ji Young; Yoo, Janghyun; Choi, Byungsan; Kim, Kipom; Yoon, Tae-Young
2013-10-01
Coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) analysis is a useful method for studying protein-protein interactions. It currently involves electrophoresis and western blotting, which are not optimized for detecting weak and transient interactions. In this protocol we describe an advanced version of co-IP analysis that uses real-time, single-molecule fluorescence imaging as its detection scheme. Bait proteins are pulled down onto the imaging plane of a total internal reflection (TIR) microscope. With unpurified cells or tissue extracts kept in reaction chambers, we observe single protein-protein interactions between the surface-immobilized bait and the fluorescent protein-labeled prey proteins in real time. Such direct recording provides an improvement of five orders of magnitude in the time resolution of co-IP analysis. With the single-molecule sensitivity and millisecond time resolution, which distinguish our method from other methods for measuring weak protein-protein interactions, it is possible to quantify the interaction kinetics and active fraction of native, unlabeled bait proteins. Real-time single-molecule co-IP analysis, which takes ∼4 h to complete from lysate preparation to kinetic analysis, provides a general avenue for revealing the rich kinetic picture of target protein-protein interactions, and it can be used, for example, to investigate the molecular lesions that drive individual cancers at the level of protein-protein interactions.
Accurate control of a Bose-Einstein condensate by managing the atomic interaction
Morales-Molina, L.; Arevalo, E.
2010-07-15
We exploit the variation of the atomic interaction in order to move ultracold atoms with attractive interaction across an ac-driven periodic lattice. By breaking relevant symmetries, a gathering of atoms is achieved. Accurate control of the gathered atoms' positions can be demonstrated via the control of the atomic localization process. The localization process is analyzed with the help of the nonlinear Floquet states where the Landau-Zener tunneling between states is observed and controlled. Transport effects in the presence of disorder are discussed.
The surprising influence of late charged current weak interactions on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grohs, E.; Fuller, George M.
2016-10-01
The weak interaction charged current processes (νe + n ↔ p +e-; νbare + p ↔ n +e+; n ↔ p +e- +νbare) interconvert neutrons and protons in the early universe and have significant influence on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) light-element abundance yields, particularly that for 4He. We demonstrate that the influence of these processes is still significant even when they operate well below temperatures T ∼ 0.7 MeV usually invoked for "weak freeze-out," and in fact down nearly into the alpha-particle formation epoch (T ≈ 0.1 MeV). This physics is correctly captured in commonly used BBN codes, though this late-time, low-temperature persistent effect of the isospin-changing weak processes, and the sensitivity of the associated rates to lepton energy distribution functions and blocking factors are not widely appreciated. We quantify this late-time influence by analyzing weak interaction rate dependence on the neutron lifetime, lepton energy distribution functions, entropy, the proton-neutron mass difference, and Hubble expansion rate. The effects we point out here render BBN a keen probe of any beyond-standard-model physics that alters lepton number/energy distributions, even subtly, in epochs of the early universe all the way down to near T = 100 keV.
Kinetic analysis of the weak affinity interaction between tris and lysozyme.
Kang, Tengfei; Hao, Wenxin; Niu, Yu; Luo, Ziren; Jin, Gang
2015-02-20
The biosensor based on total internal reflection imaging ellipsometry (TIRIE), regarded as an automotive real-time research approach for biomolecular interaction, is introduced to analyze the kinetic process of the weak interaction between tris and lysozyme. The experiment is performed by delivering lysozyme solution diluted to different concentrations to the biosensor substrate interface immobilized with tris. By applying pseudo-first-order interaction kinetics model, we are able to obtain the kinetic parameters from fitting experimental data. The calculated association rate constant and dissociation rate constant of tris and lysozyme interaction are in 10(-2) mol(-1) s(-1) and 10(3)s(-1) magnitude, respectively. To further improve TIRIE's ability for kinetically characterizing biomolecular interaction, a theoretical method to deduce associate rate constant before experiment is proposed.
Weak interactions from 1950-1960: a quantitative bibliometric study of the formation of a field
White, D.H.; Sullivan, D.
1986-01-01
A quantitative technique is illustrated which uses publication statistics from a bibliography of citations in the area of weak interactions to provide a view of trends and patterns in the development of the field during the period from 1950 to 1960. An overview is given of what the physicists working in weak interactions during this period were doing as indicated by an analysis of the subjects of their papers. The dominant problems and concerns are discussed. Focus is then turned to the events surrounding the emergence of the tau/theta particle puzzle, the discovery of parity nonconservation, and the resolution offered by the V-A theory. Displaying the data from the citation index in unusual ways highlights dominant issues of the period, especially the close relationship between theory and experiment in the latter half of the decade. 64 refs., 14 figs. (LEW)
Conceptual foundations of the unified theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions
Weinberg, S.
1980-12-12
The author discusses the development of two lines of thought in theoretical physics: the slow growth in the understanding of symmetry, and in particular, broken or hidden symmetry; and the struggle to come to terms with the infinities in quantum field theories. He briefly describes how the convergence of these lines of thought led to his work on the unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions, and suggests what role they may play in the physics of the future. 63 references.
Material interactions with the low earth orbital environment Accurate reaction rate measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Visentine, J. T.; Leger, L. J.
1985-01-01
Interactions between spacecraft surfaces and atomic oxygen within the low earth orbital (LEO) environment have been observed and measured during Space Shuttle flights over the past 3 yr. The results of these experiments have demonstrated that interaction rates for many materials proposed for spacecraft applications are high and that protective coatings must be developed to enable long-lived operation of spacecraft structures in the LEO environment. A flight experiment discussed herein uses the Space Shuttle as an orbiting exposure laboratory to obtain accurate reaction rate measurements for materials typically used in spacecraft construction. An ion-neutral mass spectrometer, installed in the Orbiter cargo bay, will measure diurnal ambient oxygen densities while material samples are exposed at low altitude (222 km) to the orbital environment. From in situ atomic oxygen density information and postflight material recession measurements, accurate reaction rates can be derived to update the Space Station materials interaction data base. Additionally, gases evolved from a limited number of material surfaces subjected to direct oxygen impingement will be identified using the mass spectrometer. These measurements will aid in mechanistic definitions of chemical reactions which cause atom-surface interactions and in validating results of upcoming degradation studies conducted in ground-based neutral beam laboratories.
Rice, Anne M; Mahling, Ryan; Fealey, Michael E; Rannikko, Anika; Dunleavy, Katie; Hendrickson, Troy; Lohese, K Jean; Kruggel, Spencer; Heiling, Hillary; Harren, Daniel; Sutton, R Bryan; Pastor, John; Hinderliter, Anne
2014-09-01
Eukaryotic lipids in a bilayer are dominated by weak cooperative interactions. These interactions impart highly dynamic and pliable properties to the membrane. C2 domain-containing proteins in the membrane also interact weakly and cooperatively giving rise to a high degree of conformational plasticity. We propose that this feature of weak energetics and plasticity shared by lipids and C2 domain-containing proteins enhance a cell's ability to transduce information across the membrane. We explored this hypothesis using information theory to assess the information storage capacity of model and mast cell membranes, as well as differential scanning calorimetry, carboxyfluorescein release assays, and tryptophan fluorescence to assess protein and membrane stability. The distribution of lipids in mast cell membranes encoded 5.6-5.8bits of information. More information resided in the acyl chains than the head groups and in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane than the outer leaflet. When the lipid composition and information content of model membranes were varied, the associated C2 domains underwent large changes in stability and denaturation profile. The C2 domain-containing proteins are therefore acutely sensitive to the composition and information content of their associated lipids. Together, these findings suggest that the maximum flow of signaling information through the membrane and into the cell is optimized by the cooperation of near-random distributions of membrane lipids and proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova.
Delocalization of Weakly Interacting Bosons in a 1D Quasiperiodic Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michal, V. P.; Altshuler, B. L.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.
2014-07-01
We consider weakly interacting bosons in a 1D quasiperiodic potential (Aubry-Azbel-Harper model) in the regime where all single-particle states are localized. We show that the interparticle interaction may lead to the many-body delocalization and we obtain the finite-temperature phase diagram. Counterintuitively, in a wide range of parameters the delocalization requires stronger coupling as the temperature increases. This means that the system of bosons can undergo a transition from a fluid to insulator (glass) state under heating.
Weak Interaction Models with New Quarks and Right-handed Currents
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Wilczek, F. A.; Zee, A.; Kingsley, R. L.; Treiman, S. B.
1975-06-01
We discuss various weak interaction issues for a general class of models within the SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory framework, with special emphasis on the effects of right-handed, charged currents and of quarks bearing new quantum numbers. In particular we consider the restrictions on model building which are imposed by the small KL - KS mass difference and by the .I = = rule; and we classify various possibilities for neutral current interactions and, in the case of heavy mesons with new quantum numbers, various possibilities for mixing effects analogous to KL - KS mixing.
Weak localization and electron-electron interactions in few layer black phosphorus devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Yanmeng; Gillgren, Nathaniel; Espiritu, Timothy; Tran, Son; Yang, Jiawei; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takahashi; Lau, Chun Ning
2016-09-01
Few layer phosphorene (FLP) devices are extensively studied due to their unique electronic properties and potential applications on nano-electronics. Here we present magnetotransport studies which reveal electron-electron interactions as the dominant scattering mechanism in hexagonal boron nitride-encapsulated FLP devices. From weak localization measurements, we estimate the electron dephasing length to be 30 to 100 nm at low temperatures, which exhibits a strong dependence on carrier density n and a power-law dependence on temperature (˜T -0.4). These results establish that the dominant scattering mechanism in FLP is electron-electron interactions.
Weak localization and electron–electron interactions in few layer black phosphorus devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Yanmeng; Gillgren, Nathaniel; Espiritu, Timothy; Tran, Son; Yang, Jiawei; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takahashi; Lau, Chun Ning
2016-09-01
Few layer phosphorene (FLP) devices are extensively studied due to their unique electronic properties and potential applications on nano-electronics. Here we present magnetotransport studies which reveal electron–electron interactions as the dominant scattering mechanism in hexagonal boron nitride-encapsulated FLP devices. From weak localization measurements, we estimate the electron dephasing length to be 30 to 100 nm at low temperatures, which exhibits a strong dependence on carrier density n and a power-law dependence on temperature (∼T ‑0.4). These results establish that the dominant scattering mechanism in FLP is electron–electron interactions.
Benchmark data base for accurate van der Waals interaction in inorganic fragments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brndiar, Jan; Stich, Ivan
2012-02-01
A range of inorganic materials, such as Sb, As, P, S, Se are built from van der Waals (vdW) interacting units forming the crystals, which neither the standard DFT GGA description as well as cheap quantum chemistry methods, such as MP2, do not describe correctly. We use this data base, for which have performed ultra accurate CCSD(T) calculations in complete basis set limit, to test the alternative approximate theories, such as Grimme [1], Langreth-Lundqvist [2], and Tkachenko-Scheffler [3]. While none of these theories gives entirely correct description, Grimme consistently provides more accurate results than Langreth-Lundqvist, which tend to overestimate the distances and underestimate the interaction energies for this set of systems. Contrary Tkachenko-Scheffler appear to yield surprisingly accurate and computationally cheap and convenient description applicable also for systems with appreciable charge transfer. [4pt] [1] S. Grimme, J. Comp. Chem. 27, 1787 (2006) [0pt] [2] K. Lee, et al., Phys. Rev. B 82 081101 (R) (2010) [0pt] [3] Tkachenko and M. Scheffler Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 073005 (2009).
Cation-π interactions: accurate intermolecular potential from symmetry-adapted perturbation theory.
Ansorg, Kay; Tafipolsky, Maxim; Engels, Bernd
2013-09-01
Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) is used to decompose the total intermolecular interaction energy between the ammonium cation and a benzene molecule into four physically motivated individual contributions: electrostatics, exchange, dispersion, and induction. Based on this rigorous decomposition, it is shown unambiguously that both the electrostatic and the induction energy components contribute almost equally to the attractive forces stabilizing the dimer with a nonnegligible contribution coming from the dispersion term. A polarizable potential model for the interaction of ammonium cation with benzene is parametrized by fitting these four energy components separately using the functional forms of the AMOEBA force field augmented with the missing charge penetration energy term calculated as a sum over pairwise electrostatic energies between spherical atoms. It is shown that the proposed model is able to produce accurate intermolecular interaction energies as compared to ab initio results, thus avoiding error compensation to a large extent.
Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I.
2014-01-14
This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads
Nap, R J; Tagliazucchi, M; Szleifer, I
2014-01-14
This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads
Strong orbital interaction in a weak CH-π hydrogen bonding system
Li, Jianfu; Zhang, Rui-Qin
2016-01-01
For the first time, the intermolecular orbital interaction between benzene and methane in the benzene-methane complex, a representative of weak interaction system, has been studied by us using ab initio calculations based on different methods and basis sets. Our results demonstrate obvious intermolecular orbital interaction between benzene and methane involving orbital overlaps including both occupied and unoccupied orbitals. Similar to interatomic orbital interaction, the intermolecular interaction of orbitals forms “bonding” and “antibonding” orbitals. In the interaction between occupied orbitals, the total energy of the complex increases because of the occupation of the antibonding orbital. The existence of the CH-π hydrogen bond between benzene and methane causes a decrease in rest energy level, leading to at least −1.51 kcal/mol intermolecular interaction energy. Our finding extends the concept of orbital interaction from the intramolecular to the intermolecular regime and gives a reliable explanation of the deep orbital reformation in the benzene-methane complex. PMID:26927609
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, Jens; d'Avezac, Mayeul; Hetherington, James; Stamatakis, Michail
2013-12-01
Ab initio kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations have been successfully applied for over two decades to elucidate the underlying physico-chemical phenomena on the surfaces of heterogeneous catalysts. These simulations necessitate detailed knowledge of the kinetics of elementary reactions constituting the reaction mechanism, and the energetics of the species participating in the chemistry. The information about the energetics is encoded in the formation energies of gas and surface-bound species, and the lateral interactions between adsorbates on the catalytic surface, which can be modeled at different levels of detail. The majority of previous works accounted for only pairwise-additive first nearest-neighbor interactions. More recently, cluster-expansion Hamiltonians incorporating long-range interactions and many-body terms have been used for detailed estimations of catalytic rate [C. Wu, D. J. Schmidt, C. Wolverton, and W. F. Schneider, J. Catal. 286, 88 (2012)]. In view of the increasing interest in accurate predictions of catalytic performance, there is a need for general-purpose KMC approaches incorporating detailed cluster expansion models for the adlayer energetics. We have addressed this need by building on the previously introduced graph-theoretical KMC framework, and we have developed Zacros, a FORTRAN2003 KMC package for simulating catalytic chemistries. To tackle the high computational cost in the presence of long-range interactions we introduce parallelization with OpenMP. We further benchmark our framework by simulating a KMC analogue of the NO oxidation system established by Schneider and co-workers [J. Catal. 286, 88 (2012)]. We show that taking into account only first nearest-neighbor interactions may lead to large errors in the prediction of the catalytic rate, whereas for accurate estimates thereof, one needs to include long-range terms in the cluster expansion.
Park, In Soo; Kwak, Tae Joon; Lee, Gyudo; Son, Myeonggu; Choi, Jeong Woo; Choi, Seungyeop; Nam, Kihwan; Lee, Sei-Young; Chang, Woo-Jin; Eom, Kilho; Yoon, Dae Sung; Lee, Sangyoup; Bashir, Rashid; Lee, Sang Woo
2016-04-26
The direct quantification of weak intermolecular binding interactions is very important for many applications in biology and medicine. Techniques that can be used to investigate such interactions under a controlled environment, while varying different parameters such as loading rate, pulling direction, rupture event measurements, and the use of different functionalized probes, are still lacking. Herein, we demonstrate a biaxial dielectrophoresis force spectroscopy (BDFS) method that can be used to investigate weak unbinding events in a high-throughput manner under controlled environments and by varying the pulling direction (i.e., transverse and/or vertical axes) as well as the loading rate. With the BDFS system, we can quantitatively analyze binding interactions related to hydrogen bonding or ionic attractions between functionalized microbeads and a surface within a microfluidic device. Our BDFS system allowed for the characterization of the number of bonds involved in an interaction, bond affinity, kinetic rates, and energy barrier heights and widths from different regimes of the energy landscape. PMID:27007455
Zhang, Ying; Xu, Xin; Goddard, William A.
2009-01-01
We develop and validate a density functional, XYG3, based on the adiabatic connection formalism and the Görling–Levy coupling-constant perturbation expansion to the second order (PT2). XYG3 is a doubly hybrid functional, containing 3 mixing parameters. It has a nonlocal orbital-dependent component in the exchange term (exact exchange) plus information about the unoccupied Kohn–Sham orbitals in the correlation part (PT2 double excitation). XYG3 is remarkably accurate for thermochemistry, reaction barrier heights, and nonbond interactions of main group molecules. In addition, the accuracy remains nearly constant with system size. PMID:19276116
Neuberg, S L
1989-03-01
Investigated the idea that impression formation goals may regulate the impact that perceiver expectancies have on social interactions. In simulated interviews, interviewers Ss were given a negative expectancy about one applicant S and no expectancy about another. Half the interviewers were encouraged to form accurate impressions; the others were not. As predicted, no-goal interviewers exhibited a postinteraction impression bias against the negative-expectancy applicants, whereas the accuracy-goal interviewers did not. Moreover, the ability of the accuracy goal to reduce this bias was apparently mediated by more extensive and less biased interviewer information-gathering, which in turn elicited an improvement in negative-expectancy applicants' performances. These findings stress the theoretical and practical importance of considering the motivational context within which expectancy-tinged social interactions occur.
Neuberg, S L
1989-03-01
Investigated the idea that impression formation goals may regulate the impact that perceiver expectancies have on social interactions. In simulated interviews, interviewers Ss were given a negative expectancy about one applicant S and no expectancy about another. Half the interviewers were encouraged to form accurate impressions; the others were not. As predicted, no-goal interviewers exhibited a postinteraction impression bias against the negative-expectancy applicants, whereas the accuracy-goal interviewers did not. Moreover, the ability of the accuracy goal to reduce this bias was apparently mediated by more extensive and less biased interviewer information-gathering, which in turn elicited an improvement in negative-expectancy applicants' performances. These findings stress the theoretical and practical importance of considering the motivational context within which expectancy-tinged social interactions occur. PMID:2926635
Global Weak Solutions for Kolmogorov-Vicsek Type Equations with Orientational Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamba, Irene M.; Kang, Moon-Jin
2016-10-01
We study the global existence and uniqueness of weak solutions to kinetic Kolmogorov-Vicsek models that can be considered as non-local, non-linear, Fokker-Planck type equations describing the dynamics of individuals with orientational interactions. This model is derived from the discrete Couzin-Vicsek algorithm as mean-field limit (Bolley et al., Appl Math Lett, 25:339-343, 2012; Degond et al., Math Models Methods Appl Sci 18:1193-1215, 2008), which governs the interactions of stochastic agents moving with a velocity of constant magnitude, that is, the corresponding velocity space for these types of Kolmogorov-Vicsek models is the unit sphere. Our analysis for L p estimates and compactness properties take advantage of the orientational interaction property, meaning that the velocity space is a compact manifold.
Schwartz, D.J.
1995-07-01
NMR spectroscopy is ideal for studying weak interactions (formation enthalpy {le}20 kcal/mol) in solution. The metallocene bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)ytterbium, Cp*{sub 2}Yb, is ideal for this purpose. cis-P{sub 2}PtH{sub 2}complexes (P = phosphine) were used to produce slow-exchange Cp*{sub 2}YbL adducts for NMR study. Reversible formation of (P{sub 2}PtH){sub 2} complexes from cis-P{sub 2}PtH{sub 2} complexes were also studied, followed by interactions of Cp*{sub 2}Yb with phosphines, R{sub 3}PX complexes. A NMR study was done on the interactions of Cp*{sub 2}Yb with H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, Xe, CO, silanes, stannanes, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, and toluene.
Consistent role of weak and strong interactions in high- and low-diversity trophic food webs.
Gellner, Gabriel; McCann, Kevin S
2016-01-01
The growing realization of a looming biodiversity crisis has inspired considerable progress in the quest to link biodiversity, structure and ecosystem function. Here we construct a method that bridges low- and high-diversity approaches to food web theory by elucidating the connection between the stability of the basic building block of food webs and the mean stability properties of large random food web networks. Applying this theoretical framework to common food web models reveals two key findings. First, in almost all cases, high-diversity food web models yield a stability relationship between weak and strong interactions that are compatible in every way to simple low-diversity models. And second, the models that generate the recently discovered phenomena of being purely stabilized by increasing interaction strength correspond to the biologically implausible assumption of perfect interaction strength symmetry. PMID:27068000
Consistent role of weak and strong interactions in high- and low-diversity trophic food webs.
Gellner, Gabriel; McCann, Kevin S
2016-01-01
The growing realization of a looming biodiversity crisis has inspired considerable progress in the quest to link biodiversity, structure and ecosystem function. Here we construct a method that bridges low- and high-diversity approaches to food web theory by elucidating the connection between the stability of the basic building block of food webs and the mean stability properties of large random food web networks. Applying this theoretical framework to common food web models reveals two key findings. First, in almost all cases, high-diversity food web models yield a stability relationship between weak and strong interactions that are compatible in every way to simple low-diversity models. And second, the models that generate the recently discovered phenomena of being purely stabilized by increasing interaction strength correspond to the biologically implausible assumption of perfect interaction strength symmetry.
Consistent role of weak and strong interactions in high- and low-diversity trophic food webs
Gellner, Gabriel; McCann, Kevin S.
2016-01-01
The growing realization of a looming biodiversity crisis has inspired considerable progress in the quest to link biodiversity, structure and ecosystem function. Here we construct a method that bridges low- and high-diversity approaches to food web theory by elucidating the connection between the stability of the basic building block of food webs and the mean stability properties of large random food web networks. Applying this theoretical framework to common food web models reveals two key findings. First, in almost all cases, high-diversity food web models yield a stability relationship between weak and strong interactions that are compatible in every way to simple low-diversity models. And second, the models that generate the recently discovered phenomena of being purely stabilized by increasing interaction strength correspond to the biologically implausible assumption of perfect interaction strength symmetry. PMID:27068000
Extensions and applications of the A24 data set of accurate interaction energies.
Řezáč, Jan; Dubecký, Matúš; Jurečka, Petr; Hobza, Pavel
2015-07-15
The A24 data set (Řezáč and Hobza, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 2151-2155) is a set of noncovalent complexes large enough to showcase various types of interactions yet small enough to make highly accurate calculations possible. It is intended for the testing of accurate computational methods which are then used as a benchmark in larger model systems. In this work, we improve the best estimate of the interaction energies in the set by updating their CCSD(T)/CBS and CCSDT(Q) components with calculations in larger basis sets. The data set is then used to test a large number of composite CCSD(T) approaches. Special attention is paid to the use of the explicitly correlated MP2-F12 method in these composite calculations. It is shown that an accuracy of 1-2% can be achieved with setups applicable to larger molecules. The effect of frozen natural orbital approximation on the accuracy of composite CCSD(T)/CBS calculations is also quantified. In four trivially saturated complexes where CCSDT(Q)/CBS data are now available, the convergence of the many-body correlation effects is assessed by fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo (FN-DMC) calculations. A good agreement is achieved between FN-DMC and high-level coupled-cluster which represents an important cross-check of both approaches.
Revealing equilibrium and rate constants of weak and fast noncovalent interactions.
Mironov, Gleb G; Okhonin, Victor; Gorelsky, Serge I; Berezovski, Maxim V
2011-03-15
Rate and equilibrium constants of weak noncovalent molecular interactions are extremely difficult to measure. Here, we introduced a homogeneous approach called equilibrium capillary electrophoresis of equilibrium mixtures (ECEEM) to determine k(on), k(off), and K(d) of weak (K(d) > 1 μM) and fast kinetics (relaxation time, τ < 0.1 s) in quasi-equilibrium for multiple unlabeled ligands simultaneously in one microreactor. Conceptually, an equilibrium mixture (EM) of a ligand (L), target (T), and a complex (C) is prepared. The mixture is introduced into the beginning of a capillary reactor with aspect ratio >1000 filled with T. Afterward, differential mobility of L, T, and C along the reactor is induced by an electric field. The combination of differential mobility of reactants and their interactions leads to a change of the EM peak shape. This change is a function of rate constants, so the rate and equilibrium constants can be directly determined from the analysis of the EM peak shape (width and symmetry) and propagation pattern along the reactor. We proved experimentally the use of ECEEM for multiplex determination of kinetic parameters describing weak (3 mM > K(d) > 80 μM) and fast (0.25 s ≥ τ ≥ 0.9 ms) noncovalent interactions between four small molecule drugs (ibuprofen, S-flurbiprofen, salicylic acid and phenylbutazone) and α- and β-cyclodextrins. The affinity of the drugs was significantly higher for β-cyclodextrin than α-cyclodextrin and mostly determined by the rate constant of complex formation.
Concluding remarks and outlook: Europhysics conference on flavor-mixing in weak interactions
Chau, L.L.
1984-01-01
Some comments are offered on the present knowledge of the mixing matrix of Kobayashi and Maskawa and of the dynamics of nonleptonic decay. Also, remarks are made concerning CP violation. Plans for research from 1984 to 1989 are listed briefly. The history of studies on weak interactions is briefly reviewed, and several unanswered questions are stated, such as where are the truth particles, how may they be discovered, what is the mass-generating mechanism for the gauge bosons, how many Z/sup 0/'s and W's are there, do neutrinos have mass, and how long do protons live. (LEW)
Spin-orbit coupled weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in harmonic traps.
Hu, Hui; Ramachandhran, B; Pu, Han; Liu, Xia-Ji
2012-01-01
We investigate theoretically the phase diagram of a spin-orbit coupled Bose gas in two-dimensional harmonic traps. We show that at strong spin-orbit coupling the single-particle spectrum decomposes into different manifolds separated by ℏω{⊥}, where ω{⊥} is the trapping frequency. For a weakly interacting gas, quantum states with Skyrmion lattice patterns emerge spontaneously and preserve either parity symmetry or combined parity-time-reversal symmetry. These phases can be readily observed in a spin-orbit coupled gas of ^{87}Rb atoms in a highly oblate trap. PMID:22304247
Weakly Stable Regions and Protein-Protein Interactions in Beta-Barrel Membrane Proteins
Naveed, Hammad; Liang, Jie
2014-01-01
We briefly discuss recent progress in computational characterization of the sequence and structural properties of β-barrel membrane properties. We discuss the emerging concept of weakly stable regions in β-barrel membrane proteins, computational methods to identify these regions and mechanisms adopted by β-barrel membrane proteins in nature to stabilize them. We further discuss computational methods to identify protein-protein interactions in β-barrel membrane proteins and recent experimental studies that aim at altering the biophysical properties including oligomerization state and stability of β-barrel membrane proteins based on the emerging organization principles of these proteins from recent computational studies. PMID:23713778
Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles with SuperCDMS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Beaty, J.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cherry, M.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; DeVaney, D.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Silva, E. Do Couto E.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Hansen, S.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hines, B. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kenany, S.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Nelson, R. H.; Novak, L.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Platt, M.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Resch, R. W.; Ricci, Y.; Ruschman, M.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schmitt, R. L.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Seitz, D. N.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Tomada, A.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.; SuperCDMS Collaboration
2014-06-01
We report a first search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) using the background rejection capabilities of SuperCDMS. An exposure of 577 kg days was analyzed for WIMPs with mass <30 GeV/c2, with the signal region blinded. Eleven events were observed after unblinding. We set an upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section of 1.2×10-42 cm2 at 8 GeV /c2. This result is in tension with WIMP interpretations of recent experiments and probes new parameter space for WIMP-nucleon scattering for WIMP masses <6 GeV /c2.
Crossover from 2D to 3D in a Weakly Interacting Fermi Gas
Dyke, P.; Kuhnle, E. D.; Hu, H.; Mark, M.; Hoinka, S.; Lingham, M.; Hannaford, P.; Vale, C. J.; Whitlock, S.
2011-03-11
We have studied the transition from two to three dimensions in a low temperature weakly interacting {sup 6}Li Fermi gas. Below a critical atom number N{sub 2D} only the lowest transverse vibrational state of a highly anisotropic oblate trapping potential is occupied and the gas is two dimensional. Above N{sub 2D} the Fermi gas enters the quasi-2D regime where shell structure associated with the filling of individual transverse oscillator states is apparent. This dimensional crossover is demonstrated through measurements of the cloud size and aspect ratio versus atom number.
Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles with SuperCDMS
Agnese, R.; Anderson, Alan J.; Asai, M.; balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Beaty, John; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cherry, M.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; DeVaney, D.; DeStefano, PC F.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Hansen, S.; Harris, Harold R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hines, B. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kenany, S.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, M.; Moffatt, R. A.; Nelson, R. H.; Novak, L.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Platt, M.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Resch, R. W.; Ricci, Y.; Ruschman, M.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schmitt, R.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, A.; Seitz, D.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Tomada, A.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.
2014-06-01
We report a first search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) using the background rejection capabilities of SuperCDMS. An exposure of 577 kg-days was analyzed for WIMPs with mass < 30 GeV/c2, with the signal region blinded. Eleven events were observed after unblinding. We set an upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section of 1:2 10-42cm2 at 8 GeV/c2. This result is in tension with WIMP interpretations of recent experiments and probes new parameter space for WIMP-nucleon scattering for WIMP masses < 6 GeV/c2.
Interaction of impurity ions with a weakly non-Maxwellian simple hydrogenic plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terry, William K.
1990-08-01
The average acceleration of an ensemble of ``test particles'' in a plasma is called the ``dynamical friction''; the average rate at which their velocity vectors spread out in velocity space is expressed in a velocity-space diffusion-rate tensor. These quantities have been derived for impurity ions interacting with a weakly non-Maxwellian simple hydrogenic plasma. The derivation is sketched briefly in this Brief Communication; for details, the reader is referred to a supplementary report (see NTIS Document No. DE88017137).
Efficient Biexciton Interaction in Perovskite Quantum Dots Under Weak and Strong Confinement.
Castañeda, Juan A; Nagamine, Gabriel; Yassitepe, Emre; Bonato, Luiz G; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Nogueira, Ana F; Sargent, Edward H; Cruz, Carlos H Brito; Padilha, Lazaro A
2016-09-27
Cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) have emerged as a promising new platform for lighting applications. However, to date, light emitting diodes (LED) based on these materials exhibit limited efficiencies. One hypothesized limiting factor is fast nonradiative multiexciton Auger recombination. Using ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, we investigate multicarrier interaction and recombination mechanisms in cesium lead halide PQDs. By mapping the dependence of the biexciton Auger lifetime and the biexciton binding energy on nanomaterial size and composition, we find unusually strong Coulomb interactions among multiexcitons in PQDs. This results in weakly emissive biexcitons and trions, and accounts for low light emission efficiencies. We observe that, for strong confinement, the biexciton lifetime depends linearly on the PQD volume. This dependence becomes sublinear in the weak confinement regime as the PQD size increases beyond the Bohr radius. We demonstrate that Auger recombination is faster in PQDs compared to CdSe nanoparticles having the same volume, suggesting a stronger Coulombic interaction in the PQDs. We confirm this by demonstrating an increased biexciton binding energy, which reaches a maximum of about 100 meV, fully three times larger than in CdSe quantum dots. The biexciton shift can lead to low-threshold optical gain in these materials. These findings also suggest that materials engineering to reduce Coulombic interaction in cesium lead halide PQDs could improve prospects for high efficiency optoelectronic devices. Core-shell structures, in particular type-II nanostructures, which are known to reduce the bandedge Coulomb interaction in CdSe/CdS, could beneficially be applied to PQDs with the goal of increasing their potential in lighting applications.
Efficient Biexciton Interaction in Perovskite Quantum Dots Under Weak and Strong Confinement.
Castañeda, Juan A; Nagamine, Gabriel; Yassitepe, Emre; Bonato, Luiz G; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Nogueira, Ana F; Sargent, Edward H; Cruz, Carlos H Brito; Padilha, Lazaro A
2016-09-27
Cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) have emerged as a promising new platform for lighting applications. However, to date, light emitting diodes (LED) based on these materials exhibit limited efficiencies. One hypothesized limiting factor is fast nonradiative multiexciton Auger recombination. Using ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, we investigate multicarrier interaction and recombination mechanisms in cesium lead halide PQDs. By mapping the dependence of the biexciton Auger lifetime and the biexciton binding energy on nanomaterial size and composition, we find unusually strong Coulomb interactions among multiexcitons in PQDs. This results in weakly emissive biexcitons and trions, and accounts for low light emission efficiencies. We observe that, for strong confinement, the biexciton lifetime depends linearly on the PQD volume. This dependence becomes sublinear in the weak confinement regime as the PQD size increases beyond the Bohr radius. We demonstrate that Auger recombination is faster in PQDs compared to CdSe nanoparticles having the same volume, suggesting a stronger Coulombic interaction in the PQDs. We confirm this by demonstrating an increased biexciton binding energy, which reaches a maximum of about 100 meV, fully three times larger than in CdSe quantum dots. The biexciton shift can lead to low-threshold optical gain in these materials. These findings also suggest that materials engineering to reduce Coulombic interaction in cesium lead halide PQDs could improve prospects for high efficiency optoelectronic devices. Core-shell structures, in particular type-II nanostructures, which are known to reduce the bandedge Coulomb interaction in CdSe/CdS, could beneficially be applied to PQDs with the goal of increasing their potential in lighting applications. PMID:27574807
Wang, Zhijie; Fan, Hong; Han, Fang
2014-08-01
A great number of biological experiments show that gamma oscillation occurs in many brain areas after the presentation of stimulus. The neural systems in these brain areas are highly heterogeneous. Specifically, the neurons and synapses in these neural systems are diversified; the external inputs and parameters of these neurons and synapses are heterogeneous. How the gamma oscillation generated in such highly heterogeneous networks remains a challenging problem. Aiming at this problem, a highly heterogeneous complex network model that takes account of many aspects of real neural circuits was constructed. The network model consists of excitatory neurons and fast spiking interneurons, has three types of synapses (GABAA, AMPA, and NMDA), and has highly heterogeneous external drive currents. We found a new regime for robust gamma oscillation, i.e. the oscillation in inhibitory neurons is rather accurate but the oscillation in excitatory neurons is weak, in such highly heterogeneous neural networks. We also found that the mechanism of the oscillation is a mixture of interneuron gamma (ING) and pyramidal-interneuron gamma (PING). We explained the mixture ING and PING mechanism in a consistent-way by a compound post-synaptic current, which has a slowly rising-excitatory stage and a sharp decreasing-inhibitory stage.
Ren, Jing; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian E-mail: xianyuzhongzhi@gmail.com
2014-06-01
We study gravitational interaction of Higgs boson through the unique dimension-4 operator ξH{sup †}HR, with H the Higgs doublet and R the Ricci scalar curvature. We analyze the effect of this dimensionless nonminimal coupling ξ on weak gauge boson scattering in both Jordan and Einstein frames. We explicitly establish the longitudinal-Goldstone equivalence theorem with nonzero ξ coupling in both frames, and analyze the unitarity constraints. We study the ξ-induced weak boson scattering cross sections at O(1−30) TeV scales, and propose to probe the Higgs-gravity coupling via weak boson scattering experiments at the LHC (14 TeV) and the next generation pp colliders (50-100 TeV). We further extend our study to Higgs inflation, and quantitatively derive the perturbative unitarity bounds via coupled channel analysis, under large field background at the inflation scale. We analyze the unitarity constraints on the parameter space in both the conventional Higgs inflation and the improved models in light of the recent BICEP2 data.
Connolly, Brian D.; Petry, Chris; Yadav, Sandeep; Demeule, Barthélemy; Ciaccio, Natalie; Moore, Jamie M.R.; Shire, Steven J.; Gokarn, Yatin R.
2012-01-01
Weak protein-protein interactions are thought to modulate the viscoelastic properties of concentrated antibody solutions. Predicting the viscoelastic behavior of concentrated antibodies from their dilute solution behavior is of significant interest and remains a challenge. Here, we show that the diffusion interaction parameter (kD), a component of the osmotic second virial coefficient (B2) that is amenable to high-throughput measurement in dilute solutions, correlates well with the viscosity of concentrated monoclonal antibody (mAb) solutions. We measured the kD of 29 different mAbs (IgG1 and IgG4) in four different solvent conditions (low and high ion normality) and found a linear dependence between kD and the exponential coefficient that describes the viscosity concentration profiles (|R| ≥ 0.9). Through experimentally measured effective charge measurements, under low ion normality where the electroviscous effect can dominate, we show that the mAb solution viscosity is poorly correlated with the mAb net charge (|R| ≤ 0.6). With this large data set, our results provide compelling evidence in support of weak intermolecular interactions, in contrast to the notion that the electroviscous effect is important in governing the viscoelastic behavior of concentrated mAb solutions. Our approach is particularly applicable as a screening tool for selecting mAbs with desirable viscosity properties early during lead candidate selection. PMID:22828333
Weak inter-actions in the crystal structures of two indole derivatives.
Kerr, Jamie R; Trembleau, Laurent; Storey, John M D; Wardell, James L; Harrison, William T A
2016-07-01
We describe the syntheses and crystal structures of two indole derivatives, namely a second monoclinic polymorph of ethyl 5-chloro-1H-indole-2-carboxyl-ate C11H10ClNO2, (I), and ethyl 5-chloro-3-iodo-1H-indole-2-carboxyl-ate, C11H9ClINO2, (II). In their crystal structures, both compounds form inversion dimers linked by pairs of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which generate R 2 (2)(10) loops. The dimers are linked into double chains in (I) and sheets in (II) by a variety of weak inter-actions, including π-π stacking, C-I⋯π, C-Cl-π inter-actions and I⋯Cl halogen bonds. PMID:27555941
Weakly interacting spinor Bose-Einstein condensates with three-dimensional spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu-Wei, Song; Rui, Sun; Hong, Zhao; Xuan, Wang; Bao-Zhong, Han
2016-04-01
Starting from the Hamiltonian of the second quantization form, the weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate with spin-orbit coupling of Weyl type is investigated. It is found that the SU(2) nonsymmetric term, i.e., the spin-dependent interaction, can lift the degeneracy of the ground states with respect to the z component of the total angular momentum J z , casting the ground condensate state into a configuration of zero J z . This ground state density profile can also be affirmed by minimizing the full Gross-Pitaevskii energy functional. The spin texture of the zero J z state indicates that it is a knot structure, whose fundamental group is π 3(M) ≅ π 3(S 2) = Z. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11447178).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chavda, Bhavin R.; Gandhi, Sahaj A.; Dubey, Rahul P.; Patel, Urmila H.; Barot, Vijay M.
2016-05-01
The novel chalcone derivatives have widespread applications in material science and medicinal industries. The density functional theory (DFT) is used to optimized the molecular structure of the three chalcone derivatives (M-I, II, III). The observed discrepancies between the theoretical and experimental (X-ray data) results attributed to different environments of the molecules, the experimental values are of the molecule in solid state there by subjected to the intermolecular forces, like non-bonded hydrogen bond interactions, where as isolated state in gas phase for theoretical studies. The lattice energy of all the molecules have been calculated using PIXELC module in Coulomb -London -Pauli (CLP) package and is partitioned into corresponding coulombic, polarization, dispersion and repulsion contributions. Lattice energy data confirm and strengthen the finding of the X-ray results that the weak but significant intermolecular interactions like C-H…O, Π- Π and C-H… Π plays an important role in the stabilization of crystal packing.
Schwarzmüller, Florian; Eisenhauer, Nico; Brose, Ulrich
2015-05-01
Human activities may compromise biodiversity if external stressors such as nutrient enrichment endanger overall network stability by inducing unstable dynamics. However, some ecosystems maintain relatively high diversity levels despite experiencing continuing disturbances. This indicates that some intrinsic properties prevent unstable dynamics and resulting extinctions. Identifying these 'ecosystem buffers' is crucial for our understanding of the stability of ecosystems and an important tool for environmental and conservation biologists. In this vein, weak interactions have been suggested as stabilizing elements of complex systems, but their relevance has rarely been tested experimentally. Here, using network and allometric theory, we present a novel concept for a priori identification of species that buffer against externally induced instability of increased population oscillations via weak interactions. We tested our model in a microcosm experiment using a soil food-web motif. Our results show that large-bodied species feeding at the food web's base, so called 'trophic whales', can buffer ecosystems against unstable dynamics induced by nutrient enrichment. Similar to the functionality of chemical or mechanical buffers, they serve as 'biotic buffers' that take up stressor effects and thus protect fragile systems from instability. We discuss trophic whales as common functional building blocks across ecosystems. Considering increasing stressor effects under anthropogenic global change, conservation of these network-intrinsic biotic buffers may help maintain the stability and diversity of natural ecosystems.
Schwarzmüller, Florian; Eisenhauer, Nico; Brose, Ulrich
2015-05-01
Human activities may compromise biodiversity if external stressors such as nutrient enrichment endanger overall network stability by inducing unstable dynamics. However, some ecosystems maintain relatively high diversity levels despite experiencing continuing disturbances. This indicates that some intrinsic properties prevent unstable dynamics and resulting extinctions. Identifying these 'ecosystem buffers' is crucial for our understanding of the stability of ecosystems and an important tool for environmental and conservation biologists. In this vein, weak interactions have been suggested as stabilizing elements of complex systems, but their relevance has rarely been tested experimentally. Here, using network and allometric theory, we present a novel concept for a priori identification of species that buffer against externally induced instability of increased population oscillations via weak interactions. We tested our model in a microcosm experiment using a soil food-web motif. Our results show that large-bodied species feeding at the food web's base, so called 'trophic whales', can buffer ecosystems against unstable dynamics induced by nutrient enrichment. Similar to the functionality of chemical or mechanical buffers, they serve as 'biotic buffers' that take up stressor effects and thus protect fragile systems from instability. We discuss trophic whales as common functional building blocks across ecosystems. Considering increasing stressor effects under anthropogenic global change, conservation of these network-intrinsic biotic buffers may help maintain the stability and diversity of natural ecosystems. PMID:25420573
Antiparallel Self-Association of a γ,α-Hybrid Peptide: More Relevance of Weak Interactions.
Venugopalan, Paloth; Kishore, Raghuvansh
2015-08-01
To learn how a preorganized peptide-based molecular template, together with diverse weak non-covalent interactions, leads to an effective self-association, we investigated the conformational characteristics of a simple γ,α-hybrid model peptide, Boc-γ-Abz-Gly-OMe. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the existence of a fully extended β-strand-like structure stabilized by two non-conventional C-H⋅⋅⋅O=C intramolecular H-bonds. The 2D (1) H NMR ROESY experiment led us to propose that the flat topology of the urethane-γ-Abz-amide moiety is predominantly preserved in a non-polar environment. The self-association of the energetically more favorable antiparallel β-strand-mimic in solid-state engenders an unusual 'flight of stairs' fabricated through face-to-face and edge-to-edge Ar⋅⋅⋅Ar interactions. In conjunction with FT-IR spectroscopic analysis in chloroform, we highlight that conformationally semi-rigid γ-Abz foldamer in appositely designed peptides may encourage unusual β-strand or β-sheet-like self-association and supramolecular organization stabilized via weak attractive forces.
Weak-interaction-mediated rates on iron isotopes for presupernova evolution of massive stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nabi, J.-Un
2009-05-01
During the presupernova evolution of massive stars, the isotopes of iron, 54, 55, 56Fe , are advocated to play a key role inside the cores primarily decreasing the electron-to-baryon ratio (Ye) mainly via electron capture processes thereby reducing the pressure support. Electron decay and positron capture on 55Fe , on the other hand, also have a consequential role in increasing the lepton ratio during the silicon burning phases of massive stars. The neutrinos and antineutrinos produced, as a result of these weak-interaction reactions, are transparent to the stellar matter and assist in cooling the core thereby reducing the entropy. The structure of the presupernova star is altered both by the changes in Ye and the entropy of the core material. The aim of this paper is to report the improved microscopic calculation of Gamow-Teller (GT±) strength distributions of these key isotopes of iron using the pn-QRPA theory. The main improvement comes from the incorporation of experimental deformation values for these nuclei. Additionally six different weak-interaction rates, namely electron and positron capture, electron and positron decay, and, neutrino and antineutrino cooling rates, were also calculated in presupernova matter. The calculated electron capture and neutrino cooling rates due to isotopes of iron are in good agreement with the large-scale shell model (LSSM) results. The calculated beta decay rates, however, are suppressed by three to five orders of magnitude.
A Role for Weak Electrostatic Interactions in Peripheral Membrane Protein Binding.
Khan, Hanif M; He, Tao; Fuglebakk, Edvin; Grauffel, Cédric; Yang, Boqian; Roberts, Mary F; Gershenson, Anne; Reuter, Nathalie
2016-03-29
Bacillus thuringiensis phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (BtPI-PLC) is a secreted virulence factor that binds specifically to phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers containing negatively charged phospholipids. BtPI-PLC carries a negative net charge and its interfacial binding site has no obvious cluster of basic residues. Continuum electrostatic calculations show that, as expected, nonspecific electrostatic interactions between BtPI-PLC and membranes vary as a function of the fraction of anionic lipids present in the bilayers. Yet they are strikingly weak, with a calculated ΔGel below 1 kcal/mol, largely due to a single lysine (K44). When K44 is mutated to alanine, the equilibrium dissociation constant for small unilamellar vesicles increases more than 50 times (∼2.4 kcal/mol), suggesting that interactions between K44 and lipids are not merely electrostatic. Comparisons of molecular-dynamics simulations performed using different lipid compositions reveal that the bilayer composition does not affect either hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic contacts between the protein interfacial binding site and bilayers. However, the occupancies of cation-π interactions between PC choline headgroups and protein tyrosines vary as a function of PC content. The overall contribution of basic residues to binding affinity is also context dependent and cannot be approximated by a rule-of-thumb value because these residues can contribute to both nonspecific electrostatic and short-range protein-lipid interactions. Additionally, statistics on the distribution of basic amino acids in a data set of membrane-binding domains reveal that weak electrostatics, as observed for BtPI-PLC, might be a less unusual mechanism for peripheral membrane binding than is generally thought. PMID:27028646
Formation of semi-dilute adhesion domains driven by weak elasticity-mediated interactions.
Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded
2016-08-21
Cell-cell adhesion is established by specific binding of receptor and ligand proteins anchored in the cell membranes. The adhesion bonds attract each other and often aggregate into large clusters that are central to many biological processes. One possible origin of attractive interactions between adhesion bonds is the elastic response of the membranes to their deformation by the bonds. Here, we analyze these elasticity-mediated interactions using a novel mean-field approach. Our analysis of systems at different densities of bonds, ϕ, reveals that the phase diagram, i.e., the binodal and spinodal lines, exhibit a nearly universal behavior when the temperature T is plotted against the scaled density x = ϕξ(2), where ξ is the linear size of the membrane's region affected by the presence of a single isolated bond. The critical point (ϕc , Tc) is located at very low densities, and slightly below Tc we identify phase coexistence between two low-density phases. Dense adhesion domains are observed only when the height by which the bonds deform the membranes, h0, is much larger than their thermal roughness, Δ, which occurs at very low temperatures T≪Tc. We, thus, conclude that the elasticity-mediated interactions are weak and cannot be regarded as responsible for the formation of dense adhesion domains. The weakness of the elasticity-mediated effect and its relevance to dilute systems only can be attributed to the fact that the membrane's elastic energy saturates in the semi-dilute regime, when the typical spacing between the bonds r≳ξ, i.e., for x≲ 1. Therefore, at higher densities, only the mixing entropy of the bonds (which always favors uniform distributions) is thermodynamically relevant. We discuss the implications of our results for the question of immunological synapse formation, and demonstrate that the elasticity-mediated interactions may be involved in the aggregation of these semi-dilute membrane domains. PMID:27426284
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, P. D. M.
1981-01-01
Violation of the equivalence principle by the weak interaction is tested. Any variation of the weak interaction coupling constant with gravitational potential, i.e., a spatial variation of the fundamental constants is investigated. The level of sensitivity required for such a measurement is estimated on the basis of the size of a change in the gravitational potential which is accessible. The alpha particle spectrum is analyzed, and the counting rate was improved by a factor of approximately 100.
Effects of the orbital self-interaction in both strongly and weakly correlated systems.
Tablero, C
2009-02-01
The orbital occupation, which is the centerpiece of both self-interaction and several metal-insulator transition analyses, as well as of the local density or generalized gradient approximation with a Hubbard term, is not well defined, in the sense that it is partially ambiguous. A general treatment can be applied to both strongly and weakly correlated systems. When it is applied to an intermediate- and partially filled band within of the host semiconductor gap whose width is less than the semiconductor gap, the original single band can either split as in a Mott transition or not. The former situation is usual and almost always generalized. However the latter also takes place and results from a dilution effect of the self-interaction where a large orbital correlation is reduced if there are other orbital contributions with lower self-interaction in the band. The key is in the choice of the subspace of correlated orbitals. This effect can neither be ignored nor discarded for those systems where there is a substantial mix of states. Examples of these behaviors will be presented and compared to other results. Moreover, the combination of different Hubbard terms acting on different atomic state subspaces can also be used to correct the spurious self-interaction of the bands and the gap underestimation. The relationship between these terms applied to different subspaces of correlated electrons will be presented. PMID:19206991
Keswani, Neelam; Choudhary, Sinjan; Kishore, Nand
2010-07-01
The thermodynamics of interaction of neomycin and lincomycin with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) has been studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), in combination with UV-visible, steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic measurements. Neomycin is observed to bind weakly to BSA and HSA whereas lincomycin did not show any evidence for binding with the native state of these proteins, rather it interacts in the presence of surfactants. The ITC results suggest 1 : 1 binding stoichiometry for neomycin in the studied temperature range. The values of the van't Hoff enthalpy do not agree with the calorimetric enthalpy in the case of neomycin, suggesting conformational changes in the protein upon ligand binding, as well as with the rise in the temperature. Experiments at different ionic strengths, and in the presence of tetrabutyl ammonium bromide and surfactants suggest the predominant involvement of electrostatic interactions in the complexation process of neomycin with BSA and HSA, and non-specific interaction behaviour of lincomycin with these proteins.
Energy level realignment in weakly interacting donor-acceptor binary molecular networks.
Zhong, Jian-Qiang; Qin, Xinming; Zhang, Jia-Lin; Kera, Satoshi; Ueno, Nobuo; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Yang, Jinlong; Chen, Wei
2014-02-25
Understanding the effect of intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions on molecular electronic states is key to revealing the energy level alignment mechanism at organic-organic heterojunctions or organic-inorganic interfaces. In this paper, we investigate the energy level alignment mechanism in weakly interacting donor-acceptor binary molecular superstructures, comprising copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F16CuPc) intermixed with copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), or manganese phthalocynine (MnPc) on graphite. The molecular electronic structures have been systematically studied by in situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (LT-STM/STS) experiments and corroborated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. As demonstrated by the UPS and LT-STM/STS measurements, the observed unusual energy level realignment (i.e., a large downward shift in donor HOMO level and a corresponding small upward shift in acceptor HOMO level) in the CuPc-F16CuPc binary superstructures originates from the balance between intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions. The enhanced intermolecular interactions through the hydrogen bonding between neighboring CuPc and F16CuPc can stabilize the binary superstructures and modify the local molecular electronic states. The obvious molecular energy level shift was explained by gap-state-mediated interfacial charge transfer. PMID:24433044
3D modeling of ultrasonic wave interaction with disbonds and weak bonds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leckey, C.; Hinders, M.
2012-05-01
Ultrasonic techniques, such as the use of guided waves, can be ideal for finding damage in the plate and pipe-like structures used in aerospace applications. However, the interaction of waves with real flaw types and geometries can lead to experimental signals that are difficult to interpret. 3-dimensional (3D) elastic wave simulations can be a powerful tool in understanding the complicated wave scattering involved in flaw detection and for optimizing experimental techniques. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate Lamb wave scattering from realistic flaws. This paper discusses simulation results for an aluminum-aluminum diffusion disbond and an aluminum-epoxy disbond and compares results from the disbond case to the common artificial flaw type of a flat-bottom hole. The paper also discusses the potential for extending the 3D EFIT equations to incorporate physics-based weak bond models for simulating wave scattering from weak adhesive bonds.
3D Modeling of Ultrasonic Wave Interaction with Disbonds and Weak Bonds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leckey, C.; Hinders, M.
2011-01-01
Ultrasonic techniques, such as the use of guided waves, can be ideal for finding damage in the plate and pipe-like structures used in aerospace applications. However, the interaction of waves with real flaw types and geometries can lead to experimental signals that are difficult to interpret. 3-dimensional (3D) elastic wave simulations can be a powerful tool in understanding the complicated wave scattering involved in flaw detection and for optimizing experimental techniques. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate Lamb wave scattering from realistic flaws. This paper discusses simulation results for an aluminum-aluminum diffusion disbond and an aluminum-epoxy disbond and compares results from the disbond case to the common artificial flaw type of a flat-bottom hole. The paper also discusses the potential for extending the 3D EFIT equations to incorporate physics-based weak bond models for simulating wave scattering from weak adhesive bonds.
Sterile neutrino dark matter: Weak interactions in the strong coupling epoch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venumadhav, Tejaswi; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Abazajian, Kevork N.; Hirata, Christopher M.
2016-08-01
We perform a detailed study of the weak interactions of standard model neutrinos with the primordial plasma and their effect on the resonant production of sterile neutrino dark matter. Motivated by issues in cosmological structure formation on small scales, and reported x-ray signals that could be due to sterile neutrino decay, we consider 7 keV-scale sterile neutrinos. Oscillation-driven production of such sterile neutrinos occurs at temperatures T ≳100 MeV , where we study two significant effects of weakly charged species in the primordial plasma: (1) the redistribution of an input lepton asymmetry; (2) the opacity for active neutrinos. We calculate the redistribution analytically above and below the quark-hadron transition, and match with lattice QCD calculations through the transition. We estimate opacities due to tree-level processes involving leptons and quarks above the quark-hadron transition, and the most important mesons below the transition. We report final sterile neutrino dark matter phase space densities that are significantly influenced by these effects, and yet relatively robust to remaining uncertainties in the nature of the quark-hadron transition. We also provide transfer functions for cosmological density fluctuations with cutoffs at k ≃10 h Mpc-1 , that are relevant to galactic structure formation.
FF domains of CA150 bind transcription and splicing factors through multiple weak interactions.
Smith, Matthew J; Kulkarni, Sarang; Pawson, Tony
2004-11-01
The human transcription factor CA150 modulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene transcription and contains numerous signaling elements, including six FF domains. Repeated FF domains are present in several transcription and splicing factors and can recognize phosphoserine motifs in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Using mass spectrometry, we identify a number of nuclear binding partners for the CA150 FF domains and demonstrate a direct interaction between CA150 and Tat-SF1, a protein involved in the coupling of splicing and transcription. CA150 FF domains recognize multiple sites within the Tat-SF1 protein conforming to the consensus motif (D/E)(2/5)-F/W/Y-(D/E)(2/5). Individual FF domains are capable of interacting with Tat-SF1 peptide ligands in an equivalent and noncooperative manner, with affinities ranging from 150 to 500 microM. Repeated FF domains therefore appear to bind their targets through multiple weak interactions with motifs comprised of negatively charged residues flanking aromatic amino acids. The RNAPII CTD represents a consensus FF domain-binding site, contingent on generation of the requisite negative charges by phosphorylation of serines 2 and 5. We propose that CA150, through the dual recognition of acidic motifs in proteins such as Tat-SF1 and the phosphorylated CTD, could mediate the recruitment of transcription and splicing factors to actively transcribing RNAPII.
Weak localization and electron-electron interactions in indium-doped ZnO nanowires.
Thompson, Richard S; Li, Dongdong; Witte, Christopher M; Lu, Jia G
2009-12-01
Single crystal ZnO nanowires doped with indium are synthesized via the laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition method. The conductivity of the nanowires is measured at low temperatures in magnetic fields with directions both perpendicular and parallel to the wire axes. A quantitative fit of our data is obtained, consistent with the theory of a quasi-one-dimensional metallic system with quantum corrections due to weak localization and electron-electron interactions. The anisotropy of the magneto-conductivity agrees with theory. The two quantum corrections are of approximately equal magnitude with respective temperature dependences of T(-1/3)and T(-1/2). The alternative model of quasi-two-dimensional surface conductivity is excluded by the absence of oscillations in the magneto-conductivity in parallel magnetic fields. PMID:19831413
Long, Mingsheng; Gong, Youpin; Wei, Xiangfei; Zhu, Chao; Xu, Jianbao; Liu, Ping; Guo, Yufen; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Liwei; Liu, Guangtong
2014-04-14
We fabricated a vertical structure device, in which graphene is sandwiched between two asymmetric ferromagnetic electrodes. The measurements of electron and spin transport were performed across the combined channels containing the vertical and horizontal components. The presence of electron-electron interaction (EEI) was found not only at low temperatures but also at moderate temperatures up to ∼120 K, and EEI dominates over weak localization (WL) with and without applying magnetic fields perpendicular to the sample plane. Moreover, spin valve effect was observed when magnetic filed is swept at the direction parallel to the sample surface. We attribute the EEI and WL surviving at a relatively high temperature to the effective suppress of phonon scattering in the vertical device structure. The findings open a way for studying quantum correlation at relatively high temperature.
Weakly Interacting Symmetric and Anti-Symmetric States in the Bilayer Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchewka, M.; Sheregii, E. M.; Tralle, I.; Tomaka, G.; Ploch, D.
We have studied the parallel magneto-transport in DQW-structures of two different potential shapes: quasi-rectangular and quasi-triangular. The quantum beats effect was observed in Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations for both types of the DQW structures in perpendicular magnetic filed arrangement. We developed a special scheme for the Landau levels energies calculation by means of which we carried out the necessary simulations of beating effect. In order to obtain the agreement between our experimental data and the results of simulations, we introduced two different quasi-Fermi levels which characterize symmetric and anti-symmetric states in DQWs. The existence of two different quasi Fermi-Levels simply means, that one can treat two sub-systems (charge carriers characterized by symmetric and anti-symmetric wave functions) as weakly interacting and having their own rate of establishing the equilibrium state.
Measurement of the parity nonconserving neutral weak interaction in atomic thallium
Bucksbaum, P.H.
1980-11-01
This thesis describes an experiment to measure parity nonconservation in atomic thallium. A frequency doubled, flashlamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to excite the 6P/sub 1/2/(F = 0) ..-->.. 7P/sub 1/2/(F = 1) transition at 292.7 nm, with circularly polarized light. An electrostatic field E of 100 to 300 V/cm causes this transition to occur via Stark induced electric dipole. Two field free transitions may also occur: a highly forbidden magnetic dipole M, and a parity nonconserving electric dipole epsilon/sub P/. The latter is presumed to be due to the presence of a weak neutral current interaction between the 6p valence electron and the nucleus, as predicted by gauge theories which unite the electromagnetic and weak interactions. Both M and epsilon/sub P/ interfere with the Stark amplitude ..beta..E to produce a polarization of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state. This is measured with a circularly polarized infrared laser beam probe, tuned to the 7P/sub 1/2/ ..-->.. 8S/sub 1/2/ transition. This selectively excites m/sub F/ = +1 or -1 components of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state, and the polarization is seen as an asymmetry in 8S ..-->.. 6P/sub 3/2/ fluorescence when the probe helicity is reversed. The polarization due to M is ..delta../sub M/ = -2M/(BETAE). It is used to calibrate the analyzing efficiency. The polarization due to epsilon/sub P/ is ..delta../sub P/ = 2i epsilon/sub P//(..beta..E), and can be distinguished from ..delta../sub M/ by its properties under reversal of the 292.7 nm photon helicity and reversal of the laser direction. A preliminary measurement yielded a parity violation in agreement with the gauge theory of Weinberg and Salam.
Weak interactions between water and clathrate-forming gases at low pressures
Thürmer, Konrad; Yuan, Chunqing; Kimmel, Greg A.; Kay, Bruce D.; Smith, R. Scott
2015-07-17
Using scanning probe microscopy and temperature programed desorption we examined the interaction between water and two common clathrate-forming gases, methane and isobutane, at low temperature and low pressure. Water co-deposited with up to 10–1 mbar methane or 10–5 mbar isobutane at 140 K onto a Pt(111) substrate yielded pure crystalline ice, i.e., the exposure to up to ~ 107 gas molecules for each deposited water molecule did not have any detectable effect on the growing films. Exposing metastable, less than 2 molecular layers thick, water films to 10–5 mbar methane does not alter their morphology, suggesting that the presence ofmore » the Pt(111) surface is not a strong driver for hydrate formation. This weak water–gas interaction at low pressures is supported by our thermal desorption measurements from amorphous solid water and crystalline ice where 1 ML of methane desorbs near ~ 43 K and isobutane desorbs near ~ 100 K. As a result, similar desorption temperatures were observed for desorption from amorphous solid water.« less
Weak interactions between water and clathrate-forming gases at low pressures
Thurmer, Konrad; Yuan, Chunqing; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Kay, Bruce D.; Smith, R. Scott
2015-11-01
Using scanning probe microscopy and temperature programed desorption we examined the interaction between water and two common clathrate-forming gases, methane and isobutane, at low temperature and low pressure. Water co-deposited with up to 10-1 mbar methane or 10-5 mbar isobutane at 140 K onto a Pt(111) substrate yielded pure crystalline ice, i.e., the exposure to up to ~107 gas molecules for each deposited water molecule did not have any detectable effect on the growing films. Exposing metastable, less than 2 molecular layers thick, water films to 10-5 mbar methane does not alter their morphology, suggesting that the presence of the Pt(111) surface is not a strong driver for hydrate formation. This weak water-gas interaction at low pressures is supported by our thermal desorption measurements from amorphous solid water and crystalline ice where 1 ML of methane desorbs near ~43 K and isobutane desorbs near ~100 K. Similar desorption temperatures were observed for desorption from amorphous solid water.
Interaction of a weak shock wave with a discontinuous heavy-gas cylinder
Wang, Xiansheng; Yang, Dangguo; Wu, Junqiang; Luo, Xisheng
2015-06-15
The interaction between a cylindrical inhomogeneity and a weak planar shock wave is investigated experimentally and numerically, and special attention is given to the wave patterns and vortex dynamics in this scenario. A soap-film technique is realized to generate a well-controlled discontinuous cylinder (SF{sub 6} surrounded by air) with no supports or wires in the shock-tube experiment. The symmetric evolving interfaces and few disturbance waves are observed in a high-speed schlieren photography. Numerical simulations are also carried out for a detailed analysis. The refracted shock wave inside the cylinder is perturbed by the diffracted shock waves and divided into three branches. When these shock branches collide, the shock focusing occurs. A nonlinear model is then proposed to elucidate effects of the wave patterns on the evolution of the cylinder. A distinct vortex pair is gradually developing during the shock-cylinder interaction. The numerical results show that a low pressure region appears at the vortex core. Subsequently, the ambient fluid is entrained into the vortices which are expanding at the same time. Based on the relation between the vortex motion and the circulation, several theoretical models of circulation in the literature are then checked by the experimental and numerical results. Most of these theoretical circulation models provide a reasonably good prediction of the vortex motion in the present configuration.
Interaction of a weak shock wave with a discontinuous heavy-gas cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiansheng; Yang, Dangguo; Wu, Junqiang; Luo, Xisheng
2015-06-01
The interaction between a cylindrical inhomogeneity and a weak planar shock wave is investigated experimentally and numerically, and special attention is given to the wave patterns and vortex dynamics in this scenario. A soap-film technique is realized to generate a well-controlled discontinuous cylinder (SF6 surrounded by air) with no supports or wires in the shock-tube experiment. The symmetric evolving interfaces and few disturbance waves are observed in a high-speed schlieren photography. Numerical simulations are also carried out for a detailed analysis. The refracted shock wave inside the cylinder is perturbed by the diffracted shock waves and divided into three branches. When these shock branches collide, the shock focusing occurs. A nonlinear model is then proposed to elucidate effects of the wave patterns on the evolution of the cylinder. A distinct vortex pair is gradually developing during the shock-cylinder interaction. The numerical results show that a low pressure region appears at the vortex core. Subsequently, the ambient fluid is entrained into the vortices which are expanding at the same time. Based on the relation between the vortex motion and the circulation, several theoretical models of circulation in the literature are then checked by the experimental and numerical results. Most of these theoretical circulation models provide a reasonably good prediction of the vortex motion in the present configuration.
Vertex renormalization of weak interactions and Cooper-pair breaking in cooling compact stars
Sedrakian, Armen; Muether, Herbert; Schuck, Peter
2007-11-15
Below the critical temperature of superfluid phase transition baryonic matter emits neutrinos by breaking and recombination of Cooper pairs formed in the condensate. The weak vector and axial-vector vertices and the neutrino loss rates via pair breaking are modified by strong interactions in nuclear medium. We study these modifications nonperturbatively by summing infinite series of particle-hole loops in S-wave superfluid neutron matter. The interactions in the particle-hole channel are described within the Landau Fermi-liquid framework with the Landau parameters derived from the microscopic theory. The S-wave superfluid is described within the BCS theory. We derive the renormalized three-point vector and axial-vector vertices and the complete polarization tensor of matter and its low momentum transfer expansion. The leading-order term in this expansion and the associated neutrino losses arise at O(q{sup 2}), consistent with the f-sum rule. The neutrino emission rate due to the pair breaking is parametrically suppressed compared to its one-loop counterpart by the ratio of the neutron recoil energy to the temperature, which is of order 5x10{sup -3}. The approximations to the normal and anomalous self-energies that guarantee the conformity of the theory with the generalized Ward identities are established.
Weak interactions between water and clathrate-forming gases at low pressures
Thürmer, Konrad; Yuan, Chunqing; Kimmel, Greg A.; Kay, Bruce D.; Smith, R. Scott
2015-07-17
Using scanning probe microscopy and temperature programed desorption we examined the interaction between water and two common clathrate-forming gases, methane and isobutane, at low temperature and low pressure. Water co-deposited with up to 10^{–1} mbar methane or 10^{–5} mbar isobutane at 140 K onto a Pt(111) substrate yielded pure crystalline ice, i.e., the exposure to up to ~ 10^{7} gas molecules for each deposited water molecule did not have any detectable effect on the growing films. Exposing metastable, less than 2 molecular layers thick, water films to 10^{–5} mbar methane does not alter their morphology, suggesting that the presence of the Pt(111) surface is not a strong driver for hydrate formation. This weak water–gas interaction at low pressures is supported by our thermal desorption measurements from amorphous solid water and crystalline ice where 1 ML of methane desorbs near ~ 43 K and isobutane desorbs near ~ 100 K. As a result, similar desorption temperatures were observed for desorption from amorphous solid water.
Interaction-driven strong topology on the boundary of a weak topological superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendler, Daniel; Kotetes, Panagiotis; Schön, Gerd
We focus on a class of topological superconductors (TSCs) which exhibit a bulk energy gap and support Majorana flat bands (MFBs) on the surface. In contrast to previous proposals relying on strong TSCs with nodal bandstructure, here MFBs are solely protected by a weak topological invariant reflecting a global or local strong anisotropy. In the present case interactions play a dual role, on one hand driving the spontaneous symmetry breaking to an anisotropic superconducting phase and on the other, gapping out the arising MFBs yielding a strong topological phase on the boundary. The prototype system showing this kind of behavior is the nematic pz-superconductor, which supports surface MFBs. While the interactions stabilize the pz-SC phase in the bulk and induce the MFBs, suppressed bulk p-wave pairing terms occur on the surface, thus lifting the MFB-degeneracy. A similar situation can take place if the nematic features are only local, a scenario which is realizable in a heterostructure consisting of a conventional superconductor in proximity to a topological insulator surface with intrinsic magnetic order.
Weak interactions between water and clathrate-forming gases at low pressures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thürmer, Konrad; Yuan, Chunqing; Kimmel, Greg A.; Kay, Bruce D.; Scott Smith, R.
2015-11-01
Using scanning probe microscopy and temperature programed desorption we examined the interaction between water and two common clathrate-forming gases, methane and isobutane, at low temperature and low pressure. Water co-deposited with up to 10- 1 mbar methane or 10- 5 mbar isobutane at 140 K onto a Pt(111) substrate yielded pure crystalline ice, i.e., the exposure to up to ~ 107 gas molecules for each deposited water molecule did not have any detectable effect on the growing films. Exposing metastable, less than 2 molecular layers thick, water films to 10- 5 mbar methane does not alter their morphology, suggesting that the presence of the Pt(111) surface is not a strong driver for hydrate formation. This weak water-gas interaction at low pressures is supported by our thermal desorption measurements from amorphous solid water and crystalline ice where 1 ML of methane desorbs near ~ 43 K and isobutane desorbs near ~ 100 K. Similar desorption temperatures were observed for desorption from amorphous solid water.
Tissue resonance interaction accurately detects colon lesions: A double-blind pilot study
Dore, Maria P; Tufano, Marcello O; Pes, Giovanni M; Cuccu, Marianna; Farina, Valentina; Manca, Alessandra; Graham, David Y
2015-01-01
AIM: To investigated the performance of the tissue resonance interaction method (TRIM) for the non-invasive detection of colon lesions. METHODS: We performed a prospective single-center blinded pilot study of consecutive adults undergoing colonoscopy at the University Hospital in Sassari, Italy. Before patients underwent colonoscopy, they were examined by the TRIMprobe which detects differences in electromagnetic properties between pathological and normal tissues. All patients had completed the polyethylene glycol-containing bowel prep for the colonoscopy procedure before being screened. During the procedure the subjects remained fully dressed. A hand-held probe was moved over the abdomen and variations in electromagnetic signals were recorded for 3 spectral lines (462-465 MHz, 930 MHz, and 1395 MHz). A single investigator, blind to any clinical information, performed the test using the TRIMprob system. Abnormal signals were identified and recorded as malignant or benign (adenoma or hyperplastic polyps). Findings were compared with those from colonoscopy with histologic confirmation. Statistical analysis was performed by χ2 test. RESULTS: A total of 305 consecutive patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled over a period of 12 months. The most frequent indication for colonoscopy was abdominal pain (33%). The TRIMprob was well accepted by all patients; none spontaneously complained about the procedure, and no adverse effects were observed. TRIM proved inaccurate for polyp detection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and they were excluded leaving 281 subjects (mean age 59 ± 13 years; 107 males). The TRIM detected and accurately characterized all 12 adenocarcinomas and 135/137 polyps (98.5%) including 64 adenomatous (100%) found. The method identified cancers and polyps with 98.7% sensitivity, 96.2% specificity, and 97.5% diagnostic accuracy, compared to colonoscopy and histology analyses. The positive predictive value was 96.7% and the
Weakly-interacting massive particles in non-supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagata, Natsumi; Olive, Keith A.; Zheng, Jiaming
2015-10-01
Non-supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified theories provide a framework in which the stability of dark matter is explained while gauge coupling unification is realized. In this work, we systematically study this possibility by classifying weakly interacting dark matter candidates in terms of their quantum numbers of SU(2) L ⊗ U(1) Y , B - L, and SU(2) R . We consider both scalar and fermion candidates. We show that the requirement of a sufficiently high unification scale to ensure a proton lifetime compatible with experimental constraints plays a strong role in selecting viable candidates. Among the scalar candidates originating from either a 16 or 144 of SO(10), only SU(2) L singlets with zero hypercharge or doublets with Y = 1 /2 satisfy all constraints for SU(4) C ⊗ SU(2) L ⊗ SU(2) R and SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) L ⊗ SU(2) R ⊗ U(1) B- L intermediate scale gauge groups. Among fermion triplets with zero hypercharge, only a triplet in the 45 with intermediate group SU(4) C ⊗ SU(2) L ⊗ SU(2) R leads to solutions with M GUT > M int and a long proton lifetime. We find three models with weak doublets and Y = 1 /2 as dark matter candidates for the SU(4) C ⊗ SU(2) L ⊗ SU(2) R and SU(4) C ⊗ SU(2) L ⊗ U(1) R intermediate scale gauge groups assuming a minimal Higgs content. We also discuss how these models may be tested at accelerators and in dark matter detection experiments.
Li, Zheng-Wei; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Gui, Jie; Nie, Ru
2016-01-01
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) occur at almost all levels of cell functions and play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Thus, identification of PPIs is critical for deciphering the molecular mechanisms and further providing insight into biological processes. Although a variety of high-throughput experimental techniques have been developed to identify PPIs, existing PPI pairs by experimental approaches only cover a small fraction of the whole PPI networks, and further, those approaches hold inherent disadvantages, such as being time-consuming, expensive, and having high false positive rate. Therefore, it is urgent and imperative to develop automatic in silico approaches to predict PPIs efficiently and accurately. In this article, we propose a novel mixture of physicochemical and evolutionary-based feature extraction method for predicting PPIs using our newly developed discriminative vector machine (DVM) classifier. The improvements of the proposed method mainly consist in introducing an effective feature extraction method that can capture discriminative features from the evolutionary-based information and physicochemical characteristics, and then a powerful and robust DVM classifier is employed. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that DVM model is applied to the field of bioinformatics. When applying the proposed method to the Yeast and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) datasets, we obtain excellent prediction accuracies of 94.35% and 90.61%, respectively. The computational results indicate that our method is effective and robust for predicting PPIs, and can be taken as a useful supplementary tool to the traditional experimental methods for future proteomics research. PMID:27571061
Li, Zheng-Wei; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Gui, Jie; Nie, Ru
2016-01-01
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) occur at almost all levels of cell functions and play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Thus, identification of PPIs is critical for deciphering the molecular mechanisms and further providing insight into biological processes. Although a variety of high-throughput experimental techniques have been developed to identify PPIs, existing PPI pairs by experimental approaches only cover a small fraction of the whole PPI networks, and further, those approaches hold inherent disadvantages, such as being time-consuming, expensive, and having high false positive rate. Therefore, it is urgent and imperative to develop automatic in silico approaches to predict PPIs efficiently and accurately. In this article, we propose a novel mixture of physicochemical and evolutionary-based feature extraction method for predicting PPIs using our newly developed discriminative vector machine (DVM) classifier. The improvements of the proposed method mainly consist in introducing an effective feature extraction method that can capture discriminative features from the evolutionary-based information and physicochemical characteristics, and then a powerful and robust DVM classifier is employed. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that DVM model is applied to the field of bioinformatics. When applying the proposed method to the Yeast and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) datasets, we obtain excellent prediction accuracies of 94.35% and 90.61%, respectively. The computational results indicate that our method is effective and robust for predicting PPIs, and can be taken as a useful supplementary tool to the traditional experimental methods for future proteomics research. PMID:27571061
Li, Zheng-Wei; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Gui, Jie; Nie, Ru
2016-01-01
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) occur at almost all levels of cell functions and play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Thus, identification of PPIs is critical for deciphering the molecular mechanisms and further providing insight into biological processes. Although a variety of high-throughput experimental techniques have been developed to identify PPIs, existing PPI pairs by experimental approaches only cover a small fraction of the whole PPI networks, and further, those approaches hold inherent disadvantages, such as being time-consuming, expensive, and having high false positive rate. Therefore, it is urgent and imperative to develop automatic in silico approaches to predict PPIs efficiently and accurately. In this article, we propose a novel mixture of physicochemical and evolutionary-based feature extraction method for predicting PPIs using our newly developed discriminative vector machine (DVM) classifier. The improvements of the proposed method mainly consist in introducing an effective feature extraction method that can capture discriminative features from the evolutionary-based information and physicochemical characteristics, and then a powerful and robust DVM classifier is employed. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that DVM model is applied to the field of bioinformatics. When applying the proposed method to the Yeast and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) datasets, we obtain excellent prediction accuracies of 94.35% and 90.61%, respectively. The computational results indicate that our method is effective and robust for predicting PPIs, and can be taken as a useful supplementary tool to the traditional experimental methods for future proteomics research.
A time-accurate adaptive grid method and the numerical simulation of a shock-vortex interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bockelie, Michael J.; Eiseman, Peter R.
1990-01-01
A time accurate, general purpose, adaptive grid method is developed that is suitable for multidimensional steady and unsteady numerical simulations. The grid point movement is performed in a manner that generates smooth grids which resolve the severe solution gradients and the sharp transitions in the solution gradients. The temporal coupling of the adaptive grid and the PDE solver is performed with a grid prediction correction method that is simple to implement and ensures the time accuracy of the grid. Time accurate solutions of the 2-D Euler equations for an unsteady shock vortex interaction demonstrate the ability of the adaptive method to accurately adapt the grid to multiple solution features.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhan, Shuyue; Shi, Chunfei; Ou, Huichao; Song, Hong; Wang, Xiaoping
2016-03-01
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing technology will likely become a type of label-free technology for transient and weak biomolecular interaction analysis (BIA); however, it needs some improvement with regard to high-speed and high-resolution measurement. We studied a type of real-time de-noising (RD) data processing method for SPR sensorgrams based on moving average; it can immediately distinguish ultra-weak signals during the process of experiment, and can display a low-noise sensorgram in real time. A flow injection analysis experiment and a CM5 sensorchip affinity experiment are designed to evaluate the characteristics of the RD method. High noise suppression ability and low signal distortion risks of the RD method have been proved. The RD method does not significantly distort signals of the sensorgram in the molecular affinity experiment, and K D values of the RD method essentially coincide with those of the raw sensorgram with a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Meanwhile, by the RD method denoising the sensorgram with an ultralow SNR that is closer to the condition of the transient and weak molecular interactions, the kinetic constant can be more accurately analyzed, whereas it cannot be realized for the raw sensorgram. The crucial function and significance of the RD method are primarily embodied in the measurement limit of SPR sensing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weis, Clara; Oelschlaeger, Claude; Dijkstra, Dick; Ranft, Meik; Willenbacher, Norbert
2016-09-01
We present a comprehensive micro- and macrorheological study of the effect of weak depletion attraction (Ψdep ≈ 1–10 kBT) on dense colloidal suspensions stabilized by short-range repulsive interactions. We used aqueous polymer dispersions as model system and demonstrated the unique capabilities of multiple particle tracking (MPT) to disclose structural changes in such technically important systems exhibiting many characteristic features of hard sphere systems. Below the hard sphere freezing point ϕc, viscosity increases monotonically with increasing Ψdep due to the transition from a fluid to a fluid/crystalline and finally to a gel state. Above ϕc, increasing attraction strength first results in a viscosity reduction corresponding to the formation of large, permeable crystals and then in a viscosity increase when a network of dense, small crystals forms. The fraction of the fluid and crystal phase, particle concentration in each phase as well as the modulus of the micro-crystals are obtained, the latter decreases with Ψdep. Above the colloidal glass transition strong heterogeneities and different local particle mobility in the repulsive and attractive arrested states are found. Particles are trapped in the cage of neighboring particles rather than in an attractive potential well. The intermediate ergodic state exhibits uniform tracer diffusivity.
Venables, Noah C.; Sellbom, Martin; Sourander, Andre; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Drislane, Laura E.; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Elonheimo, Henrik; Parkkola, Kai; Multimaki, Petteri; Patrick, Christopher J.
2015-01-01
Biobehavioral dispositions can serve as valuable referents for biologically-oriented research on core processes with relevance to many psychiatric conditions. The present study examined two such dispositional variables—weak response inhibition (or disinhibition; INH−) and threat sensitivity (or fearfulness; THT+)—as predictors of the serious transdiagnostic problem of suicide risk in two samples: male and female outpatients from a U.S. clinic (N=1,078), and a population-based male military cohort from Finland (N=3,855). INH− and THT+ were operationalized through scores on scale measures of disinhibition and fear/fearlessness, known to be related to DSM-defined clinical conditions and brain biomarkers. Suicide risk was assessed by clinician ratings (clinic sample) and questionnaires (both samples). Across samples and alternative suicide indices, INH− and THT+ each contributed uniquely to prediction of suicide risk—beyond internalizing and externalizing problems in the case of the clinic sample where diagnostic data were available. Further, in both samples, INH− and THT+ interactively predicted suicide risk, with individuals scoring concurrently high on both dispositions exhibiting markedly augmented risk. Findings demonstrate that dispositional constructs of INH− and THT+ are predictive of suicide risk, and hold potential as referents for biological research on suicidal behavior. PMID:25712631
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bradley, A.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Ott, R. A.; Palladino, K. J.; Pangilinan, M.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration
2016-04-01
We present constraints on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP)-nucleus scattering from the 2013 data of the Large Underground Xenon dark matter experiment, including 1.4 ×104 kg day of search exposure. This new analysis incorporates several advances: single-photon calibration at the scintillation wavelength, improved event-reconstruction algorithms, a revised background model including events originating on the detector walls in an enlarged fiducial volume, and new calibrations from decays of an injected tritium β source and from kinematically constrained nuclear recoils down to 1.1 keV. Sensitivity, especially to low-mass WIMPs, is enhanced compared to our previous results which modeled the signal only above a 3 keV minimum energy. Under standard dark matter halo assumptions and in the mass range above 4 GeV c-2 , these new results give the most stringent direct limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. The 90% C.L. upper limit has a minimum of 0.6 zb at 33 GeV c-2 WIMP mass.
Akerib, D. S.
2016-04-20
Here, we present constraints on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP)-nucleus scattering from the 2013 data of the Large Underground Xenon dark matter experiment, including 1.4 × 104 kg day of search exposure. This new analysis incorporates several advances: single-photon calibration at the scintillation wavelength, improved event-reconstruction algorithms, a revised background model including events originating on the detector walls in an enlarged fiducial volume, and new calibrations from decays of an injected tritium β source and from kinematically constrained nuclear recoils down to 1.1 keV. Sensitivity, especially to low-mass WIMPs, is enhanced compared to our previous results which modeled the signalmore » only above a 3 keV minimum energy. Under standard dark matter halo assumptions and in the mass range above 4 GeV c–2, these new results give the most stringent direct limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. The 90% C.L. upper limit has a minimum of 0.6 zb at 33 GeV c–2 WIMP mass.« less
Introduction to gauge theories of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions
Quigg, C.
1980-07-01
The plan of these notes is as follows. Chapter 1 is devoted to a brief evocative review of current beliefs and prejudices that form the context for the discussion to follow. The idea of Gauge Invariance is introduced in Chapter 2, and the connection between conservation laws and symmetries of the Lagrangian is recalled. Non-Abelian gauge field theories are constructed in Chapter 3, by analogy with the familiar case of electromagnetism. The Yang-Mills theory based upon isospin symmetry is constructed explicitly, and the generalization is made to other gauge groups. Chapter 4 is concerned with spontaneous symmetry breaking and the phenomena that occur in the presence or absence of local gauge symmetries. The existence of massless scalar fields (Goldstone particles) and their metamorphosis by means of the Higgs mechanism are illustrated by simple examples. The Weinberg-Salam model is presented in Chapter 5, and a brief resume of applications to experiment is given. Quantum Chromodynamics, the gauge theory of colored quarks and gluons, is developed in Chapter 6. Asymptotic freedom is derived schematically, and a few simple applications of perturbative QCD ae exhibited. Details of the conjectured confinement mechanism are omitted. The strategy of grand unified theories of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions is laid out in Chapter 7. Some properties and consequences of the minimal unifying group SU(5) are presented, and the gauge hierarchy problem is introduced in passing. The final chapter contains an essay on the current outlook: aspirations, unanswered questions, and bold scenarios.
Akerib, D S; Araújo, H M; Bai, X; Bailey, A J; Balajthy, J; Beltrame, P; Bernard, E P; Bernstein, A; Biesiadzinski, T P; Boulton, E M; Bradley, A; Bramante, R; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chan, C; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A A; Chiller, C; Currie, A; Cutter, J E; Davison, T J R; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dobson, J E Y; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B N; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, V M; Ghag, C; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M G D; Hall, C R; Hanhardt, M; Haselschwardt, S J; Hertel, S A; Hogan, D P; Horn, M; Huang, D Q; Ignarra, C M; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Ji, W; Kazkaz, K; Khaitan, D; Knoche, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Lenardo, B G; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Malling, D C; Manalaysay, A; Mannino, R L; Marzioni, M F; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D-M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morad, J A; Murphy, A St J; Nehrkorn, C; Nelson, H N; Neves, F; O'Sullivan, K; Oliver-Mallory, K C; Ott, R A; Palladino, K J; Pangilinan, M; Pease, E K; Phelps, P; Reichhart, L; Rhyne, C; Shaw, S; Shutt, T A; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; Stephenson, S; Sumner, T J; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D J; Taylor, W; Tennyson, B P; Terman, P A; Tiedt, D R; To, W H; Tripathi, M; Tvrznikova, L; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Webb, R C; White, J T; Whitis, T J; Witherell, M S; Wolfs, F L H; Yazdani, K; Young, S K; Zhang, C
2016-04-22
We present constraints on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP)-nucleus scattering from the 2013 data of the Large Underground Xenon dark matter experiment, including 1.4×10^{4} kg day of search exposure. This new analysis incorporates several advances: single-photon calibration at the scintillation wavelength, improved event-reconstruction algorithms, a revised background model including events originating on the detector walls in an enlarged fiducial volume, and new calibrations from decays of an injected tritium β source and from kinematically constrained nuclear recoils down to 1.1 keV. Sensitivity, especially to low-mass WIMPs, is enhanced compared to our previous results which modeled the signal only above a 3 keV minimum energy. Under standard dark matter halo assumptions and in the mass range above 4 GeV c^{-2}, these new results give the most stringent direct limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. The 90% C.L. upper limit has a minimum of 0.6 zb at 33 GeV c^{-2} WIMP mass. PMID:27152785
The effects of weak extremely low frequency magnetic fields on calcium/calmodulin interactions.
Hendee, S P; Faour, F A; Christensen, D A; Patrick, B; Durney, C H; Blumenthal, D K
1996-01-01
Mechanisms by which weak electromagnetic fields may affect biological systems are of current interest because of their potential health effects. Lednev has proposed an ion parametric resonance hypothesis (Lednev, 1991, Bioelectromagnetics, 12:71-75), which predicts that when the ac, frequency of a combined dc-ac magnetic field equals the cyclotron frequency of calcium, the affinity of calcium for calcium-binding proteins such as calmodulin will be markedly affected. The present study evaluated Lednev's theory using two independent systems, each sensitive to changes in the affinity of calcium for calmodulin. One of the systems used was the calcium/calmodulin-dependent activation of myosin light chain kinase, a system similar to that previously used by Lednev. The other system monitored optical changes in the binding of a fluorescent peptide to the calcium/calmodulin complex. Each system was exposed to a 20.9 microT static field superimposed on a 20.9 microT sinusoidal field over a narrow frequency range centered at 16 Hz, the cyclotron frequency of the unhydrated calcium ion. In contrast to Lednev's predictions, no significant effect of combined dc-ac magnetic fields on calcium/calmodulin interactions was indicated in either experimental system. PMID:8744329
Venables, Noah C; Sellbom, Martin; Sourander, Andre; Kendler, Kenneth S; Joiner, Thomas E; Drislane, Laura E; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Elonheimo, Henrik; Parkkola, Kai; Multimaki, Petteri; Patrick, Christopher J
2015-04-30
Biobehavioral dispositions can serve as valuable referents for biologically oriented research on core processes with relevance to many psychiatric conditions. The present study examined two such dispositional variables-weak response inhibition (or disinhibition; INH-) and threat sensitivity (or fearfulness; THT+)-as predictors of the serious transdiagnostic problem of suicide risk in two samples: male and female outpatients from a U.S. clinic (N=1078), and a population-based male military cohort from Finland (N=3855). INH- and THT+ were operationalized through scores on scale measures of disinhibition and fear/fearlessness, known to be related to DSM-defined clinical conditions and brain biomarkers. Suicide risk was assessed by clinician ratings (clinic sample) and questionnaires (both samples). Across samples and alternative suicide indices, INH- and THT+ each contributed uniquely to prediction of suicide risk-beyond internalizing and externalizing problems in the case of the clinic sample where diagnostic data were available. Further, in both samples, INH- and THT+ interactively predicted suicide risk, with individuals scoring concurrently high on both dispositions exhibiting markedly augmented risk. Findings demonstrate that dispositional constructs of INH- and THT+ are predictive of suicide risk, and hold potential as referents for biological research on suicidal behavior. PMID:25712631
Weis, Clara; Oelschlaeger, Claude; Dijkstra, Dick; Ranft, Meik; Willenbacher, Norbert
2016-01-01
We present a comprehensive micro- and macrorheological study of the effect of weak depletion attraction (Ψdep ≈ 1–10 kBT) on dense colloidal suspensions stabilized by short-range repulsive interactions. We used aqueous polymer dispersions as model system and demonstrated the unique capabilities of multiple particle tracking (MPT) to disclose structural changes in such technically important systems exhibiting many characteristic features of hard sphere systems. Below the hard sphere freezing point ϕc, viscosity increases monotonically with increasing Ψdep due to the transition from a fluid to a fluid/crystalline and finally to a gel state. Above ϕc, increasing attraction strength first results in a viscosity reduction corresponding to the formation of large, permeable crystals and then in a viscosity increase when a network of dense, small crystals forms. The fraction of the fluid and crystal phase, particle concentration in each phase as well as the modulus of the micro-crystals are obtained, the latter decreases with Ψdep. Above the colloidal glass transition strong heterogeneities and different local particle mobility in the repulsive and attractive arrested states are found. Particles are trapped in the cage of neighboring particles rather than in an attractive potential well. The intermediate ergodic state exhibits uniform tracer diffusivity. PMID:27653975
Optical response of a quantum dot-metal nanoparticle hybrid interacting with a weak probe field.
Kosionis, Spyridon G; Terzis, Andreas F; Sadeghi, Seyed M; Paspalakis, Emmanuel
2013-01-30
We study optical effects in a hybrid system composed of a semiconductor quantum dot and a spherical metal nanoparticle that interacts with a weak probe electromagnetic field. We use modified nonlinear density matrix equations for the description of the optical properties of the system and obtain a closed-form expression for the linear susceptibilities of the quantum dot, the metal nanoparticle, and the total system. We then investigate the dependence of the susceptibility on the interparticle distance as well as on the material parameters of the hybrid system. We find that the susceptibility of the quantum dot exhibits optical transparency for specific frequencies. In addition, we show that there is a range of frequencies of the applied field for which the susceptibility of the semiconductor quantum dot leads to gain. This suggests that in such a hybrid system quantum coherence can reverse the course of energy transfer, allowing flow of energy from the metallic nanoparticle to the quantum dot. We also explore the susceptibility of the metal nanoparticle and show that it is strongly influenced by the presence of the quantum dot.
Rongere, P.; Morel-Desrosiers, N.; Morel, J.P. )
1994-03-01
The thermodynamic characterization of the weakly complexed model system Sm[sup 3+]-xylitol has been carried out. The standard Gibbs energy, enthalpy, entropy, volume and heat capacity of complexation of Sm[sup 3+] by xylitol have been determined in water at 25[degrees]. The stability constant and the enthalpy change have been simultaneously determined by using a calorimetric method. The thermodynamic properties characterizing solely the specific interaction between the cation and the complexing sequence of hydroxyl groups of the ligand have been isolated. The stability constant and the volume of complexation have also been estimated from a similar treatment of the apparent molar volumes. It was found that the reaction by: K = 8.1, [Delta][sub r]G[sup o] = -5.2 kJ-mol[sup [minus]1], [Delta][sub r]H[sup o] = -13.7 kJ-mol[sup [minus]1], T[Delta][sub r]S[sup o] = -8.5 kJ-mol[sup [minus]1], [Delta][sub r]V[sup o] = 8.8 cm[sup 3]-mol[sup [minus]1] and [Delta][sub r]C[sup o[sub p
Gebhardt, K; Böhme, M; von der Emde, G
2012-12-01
This study compares electrocommunication behaviour in groups of freely swimming weakly electric fishes of two species, Marcusenius altisambesi and Mormyrus rume. Animals emitted variable temporal sequences of stereotyped electric organ discharges (EOD) that served as communication signals. While the waveform of individual signals remained constant, the inter-discharge interval (IDI) patterns conveyed situation-specific information. Both species showed different types of group behaviour, e.g. they engaged in collective (group) foraging. The results show that in each species, during different behavioural conditions (resting, foraging and agonistic encounters), certain situation-specific IDI patterns occurred. In both species, neighbouring fishes swimming closely together interacted electrically by going in and out of synchronization episodes, i.e. periods of temporally correlated EOD production. These often resulted in echo responses between neighbours. During group foraging, fishes often signalled in a repetitive fixed order (fixed-order signalling). During foraging, EOD emission rates of M. altisambesi were higher and more regular than those of M. rume. The two species also differed in the quantity of group behaviours with M. altisambesi being more social than M. rume, which was reflected in the lack of specific agonistic IDI patterns, more fixed-order signalling and more communal resting behaviour in M. altisambesi.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belvedere, Riccardo; Pugliese, Daniela; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo; Xue, She-Sheng
2012-06-01
We formulate the equations of equilibrium of neutron stars taking into account strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational interactions within the framework of general relativity. The nuclear interactions are described by the exchange of the σ, ω, and ρ virtual mesons. The equilibrium conditions are given by our recently developed theoretical framework based on the Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations along with the constancy of the general relativistic Fermi energies of particles, the "Klein potentials", throughout the configuration. The equations are solved numerically in the case of zero temperatures and for selected parameterizations of the nuclear models. The solutions lead to a new structure of the star: a positively charged core at supranuclear densities surrounded by an electronic distribution of thickness ˜ℏ/(mec)˜102ℏ/(mπc) of opposite charge, as well as a neutral crust at lower densities. Inside the core there is a Coulomb potential well of depth ˜mπc2/e. The constancy of the Klein potentials in the transition from the core to the crust, imposes the presence of an overcritical electric field ˜(Ec, the critical field being Ec=me2c3/(eℏ). The electron chemical potential and the density decrease, in the boundary interface, until values μecrust<μecore and ρ<ρ. For each central density, an entire family of core-crust interface boundaries and, correspondingly, an entire family of crusts with different mass and thickness, exist. The configuration with ρ=ρ˜4.3×1011 gcm separates neutron stars with and without inner crust. We present here the novel neutron star mass-radius for the especial case ρ=ρ and compare and contrast it with the one obtained from the traditional Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff treatment.
Weak protein interactions and pH- and temperature-dependent aggregation of human Fc1
Wu, Haixia; Truncali, Kristopher; Ritchie, Julie; Kroe-Barrett, Rachel; Singh, Sanjaya; Robinson, Anne S; Roberts, Christopher J
2015-01-01
The Fc (fragment crystallizable) is a common structural region in immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) proteins, IgG-based multi-specific platforms, and Fc-fusion platform technologies. Changes in conformational stability, protein-protein interactions, and aggregation of NS0-produced human Fc1 were quantified experimentally as a function of pH (4 to 6) and temperature (30 to 77°C), using a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, laser light scattering, size-exclusion chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. The Fc1 was O-glycosylated at position 3 (threonine), and confirmed to correspond to the intact IgG1 by comparison with Fc1 produced by cleavage of the parent IgG1. Changing the pH caused large effects for thermal unfolding transitions, but it caused surprisingly smaller effects for electrostatic protein-protein interactions. The aggregation behavior was qualitatively similar across different solution conditions, with soluble dimers and larger oligomers formed in most cases. Aggregation rates spanned approximately 5 orders of magnitude and could be divided into 2 regimes: (i) Arrhenius, unfolding-limited aggregation at temperatures near or above the midpoint-unfolding temperature of the CH2 domain; (ii) a non-Arrhenius regime at lower temperatures, presumably as a result of the temperature dependence of the unfolding enthalpy for the CH2 domain. The non-Arrhenius regime was most pronounced for lower temperatures. Together with the weak protein-protein repulsions, these highlight challenges that are expected for maintaining long-term stability of biotechnology products that are based on human Fc constructs. PMID:26267255
Prochniewicz, Ewa; Walseth, Timothy F; Thomas, David D
2004-08-24
We have used optical spectroscopy (transient phosphorescence anisotropy, TPA, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, FRET) to detect the effects of weakly bound myosin S1 on actin during the actomyosin ATPase cycle. The changes in actin were reported by (a) a phosphorescent probe (ErIA) attached to Cys 374 and (b) a FRET donor-acceptor pair, IAEDANS attached to Cys 374 and a nucleotide analogue (TNPADP) in the nucleotide-binding cleft. Strong interactions were detected in the absence of ATP, and weak interactions were detected in the presence of ATP or its slowly hydrolyzed analogue ATP-gamma-S, under conditions where a significant fraction of weakly bound acto-S1 complex was present and the rate of nucleotide hydrolysis was low enough to enable steady-state measurements. The results show that actin in the weakly bound complex with S1 assumes a new structural state in which (a) the actin filament has microsecond rotational dynamics intermediate between that of free actin and the strongly bound complex and (b) S1-induced changes are not propagated along the actin filament, in contrast to the highly cooperative changes due to the strongly bound complex. We propose that the transition on the acto-myosin interface from weak to strong binding is accompanied by transitions in the structural dynamics of actin parallel to transitions in the dynamics of interacting myosin heads.
2006-01-01
Tertiary interactions are crucial in maintaining the tRNA structure and functionality. We used a combined sequence analysis and quantum mechanics approach to calculate accurate energies of the most frequent tRNA tertiary base pairing interactions. Our analysis indicates that six out of the nine classical tertiary interactions are held in place mainly by H-bonds between the bases. In the remaining three cases other effects have to be considered. Tertiary base pairing interaction energies range from −8 to −38 kcal/mol in yeast tRNAPhe and are estimated to contribute roughly 25% of the overall tRNA base pairing interaction energy. Six analyzed posttranslational chemical modifications were shown to have minor effect on the geometry of the tertiary interactions. Modifications that introduce a positive charge strongly stabilize the corresponding tertiary interactions. Non-additive effects contribute to the stability of base triplets. PMID:16461956
Mitrev, Y; Simova, S; Jeannerat, D
2016-04-01
Weak molecular interactions can be localized and quantified using a single NMR experiment analysing concentration gradients generated in agar gels. The spectra from various cross-sections along the gradient were obtained using a slice-selective pulse sequence realisable with standard NMR equipment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singer, Bart A.; Zang, Thomas A.
1989-01-01
Direct numerical simulation is used to evaluate a weakly nonlinear theory describing the interaction of Tollmien-Schlichting waves with Dean vortices in curved channel flow. The theory and the simulation agree for certain combinations of parameters, but the two approaches give conflicting results for other combinations. Some possibilities for these discrepancies are discussed.
High-Affinity Accumulation of a Maytansinoid in Cells via Weak Tubulin Interaction
Goldmacher, Victor S.; Audette, Charlene A.; Guan, Yinghua; Sidhom, Eriene-Heidi; Shah, Jagesh V.; Whiteman, Kathleen R.; Kovtun, Yelena V.
2015-01-01
The microtubule-targeting maytansinoids accumulate in cells and induce mitotic arrest at 250- to 1000-fold lower concentrations than those required for their association with tubulin or microtubules. To identify the mechanisms of this intracellular accumulation and exceptional cytotoxicity of maytansinoids we studied interaction of a highly cytotoxic maytansinoid, S-methyl DM1 and several other maytansinoids with cells. S-methyl DM1 accumulated inside the cells with a markedly higher apparent affinity than to tubulin or microtubules. The apparent affinities of maytansinoids correlated with their cytotoxicities. The number of intracellular binding sites for S-methyl DM1 in MCF7 cells was comparable to the number of tubulin molecules per cell (~ 4–6 × 107 copies). Efflux of 3 [H]-S-methyl DM1 from cells was enhanced in the presence of an excess of non-labeled S-methyl DM1, indicating that re-binding of 3 [H]-S-methyl DM1 to intracellular binding sites contributed to its intracellular retention. Liposomes loaded with non-polymerized tubulin recapitulated the apparent high-affinity association of S-methyl DM1 to cells. We propose a model for the intracellular accumulation of maytansinoids in which molecules of the compounds diffuse into a cell and associate with tubulin. Affinities of maytansinoids for individual tubulin molecules are weak, but the high intracellular concentration of tubulin favors, after dissociation of a compound-tubulin complex, their re-binding to a tubulin molecule, or to a tip of a microtubule in the same cell, over their efflux. As a result, a significant fraction of microtubule tips is occupied with a maytansinoid when added to cells at sub-nanomolar concentrations, inducing mitotic arrest and cell death. PMID:25671541
Static weak dipole moments of the τ lepton via renormalizable scalar leptoquark interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolaños, A.; Moyotl, A.; Tavares-Velasco, G.
2014-03-01
The weak dipole moments of elementary fermions are calculated at the one-loop level in the framework of a renormalizable scalar leptoquark model that forbids baryon number violating processes and so is free from the strong constraints arising from experimental data. In this model there are two scalar leptoquarks accommodated in a SUL(2)×UY(1) doublet: One of these leptoquarks is nonchiral and has electric charge of 5/3e, whereas the other one is chiral and has electric charge 2/3e. In particular, a nonchiral leptoquark contributes to the weak properties of an up fermion via a chirality-flipping term proportional to the mass of the virtual fermion, and can also induce a nonzero weak electric dipole moment provided that the leptoquark couplings are complex. The numerical analysis is focused on the weak properties of the τ lepton since they offer good prospects for experimental study. The constraints on leptoquark couplings are briefly discussed for a nonchiral leptoquark with nondiagonal couplings to the second and third fermion generations, a third-generation nonchiral leptoquark, and a third-generation chiral leptoquark. It is found that although the chirality-flipping term can enhance the weak properties of the τ lepton via the top quark contribution, such an enhancement would be offset by the strong constraints on the leptoquark couplings. So, the contribution of scalar leptoquarks to the weak magnetic dipole moment of the τ lepton are smaller than the standard model (SM) contributions but can be of similar size to those arising in some SM extensions. A nonchiral leptoquark can also give contributions to the weak electric dipole moment larger than the SM one but well below the experimental limit. We also discuss the case of the off-shell weak dipole moments and, for completeness, analyze the behavior of the τ electromagnetic properties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kory, Carol L.
1999-01-01
The phenomenal growth of commercial communications has created a great demand for traveling-wave tube (TWT) amplifiers. Although the helix slow-wave circuit remains the mainstay of the TWT industry because of its exceptionally wide bandwidth, until recently it has been impossible to accurately analyze a helical TWT using its exact dimensions because of the complexity of its geometrical structure. For the first time, an accurate three-dimensional helical model was developed that allows accurate prediction of TWT cold-test characteristics including operating frequency, interaction impedance, and attenuation. This computational model, which was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center, allows TWT designers to obtain a more accurate value of interaction impedance than is possible using experimental methods. Obtaining helical slow-wave circuit interaction impedance is an important part of the design process for a TWT because it is related to the gain and efficiency of the tube. This impedance cannot be measured directly; thus, conventional methods involve perturbing a helical circuit with a cylindrical dielectric rod placed on the central axis of the circuit and obtaining the difference in resonant frequency between the perturbed and unperturbed circuits. A mathematical relationship has been derived between this frequency difference and the interaction impedance (ref. 1). However, because of the complex configuration of the helical circuit, deriving this relationship involves several approximations. In addition, this experimental procedure is time-consuming and expensive, but until recently it was widely accepted as the most accurate means of determining interaction impedance. The advent of an accurate three-dimensional helical circuit model (ref. 2) made it possible for Lewis researchers to fully investigate standard approximations made in deriving the relationship between measured perturbation data and interaction impedance. The most prominent approximations made
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brass, David Alan
The measurement of weak adhesive energies has previously been difficult to obtain. To measure these energies, I designed a technique that uses the combined sensitivities of both a quartz crystal resonator and the inflation of an elastomeric polymer membrane. The surfaces of the quartz crystal and/or the membrane are modified with water swollen polymer brushes, which are used to eliminate nonspecific adhesion. These brushes are then end-modified with adhesive functional groups. An analysis is developed for the frequency response of a quartz crystal resonator as the membrane layer is placed in contact with the surface of these swollen brushes. The shear wave generated at the resonator surface couples into the membrane layer with an efficiency that is strongly dependent on the thickness of the swollen brush layer. The calculated shift decreases substantially for increases in the brush thickness of ten to twenty nanometers, giving a net frequency response that is extremely sensitive to the degree of swelling of the brush. An optimum capping layer thickness is determined by balancing the resonant frequency shift against dissipative effects that weaken the crystal resonance. Detailed calculations are presented for the specific case of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brushes swollen by water and capped by a poly(styrene-ethylene/butene-styrene) (SEBS) elastomeric, water-permeable membrane. These calculations show that the method is sensitive to the properties of the brush layer. This surface acoustic wave technique was coupled with an inflation method that enabled quantification of the adhesion between the membrane and the brush coated surface. This adhesive interaction is obtained from the contact angle made between the quartz and membrane surfaces and the tension on the membrane. An analysis of the membrane profile based on the numerical solution of the axisymmetric Laplace equation is developed and used to investigate both adhesive and non-adhesive situations with both an
Buratto, Roberto; Mammoli, Daniele; Chiarparin, Elisabetta; Williams, Glyn; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey
2014-01-01
Ligands that have an affinity for protein targets can be screened very effectively by exploiting favorable properties of long-lived states (LLS) in NMR spectroscopy. In this work, we describe the use of LLS for competitive binding experiments to measure accurate dissociation constants of fragments that bind weakly to the ATP binding site of the N-terminal ATPase domain of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a therapeutic target for cancer treatment. The LLS approach allows one to characterize ligands with an exceptionally wide range of affinities, since it can be used for ligand concentrations [L] that are several orders of magnitude smaller than the dissociation constants KD. This property makes the LLS method particularly attractive for the initial steps of fragment-based drug screening, where small molecular fragments that bind weakly to a target protein must be identified, which is a difficult task for many other biophysical methods. PMID:25196717
Siler, C G F; Madix, R J; Friend, C M
2016-07-01
A major challenge in heterogeneous catalysis is controlling reaction selectivity, especially in complex environments. When more than one species is present in the gas mixture, the competition for binding sites on the surface of a catalyst is an important factor in determining reaction selectivity and activity. We establish an experimental hierarchy for the binding of a series of reaction intermediates on Au(111) and demonstrate that this hierarchy accounts for reaction selectivity on both the single crystal surface and under operating catalytic conditions at atmospheric pressure using a nanoporous Au catalyst. A partial set of measurements of relative binding has been measured by others on other catalyst materials, including Ag, Pd and metal oxide surfaces; a comparison demonstrates the generality of this concept and identifies differences in the trends. Theoretical calculations for a subset of reactants on Au(111) show that weak van der Waals interactions are key to predicting the hierarchy of binding strengths for alkoxides bound to Au(111). This hierarchy is key to the control of the selectivity for partial oxidation of alcohols to esters on both Au surfaces and under working catalytic conditions using nanoporous gold. The selectivity depends on the competition for active sites among key intermediates. New results probing the effect of fluorine substitution are also presented to extend the relation of reaction selectivity to the hierarchy of binding. Motivated by an interest in synthetic manipulation of fluorinated organics, we specifically investigated the influence of the -CF3 group on alcohol reactivity and selectivity. 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol couples on O-covered Au(111) to yield CF3CH2O-C([double bond, length as m-dash]O)(CF3), but in the presence of methanol or ethanol it preferentially forms the respective 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy-esters. The ester is not the dominant product in any of these cases, though, indicating that the rate of β-H elimination from
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Visentine, James T.; Leger, Lubert J.
1987-01-01
To resolve uncertainties in estimated LEO atomic oxygen fluence and provide reaction product composition data for comparison to data obtained in ground-based simulation laboratories, a flight experiment has been proposed for the space shuttle which utilizes an ion-neutral mass spectrometer to obtain in-situ ambient density measurements and identify reaction products from modeled polymers exposed to the atomic oxygen environment. An overview of this experiment is presented and the methodology of calibrating the flight mass spectrometer in a neutral beam facility prior to its use on the space shuttle is established. The experiment, designated EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials, third series), will provide a reliable materials interaction data base for future spacecraft design and will furnish insight into the basic chemical mechanisms leading to atomic oxygen interactions with surfaces.
Donnelly, T.W.; Haxton, W.C.
1980-01-01
We extend our previous harmonic oscillator analysis to a treatment of general single-particle matrix elements of the multipole operators arising in studies of semileptonic weak and electromagnetic interactions with nuclei. Together with the earlier harmonic oscillator tables the present work will allow the reader to express these general matrix elements compactly in terms of specific radial integrals, which then usually must be evaluated numerically.
Accurate and efficient method for many-body van der Waals interactions.
Tkatchenko, Alexandre; DiStasio, Robert A; Car, Roberto; Scheffler, Matthias
2012-06-01
An efficient method is developed for the microscopic description of the frequency-dependent polarizability of finite-gap molecules and solids. This is achieved by combining the Tkatchenko-Scheffler van der Waals (vdW) method [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073005 (2009)] with the self-consistent screening equation of classical electrodynamics. This leads to a seamless description of polarization and depolarization for the polarizability tensor of molecules and solids. The screened long-range many-body vdW energy is obtained from the solution of the Schrödinger equation for a system of coupled oscillators. We show that the screening and the many-body vdW energy play a significant role even for rather small molecules, becoming crucial for an accurate treatment of conformational energies for biomolecules and binding of molecular crystals. The computational cost of the developed theory is negligible compared to the underlying electronic structure calculation.
Accurate formula for dissipative interaction in frequency modulation atomic force microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Kei; Labuda, Aleksander; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi
2014-12-01
Much interest has recently focused on the viscosity of nano-confined liquids. Frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) is a powerful technique that can detect variations in the conservative and dissipative forces between a nanometer-scale tip and a sample surface. We now present an accurate formula to convert the dissipation power of the cantilever measured during the experiment to damping of the tip-sample system. We demonstrated the conversion of the dissipation power versus tip-sample separation curve measured using a colloidal probe cantilever on a mica surface in water to the damping curve, which showed a good agreement with the theoretical curve. Moreover, we obtained the damping curve from the dissipation power curve measured on the hydration layers on the mica surface using a nanometer-scale tip, demonstrating that the formula allows us to quantitatively measure the viscosity of a nano-confined liquid using FM-AFM.
Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Caldeweyher, Eike; Grimme, Stefan
2016-06-21
We extend the recently introduced PBEh-3c global hybrid density functional [S. Grimme et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2015, 143, 054107] by a screened Fock exchange variant based on the Henderson-Janesko-Scuseria exchange hole model. While the excellent performance of the global hybrid is maintained for small covalently bound molecules, its performance for computed condensed phase mass densities is further improved. Most importantly, a speed up of 30 to 50% can be achieved and especially for small orbital energy gap cases, the method is numerically much more robust. The latter point is important for many applications, e.g., for metal-organic frameworks, organic semiconductors, or protein structures. This enables an accurate density functional based electronic structure calculation of a full DNA helix structure on a single core desktop computer which is presented as an example in addition to comprehensive benchmark results. PMID:27240749
Accurate formula for dissipative interaction in frequency modulation atomic force microscopy
Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Kei; Labuda, Aleksander
2014-12-08
Much interest has recently focused on the viscosity of nano-confined liquids. Frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) is a powerful technique that can detect variations in the conservative and dissipative forces between a nanometer-scale tip and a sample surface. We now present an accurate formula to convert the dissipation power of the cantilever measured during the experiment to damping of the tip-sample system. We demonstrated the conversion of the dissipation power versus tip-sample separation curve measured using a colloidal probe cantilever on a mica surface in water to the damping curve, which showed a good agreement with the theoretical curve. Moreover, we obtained the damping curve from the dissipation power curve measured on the hydration layers on the mica surface using a nanometer-scale tip, demonstrating that the formula allows us to quantitatively measure the viscosity of a nano-confined liquid using FM-AFM.
Not Available
1991-01-01
This report discusses research in high energy physics on the following topics: rare b decays; flavor changing top decays;neutrino physics; standard model; cp violation; heavy ion collisions; electron-positron interactions; electron-hadron interactions; hadron-hadron interactions; deep inelastic scattering; and grand unified models. (LSP)
London, Nir; Ambroggio, Xavier
2014-02-01
Computational protein design efforts aim to create novel proteins and functions in an automated manner and, in the process, these efforts shed light on the factors shaping natural proteins. The focus of these efforts has progressed from the interior of proteins to their surface and the design of functions, such as binding or catalysis. Here we examine progress in the development of robust methods for the computational design of non-natural interactions between proteins and molecular targets such as other proteins or small molecules. This problem is referred to as the de novo computational design of interactions. Recent successful efforts in de novo enzyme design and the de novo design of protein-protein interactions open a path towards solving this problem. We examine the common themes in these efforts, and review recent studies aimed at understanding the nature of successes and failures in the de novo computational design of interactions. While several approaches culminated in success, the use of a well-defined structural model for a specific binding interaction in particular has emerged as a key strategy for a successful design, and is therefore reviewed with special consideration.
Oyeyemi, Victor B.; Krisiloff, David B.; Keith, John A.; Libisch, Florian; Pavone, Michele; Carter, Emily A.
2014-01-28
Oxygenated hydrocarbons play important roles in combustion science as renewable fuels and additives, but many details about their combustion chemistry remain poorly understood. Although many methods exist for computing accurate electronic energies of molecules at equilibrium geometries, a consistent description of entire combustion reaction potential energy surfaces (PESs) requires multireference correlated wavefunction theories. Here we use bond dissociation energies (BDEs) as a foundational metric to benchmark methods based on multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) for several classes of oxygenated compounds (alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and methyl esters). We compare results from multireference singles and doubles configuration interaction to those utilizing a posteriori and a priori size-extensivity corrections, benchmarked against experiment and coupled cluster theory. We demonstrate that size-extensivity corrections are necessary for chemically accurate BDE predictions even in relatively small molecules and furnish examples of unphysical BDE predictions resulting from using too-small orbital active spaces. We also outline the specific challenges in using MRCI methods for carbonyl-containing compounds. The resulting complete basis set extrapolated, size-extensivity-corrected MRCI scheme produces BDEs generally accurate to within 1 kcal/mol, laying the foundation for this scheme's use on larger molecules and for more complex regions of combustion PESs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qianlong; Reifsnider, Kenneth
2012-11-01
The basis of dielectrophoresis (DEP) is the prediction of the force and torque on particles. The classical approach to the prediction is based on the effective moment method, which, however, is an approximate approach, assumes infinitesimal particles. Therefore, it is well-known that for finite-sized particles, the DEP approximation is inaccurate as the mutual field, particle, wall interactions become strong, a situation presently attracting extensive research for practical significant applications. In the present talk, we provide accurate calculations of the force and torque on the particles from first principles, by directly resolving the local geometry and properties and accurately accounting for the mutual interactions for finite-sized particles with both dielectric polarization and conduction in a sinusoidally steady-state electric field. Since the approach has a significant advantage, compared to other numerical methods, to efficiently simulate many closely packed particles, it provides an important, unique, and accurate technique to investigate complex DEP phenomena, for example heterogeneous mixtures containing particle chains, nanoparticle assembly, biological cells, non-spherical effects, etc. This study was supported by the Department of Energy under funding for an EFRC (the HeteroFoaM Center), grant no. DE-SC0001061.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oyeyemi, Victor B.; Krisiloff, David B.; Keith, John A.; Libisch, Florian; Pavone, Michele; Carter, Emily A.
2014-01-01
Oxygenated hydrocarbons play important roles in combustion science as renewable fuels and additives, but many details about their combustion chemistry remain poorly understood. Although many methods exist for computing accurate electronic energies of molecules at equilibrium geometries, a consistent description of entire combustion reaction potential energy surfaces (PESs) requires multireference correlated wavefunction theories. Here we use bond dissociation energies (BDEs) as a foundational metric to benchmark methods based on multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) for several classes of oxygenated compounds (alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and methyl esters). We compare results from multireference singles and doubles configuration interaction to those utilizing a posteriori and a priori size-extensivity corrections, benchmarked against experiment and coupled cluster theory. We demonstrate that size-extensivity corrections are necessary for chemically accurate BDE predictions even in relatively small molecules and furnish examples of unphysical BDE predictions resulting from using too-small orbital active spaces. We also outline the specific challenges in using MRCI methods for carbonyl-containing compounds. The resulting complete basis set extrapolated, size-extensivity-corrected MRCI scheme produces BDEs generally accurate to within 1 kcal/mol, laying the foundation for this scheme's use on larger molecules and for more complex regions of combustion PESs.
Three-dimensional Euler time accurate simulations of fan rotor-stator interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boretti, A. A.
1990-01-01
A numerical method useful to describe unsteady 3-D flow fields within turbomachinery stages is presented. The method solves the compressible, time dependent, Euler conservation equations with a finite volume, flux splitting, total variation diminishing, approximately factored, implicit scheme. Multiblock composite gridding is used to partition the flow field into a specified arrangement of blocks with static and dynamic interfaces. The code is optimized to take full advantage of the processing power and speed of the Cray Y/MP supercomputer. The method is applied to the computation of the flow field within a single stage, axial flow fan, thus reproducing the unsteady 3-D rotor-stator interaction.
Interpolation method for accurate affinity ranking of arrayed ligand-analyte interactions.
Schasfoort, Richard B M; Andree, Kiki C; van der Velde, Niels; van der Kooi, Alex; Stojanović, Ivan; Terstappen, Leon W M M
2016-05-01
The values of the affinity constants (kd, ka, and KD) that are determined by label-free interaction analysis methods are affected by the ligand density. This article outlines a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging method that yields high-throughput globally fitted affinity ranking values using a 96-plex array. A kinetic titration experiment without a regeneration step has been applied for various coupled antibodies binding to a single antigen. Globally fitted rate (kd and ka) and dissociation equilibrium (KD) constants for various ligand densities and analyte concentrations are exponentially interpolated to the KD at Rmax = 100 RU response level (KD(R100)).
Palmer, David S; Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr P; Jensen, Frank; Fedorov, Maxim V
2010-07-28
We report on the results of testing the reference interaction site model (RISM) for the estimation of the hydration free energy of druglike molecules. The optimum model was selected after testing of different RISM free energy expressions combined with different quantum mechanics and empirical force-field methods of structure optimization and atomic partial charge calculation. The final model gave a systematic error with a standard deviation of 2.6 kcal/mol for a test set of 31 molecules selected from the SAMPL1 blind challenge set [J. P. Guthrie, J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 4501 (2009)]. After parametrization of this model to include terms for the excluded volume and the number of atoms of different types in the molecule, the root mean squared error for a test set of 19 molecules was less than 1.2 kcal/mol.
An unusual conformation of gabapentin (Gpn) in Pyr-Gpn-NH-NH-Pyr stabilized by weak interactions.
Wani, Naiem Ahmad; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Kant, Rajni; Aravinda, Subrayashastry; Rai, Rajkishor
2014-08-01
The crystal structure of N-[(1-{2-oxo-2-[2-(pyrazin-2-ylcarbonyl)hydrazin-1-yl]ethyl}cyclohexyl)methyl]pyrazine-2-carboxamide monohydrate (Pyr-Gpn-NN-NH-Pyr·H2O), C19H23N7O3·H2O, reveals an unusual trans-gauche (tg(-)) conformation for the gabapentin (Gpn) residue around the C(γ)-C(β) (θ1) and C(β)-C(α) (θ2) bonds. The molecular conformation is stabilized by intramolecular N-H...N hydrogen bonds and weak C-H...O interactions. The packing of the molecules in the crystal lattice shows a network of strong N-H...O and O-H...O hydrogen bonds together with weak C-H...O and π-π inteactions.
Csontos, József; Murphy, Richard F; Lovas, Sándor
2008-11-01
The energetics of intramolecular interactions on the conformational potential energy surface of the terminally protected N-Ac-Phe-Gly-Gly-NHMe (FGG), N-Ac-Trp-Gly-Gly-NHMe (WGG), and N-Ac-Tyr-Gly-Gly-NHMe (YGG) tripeptides was investigated. To identify the representative conformations, simulated annealing molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) methods were used. The interaction energies were calculated at the BHandHLYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. In the global minima, 10%, 31%, and 10% of the stabilization energy come from weakly polar interactions, respectively, in FGG, WGG, and YGG. In the prominent cases 46%, 62%, and 46% of the stabilization energy is from the weakly polar interactions, respectively, in FGG, WGG, and YGG. On average, weakly polar interactions account for 15%, 34%, and 9% of the stabilization energies of the FGG, WGG, and YGG conformers, respectively. Thus, weakly polar interactions can make an important energetic contribution to protein structure and function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Changwon; Rojas, Geoffrey A.; Jeon, Seokmin; Kelly, Simon J.; Smith, Sean C.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Yoon, Mina; Maksymovych, Petro
2014-09-01
The energy scales of interactions that control molecular adsorption and assembly on surfaces can vary by several orders of magnitude, yet the importance of each contributing interaction is not apparent a priori. Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) is an archetypal electron acceptor molecule and it is a key component of organic metals. On metal surfaces, this molecule also acts as an electron acceptor, producing negatively charged adsorbates. It is therefore rather intriguing to observe attractive molecular interactions in this system that were reported previously for copper and silver surfaces. Our experiments compared TCNQ adsorption on noble metal surfaces of Ag(100) and Ag(111). In both cases we found net attractive interactions down to the lowest coverage. However, the morphology of the assemblies was strikingly different, with two-dimensional islands on Ag(100) and one-dimensional chains on Ag(111) surfaces. This observation suggests that the registry effect governed by the molecular interaction with the underlying lattice potential is critical in determining the dimensionality of the molecular assembly. Using first-principles density functional calculations with a van der Waals correction scheme, we revealed that the strengths of major interactions (i.e., lattice potential corrugation, intermolecular attraction, and charge-transfer-induced repulsion) are all similar in energy. The van der Waals interactions, in particular, almost double the strength of attractive interactions, making the intermolecular potential comparable in strength to the diffusion potential and promoting self-assembly. However, it is the anisotropy of local intermolecular interactions that is primarily responsible for the difference in the topology of the molecular islands on Ag(100) and Ag(111) surfaces. We anticipate that the intermolecular potential will become more attractive and dominant over the diffusion potential with increasing molecular size, providing new design strategies for the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schroeder, Sidsel D.; Mackeprang, Kasper; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.
2013-06-01
The weak intramolecular OH\\cdots π interactions in allyl carbinol and methallyl carbinol have been studied using a combination of NIR spectroscopy and theory. The third OH-stretching overtone region of vapor phase allyl carbinol and methallyl carbinol have been recorded with intracavity laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to study the effect of an enhanced OH\\cdots π interaction in methallyl carbinol arising from the electron donating methyl group. Local mode calculations were employed to assign the observed bands. The OH-stretching transition frequency of methallyl carbinol was observed to be red shifted relative to the OH-stretching transition frequency of allyl carbinol. A red shift of the transition frequency is in this context normally interpreted as a signature of hydrogen bonding. Whether the OH\\cdots π interaction can be categorized as a hydrogen bond will be discussed in this talk.
Vlasov simulations of plasma-wall interactions in a magnetized and weakly collisional plasma
Devaux, S.; Manfredi, G.
2006-08-15
A Vlasov code is used to model the transition region between an equilibrium plasma and an absorbing wall in the presence of a tilted magnetic field, for the case of a weakly collisional plasma ({lambda}{sub mfp}>>{rho}{sub i}, where {lambda}{sub mfp} is the ion-neutral mean-free path and {rho}{sub i} is the ion Larmor radius). The phase space structure of the plasma-wall transition is analyzed in detail and theoretical estimates of the magnetic presheath width are tested numerically. It is shown that the distribution near the wall is far from Maxwellian, so that temperature measurements should be interpreted with care. Particular attention is devoted to the angular distribution of ions impinging on the wall, which is an important parameter to determine the level of wall erosion and sputtering.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eby, P. B.
1978-01-01
The construction of a clock based on the beta decay process is proposed to test for any violations by the weak interaction of the strong equivalence principle bu determining whether the weak interaction coupling constant beta is spatially constant or whether it is a function of gravitational potential (U). The clock can be constructed by simply counting the beta disintegrations of some suitable source. The total number of counts are to be taken a measure of elapsed time. The accuracy of the clock is limited by the statistical fluctuations in the number of counts, N, which is equal to the square root of N. Increasing N gives a corresponding increase in accuracy. A source based on the electron capture process can be used so as to avoid low energy electron discrimination problems. Solid state and gaseous detectors are being considered. While the accuracy of this type of beta decay clock is much less than clocks based on the electromagnetic interaction, there is a corresponding lack of knowledge of the behavior of beta as a function of gravitational potential. No predictions from nonmetric theories as to variations in beta are available as yet, but they may occur at the U/sg C level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Daqi
2014-05-01
Eight crystalline organic acid-base adducts derived from alkane bridged bis(N-benzimidazole) and organic acids (2,4,6-trinitrophenol, p-nitrobenzoic acid, m-nitrobenzoic acid, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid and oxalic acid) were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. Of the eight compounds five are organic salts (1, 4, 6, 7 and 8) and the other three (2, 3, and 5) are cocrystals. In all of the adducts except 1 and 8, the ratio of the acid and the base is 2:1. All eight supramolecular assemblies involve extensive intermolecular classical hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, all the complexes displayed 3D framework structure. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the classical N+-H⋯O-, O-H⋯O, and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) and other nonbonding associations between acids and ditopic benzimidazoles are sufficient to bring about the formation of cocrystals or organic salts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Qifeng; Yao, Xiaojun
2016-02-01
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGlu1), which belongs to class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), can be coupled with G protein to transfer extracellular signal by dimerization and allosteric regulation. Unraveling the dimer packing and allosteric mechanism can be of great help for understanding specific regulatory mechanism and designing more potential negative allosteric modulator (NAM). Here, we report molecular dynamics simulation studies of the modulation mechanism of FITM on the wild type, T815M and Y805A mutants of mGlu1 through weak interaction analysis and free energy calculation. The weak interaction analysis demonstrates that van der Waals (vdW) and hydrogen bonding play an important role on the dimer packing between six cholesterol molecules and mGlu1 as well as the interaction between allosteric sites T815, Y805 and FITM in wild type, T815M and Y805A mutants of mGlu1. Besides, the results of free energy calculations indicate that secondary binding pocket is mainly formed by the residues Thr748, Cys746, Lys811 and Ser735 except for FITM-bound pocket in crystal structure. Our results can not only reveal the dimer packing and allosteric regulation mechanism, but also can supply useful information for the design of potential NAM of mGlu1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lao, Ka Un; Herbert, John M.
2013-06-01
An efficient, monomer-based electronic structure method is introduced for computing non-covalent interactions in molecular and ionic clusters. It builds upon our ``explicit polarization" (XPol) with pairwise-additive symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) using the Kohn-Sham (KS) version of SAPT, but replaces the problematic and expensive sum-over-states dispersion terms with empirical potentials. This modification reduces the scaling from {O}(N^5) to {O}(N^3) and also facilitates the use of Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) as a low-cost means to capture intramolecular electron correlation. Accurate binding energies are obtained for benchmark databases of dimer binding energies, and potential energy curves are also captured accurately, for a variety of challenging systems. As compared to traditional DFT-SAPT or SAPT(DFT) methods, it removes the limitation to dimers and extends SAPT-based methodology to many-body systems. For many-body systems such as water clusters and halide-water cluster anions, the new method is superior to established density-functional methods for non-covalent interactions. We suggest that using different asymptotic corrections for different monomers is necessary to get good binding energies in general, as DFT-SAPT or SAPT(DFT), especially for hydrogen-bonded complexes. We also introduce a decomposition scheme for the interaction energy that extends traditional SAPT energy decomposition analysis to systems containing more than two monomers, and we find that the various energy components (electrostatic, exchange, induction, and dispersion) are in very good agreement with high-level SAPT benchmarks for dimers. For (H_2O)_6, the many-body contribution to the interaction energy agrees well with that obtained from traditional Kitaura-Morokuma energy decomposition analysis.
Agnese, R; Anderson, A J; Aramaki, T; Asai, M; Baker, W; Balakishiyeva, D; Barker, D; Basu Thakur, R; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Calkins, R; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Ghaith, M; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jardin, D; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Leder, A; Loer, B; Lopez Asamar, E; Lukens, P; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Mast, N; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Morales Mendoza, J D; Oser, S M; Page, K; Page, W A; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Roberts, A; Rogers, H E; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Toback, D; Underwood, R; Upadhyayula, S; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wilson, J S; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J
2016-02-19
The CDMS low ionization threshold experiment (CDMSlite) uses cryogenic germanium detectors operated at a relatively high bias voltage to amplify the phonon signal in the search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Results are presented from the second CDMSlite run with an exposure of 70 kg day, which reached an energy threshold for electron recoils as low as 56 eV. A fiducialization cut reduces backgrounds below those previously reported by CDMSlite. New parameter space for the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section is excluded for WIMP masses between 1.6 and 5.5 GeV/c^{2}. PMID:26943526
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Aramaki, T.; Asai, M.; Baker, W.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Ghaith, M.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Mast, N.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Rogers, H. E.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Underwood, R.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.; SuperCDMS Collaboration
2016-02-01
The CDMS low ionization threshold experiment (CDMSlite) uses cryogenic germanium detectors operated at a relatively high bias voltage to amplify the phonon signal in the search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Results are presented from the second CDMSlite run with an exposure of 70 kg day, which reached an energy threshold for electron recoils as low as 56 eV. A fiducialization cut reduces backgrounds below those previously reported by CDMSlite. New parameter space for the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section is excluded for WIMP masses between 1.6 and 5.5 GeV /c2 .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elaeva, M. S.; Zhukov, M. Yu.; Shiryaeva, E. V.
2016-08-01
The hodograph method is used to construct a solution describing the interaction of weak discontinuities (rarefaction waves) for the problem of mass transfer by an electric field (zonal electrophoresis). Mathematically, the problem is reduced to the study of a system of two first-order quasilinear hyperbolic partial differential equations with data on characteristics (Goursat problem). The solution is constructed analytically in the form of implicit relations. An efficient numerical algorithm is described that reduces the system of quasilinear partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations. For the zonal electrophoresis equations, the Riemann problem with initial discontinuities specified at two different spatial points is completely solved.
Agnese, R.
2016-02-17
The CDMS low ionization threshold experiment (CDMSlite) uses cryogenic germanium detectors operated at a relatively high bias voltage to amplify the phonon signal in the search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Our results are presented from the second CDMSlite run with an exposure of 70 kg days, which reached an energy threshold for electron recoils as low as 56 eV. Furthermore, a fiducialization cut reduces backgrounds below those previously reported by CDMSlite. Lastly, new parameter space for the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section is excluded forWIMP masses between 1.6 and 5.5 GeV/c2.
Agnese, R; Anderson, A J; Aramaki, T; Asai, M; Baker, W; Balakishiyeva, D; Barker, D; Basu Thakur, R; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Calkins, R; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Ghaith, M; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jardin, D; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Leder, A; Loer, B; Lopez Asamar, E; Lukens, P; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Mast, N; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Morales Mendoza, J D; Oser, S M; Page, K; Page, W A; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Roberts, A; Rogers, H E; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Toback, D; Underwood, R; Upadhyayula, S; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wilson, J S; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J
2016-02-19
The CDMS low ionization threshold experiment (CDMSlite) uses cryogenic germanium detectors operated at a relatively high bias voltage to amplify the phonon signal in the search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Results are presented from the second CDMSlite run with an exposure of 70 kg day, which reached an energy threshold for electron recoils as low as 56 eV. A fiducialization cut reduces backgrounds below those previously reported by CDMSlite. New parameter space for the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section is excluded for WIMP masses between 1.6 and 5.5 GeV/c^{2}.
Zhu, Lijuan; Wang, Zhikai; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Chunli; Hua, Shasha; Su, Zeqi; Brako, Larry; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva; Ye, Mingliang; Wei, Xuan; Zou, Hanfa; Ding, Xia; Liu, Lifang; Liu, Xing; Yao, Xuebiao
2015-11-01
Mitotic chromosome segregation is orchestrated by the dynamic interaction of spindle microtubules with the kinetochores. During chromosome alignment, kinetochore-bound microtubules undergo dynamic cycles between growth and shrinkage, leading to an oscillatory movement of chromosomes along the spindle axis. Although kinetochore protein CENP-H serves as a molecular control of kinetochore-microtubule dynamics, the mechanistic link between CENP-H and kinetochore microtubules (kMT) has remained less characterized. Here, we show that CSPP1 is a kinetochore protein essential for accurate chromosome movements in mitosis. CSPP1 binds to CENP-H in vitro and in vivo. Suppression of CSPP1 perturbs proper mitotic progression and compromises the satisfaction of spindle assembly checkpoint. In addition, chromosome oscillation is greatly attenuated in CSPP1-depleted cells, similar to what was observed in the CENP-H-depleted cells. Importantly, CSPP1 depletion enhances velocity of kinetochore movement, and overexpression of CSPP1 decreases the speed, suggesting that CSPP1 promotes kMT stability during cell division. Specific perturbation of CENP-H/CSPP1 interaction using a membrane-permeable competing peptide resulted in a transient mitotic arrest and chromosome segregation defect. Based on these findings, we propose that CSPP1 cooperates with CENP-H on kinetochores to serve as a novel regulator of kMT dynamics for accurate chromosome segregation.
Gunasekara, Nirosha; Sykes, Brian; Hugh, Judith
2012-05-18
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MUC1 binds the Src-SH3 domain potentially triggering Src dependent cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NMR Spectroscopy was used to monitor MUC1-CD and Src SH3 domain titrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MUC1-CD peptides bind with a low affinity (K{sub d} of 2-3 mM) to a non-canonical site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weak interactions may mediate dynamic processes like migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MUC1-CD and Src-SH3 interaction may be a prime target to inhibit cell migration. -- Abstract: Breast cancer causes death through cancer cell migration and subsequent metastasis to distant organs. In vitro, the MUC1 mucin can mediate breast cancer cell migration by binding to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). This migration is dependent on MUC1 cytoplasmic domain (MUC1-CD) activation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Src, possibly through competitive displacement of an inhibitory Src intramolecular SH3 binding. Therefore, we characterized the binding site and affinity of the MUC1-CD for Src-SH3 using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to monitor the titration of the {sup 15}N labeled Src-SH3 domain with synthetic native and mutant peptides of MUC1-CD. The results revealed that the dissociation constant (K{sub d}) for the interaction of the native MUC1-CD peptides and Src-SH3 domain was weak with a K{sub d} of 2-3 mM. Notably, the SH3 residues most perturbed upon peptide binding were located outside the usual hydrophobic binding cleft in a previously described alternate binding site on the Src-SH3, suggesting that MUC1-CD binds to a non-canonical site. The binding characteristics outlined here suggest that the interaction between Src-SH3 and MUC1-CD represents a novel weak electrostatic interaction of the type which is increasingly recognized as important in transient and dynamic protein complexes required for cell migration and signal transduction. As such, this
[Lactate-guanidinium and lactate-lactate weak interactions in aqueous solutions].
Horváth, P; Gergely, A; Noszál, B
1995-07-01
Spectropolarimetry was used to quantify the guanidinium-lactate and lactate-lactate equilibrium reactions. Association constants for the guanidinium-lactate and lactate-lactate formations are 6.11 and 1.12, respectively, in aqueous solution. The value 6.11 is certainly high among electrostatic interactions in water. This stability, however, can not account for the extremely strong lactate-protein binding, observed by NMR spectroscopy. The molar rotation coefficients for both the heteroassociation and homoassociation complexes are also calculated. The homoassociative lactate-lactate binding is the first such interaction, whose constant has been determined by spectropolarimetry in aqueous solution.
Ayabe, Kazuki; Sato, Kazunobu; Nishida, Shinsuke; Ise, Tomoaki; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Sugisaki, Kenji; Morita, Yasushi; Toyota, Kazuo; Shiomi, Daisuke; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Takui, Takeji
2012-07-01
determined by simulating the random-orientation CW ESR spectra of 1. In addition, we have carried out Q-band pulsed ELDOR (ELectron-electron DOuble Resonance) experiments to confirm whether the obtained values for D(12) and J(12) are accurate. The distance is in a fuzzy region for the distance-measurements capability of the conventional, powerful ELDOR spectroscopy. The strong and weak points of the ESN spectroscopy with a single microwave frequency applicable to weakly exchange-coupled multi-electron systems are discussed in comparison with conventional ELDOR spectroscopy. The theoretical spin dipolar tensor and exchange interaction of the TEMPO biradical, as obtained by sophisticated quantum chemical calculations, agree with the experimental ones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hui; Shi, Deheng; Sun, Jinfeng; Zhu, Zunlue
2016-11-01
The potential energy curves were calculated for the 24 Λ-S states correlating with the lowest four dissociation channels of the BO+ cation. The potential energy curves were also computed for the 60 Ω states generated from the 24 Λ-S states. Calculations were made for internuclear separations from 0.08 to 1.05 nm using the CASSCF method, which was followed by the icMRCI approach with the correlation-consistent basis sets. Core-valence correlation, scalar relativistic and basis extrapolation were accounted for. Of the 24 Λ-S states, only three states (25Π, 15Σ-, and 25Σ-) were found to be repulsive; only the 15Δ state was found to be a very weakly-bound state; and the E1Π, 23Π, and 15Π states were found to be very strong bound. In addition, the B1Σ+ and 31Σ+ states have double wells by the avoided crossing between the two states. The a3Π, 13Σ-, and 23Σ- states are inverted with the spin-orbit coupling effect included. The spectroscopic parameters were determined and the vibrational properties of several Λ-S states were predicted. Comparison with available experimental data shows that the methodology employed is highly accurate for this system.
Liu, Hui; Shi, Deheng; Sun, Jinfeng; Zhu, Zunlue
2016-11-01
The potential energy curves were calculated for the 24 Λ-S states correlating with the lowest four dissociation channels of the BO(+) cation. The potential energy curves were also computed for the 60 Ω states generated from the 24 Λ-S states. Calculations were made for internuclear separations from 0.08 to 1.05nm using the CASSCF method, which was followed by the icMRCI approach with the correlation-consistent basis sets. Core-valence correlation, scalar relativistic and basis extrapolation were accounted for. Of the 24 Λ-S states, only three states (2(5)Π, 1(5)Σ(-), and 2(5)Σ(-)) were found to be repulsive; only the 1(5)Δ state was found to be a very weakly-bound state; and the E(1)Π, 2(3)Π, and 1(5)Π states were found to be very strong bound. In addition, the B(1)Σ(+) and 3(1)Σ(+) states have double wells by the avoided crossing between the two states. The a(3)Π, 1(3)Σ(-), and 2(3)Σ(-) states are inverted with the spin-orbit coupling effect included. The spectroscopic parameters were determined and the vibrational properties of several Λ-S states were predicted. Comparison with available experimental data shows that the methodology employed is highly accurate for this system. PMID:27289351
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Takeshi; Nakai, Hiromi
2009-12-01
A new method to calculate the atom-atom dispersion coefficients in a molecule is proposed for the use in density functional theory with dispersion (DFT-D) correction. The method is based on the local response approximation due to Dobson and Dinte [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1780 (1996)], with modified dielectric model recently proposed by Vydrov and van Voorhis [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 104105 (2009)]. The local response model is used to calculate the distributed multipole polarizabilities of atoms in a molecule, from which the dispersion coefficients are obtained by an explicit frequency integral of the Casimir-Polder type. Thus obtained atomic polarizabilities are also used in the damping function for the short-range singularity. Unlike empirical DFT-D methods, the local response dispersion (LRD) method is able to calculate the dispersion energy from the ground-state electron density only. It is applicable to any geometry, free from physical constants such as van der Waals radii or atomic polarizabilities, and computationally very efficient. The LRD method combined with the long-range corrected DFT functional (LC-BOP) is applied to calculations of S22 weakly bound complex set [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 1985 (2006)]. Binding energies obtained by the LC-BOP + LRD agree remarkably well with ab initio references.
Sakhr, Jamal; Whelan, Niall D.; Dumont, Randall S.
2006-11-15
The semiclassical limit of the quantum few-body problem has not been studied in general terms from the point of view of periodic orbit theory. In a previous paper, we studied noninteracting two-body systems [Phys. Rev. A 62, 042109 (2000)] and discussed the fact that the periodic orbits occur in continuous families. Interactions destroy the periodic orbit families leaving a discrete set of isolated periodic orbits. In this paper, we consider the effect of weak two-body interactions, which can be thought of as symmetry-breaking perturbations and can thus be analyzed using a theory developed by Creagh [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 248, 1 (1996)]. The Poeschl-Teller two-body system confined in a square well is analyzed to illustrate the use of the formalism. It is shown that the effect of the interaction can be evaluated for all two-particle periodic orbits, and that the coarse-grained quantum density of states can be fully reproduced from simply summing the perturbed contributions of each periodic orbit family. Good numerical estimates of the quantum singlet energies can actually be obtained, but it is found that that perturbed trace formulas cannot reproduce the multiplet splittings predicted from quantum mechanics. Several interesting properties are observed depending on the range of the interaction and on whether the interaction is attractive or repulsive.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linke, J. M.; Odenbach, S.
2015-05-01
The anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect of a ferrofluid has been studied in a specially designed slit die viscometer, which allows three distinct orientations of the magnetic field with respect to the fluid flow. The corresponding Miesowicz viscosity coefficients were determined in dependence of the shear rate and the magnetic field intensity to gain a comprehensive magnetorheological characterization of the fluid. The particles in the fluid have a mean diameter of 13 nm corresponding to an interaction parameter of λ ≈ 1.3 for magnetite. Thus, the fluid can be expected to show a transition from non-interacting individual particles to microstructures with chain-like associated particles when the magnetic field intensity is increased and the shear rate is decreased. The observed field and shear dependent anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect is explained coherently in terms of these microstructural changes in the fluid.
Linke, J M; Odenbach, S
2015-05-01
The anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect of a ferrofluid has been studied in a specially designed slit die viscometer, which allows three distinct orientations of the magnetic field with respect to the fluid flow. The corresponding Miesowicz viscosity coefficients were determined in dependence of the shear rate and the magnetic field intensity to gain a comprehensive magnetorheological characterization of the fluid. The particles in the fluid have a mean diameter of 13 nm corresponding to an interaction parameter of λ ≈ 1.3 for magnetite. Thus, the fluid can be expected to show a transition from non-interacting individual particles to microstructures with chain-like associated particles when the magnetic field intensity is increased and the shear rate is decreased. The observed field and shear dependent anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect is explained coherently in terms of these microstructural changes in the fluid. PMID:25837303
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xanthos, Savvas; Gong, Minwei; Andreopoulos, Yiannis
2010-01-01
Further analysis of the experimental data of the velocity gradient tensor first published by Xanthos et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 584, 301 (2007)] has been carried out and new results are reported here to provide additional insights on the effects of expansion waves interacting with isotropic turbulence. The flow field was generated by the reflection of an incoming shock wave at the open end of a large scale shock tube facility which interacted with the induced flow behind the incident shock wave which passed through a turbulence generating grid. In the present configuration the interaction is free from streamline curvature effects, which cause additional effects on turbulence. The strength of the applied expansive straining was 240 s-1. Rectangular pattern grids of different mesh sizes were used to generate isotropic and homogeneous turbulence with turbulent Reynolds number Reλ based on Taylor's microscale between 450 and 488. Lateral vorticity fluctuations and fluctuations of enstrophy and all stretching vector components are drastically reduced during the interaction. Residual attenuation in the postinteraction flow field was found only in the lateral vorticity fluctuations and in the longitudinal stretching term S11Ω1. Helicity and the helicity angle were computed from the data and the orientation angle of the vorticity vector in reference to the velocity vector was determined. Large fluctuations of the helicity angle were observed which extend from 0° to 180° with most probable values close to 30° and 130° and a mean value of 85°. Rotational dissipation rate was found to be high at these angles. The time-dependent signals of enstrophy, vortex stretching/tilting vector, and dissipation rate were found to exhibit a rather strong intermittent behavior which is characterized by high amplitude bursts followed by low level activities. It was found that the observed strong dissipative events are mostly associated with strong activities in the longitudinal stretching
Evaluating interaction energies of weakly bonded systems using the Buckingham-Hirshfeld method
Krishtal, A.; Van Alsenoy, C.; Geerlings, P.
2014-05-14
We present the finalized Buckingham-Hirshfeld method (BHD-DFT) for the evaluation of interaction energies of non-bonded dimers with Density Functional Theory (DFT). In the method, dispersion energies are evaluated from static multipole polarizabilities, obtained on-the-fly from Coupled Perturbed Kohn-Sham calculations and partitioned into diatomic contributions using the iterative Hirshfeld partitioning method. The dispersion energy expression is distributed over four atoms and has therefore a higher delocalized character compared to the standard pairwise expressions. Additionally, full multipolar polarizability tensors are used as opposed to effective polarizabilities, allowing to retain the anisotropic character at no additional computational cost. A density dependent damping function for the BLYP, PBE, BP86, B3LYP, and PBE0 functionals has been implemented, containing two global parameters which were fitted to interaction energies and geometries of a selected number of dimers using a bi-variate RMS fit. The method is benchmarked against the S22 and S66 data sets for equilibrium geometries and the S22x5 and S66x8 data sets for interaction energies around the equilibrium geometry. Best results are achieved using the B3LYP functional with mean average deviation values of 0.30 and 0.24 kcal/mol for the S22 and S66 data sets, respectively. This situates the BHD-DFT method among the best performing dispersion inclusive DFT methods. Effect of counterpoise correction on DFT energies is discussed.
Spectral function in electro-weak interactions and its impact on neutrino oscillation experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jen, C.-M.
2015-10-01
Neutrino oscillation experiments have entered the high-precision era in the last few years. The oscillation parameters, as a measure of the neutrino properties, are extracted from the energy-dependent oscillation probability function. Different types of nuclear dynamics deeply influence the determination of neutrino energies in neutrino oscillation experiments. As a consequence, a comprehensive understanding of various nuclear dynamics interprets the scenario behind the neutrino interaction with nucleus and nuclei. The initial ground-state structure of the target nucleus is categorized in one typical nuclear dynamics, and its realistic description is generally referred as the spectral function (SF). Implementing the SF for each target nucleus into the GENIE neutrino event generator is the preliminary step necessary to obtain a reliable determination of the kinematics of all detectable final-products from neutrino interactions. At the intermedium-range of neutrino energies (˜ 1 GeV), the kinematic energy reconstruction is the vastly used approach and consists in identifying final-products as coming from the charged-current quasi-elastic-like (CCQE-like) neutrino interactions.
Spectral function in electro-weak interactions and its impact on neutrino oscillation experiments
Jen, C.-M.
2015-10-15
Neutrino oscillation experiments have entered the high-precision era in the last few years. The oscillation parameters, as a measure of the neutrino properties, are extracted from the energy-dependent oscillation probability function. Different types of nuclear dynamics deeply influence the determination of neutrino energies in neutrino oscillation experiments. As a consequence, a comprehensive understanding of various nuclear dynamics interprets the scenario behind the neutrino interaction with nucleus and nuclei. The initial ground-state structure of the target nucleus is categorized in one typical nuclear dynamics, and its realistic description is generally referred as the spectral function (SF). Implementing the SF for each target nucleus into the GENIE neutrino event generator is the preliminary step necessary to obtain a reliable determination of the kinematics of all detectable final-products from neutrino interactions. At the intermedium-range of neutrino energies (∼ 1 GeV), the kinematic energy reconstruction is the vastly used approach and consists in identifying final-products as coming from the charged-current quasi-elastic-like (CCQE-like) neutrino interactions.
Rothman, A.C.
1980-01-01
Two of the most powerful theoretical constraints on gague theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions are calculability of the generalized Cabibbo mixing angles and Natural Flavor Conservation (NFC) in gauge boson and Higgs mediated neutral currents. Much of the work in these areas has been done in the context of the standard SU(2) x U(1) gauge model Calculability is defined here in a precise way for an arbitrary gauge model with an unbroken U(1) symmetry (WET) for the first time and tis implications are explored. Also in the context of an arbitrary WET, it is found that NFC requires all quarks of a given charge and helicity to transform identically under the gauge group. The question as to whether a WET that obeys the fiats of NFC can support calculable mixing angles is answered in the negative. Similar results have been obtained for the standard model. This thesis addresses other outstanding problems in these areas, as well as formulating and examining a new left-right symmetric gauge model of the weak and electromagnetic interactions which exploits the gauge group SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ x U(1) employed first by Pati, Salam, and Mohapatra.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arjoranta, Juho; Heikkilä, Tero T.
2016-01-01
We study the effect of the intrinsic (Rashba or Dresselhaus) spin-orbit interaction in superconductor-nanowire-superconductor (SNS) weak links in the presence of a spin-splitting field that can result either from an intrinsic exchange field or the Zeeman effect of an applied field. We solve the full nonlinear Usadel equations numerically [The code used for calculating the results in this paper is available in https://github.com/wompo/Usadel-for-nanowires] and analyze the resulting supercurrent through the weak link and the behavior of the density of states in the center of the wire. We point out how the presence of the spin-orbit interaction gives rise to a long-range spin triplet supercurrent, which remains finite even in the limit of very large exchange fields. In particular, we show how rotating the field leads to a sequence of transitions between the 0 and π states as a function of the angle between the exchange field and the spin-orbit field. Simultaneously, the triplet pairing leads to a zero-energy peak in the density of states. We proceed by solving the linearized Usadel equations, showing the correspondence to the solutions of the full equations and detail the emergence of the long-range supercurrent components. Our studies are relevant for ongoing investigations of supercurrent in semiconductor nanowires in the limit of several channels and in the presence of disorder.
Sun, Y. Y.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, K.; Zhang, S. B.
2008-01-01
Density functional theory (DFT) in the commonly used local density or generalized gradient approximation fails to describe van der Waals (vdW) interactions that are vital to organic, biological, and other molecular systems. Here, we propose a simple, efficient, yet accurate local atomic potential (LAP) approach, named DFT+LAP, for including vdW interactions in the framework of DFT. The LAPs for H, C, N, and O are generated by fitting the DFT+LAP potential energy curves of small molecule dimers to those obtained from coupled cluster calculations with single, double, and perturbatively treated triple excitations, CCSD(T). Excellent transferability of the LAPs is demonstrated by remarkable agreement with the JSCH-2005 benchmark database [P. Jurecka et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 1985 (2006)], which provides the interaction energies of CCSD(T) quality for 165 vdW and hydrogen-bonded complexes. For over 100 vdW dominant complexes in this database, our DFT+LAP calculations give a mean absolute deviation from the benchmark results less than 0.5 kcal/mol. The DFT+LAP approach involves no extra computational cost other than standard DFT calculations and no modification of existing DFT codes, which enables straightforward quantum simulations, such as ab initio molecular dynamics, on biomolecular systems, as well as on other organic systems.
Gravity as a dynamical consequence of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions
Zee, A.
1981-12-01
A coherent and reasonable account of gravitational physics is shown to be possible. The three non-gravitational interactions are described by a scale and conformal invariant and asymptotically free Yang-Mills theory with massless fermions. Conformal invariance is required so that the gravitational sector of the theory is given by the Weyl action. The theory is renormalizable and has a unitary S-matrix. Possible breakdown of causality is observable only at the Planck length. In this theory, Einstein's theory of gravity is induced as an effective long-distance theory. An R/sup 2/ term is also induced with a finite and physically desired sign. (GHT)
Hyla-Kryspin, Isabella; Haufe, Günter; Grimme, Stefan
2004-07-19
We present a comparative study on the nature and strength of weak hydrogen bonding between the C(sp3)-H, C(sp2)-H, and C(sp)-H donor bonds and F-C(sp3) acceptors. The series of molecules CH3F.CH4 (2 a, 2 b), CH3F.C2H4 (3), CH3F.C2H2 (4), as well as model complexes of experimentally characterized 2-fluoro-2-phenylcyclopropane derivatives, C3H6.C3H5F (5 a, 5 b) and C3H5F.C3H5F (6) were investigated. Comparative studies were also performed for two conformers of the methane dimer (1 a, 1 b). The calculations were carried out in hierarchies of basis sets [SV(d,p), TZV(d,p), aug-TZV(d,p), TZV(2df,2pd), aug-TZV(2df,2pd), QZV(3d2fg,2pd), aug-QZV(3d2fg,2pdf)] by means of ab initio [HF, MP2, QCISD, QCISD(T)] methods and density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP, DFT/PBE). It is shown that well-balanced basis sets of at least TZV(2df,2pd) quality are needed for a proper description of the weakly bonded systems. In the case of 2, 3, 5, and 6, the dispersion interaction is the dominant term of the entire attraction, which is not accounted for at the B3LYP level. Significant electrostatic contributions are observed for 6 and 3. For 4, these forces have a dominating contribution to the hydrogen bonding. The C(sp)--H...F--C(sp(3)) interaction in 4, though weak, exhibits the same characteristics as conventional hydrogen bridges. Despite showing longer H.F/H contacts compared to 1 a, 2 a, and 5 a the bifurcated structures, 1 b, 2 b, 5 b, are characterized by larger dispersion interactions leading to stronger bonding. For the systems with only one H.F contact, the MP2/QZV(3d2fg,2pd) interaction energy increases in the order 2 a (-1.62 kJ mol(-1)), 3 (-2.79 kJ mol(-1)), 5 a (-5.97 kJ mol(-1)), 4 (-7.25 kJ mol(-1)), and 6 (-10.02 kJ mol(-1)). This contradicts the estimated proton donor ability of the C--H bonds (2 a<5 a<3<6<4).
Aspects of the Flipped Unification of Strong, Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelley, Stephen
We explore phenomenological aspects of a recently -proposed Flipped SU(5) times U(1) supersymmetric GUT which incorporates an economical and natural mechanism for splitting Higgs doublets and triplets, and can be derived from string theory. Using experimental values of sin^2theta_{W } and the strong QCD coupling, we estimate the grand unification scale M_{G} , where the strong and weak coupling strengths are equal, and the superunification scale M_ {SU}, where all couplings are equal. We find typical values of M_{G} ~ 10^{15} to 10^{17} GeV, with M_{SU} somewhat higher and close to the value suggested by string models. We discuss different mechanisms for baryon decay, finding that the dominant one is gauge boson exchange giving rise to pto e^+pi^0, |nupi^+ and nto e^+pi^-, | nupi^0 with partial lifetimes ~10^{35+/- 2}y. We show that a large GUT symmetry-breaking scale M_{G} is naturally generated by radiative corrections to the effective potential if a small amount ~ m_{W} of soft supersymmetry breaking is generated dynamically at a large scale. We conclude that such spontaneous symmetry breaking causes sizable D-term contributions O(m _{W}) to all low energy scalar masses which may provide a means to discriminate among various candidate gauge groups. We analyze the low-energy effective theory obtained using the renormalization group equations, demonstrating that electroweak symmetry breaking is obtained if m_{t}~ 60 to 90 GeV. We analyze the spectrum of sparticles, with particular attention to neutralinos. Analysis of the dark matter properties of the theory shows that the LSP decays before cosmological nucleosynthesis, repopulating the fermionic "flatino" partner of the flaton, giving a viable candidate for metastable dark matter. Finally, we show that the definition of the unified field provided by Maharishi's Vedic Science supports the identification of the unified field with pure consciousness, and we present structural parallels between the sequence of
Weakly Self-interacting Dark Matter and the Structure of Dark Halos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Naoki; Springel, Volker; White, Simon D. M.; Tormen, Giuseppe
2000-12-01
We study the formation of dark halos in a ΛCDM universe under the assumption that cold dark matter (CDM) particles have a finite cross section for elastic collisions. We compare evolution when CDM mean free paths are comparable to halo sizes with the collisionless and fluid limits. We show that a few collisions per particle per Hubble time at halo center can substantially affect the central density profile. Cross sections an order of magnitude larger produce sufficient relaxation for rich clusters to develop core radii in the range 100-200 h-1 kpc. The structural evolution of halos is a competition between collisional relaxation caused by individual particle interactions and violent relaxation resulting from the infall and merging processes by which clusters grow. Although our simulations concentrate on systems of cluster size, we can scale our results to address the halo structure expected for dwarf galaxies. We find that collision cross sections sufficiently large to significantly modify the cores of such galaxies produce cluster cores that are too large and/or too round to be consistent with observation. Thus, the simplest model for self-interacting dark matter is unable to improve fits to published dwarf galaxy rotation curves without violating other observational constraints.
Interplay of weak interactions in the atom-by-atom condensation of xenon within quantum boxes.
Nowakowska, Sylwia; Wäckerlin, Aneliia; Kawai, Shigeki; Ivas, Toni; Nowakowski, Jan; Fatayer, Shadi; Wäckerlin, Christian; Nijs, Thomas; Meyer, Ernst; Björk, Jonas; Stöhr, Meike; Gade, Lutz H; Jung, Thomas A
2015-01-01
Condensation processes are of key importance in nature and play a fundamental role in chemistry and physics. Owing to size effects at the nanoscale, it is conceptually desired to experimentally probe the dependence of condensate structure on the number of constituents one by one. Here we present an approach to study a condensation process atom-by-atom with the scanning tunnelling microscope, which provides a direct real-space access with atomic precision to the aggregates formed in atomically defined 'quantum boxes'. Our analysis reveals the subtle interplay of competing directional and nondirectional interactions in the emergence of structure and provides unprecedented input for the structural comparison with quantum mechanical models. This approach focuses on-but is not limited to-the model case of xenon condensation and goes significantly beyond the well-established statistical size analysis of clusters in atomic or molecular beams by mass spectrometry. PMID:25608225
Interplay of weak interactions in the atom-by-atom condensation of xenon within quantum boxes
Nowakowska, Sylwia; Wäckerlin, Aneliia; Kawai, Shigeki; Ivas, Toni; Nowakowski, Jan; Fatayer, Shadi; Wäckerlin, Christian; Nijs, Thomas; Meyer, Ernst; Björk, Jonas; Stöhr, Meike; Gade, Lutz H.; Jung, Thomas A.
2015-01-01
Condensation processes are of key importance in nature and play a fundamental role in chemistry and physics. Owing to size effects at the nanoscale, it is conceptually desired to experimentally probe the dependence of condensate structure on the number of constituents one by one. Here we present an approach to study a condensation process atom-by-atom with the scanning tunnelling microscope, which provides a direct real-space access with atomic precision to the aggregates formed in atomically defined ‘quantum boxes’. Our analysis reveals the subtle interplay of competing directional and nondirectional interactions in the emergence of structure and provides unprecedented input for the structural comparison with quantum mechanical models. This approach focuses on—but is not limited to—the model case of xenon condensation and goes significantly beyond the well-established statistical size analysis of clusters in atomic or molecular beams by mass spectrometry. PMID:25608225
Interplay of weak interactions in the atom-by-atom condensation of xenon within quantum boxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowakowska, Sylwia; Wäckerlin, Aneliia; Kawai, Shigeki; Ivas, Toni; Nowakowski, Jan; Fatayer, Shadi; Wäckerlin, Christian; Nijs, Thomas; Meyer, Ernst; Björk, Jonas; Stöhr, Meike; Gade, Lutz H.; Jung, Thomas A.
2015-01-01
Condensation processes are of key importance in nature and play a fundamental role in chemistry and physics. Owing to size effects at the nanoscale, it is conceptually desired to experimentally probe the dependence of condensate structure on the number of constituents one by one. Here we present an approach to study a condensation process atom-by-atom with the scanning tunnelling microscope, which provides a direct real-space access with atomic precision to the aggregates formed in atomically defined ‘quantum boxes’. Our analysis reveals the subtle interplay of competing directional and nondirectional interactions in the emergence of structure and provides unprecedented input for the structural comparison with quantum mechanical models. This approach focuses on—but is not limited to—the model case of xenon condensation and goes significantly beyond the well-established statistical size analysis of clusters in atomic or molecular beams by mass spectrometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davletshin, A. I.; Khalitova, T. F.
2016-01-01
A mathematical model of spatial hydrodynamic interaction of gas bubbles in liquid in an acoustic field taking into account small deformations of their surfaces is proposed. It is a system of ordinary differential equations of the second order in radii of the bubbles, the position vectors of their centers and the amplitudes of deviation of their shape from the spherical one in the form of spherical harmonics. The equations derived are of the first order of accuracy in A / R and of the fourth order in R / D, where R is the characteristic radius of the bubbles, A is the amplitude of characteristic deviation of their surface from the spherical one in the form of spherical harmonics, D is the characteristic distance between bubbles. The derivation of the equations is carried out by the method of spherical functions with the use of the Bernoulli integral, the kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions on the surface of the bubbles. The effects of viscosity and compressibility of the liquid are considered approximately, the gas in the bubbles is assumed homobaric.
Weak trophic interactions among birds, insects and white oak saplings (Quercus alba)
Lichtenberg, J.S.; Lichtenberg, D.A.
2002-01-01
We examined the interactions among insectivorous birds, arthropods and white oak saplings (Quercus alba L.) in a temperate deciduous forest under 'open' and 'closed' canopy environments. For 2 y, we compared arthropod densities, leaf damage and sapling growth. Saplings from each canopy environment were assigned to one of four treatments: (1) reference, (2) bird exclosure, (3) insecticide and (4) exclosure + insecticide. Sap-feeding insects were the most abundant arthropod feeding guild encountered and birds reduced sap-feeder densities in 1997, but not in 1998. Although there was no detectable influence of birds on leaf-chewer densities in either year, leaf damage to saplings was greater within bird exclosures than outside of bird exclosures in 1997. Insecticide significantly reduced arthropod densities and leaf damage to saplings, but there was no corresponding increase in sapling growth. Growth and biomass were greater for saplings in more open canopy environments for both years. Sap-feeder densities were higher on closed canopy than open canopy saplings in 1997, but canopy environment did not influence the effects of birds on lower trophic levels. Although previous studies have found birds to indirectly influence plant growth and biomass, birds did not significantly influence the growth or biomass of white oak saplings during our study.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varela, J.; Pantellini, F.; Moncuquet, M.
2016-01-01
The aim of this study is to simulate the interaction of the solar wind with the Hermean magnetosphere when the interplanetary magnetic field is weak, performing a parametric study for all the range of hydrodynamic values of the solar wind predicted on Mercury for the ENLIL + GONG WSA + Cone SWRC model: density from 12 to 180 cm-3, velocity from 200 to 500 km/s and temperatures from 2 ·104 to 18 ·104 K, and compare the results with a real MESSENGER orbit as reference case. We use the code PLUTO in spherical coordinates and an asymmetric multipolar expansion for the Hermean magnetic field. The study shows for all simulations a stand off distance larger than the Mercury radius and the presence of close magnetic field lines on the day side of the planet, so the dynamic pressure of the solar wind is not high enough to push the magnetopause on the planet surface if the interplanetary magnetic field is weak. The simulations with large dynamic pressure lead to a large compression of the Hermean magnetic field modifying its topology in the inner magnetosphere as well as the plasma flows from the magnetosheath towards the planet surface.
Zhao, Kailou; Yang, Fan; Xia, Hongjun; Wang, Fei; Song, Qingguo; Bai, Quan
2015-03-01
In this study, 3-diethylamino-1-propyne was covalently bonded to the azide-silica by a click reaction to obtain a novel dual-function mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase for protein separation with a ligand containing tertiary amine and two ethyl groups capable of electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction functionalities, which can display hydrophobic interaction chromatography character in a high-salt-concentration mobile phase and weak anion exchange character in a low-salt-concentration mobile phase employed for protein separation. As a result, it can be employed to separate proteins with weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction modes, respectively. The resolution and selectivity of the stationary phase were evaluated in both hydrophobic interaction and ion exchange modes with standard proteins, respectively, which can be comparable to that of conventional weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography columns. Therefore, the synthesized weak anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column can be used to replace two corresponding conventional weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography columns to separate proteins. Based on this mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase, a new off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography technology using only a single dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column was developed. Nine kinds of tested proteins can be separated completely using the developed method within 2.0 h.
Chęcińska, Lilianna; Grabowsky, Simon; Małecka, Magdalena; Rybarczyk-Pirek, Agnieszka J; Jóźwiak, Andrzej; Paulmann, Carsten; Luger, Peter
2011-12-01
A combined experimental and theoretical study of three isoindole derivatives was made on the basis of a topological analysis of their electron-density distributions. Experimental electron densities were determined from high-resolution X-ray diffraction data sets measured with synchrotron radiation at 100 K, whereas theoretical calculations were performed using DFT methods at the B3LYP\\6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of approximation. Both experimental and theoretical models are in good agreement with each other. Since the analysed structures possess a variety of hydrogen-bonding interactions, weak intermolecular contacts of C-H···C(π), C,N(π)···C,N(π) and H···H types were subject to our special interest and are discussed in detail. They were characterized quantitatively and qualitatively by topological properties using Bader's Atoms in Molecules theory and by mapping the electron-density distribution, electrostatic potential and a geometric function on the Hirshfeld surface. This way the forces and directions of intermolecular interactions as present on the molecular surfaces were depicted and described. These interactions not only guide crystal packing, but are likewise important for recognition processes involving (aza)isoindole fragments in a biological environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muha, Boris; Čanić, Sunčica
2016-06-01
We study a nonlinear, moving boundary fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problem between an incompressible, viscous Newtonian fluid, modeled by the 2D Navier-Stokes equations, and an elastic structure modeled by the shell or plate equations. The fluid and structure are coupled via the Navier slip boundary condition and balance of contact forces at the fluid-structure interface. The slip boundary condition might be more realistic than the classical no-slip boundary condition in situations, e.g., when the structure is "rough", and in modeling FSI dynamics near, or at a contact. Cardiovascular tissue and cell-seeded tissue constructs, which consist of grooves in tissue scaffolds that are lined with cells, are examples of "rough" elastic interfaces interacting with an incompressible, viscous fluid. The problem of heart valve closure is an example of a FSI problem with a contact involving elastic interfaces. We prove the existence of a weak solution to this class of problems by designing a constructive proof based on the time discretization via operator splitting. This is the first existence result for fluid-structure interaction problems involving elastic structures satisfying the Navier slip boundary condition.
Shan, Chung-Lin
2014-08-01
In this paper, we extended our earlier work on the reconstruction of the (time-averaged) one-dimensional velocity distribution of Galactic Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) and introduce the Bayesian fitting procedure to the theoretically predicted velocity distribution functions. In this reconstruction process, the (rough) velocity distribution reconstructed by using raw data from direct Dark Matter detection experiments directly, i.e. measured recoil energies, with one or more different target materials, has been used as ''reconstructed-input'' information. By assuming a fitting velocity distribution function and scanning the parameter space based on the Bayesian analysis, the astronomical characteristic parameters, e.g. the Solar and Earth's Galactic velocities, will be pinned down as the output results.
Minoura, Itsushi; Katayama, Eisaku; Sekimoto, Ken; Muto, Etsuko
2010-04-21
Various proteins are known to exhibit one-dimensional Brownian motion along charged rodlike polymers, such as microtubules (MTs), actin, and DNA. The electrostatic interaction between the proteins and the rodlike polymers appears to be crucial for one-dimensional Brownian motion, although the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. We examined the interactions of positively-charged nanoparticles composed of polyacrylamide gels with MTs. These hydrophilic nanoparticles bound to MTs and displayed one-dimensional Brownian motion in a charge-dependent manner, which indicates that nonspecific electrostatic interaction is sufficient for one-dimensional Brownian motion. The diffusion coefficient decreased exponentially with an increasing particle charge (with the exponent being 0.10 kBT per charge), whereas the duration of the interaction increased exponentially (exponent of 0.22 kBT per charge). These results can be explained semiquantitatively if one assumes that a particle repeats a cycle of binding to and movement along an MT until it finally dissociates from the MT. During the movement, a particle is still electrostatically constrained in the potential valley surrounding the MT. This entire process can be described by a three-state model analogous to the Michaelis-Menten scheme, in which the two parameters of the equilibrium constant between binding and movement, and the rate of dissociation from the MT, are derived as a function of the particle charge density. This study highlights the possibility that the weak binding interactions between proteins and rodlike polymers, e.g., MTs, are mediated by a similar, nonspecific charge-dependent mechanism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sagui, Celeste; Pedersen, Lee G.; Darden, Thomas A.
2004-01-01
The accurate simulation of biologically active macromolecules faces serious limitations that originate in the treatment of electrostatics in the empirical force fields. The current use of "partial charges" is a significant source of errors, since these vary widely with different conformations. By contrast, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) obtained through the use of a distributed multipole moment description, has been shown to converge to the quantum MEP outside the van der Waals surface, when higher order multipoles are used. However, in spite of the considerable improvement to the representation of the electronic cloud, higher order multipoles are not part of current classical biomolecular force fields due to the excessive computational cost. In this paper we present an efficient formalism for the treatment of higher order multipoles in Cartesian tensor formalism. The Ewald "direct sum" is evaluated through a McMurchie-Davidson formalism [L. McMurchie and E. Davidson, J. Comput. Phys. 26, 218 (1978)]. The "reciprocal sum" has been implemented in three different ways: using an Ewald scheme, a particle mesh Ewald (PME) method, and a multigrid-based approach. We find that even though the use of the McMurchie-Davidson formalism considerably reduces the cost of the calculation with respect to the standard matrix implementation of multipole interactions, the calculation in direct space remains expensive. When most of the calculation is moved to reciprocal space via the PME method, the cost of a calculation where all multipolar interactions (up to hexadecapole-hexadecapole) are included is only about 8.5 times more expensive than a regular AMBER 7 [D. A. Pearlman et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 91, 1 (1995)] implementation with only charge-charge interactions. The multigrid implementation is slower but shows very promising results for parallelization. It provides a natural way to interface with continuous, Gaussian-based electrostatics in the future. It is
Sagui, Celeste; Pedersen, Lee G; Darden, Thomas A
2004-01-01
The accurate simulation of biologically active macromolecules faces serious limitations that originate in the treatment of electrostatics in the empirical force fields. The current use of "partial charges" is a significant source of errors, since these vary widely with different conformations. By contrast, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) obtained through the use of a distributed multipole moment description, has been shown to converge to the quantum MEP outside the van der Waals surface, when higher order multipoles are used. However, in spite of the considerable improvement to the representation of the electronic cloud, higher order multipoles are not part of current classical biomolecular force fields due to the excessive computational cost. In this paper we present an efficient formalism for the treatment of higher order multipoles in Cartesian tensor formalism. The Ewald "direct sum" is evaluated through a McMurchie-Davidson formalism [L. McMurchie and E. Davidson, J. Comput. Phys. 26, 218 (1978)]. The "reciprocal sum" has been implemented in three different ways: using an Ewald scheme, a particle mesh Ewald (PME) method, and a multigrid-based approach. We find that even though the use of the McMurchie-Davidson formalism considerably reduces the cost of the calculation with respect to the standard matrix implementation of multipole interactions, the calculation in direct space remains expensive. When most of the calculation is moved to reciprocal space via the PME method, the cost of a calculation where all multipolar interactions (up to hexadecapole-hexadecapole) are included is only about 8.5 times more expensive than a regular AMBER 7 [D. A. Pearlman et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 91, 1 (1995)] implementation with only charge-charge interactions. The multigrid implementation is slower but shows very promising results for parallelization. It provides a natural way to interface with continuous, Gaussian-based electrostatics in the future. It is
Kang, Yu; Gohlke, Ulrich; Engström, Olof; Hamark, Christoffer; Scheidt, Tom; Kunstmann, Sonja; Heinemann, Udo; Widmalm, Göran; Santer, Mark; Barbirz, Stefanie
2016-07-27
Understanding interactions of bacterial surface polysaccharides with receptor protein scaffolds is important for the development of antibiotic therapies. The corresponding protein recognition domains frequently form low-affinity complexes with polysaccharides that are difficult to address with experimental techniques due to the conformational flexibility of the polysaccharide. In this work, we studied the tailspike protein (TSP) of the bacteriophage Sf6. Sf6TSP binds and hydrolyzes the high-rhamnose, serotype Y O-antigen polysaccharide of the Gram-negative bacterium Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) as a first step of bacteriophage infection. Spectroscopic analyses and enzymatic cleavage assays confirmed that Sf6TSP binds long stretches of this polysaccharide. Crystal structure analysis and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy using an enhanced method to interpret the data permitted the detailed description of affinity contributions and flexibility in an Sf6TSP-octasaccharide complex. Dodecasaccharide fragments corresponding to three repeating units of the O-antigen in complex with Sf6TSP were studied computationally by molecular dynamics simulations. They showed that distortion away from the low-energy solution conformation found in the octasaccharide complex is necessary for ligand binding. This is in agreement with a weak-affinity functional polysaccharide-protein contact that facilitates correct placement and thus hydrolysis of the polysaccharide close to the catalytic residues. Our simulations stress that the flexibility of glycan epitopes together with a small number of specific protein contacts provide the driving force for Sf6TSP-polysaccharide complex formation in an overall weak-affinity interaction system. PMID:27045683
Peng, Yi; Feng, Yu; Deng, Guo-Jun; He, Yan-Mei; Fan, Qing-Hua
2016-09-13
The C-H/π interactions as the key driving force for the construction of supramolecular gels remain a great challenge because of their weak nature. We hereby employed for the first time weak C-H/π interactions for the construction of supramolecular dendritic gels based on peripherally methyl-functionalized poly(benzyl ether) dendrimers. Their gelation property is highly dependent on the nature of the peripheral methyl groups. Furthermore, single-crystal X-ray analysis and NMR spectroscopy revealed that multiple C-H/π interactions between the proton of the methyl group and the electron-rich peripheral methyl-substituted aryl ring played significant roles in the formation of supramolecular nanofibers and organogels. This study uncovers the critical role of weak noncovalent interactions and provides new insights into the further design of self-assembled nanomaterials.
Peng, Yi; Feng, Yu; Deng, Guo-Jun; He, Yan-Mei; Fan, Qing-Hua
2016-09-13
The C-H/π interactions as the key driving force for the construction of supramolecular gels remain a great challenge because of their weak nature. We hereby employed for the first time weak C-H/π interactions for the construction of supramolecular dendritic gels based on peripherally methyl-functionalized poly(benzyl ether) dendrimers. Their gelation property is highly dependent on the nature of the peripheral methyl groups. Furthermore, single-crystal X-ray analysis and NMR spectroscopy revealed that multiple C-H/π interactions between the proton of the methyl group and the electron-rich peripheral methyl-substituted aryl ring played significant roles in the formation of supramolecular nanofibers and organogels. This study uncovers the critical role of weak noncovalent interactions and provides new insights into the further design of self-assembled nanomaterials. PMID:27538342
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jex, Michal; Lotoreichik, Vladimir
2016-02-01
Let Λ ⊂ ℝ2 be a non-closed piecewise-C1 curve, which is either bounded with two free endpoints or unbounded with one free endpoint. Let u±|Λ ∈ L2(Λ) be the traces of a function u in the Sobolev space H1(ℝ2∖Λ) onto two faces of Λ. We prove that for a wide class of shapes of Λ the Schrödinger operator Hω Λ with δ'-interaction supported on Λ of strength ω ∈ L∞(Λ; ℝ) associated with the quadratic form H 1 ( R 2 ∖ Λ ) ∋ u ↦ ∫ R 2 |" separators=" ∇ u | 2 d x - ∫ Λ ω |" separators=" u + | Λ - u - | Λ | 2 d s has no negative spectrum provided that ω is pointwise majorized by a strictly positive function explicitly expressed in terms of Λ. If, additionally, the domain ℝ2∖Λ is quasi-conical, we show that σ ( Hω Λ ) = [ 0 , + ∞ ) . For a bounded curve Λ in our class and non-varying interaction strength ω ∈ ℝ, we derive existence of a constant ω∗ > 0 such that σ ( Hω Λ ) = [ 0 , + ∞ ) for all ω ∈ (-∞, ω∗]; informally speaking, bound states are absent in the weak coupling regime.
Electrokinetic detection for X-ray spectra of weakly interacting liquids: n-decane and n-nonane
Lam, Royce K.; Smith, Jacob W.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Saykally, Richard J.; Shih, Orion; Prendergast, David
2014-06-21
The introduction of liquid microjets into soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy enabled the windowless study of liquids by this powerful atom-selective high vacuum methodology. However, weakly interacting liquids produce large vapor backgrounds that strongly perturb the liquid signal. Consequently, solvents (e.g., hydrocarbons, ethers, ketones, etc.) and solutions of central importance in chemistry and biology have been inaccessible by this technology. Here we describe a new detection method, upstream detection, which greatly reduces the vapor phase contribution to the X-ray absorption signal while retaining important advantages of liquid microjet sample introduction (e.g., minimal radiation damage). The effectiveness of the upstream detection method is demonstrated in this first study of room temperature liquid hydrocarbons: n-nonane and n-decane. Good agreement with first principles’ calculations indicates that the eXcited electron and Core Hole theory adequately describes the subtle interactions in these liquids that perturb the electronic structure of the unoccupied states probed in core-level experiments.
Vaughan, Timothy E; Weaver, James C
2005-05-01
We describe an approach to aiding the design and interpretation of experiments involving biological effects of weakly interacting electromagnetic fields that range from steady (dc) to microwave frequencies. We propose that if known biophysical mechanisms cannot account for an inferred, underlying molecular change signal-to-noise ratio, (S/N)gen, of a observed result, then there are two interpretation choices: (1) there is an unknown biophysical mechanism with stronger coupling between the field exposure and the ongoing biochemical process, or (2) the experiment is responding to something other than the field exposure. Our approach is based on classical detection theory, the recognition that weakly interacting fields cannot break chemical bonds, and the consequence that such fields can only alter rates of ongoing, metabolically driven biochemical reactions, and transport processes. The approach includes both fundamental chemical noise (molecular shot noise) and other sources of competing chemical change, to be compared quantitatively to the field induced change for the basic case that the field alters a single step in a biochemical network. Consistent with pharmacology and toxicology, we estimate the molecular dose (mass associated with field induced molecular change per mass tissue) resulting from illustrative low frequency field exposures for the biophysical mechanism of voltage gated channels. For perspective, we then consider electric field-mediated delivery of small molecules across human skin and into individual cells. Specifically, we consider the examples of iontophoretic and electroporative delivery of fentanyl through skin and electroporative delivery of bleomycin into individual cells. The total delivered amount corresponds to a molecular change signal and the delivery variability corresponds to generalized chemical noise. Viewed broadly, biological effects due to nonionizing fields may include animal navigation, medical applications, and environmental
Ciccolini, M.; Denner, A.; Dittmaier, S.
2007-10-19
Radiative corrections of strong and electroweak interactions are presented at next-to-leading order for the production of a Higgs boson plus two hard jets via weak interactions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The calculation includes all weak-boson fusion and quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams as well as the corresponding interferences. The electroweak corrections, which are discussed here for the first time, reduce the cross sections by 5% and thus are of the same order of magnitude as the QCD corrections.
Berezhiani, Z.G.
1982-10-01
It is shown that if Goldstone particles are absent in a model of the strong and electroweak interactions based on the symmetry group G/sub L/xG/sub R/ (where G/sub L/,R = (SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1))/sub L/,R) with a renormalized Higgs potential, the necessary electric charges of the quarks (Q/sub u/ = 2/3, Q/sub d/ = -1/3, Q/sub ..nu../ = 0, Q/sub e/ = -1) are unambiguously fixed. The phenomenological aspects of such a model are considered. A mechanism is proposed for the creation of small Dirac neutrino masses, related to the hierarchy of ''left'' and ''right'' mass scales in broken G/sub L/xG/sub R/ symmetry, which (in contrast to standard approaches) does not require the introduction of additional superheavy neutrinos (the result that we obtain is me-italicapprox.(m/sup 2/(W/sup + -//sub L/)/ m/sup 2/(W/sup + -//sub R/))m/sub e/, where W/sup + -//sub L/ and W/sup + -//sub R/ are the charged weak bosons and m(W/sup + -//sub R/)>>m(W/sup + -//sub L/)).
Flux 1/fα noise in two-dimensional Heisenberg spin glasses: Effects of weak anisotropic interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atalaya, Juan; Clarke, John; Schön, Gerd; Shnirman, Alexander
2014-07-01
We study the dynamics of a two-dimensional ensemble of randomly distributed classical Heisenberg spins with isotropic RKKY and weaker anisotropic dipole-dipole couplings. Such ensembles may give rise to the flux noise observed in SQUIDs with a 1/fα power spectrum with α ≲1. We solve numerically the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations of motion in the dissipationless limit. We find that Ising-type fluctuators, which arise from spin clustering close to a spin-glass critical behavior with Tc=0, give rise to 1/fα noise. Even weak anisotropic interactions lead to a crossover from the Heisenberg-type criticality to the much stronger Ising-type criticality. The temperature-dependent exponent α (T)≲1 increases and approaches unity when the temperature is lowered. This mechanism acts in parallel to the spin diffusion mechanism. Whereas the latter is sensitive to the device geometry, the spin-clustering mechanism is largely geometry independent.
Zhang, L; Wu, F; Lee, S C; Zhao, H; Zhang, L
2014-08-01
Absorption of an orally administered drug with pH-dependent solubility may be altered when it is coadministered with a gastric acid-reducing agent (ARA). Assessing a drug's potential for pH-dependent drug-drug interactions (DDIs), considering study design elements for such DDI studies, and interpreting and communicating study results in the drug labeling to guide drug dosing are important for drug development. We collected pertinent information related to new molecular entities approved from January 2003 to May 2013 by the US Food and Drug Administration for which clinical DDI studies with ARAs were performed. On the basis of assessments of data on pH solubility and in vivo DDIs with ARAs, we proposed a conceptual framework for assessing the need for clinical pH-dependent DDI studies for weak base drugs (WBDs). Important study design considerations include selection of ARAs and timing of dosing of an ARA relative to the WBD in a DDI study. Labeling implications for drugs having DDIs with ARAs are also illustrated.
Roncaratti, L. F. Leal, L. A.; Silva, G. M. de; Pirani, F.; Aquilanti, V.; Gargano, R.
2014-10-07
We consider the analytical representation of the potential energy surfaces of relevance for the intermolecular dynamics of weakly bound complexes of chiral molecules. In this paper we study the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}−Ng (Ng=He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) systems providing the radial and the angular dependence of the potential energy surface on the relative position of the Ng atom. We accomplish this by introducing an analytical representation which is able to fit the ab initio energies of these complexes in a wide range of geometries. Our analysis sheds light on the role that the enantiomeric forms and the symmetry of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule play on the resulting barriers and equilibrium geometries. The proposed theoretical framework is useful to study the dynamics of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule, or other systems involving O–O and S–S bonds, interacting by non-covalent forces with atoms or molecules and to understand how the relative orientation of the O–H bonds changes along collisional events that may lead to a hydrogen bond formation or even to selectivity in chemical reactions.
Fleischmann, Martin; Jones, James S; Balázs, Gábor; Gabbaï, François P; Scheer, Manfred
2016-09-21
Reactions of the trinuclear Lewis acid perfluoro-ortho-phenylene)mercury [(o-HgC6F4)3] (1) with the polypnictogen complex [CpMo(CO)2(η(3)-P3)] (2) containing a cyclo-P3 ligand and the series of E2 complexes [{CpMo(CO)2}2(μ,η(2):η(2)-E2)] (E = P(3a), As(3b), Sb(3c), Bi(3d)) are reported. In all cases, the reaction products show very weak interactions between the En ligand complexes and the Lewis acid 1, as evidenced by their highly dynamic behaviour in solution and the formation of adducts in the solid state showing HgE contacts below the respective sum of the van der Waals radii. The complexes 2 (P3), 3a (P2) and 3b (As2) show interactions of only one pnictogen atom with all three Hg atoms of 1. The complex 3c (Sb2) forms two adducts with 1 showing either a side-on coordination of the Sb2 dumbbell towards Hg or an end-on coordination of both Sb atoms towards two independent molecules of 1. The Bi2 complex 3d shows an almost parallel alignment of the Bi2 dumbbell situated above the center of the planar Lewis acid 1. The arrangements of the E2 complex series towards 1 are rationalized with the help of electrostatic potential maps obtained by DFT calculations. Finally the structural characterizations of a new modification of the free Sb2 complex 3c, the Bi2 complex 3d, the starting material of its preparation [Bi{CpMo(CO)3}3] (4) and an unprecedented 'Cr4As5' cluster 5 are presented. PMID:27461890
Thews, R.L.; Scadron, M.D.; Patrascioiu, A.; Sucipto, E.
1986-01-01
Progress is reported in these areas: dynamical quark mass in QCD; quark s-d self energy in QFD; theory of nonleptonic weak decays; decays of heavy-quark mesons; quarks in nuclei; nonperturbative effects in non-abelian quantum field theory; whether perturbation theory is the asymptotic expansion in lattice gauge theories; and expanding in the gradient at weak coupling. 16 refs. (LEW)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andriichenko, N. N.; Ermilov, A. Yu.
2013-08-01
The optimum version of the DFT-D class of methods (BHHLYP-D2, 6-31G*) is chosen to describe binding in a Xe-phenol system with the aim of subsequent KM/MM calculations for complex Xe-containing protein systems. It is shown that the stability of the Xe-phenol system is due to weak dispersion interactions not described in conventional approaches using the density functional. The MP2 approach using the (aug)-cc-pVTZ basis and Stuttgart pseudopotential, which yield the best reproduction of the characteristics of a Xe2 xenon dimer, is chosen as the reference standard. It is noted that the 2010 DFT-D3 methods underestimate the binding energy by a factor of nearly three, while DFT methods without dispersion corrections do not reproduce the stability of Xe2 and Xe-phenol systems. It is found that in the best version of calculations, BHHLYP-D2, the binding energy in Xe-phenol complex is estimated to be 2.7 kcal/mol versus the 3.1 kcal/mol found using the comparative approach. It is concluded that BHHLYP-D2 adequately reproduces the difference between the two conformers of the Xe-phenol complex and trend toward an increase in binding energy in the series of aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan). DFT-D can also indicate the existence of excess conformers that are missing in systems according to more precise descriptions (MP2/(aug)-cc-pVTZ).
Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Yongho
2008-02-21
Comprehension of the basic concepts for the design of CO2-philic molecules is important due to the possibility for "green" chemistry in supercritical CO2 of substitute solvent systems. Lewis acid-base interactions and C-H...O weak hydrogen bonding were suggested as two key factors in the solubility of CO2-philic molecules. To isolate the stabilization energy of weak hydrogen bonding from the overall binding energy, high-level quantum mechanical calculations were performed for the van der Waals complexes of CO2 with methane, methylacetate, dimethylether, acetaldehyde, and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. Structures and energies were calculated at the MP2 level of theory using the 6-31+G(d) and aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets with basis set superposition error corrections. In addition, the single-point energies were calculated using recently developed multilevel methods. This study shows that the Lewis acid-base interaction has a significant impact on the complex stability compared to the C-H...O weak hydrogen bond. The additional stabilization energy of the cooperative weak hydrogen bond with alpha-proton of the carbonyl group was negligible on the enhancement of supercritical CO2 solubility. However, the stabilization energy was larger for the ether group, such that it may have an important role in increasing the supercritical CO2 solubility. Additional formation of cooperative weak hydrogen bonds may not further increase the solubility due to the stability reduction by steric hindrance.
Mardirossian, Narbe; Head-Gordon, Martin
2016-09-13
The 14 Minnesota density functionals published between the years 2005 and early 2016 are benchmarked on a comprehensive database of 4986 data points (84 data sets) involving molecules composed of main-group elements. The database includes noncovalent interactions, isomerization energies, thermochemistry, and barrier heights, as well as equilibrium bond lengths and equilibrium binding energies of noncovalent dimers. Additionally, the sensitivity of the Minnesota density functionals to the choice of basis set and integration grid is explored for both noncovalent interactions and thermochemistry. Overall, the main strength of the hybrid Minnesota density functionals is that the best ones provide very good performance for thermochemistry (e.g., M06-2X), barrier heights (e.g., M08-HX, M08-SO, MN15), and systems heavily characterized by self-interaction error (e.g., M06-2X, M08-HX, M08-SO, MN15), while the main weakness is that none of them are state-of-the-art for the full spectrum of noncovalent interactions and isomerization energies (although M06-2X is recommended from the 10 hybrid Minnesota functionals). Similarly, the main strength of the local Minnesota density functionals is that the best ones provide very good performance for thermochemistry (e.g., MN15-L), barrier heights (e.g., MN12-L), and systems heavily characterized by self-interaction error (e.g., MN12-L and MN15-L), while the main weakness is that none of them are state-of-the-art for the full spectrum of noncovalent interactions and isomerization energies (although M06-L is clearly the best from the four local Minnesota functionals). As an overall guide, M06-2X and MN15 are perhaps the most broadly useful hybrid Minnesota functionals, while M06-L and MN15-L are perhaps the most broadly useful local Minnesota functionals, although each has different strengths and weaknesses.
Mardirossian, Narbe; Head-Gordon, Martin
2016-09-13
The 14 Minnesota density functionals published between the years 2005 and early 2016 are benchmarked on a comprehensive database of 4986 data points (84 data sets) involving molecules composed of main-group elements. The database includes noncovalent interactions, isomerization energies, thermochemistry, and barrier heights, as well as equilibrium bond lengths and equilibrium binding energies of noncovalent dimers. Additionally, the sensitivity of the Minnesota density functionals to the choice of basis set and integration grid is explored for both noncovalent interactions and thermochemistry. Overall, the main strength of the hybrid Minnesota density functionals is that the best ones provide very good performance for thermochemistry (e.g., M06-2X), barrier heights (e.g., M08-HX, M08-SO, MN15), and systems heavily characterized by self-interaction error (e.g., M06-2X, M08-HX, M08-SO, MN15), while the main weakness is that none of them are state-of-the-art for the full spectrum of noncovalent interactions and isomerization energies (although M06-2X is recommended from the 10 hybrid Minnesota functionals). Similarly, the main strength of the local Minnesota density functionals is that the best ones provide very good performance for thermochemistry (e.g., MN15-L), barrier heights (e.g., MN12-L), and systems heavily characterized by self-interaction error (e.g., MN12-L and MN15-L), while the main weakness is that none of them are state-of-the-art for the full spectrum of noncovalent interactions and isomerization energies (although M06-L is clearly the best from the four local Minnesota functionals). As an overall guide, M06-2X and MN15 are perhaps the most broadly useful hybrid Minnesota functionals, while M06-L and MN15-L are perhaps the most broadly useful local Minnesota functionals, although each has different strengths and weaknesses. PMID:27537680
Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Harabati, C.
2011-11-15
The relations between matrix elements of different (P,T)-odd weak interactions are derived. We demonstrate that similar relations hold for parity-nonconserving transition amplitudes and electron electric dipole moments (EDMs) of atoms and molecules. This allows one to express P- and T-odd effects in many-electron systems caused by different symmetry-breaking mechanisms via each other using simple analytical formulas. We use these relations for the interpretation of the anapole moment measurements in cesium and thallium and for the analysis of the relative contributions of the scalar-pseudoscalar CP-odd weak interaction and electron EDMs to the EDMs of Cs, Tl, Fr, and other atoms and many polar molecules (YbF, PbO, ThO, etc.). Model-independent limits on electron EDMs and the parameter of the scalar-pseudoscalar CP-odd interaction are found from the analysis of the EDM measurements for Tl and YbF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Shouwen; Zhu, Qiaowang; Wei, ShuaiShuai; Wang, Daqi
2013-10-01
Eight crystalline organic salts derived from 4-phenylthiazol-2-amine and carboxylic acid derivatives (2-chloronicotinic acid, 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, p-nitrobenzoic acid, 2-hydroxy-5-(phenyldiazenyl)benzoic acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid, oxalic acid, and L-malic acid) were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. In all of the salts except 6, 7, and 8, the 4-phenylthiazol-2-amine and carboxylic acid components are held together by two fused heterosynthons: a R22(7) heterosynthon and a R22(8) heterosynthon. All supramolecular architectures of the organic salts 1-8 involve extensive Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. The salts displayed 2D/3D framework structure under these weak interactions.
Pick, Fraser S; Thompson, John R; Savard, Didier S; Leznoff, Daniel B; Fryzuk, Michael D
2016-04-18
A ferrocene-based bis(phosphinoamine) fc(NHP(i)Pr2)2 has been deprotonated and used in salt metathesis reactions to form dimeric complexes ([fc(NP(i)Pr2)2]M)2 (M = Fe, Co). A novel coordination environment for Co(II) is observed including a weak but significant Fe-Co interaction, which was characterized using X-ray crystallography, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and VT-magnetometry. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations including natural bond order analysis provides further support for the interaction and suggests a combination of Fe → Co and Co → Fe interactions.
A statistical model of ChIA-PET data for accurate detection of chromatin 3D interactions
Paulsen, Jonas; Rødland, Einar A.; Holden, Lars; Holden, Marit; Hovig, Eivind
2014-01-01
Identification of three-dimensional (3D) interactions between regulatory elements across the genome is crucial to unravel the complex regulatory machinery that orchestrates proliferation and differentiation of cells. ChIA-PET is a novel method to identify such interactions, where physical contacts between regions bound by a specific protein are quantified using next-generation sequencing. However, determining the significance of the observed interaction frequencies in such datasets is challenging, and few methods have been proposed. Despite the fact that regions that are close in linear genomic distance have a much higher tendency to interact by chance, no methods to date are capable of taking such dependency into account. Here, we propose a statistical model taking into account the genomic distance relationship, as well as the general propensity of anchors to be involved in contacts overall. Using both real and simulated data, we show that the previously proposed statistical test, based on Fisher's exact test, leads to invalid results when data are dependent on genomic distance. We also evaluate our method on previously validated cell-line specific and constitutive 3D interactions, and show that relevant interactions are significant, while avoiding over-estimating the significance of short nearby interactions. PMID:25114054
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fennelly, A. J.
1981-01-01
The TH epsilon mu formalism, used in analyzing equivalence principle experiments of metric and nonmetric gravity theories, is adapted to the description of the electroweak interaction using the Weinberg-Salam unified SU(2) x U(1) model. The use of the TH epsilon mu formalism is thereby extended to the weak interactions, showing how the gravitational field affects W sub mu (+ or -1) and Z sub mu (0) boson propagation and the rates of interactions mediated by them. The possibility of a similar extension to the strong interactions via SU(5) grand unified theories is briefly discussed. Also, using the effects of the potentials on the baryon and lepton wave functions, the effects of gravity on transition mediated in high-A atoms which are electromagnetically forbidden. Three possible experiments to test the equivalence principle in the presence of the weak interactions, which are technologically feasible, are then briefly outline: (1) K-capture by the FE nucleus (counting the emitted X-ray); (2) forbidden absorption transitions in high-A atoms' vapor; and (3) counting the relative Beta-decay rates in a suitable alpha-beta decay chain, assuming the strong interactions obey the equivalence principle.
Geringer-Sameth, Alex; Koushiappas, Savvas M
2011-12-01
Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are known to be excellent targets for the detection of annihilating dark matter. We present new limits on the annihilation cross section of weakly interacting massive particles based on the joint analysis of seven Milky Way dwarfs using a frequentist Neyman construction and Pass 7 data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. We exclude generic weakly interacting massive particle candidates annihilating into bb with a mass less than 40 GeV that reproduce the observed relic abundance. To within 95% systematic errors on the dark matter distribution within the dwarfs, the mass lower limit can be as low as 19 GeV or as high as 240 GeV. For annihilation into τ+ τ-, these limits become 19, 13, and 80 GeV, respectively.
Geringer-Sameth, Alex; Koushiappas, Savvas M
2011-12-01
Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are known to be excellent targets for the detection of annihilating dark matter. We present new limits on the annihilation cross section of weakly interacting massive particles based on the joint analysis of seven Milky Way dwarfs using a frequentist Neyman construction and Pass 7 data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. We exclude generic weakly interacting massive particle candidates annihilating into bb with a mass less than 40 GeV that reproduce the observed relic abundance. To within 95% systematic errors on the dark matter distribution within the dwarfs, the mass lower limit can be as low as 19 GeV or as high as 240 GeV. For annihilation into τ+ τ-, these limits become 19, 13, and 80 GeV, respectively. PMID:22242988
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Yumei; Huang, Shaoyun; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Jinxiong; Guo, Yunfan; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan; Xu, H. Q.
2016-01-01
The electron transport properties of a topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin film are studied in Hall-bar geometry. The film with a thickness of 10 nm is grown by van der Waals epitaxy on fluorophlogopite mica and Hall-bar devices are fabricated from the as-grown film directly on the mica substrate. Weak antilocalization and electron-electron interaction effects are observed and analyzed at low temperatures. The phase-coherence length extracted from the measured weak antilocalization characteristics shows a strong power-law increase with decreasing temperature and the transport in the film is shown to occur via coupled multiple (topological surface and bulk states) channels. The conductivity of the film shows a logarithmical decrease with decreasing temperature and thus the electron-electron interaction plays a dominant role in quantum corrections to the conductivity of the film at low temperatures.
Jing, Yumei; Huang, Shaoyun; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Jinxiong; Guo, Yunfan; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan; Xu, H Q
2016-01-28
The electron transport properties of a topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin film are studied in Hall-bar geometry. The film with a thickness of 10 nm is grown by van der Waals epitaxy on fluorophlogopite mica and Hall-bar devices are fabricated from the as-grown film directly on the mica substrate. Weak antilocalization and electron-electron interaction effects are observed and analyzed at low temperatures. The phase-coherence length extracted from the measured weak antilocalization characteristics shows a strong power-law increase with decreasing temperature and the transport in the film is shown to occur via coupled multiple (topological surface and bulk states) channels. The conductivity of the film shows a logarithmical decrease with decreasing temperature and thus the electron-electron interaction plays a dominant role in quantum corrections to the conductivity of the film at low temperatures.
Zhang, Liping; Noda, Isao; Wu, Yuqing
2009-06-01
The use of a novel spectral interconversion scheme, principal component analysis (PCA) based spectral prediction, to probe weak molecular interactions of a polymer film is reported. A PCA model is built based on a joint data matrix by concatenating two related spectral data matrices (such as infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra) along the variable direction, then the obtained loading matrix of the model is split into two parts to predict the desired spectra. For a better PCA-based prediction, it is suggested that the samples whose spectra are to be predicted should be as similar as possible to those used in the model. Based on the PCA model, the thermal-induced changes in the weak interaction of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPA) film is revealed by the interconversion between selected spectral ranges measured between 40 and 220 degrees C. The thermal-induced weak interaction changes of PNiPA, expressed as either the band shift or intensity changes at a specific region, have been probed properly. Meanwhile, the robustness of the spectral prediction is also compared with that achieved by a partial least squares (PLS2) model in detail, illustrating its advantages in predicting more subtle structural changes such as C-H groups.
Not Available
1991-12-31
This report discusses research in high energy physics on the following topics: rare b decays; flavor changing top decays;neutrino physics; standard model; cp violation; heavy ion collisions; electron-positron interactions; electron-hadron interactions; hadron-hadron interactions; deep inelastic scattering; and grand unified models. (LSP)
Cao, Zhen; Voth, Gregory A
2015-12-28
It is essential to be able to systematically construct coarse-grained (CG) models that can efficiently and accurately reproduce key properties of higher-resolution models such as all-atom. To fulfill this goal, a mapping operator is needed to transform the higher-resolution configuration to a CG configuration. Certain mapping operators, however, may lose information related to the underlying electrostatic properties. In this paper, a new mapping operator based on the centers of charge of CG sites is proposed to address this issue. Four example systems are chosen to demonstrate this concept. Within the multiscale coarse-graining framework, CG models that use this mapping operator are found to better reproduce the structural correlations of atomistic models. The present work also demonstrates the flexibility of the mapping operator and the robustness of the force matching method. For instance, important functional groups can be isolated and emphasized in the CG model. PMID:26723601
Cao, Zhen; Voth, Gregory A.
2015-12-28
It is essential to be able to systematically construct coarse-grained (CG) models that can efficiently and accurately reproduce key properties of higher-resolution models such as all-atom. To fulfill this goal, a mapping operator is needed to transform the higher-resolution configuration to a CG configuration. Certain mapping operators, however, may lose information related to the underlying electrostatic properties. In this paper, a new mapping operator based on the centers of charge of CG sites is proposed to address this issue. Four example systems are chosen to demonstrate this concept. Within the multiscale coarse-graining framework, CG models that use this mapping operator are found to better reproduce the structural correlations of atomistic models. The present work also demonstrates the flexibility of the mapping operator and the robustness of the force matching method. For instance, important functional groups can be isolated and emphasized in the CG model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuchs, M.; Ireta, J.; Scheffler, M.; Filippi, C.
2006-03-01
Dispersion (Van der Waals) forces are important in many molecular phenomena such as self-assembly of molecular crystals or peptide folding. Calculating this nonlocal correlation effect requires accurate electronic structure methods. Usual density-functional theory with generalized gradient functionals (GGA-DFT) fails unless empirical corrections are added that still need extensive validation. Quantum chemical methods like MP2 and coupled cluster are more accurate, yet limited to rather small systems by their unfavorable computational scaling. Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) can provide accurate molecular total energies and remains feasible also for larger systems. Here we apply the fixed-node DMC method to (bio-)molecular model systems where dispersion forces are significant: (dimethyl-) formamide and benzene dimers, and adenine-thymine DNA base pairs. Our DMC binding energies agree well with data from coupled cluster (CCSD(T)), in particular for stacked geometries where GGA-DFT fails qualitatively and MP2 predicts too strong binding.
Su, Lei; Song, Wei-Chao; Zhao, Jiong-Peng; Liu, Fu-Chen
2016-07-01
A new single-chain-magnet (SCM), [Co4(OMe)3(HCO2)2(L)3·DMF]n, (L = 4-(pyridin-4-yl)benzolate) (2), was constructed by changing the spacers of a weak ferromagnetic single-chain magnet [Co8(OMe)6(HCO2)4(isonic)6·H2O]n (1). By contrasting the magnetism of the two complexes, it is found that the longer the linker the stronger the magnetic properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaur, Jasmeet; Nandy, D. K.; Arora, Bindiya; Sahoo, B. K.
2015-01-01
Accurate knowledge of interaction potentials among the alkali-metal atoms and alkaline-earth ions is very useful in the studies of cold atom physics. Here we carry out theoretical studies of the long-range interactions among the Li, Na, K, and Rb alkali-metal atoms with the Ca+, Ba+, Sr+, and Ra+ alkaline-earth ions systematically, which are largely motivated by their importance in a number of applications. These interactions are expressed as a power series in the inverse of the internuclear separation R . Both the dispersion and induction components of these interactions are determined accurately from the algebraic coefficients corresponding to each power combination in the series. Ultimately, these coefficients are expressed in terms of the electric multipole polarizabilities of the above-mentioned systems, which are calculated using the matrix elements obtained from a relativistic coupled-cluster method and core contributions to these quantities from the random-phase approximation. We also compare our estimated polarizabilities with the other available theoretical and experimental results to verify accuracies in our calculations. In addition, we also evaluate the lifetimes of the first two low-lying states of the ions using the above matrix elements. Graphical representations of the dispersion coefficients versus R are given among all the alkaline ions with Rb.
Xia, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Li, Qianmu; Li, Tao
2015-12-01
Protein-protein interaction (PPI) plays crucial roles in the performance of various biological processes. A variety of methods are dedicated to identify whether proteins have interaction residues, but it is often more crucial to recognize each amino acid. In practical applications, the stability of a prediction model is as important as its accuracy. However, random sampling, which is widely used in previous prediction models, often brings large difference between each training model. In this paper, a Predictor of protein-protein interaction sites based on Extremely-randomized Trees (PETs) is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy while maintaining the prediction stability. In PETs, a cluster-based sampling strategy is proposed to ensure the model stability: first, the training dataset is divided into subsets using specific features; second, the subsets are clustered using K-means; and finally the samples are selected from each cluster. Using the proposed sampling strategy, samples which have different types of significant features could be selected independently from different clusters. The evaluation shows that PETs is able to achieve better accuracy while maintaining a good stability. The source code and toolkit are available at https://github.com/BinXia/PETs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, Kyle R.; Mann, Ian R.; Rae, I. Jonathan; Sibeck, David G.; Watt, Clare E. J.
2016-08-01
Wave-particle interactions play a crucial role in energetic particle dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts. However, the relative importance of different wave modes in these dynamics is poorly understood. Typically, this is assessed during geomagnetic storms using statistically averaged empirical wave models as a function of geomagnetic activity in advanced radiation belt simulations. However, statistical averages poorly characterize extreme events such as geomagnetic storms in that storm-time ultralow frequency wave power is typically larger than that derived over a solar cycle and Kp is a poor proxy for storm-time wave power.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samipillai, Marivel; Bhatt, Nilay; Kruger, Hendrik G.; Govender, Thavendran; Naicker, Tricia
2016-10-01
Three analogues of 3-oxopyrrolidines; (S)-1-tert-butyl 2-ethyl-2-((S)-2-nitro-1-p-tolylethyl)-3-oxopyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate, 1, (S)-1-tert-butyl 2-ethyl 2-((S)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-nitroethyl)-3-oxopyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate 2, and Ethyl 1-((S)-2-(((benzyloxy)carbonyl)amino)-3-phenylpropanoyl)-2-(2-nitro-1-phenylethyl)-3-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate 3, were synthesized and crystallized in suitable solvents. Crystal structure analysis was carried out by single crystal X-ray diffraction to provide a detailed investigation of the packing and supramolecular arrangement of these analogues. The weak interactions such as Csbnd H⋯O/Csbnd H⋯π present in the crystal structure of all these analogues (1-3) played a vital role in controlling the conformation of the molecules and construction of dissimilar supramolecular assemblies. This study provides some insight; that even though these oxopyrrolidine analogues, lack a hydrogen bond donor and acceptor system, that upon bulky substitutions, this scaffold can still form fascinating supramolecular assemblies through various weak interactions. The surface interaction was carried out by means of Hirshfeld surface analysis, which depicted the significant intermolecular interactions of a molecule with its neighbor within the structures.
Xiao, Li; Wang, Changhao; Ye, Xiang; Luo, Ray
2016-08-25
Continuum solvation modeling based upon the Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) is widely used in structural and functional analysis of biomolecules. In this work, we propose a charge-central interpretation of the full nonlinear PBE electrostatic interactions. The validity of the charge-central view or simply charge view, as formulated as a vacuum Poisson equation with effective charges, was first demonstrated by reproducing both electrostatic potentials and energies from the original solvated full nonlinear PBE. There are at least two benefits when the charge-central framework is applied. First the convergence analyses show that the use of polarization charges allows a much faster converging numerical procedure for electrostatic energy and forces calculation for the full nonlinear PBE. Second, the formulation of the solvated electrostatic interactions as effective charges in vacuum allows scalable algorithms to be deployed for large biomolecular systems. Here, we exploited the charge-view interpretation and developed a particle-particle particle-mesh (P3M) strategy for the full nonlinear PBE systems. We also studied the accuracy and convergence of solvation forces with the charge-view and the P3M methods. It is interesting to note that the convergence of both the charge-view and the P3M methods is more rapid than the original full nonlinear PBE method. Given the developments and validations documented here, we are working to adapt the P3M treatment of the full nonlinear PBE model to molecular dynamics simulations.
Su, Lei; Song, Wei-Chao; Zhao, Jiong-Peng; Liu, Fu-Chen
2016-07-01
A new single-chain-magnet (SCM), [Co4(OMe)3(HCO2)2(L)3·DMF]n, (L = 4-(pyridin-4-yl)benzolate) (2), was constructed by changing the spacers of a weak ferromagnetic single-chain magnet [Co8(OMe)6(HCO2)4(isonic)6·H2O]n (1). By contrasting the magnetism of the two complexes, it is found that the longer the linker the stronger the magnetic properties. PMID:27333437
Singh, Santosh K; Vaishnav, Jamuna K; Das, Aloke
2016-09-14
In this study, interplay between a strong hydrogen bond and a very weak n → π(*) interaction has been probed through experiment for the first time. We have used resonant 2-photon ionization, Infrared-ultraviolet double resonance spectroscopy, and quantum chemistry calculation to determine the structures of 7-azaindole⋯2,6-difluoropyridine and 7-azaindole⋯2,3,5,6-tetrafluororpyridine complexes, which are stabilized by both hydrogen bonding and n → π(*) interaction. The structures of the complexes studied in the present work have been compared with the double hydrogen bonded (N-H⋯N and C-H⋯N) planar structure of 7-azaindole⋯2-fluoropyridine. It has been found that the strength of the N-H⋯N hydrogen bond in the 7-azaindole⋯2,6-substituted fluoropyridines is affected due to several factors. The main reason for huge reduction in the strength of this N-H⋯N hydrogen bond in these complexes is due to loss of the C-H⋯N hydrogen bond, through substitution of fluorine atoms in 2 and 6 positions, which induces major structural changes by bending the hydrogen bond and introducing the n → π(*) interaction. Effect of fluorination as well as presence of the n → π(*) interaction in these complexes also contributes to the reduction of the strength of the N-H⋯N interaction. Although it is difficult to quantify the role of the n → π(*) interaction to affect the strength of the hydrogen bond, observation of the structures, where a strong hydrogen bond and a weak n → π(*) interaction co-exist, is confirmed. PMID:27634255
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Santosh K.; Vaishnav, Jamuna K.; Das, Aloke
2016-09-01
In this study, interplay between a strong hydrogen bond and a very weak n → π* interaction has been probed through experiment for the first time. We have used resonant 2-photon ionization, Infrared-ultraviolet double resonance spectroscopy, and quantum chemistry calculation to determine the structures of 7-azaindole⋯2,6-difluoropyridine and 7-azaindole⋯2,3,5,6-tetrafluororpyridine complexes, which are stabilized by both hydrogen bonding and n → π* interaction. The structures of the complexes studied in the present work have been compared with the double hydrogen bonded (N-H⋯N and C-H⋯N) planar structure of 7-azaindole⋯2-fluoropyridine. It has been found that the strength of the N-H⋯N hydrogen bond in the 7-azaindole⋯2,6-substituted fluoropyridines is affected due to several factors. The main reason for huge reduction in the strength of this N-H⋯N hydrogen bond in these complexes is due to loss of the C-H⋯N hydrogen bond, through substitution of fluorine atoms in 2 and 6 positions, which induces major structural changes by bending the hydrogen bond and introducing the n → π* interaction. Effect of fluorination as well as presence of the n → π* interaction in these complexes also contributes to the reduction of the strength of the N-H⋯N interaction. Although it is difficult to quantify the role of the n → π* interaction to affect the strength of the hydrogen bond, observation of the structures, where a strong hydrogen bond and a weak n → π* interaction co-exist, is confirmed.
Takagaki, Y; Jahn, U; Giussani, A; Calarco, R
2014-03-01
Quantum corrections to the conductivity due to the weak antilocalization (WAL) and electron-electron interaction (EEI) effects are investigated in Sb-Te layers to evaluate the number of independent conduction channels in the topological insulator system. We separate the two contributions in the logarithmic temperature dependence of conductivity relying on their distinct response to a magnetic field. For the WAL effect, the amplitude parameter α being -1 observed in magnetoconductivity is confirmed. The magnitude of the EEI contribution is too large to be produced by one transport channel. The mixing between the surface and bulk states is thus indicated to be weak in the Sb-Te system. In addition, the disorder scattering appears to be less influential for the EEI effect than for the WAL effect.
Nehaniv, Chrystopher L; Rhodes, John; Egri-Nagy, Attila; Dini, Paolo; Morris, Eric Rothstein; Horváth, Gábor; Karimi, Fariba; Schreckling, Daniel; Schilstra, Maria J
2015-07-28
Interaction computing is inspired by the observation that cell metabolic/regulatory systems construct order dynamically, through constrained interactions between their components and based on a wide range of possible inputs and environmental conditions. The goals of this work are to (i) identify and understand mathematically the natural subsystems and hierarchical relations in natural systems enabling this and (ii) use the resulting insights to define a new model of computation based on interactions that is useful for both biology and computation. The dynamical characteristics of the cellular pathways studied in systems biology relate, mathematically, to the computational characteristics of automata derived from them, and their internal symmetry structures to computational power. Finite discrete automata models of biological systems such as the lac operon, the Krebs cycle and p53-mdm2 genetic regulation constructed from systems biology models have canonically associated algebraic structures (their transformation semigroups). These contain permutation groups (local substructures exhibiting symmetry) that correspond to 'pools of reversibility'. These natural subsystems are related to one another in a hierarchical manner by the notion of 'weak control'. We present natural subsystems arising from several biological examples and their weak control hierarchies in detail. Finite simple non-Abelian groups are found in biological examples and can be harnessed to realize finitary universal computation. This allows ensembles of cells to achieve any desired finitary computational transformation, depending on external inputs, via suitably constrained interactions. Based on this, interaction machines that grow and change their structure recursively are introduced and applied, providing a natural model of computation driven by interactions. PMID:26078349
Hashemifar, Somaye; Xu, Jinbo
2014-01-01
Motivation: High-throughput experimental techniques have produced a large amount of protein–protein interaction (PPI) data. The study of PPI networks, such as comparative analysis, shall benefit the understanding of life process and diseases at the molecular level. One way of comparative analysis is to align PPI networks to identify conserved or species-specific subnetwork motifs. A few methods have been developed for global PPI network alignment, but it still remains challenging in terms of both accuracy and efficiency. Results: This paper presents a novel global network alignment algorithm, denoted as HubAlign, that makes use of both network topology and sequence homology information, based upon the observation that topologically important proteins in a PPI network usually are much more conserved and thus, more likely to be aligned. HubAlign uses a minimum-degree heuristic algorithm to estimate the topological and functional importance of a protein from the global network topology information. Then HubAlign aligns topologically important proteins first and gradually extends the alignment to the whole network. Extensive tests indicate that HubAlign greatly outperforms several popular methods in terms of both accuracy and efficiency, especially in detecting functionally similar proteins. Availability: HubAlign is available freely for non-commercial purposes at http://ttic.uchicago.edu/∼hashemifar/software/HubAlign.zip Contact: jinboxu@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25161231
Spear, Jack; Fields, Lanny
2015-12-01
Interpreting and describing complex information shown in graphs are essential skills to be mastered by students in many disciplines; both are skills that are difficult to learn. Thus, interventions that produce these outcomes are of great value. Previous research showed that conditional discrimination training that established stimulus control by some elements of graphs and their printed descriptions produced some improvement in the accuracy of students' written descriptions of graphs. In the present experiment, students wrote nearly perfect descriptions of the information conveyed in interaction-based graphs after the establishment of conditional relations between graphs and their printed descriptions. This outcome was achieved with the use of special conditional discrimination training procedures that required participants to attend to many of the key elements of the graphs and the phrases in the printed descriptions that corresponded to the elements in the graphs. Thus, students learned to write full descriptions of the information represented by complex graphs by an automated training procedure that did not involve the direct training of writing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crivellini, A.
2016-02-01
This paper deals with the numerical performance of a sponge layer as a non-reflective boundary condition. This technique is well known and widely adopted, but only recently have the reasons for a sponge failure been recognised, in analysis by Mani. For multidimensional problems, the ineffectiveness of the method is due to the self-reflections of the sponge occurring when it interacts with an oblique acoustic wave. Based on his theoretical investigations, Mani gives some useful guidelines for implementing effective sponge layers. However, in our opinion, some practical indications are still missing from the current literature. Here, an extensive numerical study of the performance of this technique is presented. Moreover, we analyse a reduced sponge implementation characterised by undamped partial differential equations for the velocity components. The main aim of this paper relies on the determination of the minimal width of the layer, as well as of the corresponding strength, required to obtain a reflection error of no more than a few per cent of that observed when solving the same problem on the same grid, but without employing the sponge layer term. For this purpose, a test case of computational aeroacoustics, the single airfoil gust response problem, has been addressed in several configurations. As a direct consequence of our investigation, we present a well documented and highly validated reference solution for the far-field acoustic intensity, a result that is not well established in the literature. Lastly, the proof of the accuracy of an algorithm for coupling sub-domains solved by the linear and non-liner Euler governing equations is given. This result is here exploited to adopt a linear-based sponge layer even in a non-linear computation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crivellini, A.
2016-02-01
This paper deals with the numerical performance of a sponge layer as a non-reflective boundary condition. This technique is well known and widely adopted, but only recently have the reasons for a sponge failure been recognised, in analysis by Mani. For multidimensional problems, the ineffectiveness of the method is due to the self-reflections of the sponge occurring when it interacts with an oblique acoustic wave. Based on his theoretical investigations, Mani gives some useful guidelines for implementing effective sponge layers. However, in our opinion, some practical indications are still missing from the current literature. Here, an extensive numerical study of the performance of this technique is presented. Moreover, we analyse a reduced sponge implementation characterised by undamped partial differential equations for the velocity components. The main aim of this paper relies on the determination of the minimal width of the layer, as well as of the corresponding strength, required to obtain a reflection error of no more than a few per cent of that observed when solving the same problem on the same grid, but without employing the sponge layer term. For this purpose, a test case of computational aeroacoustics, the single airfoil gust response problem, has been addressed in several configurations. As a direct consequence of our investigation, we present a well documented and highly validated reference solution for the far-field acoustic intensity, a result that is not well established in the literature. Lastly, the proof of the accuracy of an algorithm for coupling sub-domains solved by the linear and non-liner Euler governing equations is given. This result is here exploited to adopt a linear-based sponge layer even in a non-linear computation.
Trilling, G.H.
1980-09-01
Results presented during sessions B5 to 7 at the XXth International Conference on High Energy Physics (University of Wisconsin, Madison, July 17 to 23, 1980) are discussed. Essentially all the material presented is summarized. The sessions covered various aspects of low-energy weak interactions. The following topics are addressed: CP-invariance violation, high-statistics study of ..lambda.. beta decay, parity violation in proton-nucleus scattering at 6 GeV/c, new results on the tau, charm particle decays (direct lifetime determinations, semileptonic branching ratios, comparison of semileptonic rate with theoretical expectations, further study of charm meson decays, F decays), and neutrino oscillations. 6 figures, 9 tables. (RWR)
Vincent, Mark A; Hillier, Ian H
2011-03-14
The structure and interaction energies of the weak non-covalent complexes of CHClF(2) and CHF(3) with HCCH have been predicted using a number of density functional based approaches, and compared with both high resolution spectroscopic data recently reported by Sexton et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 14263-14270], and with high level benchmark calculations reported herein. We find that this is another case where the M05 and M06 families of functionals, as well as the DFT-D approach, are competitive with the more costly wavefunction based methods. We highlight the problem of deriving unique intermolecular structural parameters from the experimental microwave data.
Liu Zhao; Guo Hongli; Fan Heng; Vedral, Vlatko
2011-01-15
We use entanglement to investigate the transition from vortex-liquid phase to vortex-lattice phase in a weakly interacting rotating Bose-Einstein condensate. For the torus geometry, the ground-state entanglement spectrum is analyzed to distinguish these two phases. The low-lying part of the ground-state entanglement spectrum, as well as the behavior of its lowest level, changes clearly when the transition occurs. For the sphere geometry, the entanglement gap in the conformal limit is also studied. We also show that the decrease in entanglement between particles can be regarded as a signal of the transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amador, Davi H. T.; de Oliveira, Heibbe C. B.; Sambrano, Julio R.; Gargano, Ricardo; de Macedo, Luiz Guilherme M.
2016-10-01
A prolapse-free basis set for Eka-Actinium (E121, Z = 121), numerical atomic calculations on E121, spectroscopic constants and accurate analytical form for the potential energy curve of diatomic E121F obtained at 4-component all-electron CCSD(T) level including Gaunt interaction are presented. The results show a strong and polarized bond (≈181 kcal/mol in strength) between E121 and F, the outermost frontier molecular orbitals from E121F should be fairly similar to the ones from AcF and there is no evidence of break of periodic trends. Moreover, the Gaunt interaction, although small, is expected to influence considerably the overall rovibrational spectra.
Ebel, Christine; Zaccai, Giuseppe
2004-01-01
The study of the molecular adaptation of microorganisms to extreme environments (solvent, temperature, etc.) has provided tools to investigate the complex relationships between protein-solvent and protein-protein interactions, protein stability and protein dynamics, and how they are modulated by the crowded environment of the cell. We have evaluated protein-solvent and protein-protein interactions by solution experiments (analytical ultracentrifugation, small angle neutron and X-ray scattering, density) and crystallography, and protein dynamics by energy resolved neutron scattering. This review concerns work from our laboratory on (i) proteins from extreme halophilic Archaea, and (ii) psychrophile, mesophile, thermophile and hyperthermophile bacterial cells.
Camera, Stefano; Fornasa, Mattia; Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco
2013-07-01
Both cosmic shear and cosmological gamma-ray emission stem from the presence of dark matter (DM) in the universe: DM structures are responsible for the bending of light in the weak-lensing regime and those same objects can emit gamma rays, either because they host astrophysical sources (active galactic nuclei or star-forming galaxies) or directly by DM annihilations (or decays, depending on the properties of the DM particle). Such gamma rays should therefore exhibit strong correlation with the cosmic shear signal. In this Letter, we compute the cross-correlation angular power spectrum of cosmic shear and gamma rays produced by the annihilation/decay of weakly interacting massive particle DM, as well as by astrophysical sources. We show that this observable provides novel information on the composition of the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB), since the amplitude and shape of the cross-correlation signal strongly depend on which class of sources is responsible for the gamma-ray emission. If the DM contribution to the EGB is significant (at least in a definite energy range), although compatible with current observational bounds, its strong correlation with the cosmic shear makes such signal potentially detectable by combining Fermi Large Area Telescope data with forthcoming galaxy surveys, like the Dark Energy Survey and Euclid. At the same time, the same signal would demonstrate that the weak-lensing observables are indeed due to particle DM matter and not to possible modifications of general relativity.
Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redi, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.
2014-01-27
SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this Letter, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage-assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for ten live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV/c^{2}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.; SuperCDMS Collaboration
2014-01-01
SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this Letter, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage-assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for ten live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of 170 eVee (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV /c2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadoulet, Bernard
2013-04-01
For the last 25 years, Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) have remained one of the favored candidates to explain the ubiquitous dark matter in the universe. We will review the generic aspects of this class of models, and describe the complementarity between three observational approaches: the direct detection of terrestrial interactions of the halo WIMPs, the search for WIMP annihilation products in the cosmos and the attempt to produce these particles at the Large Hadron Collider. After a rapid review of the current status of these three searches, we will focus on the experimental strategy pursued by the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search as one of the leading direct detection effort in the world. We will conclude with the CDMS results obtained so far, in particular for low mass dark matter particles. In an accompanying talk, Blas Cabrera will describe the basic technology that we are using and the promise of our new generation of detectors.
He Lianyi
2010-11-01
QCD-like theories possess a positively definite fermion determinant at finite baryon chemical potential {mu}{sub B} and the lattice simulation can be successfully performed. While the chiral perturbation theories are sufficient to describe the Bose condensate at low density, to describe the crossover from Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) to BCS superfluidity at moderate density we should use some fermionic effective model of QCD, such as the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In this paper, using two-color two-flavor QCD as an example, we examine how the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model describes the weakly interacting Bose condensate at low density and the BEC-BCS crossover at moderate density. Near the quantum phase transition point {mu}{sub B}=m{sub {pi}} (m{sub {pi}} is the mass of pion/diquark multiplet), the Ginzburg-Landau free energy at the mean-field level can be reduced to the Gross-Pitaevskii free energy describing a weakly repulsive Bose condensate with a diquark-diquark scattering length identical to that predicted by the chiral perturbation theories. The Goldstone mode recovers the Bogoliubov excitation in weakly interacting Bose condensates. The results of in-medium chiral and diquark condensates predicted by chiral perturbation theories are analytically recovered. The BEC-BCS crossover and meson Mott transition at moderate baryon chemical potential as well as the beyond-mean-field corrections are studied. Part of our results can also be applied to real QCD at finite baryon or isospin chemical potential.
Ulrich, Nathan W; Songer, Tabitha S; Peebles, Rebecca A; Peebles, Sean A; Seifert, Nathan A; Pérez, Cristóbal; Pate, Brooks H
2013-11-01
The rotational spectra for the normal isotopic species and for six (13)C singly substituted isotopologues (in natural abundance) of the fluorobenzene···acetylene (C6H5F···HCCH) weakly bound dimer have been measured in the 6.5-18.5 GHz region using chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. The HCCH molecule interacts with the fluorobenzene via a CH···π contact and is determined to lie almost over the center of, and approximately perpendicular to, the aromatic ring, with an H···π distance (perpendicular distance from the H atom to the ring plane) of around 2.492(47) Å; a slight tilt of HCCH towards the para carbon atom of the fluorobenzene is evident. Binding energies of this complex and related benzene and fluorobenzene dimers obtained from the pseudodiatomic approximation are compared and indicate that fluorobenzene···acetylene lies among the more weakly bound of the complexes exhibiting some type of CH···π interaction.
Azhdari Tehrani, Alireza; Morsali, Ali; Kubicki, Maciej
2015-03-28
A series of eight new Hg(II) complexes based on the L4-X ligands, where L is (E) -4-halo-N-(pyridin-4-ylmethylene)aniline, were synthesized and characterized and their supramolecular crystal structures were studied by different geometrical and theoretical methods. Our study reveals the role of weak intermolecular interactions involving halogens, such as C–H∙∙∙X hydrogen bonds (in the cases of 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7) and C–X∙∙∙X′–M halogen bonds (in the cases of 4 and 8), in the structural changes of supramolecular assemblies of coordination compounds. Complexes 1–8 were also synthesized by sonochemical irradiation and the morphology of the prepared complexes was investigated using FE-SEM. The BFDH analysis helps us to compare the predicted morphology to that obtained under ultrasonication. This study may provide further insight into discovering the role of weak intermolecular interactions in the context of metallosupramolecular assembly.
Brown, Grant E; Elvidge, Chris K; Ferrari, Maud C O; Chivers, Douglas P
2012-11-15
The ability of prey to recognize predators is a fundamental prerequisite to avoid being eaten. Indeed, many prey animals learn to distinguish species that pose a threat from those that do not. Once the prey has learned the identity of one predator, it may generalize this recognition to similar predators with which the prey has no experience. The ability to generalize reduces the costs associated with learning and further enhances the ability of the prey to avoid relevant threats. For many aquatic organisms, recognition of predators is based on odor signatures, consequently any anthropogenic alteration in water chemistry has the potential to impair recognition and learning of predators. Here we explored whether episodic acidification could influence the ability of juvenile rainbow trout to learn to recognize an unknown predator and then generalize this recognition to a closely related predator. Trout were conditioned to recognize the odor of pumpkinseed sunfish under circumneutral (~pH 7) conditions, and then tested for recognition of pumpkinseed or longear sunfish under both neutral or weakly acidic (~pH 6) conditions. When tested for a response to pumpkinseed odor, we found no significant effect of predator odor pH: trout responded similarly regardless of pH. Moreover, under neutral conditions, trout were able to generalize their recognition to the odor of longear sunfish. However, the trout could not generalize their recognition of the longear sunfish under acidic conditions. Given the widespread occurrence of anthropogenic acidification, acid-mediated impairment of predator recognition and generalization may be a pervasive problem for freshwater salmonid populations and other aquatic organisms.
Furusawa, Shun; Yamada, Shoichi; Nagakura, Hiroki; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Suzuki, Hideyuki
2014-05-02
We perform numerical experiments to investigate the influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light nuclei on the standing accretion shock instability. The time evolutions of shock waves are calculated with a simple light-bulb approximation for the neutrino transport and a multi-nuclei equation of state. The neutrino absorptions and inelastic interactions with deuterons, tritons, helions and alpha particles are taken into account in the hydrodynamical simulations in addition to the ordinary charged-current interactions with nucleons. Axial symmetry is assumed but no equatorial symmetry is imposed. We show that the heating rates of deuterons reach as high as ∼ 10% of those of nucleons around the bottom of the gain region. On the other hands, alpha particles heat the matter near the shock wave, which is important when the shock wave expands and density and temperature of matter become low. It is also found that the models with heating by light nuclei have different evolutions from those without it in non-linear evolution phase. The matter in the gain region has various densities and temperatures and there appear regions that are locally rich in deuterons and alpha particles. These results indicate that the inelastic reactions of light nuclei, especially deuterons, should be incorporated in the simulations of core-collapse supernovae.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furusawa, Shun; Nagakura, Hiroki; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi; Suzuki, Hideyuki
2014-05-01
We perform numerical experiments to investigate the influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light nuclei on the standing accretion shock instability. The time evolutions of shock waves are calculated with a simple light-bulb approximation for the neutrino transport and a multi-nuclei equation of state. The neutrino absorptions and inelastic interactions with deuterons, tritons, helions and alpha particles are taken into account in the hydrodynamical simulations in addition to the ordinary charged-current interactions with nucleons. Axial symmetry is assumed but no equatorial symmetry is imposed. We show that the heating rates of deuterons reach as high as ˜ 10% of those of nucleons around the bottom of the gain region. On the other hands, alpha particles heat the matter near the shock wave, which is important when the shock wave expands and density and temperature of matter become low. It is also found that the models with heating by light nuclei have different evolutions from those without it in non-linear evolution phase. The matter in the gain region has various densities and temperatures and there appear regions that are locally rich in deuterons and alpha particles. These results indicate that the inelastic reactions of light nuclei, especially deuterons, should be incorporated in the simulations of core-collapse supernovae.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pujari, Sumiran; Lang, Thomas C.; Kaul, Ribhu K.
Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene hosts an interesting 'non-relativistic' semi-metallic dispersion different from monolayer graphene. At this quadratic band touching, short-range interactions are marginal and hence cause instabilities to a variety of ground states. In this work we consider the instabilities of even N species of fermions on the Bernal bilayer with an SU (N) -symmetric contact interaction. For SU (2) fermions with an on-site Hubbard interaction the ground state has been found to be to a magnetic Néel state for all strengths of the interaction. In contrast, the leading weak coupling instability for N > 2 is a non-magnetic ground state, which is gapped and odd under time reversal. On the other hand, at strong coupling we expect Néel or VBS ground states of the effective self-conjugate SU (N) spin models. Motivated by this observation, we investigate the phase diagram for even N > 2 using determinantal quantum Monte Carlo computations. Support from NSF Grant DMR-1056536 and XSEDE Grant DMR-150037.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanke, Felix; Dyer, Matthew S.; Björk, Jonas; Persson, Mats
2012-10-01
We have investigated the performance of popular density functionals that include van der Waals interactions for the experimentally well-characterized problem of ethene (C2H4) adsorbed on the low-index surfaces of copper. This set of functionals does not only include three van der Waals density functionals—vdwDF-PBE, vdwDF-revPBE and optB86b-vdwDF—and two dispersion-corrected functionals—Grimme and TS-but also local and semi-local functionals such as LDA and PBE. The adsorption system of ethene on copper was chosen because it is a weakly chemisorbed system for which the vdW interactions are expected to give a significant contribution to the adsorption energy. Overall the density functionals that include vdW interactions increased substantially the adsorption energies compared to the PBE density functional but predicted the same adsorption sites and very similar C-C bonding distances except for two of the van der Waals functionals. The top adsorption site was predicted almost exclusively for all functionals on the (110), (100) and (111) surfaces, which is in agreement with experiment for the (110) surface but not for the (100) surface. On the (100) surface, all functionals except two van der Waals density functionals singled out the observed cross-hollow site from the calculated C-C bonding distances and adsorption heights. On the top sites on the (110) surface and the cross-hollow site on the Cu(100) surface, the ethene molecule was found to form a weak chemisorption bond. On the (111) surface, all functionals gave a C-C bonding distance and an adsorption height more typical for physisorption, in agreement with experiments.
Observation of a double C-H···π interaction in the CH2ClF···HCCH weakly bound complex.
Elmuti, Lena F; Peebles, Rebecca A; Peebles, Sean A; Steber, Amanda L; Neill, Justin L; Pate, Brooks H
2011-08-21
The structure of the CH(2)ClF···HCCH dimer has been determined using both chirped-pulse and resonant cavity Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. The complex has C(s) symmetry and contains both a double C-H···π interaction, in which one π-bond acts as acceptor to two hydrogen atoms from the CH(2)ClF donor, and a weak C-H···Cl interaction, with acetylene as the donor. Analysis of the rotational spectra of four isotopologues (CH(2)(35)ClF···H(12)C(12)CH, CH(2)(37)ClF···H(12)C(12)CH, CH(2)(35)ClF···H(13)C(13)CH, and CH(2)(37)ClF-H(13)C(13)CH) has led to a structure with C-H···π distances of 3.236(6) Å and a C-H···Cl distance of 3.207(22) Å, in good agreement with ab initio calculations at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) level. Both weak contacts are longer than those observed in similar complexes containing a single C-H···π interaction that lies in the C(s) plane; however, this appears to be the first double C-H···π contact to be studied by microwave spectroscopy, so there is little data for direct comparison. The rotational and chlorine nuclear quadrupole coupling constants for the most abundant isotopologue are: A = 5262.899(14) MHz, B = 1546.8074(10) MHz, C = 1205.4349(7) MHz, χ(aa) = 28.497(5) MHz, χ(bb) = -65.618(13) MHz, and χ(cc) = 37.121(8) MHz. PMID:21597626
Suzuki, M.
1988-04-01
Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.
Raatikainen, Kari; Cametti, Massimo; Rissanen, Kari
2010-01-15
THE SERIES OF HALOANILINIUM AND HALOPYRIDINIUM SALTS: 4-IPhNH₃Cl (1), 4-IPhNH₃Br (5), 4-IPhNH₃H₂PO₄ (6), 4-ClPhNH₃H₂PO₄ (8), 3-IPyBnCl (9), 3-IPyHCl (10) and 3-IPyH-5NIPA (3-iodopyridinium 5-nitroisophthalate, 13), where hydrogen or/and halogen bonding represents the most relevant non-covalent interactions, has been prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This series was further complemented by extracting some relevant crystal structures: 4-BrPhNH₃Cl (2, CCDC ref. code TAWRAL), 4-ClPhNH₃Cl (3, CURGOL), 4-FPhNH₃Cl (4, ANLCLA), 4-BrPhNH₃H₂PO₄, (7, UGISEI), 3-BrPyHCl, (11, CIHBAX) and 3-ClPyHCl, (12, VOQMUJ) from Cambridge Structural Database for sake of comparison. Based on the X-ray data it was possible to highlight the balance between non-covalent forces acting in these systems, where the relative strength of the halogen bonding C-X...A⁻ (X = I, Br or Cl) and the ratio between the halogen and hydrogen bonds [C-X...A⁻ : D-H...A⁻] varied across the series.
Montero-Campillo, M Merced; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel
2013-07-01
The electronic structure of the two most stable isomers of squaric acid and their complexes with BeH2 were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311 + G(3df,2p)// B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) level of theory. Squaric acid forms rather strong beryllium bonds with BeH2, with binding energies of the order of 60 kJ mol(-1). The preferential sites for BeH2 attachment are the carbonyl oxygen atoms, but the global minima of the potential energy surfaces of both EZ and ZZ isomers are extra-stabilized through the formation of a BeH···HO dihydrogen bond. More importantly, analysis of the electron density of these complexes shows the existence of significant cooperative effects between the beryllium bond and the dihydrogen bond, with both becoming significantly reinforced. The charge transfer involved in the formation of the beryllium bond induces a significant electron density redistribution within the squaric acid subunit, affecting not only the carbonyl group interacting with the BeH2 moiety but significantly increasing the electron delocalization within the four membered ring. Accordingly the intrinsic properties of squaric acid become perturbed, as reflected in its ability to self-associate.
Raatikainen, Kari; Cametti, Massimo; Rissanen, Kari
2010-01-01
THE SERIES OF HALOANILINIUM AND HALOPYRIDINIUM SALTS: 4-IPhNH₃Cl (1), 4-IPhNH₃Br (5), 4-IPhNH₃H₂PO₄ (6), 4-ClPhNH₃H₂PO₄ (8), 3-IPyBnCl (9), 3-IPyHCl (10) and 3-IPyH-5NIPA (3-iodopyridinium 5-nitroisophthalate, 13), where hydrogen or/and halogen bonding represents the most relevant non-covalent interactions, has been prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This series was further complemented by extracting some relevant crystal structures: 4-BrPhNH₃Cl (2, CCDC ref. code TAWRAL), 4-ClPhNH₃Cl (3, CURGOL), 4-FPhNH₃Cl (4, ANLCLA), 4-BrPhNH₃H₂PO₄, (7, UGISEI), 3-BrPyHCl, (11, CIHBAX) and 3-ClPyHCl, (12, VOQMUJ) from Cambridge Structural Database for sake of comparison. Based on the X-ray data it was possible to highlight the balance between non-covalent forces acting in these systems, where the relative strength of the halogen bonding C-X...A⁻ (X = I, Br or Cl) and the ratio between the halogen and hydrogen bonds [C-X...A⁻ : D-H...A⁻] varied across the series. PMID:20502514
Feng, Qian; Wei, Kongchang; Lin, Sien; Xu, Zhen; Sun, Yuxin; Shi, Peng; Li, Gang; Bian, Liming
2016-09-01
Although considered promising materials for assisting organ regeneration, few hydrogels meet the stringent requirements of clinical translation on the preparation, application, mechanical property, bioadhesion, and biocompatibility of the hydrogels. Herein, we describe a facile supramolecular approach for preparing gelatin hydrogels with a wide array of desirable properties. Briefly, we first prepare a supramolecular gelatin macromer via the efficient host-guest complexation between the aromatic residues of gelatin and free diffusing photo-crosslinkable acrylated β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) monomers. The subsequent crosslinking of the macromers produces highly resilient supramolecular gelatin hydrogels that are solely crosslinked by the weak host-guest interactions between the gelatinous aromatic residues and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The obtained hydrogels are capable of sustaining excessive compressive and tensile strain, and they are capable of quick self healing after mechanical disruption. These hydrogels can be injected in the gelation state through surgical needles and re-molded to the targeted geometries while protecting the encapsulated cells. Moreover, the weak host-guest crosslinking likely facilitate the infiltration and migration of cells into the hydrogels. The excess β-CDs in the hydrogels enable the hydrogel-tissue adhesion and enhance the loading and sustained delivery of hydrophobic drugs. The cell and animal studies show that such hydrogels support cell recruitment, differentiation, and bone regeneration, making them promising carrier biomaterials of therapeutic cells and drugs via minimally invasive procedures. PMID:27294539
Akerib, D S; Araújo, H M; Bai, X; Bailey, A J; Balajthy, J; Beltrame, P; Bernard, E P; Bernstein, A; Biesiadzinski, T P; Boulton, E M; Bradley, A; Bramante, R; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chan, C; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A A; Chiller, C; Currie, A; Cutter, J E; Davison, T J R; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dobson, J E Y; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B N; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, V M; Ghag, C; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M G D; Hall, C R; Hanhardt, M; Haselschwardt, S J; Hertel, S A; Hogan, D P; Horn, M; Huang, D Q; Ignarra, C M; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Ji, W; Kazkaz, K; Khaitan, D; Knoche, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Lenardo, B G; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Malling, D C; Manalaysay, A; Mannino, R L; Marzioni, M F; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D-M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morad, J A; Murphy, A St J; Nehrkorn, C; Nelson, H N; Neves, F; O'Sullivan, K; Oliver-Mallory, K C; Ott, R A; Palladino, K J; Pangilinan, M; Pease, E K; Phelps, P; Reichhart, L; Rhyne, C; Shaw, S; Shutt, T A; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; Stephenson, S; Sumner, T J; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D J; Taylor, W; Tennyson, B P; Terman, P A; Tiedt, D R; To, W H; Tripathi, M; Tvrznikova, L; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Webb, R C; White, J T; Whitis, T J; Witherell, M S; Wolfs, F L H; Yazdani, K; Young, S K; Zhang, C
2016-04-22
We present experimental constraints on the spin-dependent WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle)-nucleon elastic cross sections from LUX data acquired in 2013. LUX is a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota), which is designed to observe the recoil signature of galactic WIMPs scattering from xenon nuclei. A profile likelihood ratio analysis of 1.4×10^{4} kg day of fiducial exposure allows 90% C.L. upper limits to be set on the WIMP-neutron (WIMP-proton) cross section of σ_{n}=9.4×10^{-41} cm^{2} (σ_{p}=2.9×10^{-39} cm^{2}) at 33 GeV/c^{2}. The spin-dependent WIMP-neutron limit is the most sensitive constraint to date. PMID:27152786
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bradley, A.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Ott, R. A.; Palladino, K. J.; Pangilinan, M.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration
2016-04-01
We present experimental constraints on the spin-dependent WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle)-nucleon elastic cross sections from LUX data acquired in 2013. LUX is a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota), which is designed to observe the recoil signature of galactic WIMPs scattering from xenon nuclei. A profile likelihood ratio analysis of 1.4 ×104 kg day of fiducial exposure allows 90% C.L. upper limits to be set on the WIMP-neutron (WIMP-proton) cross section of σn=9.4 ×10-41 cm2 (σp=2.9 ×10-39 cm2 ) at 33 GeV /c2 . The spin-dependent WIMP-neutron limit is the most sensitive constraint to date.
Akerib, D. S.
2016-04-20
Here, we present experimental constraints on the spin-dependent WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle)-nucleon elastic cross sections from LUX data acquired in 2013. LUX is a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota), which is designed to observe the recoil signature of galactic WIMPs scattering from xenon nuclei. A profile likelihood ratio analysis of 1.4 × 104 kg day of fiducial exposure allows 90% C.L. upper limits to be set on the WIMP-neutron (WIMP-proton) cross section of σn = 9.4 × 10–41 cm2 (σp = 2.9 × 10–39 cm2) at 33 GeV/c2. Themore » spin-dependent WIMP-neutron limit is the most sensitive constraint to date.« less
Vincent, Mark A; Hillier, Ian H
2011-03-14
The structure and interaction energies of the weak non-covalent complexes of CHClF(2) and CHF(3) with HCCH have been predicted using a number of density functional based approaches, and compared with both high resolution spectroscopic data recently reported by Sexton et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 14263-14270], and with high level benchmark calculations reported herein. We find that this is another case where the M05 and M06 families of functionals, as well as the DFT-D approach, are competitive with the more costly wavefunction based methods. We highlight the problem of deriving unique intermolecular structural parameters from the experimental microwave data. PMID:21246115
Alpert, Andrew J; Hudecz, Otto; Mechtler, Karl
2015-01-01
Most phosphoproteomics experiments rely on prefractionation of tryptic digests before online liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study compares the potential and limitations of electrostatic repulsion-hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ERLIC) and anion-exchange chromatography (AEX). At a pH higher than 5, phosphopeptides have two negative charges per residue and are well-retained in AEX. However, peptides with one or two phosphate groups are not separated from peptides with multiple Asp or Glu residues, interfering with the identification of phosphopeptides. At a pH of 2, phosphate residues have just a single negative charge but Asp and Glu are uncharged. This facilitates the separation of phosphopeptides from unmodified acidic peptides. Singly phosphorylated peptides are retained weakly under these conditions, due to electrostatic repulsion, unless hydrophilic interaction is superimposed in the ERLIC mode. Weak anion-exchange (WAX) and strong anion-exchange (SAX) columns were compared, with both peptide standards and a HeLa cell tryptic digest. The SAX column exhibited greater retention at pH 6 than did the WAX column. However, only about 60% as many phosphopeptides were identified with SAX at pH 6 than via ERLIC at pH 2. In one ERLIC run, 12 467 phosphopeptides were identified, including 4233 with more than one phosphate. We conclude that chromatography of phosphopeptides is best performed at low pH in the ERLIC mode. Under those conditions, the performances of the SAX and WAX materials were comparable. The data have been deposited with the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001333. PMID:25827581
Alpert, Andrew J; Hudecz, Otto; Mechtler, Karl
2015-01-01
Most phosphoproteomics experiments rely on prefractionation of tryptic digests before online liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study compares the potential and limitations of electrostatic repulsion-hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ERLIC) and anion-exchange chromatography (AEX). At a pH higher than 5, phosphopeptides have two negative charges per residue and are well-retained in AEX. However, peptides with one or two phosphate groups are not separated from peptides with multiple Asp or Glu residues, interfering with the identification of phosphopeptides. At a pH of 2, phosphate residues have just a single negative charge but Asp and Glu are uncharged. This facilitates the separation of phosphopeptides from unmodified acidic peptides. Singly phosphorylated peptides are retained weakly under these conditions, due to electrostatic repulsion, unless hydrophilic interaction is superimposed in the ERLIC mode. Weak anion-exchange (WAX) and strong anion-exchange (SAX) columns were compared, with both peptide standards and a HeLa cell tryptic digest. The SAX column exhibited greater retention at pH 6 than did the WAX column. However, only about 60% as many phosphopeptides were identified with SAX at pH 6 than via ERLIC at pH 2. In one ERLIC run, 12 467 phosphopeptides were identified, including 4233 with more than one phosphate. We conclude that chromatography of phosphopeptides is best performed at low pH in the ERLIC mode. Under those conditions, the performances of the SAX and WAX materials were comparable. The data have been deposited with the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001333.
Kasai, Yasuhiro; Shizuku, Hideki; Takagi, Yasuomi; Warashina, Masaki; Taira, Kazunari
2002-01-01
Exploitation of ribozymes in a practical setting requires high catalytic activity and strong specificity. The hammerhead ribozyme R32 has considerable potential in this regard since it has very high catalytic activity. In this study, we have examined how R32 recognizes and cleaves a specific substrate, focusing on the mechanism behind the specificity. Comparing rates of cleavage of a substrate in a mixture that included the correct substrate and various substrates with point mutations, we found that R32 cleaved the correct substrate specifically and at a high rate. To clarify the source of this strong specificity, we quantified the weak interactions between R32 and various truncated substrates, using truncated substrates as competitive inhibitors since they were not readily cleaved during kinetic measurements of cleavage of the correct substrate, S11. We found that the strong specificity of the cleavage reaction was due to a closed form of R32 with a hairpin structure. The self-complementary structure within R32 enabled the ribozyme to discriminate between the correct substrate and a mismatched substrate. Since this hairpin motif did not increase the Km (it did not inhibit the binding interaction) or decrease the kcat (it did not decrease the cleavage rate), this kind of hairpin structure might be useful for the design of new ribozymes with strong specificity and high activity. PMID:12034825
Liu, Jie; Liu, Guangfeng; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Xiaoxin; Han, Quanxiang; Ye, Xin; Tao, Xutang
2016-06-01
Mechano-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) phase transitions in crystalline materials that change their properties have received more and more attention. However, there are still too few examples to study molecular-level mechanisms in the mechano-induced SCSC phase transitions, making the systematic and in-depth understanding very difficult. We report that bis-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) palladium(II)-tetracyanoquinodimethane (PdQ2 -TCNQ) and bis-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) copper(II)-tetracyanoquinodimethane (CuQ2 -TCNQ) show very different mechano-response behaviors during the SCSC phase transition. Phase transition in CuQ2 -TCNQ can be triggered by pricking on the crystal surface, while in PdQ2 -TCNQ it can only be induced by applying pressure uniformly over the whole crystal face. The crystallography data and Hirshfeld surface analysis indicate that the weak intra-layer C-H⋅⋅⋅O, C-H⋅⋅⋅N hydrogen bonds and inter-layer stacking interactions determine the feasibility of the SCSC phase transition by mechanical stimuli. Weaker intra-layer interactions and looser inter-layer stacking make the SCSC phase transition occur much more easily in the CuQ2 -TCNQ.
Conservation Laws in Weak Interactions
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Lee, T. D.
1957-03-01
Notes are presented on four lectures given at Harvard University in March 1957 on elementary particle physics, the theta-tau problem, validity of parity conservation, tests for invariance under P, C, and T, and the two-component theory of the neutrino. (W.D.M.)
Weak interaction processes in stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borzov, I. N.
2004-04-01
Major astrophysical applications involve a huge number of exotic nuclei. An important effort has been devoted during the last decades to the measurements of the masses and β-decay rates of very neutron-rich nuclei at RIB facilities. However, most of them cannot be synthesised in terrestrial laboratories and only theoretical predictions can fill the gap. We concentrate mainly on the β-decay rates needed for the stellar r-process modeling and for performing the RIB experiments. The continuum QRPA approach based on the self-consistent ground state description in the framework of the density functional theory is briefly described. The model for the large-scale calculations of total β-decay half-lives accounts for the Gamow-Teller and first-forbidden transitions. Due to the shell configuration effect, the first-forbidden decays have a strong impact on the total half-lives of the r-process relevant nuclei at N=126, Z=60-70. The performance of existing global models for the nuclides near the r-process paths at N=126 is critically analyzed and confronted with the recent RIB experiments in the region ``east'' of 208Pb . The possible role of neutrino nucleosynthesis is exemplified by the production of rare isotope 138La via the neutrino process.
Hinterwirth, Helmut; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Preinerstorfer, Beatrix; Gargano, Andrea; Reischl, Roland; Bicker, Wolfgang; Trapp, Oliver; Brecker, Lothar; Lindner, Wolfgang
2010-11-01
Phosphorylated carbohydrates are important intracellular metabolites and thus of prime interest in metabolomics research. Complications in their analysis arise from the existence of structural isomers that do have similar fragmentation patterns in MS/MS and are hard to resolve chromatographically. Herein, we present selective methods for the liquid chromatographic separation of sugar phosphates, such as hexose and pentose phosphates, 2- and 3-phosphoglycerate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, as well as glucosamine 1- and 6-phosphate utilizing mixed-mode chromatography with reversed-phase/weak anion-exchangers and a charged aerosol detector. The best results were obtained when the reversed-phase/weak anion-exchanger column was operated under hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography elution conditions. The effects of various chromatographic parameters were examined and are discussed on the basis of a simple stoichiometric displacement model for explaining ion-exchange processes. Employed acidic conditions have led to the complete separation of α- and β-anomers of glucose 6-phosphate at low temperature. The anomers coeluted in a single peak at elevated temperatures (>40°C) (peak coalescence), while at intermediate temperatures on-column interconversion with a plateau in-between resolved anomer peaks was observed with apparent reaction rate constants between 0.1 and 27.8×10(-4) s(-1). Dynamic HPLC under specified conditions enabled to investigate mutarotation of phosphorylated carbohydrates, their interconversion kinetics, and energy barriers for interconversion. A complex mixture of six hexose phosphate structural isomers could be resolved almost completely.
Cybulski, Hubert; Baranowska-Łączkowska, Angelika; Henriksen, Christian; Fernández, Berta
2014-11-01
By evaluating a representative set of CCSD(T) ground state interaction energies for van der Waals dimers formed by aromatic molecules and the argon atom, we test the performance of the polarized basis sets of Sadlej et al. (J. Comput. Chem. 2005, 26, 145; Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 1988, 53, 1995) and the augmented polarization-consistent bases of Jensen (J. Chem. Phys. 2002, 117, 9234) in providing accurate intermolecular potentials for the benzene-, naphthalene-, and anthracene-argon complexes. The basis sets are extended by addition of midbond functions. As reference we consider CCSD(T) results obtained with Dunning's bases. For the benzene complex a systematic basis set study resulted in the selection of the (Z)Pol-33211 and the aug-pc-1-33321 bases to obtain the intermolecular potential energy surface. The interaction energy values and the shape of the CCSD(T)/(Z)Pol-33211 calculated potential are very close to the best available CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ-33211 potential with the former basis set being considerably smaller. The corresponding differences for the CCSD(T)/aug-pc-1-33321 potential are larger. In the case of the naphthalene-argon complex, following a similar study, we selected the (Z)Pol-3322 and aug-pc-1-333221 bases. The potentials show four symmetric absolute minima with energies of -483.2 cm(-1) for the (Z)Pol-3322 and -486.7 cm(-1) for the aug-pc-1-333221 basis set. To further check the performance of the selected basis sets, we evaluate intermolecular bound states of the complexes. The differences between calculated vibrational levels using the CCSD(T)/(Z)Pol-33211 and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ-33211 benzene-argon potentials are small and for the lowest energy levels do not exceed 0.70 cm(-1). Such differences are substantially larger for the CCSD(T)/aug-pc-1-33321 calculated potential. For naphthalene-argon, bound state calculations demonstrate that the (Z)Pol-3322 and aug-pc-1-333221 potentials are of similar quality. The results show that these
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itonaga, K.; Motoba, T.
The recent theoretical studies of Lambda-hypernuclear weak decaysof the nonmesonic and pi-mesonic ones are developed with the aim to disclose the link between the experimental decay observables and the underlying basic weak decay interactions and the weak decay mechanisms. The expressions of the nonmesonic decay rates Gamma_{nm} and the decay asymmetry parameter alpha_1 of protons from the polarized hypernuclei are presented in the shell model framework. We then introduce the meson theoretical Lambda N -> NN interactions which include the one-meson exchanges, the correlated-2pi exchanges, and the chiral-pair-meson exchanges. The features of meson exchange potentials and their roles on the nonmesonic decays are discussed. With the adoption of the pi + 2pi/rho + 2pi/sigma + omega + K + rhopi/a_1 + sigmapi/a_1 exchange potentials, we have carried out the systematic calculations of the nonmesonic decay observables for light-to-heavy hypernuclei. The present model can account for the available experimental data of the decay rates, Gamma_n/Gamma_p ratios, and the intrinsic asymmetry parameters alpha_Lambda (alpha_Lambda is related to alpha_1) of emitted protons well and consistently within the error bars. The hypernuclear lifetimes are evaluated by converting the total weak decay rates Gamma_{tot} = Gamma_pi + Gamma_{nm} to tau, which exhibit saturation property for the hypernuclear mass A ≥ 30 and agree grossly well with experimental data for the mass range from light to heavy hypernuclei except for the very light ones. Future extensions of the model and the remaining problems are also mentioned. The pi-mesonic weak processes are briefly surveyed, and the calculations and predictions are compared and confirmed by the recent high precision FINUDA pi-mesonic decay data. This shows that the theoretical basis seems to be firmly grounded.
Lebedev, V. S. Narits, A. A.
2013-10-15
Ion-pair formation processes are studied in collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral particles possessing small electron affinities. Nonadiabatic transitions from a Rydberg covalent term to an ionic term of a quasi-molecule are considered using the modified Landau-Zener theory supplemented with calculation of survival factors of an anion decaying in the Coulomb field of a positive ion core. Using the technique of irreducible tensor operators and the momentum representation of the wavefunction of a highly excited atom, exact expressions are obtained for transition matrix elements and the ionic-covalent coupling parameter. The approach developed in the paper provides the description beyond the scope of a conventional assumption about a small variation of the wavefunction of the Rydberg atom on the range of electron coordinates determined by the characteristic radius of the wavefunction of the anion. This allows one to correctly consider long-range effects of the interaction between a weakly bound electron and the neutral core of a negative ion in processes under study. It is shown by the example of thermal collisions of Xe(nf) atoms with CH{sub 3}CN molecules that this is very important for a reliable quantitative description of anion formation with a low binding energy. The results are compared with experiments and calculations performed within the framework of a number of approximate methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muha, Boris; Canić, Suncica
2013-03-01
We study a nonlinear, unsteady, moving boundary, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problem arising in modeling blood flow through elastic and viscoelastic arteries. The fluid flow, which is driven by the time-dependent pressure data, is governed by two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, while the elastodynamics of the cylindrical wall is modeled by the one-dimensional cylindrical Koiter shell model. Two cases are considered: the linearly viscoelastic and the linearly elastic Koiter shell. The fluid and structure are fully coupled (two-way coupling) via the kinematic and dynamic lateral boundary conditions describing continuity of velocity (the no-slip condition), and the balance of contact forces at the fluid-structure interface. We prove the existence of weak solutions to the two FSI problems (the viscoelastic and the elastic case) as long as the cylinder radius is greater than zero. The proof is based on a novel semi-discrete, operator splitting numerical scheme, known as the kinematically coupled scheme, introduced in Guidoboni et al. (J Comput Phys 228(18):6916-6937, 2009) to numerically solve the underlying FSI problems. The backbone of the kinematically coupled scheme is the well-known Marchuk-Yanenko scheme, also known as the Lie splitting scheme. We effectively prove convergence of that numerical scheme to a solution of the corresponding FSI problem.
Tanaka, T.; Abe, K.; Hayato, Y.; Iida, T.; Kameda, J.; Koshio, Y.; Kouzuma, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Obayashi, Y.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeda, A.; Takenaga, Y.; Ueno, K.; Ueshima, K.; Yamada, S.; Collaboration: Super-Kamiokande Collaboration; and others
2011-12-01
We present the result of an indirect search for high energy neutrinos from Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) annihilation in the Sun using upward-going muon (upmu) events at Super-Kamiokande. Data sets from SKI-SKIII (3109.6 days) were used for the analysis. We looked for an excess of neutrino signal from the Sun as compared with the expected atmospheric neutrino background in three upmu categories: stopping, non-showering, and showering. No significant excess was observed. The 90% C.L. upper limits of upmu flux induced by WIMPs of 100 GeV c{sup -2} were 6.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and 4.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for the soft and hard annihilation channels, respectively. These limits correspond to upper limits of 4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -39} cm{sup -2} and 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -40} cm{sup -2} for spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross sections in the soft and hard annihilation channels, respectively.
Hubert, C; Houari, S; Lecomte, F; Houbart, V; De Bleye, C; Fillet, M; Piel, G; Rozet, E; Hubert, Ph
2010-05-01
A sensitive and accurate LC/MS method was developed for the monitoring of glucosamine (GLcN) dog plasmatic concentration. In this scope, relatively low plasmatic concentrations of GLcN were expected, ranging from 50 to 1000 ng/mL. Liquid chromatography coupled to simple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (LC/MS) was selected bringing the selectivity and the sensitivity needed for this application. Additionally, a solid phase extraction (SPE) step was performed to reduce matrix and ion suppression effects. Due to the ionisable character of the compound of interest, a mixed-mode strong cation exchange (Plexa PCX) disposable extraction cartridge (DEC) was selected. The separation was carried out on a Zorbax SB-CN column (5 microm, 4.6mm i.d. x 250 mm), considering hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Indeed, the mobile phase was made of methanol and 5mM ammonium hydrogen carbonate buffer at pH 7.5 (95/5, v/v). The detection was led at m/z ratios of 180.0 and 417.0, for GLcN and IS, respectively. Reliability of the results was demonstrated through the validation of the method using an approach based on the accuracy profile allowing managing the risk associated to the use of these methods in routine analysis: it is thus guaranteed that each future result will fall in the +/-30% acceptance limits with a probability of at least 90%. Successful application of the method to a preliminary pharmacokinetic study illustrated the usefulness of the method for pre-clinical studies.
Brautigam, Chad A.; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Naik, Mandar T.; Young, Brittany B.; Huang, Tai-huang; Chuang, David T.
2012-02-27
The purified mammalian branched-chain {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain {alpha}-keto acids, is essentially devoid of the constituent dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component (E3). The absence of E3 is associated with the low affinity of the subunit-binding domain of human BCKDC (hSBDb) for hE3. In this work, sequence alignments of hSBDb with the E3-binding domain (E3BD) of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex show that hSBDb has an arginine at position 118, where E3BD features an asparagine. Substitution of Arg-118 with an asparagine increases the binding affinity of the R118N hSBDb variant (designated hSBDb*) for hE3 by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. The enthalpy of the binding reaction changes from endothermic with the wild-type hSBDb to exothermic with the hSBDb* variant. This higher affinity interaction allowed the determination of the crystal structure of the hE3/hSBDb* complex to 2.4-{angstrom} resolution. The structure showed that the presence of Arg-118 poses a unique, possibly steric and/or electrostatic incompatibility that could impede E3 interactions with the wild-type hSBDb. Compared with the E3/E3BD structure, the hE3/hSBDb* structure has a smaller interfacial area. Solution NMR data corroborated the interactions of hE3 with Arg-118 and Asn-118 in wild-type hSBDb and mutant hSBDb*, respectively. The NMR results also showed that the interface between hSBDb and hE3 does not change significantly from hSBDb to hSBDb*. Taken together, our results represent a starting point for explaining the long standing enigma that the E2b core of the BCKDC binds E3 far more weakly relative to other {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes.
Chiarella, Gina M; Feng, Chao; Murillo, Carlos A; Zhao, Qinliang
2016-09-19
Stepwise reaction of W(CO)6 with tetramethylated bicyclic guanidinate ligands, characterized by a central C(N)3 unit joining two fused six-membered rings with CH2CMe2CH2 units spanning two of the nitrogen atoms, allowed isolation of W2(μ-CO)2(μ-TMhpp)2(η(2)-TMhpp)2, 1, a precursor of W2(TMhpp)4Cl2 ( J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013 , 135 , 17889 ; TMhpp = [(CH2CMe2CH2)2(C(N)3)]). Subsequent heating of 1 followed by reaction with TlPF6 generates [W2(TMhpp)4](PF6)2, 2. Compound 1 has an edge-sharing bioctahedral (ESBO) arrangement with a W2(μ-CO)2(4+) core having semibridging carbonyl groups, while 2 has a paddlewheel structure with a W2(6+) core spanned by four tetramethyl-substituted bicyclic guanidinate ligands. This compound also has hexafluorophosphate anions along the metal-metal bond that are nestled within methylene groups with the aid of a network of weak C-H···F interactions that prevent a close approach of the fluorine atoms to the dimetal unit. Theoretical computations were carried out on ditungsten model complexes supported by three ligand sets: bicyclic guanidinate, guanidinate, and formamidinate. The computations show that the π-accepting ability of the carbonyl groups significantly lowers the energy of the σ* orbital, and thus, the energy falls below that of the δ orbital. This information along with the diamagnetism of both 1 and 2-as shown by the sharp signals in the (1)H NMR spectra that support a lack of unpaired electrons (S = 0)-is consistent with the electronic configuration of σ(2)π(2)σ*(2)δ(2) (π(2)δ(2)) and thus a formal bond order of 2 for 1 and σ(2)π(4) for the triple-bonded W2(6+) core in 2. A comparison of the W-W bond lengths in 2, its chloro precursor W2(TMhpp)4Cl2, and the corresponding analogue W2(hpp)4Cl2 shows a substantial effect from the axially coordinated ligand, distal lone pair in determining the length of the metal-metal bond for these paddlewheel species. The importance of the ligands in tuning the energy level of
Precision Metrology Using Weak Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A.
2015-05-01
Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.
Weak- and hyperfine-interaction-induced 1s2s 1S0 → 1s2 1S0 E1 transition rates of He-like ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laima, Radžiūtė; Erikas, Gaidamauskas; Gediminas, Gaigalas; Li, Ji-Guang; Dong, Chen-Zhong; Jönsson, Per
2015-04-01
Weak- and hyperfine-interaction-induced 1s2s 1S0 → 1s2 1S0 E1 transition rates for the isoelectronic sequence of He-like ions have been calculated using the multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) and relativistic configuration interaction methods. The results should be helpful for the future experimental investigations of parity non-conservation effects. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274254, 11147108, 10979007, U1331122, and U1332206) and in part by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB922200).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rybynok, V. O.; Kyriacou, P. A.
2007-10-01
Diabetes is one of the biggest health challenges of the 21st century. The obesity epidemic, sedentary lifestyles and an ageing population mean prevalence of the condition is currently doubling every generation. Diabetes is associated with serious chronic ill health, disability and premature mortality. Long-term complications including heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease and amputations, make the greatest contribution to the costs of diabetes care. Many of these long-term effects could be avoided with earlier, more effective monitoring and treatment. Currently, blood glucose can only be monitored through the use of invasive techniques. To date there is no widely accepted and readily available non-invasive monitoring technique to measure blood glucose despite the many attempts. This paper challenges one of the most difficult non-invasive monitoring techniques, that of blood glucose, and proposes a new novel approach that will enable the accurate, and calibration free estimation of glucose concentration in blood. This approach is based on spectroscopic techniques and a new adaptive modelling scheme. The theoretical implementation and the effectiveness of the adaptive modelling scheme for this application has been described and a detailed mathematical evaluation has been employed to prove that such a scheme has the capability of extracting accurately the concentration of glucose from a complex biological media.
Accurate quantum chemical calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.
1989-01-01
An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.
Weakly relativistic plasma expansion
Fermous, Rachid Djebli, Mourad
2015-04-15
Plasma expansion is an important physical process that takes place in laser interactions with solid targets. Within a self-similar model for the hydrodynamical multi-fluid equations, we investigated the expansion of both dense and under-dense plasmas. The weakly relativistic electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser pulses, while ions are supposed to be in a non-relativistic regime. Numerical investigations have shown that relativistic effects are important for under-dense plasma and are characterized by a finite ion front velocity. Dense plasma expansion is found to be governed mainly by quantum contributions in the fluid equations that originate from the degenerate pressure in addition to the nonlinear contributions from exchange and correlation potentials. The quantum degeneracy parameter profile provides clues to set the limit between under-dense and dense relativistic plasma expansions at a given density and temperature.
Weak Decays of Excited B Mesons.
Grinstein, B; Martin Camalich, J
2016-04-01
We investigate the decays of the excited (bq[over ¯]) mesons as probes of the short-distance structure of the weak ΔB=1 transitions. These states are unstable under the electromagnetic or strong interactions, although their widths are typically suppressed by phase space. Compared to the pseudoscalar B meson, the purely leptonic decays of the vector B^{*} are not chirally suppressed and are sensitive to different combinations of the underlying weak effective operators. An interesting example is B_{s}^{*}→ℓ^{+}ℓ^{-}, which has a rate that can be accurately predicted in the standard model. The branching fraction is B∼10^{-11}, irrespective of the lepton flavor and where the main uncertainty stems from the unmeasured and theoretically not well known B_{s}^{*} width. We discuss the prospects for producing this decay mode at the LHC and explore the possibility of measuring the B_{s}^{*}→ℓℓ amplitude, instead, through scattering experiments at the B_{s}^{*} resonance peak. PMID:27104698
Weak Decays of Excited B Mesons.
Grinstein, B; Martin Camalich, J
2016-04-01
We investigate the decays of the excited (bq[over ¯]) mesons as probes of the short-distance structure of the weak ΔB=1 transitions. These states are unstable under the electromagnetic or strong interactions, although their widths are typically suppressed by phase space. Compared to the pseudoscalar B meson, the purely leptonic decays of the vector B^{*} are not chirally suppressed and are sensitive to different combinations of the underlying weak effective operators. An interesting example is B_{s}^{*}→ℓ^{+}ℓ^{-}, which has a rate that can be accurately predicted in the standard model. The branching fraction is B∼10^{-11}, irrespective of the lepton flavor and where the main uncertainty stems from the unmeasured and theoretically not well known B_{s}^{*} width. We discuss the prospects for producing this decay mode at the LHC and explore the possibility of measuring the B_{s}^{*}→ℓℓ amplitude, instead, through scattering experiments at the B_{s}^{*} resonance peak.
Weak Selection and Protein Evolution
Akashi, Hiroshi; Osada, Naoki; Ohta, Tomoko
2012-01-01
The “nearly neutral” theory of molecular evolution proposes that many features of genomes arise from the interaction of three weak evolutionary forces: mutation, genetic drift, and natural selection acting at its limit of efficacy. Such forces generally have little impact on allele frequencies within populations from generation to generation but can have substantial effects on long-term evolution. The evolutionary dynamics of weakly selected mutations are highly sensitive to population size, and near neutrality was initially proposed as an adjustment to the neutral theory to account for general patterns in available protein and DNA variation data. Here, we review the motivation for the nearly neutral theory, discuss the structure of the model and its predictions, and evaluate current empirical support for interactions among weak evolutionary forces in protein evolution. Near neutrality may be a prevalent mode of evolution across a range of functional categories of mutations and taxa. However, multiple evolutionary mechanisms (including adaptive evolution, linked selection, changes in fitness-effect distributions, and weak selection) can often explain the same patterns of genome variation. Strong parameter sensitivity remains a limitation of the nearly neutral model, and we discuss concave fitness functions as a plausible underlying basis for weak selection. PMID:22964835
Hall, L.J. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Physics)
1990-11-12
An introduction to the ideas and current state of weak scale supersymmetry is given. It is shown that LEP data on Z decays has already excluded two of the most elegant models of weak scale supersymmetry. 14 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baranowska-Łączkowska, Angelika; Fernández, Berta
2015-11-01
Interaction-induced electric dipole moment, polarisability and first hyperpolarisability are investigated in model hydrogen-bonded clusters built of hydrogen fluoride molecules organised in three linear chains parallel to each other. The properties are evaluated within the finite field approach, using the second order Møller-Plesset method, and the LPol-m (m = ds, dl) and the optical rotation prediction (ORP) basis sets. These bases and correlation method are selected after a systematic basis set and correlation method convergence study carried out on the smallest of the complexes and taking properties obtained with Dunning's bases and the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) and the CCSD including connected triple corrections (CCSD(T)) methods as reference. Results are analysed in terms of many-body and cooperative effects.
Cook, C M; Persinger, M A
2001-04-01
We tested the hypothesis that proportionally more people with above average numbers of complex partial epileptic-like experiences before the experiment would report a proximal presence during applications of a weak (1 microTesla), frequency-modulated magnetic field over the right hemisphere. Each of 16 subjects sat in a darkened, quiet room and was exposed for 20 min. to complex fields, applied through a helmet, either along the right hemisphere or across both hemispheres. None of the 8 subjects with below average scores reported a presence during the applications of the magnetic fields while 75% and 60% of the 8 subjects with above average scores reported a presence during right hemispheric and bilateral stimulation, respectively. PMID:11361305
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nabi, Jameel-Un; Ishfaq, Mavra
2016-07-01
We calculate Gamow-Teller strength distributions for β β-decay nuclei ^{76}Ge and ^{82}Se using the deformed pn-QRPA model. We use a deformed Nilsson basis and consider pairing correlations within the deformed BCS theory. Ground state correlations and two-particle and two-hole mixing states were included in our pn-QRPA model. Our calculated strength distributions were compared with experimental data and previous calculation. The total Gamow-Teller strength and centroid placement calculated in our model compares well with the measured value. We calculate β-decay and positron capture rates on ^{76}Ge and ^{82}Se in supernovae environments and compare them to those obtained from experimental data and previous calculation. Our study shows that positron capture rates command the total weak rates at high stellar temperatures. We also calculate energy rates of β-delayed neutrons and their emission probabilities.
Kunoh, Tatsuki; Wang, Weixiang; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuzaki, Daisuke; Togo, Yuki; Tokuyama, Masahiro; Hosoi, Miho; Koseki, Koichi; Wada, Shu-ichi; Nagai, Nobuo; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Nomura, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Makoto; Sasaki, Ryuzo; Mizukami, Tamio
2015-01-01
Human dynactin-associated protein (dynAP) is a transmembrane protein that promotes AktSer473 phosphorylation. Here, we report the oncogenic properties of dynAP. In contrast to control NIH3T3 cells expressing LacZ (NIH3T3LacZ), NIH3T3dynAP cells vigorously formed foci in two-dimensional culture, colonies on soft agar, and spheroids in anchorage-deficient three-dimensional culture. NIH3T3dynAP cells injected into nude mice produced tumors with abundant blood vessels and weak cell—cell contacts. Expression of dynAP elevated the level of rictor (an essential subunit of mTORC2) and promoted phosphorylation of FOXO3aSer253. FOXO3a is a transcriptional factor that stimulates expression of pro-apoptotic genes and phosphorylation of FOXO3a abrogates its function, resulting in promoted cell survival. Knockdown of rictor in NIH3T3dynAP cells reduced AktSer473 phosphorylation and formation of foci, colony in soft agar and spheroid, indicating that dynAP-induced activation of the mTORC2/AktSer473 pathway for cell survival contributes to cell transformation. E-cadherin and its mRNA were markedly reduced upon expression of dynAP, giving rise to cells with higher motility, which may be responsible for the weak cell-cell adhesion in tumors. Thus, dynAP could be a new oncoprotein and a target for cancer therapy. PMID:26284361
Kunoh, Tatsuki; Wang, Weixiang; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuzaki, Daisuke; Togo, Yuki; Tokuyama, Masahiro; Hosoi, Miho; Koseki, Koichi; Wada, Shu-Ichi; Nagai, Nobuo; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Nomura, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Makoto; Sasaki, Ryuzo; Mizukami, Tamio
2015-01-01
Human dynactin-associated protein (dynAP) is a transmembrane protein that promotes AktSer473 phosphorylation. Here, we report the oncogenic properties of dynAP. In contrast to control NIH3T3 cells expressing LacZ (NIH3T3LacZ), NIH3T3dynAP cells vigorously formed foci in two-dimensional culture, colonies on soft agar, and spheroids in anchorage-deficient three-dimensional culture. NIH3T3dynAP cells injected into nude mice produced tumors with abundant blood vessels and weak cell-cell contacts. Expression of dynAP elevated the level of rictor (an essential subunit of mTORC2) and promoted phosphorylation of FOXO3aSer253. FOXO3a is a transcriptional factor that stimulates expression of pro-apoptotic genes and phosphorylation of FOXO3a abrogates its function, resulting in promoted cell survival. Knockdown of rictor in NIH3T3dynAP cells reduced AktSer473 phosphorylation and formation of foci, colony in soft agar and spheroid, indicating that dynAP-induced activation of the mTORC2/AktSer473 pathway for cell survival contributes to cell transformation. E-cadherin and its mRNA were markedly reduced upon expression of dynAP, giving rise to cells with higher motility, which may be responsible for the weak cell-cell adhesion in tumors. Thus, dynAP could be a new oncoprotein and a target for cancer therapy. PMID:26284361
Optimizing SNAP for Weak Lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
High, F. W.; Ellis, R. S.; Massey, R. J.; Rhodes, J. D.; Lamoureux, J. I.; SNAP Collaboration
2004-12-01
The Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) satellite proposes to measure weak gravitational lensing in addition to type Ia supernovae. Its pixel scale has been set to 0.10 arcsec per pixel as established by the needs of supernova observations. To find the optimal pixel scale for accurate weak lensing measurements we conduct a tradeoff study in which, via simulations, we fix the suvey size in total pixels and vary the pixel scale. Our preliminary results show that with a smaller scale of about 0.08 arcsec per pixel we can minimize the contribution of intrinsic shear variance to the error on the power spectrum of mass density distortion. Currently we are testing the robustness of this figure as well as determining whether dithering yields analogous results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carelli, Fabio; Gianturco, Francesco Antonio
2016-06-01
The interaction of low-energy scattering electrons/positrons with molecular targets characterized by a "supercritical" permanent dipole moment (≳2.0 D) presents special physical characteristics that affect their spatial distributions, around the nuclear network of the molecular partners, both above and below the energy thresholds. Such special states are described as either dipole scattering states (DSS) above thresholds or as dipole bound states (DBS) below thresholds. The details of their respective behaviour will be presented and discussed in this work in the case of the purinic DNA bases of adenine and guanine. The behavior of the additional electron, in particular, will be discussed in detail by providing new computational results that will be related to the findings from recent experiments on the same DNA bases, confirming the transient electron's behaviour surmised by them. This work is affectionately dedicated to Michael Allan on the occasion of his official retirement. We wish to this dear friend and outstanding scientist many years to come in the happy pursuit of his many scientific interests.Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.
Li, Y.; Krieger, J.B. ); Norman, M.R. ); Iafrate, G.J. )
1991-11-15
The optimized-effective-potential (OEP) method and a method developed recently by Krieger, Li, and Iafrate (KLI) are applied to the band-structure calculations of noble-gas and alkali halide solids employing the self-interaction-corrected (SIC) local-spin-density (LSD) approximation for the exchange-correlation energy functional. The resulting band gaps from both calculations are found to be in fair agreement with the experimental values. The discrepancies are typically within a few percent with results that are nearly the same as those of previously published orbital-dependent multipotential SIC calculations, whereas the LSD results underestimate the band gaps by as much as 40%. As in the LSD---and it is believed to be the case even for the exact Kohn-Sham potential---both the OEP and KLI predict valence-band widths which are narrower than those of experiment. In all cases, the KLI method yields essentially the same results as the OEP.
Angelici, G; Bhattacharjee, N; Roy, O; Faure, S; Didierjean, C; Jouffret, L; Jolibois, F; Perrin, L; Taillefumier, C
2016-03-25
The synthesis of all-cis amide (NtBu)-glycine oligomers up to 15 residues long by a blockwise coupling approach is reported. The structure and dynamical behavior of these peptoids have been studied by X-ray crystallography, NMR and molecular modeling. Analyses reveal that the folding of these oligomers is driven by weak CH···O=C hydrogen bonding along the peptoid backbone and London interaction between tBu···tBu side-chains. PMID:26940758
Weak-coupling calculations in the /sup 208/Pb core region
McGrory, J.B.
1981-01-01
The structure of Tl and Hg isotopes near the /sup 208/Pb core is discussed in terms of a weak-coupling model where low-lying proton-hole states are coupled to low-lying neutron-hole states. The even Pb isotopes are first discussed in terms of a generalized seniority-2 approximation which is shown to be very accurate. The weak-coupling results are not satisfactory, and it is suggested that the defeat may be in the n-p interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayabe, Kazuki; Sato, Kazunobu; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Nishida, Shinsuke; Sugisaki, Kenji; Ise, Tomoaki; Morita, Yasushi; Toyota, Kazuo; Shiomi, Daisuke; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Suzuki, Shuichi; Okada, Keiji; Takui, Takeji
2013-10-01
Weakly exchange-coupled biradicals have attracted much attention in terms of their dynamic nuclear polarisation application in NMR spectroscopy for biological systems or the use of synthetic electron-spin qubits in quantum information processing/quantum-computing technology. Analogues multi-partite molecular systems are important in entering a new phase of the relevant fields. Many stable organic biradicals known so far have nitrogen nuclei at their electron spin sites, where singly occupied molecular orbitals are dominating and large hyperfine couplings occur. A salient feature of such weakly exchange-coupled molecular systems in terms of electronic spin structures is underlain by small zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters comparable with nuclear hyperfine and/or exchange interactions. Pulse-based electron spin nutation (ESN) spectroscopy of weakly exchange-coupled biradicals, applicable to oriented or non-oriented media, has proven to be a useful and facile approach to the determination of ZFS parameters, which reflect relatively short distances between unpaired electron spins. In the present study, we first treat two-dimensional single-crystal ESN spectroscopy (Q-band) of a 15N-labelled weakly exchange-coupled biradical, showing the nuclear hyperfine effects on the ESN phenomena from both the experimental and theoretical side. ESN spectroscopy is transition moment spectroscopy, in which the nutation frequency as a function of the microwave irradiation strength ω1 (angular frequency) for any cases of weakly exchange-coupled systems can be treated. The results provide a testing ground for the simplified but general approach to the ESN analysis. In this study, we have invoked single-crystal electron-electron double resonance measurements on a typical biradical well incorporated in a diamagnetic host lattice and checked the accuracy of our ESN analysis for the spin dipolar tensor and exchange interaction. Next, we extend the general approach to analogues multi
Postselected weak measurement beyond the weak value
Geszti, Tamas
2010-04-15
Closed expressions are derived for the quantum measurement statistics of pre- and postselected Gaussian particle beams. The weakness of the preselection step is shown to compete with the nonorthogonality of postselection in a transparent way. The approach is shown to be useful in analyzing postselection-based signal amplification, allowing measurements to be extended far beyond the range of validity of the well-known Aharonov-Albert-Vaidman limit. Additionally, the present treatment connects postselected weak measurement to the topic of phase-contrast microscopy.
Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes
Sharpe, S.R.
1988-09-01
An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs.
CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Fitch, V. L.
1972-03-23
Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.
Aperiodic Weak Topological Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fulga, I. C.; Pikulin, D. I.; Loring, T. A.
2016-06-01
Weak topological phases are usually described in terms of protection by the lattice translation symmetry. Their characterization explicitly relies on periodicity since weak invariants are expressed in terms of the momentum-space torus. We prove the compatibility of weak topological superconductors with aperiodic systems, such as quasicrystals. We go beyond usual descriptions of weak topological phases and introduce a novel, real-space formulation of the weak invariant, based on the Clifford pseudospectrum. A nontrivial value of this index implies a nontrivial bulk phase, which is robust against disorder and hosts localized zero-energy modes at the edge. Our recipe for determining the weak invariant is directly applicable to any finite-sized system, including disordered lattice models. This direct method enables a quantitative analysis of the level of disorder the topological protection can withstand.
Aperiodic Weak Topological Superconductors.
Fulga, I C; Pikulin, D I; Loring, T A
2016-06-24
Weak topological phases are usually described in terms of protection by the lattice translation symmetry. Their characterization explicitly relies on periodicity since weak invariants are expressed in terms of the momentum-space torus. We prove the compatibility of weak topological superconductors with aperiodic systems, such as quasicrystals. We go beyond usual descriptions of weak topological phases and introduce a novel, real-space formulation of the weak invariant, based on the Clifford pseudospectrum. A nontrivial value of this index implies a nontrivial bulk phase, which is robust against disorder and hosts localized zero-energy modes at the edge. Our recipe for determining the weak invariant is directly applicable to any finite-sized system, including disordered lattice models. This direct method enables a quantitative analysis of the level of disorder the topological protection can withstand. PMID:27391744
Wang, Hui; Kelley, Steven P; Brantley, Jimmy W; Chatel, Gregory; Shamshina, Julia; Pereira, Jorge F B; Debbeti, Varun; Myerson, Allan S; Rogers, Robin D
2015-04-01
Liquid multi-ion systems made by combining two or more salts can exhibit charge ordering and interactions not found in the parent salts, leading to new sets of properties. This is investigated herein by examining a liquid comprised of a single cation, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C2mim](+)), and two anions with different properties, acetate ([OAc](-)) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([NTf2](-)). NMR and IR spectroscopy indicate that the electrostatic interactions are quite different from those in either [C2mim][OAc] or [C2mim][NTf2]. This is attributed to the ability of [OAc](-) to form complexes with the [C2mim](+) ions at greater than 1:1 stoichiometries by drawing [C2mim](+) ions away from the less basic [NTf2](-) ions. Solubility studies with molecular solvents (ethyl acetate, water) and pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, diphenhydramine) show nonlinear trends as a function of ion content, which suggests that solubility can be tuned through changes in the ionic compositions.
Wang, Hui; Kelley, Steven P; Brantley, Jimmy W; Chatel, Gregory; Shamshina, Julia; Pereira, Jorge F B; Debbeti, Varun; Myerson, Allan S; Rogers, Robin D
2015-04-01
Liquid multi-ion systems made by combining two or more salts can exhibit charge ordering and interactions not found in the parent salts, leading to new sets of properties. This is investigated herein by examining a liquid comprised of a single cation, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C2mim](+)), and two anions with different properties, acetate ([OAc](-)) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([NTf2](-)). NMR and IR spectroscopy indicate that the electrostatic interactions are quite different from those in either [C2mim][OAc] or [C2mim][NTf2]. This is attributed to the ability of [OAc](-) to form complexes with the [C2mim](+) ions at greater than 1:1 stoichiometries by drawing [C2mim](+) ions away from the less basic [NTf2](-) ions. Solubility studies with molecular solvents (ethyl acetate, water) and pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, diphenhydramine) show nonlinear trends as a function of ion content, which suggests that solubility can be tuned through changes in the ionic compositions. PMID:25652555
Begeot, Flora; Koryakov, Dmitry E.; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Ronsseray, Stéphane; Vieira, Cristina; Spierer, Pierre; Delattre, Marion
2014-01-01
Heterochromatin is made of repetitive sequences, mainly transposable elements (TEs), the regulation of which is critical for genome stability. We have analyzed the role of the heterochromatin-associated Su(var)3–7 protein in Drosophila ovaries. We present evidences that Su(var)3–7 is required for correct oogenesis and female fertility. It accumulates in heterochromatic domains of ovarian germline and somatic cells nuclei, where it co-localizes with HP1. Homozygous mutant females display ovaries with frequent degenerating egg-chambers. Absence of Su(var)3–7 in embryos leads to defects in meiosis and first mitotic divisions due to chromatin fragmentation or chromosome loss, showing that Su(var)3–7 is required for genome integrity. Females homozygous for Su(var)3–7 mutations strongly impair repression of P-transposable element induced gonadal dysgenesis but have minor effects on other TEs. Su(var)3–7 mutations reduce piRNA cluster transcription and slightly impact ovarian piRNA production. However, this modest piRNA reduction does not correlate with transposon de-silencing, suggesting that the moderate effect of Su(var)3–7 on some TE repression is not linked to piRNA production. Strikingly, Su(var)3–7 genetically interacts with the piwi and aubergine genes, key components of the piRNA pathway, by strongly impacting female fertility without impairing transposon silencing. These results lead us to propose that the interaction between Su(var)3–7 and piwi or aubergine controls important developmental processes independently of transposon silencing. PMID:24820312
Martínez-Pinedo, G; Fischer, T; Lohs, A; Huther, L
2012-12-21
We perform three-flavor Boltzmann neutrino transport radiation hydrodynamics simulations covering a period of 3 s after the formation of a protoneutron star in a core-collapse supernova explosion. Our results show that a treatment of charged-current neutrino interactions in hot and dense matter as suggested by Reddy et al. [Phys. Rev. D 58, 013009 (1998)] has a strong impact on the luminosities and spectra of the emitted neutrinos. When compared with simulations that neglect mean-field effects on the neutrino opacities, we find that the luminosities of all neutrino flavors are reduced while the spectral differences between electron neutrinos and antineutrinos are increased. Their magnitude depends on the equation of state and in particular on the symmetry energy at subnuclear densities. These modifications reduce the proton-to-nucleon ratio of the outflow, increasing slightly their entropy. They are expected to have a substantial impact on nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds, even though they do not result in conditions that favor an r process. Contrary to previous findings, our results show that the spectra of electron neutrinos remain substantially different from those of other (anti)neutrino flavors during the entire deleptonization phase of the protoneutron star. The obtained luminosity and spectral changes are also expected to have important consequences for neutrino flavor oscillations and neutrino detection on Earth.
Martínez-Pinedo, G; Fischer, T; Lohs, A; Huther, L
2012-12-21
We perform three-flavor Boltzmann neutrino transport radiation hydrodynamics simulations covering a period of 3 s after the formation of a protoneutron star in a core-collapse supernova explosion. Our results show that a treatment of charged-current neutrino interactions in hot and dense matter as suggested by Reddy et al. [Phys. Rev. D 58, 013009 (1998)] has a strong impact on the luminosities and spectra of the emitted neutrinos. When compared with simulations that neglect mean-field effects on the neutrino opacities, we find that the luminosities of all neutrino flavors are reduced while the spectral differences between electron neutrinos and antineutrinos are increased. Their magnitude depends on the equation of state and in particular on the symmetry energy at subnuclear densities. These modifications reduce the proton-to-nucleon ratio of the outflow, increasing slightly their entropy. They are expected to have a substantial impact on nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds, even though they do not result in conditions that favor an r process. Contrary to previous findings, our results show that the spectra of electron neutrinos remain substantially different from those of other (anti)neutrino flavors during the entire deleptonization phase of the protoneutron star. The obtained luminosity and spectral changes are also expected to have important consequences for neutrino flavor oscillations and neutrino detection on Earth. PMID:23368446
Kubas, G.J.; Eckert, J.; Luo, X.L.
1997-07-01
This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). At the forefront of chemistry are efforts to catalytically transform the inert C-H bonds in alkanes to more useful products using metal compounds. The goal is to observe binding and cleavage of alkane C-H bonds on metals or to use related silane Si-H bonding as models, analogous to the discovery of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) binding to metals. Studies of these unique sigma complexes (M{hor_ellipsis}H-Y; Y{double_bond}H, Si, C) will aid in developing new catalysts or technologies relevant to DOE interest, e.g., new methods for tritium isotope separation. Several transition metals (Mo, W, Mn, and Pt) were found to reversibly bind and cleave H{sub 2}, silanes, and halocarbons. The first metal-SiH{sub 4} complexes, thus serving as a model for methane reactions. A second goal is to study the dynamics and energetics of H-Y bonds on metals by neutron scattering, and evidence for interactions between bound H-Y and nearby H atoms on metal complexes has been found.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bender, Hagen; Huet, Benjamin; Grasemann, Bernhard; Schuster, Ralf
2015-04-01
The presence of porphyroblasts in metamorphic rocks has a strong influence on the microstructures that develop during deformation. Valuable as gauges for the sense of shear, single isolated porphyroblasts and -clasts have attracted enormous attention and vigorous discussion in the geological community. Naturally, however, porphyroblasts often occur in populations. Therefore, the understanding of multi-porphyroblast interaction is of great significance. We use amphibolite-facies garnet mica schists from the Upper Austroalpine Wölz Complex for a case study. The microstructure of mm-cm sized, densely distributed garnet porphyroblasts indicates interference of the blasts. Blasts are subjected to convergence parallel to the instantaneous shortening axis, causing (i) accumulation and deformation of strain caps, (ii) fracturing of the garnets and (iii) dissolution of garnet at collision sites. Parallel to the instantaneous stretching axis, (i) cone-shaped strain shadows are linked between neighbouring garnets and (ii) separation of garnet clusters occurs preferably. Dissolution precipitation creep accommodates the major part of deformation. Consequently, the matrix separates due to the dense population of porphyroblasts. The matrix differentiates to dissolution sites and precipitation sites in the respective quadrants of stretching and shortening around the blasts. Quantitative chemical analysis and thermodynamic modelling are utilised to examine compositional variations in minerals within the stretching and shortening domains. The results show that the present-day assemblage in these rocks records no deviations from lithostatic pressure.
Titov, Aleksei A; Guseva, Ekaterina A; Filippov, Oleg A; Babakhina, Galina M; Godovikov, Ivan A; Belkova, Natalia V; Epstein, Lina M; Shubina, Elena S
2016-09-01
The nondestructive reversible complexation of the macrocyclic group 11 metal pyrazolates {[3,5-(CF3)2Pz]M}3 (M = Cu(I), Ag(I)) to the halogen atom X = Cl, Br of η(3)-allyliron tricarbonyl halides (η(3)-2-R-C3H4)Fe(CO)3X is revealed by the variable-temperature spectroscopic (IR, NMR) study combined with density functional theory calculations. The composition of all complexes at room temperature is determined as 1:1. In the case of the [AgL]3 macrocycle, complexes 1:2 are observed at low temperature (<260 K). The complex's stability depends on the substituents in the allyl fragment and halide ligand as well as on the metal atom (Ag(I), Cu(I)) in the macrocycle. For bulky substituents (Me and Ph) the endo/exo equilibrium of the parent (η(3)-2-R-C3H4)Fe(CO)3X shifts upon the complex formation in favor of the exo isomer due to additional noncovalent interactions of the substituent with macrocycle. PMID:27529380
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Keonhee; Oh, Jumi
2016-01-01
A notion of measure expansivity for flows was introduced by Carrasco-Olivera and Morales in [3] as a generalization of expansivity, and they proved that there were no measure expansive flows on closed surfaces. In this paper we introduce a concept of weak measure expansivity for flows which is really weaker than that of measure expansivity, and show that there is a weak measure expansive flow on a closed surface. Moreover we show that any C1 stably weak measure expansive flow on a C∞ closed manifold M is Ω-stable, and any C1 stably measure expansive flow on M satisfies both Axiom A and the quasi-transversality condition.
Overdamping by weakly coupled environments
Esposito, Massimiliano; Haake, Fritz
2005-12-15
A quantum system weakly interacting with a fast environment usually undergoes a relaxation with complex frequencies whose imaginary parts are damping rates quadratic in the coupling to the environment in accord with Fermi's 'golden rule'. We show for various models (spin damped by harmonic-oscillator or random-matrix baths, quantum diffusion, and quantum Brownian motion) that upon increasing the coupling up to a critical value still small enough to allow for weak-coupling Markovian master equations, a different relaxation regime can occur. In that regime, complex frequencies lose their real parts such that the process becomes overdamped. Our results call into question the standard belief that overdamping is exclusively a strong coupling feature.
Sassene, Philip J; Mosgaard, Mette D; Löbmann, Korbinian; Mu, Huiling; Larsen, Flemming H; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette
2015-11-01
The aim of this study was to investigate if molecular interactions between the weak base cinnarizine and lipolysis products were affecting the morphology of precipitated drug formed during in vitro lipolysis. In vitro lipolysis studies of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system with or without cinnarizine were conducted. The digestion phases (aqueous phase and pellet phase) were separated by ultracentrifugation, and the pellet was isolated and lyophilized. The lyophilized pellets were examined by X-ray powder diffraction, (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR), (1)H liquid-state NMR ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The (13)C NMR data indicated that the carbonyl groups and aliphatic part of the lipids undergo structural changes when the pellet contains cinnarizine. The (1)H NMR data suggests interactions occurring around the nitrogens on cinnarizine and the carboxylic group of fatty acids. DSC thermograms showed cinnarizine to be homogeneously incorporated into the lipids of the pellet, and no free amorphous cinnarizine was present. The three techniques (13)C NMR, (1)H NMR, and DSC complement each other and suggest interactions to occur between fatty acids and cinnarizine, which in turn favors amorphous precipitation. PMID:26393273
Sassene, Philip J; Mosgaard, Mette D; Löbmann, Korbinian; Mu, Huiling; Larsen, Flemming H; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette
2015-11-01
The aim of this study was to investigate if molecular interactions between the weak base cinnarizine and lipolysis products were affecting the morphology of precipitated drug formed during in vitro lipolysis. In vitro lipolysis studies of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system with or without cinnarizine were conducted. The digestion phases (aqueous phase and pellet phase) were separated by ultracentrifugation, and the pellet was isolated and lyophilized. The lyophilized pellets were examined by X-ray powder diffraction, (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR), (1)H liquid-state NMR ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The (13)C NMR data indicated that the carbonyl groups and aliphatic part of the lipids undergo structural changes when the pellet contains cinnarizine. The (1)H NMR data suggests interactions occurring around the nitrogens on cinnarizine and the carboxylic group of fatty acids. DSC thermograms showed cinnarizine to be homogeneously incorporated into the lipids of the pellet, and no free amorphous cinnarizine was present. The three techniques (13)C NMR, (1)H NMR, and DSC complement each other and suggest interactions to occur between fatty acids and cinnarizine, which in turn favors amorphous precipitation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
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M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simoniello, R.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; St. Denis, R. D.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van den Wollenberg, W.; van der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Leeuw, R.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, L.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration
2015-07-01
A search for the decay of neutral, weakly interacting, long-lived particles using data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. This analysis uses the full data set recorded in 2012: 20.3 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at √{s }=8 TeV . The search employs techniques for reconstructing decay vertices of long-lived particles decaying to jets in the inner tracking detector and muon spectrometer. Signal events require at least two reconstructed vertices. No significant excess of events over the expected background is found, and limits as a function of proper lifetime are reported for the decay of the Higgs boson and other scalar bosons to long-lived particles and for Hidden Valley Z' and Stealth SUSY benchmark models. The first search results for displaced decays in Z' and Stealth SUSY models are presented. The upper bounds of the excluded proper lifetimes are the most stringent to date.
Wu, Sangwook; Sim, Sooyeon
2012-01-01
We investigate the dinuclear manganese, Mn(II)-Mn(II), active site of human cytosolic X-propyl aminopeptidase (XPNPEP1) employing the QM/MM method. The optimized structure supports two manganese atoms at the active site and excludes the possibility of a single Mn(II) atom or other combination of divalent metal ions: Ca(II), Fe(II), Mg(II). A broken symmetry solution verifies an antiferromagnetically coupled state between the Mn(II)-Mn(II) pair, which is the ground state. From the energy difference between the high spin state (HS) and the broken symmetry state (BS), we estimate the exchange coupling constant, J, to be 5.15 cm-1. Also, we observe multiple bridges (p orbitals) from solvent and two carboxylate linking to the Mn(II)-Mn(II), which leads to the weakly antiferromagnetic interaction of d5-d5 electrons through superexchange coupling. PMID:23145216
Accurate description of argon and water adsorption on surfaces of graphene-based carbon allotropes.
Kysilka, Jiří; Rubeš, Miroslav; Grajciar, Lukáš; Nachtigall, Petr; Bludský, Ota
2011-10-20
Accurate interaction energies of nonpolar (argon) and polar (water) adsorbates with graphene-based carbon allotropes were calculated by means of a combined density functional theory (DFT)-ab initio computational scheme. The calculated interaction energy of argon with graphite (-9.7 kJ mol(-1)) is in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. The calculated interaction energy of water with graphene and graphite is -12.8 and -14.6 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The accuracy of combined DFT-ab initio methods is discussed in detail based on a comparison with the highly precise interaction energies of argon and water with coronene obtained at the coupled-cluster CCSD(T) level extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit. A new strategy for a reliable estimate of the CBS limit is proposed for systems where numerical instabilities occur owing to basis-set near-linear dependence. The most accurate estimate of the argon and water interaction with coronene (-8.1 and -14.0 kJ mol(-1), respectively) is compared with the results of other methods used for the accurate description of weak intermolecular interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shao-Guang
According to f =d(mv)/dt=m(dv/dt)+ v(dm/dt), a same gravitational formula had been de-duced from the variance in physical mass of QFT and from the variance in mass of inductive energy-transfer of GR respectively: f QF T = f GR = -G (mM/r2 )((r/r)+(v/c)) when their interaction-constants are all taken the experimental values (H05-0029-08, E15-0039-08). f QF T is the quasi-Casimir pressure. f GR is equivalent to Einstein's equation, then more easy to solve it. The hypothesis of the equivalent principle is not used in f QF T , but required by f GR . The predictions of f QF T and f GR are identical except that f QF T has quantum effects but f GR has not and f GR has Lense-Thirring effect but f QF T has not. The quantum effects of gravitation had been verified by Nesvizhevsky et al with the ultracold neutrons falling in the earth's gravitational field in 2002. Yet Lense-Thirring effect had not been measured by GP-B. It shows that f QF T is essential but f GR is phenomenological. The macro-f QF T is the statistic average pressure collided by net virtual neutrinos ν 0 flux (after self-offset in opposite directions) and in direct proportion to the mass. But micro-f QF T is in direct proportion to the scattering section. The electric mass (in inverse proportion to de Broglie wavelength λ) far less than nucleonic mass and the electric scattering section (in direct proportion to λ2 ) far large than that of nucleon, then the net ν 0 flux pressure exerted to electron far large than that to nucleon and the electric displacement far large than that of nucleon, it causes the gravitational polarization of positive-negative charge center separation. Because the gravity far less than the electromagnetic binding force, in atoms the gravitational polarization only produces a little separation. But the net ν 0 flux can press a part freedom electrons in plasma of ionosphere into the earth's surface, the static electric force of redundant positive ions prevents electrons from further
Atomic homodyne detection of weak atomic transitions.
Gunawardena, Mevan; Elliott, D S
2007-01-26
We have developed a two-color, two-pathway coherent control technique to detect and measure weak optical transitions in atoms by coherently beating the transition amplitude for the weak transition with that of a much stronger transition. We demonstrate the technique in atomic cesium, exciting the 6s(2)S(1/2) --> 8s(2)S(1/2) transition via a strong two-photon transition and a weak controllable Stark-induced transition. We discuss the enhancement in the signal-to-noise ratio for this measurement technique over that of direct detection of the weak transition rate, and project future refinements that may further improve its sensitivity and application to the measurement of other weak atomic interactions.
Accurate monotone cubic interpolation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huynh, Hung T.
1991-01-01
Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.
Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodrich, John W.
1996-01-01
Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.
Weak quasielastic production of hyperons
Singh, S. K.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente
2006-09-01
The quasielastic weak production of {lambda} and {sigma} hyperons from nucleons and nuclei induced by antineutrinos is studied in the energy region of some ongoing neutrino oscillation experiments in the intermediate energy region. The hyperon-nucleon transition form factors determined from neutrino-nucleon scattering and an analysis of high precision data on semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons using SU(3) symmetry have been used. The nuclear effects due to Fermi motion and final state interaction effects due to hyperon-nucleon scattering have also been studied. The numerical results for differential and total cross sections have been presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.
Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.
Complex weak values in quantum measurement
Jozsa, Richard
2007-10-15
In the weak value formalism of Aharonov et al., the weak value A{sub w} of any observable A is generally a complex number. We derive a physical interpretation of its value in terms of the shift in the measurement pointer's mean position and mean momentum. In particular, we show that the mean position shift contains a term jointly proportional to the imaginary part of the weak value and the rate at which the pointer is spreading in space as it enters the measurement interaction.
Electro-weak reactions for astrophysics
R. Schiavilla
2000-06-01
The status of ''ab initio'' microscopic calculations of the {sup 2}H(p,{gamma}){sup 3}He and {sup 3}He(p,e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}){sup 4}He reactions is reviewed. The methods used to generate accurate nuclear ground- and scattering-state wave functions, and to construct realistic electro-weak transition operators are described. The uncertainties in the theoretical predictions, particularly those relevant to the p-{sup 3}He weak capture, are discussed. For the dp radiative capture, the theoretical results are compared with the TUNL data in the energy range 0--100 keV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunter, John K.; Brio, Moysey
2000-05-01
We present numerical solutions of a two-dimensional inviscid Burgers equation which provides an asymptotic description of the Mach reflection of weak shocks. In our numerical solutions, the incident, reflected, and Mach shocks meet at a triple point, and there is a supersonic patch behind the triple point, as proposed by Guderley for steady weak-shock reflection. A theoretical analysis indicates that there is an expansion fan at the triple point, in addition to the three shocks. The supersonic patch is extremely small, and this work is the first time it has been resolved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinberg, Aephraim; Feizpour, Amir; Rozema; Mahler; Hayat
2013-03-01
Quantum physics is being transformed by a radical new conceptual and experimental approach known as weak measurement that can do everything from tackling basic quantum mysteries to mapping the trajectories of photons in a Young's double-slit experiment. Aephraim Steinberg, Amir Feizpour, Lee Rozema, Dylan Mahler and Alex Hayat unveil the power of this new technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pires, Sandrine; Starck, Jean-Luc; Leonard, Adrienne; Réfrégier, Alexandre
2012-03-01
This chapter reviews the data mining methods recently developed to solve standard data problems in weak gravitational lensing. We detail the different steps of the weak lensing data analysis along with the different techniques dedicated to these applications. An overview of the different techniques currently used will be given along with future prospects. Until about 30 years ago, astronomers thought that the Universe was composed almost entirely of ordinary matter: protons, neutrons, electrons, and atoms. The field of weak lensing has been motivated by the observations made in the last decades showing that visible matter represents only about 4-5% of the Universe (see Figure 14.1). Currently, the majority of the Universe is thought to be dark, that is, does not emit electromagnetic radiation. The Universe is thought to be mostly composed of an invisible, pressure less matter - potentially relic from higher energy theories - called "dark matter" (20-21%) and by an even more mysterious term, described in Einstein equations as a vacuum energy density, called "dark energy" (70%). This "dark" Universe is not well described or even understood; its presence is inferred indirectly from its gravitational effects, both on the motions of astronomical objects and on light propagation. So this point could be the next breakthrough in cosmology. Today's cosmology is based on a cosmological model that contains various parameters that need to be determined precisely, such as the matter density parameter Omega_m or the dark energy density parameter Omega_lambda. Weak gravitational lensing is believed to be the most promising tool to understand the nature of dark matter and to constrain the cosmological parameters used to describe the Universe because it provides a method to directly map the distribution of dark matter (see [1,6,60,63,70]). From this dark matter distribution, the nature of dark matter can be better understood and better constraints can be placed on dark energy
Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; et al
2015-07-17
A search for the decay of neutral, weakly interacting, long-lived particles using data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. This analysis uses the full data set recorded in 2012: 20.3 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at √s = 8 TeV. The search employs techniques for reconstructing decay vertices of long-lived particles decaying to jets in the inner tracking detector and muon spectrometer. Signal events require at least two reconstructed vertices. No significant excess of events over the expected background is found, and limits as a function of proper lifetime are reported for the decay of themore » Higgs boson and other scalar bosons to long-lived particles and for Hidden Valley Z' and Stealth SUSY benchmark models. The first search results for displaced decays in Z' and Stealth SUSY models are presented. The upper bounds of the excluded proper lifetimes are the most stringent to date.« less
Mitchison, Graeme; Jozsa, Richard; Popescu, Sandu |||
2007-12-15
The notion of weak measurement provides a formalism for extracting information from a quantum system in the limit of vanishing disturbance to its state. Here we extend this formalism to the measurement of sequences of observables. When these observables do not commute, we may obtain information about joint properties of a quantum system that would be forbidden in the usual strong measurement scenario. As an application, we provide a physically compelling characterization of the notion of counterfactual quantum computation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al Mogren, M. M.; Denis-Alpizar, O.; Abdallah, D. Ben; Stoecklin, T.; Halvick, P.; Senent, M.-L.; Hochlaf, M.
2014-07-01
Through the study of the C3({tilde X}1Σg+) + He(1S) astrophysical relevant system using standard (CCSD(T)) and explicitly correlated (CCSD(T)-F12) coupled cluster approaches, we show that the CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ level represents a good compromise between accuracy and low computational cost for the generation of multi-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) over both intra- and inter-monomer degrees of freedom. Indeed, the CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ 2D-PES for linear C3 and the CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ 4D-PES for bent C3 configurations gently approach those mapped at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVXZ (X = T,Q) + bond functions level, whereas a strong reduction of computational effort is observed. After exact dynamical computations, the pattern of the rovibrational levels of the intermediate C3-He complex and the rotational and rovibrational (de-) excitation of C3 by He derived using both sets of PESs agree quite well. Since C3 shows a floppy character, the interaction PES is defined in four dimensions to obtain realistic collisional parameters. The C-C-C bending mode, which fundamental lies at 63 cm-1 and can be excited at very low temperatures is explicitly considered as independent coordinate. Our work suggests hence that CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ methodology is the key method for the generation of accurate polyatomic - He/H2 multi-dimensional PESs.
Wong, Yong Foo; Chin, Sung-Tong; Perlmutter, Patrick; Marriott, Philip J
2015-03-27
To explore the possible obligate interactions between the phytopathogenic fungus and Aquilaria malaccensis which result in generation of a complex array of secondary metabolites, we describe a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) method, coupled to accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) for the untargeted and comprehensive metabolic profiling of essential oils from naturally infected A. malaccensis trees. A polar/non-polar column configuration was employed, offering an improved separation pattern of components when compared to other column sets. Four different grades of the oils displayed quite different metabolic patterns, suggesting the evolution of a signalling relationship between the host tree (emergence of various phytoalexins) and fungi (activation of biotransformation). In total, ca. 550 peaks/metabolites were detected, of which tentative identification of 155 of these compounds was reported, representing between 20.1% and 53.0% of the total ion count. These are distributed over the chemical families of monoterpenic and sesquiterpenic hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes (comprised of ketone, aldehyde, oxide, alcohol, lactone, keto-alcohol and diol), norterpenoids, diterpenoids, short chain glycols, carboxylic acids and others. The large number of metabolites detected, combined with the ease with which they are located in the 2D separation space, emphasises the importance of a comprehensive analytical approach for the phytochemical analysis of plant metabolomes. Furthermore, the potential of this methodology in grading agarwood oils by comparing the obtained metabolic profiles (pattern recognition for unique metabolite chemical families) is discussed. The phytocomplexity of the agarwood oils signified the production of a multitude of plant-fungus mediated secondary metabolites as chemical signals for natural ecological communication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most complete
Accurate Optical Reference Catalogs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zacharias, N.
2006-08-01
Current and near future all-sky astrometric catalogs on the ICRF are reviewed with the emphasis on reference star data at optical wavelengths for user applications. The standard error of a Hipparcos Catalogue star position is now about 15 mas per coordinate. For the Tycho-2 data it is typically 20 to 100 mas, depending on magnitude. The USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC) observing program was completed in 2004 and reductions toward the final UCAC3 release are in progress. This all-sky reference catalogue will have positional errors of 15 to 70 mas for stars in the 10 to 16 mag range, with a high degree of completeness. Proper motions for the about 60 million UCAC stars will be derived by combining UCAC astrometry with available early epoch data, including yet unpublished scans of the complete set of AGK2, Hamburg Zone astrograph and USNO Black Birch programs. Accurate positional and proper motion data are combined in the Naval Observatory Merged Astrometric Dataset (NOMAD) which includes Hipparcos, Tycho-2, UCAC2, USNO-B1, NPM+SPM plate scan data for astrometry, and is supplemented by multi-band optical photometry as well as 2MASS near infrared photometry. The Milli-Arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (MAPS) mission is currently being planned at USNO. This is a micro-satellite to obtain 1 mas positions, parallaxes, and 1 mas/yr proper motions for all bright stars down to about 15th magnitude. This program will be supplemented by a ground-based program to reach 18th magnitude on the 5 mas level.
Weak antilocalisation in topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bi, Xintao; Hankiewicz, Ewelina; Culcer, Dimitrie
2014-03-01
Topological insulators (TI) have changed our understanding of insulating behaviour. They are insulators in the bulk but conducting along their surfaces due to spin-orbit interaction. Much of the recent research focuses on overcoming the transport bottleneck, the fact that surface state transport is overwhelmed by bulk transport stemming from unintentional doping. The key to overcoming this bottleneck is identifying unambiguous signatures of surface state transport. This talk will discuss one such signature, which is manifest in the coherent backscattering of electrons. Due to strong spin-orbit coupling in TI one expects to observe weak antilocalisation rather than weak localisation, meaning that coherent backscattering increases the electrical conductivity. The features of this effect, however, are rather subtle, because in TI the impurities have strong spin-orbit coupling as well. I will show that spin-orbit coupled impurities introduce an additional time scale, which is expected to be shorter than the dephasing time, and the resulting conductivity has a logarithmic dependence on the carrier density, a behaviour hitherto unknown in 2D electron systems. The result we predict is observable experimentally and would provide a smoking gun test of surface transport.
Cartron, J. P.; Gerbal, A.; Hughes-Jones, N. C.; Salmon, C.
1974-01-01
Thirty-five weak A samples including fourteen A3, eight Ax, seven Aend, three Am and three Ae1 were studied in order to determine their A antigen site density, using an IgG anti-A labelled with 125I. The values obtained ranged between 30,000 A antigen sites for A3 individuals, and 700 sites for the Ae1 red cells. The hierarchy of values observed made it possible to establish a quantitative relationship between the red cell agglutinability of these phenotypes measured under standard conditions, and their antigen site density. PMID:4435836
Weakly broken galileon symmetry
Pirtskhalava, David; Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico; Vernizzi, Filippo
2015-09-01
Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.
Grace, R.
1983-01-01
The Moby Dick spectrometer (at BNL) in coincidence with a range spectrometer and a TOF neutron detector will be used to study the weak decay modes of /sup 12/C. The Moby Dick spectrometer will be used to reconstruct and tag events in which specific hypernuclear states are formed in the reaction K/sup -/ + /sup 12/C ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/ + /sup 12/C. Subsequent emission of decay products (pions, protons and neutrons) in coincidence with the fast forward pion will be detected in a time and range spectrometer, and a neutron detector.
Weakly broken galileon symmetry
Pirtskhalava, David; Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico; Vernizzi, Filippo E-mail: luca.santoni@sns.it E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr
2015-09-01
Effective theories of a scalar φ invariant under the internal galileon symmetry φ→φ+b{sub μ} x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon's quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.
Condensate fluctuations of interacting Bose gases within a microcanonical ensemble
Wang Jianhui; He Jizhou; Ma Yongli
2011-05-15
Based on counting statistics and Bogoliubov theory, we present a recurrence relation for the microcanonical partition function for a weakly interacting Bose gas with a finite number of particles in a cubic box. According to this microcanonical partition function, we calculate numerically the distribution function, condensate fraction, and condensate fluctuations for a finite and isolated Bose-Einstein condensate. For ideal and weakly interacting Bose gases, we compare the condensate fluctuations with those in the canonical ensemble. The present approach yields an accurate account of the condensate fluctuations for temperatures close to the critical region. We emphasize that the interactions between excited atoms turn out to be important for moderate temperatures.
Accurate thickness measurement of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.
2016-03-01
Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.
Accurate thickness measurement of graphene.
Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T
2016-03-29
Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.
Tie, Yunfeng; McPhail, Brooks; Hong, Huixiao; Pearce, Bruce A; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Ge, Weigong; Buzatu, Dan A; Wilkes, Jon G; Fuscoe, James C; Tong, Weida; Fowler, Bruce A; Beger, Richard D; Demchuk, Eugene
2012-03-15
Polypharmacy increasingly has become a topic of public health concern, particularly as the U.S. population ages. Drug labels often contain insufficient information to enable the clinician to safely use multiple drugs. Because many of the drugs are bio-transformed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, inhibition of CYP activity has long been associated with potentially adverse health effects. In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty pertaining to CYP-mediated drug-drug/chemical interactions, an interagency collaborative group developed a consensus approach to prioritizing information concerning CYP inhibition. The consensus involved computational molecular docking, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR), and structure-activity relationship (SAR) models that addressed the clinical potency of CYP inhibition. The models were built upon chemicals that were categorized as either potent or weak inhibitors of the CYP3A4 isozyme. The categorization was carried out using information from clinical trials because currently available in vitro high-throughput screening data were not fully representative of the in vivo potency of inhibition. During categorization it was found that compounds, which break the Lipinski rule of five by molecular weight, were about twice more likely to be inhibitors of CYP3A4 compared to those, which obey the rule. Similarly, among inhibitors that break the rule, potent inhibitors were 2-3 times more frequent. The molecular docking classification relied on logistic regression, by which the docking scores from different docking algorithms, CYP3A4 three-dimensional structures, and binding sites on them were combined in a unified probabilistic model. The SDAR models employed a multiple linear regression approach applied to binned 1D ¹³C-NMR and 1D ¹⁵N-NMR spectral descriptors. Structure-based and physical-chemical descriptors were used as the basis for developing SAR models by the decision forest method. Thirty-three potent inhibitors and 88 weak
Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V; Astaf'eva, N G; Meglinski, I V
2014-08-31
The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials. (laser biophotonics)
Chen, Ming-Xue; Cao, Zhao-Yun; Jiang, Yan; Zhu, Zhi-Wei
2013-01-11
A novel method was developed for the direct, sensitive, and rapid determination of glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in fruit and vegetable samples by mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/weak anion-exchange liquid chromatography (HILIC/WAX) coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Homogenized samples were extracted with water, without derivatization or further clean-up, and the extracts were injected directly onto the Asahipak NH2P-50 4E column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm). The best results were obtained when the column was operated under mixed-mode HILIC/WAX elution conditions. An initial 10-min washing step with acetonitrile/water (10:90, v/v) in HILIC mode was used to remove potentially interfering compounds, and then the analytes were eluted in WAX mode with acetonitrile and water containing 0.1 molL(-1) ammonium hydroxide under gradient elution for the ESI analysis in negative ion mode. Limits of quantification of glyphosate and AMPA were 5 μgkg(-1) and 50 μgkg(-1), respectively, with limits of detection as low as 1.2 μgkg(-1) for glyphosate and 15 μgkg(-1) for AMPA. The linearity was satisfactory, with correlation coefficients (r)>0.9966. Recovery studies were carried out on spiked matrices (6 vegetables, 3 fruits) with glyphosate at four concentrations and AMPA at three concentrations. The mean recoveries for glyphosate and AMPA were 75.3-110% and 76.1-110%, respectively, with relative standard deviations in the range of 1.1-13.8%. The intra-day precision (n=7) for glyphosate and AMPA in vegetable and fruit samples spiked at an intermediate level between 5.9% and 7.5%, and the inter-day precision over 11 days (n=11) was between 7.0% and 13%.
Wafer weak point detection based on aerial images or WLCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ning, Guoxiang; Philipp, Peter; Litt, Lloyd C.; Ackmann, Paul; Crell, Christian; Chen, Norman
2015-10-01
Aerial image measurement is a key technique for model based optical proximity correction (OPC) verification. Actual aerial images obtained by AIMS (aerial image measurement system) or WLCD (wafer level critical dimension) can detect printed wafer weak point structures in advance of wafer exposure and defect inspection. Normally, the potential wafer weak points are determined based on optical rule check (ORC) simulation in advance. However, the correlation to real wafer weak points is often not perfect due to the contribution of mask three dimension (M3D) effects, actual mask errors, and scanner lens effects. If the design weak points can accurately be detected in advance, it will reduce the wafer fab cost and improve cycle time. WLCD or AIMS tools are able to measure the aerial images CD and bossung curve through focus window. However, it is difficult to detect the wafer weak point in advance without defining selection criteria. In this study, wafer weak points sensitive to mask mean-to-nominal values are characterized for a process with very high MEEF (normally more than 4). Aerial image CD uses fixed threshold to detect the wafer weak points. By using WLCD through threshold and focus window, the efficiency of wafer weak point detection is also demonstrated. A novel method using contrast range evaluation is shown in the paper. Use of the slope of aerial images for more accurate detection of the wafer weak points using WLCD is also discussed. The contrast range can also be used to detect the wafer weak points in advance. Further, since the mean to nominal of the reticle contributes to the effective contrast range in a high MEEF area this work shows that control of the mask error is critical for high MEEF layers such as poly, active and metal layers. Wafer process based weak points that cannot be detected by wafer lithography CD or WLCD will be discussed.
Second-order accurate nonoscillatory schemes for scalar conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huynh, Hung T.
1989-01-01
Explicit finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of nonlinear scalar conservation laws is presented and analyzed. These schemes are uniformly second-order accurate and nonoscillatory in the sense that the number of extrema of the discrete solution is not increasing in time.
Pixelation Effects in Weak Lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
High, F. William; Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Ellis, Richard
2007-11-01
Weak gravitational lensing can be used to investigate both dark matter and dark energy but requires accurate measurements of the shapes of faint, distant galaxies. Such measurements are hindered by the finite resolution and pixel scale of digital cameras. We investigate the optimum choice of pixel scale for a space-based mission, using the engineering model and survey strategy of the proposed Supernova Acceleration Probe as a baseline. We do this by simulating realistic astronomical images containing a known input shear signal and then attempting to recover the signal using the Rhodes, Refregier, & Groth algorithm. We find that the quality of shear measurement is always improved by smaller pixels. However, in practice, telescopes are usually limited to a finite number of pixels and operational life span, so the total area of a survey increases with pixel size. We therefore fix the survey lifetime and the number of pixels in the focal plane while varying the pixel scale, thereby effectively varying the survey size. In a pure trade-off for image resolution versus survey area, we find that measurements of the matter power spectrum would have minimum statistical error with a pixel scale of 0.09" for a 0.14" FWHM point-spread function (PSF). The pixel scale could be increased to ~0.16" if images dithered by exactly half-pixel offsets were always available. Some of our results do depend on our adopted shape measurement method and should be regarded as an upper limit: future pipelines may require smaller pixels to overcome systematic floors not yet accessible, and, in certain circumstances, measuring the shape of the PSF might be more difficult than those of galaxies. However, the relative trends in our analysis are robust, especially those of the surface density of resolved galaxies. Our approach thus provides a snapshot of potential in available technology, and a practical counterpart to analytic studies of pixelation, which necessarily assume an idealized shape
WEAK LENSING MASS RECONSTRUCTION: FLEXION VERSUS SHEAR
Pires, S.
2010-11-10
Weak gravitational lensing has proven to be a powerful tool to map directly the distribution of dark matter in the universe. The technique, currently used, relies on the accurate measurement of the gravitational shear that corresponds to the first-order distortion of the background galaxy images. More recently, a new technique has been introduced that relies on the accurate measurement of the gravitational flexion that corresponds to the second-order distortion of the background galaxy images. This technique should probe structures on smaller scales than that of shear analysis. The goal of this paper is to compare the ability of shear and flexion to reconstruct the dark matter distribution by taking into account the dispersion in shear and flexion measurements. Our results show that the flexion is less sensitive than shear for constructing the convergence maps on scales that are physically feasible for mapping, meaning that flexion alone should not be used to do convergence map reconstruction, even on small scales.
Metal Nanostructure Formation on Graphene: Weak versus Strong Bonding
Hupalo, Myron; Liu, Xiaojie; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Lu, Wen-Cai; Yao, Yon-Xin; Ho, Kai-Ming; Tringides, Michael C.
2011-05-10
Graphene is an exciting material with numerous potential applications. To understand metal graphene interaction two different metals were studied. Two large Pb islands nucleate at 78K indicating fast diffusion and weak interaction(right). On the contrary, for Dysprosium a high island density is observed confirming slow diffusion and strong interaction(left).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Berezkin, K. B.; Kashirina, N. V.; Tan, T. L.; Sydow, C.; Maul, C.; Bauerecker, S.
2016-09-01
The highly accurate (experimental accuracy in line positions ~(1 - 3) ×10-4cm-1) FTIR ro-vibrational spectra of CH2=CD2 in the region of 600-1300 cm-1, where the fundamental bands ν10, ν7, ν4, ν8, ν3, and ν6 are located, were recorded and analyzed with the Hamiltonian model which takes into account resonance interactions between all six studied bands. About 12 200 ro-vibrational transitions belonging to these bands (that is considerably more than it was made in the preceding studies for the bands ν10, ν7, ν8, ν3 and ν6; transitions belonging to the ν4 band were assigned for the first time) were assigned in the experimental spectra with the maximum values of quantum numbers Jmax. / Kamax . equal to 31/20, 46/18, 33/11, 50/26, 44/20 and 42/21 for the bands ν10, ν7, ν4, ν8, ν3, and ν6, respectively. On that basis, a set of 133 vibrational, rotational, centrifugal distortion and resonance interaction parameters was obtained from the weighted fit. They reproduce values of 3920 initial "experimental" ro-vibrational energy levels (positions of about 12 200 experimentally recorded and assigned transitions) with the rms error drms = 2.3 ×10-4cm-1.
Extrapolating Weak Selection in Evolutionary Games
Wu, Bin; García, Julián; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne
2013-01-01
In evolutionary games, reproductive success is determined by payoffs. Weak selection means that even large differences in game outcomes translate into small fitness differences. Many results have been derived using weak selection approximations, in which perturbation analysis facilitates the derivation of analytical results. Here, we ask whether results derived under weak selection are also qualitatively valid for intermediate and strong selection. By “qualitatively valid” we mean that the ranking of strategies induced by an evolutionary process does not change when the intensity of selection increases. For two-strategy games, we show that the ranking obtained under weak selection cannot be carried over to higher selection intensity if the number of players exceeds two. For games with three (or more) strategies, previous examples for multiplayer games have shown that the ranking of strategies can change with the intensity of selection. In particular, rank changes imply that the most abundant strategy at one intensity of selection can become the least abundant for another. We show that this applies already to pairwise interactions for a broad class of evolutionary processes. Even when both weak and strong selection limits lead to consistent predictions, rank changes can occur for intermediate intensities of selection. To analyze how common such games are, we show numerically that for randomly drawn two-player games with three or more strategies, rank changes frequently occur and their likelihood increases rapidly with the number of strategies . In particular, rank changes are almost certain for , which jeopardizes the predictive power of results derived for weak selection. PMID:24339769
NNLOPS accurate associated HW production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astill, William; Bizon, Wojciech; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia
2016-06-01
We present a next-to-next-to-leading order accurate description of associated HW production consistently matched to a parton shower. The method is based on reweighting events obtained with the HW plus one jet NLO accurate calculation implemented in POWHEG, extended with the MiNLO procedure, to reproduce NNLO accurate Born distributions. Since the Born kinematics is more complex than the cases treated before, we use a parametrization of the Collins-Soper angles to reduce the number of variables required for the reweighting. We present phenomenological results at 13 TeV, with cuts suggested by the Higgs Cross section Working Group.
Weak interference in the high-signal regime.
Torres, Juan P; Puentes, Graciana; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Salazar-Serrano, Luis Jose
2012-08-13
Weak amplification is a signal enhancement technique which is used to measure tiny changes that otherwise cannot be determined because of technical limitations. It is based on: a) the existence of a weak interaction which couples a property of a system (the system) with a separate degree of freedom (the pointer), and b) the measurement of an anomalously large mean value of the pointer state (weak mean value), after appropriate pre-and post-selection of the state of the system. Unfortunately, the weak amplification process is generally accompanied by severe losses of the detected signal, which limits its applicability. However, we will show here that since weak amplification is essentially the result of an interference phenomena, it should be possible to use the degree of interference (weak interference) to get relevant information about the physical system under study in a more general scenario, where the signal is not severely depleted (high-signal regime).
Weak interference in the high-signal regime.
Torres, Juan P; Puentes, Graciana; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Salazar-Serrano, Luis Jose
2012-08-13
Weak amplification is a signal enhancement technique which is used to measure tiny changes that otherwise cannot be determined because of technical limitations. It is based on: a) the existence of a weak interaction which couples a property of a system (the system) with a separate degree of freedom (the pointer), and b) the measurement of an anomalously large mean value of the pointer state (weak mean value), after appropriate pre-and post-selection of the state of the system. Unfortunately, the weak amplification process is generally accompanied by severe losses of the detected signal, which limits its applicability. However, we will show here that since weak amplification is essentially the result of an interference phenomena, it should be possible to use the degree of interference (weak interference) to get relevant information about the physical system under study in a more general scenario, where the signal is not severely depleted (high-signal regime). PMID:23038526
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baer, Howard; Tata, Xerxes
2006-05-01
Supersymmetric models of particle physics predict new superpartner matter states for each particle in the Standard Model. These superpartners will have wide ranging implications, from cosmology to observations at high energy accelerators, such as CERN's LHC. In this text, the authors develop the basic concepts of supersymmetry and show how it can be incorporated into a theoretical framework for describing unified theories of elementary particles. They develop the technical tools of supersymmetry using four-component spinor notation familiar to high energy experimentalists and phenomenologists. The text takes the reader from an abstract formalism to a straightforward recipe for writing supersymmetric gauge theories of particle physics, and ultimately to the calculations necessary for practical applications at colliders and in cosmology. This is a comprehensive, practical and accessible introduction to supersymmetry for experimental and phenomenological particle physicists and graduate students. Exercises and worked examples that clarify the material are interspersed throughout. Develops very general supersymmetric models for the interactions of elementary particles from basic principles Uses 4-component spinor notation to develop the superfield formalism (a necessary technical tool) Extensively treats the experimental implications of supersymmetry Contains over 100 exercises and worked examples throughout the text
Accurate shear measurement with faint sources
Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn
2015-01-01
For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.
Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases
Klein, Natalie M.; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M.; Carlson, Greg N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.
2013-01-01
Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee’s common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g. the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these “weak definite” interpretations arise in “incorporated” constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g. hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g. farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. The imagined scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti- familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. PMID:23685208
Resisting Weakness of the Will
Levy, Neil
2012-01-01
I develop an account of weakness of the will that is driven by experimental evidence from cognitive and social psychology. I will argue that this account demonstrates that there is no such thing as weakness of the will: no psychological kind corresponds to it. Instead, weakness of the will ought to be understood as depletion of System II resources. Neither the explanatory purposes of psychology nor our practical purposes as agents are well-served by retaining the concept. I therefore suggest that we ought to jettison it, in favour of the vocabulary and concepts of cognitive psychology. PMID:22984298
Reichenbach, H.; Kuhl, A.L.
1993-09-07
The purpose of this paper is to compare reflection factors for weak shocks from various surfaces, and to focus attention on some unsolved questions. Three different cases are considered: square-wave planar shock reflection from wedges; square-wave planar shock reflection from cylinders; and spherical blast wave reflection from a planar surface. We restrict ourselves to weak shocks. Shocks with a Mach number of M{sub O} < 1.56 in air or with an overpressure of {Delta}{sub PI} < 25 psi (1.66 bar) under normal ambient conditions are called weak.
Accurate description of calcium solvation in concentrated aqueous solutions.
Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E; Jungwirth, Pavel
2014-07-17
Calcium is one of the biologically most important ions; however, its accurate description by classical molecular dynamics simulations is complicated by strong electrostatic and polarization interactions with surroundings due to its divalent nature. Here, we explore the recently suggested approach for effectively accounting for polarization effects via ionic charge rescaling and develop a new and accurate parametrization of the calcium dication. Comparison to neutron scattering and viscosity measurements demonstrates that our model allows for an accurate description of concentrated aqueous calcium chloride solutions. The present model should find broad use in efficient and accurate modeling of calcium in aqueous environments, such as those encountered in biological and technological applications.
Testing Einstein's weak equivalence principle with gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xue-Feng; Gao, He; Wei, Jun-Jie; Mészáros, Peter; Zhang, Bing; Dai, Zi-Gao; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Zhu, Zong-Hong
2016-07-01
A conservative constraint on Einstein's weak equivalence principle (WEP) can be obtained under the assumption that the observed time delay between correlated particles from astronomical sources is dominated by the gravitational fields through which they move. Current limits on the WEP are mainly based on the observed time delays of photons with different energies. It is highly desirable to develop more accurate tests that include the gravitational wave (GW) sector. The detection by the advanced LIGO/VIRGO systems of gravitational waves will provide attractive candidates for constraining the WEP, extending the tests to gravitational interactions with potentially higher accuracy. Considering the capabilities of the advanced LIGO/VIRGO network and the source direction uncertainty, we show that the joint detection of GWs and electromagnetic signals could probe the WEP to an accuracy down to 10-10 , which is one order of magnitude tighter than previous limits, and 7 orders of magnitude tighter than the multimessenger (photons and neutrinos) results by supernova 1987A.
Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography
Woińska, Magdalena; Grabowsky, Simon; Dominiak, Paulina M.; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Jayatilaka, Dylan
2016-01-01
Precise and accurate structural information on hydrogen atoms is crucial to the study of energies of interactions important for crystal engineering, materials science, medicine, and pharmacy, and to the estimation of physical and chemical properties in solids. However, hydrogen atoms only scatter x-radiation weakly, so x-rays have not been used routinely to locate them accurately. Textbooks and teaching classes still emphasize that hydrogen atoms cannot be located with x-rays close to heavy elements; instead, neutron diffraction is needed. We show that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A–H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation. The precision of the determination is also comparable between x-ray and neutron diffraction results. This has been achieved at resolutions as low as 0.8 Å using Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR). We have applied HAR to 81 crystal structures of organic molecules and compared the A–H bond lengths with those from neutron measurements for A–H bonds sorted into bonds of the same class. We further show in a selection of inorganic compounds that hydrogen atoms can be located in bridging positions and close to heavy transition metals accurately and precisely. We anticipate that, in the future, conventional x-radiation sources at in-house diffractometers can be used routinely for locating hydrogen atoms in small molecules accurately instead of large-scale facilities such as spallation sources or nuclear reactors. PMID:27386545
Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography.
Woińska, Magdalena; Grabowsky, Simon; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Jayatilaka, Dylan
2016-05-01
Precise and accurate structural information on hydrogen atoms is crucial to the study of energies of interactions important for crystal engineering, materials science, medicine, and pharmacy, and to the estimation of physical and chemical properties in solids. However, hydrogen atoms only scatter x-radiation weakly, so x-rays have not been used routinely to locate them accurately. Textbooks and teaching classes still emphasize that hydrogen atoms cannot be located with x-rays close to heavy elements; instead, neutron diffraction is needed. We show that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A-H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation. The precision of the determination is also comparable between x-ray and neutron diffraction results. This has been achieved at resolutions as low as 0.8 Å using Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR). We have applied HAR to 81 crystal structures of organic molecules and compared the A-H bond lengths with those from neutron measurements for A-H bonds sorted into bonds of the same class. We further show in a selection of inorganic compounds that hydrogen atoms can be located in bridging positions and close to heavy transition metals accurately and precisely. We anticipate that, in the future, conventional x-radiation sources at in-house diffractometers can be used routinely for locating hydrogen atoms in small molecules accurately instead of large-scale facilities such as spallation sources or nuclear reactors. PMID:27386545
Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography.
Woińska, Magdalena; Grabowsky, Simon; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Jayatilaka, Dylan
2016-05-01
Precise and accurate structural information on hydrogen atoms is crucial to the study of energies of interactions important for crystal engineering, materials science, medicine, and pharmacy, and to the estimation of physical and chemical properties in solids. However, hydrogen atoms only scatter x-radiation weakly, so x-rays have not been used routinely to locate them accurately. Textbooks and teaching classes still emphasize that hydrogen atoms cannot be located with x-rays close to heavy elements; instead, neutron diffraction is needed. We show that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A-H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation. The precision of the determination is also comparable between x-ray and neutron diffraction results. This has been achieved at resolutions as low as 0.8 Å using Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR). We have applied HAR to 81 crystal structures of organic molecules and compared the A-H bond lengths with those from neutron measurements for A-H bonds sorted into bonds of the same class. We further show in a selection of inorganic compounds that hydrogen atoms can be located in bridging positions and close to heavy transition metals accurately and precisely. We anticipate that, in the future, conventional x-radiation sources at in-house diffractometers can be used routinely for locating hydrogen atoms in small molecules accurately instead of large-scale facilities such as spallation sources or nuclear reactors.
Sansone, Giuseppe; Maschio, Lorenzo; Usvyat, Denis; Schütz, Martin; Karttunen, Antti
2016-01-01
The black phosphorus (black-P) crystal is formed of covalently bound layers of phosphorene stacked together by weak van der Waals interactions. An experimental measurement of the exfoliation energy of black-P is not available presently, making theoretical studies the most important source of information for the optimization of phosphorene production. Here, we provide an accurate estimate of the exfoliation energy of black-P on the basis of multilevel quantum chemical calculations, which include the periodic local Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order, augmented by higher-order corrections, which are evaluated with finite clusters mimicking the crystal. Very similar results are also obtained by density functional theory with the D3-version of Grimme's empirical dispersion correction. Our estimate of the exfoliation energy for black-P of -151 meV/atom is substantially larger than that of graphite, suggesting the need for different strategies to generate isolated layers for these two systems. PMID:26651397
Sansone, Giuseppe; Maschio, Lorenzo; Usvyat, Denis; Schütz, Martin; Karttunen, Antti
2016-01-01
The black phosphorus (black-P) crystal is formed of covalently bound layers of phosphorene stacked together by weak van der Waals interactions. An experimental measurement of the exfoliation energy of black-P is not available presently, making theoretical studies the most important source of information for the optimization of phosphorene production. Here, we provide an accurate estimate of the exfoliation energy of black-P on the basis of multilevel quantum chemical calculations, which include the periodic local Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order, augmented by higher-order corrections, which are evaluated with finite clusters mimicking the crystal. Very similar results are also obtained by density functional theory with the D3-version of Grimme's empirical dispersion correction. Our estimate of the exfoliation energy for black-P of -151 meV/atom is substantially larger than that of graphite, suggesting the need for different strategies to generate isolated layers for these two systems.
Weak Energy: Form and Function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parks, Allen D.
The equation of motion for a time-dependent weak value of a quantum mechanical observable contains a complex valued energy factor—the weak energy of evolution. This quantity is defined by the dynamics of the pre-selected and post-selected states which specify the observable's weak value. It is shown that this energy: (i) is manifested as dynamical and geometric phases that govern the evolution of the weak value during the measurement process; (ii) satisfies the Euler-Lagrange equations when expressed in terms of Pancharatnam (P) phase and Fubini-Study (FS) metric distance; (iii) provides for a PFS stationary action principle for quantum state evolution; (iv) time translates correlation amplitudes; (v) generalizes the temporal persistence of state normalization; and (vi) obeys a time-energy uncertainty relation. A similar complex valued quantity—the pointed weak energy of an evolving quantum state—is also defined and several of its properties in PFS coordinates are discussed. It is shown that the imaginary part of the pointed weak energy governs the state's survival probability and its real part is—to within a sign—the Mukunda-Simon geometric phase for arbitrary evolutions or the Aharonov-Anandan (AA) geometric phase for cyclic evolutions. Pointed weak energy gauge transformations and the PFS 1-form are defined and discussed and the relationship between the PFS 1-form and the AA connection 1-form is established. [Editors note: for a video of the talk given by Prof. Parks at the Aharonov-80 conference in 2012 at Chapman University, see http://quantum.chapman.edu/talk-25.
Quantum discord with weak measurements
Singh, Uttam Pati, Arun Kumar
2014-04-15
Weak measurements cause small change to quantum states, thereby opening up the possibility of new ways of manipulating and controlling quantum systems. We ask, can weak measurements reveal more quantum correlation in a composite quantum state? We prove that the weak measurement induced quantum discord, called as the “super quantum discord”, is always larger than the quantum discord captured by the strong measurement. Moreover, we prove the monotonicity of the super quantum discord as a function of the measurement strength and in the limit of strong projective measurement the super quantum discord becomes the normal quantum discord. We find that unlike the normal discord, for pure entangled states, the super quantum discord can exceed the quantum entanglement. Our results provide new insights on the nature of quantum correlation and suggest that the notion of quantum correlation is not only observer dependent but also depends on how weakly one perturbs the composite system. We illustrate the key results for pure as well as mixed entangled states. -- Highlights: •Introduced the role of weak measurements in quantifying quantum correlation. •We have introduced the notion of the super quantum discord (SQD). •For pure entangled state, we show that the SQD exceeds the entanglement entropy. •This shows that quantum correlation depends not only on observer but also on measurement strength.
Synchronization between two weakly coupled delay-line oscillators.
Levy, Etgar C; Horowitz, Moshe
2012-12-01
We study theoretically the generation of a continuous-wave signal by two weakly coupled delay-line oscillators. In such oscillators, the cavity length is longer than the wavelength of the signal. We show by using an analytical solution and comprehensive numerical simulations that in delay-line oscillators, the dynamics of the amplitude response cannot be neglected even when the coupling between the oscillators is weak. Therefore, weakly coupled delay-line oscillators cannot be accurately modeled by using coupled phase-oscillator models. In particular, we show that synchronization between the oscillators can be obtained in cases that are not allowed by coupled phase-oscillator models. We study the stability of the continuous-wave solutions. In delay-line oscillators, several cavity modes can potentially oscillate. To ensure stability, the bandwidth of the delay-line oscillator should be limited. We show that the weakly coupled delay-line oscillator model that is described in this paper can be used to accurately model the synchronization between two weakly coupled optoelectronic oscillators. A very good quantitative agreement is obtained between a comprehensive numerical model to study optoelectronic oscillators and the model results given in this paper.
Profitable capitation requires accurate costing.
West, D A; Hicks, L L; Balas, E A; West, T D
1996-01-01
In the name of costing accuracy, nurses are asked to track inventory use on per treatment basis when more significant costs, such as general overhead and nursing salaries, are usually allocated to patients or treatments on an average cost basis. Accurate treatment costing and financial viability require analysis of all resources actually consumed in treatment delivery, including nursing services and inventory. More precise costing information enables more profitable decisions as is demonstrated by comparing the ratio-of-cost-to-treatment method (aggregate costing) with alternative activity-based costing methods (ABC). Nurses must participate in this costing process to assure that capitation bids are based upon accurate costs rather than simple averages. PMID:8788799
Density functionals that recognize covalent, metallic, and weak bonds.
Sun, Jianwei; Xiao, Bing; Fang, Yuan; Haunschild, Robin; Hao, Pan; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Csonka, Gábor I; Scuseria, Gustavo E; Perdew, John P
2013-09-01
Computationally efficient semilocal approximations of density functional theory at the level of the local spin density approximation (LSDA) or generalized gradient approximation (GGA) poorly describe weak interactions. We show improved descriptions for weak bonds (without loss of accuracy for strong ones) from a newly developed semilocal meta-GGA (MGGA), by applying it to molecules, surfaces, and solids. We argue that this improvement comes from using the right MGGA dimensionless ingredient to recognize all types of orbital overlap. PMID:25166685
Weak measurements beyond the Aharonov-Albert-Vaidman formalism
Wu Shengjun; Li Yang
2011-05-15
We extend the idea of weak measurements to the general case, provide a complete treatment, and obtain results for both the regime when the preselected and postselected states (PPS) are almost orthogonal and the regime when they are exactly orthogonal. We surprisingly find that for a fixed interaction strength, there may exist a maximum signal amplification and a corresponding optimum overlap of PPS to achieve it. For weak measurements in the orthogonal regime, we find interesting quantities that play the same role that weak values play in the nonorthogonal regime.
Warping the Weak Gravity Conjecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kooner, Karta; Parameswaran, Susha; Zavala, Ivonne
2016-08-01
The Weak Gravity Conjecture, if valid, rules out simple models of Natural Inflation by restricting their axion decay constant to be sub-Planckian. We revisit stringy attempts to realise Natural Inflation, with a single open string axionic inflaton from a probe D-brane in a warped throat. We show that warped geometries can allow the requisite super-Planckian axion decay constant to be achieved, within the supergravity approximation and consistently with the Weak Gravity Conjecture. Preliminary estimates of the brane backreaction suggest that the probe approximation may be under control. However, there is a tension between large axion decay constant and high string scale, where the requisite high string scale is difficult to achieve in all attempts to realise large field inflation using perturbative string theory. We comment on the Generalized Weak Gravity Conjecture in the light of our results.
State tomography via weak measurements
Wu, Shengjun
2013-01-01
Recent work has revealed that the wave function of a pure state can be measured directly and that complementary knowledge of a quantum system can be obtained simultaneously by weak measurements. However, the original scheme applies only to pure states, and it is not efficient because most of the data are discarded by post-selection. Here, we propose tomography schemes for pure states and for mixed states via weak measurements, and our schemes are more efficient because we do not discard any data. Furthermore, we demonstrate that any matrix element of a general state can be directly read from an appropriate weak measurement. The density matrix (with all of its elements) represents all that is directly accessible from a general measurement. PMID:23378924
Rotational and rotationless states of weakly bound molecules
Lemeshko, Mikhail; Friedrich, Bretislav
2009-05-15
By making use of the quantization rule of Raab and Friedrich [Phys. Rev. A 78, 022707 (2008)], we derive simple and accurate formulae for the number of rotational states supported by a weakly bound vibrational level of a diatomic molecule and the rotational constants of any such levels up to the threshold, and provide a criterion for determining whether a given weakly bound vibrational level is rotationless. The results depend solely on the long-range part of the molecular potential and are applicable to halo molecules.
Weak value amplification considered harmful
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrie, Christopher; Combes, Joshua
2014-03-01
We show using statistically rigorous arguments that the technique of weak value amplification does not perform better than standard statistical techniques for the tasks of parameter estimation and signal detection. We show that using all data and considering the joint distribution of all measurement outcomes yields the optimal estimator. Moreover, we show estimation using the maximum likelihood technique with weak values as small as possible produces better performance for quantum metrology. In doing so, we identify the optimal experimental arrangement to be the one which reveals the maximal eigenvalue of the square of system observables. We also show these conclusions do not change in the presence of technical noise.
Strong mobility in weakly disordered systems
Ben-naim, Eli; Krapivsky, Pavel
2009-01-01
We study transport of interacting particles in weakly disordered media. Our one-dimensional system includes (i) disorder, the hopping rate governing the movement of a particle between two neighboring lattice sites is inhomogeneous, and (ii) hard core interaction, the maximum occupancy at each site is one particle. We find that over a substantial regime, the root-mean-square displacement of a particle s grows superdiffusively with time t, {sigma}{approx}({epsilon}t){sup 2/3}, where {epsilon} is the disorder strength. Without disorder the particle displacement is subdiffusive, {sigma} {approx}t{sup 1/4}, and therefore disorder strongly enhances particle mobility. We explain this effect using scaling arguments, and verify the theoretical predictions through numerical simulations. Also, the simulations show that regardless of disorder strength, disorder leads to stronger mobility over an intermediate time regime.
Aikawa, Yuki; Agata, Umon; Kakutani, Yuya; Kato, Shoyo; Noma, Yuichi; Hattori, Satoshi; Ogata, Hitomi; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi
2016-01-01
Increasing calcium (Ca) intake is important for female athletes with a risk of weak bone caused by inadequate food intake. The aim of the present study was to examine the preventive effect of Ca supplementation on low bone strength in young female athletes with inadequate food intake, using the rats as an experimental model. Seven-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: the sedentary and ad libitum feeding group (SED), voluntary running exercise and ad libitum feeding group (EX), voluntary running exercise and 30% food restriction group (EX-FR), and a voluntary running exercise, 30% food-restricted and high-Ca diet group (EX-FR+Ca). To Ca supplementation, we used 1.2% Ca diet as "high-Ca diet" that contains two-fold Ca of normal Ca diet. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. As a result, the energy availability, internal organ weight, bone strength, bone mineral density, and Ca absorption in the EX-FR group were significantly lower than those in the EX group. The bone strength and Ca absorption in the EX-FR+Ca group were significantly higher than those in the EX-FR group. However, the bone strength in the EX-FR+Ca group did not reach that in the EX group. These results suggested that Ca supplementation had a positive effect on bone strength, but the effect was not sufficient to prevent lower bone strength caused by food restriction in young female athletes. PMID:26511476
Aikawa, Yuki; Agata, Umon; Kakutani, Yuya; Kato, Shoyo; Noma, Yuichi; Hattori, Satoshi; Ogata, Hitomi; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi
2016-01-01
Increasing calcium (Ca) intake is important for female athletes with a risk of weak bone caused by inadequate food intake. The aim of the present study was to examine the preventive effect of Ca supplementation on low bone strength in young female athletes with inadequate food intake, using the rats as an experimental model. Seven-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: the sedentary and ad libitum feeding group (SED), voluntary running exercise and ad libitum feeding group (EX), voluntary running exercise and 30% food restriction group (EX-FR), and a voluntary running exercise, 30% food-restricted and high-Ca diet group (EX-FR+Ca). To Ca supplementation, we used 1.2% Ca diet as "high-Ca diet" that contains two-fold Ca of normal Ca diet. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. As a result, the energy availability, internal organ weight, bone strength, bone mineral density, and Ca absorption in the EX-FR group were significantly lower than those in the EX group. The bone strength and Ca absorption in the EX-FR+Ca group were significantly higher than those in the EX-FR group. However, the bone strength in the EX-FR+Ca group did not reach that in the EX group. These results suggested that Ca supplementation had a positive effect on bone strength, but the effect was not sufficient to prevent lower bone strength caused by food restriction in young female athletes.
Cosmology with weak lensing surveys.
Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick
2005-12-15
Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening mass. Since the lensing effects arise from deflections of the light rays due to fluctuations of the gravitational potential, they can be directly related to the underlying density field of the large-scale structures. Weak gravitational surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background observations as they probe unbiased nonlinear matter power spectra at medium redshift. Ongoing CMBR experiments such as WMAP and a future Planck satellite mission will measure the standard cosmological parameters with unprecedented accuracy. The focus of attention will then shift to understanding the nature of dark matter and vacuum energy: several recent studies suggest that lensing is the best method for constraining the dark energy equation of state. During the next 5 year period, ongoing and future weak lensing surveys such as the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM; e.g. SNAP) or the Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope will play a major role in advancing our understanding of the universe in this direction. In this review article, we describe various aspects of probing the matter power spectrum and the bi-spectrum and other related statistics with weak lensing surveys. This can be used to probe the background dynamics of the universe as well as the nature of dark matter and dark energy.
Weak localization of seismic waves.
Larose, E; Margerin, L; Van Tiggelen, B A; Campillo, M
2004-07-23
We report the observation of weak localization of seismic waves in a natural environment. It emerges as a doubling of the seismic energy around the source within a spot of the width of a wavelength, which is several tens of meters in our case. The characteristic time for its onset is the scattering mean-free time that quantifies the internal heterogeneity.
Cosmology with weak lensing surveys.
Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick
2005-12-15
Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening mass. Since the lensing effects arise from deflections of the light rays due to fluctuations of the gravitational potential, they can be directly related to the underlying density field of the large-scale structures. Weak gravitational surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background observations as they probe unbiased nonlinear matter power spectra at medium redshift. Ongoing CMBR experiments such as WMAP and a future Planck satellite mission will measure the standard cosmological parameters with unprecedented accuracy. The focus of attention will then shift to understanding the nature of dark matter and vacuum energy: several recent studies suggest that lensing is the best method for constraining the dark energy equation of state. During the next 5 year period, ongoing and future weak lensing surveys such as the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM; e.g. SNAP) or the Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope will play a major role in advancing our understanding of the universe in this direction. In this review article, we describe various aspects of probing the matter power spectrum and the bi-spectrum and other related statistics with weak lensing surveys. This can be used to probe the background dynamics of the universe as well as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. PMID:16286284
Graczyk, Krzysztof M.
2011-11-23
A short review of the Rein-Sehgal and isobar models is presented. The attention is focused on the nucleon-{Delta}(1232) weak transition form-factors. The results of the recent re-analyses of the ANL and BNL bubble chamber neutrino-deuteron scattering data are discussed.
Accurate documentation and wound measurement.
Hampton, Sylvie
This article, part 4 in a series on wound management, addresses the sometimes routine yet crucial task of documentation. Clear and accurate records of a wound enable its progress to be determined so the appropriate treatment can be applied. Thorough records mean any practitioner picking up a patient's notes will know when the wound was last checked, how it looked and what dressing and/or treatment was applied, ensuring continuity of care. Documenting every assessment also has legal implications, demonstrating due consideration and care of the patient and the rationale for any treatment carried out. Part 5 in the series discusses wound dressing characteristics and selection.
The architecture of functional interaction networks in the retina.
Ganmor, Elad; Segev, Ronen; Schneidman, Elad
2011-02-23
Sensory information is represented in the brain by the joint activity of large groups of neurons. Recent studies have shown that, although the number of possible activity patterns and underlying interactions is exponentially large, pairwise-based models give a surprisingly accurate description of neural population activity patterns. We explored the architecture of maximum entropy models of the functional interaction networks underlying the response of large populations of retinal ganglion cells, in adult tiger salamander retina, responding to natural and artificial stimuli. We found that we can further simplify these pairwise models by neglecting weak interaction terms or by relying on a small set of interaction strengths. Comparing network interactions under different visual stimuli, we show the existence of local network motifs in the interaction map of the retina. Our results demonstrate that the underlying interaction map of the retina is sparse and dominated by local overlapping interaction modules.
Almost-total absorption of light in thin, biperiodic, weakly-absorbing semiconductor gratings.
Popov, Evgeny; Fehrembach, Anne-Laure; McPhedran, Ross C
2016-07-25
We consider the design of optical systems capable of providing near 100% absorption of visible light, consisting of a structured thin layer of a weakly absorbing semiconductor placed on top of a dielectric spacer layer and a metallic mirror layer. We generalise a system recently studied semi-analytically and experimentally by Stürmberg et al [Optica 3, 556 2016] which incorporated a grating layer of antimony sulphide and delivered high, narrow-band absorptance of normally-incident light for a single polarisation. We demonstrate that bi-periodic gratings can be optimised to deliver near-perfect absorptance of unpolarised light in the system, and comment on the wavelength and angular ranges over which the absorptance remains near 100%. We show that the properties of the systems studied depend on the interaction of multiple modes, and cannot be accurately modelled within the quasistatic approximation. PMID:27464093
Almost-total absorption of light in thin, biperiodic, weakly-absorbing semiconductor gratings.
Popov, Evgeny; Fehrembach, Anne-Laure; McPhedran, Ross C
2016-07-25
We consider the design of optical systems capable of providing near 100% absorption of visible light, consisting of a structured thin layer of a weakly absorbing semiconductor placed on top of a dielectric spacer layer and a metallic mirror layer. We generalise a system recently studied semi-analytically and experimentally by Stürmberg et al [Optica 3, 556 2016] which incorporated a grating layer of antimony sulphide and delivered high, narrow-band absorptance of normally-incident light for a single polarisation. We demonstrate that bi-periodic gratings can be optimised to deliver near-perfect absorptance of unpolarised light in the system, and comment on the wavelength and angular ranges over which the absorptance remains near 100%. We show that the properties of the systems studied depend on the interaction of multiple modes, and cannot be accurately modelled within the quasistatic approximation.
Competing weak localization and weak antilocalization in ultrathin topological insulators.
Lang, Murong; He, Liang; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Fan, Yabin; Chu, Hao; Jiang, Ying; Bardarson, Jens H; Jiang, Wanjun; Choi, Eun Sang; Wang, Yong; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Moore, Joel; Wang, Kang L
2013-01-01
We demonstrate evidence of a surface gap opening in topological insulator (TI) thin films of (Bi(0.57)Sb(0.43))(2)Te(3) below six quintuple layers through transport and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements. By effective tuning the Fermi level via gate-voltage control, we unveil a striking competition between weak localization and weak antilocalization at low magnetic fields in nonmagnetic ultrathin films, possibly owing to the change of the net Berry phase. Furthermore, when the Fermi level is swept into the surface gap of ultrathin samples, the overall unitary behaviors are revealed at higher magnetic fields, which are in contrast to the pure WAL signals obtained in thicker films. Our findings show an exotic phenomenon characterizing the gapped TI surface states and point to the future realization of quantum spin Hall effect and dissipationless TI-based applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xunchen; Xu, Yunjie
2011-06-01
C-H\\cdotsN weak hydrogen bond is of much current interest. We report the first high resolution infrared spectroscopic study of a prototypical C-H\\cdotsN bonded system, i.e. NH3-HCCH, at the vicinity of the ν4 band of NH3. The spectrum has been recorded using an infrared spectrometer equipped with an astigmatic multipass cell aligned for 366 passes and a room temperature external cavity quantum cascade laser at the 6 μm region. The perpendicular band spectrum of symmetric top rotor observed is consistent with the previous microwave and infrared studies at 3 μm. We also extended the previous microwave measurement to higher J and K. For the related NH3-OCS complex, microwave spectrum of J up to 6 and infrared spectrum at the vicinity of the ν4 band of NH3 have been recorded and analyzed for the first time. Comparison has been made with the previously studied isoelectronic complexes such as NH3-N2O and NH3-CO2. The source of the difference will be discussed with the aid of ab initio calculations. G.T. Fraser, K.R. Leopold, and W. Klemperer, J. Chem. Phys. 80(4), 1423, (1984) G. Hilpert, G.T. Fraser, and A.S. Pine, J. Chem. Phys. 105(15), 6183, (1996) G.T. Fraser, D.D. Nelson, JR., G.J. Gerfen, and W. Klemperer, J. Chem. Phys. 83(11), 5442, (1985) G.T. Fraser, K.R. Leopold, and W. Klemperer, J. Chem. Phys. 81(6), 2577, (1984)
Resurgence and holomorphy: From weak to strong coupling
Cherman, Aleksey; Koroteev, Peter; Ünsal, Mithat
2015-05-15
We analyze the resurgence properties of finite-dimensional exponential integrals which are prototypes for partition functions in quantum field theories. In these simple examples, we demonstrate that perturbation theory, even at arbitrarily weak coupling, fails as the argument of the coupling constant is varied. It is well-known that perturbation theory also fails at stronger coupling. We show that these two failures are actually intimately related. The formalism of resurgent transseries, which takes into account global analytic continuation properties, fixes both problems and provides an arbitrarily accurate description of exact result for any value of coupling. This means that strong coupling results can be deduced by using merely weak coupling data. Finally, we give another perspective on resurgence theory by showing that the monodromy properties of the weak coupling results are in precise agreement with the monodromy properties of the strong-coupling expansions, obtained using analysis of the holomorphy structure of Picard-Fuchs equations.
Weak values and weak coupling maximizing the output of weak measurements
Di Lorenzo, Antonio
2014-06-15
In a weak measurement, the average output 〈o〉 of a probe that measures an observable A{sup -hat} of a quantum system undergoing both a preparation in a state ρ{sub i} and a postselection in a state E{sub f} is, to a good approximation, a function of the weak value A{sub w}=Tr[E{sub f}A{sup -hat} ρ{sub i}]/Tr[E{sub f}ρ{sub i}], a complex number. For a fixed coupling λ, when the overlap Tr[E{sub f}ρ{sub i}] is very small, A{sub w} diverges, but 〈o〉 stays finite, often tending to zero for symmetry reasons. This paper answers the questions: what is the weak value that maximizes the output for a fixed coupling? What is the coupling that maximizes the output for a fixed weak value? We derive equations for the optimal values of A{sub w} and λ, and provide the solutions. The results are independent of the dimensionality of the system, and they apply to a probe having a Hilbert space of arbitrary dimension. Using the Schrödinger–Robertson uncertainty relation, we demonstrate that, in an important case, the amplification 〈o〉 cannot exceed the initial uncertainty σ{sub o} in the observable o{sup -hat}, we provide an upper limit for the more general case, and a strategy to obtain 〈o〉≫σ{sub o}. - Highlights: •We have provided a general framework to find the extremal values of a weak measurement. •We have derived the location of the extremal values in terms of preparation and postselection. •We have devised a maximization strategy going beyond the limit of the Schrödinger–Robertson relation.
SPLASH: Accurate OH maser positions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walsh, Andrew; Gomez, Jose F.; Jones, Paul; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James; Dawson, Joanne; Ellingsen, Simon; Breen, Shari; Imai, Hiroshi; Lowe, Vicki; Jones, Courtney
2013-10-01
The hydroxyl (OH) 18 cm lines are powerful and versatile probes of diffuse molecular gas, that may trace a largely unstudied component of the Galactic ISM. SPLASH (the Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl) is a large, unbiased and fully-sampled survey of OH emission, absorption and masers in the Galactic Plane that will achieve sensitivities an order of magnitude better than previous work. In this proposal, we request ATCA time to follow up OH maser candidates. This will give us accurate (~10") positions of the masers, which can be compared to other maser positions from HOPS, MMB and MALT-45 and will provide full polarisation measurements towards a sample of OH masers that have not been observed in MAGMO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Xiao-Hong; E, Ideguchi; T, Kishida; M, Ishihara; H, Tsuchida; Y, Gono; T, Morikawa; M, Shibata; H, Watanabe; M, Miyake; T, Tsutsumi; S, Motomura; S, Mitarai
2000-04-01
The high-spin states of 143Nd have been studied in the 130Te(18O, 5n)143Nd reaction at a beam energy of 80 MeV using techniques of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy. Measurements of γ - γ - t coincidences, γ-ray angular distributions, and γ-ray linear polarizations were performed. A level scheme of 143Nd with spin and parity assignments up to 53/2+ is proposed. While a weak coupling model can explain the level structure up to the Jπ=39/2- state, this model can not reproduce the higher-lying states. Additionally, a new low-lying non-yrast level sequence in 143Nd was observed in the present work, which can be well described by the weak coupling of an i13/2 neutron to the 142Nd core nucleus.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Yanjing; Hu, Hanbin; Li, Yingying; Chen, Ruixin; Yang, Yu; Wang, Lei
2016-10-01
A series of organic solid states including three salts, two co-crystals, and three hydrates based on tetrafluoroterephthalic acid (H2tfBDC) and N-bearing ligands (2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidine dione (PID), 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methyl pyrimidine (DHMPI), 2-amino-4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine (ADMPI), 2-amino-4,6-dimenthoxy pyrimidine (ADMOPI), 5,6-dimenthyl benzimidazole (DMBI), 2-aminobenzimidazole (ABI), 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole (DMP), and 3-cyanopyridine (3-CNpy)), namely, [(PID)2·(H2tfBDC)] (1), [(DHMPI)2·(H2tfBDC)] (2), [(H-ADMPI+)2·(tfBDC2-)·2(H2O)] (3), [(H-ADMOPI+)2·(tfBDC2-)·(H2O)] (4), [(H-DMBI+)2·(tfBDC2-)·2(H2O)] (5), [(H-ABI+)2·(tfBDC2-)] (6), [(H-DMP+)·(HtfBDC-)] (7), and [(H-3-CNpy+)·(HtfBDC-)] (8), were synthesized by solvent evaporation method. Crystal structures analyses show that the F atom of the H2tfBDC participates in multiple Csbnd H⋯F hydrogen bond formations, producing different supramolecular synthons. The weak hydrogen bonding Csbnd H⋯F and Nsbnd H⋯F play an important part in constructing the diversity structures 2-8, except in crystal 1. In complexes 1-3, they present the same synthon R22(8) with different N-heterocyclic compounds, which may show the strategy in constructing the supramolecular. Meanwhile, the complex 3 exhibits a 2D layer, and the independent molecules of water exist in the adjacent layers. In complexes 4 and 5, the water molecules connect the neighboring layers to form 3D network by strong Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding. These crystals 1-8 were fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).
Paredes-García, Verónica; Santana, Ricardo C; Madrid, Rosa; Baldo, Bianca; Vega, Andrés; Spodine, Evgenia
2012-09-01
EPR measurements have been performed on single crystals of [Cu(L-tyrosine)(2)](∞) at 33.8 GHz and at room temperature. The EPR spectra display partially resolved EPR lines for most orientations of the magnetic field in the ab plane, and only one resonance for orientations close to the crystal axes, while only a single line is observed along any direction in the ca and cb crystal planes. This behavior is a result of the selective collapse of the resonances corresponding to the four copper sites in the unit cell produced by the exchange interactions between the copper ions. The magnitudes of the exchange interactions between the copper ions were evaluated from the angular variation of the line width and the collapse of the EPR lines. The value |J(AD)/k(B)|=0.8 K between neighboring copper atoms at 4.942 Å is assigned to a syn-anti equatorial-apical carboxylate bridge with a total bond length of 6.822 Å, while the small value |J(AB)/k(B)|=0.004 K is assigned to a long bridge of 11 atoms with a total bond length of 19.186 Å, that includes one resonance assisted hydrogen bond (RAHB). This finding is discussed in terms of values obtained for similar paths in other model compounds and in proteins.
Weak measurements with orbital-angular-momentum pointer states.
Puentes, G; Hermosa, N; Torres, J P
2012-07-27
Weak measurements are a unique tool for accessing information about weakly interacting quantum systems with minimal back action. Joint weak measurements of single-particle operators with pointer states characterized by a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution can provide, in turn, key information about quantum correlations that can be relevant for quantum information applications. Here we demonstrate that by employing two-dimensional pointer states endowed with orbital angular momentum (OAM), it is possible to extract weak values of the higher order moments of single-particle operators, an inaccessible quantity with Gaussian pointer states only. We provide a specific example that illustrates the advantages of our method both in terms of signal enhancement and information retrieval.
Weak measurements with orbital-angular-momentum pointer states.
Puentes, G; Hermosa, N; Torres, J P
2012-07-27
Weak measurements are a unique tool for accessing information about weakly interacting quantum systems with minimal back action. Joint weak measurements of single-particle operators with pointer states characterized by a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution can provide, in turn, key information about quantum correlations that can be relevant for quantum information applications. Here we demonstrate that by employing two-dimensional pointer states endowed with orbital angular momentum (OAM), it is possible to extract weak values of the higher order moments of single-particle operators, an inaccessible quantity with Gaussian pointer states only. We provide a specific example that illustrates the advantages of our method both in terms of signal enhancement and information retrieval. PMID:23006067
Weak localization in few-layer black phosphorus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Yuchen; Neal, Adam T.; Zhou, Hong; Ye, Peide D.
2016-06-01
We have conducted a comprehensive investigation into the magneto-transport properties of few-layer black phosphorus in terms of phase coherence length, phase coherence time, and mobility via weak localization measurement and Hall-effect measurement. We present magnetoresistance data showing the weak localization effect in bare p-type few-layer black phosphorus and reveal its strong dependence on temperature and carrier concentration. The measured weak localization agrees well with the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model and the extracted phase coherence length of 104 nm at 350 mK, decreasing as ˜T-0.513+-0.053 with increased temperature. Weak localization measurement allows us to qualitatively probe the temperature-dependent phase coherence time τ ϕ , which is in agreement with the theory of carrier interaction in the diffusive regime. We also observe the universal conductance fluctuation phenomenon in few-layer black phosphorus within moderate magnetic field and low temperature regime.
Practical aspects of spatially high accurate methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Godfrey, Andrew G.; Mitchell, Curtis R.; Walters, Robert W.
1992-01-01
The computational qualities of high order spatially accurate methods for the finite volume solution of the Euler equations are presented. Two dimensional essentially non-oscillatory (ENO), k-exact, and 'dimension by dimension' ENO reconstruction operators are discussed and compared in terms of reconstruction and solution accuracy, computational cost and oscillatory behavior in supersonic flows with shocks. Inherent steady state convergence difficulties are demonstrated for adaptive stencil algorithms. An exact solution to the heat equation is used to determine reconstruction error, and the computational intensity is reflected in operation counts. Standard MUSCL differencing is included for comparison. Numerical experiments presented include the Ringleb flow for numerical accuracy and a shock reflection problem. A vortex-shock interaction demonstrates the ability of the ENO scheme to excel in simulating unsteady high-frequency flow physics.
Extension of the weak-line approximation and application to correlated-k methods
Conley, A.J.; Collins, W.D.
2011-03-15
Global climate models require accurate and rapid computation of the radiative transfer through the atmosphere. Correlated-k methods are often used. One of the approximations used in correlated-k models is the weakline approximation. We introduce an approximation T/sub g/ which reduces to the weak-line limit when optical depths are small, and captures the deviation from the weak-line limit as the extinction deviates from the weak-line limit. This approximation is constructed to match the first two moments of the gamma distribution to the k-distribution of the transmission. We compare the errors of the weak-line approximation with T/sub g/ in the context of a water vapor spectrum. The extension T/sub g/ is more accurate and converges more rapidly than the weak-line approximation.
Atmospheric Dispersion Effects in Weak Lensing Measurements
Plazas, Andrés Alejandro; Bernstein, Gary
2012-10-01
The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and PSF characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions (dr) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF (dv) for galaxies.We estimate the level of dv that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed the statistical errors of the DES and the LSST cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the dr signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions after stacking of exposures taken at different airmasses and hour angles. We also calculate the errors in the griz bands, and find that dispersion systematics, uncorrected, are up to 6 and 2 times larger in g and r bands,respectively, than the requirements for the DES error budget, but can be safely ignored in i and z bands. For the LSST requirements, the factors are about 30, 10, and 3 in g, r, and i bands,respectively. We find that a simple correction linear in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r band for DES and i band for LSST,but still as much as 5 times than the requirements for LSST r-band observations. More complex corrections will likely be able to reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. But g-band effects remain large enough that it seems likely that induced systematics will dominate the statistical errors of both surveys, and cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.
Atmospheric Dispersion Effects in Weak Lensing Measurements
Plazas, Andrés Alejandro; Bernstein, Gary
2012-10-01
The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and PSF characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions (dr) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF (dv) for galaxies.We estimate the level of dv that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed themore » statistical errors of the DES and the LSST cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the dr signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions after stacking of exposures taken at different airmasses and hour angles. We also calculate the errors in the griz bands, and find that dispersion systematics, uncorrected, are up to 6 and 2 times larger in g and r bands,respectively, than the requirements for the DES error budget, but can be safely ignored in i and z bands. For the LSST requirements, the factors are about 30, 10, and 3 in g, r, and i bands,respectively. We find that a simple correction linear in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r band for DES and i band for LSST,but still as much as 5 times than the requirements for LSST r-band observations. More complex corrections will likely be able to reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. But g-band effects remain large enough that it seems likely that induced systematics will dominate the statistical errors of both surveys, and cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.« less
Conformational transitions of a weak polyampholyte
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narayanan Nair, Arun Kumar; Uyaver, Sahin; Sun, Shuyu
2014-10-01
Using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of a flexible polyelectrolyte where the charges are in contact with a reservoir of constant chemical potential given by the solution pH, we study the behavior of weak polyelectrolytes in poor and good solvent conditions for polymer backbone. We address the titration behavior and conformational properties of a flexible diblock polyampholyte chain formed of two oppositely charged weak polyelectrolyte blocks, each containing equal number of identical monomers. The change of solution pH induces charge asymmetry in a diblock polyampholyte. For diblock polyampholyte chains in poor solvents, we demonstrate that a discontinuous transition between extended (tadpole) and collapsed (globular) conformational states is attainable by varying the solution pH. The double-minima structure in the probability distribution of the free energy provides direct evidence for the first-order like nature of this transition. At the isoelectric point electrostatically driven coil-globule transition of diblock polyampholytes in good solvents is found to consist of different regimes identified with increasing electrostatic interaction strength. At pH values above or below the isoelectric point diblock chains are found to have polyelectrolyte-like behavior due to repulsion between uncompensated charges along the chain.
Intermolecular potential functions from spectroscopic properties of weakly bound complexes
Muenter, J.S.
1992-01-01
Goal is to consolidate the information from high resolution spectroscopy of weakly bound cluster molecules through a theoretical model of intermolecular potential energy surfaces. The ability to construct analytic intermolecular potential functions that accurately predict the interaction energy between small molecules will have a major impact in chemistry, biochemistry, and biology. This document presents the evolution and capabilities of a potential function model developed here, and then describes plans for future developments and applications. This potential energy surface (PES) model was first used on (HCCH){sub 2}, (CO{sub 2}){sub 2}, HCCH - CO{sub 2}; it had to be modified to work with HX dimers and CO{sub 2}-HX complexes. Potential functions have been calculated for 15 different molecular complexes containing 7 different monomer molecules. Current questions, logical extensions and new applications of the model are discussed. The questions are those raised by changing the repulsion and dispersion terms. A major extension of the PES model will be the inclusion of induction effects. Projects in progress include PES calculations on (HCCH){sub 3}, CO{sub 2} containing complexes, (HX){sub 2}, HX - CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} - CO, (CO{sub 2}){sub 3}, and (OCS){sub 2}. The first PES calculation for a nonlinear molecule will be for water and ammonia complexes. Possible long-term applications for biological molecules are discussed. Differences between computer programs used for molecular mechanics and dynamics in biological systems are discussed, as is the problem of errors. 12 figs, 74 refs. (DLC)
Weak decays of heavy hadrons into dynamically generated resonances
Oset, Eulogio; Liang, Wei -Hong; Bayar, Melahat; Xie, Ju -Jun; Dai, Lian Rong; Albaladejo, Miguel; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Navarra, Fernando; Roca, Luis; et al
2016-01-28
In this study, we present a review of recent works on weak decay of heavy mesons and baryons with two mesons, or a meson and a baryon, interacting strongly in the final state. The aim is to learn about the interaction of hadrons and how some particular resonances are produced in the reactions. It is shown that these reactions have peculiar features and act as filters for some quantum numbers which allow to identify easily some resonances and learn about their nature. The combination of basic elements of the weak interaction with the framework of the chiral unitary approach allowmore » for an interpretation of results of many reactions and add a novel information to different aspects of the hadron interaction and the properties of dynamically generated resonances.« less
Teleportation of a Weak Coherent Cavity Field State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso, Wesley B.; Qiang, Wen-Chao; Avelar, Ardiley T.
2016-07-01
In this paper we propose a scheme to teleport a weak coherent cavity field state. The scheme relies on the resonant atom-field interaction inside a high-Q cavity. The mean photon-number of the cavity field is assumed much smaller than one, hence the field decay inside the cavity can be effectively suppressed.
Weak lensing by galaxy troughs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruen, Daniel
2016-06-01
Galaxy troughs, i.e. underdensities in the projected galaxy field, are a weak lensing probe of the low density Universe with high signal-to-noise ratio. I present measurements of the radial distortion of background galaxy images and the de-magnification of the CMB by troughs constructed from Dark Energy Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy catalogs. With high statistical significance and a relatively robust modeling, these probe gravity in regimes of density and scale difficult to access for conventional statistics.
Margaryan, A.; Hashimoto, O.; Kakoyan, V.; Knyazyan, S.; Tang, L.
2011-02-15
A new 'tagged-weak {pi} method' is proposed for determination of electromagnetic transition probabilities B(E2) and B(M1) of the hypernuclear states with lifetimes of {approx}10{sup -10} s. With this method, we are planning to measure B(E2) and B(M1) for light hypernuclei at JLab. The results of Monte Carlo simulations for the case of E2(5/2{sup +}, 3/2{sup +} {yields} 1/2{sup +}) transitions in {sub {Lambda}}{sup 7}He hypernuclei are presented.
How to Study Protein-protein Interactions.
Podobnik, Marjetka; Kraševec, Nada; Bedina Zavec, Apolonija; Naneh, Omar; Flašker, Ajda; Caserman, Simon; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor
2016-01-01
Physical and functional interactions between molecules in living systems are central to all biological processes. Identification of protein complexes therefore is becoming increasingly important to gain a molecular understanding of cells and organisms. Several powerful methodologies and techniques have been developed to study molecular interactions and thus help elucidate their nature and role in biology as well as potential ways how to interfere with them. All different techniques used in these studies have their strengths and weaknesses and since they are mostly employed in in vitro conditions, a single approach can hardly accurately reproduce interactions that happen under physiological conditions. However, complementary usage of as many as possible available techniques can lead to relatively realistic picture of the biological process. Here we describe several proteomic, biophysical and structural tools that help us understand the nature and mechanism of these interactions. PMID:27640371
Rej, Pramit; Ghoshal, Arijit
2014-09-15
Formation of Rydberg atoms due to 1s→nlm excitations of hydrogen, for arbitrary n, l, m, by positron impact in weakly coupled plasma has been investigated using a distorted-wave theory in the momentum space. The interactions among the charged particles in the plasma have been represented by Debye-Huckel potentials. Making use of a simple variationally determined wave function for the hydrogen atom, it has been possible to obtain the distorted-wave scattering amplitude in a closed analytical form. A detailed study has been made on the effects of plasma screening on the differential and total cross sections in the energy range 20–300 eV of incident positron. For the unscreened case, our results agree nicely with some of the most accurate results available in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, such a study on the differential and total cross sections for 1s→nlm inelastic positron-hydrogen collisions for arbitrary n, l, m in weakly coupled plasmas is the first reported in the literature.
Weak affinity chromatography as a new approach for fragment screening in drug discovery.
Duong-Thi, Minh-Dao; Meiby, Elinor; Bergström, Maria; Fex, Tomas; Isaksson, Roland; Ohlson, Sten
2011-07-01
Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) is currently being implemented in drug discovery, creating a demand for developing efficient techniques for fragment screening. Due to the intrinsic weak or transient binding of fragments (mM-μM in dissociation constant (K(D))) to targets, methods must be sensitive enough to accurately detect and quantify an interaction. This study presents weak affinity chromatography (WAC) as an alternative tool for screening of small fragments. The technology was demonstrated by screening of a selected 23-compound fragment collection of documented binders, mostly amidines, using trypsin and thrombin as model target protease proteins. WAC was proven to be a sensitive, robust, and reproducible technique that also provides information about affinity of a fragment in the range of 1 mM-10 μM. Furthermore, it has potential for high throughput as was evidenced by analyzing mixtures in the range of 10 substances by WAC-MS. The accessibility and flexibility of the technology were shown as fragment screening can be performed on standard HPLC equipment. The technology can further be miniaturized and adapted to the requirements of affinity ranges of the fragment library. All these features of WAC make it a potential method in drug discovery for fragment screening. PMID:21352794
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, Lawrence J.; Pinner, David; Ruderman, Joshua T.
2014-12-01
The measured values of the weak scale, v, and the first generation masses, m u, d, e , are simultaneously explained in the multiverse, with all these parameters scanning independently. At the same time, several remarkable coincidences are understood. Small variations in these parameters away from their measured values lead to the instability of hydrogen, the instability of heavy nuclei, and either a hydrogen or a helium dominated universe from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In the 4d parameter space of ( m u , m d , m e , v), catastrophic boundaries are reached by separately increasing each parameter above its measured value by a factor of (1.4, 1.3, 2.5, ˜ 5), respectively. The fine-tuning problem of the weak scale in the Standard Model is solved: as v is increased beyond the observed value, it is impossible to maintain a significant cosmological hydrogen abundance for any values of m u, d, e that yield both hydrogen and heavy nuclei stability.
Weak lensing and cosmological investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acquaviva, Viviana
2005-03-01
In the last few years the scientific community has been dealing with the challenging issue of identifying the dark energy component. We regard weak gravitational lensing as a brand new, and extremely important, tool for cosmological investigation in this field. In fact, the features imprinted on the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation by the lensing from the intervening distribution of matter represent a pretty unbiased estimator, and can thus be used for putting constraints on different dark energy models. This is true in particular for the magnetic-type B-modes of CMB polarization, whose unlensed spectrum at large multipoles (l ~= 1000) is very small even in presence of an amount of gravitational waves as large as currently allowed by the experiments: therefore, on these scales the lensing phenomenon is the only responsible for the observed power, and this signal turns out to be a faithful tracer of the dark energy dynamics. We first recall the formal apparatus of the weak lensing in extended theories of gravity, introducing the physical observables suitable to cast the bridge between lensing and cosmology, and then evaluate the amplitude of the expected effect in the particular case of a Non-Minimally-Coupled model, featuring a quadratic coupling between quintessence and Ricci scalar.
A-B Similarity-Complementarity and Accurate Empathy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gillam, Sandra; McGinley, Hugh
1983-01-01
Rated the audio portions of videotaped segments of 32 dyadic interviews between A-type and B-type undergraduate males for accurate empathy using Truax's AE-Scale. Results indicated B-types elicited higher levels of empathy when they interacted with other B-types, while any dyad that contained an A-type resulted in less empathy. (JAC)
Accurate Mass Measurements in Proteomics
Liu, Tao; Belov, Mikhail E.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.
2007-08-01
To understand different aspects of life at the molecular level, one would think that ideally all components of specific processes should be individually isolated and studied in details. Reductionist approaches, i.e., studying one biological event at a one-gene or one-protein-at-a-time basis, indeed have made significant contributions to our understanding of many basic facts of biology. However, these individual “building blocks” can not be visualized as a comprehensive “model” of the life of cells, tissues, and organisms, without using more integrative approaches.1,2 For example, the emerging field of “systems biology” aims to quantify all of the components of a biological system to assess their interactions and to integrate diverse types of information obtainable from this system into models that could explain and predict behaviors.3-6 Recent breakthroughs in genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics are making this daunting task a reality.7-14 Proteomics, the systematic study of the entire complement of proteins expressed by an organism, tissue, or cell under a specific set of conditions at a specific time (i.e., the proteome), has become an essential enabling component of systems biology. While the genome of an organism may be considered static over short timescales, the expression of that genome as the actual gene products (i.e., mRNAs and proteins) is a dynamic event that is constantly changing due to the influence of environmental and physiological conditions. Exclusive monitoring of the transcriptomes can be carried out using high-throughput cDNA microarray analysis,15-17 however the measured mRNA levels do not necessarily correlate strongly with the corresponding abundances of proteins,18-20 The actual amount of functional proteins can be altered significantly and become independent of mRNA levels as a result of post-translational modifications (PTMs),21 alternative splicing,22,23 and protein turnover.24,25 Moreover, the functions of expressed
Benchmarking accurate spectral phase retrieval of single attosecond pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Hui; Le, Anh-Thu; Morishita, Toru; Yu, Chao; Lin, C. D.
2015-02-01
A single extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse or pulse train in the time domain is fully characterized if its spectral amplitude and phase are both determined. The spectral amplitude can be easily obtained from photoionization of simple atoms where accurate photoionization cross sections have been measured from, e.g., synchrotron radiations. To determine the spectral phase, at present the standard method is to carry out XUV photoionization in the presence of a dressing infrared (IR) laser. In this work, we examine the accuracy of current phase retrieval methods (PROOF and iPROOF) where the dressing IR is relatively weak such that photoelectron spectra can be accurately calculated by second-order perturbation theory. We suggest a modified method named swPROOF (scattering wave phase retrieval by omega oscillation filtering) which utilizes accurate one-photon and two-photon dipole transition matrix elements and removes the approximations made in PROOF and iPROOF. We show that the swPROOF method can in general retrieve accurate spectral phase compared to other simpler models that have been suggested. We benchmark the accuracy of these phase retrieval methods through simulating the spectrogram by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation numerically using several known single attosecond pulses with a fixed spectral amplitude but different spectral phases.
Heterogeneous, weakly coupled map lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotelo Herrera, M.^{a.} Dolores; San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A.
2016-07-01
Coupled map lattices (CMLs) are often used to study emergent phenomena in nature. It is typically assumed (unrealistically) that each component is described by the same map, and it is important to relax this assumption. In this paper, we characterize periodic orbits and the laminar regime of type-I intermittency in heterogeneous weakly coupled map lattices (HWCMLs). We show that the period of a cycle in an HWCML is preserved for arbitrarily small coupling strengths even when an associated uncoupled oscillator would experience a period-doubling cascade. Our results characterize periodic orbits both near and far from saddle-node bifurcations, and we thereby provide a key step for examining the bifurcation structure of heterogeneous CMLs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.894 Weak. Weak means... content, inferior flavor, or are of poor keeping quality....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.894 Weak. Weak means that individual berries are somewhat translucent, watery and soft, may have relatively low...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.894 Weak. Weak means that individual berries are somewhat translucent, watery and soft, may have relatively low...
Wright, Gavin J
2009-12-01
Individual cells within biological systems frequently coordinate their functions through signals initiated by specific extracellular protein interactions involving receptors that bridge the cellular membrane. Due to their biochemical nature, these membrane-embedded receptor proteins are difficult to manipulate and their interactions are characterised by very weak binding strengths that cannot be detected using popular high throughput assays. This review will provide a general outline of the biochemical attributes of receptor proteins focussing in particular on the biophysical properties of their transient interactions. Methods that are able to detect these weak extracellular binding events and especially those that can be used for identifying novel interactions will be compared. Finally, I discuss the feasibility of constructing a complete and accurate extracellular protein interaction map, and the methods that are likely to be useful in achieving this goal.
Nonlocal resonances in weak turbulence of gravity-capillary waves.
Aubourg, Quentin; Mordant, Nicolas
2015-04-10
We report a laboratory investigation of weak turbulence of water surface waves in the gravity-capillary crossover. By using time-space-resolved profilometry and a bicoherence analysis, we observe that the nonlinear processes involve three-wave resonant interactions. By studying the solutions of the resonance conditions, we show that the nonlinear interaction is dominantly one dimensional and involves collinear wave vectors. Furthermore, taking into account the spectral widening due to weak nonlinearity explains why nonlocal interactions are possible between a gravity wave and high-frequency capillary ones. We observe also that nonlinear three-wave coupling is possible among gravity waves, and we raise the question of the relevance of this mechanism for oceanic waves. PMID:25910127
Nonlocal resonances in weak turbulence of gravity-capillary waves.
Aubourg, Quentin; Mordant, Nicolas
2015-04-10
We report a laboratory investigation of weak turbulence of water surface waves in the gravity-capillary crossover. By using time-space-resolved profilometry and a bicoherence analysis, we observe that the nonlinear processes involve three-wave resonant interactions. By studying the solutions of the resonance conditions, we show that the nonlinear interaction is dominantly one dimensional and involves collinear wave vectors. Furthermore, taking into account the spectral widening due to weak nonlinearity explains why nonlocal interactions are possible between a gravity wave and high-frequency capillary ones. We observe also that nonlinear three-wave coupling is possible among gravity waves, and we raise the question of the relevance of this mechanism for oceanic waves.
Standard systems for measurement of pKs and ionic mobilities. 1. Univalent weak acids.
Slampová, Andrea; Krivánková, Ludmila; Gebauer, Petr; Bocek, Petr
2008-12-01
Determination of pK values of weak bases and acids by CZE has already attracted big attention in current practice and proved to offer the advantage of being applicable for mixtures of analytes. The method is based on the measurement of mobility curves plotting the effective mobility vs. the pH of the background electrolyte, and following computer-assisted regression involving corrections for ionic strength and temperature. To cover the necessary range of pH for a given case, both buffering weak acids and bases are used in one set of measurements, which requires implementing computations of individual ionic strength corrections for each pH value. It is also well known that some components of frequently used background electrolytes may interact with the analytes measured, on forming associates or complexes. This obviously deteriorates the reliability of the resulting data. This contribution brings a rational approach to this problem and establishes a standard system of anionic buffers for measurements of pKs and mobilities of weak acids, where the only counter cation present (besides H(+)) is Na(+). In this way, the risk of formation of complexes or associates of analytes with counter ions is strongly reduced. Moreover, the standard system of anionic buffers is selected in such a way that it provides, for an entire set of measurements, constant and accurately known ionic strength and the operational conditions are selected so that they provide constant Joule heating. Due to these precautions only one correction for ionic strength and temperature is needed for the obtained set of experimental data. This considerably facilitates their evaluation and regression analysis as the corrections need not be implemented in the computation software. The reliability and the advantages of the proposed system are well documented by experiments, where the known problematic group of phenol derivatives was measured with high accuracy and without any notice of anomalous behaviour. PMID
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
Deterministic weak localization in periodic structures.
Tian, C; Larkin, A
2005-12-01
In some perfect periodic structures classical motion exhibits deterministic diffusion. For such systems we present the weak localization theory. As a manifestation for the velocity autocorrelation function a universal power law decay is predicted to appear at four Ehrenfest times. This deterministic weak localization is robust against weak quenched disorders, which may be confirmed by coherent backscattering measurements of periodic photonic crystals.
Anomalous baryogenesis at the weak scale
Singleton, R.L. Jr.
1991-06-01
One of the fundamental constants of nature is the baryon asymmetry of the universe -- the ratio of the number of baryons to the entropy. This constant is about 10{sup {minus}11}. In baryon- number conserving theories, this was just an initial condition. With the advent of the grand unified theories (GUTs), baryon number is no longer conserved, and this asymmetry can be generated dynamically. Unfortunately, however, there are reasons for preferring another mechanism. For example, GUTs predict proton decay which, after extensive searches, has not been found. An alternative place to look for baryogenesis is the electroweak phase transition, described by the standard model, which posses all the necessary ingredients for baryogenesis. Anomalous baryon-number violation in weak interactions becomes large at high temperatures, which offers the prospect of creating the asymmetry with the standard model or minimal extensions. This can just barely be done if certain conditions are fulfilled. CP violation must be large, which rules out the minimal standard model as the source of the asymmetry, but which is easily arranged with an extended Higgs sector. The baryon-number violating rates themselves are not exactly known, and they must be pushed to their theoretical limits. A more exact determination of these rates is needed before a definitive answer can be given. Finally, the phase transition must be at least weakly first order. Such phase transitions are accompanied by the formation and expansion of bubbles of true vacuum within the false vacuum, much like the boiling of water. As the bubbles expand, they provide a departure from thermal equilibrium, otherwise the dynamics will adjust the net baryon number to zero. The bubble expansion also provides a biasing that creates an asymmetry on the bubbles surface. Under optimal conditions, the observed asymmetry can just be produced. 31 refs., 10 figs.
Magnetic reconnection in a weakly ionized plasma
Leake, James E.; Lukin, Vyacheslav S.; Linton, Mark G.
2013-06-15
Magnetic reconnection in partially ionized plasmas is a ubiquitous phenomenon spanning the range from laboratory to intergalactic scales, yet it remains poorly understood and relatively little studied. Here, we present results from a self-consistent multi-fluid simulation of magnetic reconnection in a weakly ionized reacting plasma with a particular focus on the parameter regime of the solar chromosphere. The numerical model includes collisional transport, interaction and reactions between the species, and optically thin radiative losses. This model improves upon our previous work in Leake et al.[“Multi-fluid simulations of chromospheric magnetic reconnection in a weakly ionized reacting plasma,” Astrophys. J. 760, 109 (2012)] by considering realistic chromospheric transport coefficients, and by solving a generalized Ohm's law that accounts for finite ion-inertia and electron-neutral drag. We find that during the two dimensional reconnection of a Harris current sheet with an initial width larger than the neutral-ion collisional coupling scale, the current sheet thins until its width becomes less than this coupling scale, and the neutral and ion fluids decouple upstream from the reconnection site. During this process of decoupling, we observe reconnection faster than the single-fluid Sweet-Parker prediction, with recombination and plasma outflow both playing a role in determining the reconnection rate. As the current sheet thins further and elongates, it becomes unstable to the secondary tearing instability, and plasmoids are seen. The reconnection rate, outflows, and plasmoids observed in this simulation provide evidence that magnetic reconnection in the chromosphere could be responsible for jet-like transient phenomena such as spicules and chromospheric jets.
Tunneling Time and Weak Measurement in Strong Field Ionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimmermann, Tomáš; Mishra, Siddhartha; Doran, Brent R.; Gordon, Daniel F.; Landsman, Alexandra S.
2016-06-01
Tunneling delays represent a hotly debated topic, with many conflicting definitions and little consensus on when and if such definitions accurately describe the physical observables. Here, we relate these different definitions to distinct experimental observables in strong field ionization, finding that two definitions, Larmor time and Bohmian time, are compatible with the attoclock observable and the resonance lifetime of a bound state, respectively. Both of these definitions are closely connected to the theory of weak measurement, with Larmor time being the weak measurement value of tunneling time and Bohmian trajectory corresponding to the average particle trajectory, which has been recently reconstructed using weak measurement in a two-slit experiment [S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, Science 332, 1170 (2011)]. We demonstrate a big discrepancy in strong field ionization between the Bohmian and weak measurement values of tunneling time, and we suggest this arises because the tunneling time is calculated for a small probability postselected ensemble of electrons. Our results have important implications for the interpretation of experiments in attosecond science, suggesting that tunneling is unlikely to be an instantaneous process.
Tunneling Time and Weak Measurement in Strong Field Ionization.
Zimmermann, Tomáš; Mishra, Siddhartha; Doran, Brent R; Gordon, Daniel F; Landsman, Alexandra S
2016-06-10
Tunneling delays represent a hotly debated topic, with many conflicting definitions and little consensus on when and if such definitions accurately describe the physical observables. Here, we relate these different definitions to distinct experimental observables in strong field ionization, finding that two definitions, Larmor time and Bohmian time, are compatible with the attoclock observable and the resonance lifetime of a bound state, respectively. Both of these definitions are closely connected to the theory of weak measurement, with Larmor time being the weak measurement value of tunneling time and Bohmian trajectory corresponding to the average particle trajectory, which has been recently reconstructed using weak measurement in a two-slit experiment [S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, Science 332, 1170 (2011)]. We demonstrate a big discrepancy in strong field ionization between the Bohmian and weak measurement values of tunneling time, and we suggest this arises because the tunneling time is calculated for a small probability postselected ensemble of electrons. Our results have important implications for the interpretation of experiments in attosecond science, suggesting that tunneling is unlikely to be an instantaneous process. PMID:27341232
Advantages of nonclassical pointer states in postselected weak measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turek, Yusuf; Maimaiti, W.; Shikano, Yutaka; Sun, Chang-Pu; Al-Amri, M.
2015-08-01
We investigate, within the weak measurement theory, the advantages of nonclassical pointer states over semiclassical ones for coherent, squeezed vacuum, and Schrödinger cat states. These states are utilized as pointer states for the system operator A ̂ with property Â2=I ̂ , where I ̂ represents the identity operator. We calculate the ratio between the signal-to-noise ratio of nonpostselected and postselected weak measurements. The latter is used to find the quantum Fisher information for the above pointer states. The average shifts for those pointer states with arbitrary interaction strength are investigated in detail. One key result is that we find the postselected weak measurement scheme for nonclassical pointer states to be superior to semiclassical ones. This can improve the precision of the measurement process.
Statistical hypothesis testing by weak-value amplification: Proposal and evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Susa, Yuki; Tanaka, Saki
2015-07-01
We study the detection capability of the weak-value amplification on the basis of the statistical hypothesis testing. We propose a reasonable testing method in the physical and statistical senses to find that the weak measurement with the large weak value has the advantage to increase the detection power and to reduce the possibility of missing the presence of interaction. We enhance the physical understanding of the weak value and mathematically establish the significance of the weak-value amplification. Our present work overcomes the critical dilemma of the weak-value amplification that the larger the amplification is, the smaller the number of data becomes, because the statistical hypothesis testing works even for a small number of data. This is contrasted with the parameter estimation by the weak-value amplification in the literature which requires a large number of data.
Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek
2014-12-01
A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10-12 at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, and T2 has been determined. For the ground state of H2 the estimated precision is 3 × 10-7 cm-1, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.
Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule
Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek
2014-12-14
A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10{sup −12} at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H{sub 2}, HD, HT, D{sub 2}, DT, and T{sub 2} has been determined. For the ground state of H{sub 2} the estimated precision is 3 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup −1}, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.
Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule.
Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek
2014-12-14
A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10(-12) at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, and T2 has been determined. For the ground state of H2 the estimated precision is 3 × 10(-7) cm(-1), which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels. PMID:25494728
Weakly nonlinear simulation of planar stratified flows
King, Michael R.; McCready, Mark J.
2000-01-01
The interfacial behavior of two-fluid, planar flows is studied by numerical integration of weakly-nonlinear amplitude equations derived via eigenfunction expansion of the governing equations. This study extends the range of classic Stuart-Landau theories by the inclusion of a spectrum of modes allowing all possible quadratic and cubic interactions. Results are obtained for four cases where linear and Stuart-Landau theories do not give a complete description; gas-liquid and oil-water pressure driven flow, matched-density liquid-liquid Couette flow, and the region of gas-liquid flow near resonance that switches from supercritical to subcritical. It is found that integration of amplitude equations gives better qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments than Stuart-Landau theory. Further, the distinctively different behaviors of these systems can be understood in terms of the spectrum of nonlinear coefficients. In gas-liquid channel flow a low wave number wave is destabilized through quadratic interaction with the mean flow mode. For liquid-liquid Poiseuille flow, a low wave number wave is destabilized through cubic interactions with higher modes. For depth and viscosity ratios where liquid-liquid Couette flow is unstable to long waves and for which the growth rates are not too large, simulation results predict that the waves grow to a statistically steady state where there is no preferred wave number. Stabilization is provided by an apparently self-similar cascade of energy to higher modes that are linearly stable, explaining why no visible waves occur in experiments done in this region. While Stuart-Landau theory provides no prediction of wave amplitude above criticality for subcritical cases, simulations show that wave saturation at small amplitude is possible and suggests that subcritical predictions may not mean that steady waves do not exist. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Protecting weak measurements against systematic errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Shengshi; Alonso, Jose Raul Gonzalez; Brun, Todd A.; Jordan, Andrew N.
2016-07-01
In this work, we consider the systematic error of quantum metrology by weak measurements under decoherence. We derive the systematic error of maximum likelihood estimation in general to the first-order approximation of a small deviation in the probability distribution and study the robustness of standard weak measurement and postselected weak measurements against systematic errors. We show that, with a large weak value, the systematic error of a postselected weak measurement when the probe undergoes decoherence can be significantly lower than that of a standard weak measurement. This indicates another advantage of weak-value amplification in improving the performance of parameter estimation. We illustrate the results by an exact numerical simulation of decoherence arising from a bosonic mode and compare it to the first-order analytical result we obtain.
Leg Weakness Caused by Bilateral Piriformis Syndrome: A Case Report
Moon, Hee Bong; Kwon, Bum Sun; Park, Jin Woo; Ryu, Gi Hyeong; Lee, Ho Jun; Kim, Chang Jae
2015-01-01
Piriformis syndrome (PS) is an uncommon neuromuscular disorder caused by the piriformis muscle (PM) compressing the sciatic nerve (SN). The main symptom of PS is sciatica, which worsens with certain triggering conditions. Because the pathophysiology is poorly understood, there are no definite diagnostic and therapeutic choices for PS. This case report presents a young woman who mainly complained of bilateral leg weakness. Electromyography revealed bilateral sciatic neuropathy and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed structural lesions causing entrapment of the bilateral SNs. After a laborious diagnosis of bilateral PS, she underwent PM releasing surgery. Few PS cases present with bilateral symptoms and leg weakness. Therefore, in such cases, a high level of suspicion is necessary for accurate and prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26798622
The DES Science Verification weak lensing shear catalogues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jarvis, M.; Sheldon, E.; Zuntz, J.; Kacprzak, T.; Bridle, S. L.; Amara, A.; Armstrong, R.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Chang, C.; Das, R.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eifler, T. F.; Gangkofner, C.; Gruen, D.; Hirsch, M.; Huff, E. M.; Jain, B.; Kent, S.; Kirk, D.; MacCrann, N.; Melchior, P.; Plazas, A. A.; Refregier, A.; Rowe, B.; Rykoff, E. S.; Samuroff, S.; Sánchez, C.; Suchyta, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Clampitt, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.
2016-08-01
We present weak lensing shear catalogues for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogues of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies, respectively. We detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SV data. We also discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogues for the full 5-yr DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.
The DES Science Verification Weak Lensing Shear Catalogs
Jarvis, M.
2016-05-01
We present weak lensing shear catalogs for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogs of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies respectively. We also detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SVmore » data. Furthermore, we discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogs for the full 5-year DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.« less
Constraints from anomaly cancellation on strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions
He, X.; Joshi, G.C.; Volkas, R.R. )
1990-01-01
We examine the extent to which the four known forces in nature are interwoven through the use of anomaly cancellation. We discover significant interconnections, though uniqueness is not attained. Possible other criteria necessary to obtain uniqueness are discussed.
Wavefunction collapse through backaction of counting weakly interacting photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrell, L. E.
2016-03-01
We apply the formalism of quantum measurement theory to the idealized measurement of the position of a particle with an optical interferometer, finding that the backaction of counting entangled photons systematically collapses the particle's wavefunction toward a narrow Gaussian wavepacket at the location xest determined by the measurement without appeal to environmental decoherence or other spontaneous collapse mechanism. Further, the variance in the particle's position, as calculated from the post-measurement wavefunction, agrees precisely with shot-noise limited uncertainty of the measured xest. Both the identification of the absolute square of the particle's initial wavefunction as the probability density for xest and the de Broglie hypothesis emerge as consequences of interpreting the intensity of the optical field as proportional to the probability of detecting a photon. Linear momentum information that is encoded in the particle's initial wavefunction survives the measurement, and the pre-measurement expectation values are preserved in the ensemble average.
Commensurism at electronically weakly interacting phthalocyanine/PTCDA heterointerfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruenewald, Marco; Sauer, Christoph; Peuker, Julia; Meissner, Matthias; Sojka, Falko; Schöll, Achim; Reinert, Friedrich; Forker, Roman; Fritz, Torsten
2015-04-01
Interfaces in multilayered electronic devices are of paramount importance, especially for layer thicknesses in the nanometer range. Among the interfacial processes are charge injection or extraction and excitonic dissociation, the latter being particularly relevant if molecular components are involved. Highly ordered superstructures are preferable to prevent undesired losses of charge carriers and/or excitons. Epitaxial organic-inorganic systems have already received eminent attention, but only few studies have dealt with organic-organic heterointerfaces so far. Here, we focus on the adsorption of metal-phthalocyanines (MePc, Me = Sn or Cu) on 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) in the form of stacked monolayers (ML) on Ag(111). Using scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction we reveal an initial nonordered growth for dilute SnPc submonolayers and consecutively three condensed phases at coverages ranging up to 1 ML —each possessing a distinct commensurate registry with the underlying PTCDA. By applying in situ optical differential reflectance spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy we find that neither the SnPc nor the CuPc phases exhibit significant electronic or optical coupling with the PTCDA interlayer. Therefore, our results demonstrate that commensurism does not necessarily imply chemisorption, as stated previously in the literature, but that physisorption may be accompanied by commensurate superstructures.
Quadratic invariants for discrete clusters of weakly interacting waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harper, Katie L.; Bustamante, Miguel D.; Nazarenko, Sergey V.
2013-06-01
We consider discrete clusters of quasi-resonant triads arising from a Hamiltonian three-wave equation. A cluster consists of N modes forming a total of M connected triads. We investigate the problem of constructing a functionally independent set of quadratic constants of motion. We show that this problem is equivalent to an underlying basic linear problem, consisting of finding the null space of a rectangular M × N matrix {A} with entries 1, -1 and 0. In particular, we prove that the number of independent quadratic invariants is equal to J ≡ N - M* ⩾ N - M, where M* is the number of linearly independent rows in {A}. Thus, the problem of finding all independent quadratic invariants is reduced to a linear algebra problem in the Hamiltonian case. We establish that the properties of the quadratic invariants (e.g., locality) are related to the topological properties of the clusters (e.g., types of linkage). To do so, we formulate an algorithm for decomposing large clusters into smaller ones and show how various invariants are related to certain parts of a cluster, including the basic structures leading to M* < M. We illustrate our findings by presenting examples from the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima wave model, and by showing a classification of small (up to three-triad) clusters.
Weak Turbulence in Radiation Belts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguli, Gurudas; Crabtree, Chris; Rudakov, Leonid
2015-11-01
Weak turbulence plays a significant role in space plasma dynamics. Induced nonlinear scattering dominates the evolution in the low-beta isothermal radiation belt plasmas and affects the propagation characteristics of waves. As whistler waves propagate away from the earth they are scattered in the magnetosphere such that their trajectories are turned earthward where they are reflected back towards the magnetosphere. Repeated scattering and reflection of the whistlers establishes a cavity in which the wave energy can be maintained for a long duration with, on average, a smaller wave-normal angle. Consequently, the cyclotron resonance time for the trapped energetic electrons increases, leading to an enhanced pitch-angle scattering rate. Enhanced pitch-angle scattering lowers the lifetime of the energetic electron population. Also, pitch-angle scattering of the trapped population in the cavity with a loss cone distribution amplifies the whistler waves, which in turn promotes a more rapid precipitation through a positive feedback mechanism. Typical storm-pumped radiation belt parameters and laboratory experiments will be used to elucidate this phenomenon Work supported by NRL Base Funds.
Weak Turbulence in Radiation Belts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguli, G.; Crabtree, C. E.; Rudakov, L.
2015-12-01
Weak turbulence plays a significant role in space plasma dynamics. Induced nonlinear scattering dominates the evolution in the low-beta isothermal radiation belt plasmas and affects the propagation characteristics of waves. As whistler waves propagate away from the earth they are scattered in the magnetosphere such that their trajectories are turned earthward where they are reflected back towards the magnetosphere. Repeated scattering and reflection of the whistlers establishes a cavity in which the wave energy can be maintained for a long duration with, on average, a smaller wave-normal angle. Consequently, the cyclotron resonance time for the trapped energetic electrons increases, leading to an enhanced pitch-angle scattering rate. Enhanced pitch-angle scattering lowers the lifetime of the energetic electron population. Also, pitch-angle scattering of the trapped population in the cavity with a loss cone distribution amplifies the whistler waves, which in turn promotes a more rapid precipitation through a positive feedback mechanism. Typical storm-pumped radiation belt parameters and laboratory experiments will be used to elucidate this phenomenon.