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Sample records for accutane isotretinoin capsules

  1. 75 FR 39024 - Determination That ACCUTANE (Isotretinoin) Capsules, 10 Milligrams, 20 Milligrams, and 40...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES> Food and Drug Administration Determination That ACCUTANE (Isotretinoin) Capsules, 10... Administration (FDA) is announcing its determination that ACCUTANE (isotretinoin) Capsules, 10 milligrams (mg... approved. FDA may not approve an ANDA that does not refer to a listed drug. ACCUTANE...

  2. Isotretinoin (Accutane) and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... been no studies looking at taking isotretinoin during breastfeeding. It is not known if isotretinoin can get into breast milk but other similar medications can. We do not know what effect exposure to isotretinoin through the breast milk can ...

  3. Affective psychosis following Accutane (isotretinoin) treatment.

    PubMed

    Barak, Yoram; Wohl, Yonit; Greenberg, Yifa; Bar Dayan, Yosefa; Friedman, Tali; Shoval, Gideon; Knobler, Haim Y

    2005-01-01

    Isotretinoin (Accutane) ranks in the top 10 of the US Food and Drug Administration's database of drugs associated with reports of depression and suicide attempts. However, this association is still controversial because up to 5.6% of patients with moderate acne may have pre-existing suicidal ideations, improvement of acne often reduces associated depression, and isotretinoin users are reportedly no more likely than those taking antibiotics for acne to have depression or commit suicide. We describe a series of cases of manic psychosis that developed in a 1-year period (2003) in association with isotretinoin treatment and resulted in suicidality and progression to long-standing psychosis. Cases were drawn from 500 soldiers who had been evaluated in a military specialists dermatology clinic for severe acne. Data were summarized from medical records of five severe acne patients treated by isotretinion during their compulsory military service. Data from their draft board examinations and service records, as well as repeated clinical assessments by certified psychiatrists at the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Mental Health Department clinic, were evaluated. Five young adults developed manic psychosis within a mean of 7.6 months of exposure to isotretinoin. In three cases, this was accompanied by a suicide attempt, and in three cases, psychosis lasted for longer than 6 months. Either a personal history of obsessive-compulsive disorder, neurological insult or family history of a major psychiatric illness were present in all cases. The present case-series is suggestive of an increase in the likelihood of an association between exposure to isotretinion and manic psychosis. Associated risk factors were both family and personal history of psychiatric morbidity. Further studies are needed to establish our findings.

  4. Isotretinoin (Ro-Accutane) teratogenesis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Giannoulis, C H; Papathanasiou, K; Tantanasis, T H; Vaitsi, V; Tzafettas, I

    2005-01-01

    A case of teratogenesis in a 16-year-old pregnant patient is described. She had been using 60 mg Ro-Accutane daily till the 16th week of gestation. Sonography showed no cephalic skull up to the frontal bone of the fetus. A central lagostroma was also detected.

  5. Overview of existing research and information linking isotretinoin (accutane), depression, psychosis, and suicide.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, James

    2003-01-01

    Isotretinoin (Accutane; Hoffmann-La Roche, Nutley, NJ) is a drug closely related to the chemical structure of vitamin A. The pharmacology and toxicology of these two retinoids are similar enough to warrant comparison. Accutane is a powerful drug that its manufacturer, Roche, indicates is limited for severe recalcitrant nodular acne. This potency is also reflected in Accutane's well-known ability to produce severe birth defects if taken during pregnancy. Less well known is the risk of this lipid-soluble chemical to affect the central nervous system. Reports of intracranial hypertension, depression, and suicidal ideation with Accutane use have prompted an examination of its serious and life-threatening potential. Although Roche has added a warning to its product label for signs of depression, and suicidal ideation, this product is overprescribed for all forms of acne, including mild and moderate cases that have not been treated with alternative medications with less risk of depression and suicide. There is no contesting that this drug is effective at clearing up the most severe forms of acne, but the public must be informed of the proper limited indication for its use, because depression and suicide can follow in patients with no prior history of psychiatric symptoms or suicide attempts.

  6. Meibomian gland morphology and tear osmolarity: changes with Accutane therapy.

    PubMed

    Mathers, W D; Shields, W J; Sachdev, M S; Petroll, W M; Jester, J V

    1991-07-01

    We evaluated the meibomian gland function of 11 patients before and during treatment with isotretinoin (Accutane) by assessing tear osmolarity, meibomian gland morphology, tear production, rose bengal staining, and meibomian gland excreta. We found, during Accutane use, that meibomian glands appeared significantly less dense and atrophic by meibography. Excreta thickness increased from 1.7 +/- 0.9 to 3.1 +/- 1.2 (p less than 0.005), and expressible excreta volume decreased from 1.52 +/- 0.68 to 1.10 +/- 0.3 (p less than 0.05) (scale 1-4). We also found a significant increase in tear osmolarity from 304.9 +/- 11 to 316.3 +/- 10 mosmol/L (p less than 0.005). There was no significant change in the Schirmer test during treatment. We suggest that the clinical symptoms of blepharitis during Accutane therapy are related to decreased meibomian gland function and consequent increased tear evaporation and tear osmolarity.

  7. Are we underdosing acne patients with generic isotretinoin?

    PubMed

    Mutizwa, Misha M; Sheinbein, David M

    2013-01-15

    With Roche's withdrawl of Accutane from the U.S. market in 2009, isotretinoin has only been available in its generic form. Many clinicians fail to realize that for approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, a generic medication must have a bioequivalence between 80 percent and 125 percent of that of the innovator product. This potential variability in bioavailability between branded and generic medications is important to keep in mind with isotretinoin, given the implications for achieving a sustained remission in acne patients.

  8. Oral Accutane (13-cis-retinoic acid) has no effects on spatial learning and memory in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Berry, Kimberly J

    2007-01-01

    Descriptions of psychiatric effects with Accutane (13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA)) use prompted a series of studies in a rodent model to ascertain its cognitive effects. Previously, we reported no effects on measures of anhedonia and depression in rats treated with 7.5, 22.5, or 30 mg/kg 13-cis-RA [S.A. Ferguson, F.J. Cisneros, B. Gough, J.P. Hanig, K.J. Berry, Chronic oral treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) or all-trans-retinoic acid does not alter depression-like behaviors in rats, Toxicol. Sci. 87 (2005) 451-459 [16]; S.A. Ferguson, F.J., Cisneros, J.P. Hanig, K.J. Berry, Chronic oral treatment with Accutane (13-cis-retinoic acid) does not increase measures of anhedonia or depression in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, (in preparation) [19

  9. Treatment with isotretinoin inhibits lipofuscin accumulation in a mouse model of recessive Stargardt's macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Radu, Roxana A; Mata, Nathan L; Nusinowitz, Steven; Liu, Xinran; Sieving, Paul A; Travis, Gabriel H

    2003-04-15

    Recessive Stargardt's macular degeneration is an inherited blinding disease of children caused by mutations in the ABCR gene. The primary pathologic defect in Stargardt's disease is accumulation of toxic lipofuscin pigments such as N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E) in cells of the retinal pigment epithelium. This accumulation appears to be responsible for the photoreceptor death and severe visual loss in Stargardt's patients. Here, we tested a therapeutic strategy to inhibit lipofuscin accumulation in a mouse model of recessive Stargardt's disease. Isotretinoin (Accutane) has been shown to slow the synthesis of 11-cis-retinaldehyde and regeneration of rhodopsin by inhibiting 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenase in the visual cycle. Light activation of rhodopsin results in its release of all-trans-retinaldehyde, which constitutes the first reactant in A2E biosynthesis. Accordingly, we tested the effects of isotretinoin on lipofuscin accumulation in abcr(-/-) knockout mice. Isotretinoin blocked the formation of A2E biochemically and the accumulation of lipofuscin pigments by electron microscopy. We observed no significant visual loss in treated abcr(-/-) mice by electroretinography. Isotretinoin also blocked the slower, age-dependent accumulation of lipofuscin in wild-type mice. These results corroborate the proposed mechanism of A2E biogenesis. Further, they suggest that treatment with isotretinoin may inhibit lipofuscin accumulation and thus delay the onset of visual loss in Stargardt's patients. Finally, the results suggest that isotretinoin may be an effective treatment for other forms of retinal or macular degeneration associated with lipofuscin accumulation.

  10. Oral isotretinoin. How can we treat difficult acne patients?

    PubMed

    Leyden, J J

    1997-01-01

    Isotretinoin (Roaccutane/Accutane) therapy (120 mg/kg) normally results in complete clearing of nodulocystic acne followed by prolonged remission, and many patients remain free of disease. Four groups of patients respond poorly or have a high rate of relapse. Preteens and young teenagers show a high rate of relapse and several courses of treatment are usually needed; 14 of 20 under the age of 12 years, 21 of 47 aged 12-14 and 23 of 66 aged 14-16 relapsed within 1 year. Individuals with linear lesions consisting of undermining tracks of follicular epithelium often show only a partial response. These individuals typically have a history of other 'sinus track' disease such as pilonidial sinus and hidradenitis, either themselves or other family members. Hemorrhagic or crusted lesions can be exacerbated by full doses of isotretinoin and patients develop pyrogenic-granuloma-type lesions and even acne-fulminans-like eruptions. Women with adrenal or ovarian syndrome associated with elevated androgens commonly relapse with 6-12 months after isotretinoin therapy.

  11. Oral isotretinoin. How can we treat difficult acne patients?

    PubMed

    Leyden, J J

    1997-01-01

    Isotretinoin (Roaccutane/Accutane) therapy (120 mg/kg) normally results in complete clearing of nodulocystic acne followed by prolonged remission, and many patients remain free of disease. Four groups of patients respond poorly or have a high rate of relapse. Preteens and young teenagers show a high rate of relapse and several courses of treatment are usually needed; 14 of 20 under the age of 12 years, 21 of 47 aged 12-14 and 23 of 66 aged 14-16 relapsed within 1 year. Individuals with linear lesions consisting of undermining tracks of follicular epithelium often show only a partial response. These individuals typically have a history of other 'sinus track' disease such as pilonidial sinus and hidradenitis, either themselves or other family members. Hemorrhagic or crusted lesions can be exacerbated by full doses of isotretinoin and patients develop pyrogenic-granuloma-type lesions and even acne-fulminans-like eruptions. Women with adrenal or ovarian syndrome associated with elevated androgens commonly relapse with 6-12 months after isotretinoin therapy. PMID:9310743

  12. 75 FR 71135 - Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 39024), FDA issued a notice announcing its determination that ACCUTANE (isotretinoin... Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of a new drug application (NDA) for ACCUTANE (isotretinoin) Capsules... INFORMATION: Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. has requested that FDA withdraw approval of NDA 18-662,...

  13. Improving bioavailability with a novel isotretinoin formulation (isotretinoin-Lidose).

    PubMed

    Tan, Jerry; Knezevic, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Current practice guidelines recommend administration of oral isotretinoin with high-fat meals, which may pose issues with patient compliance. Isotretinoin-Lidose (Epuris™), approved by Health Canada in November 2012 and scheduled for commercial release June 2013, is based on novel lipid encapsulation technology (Lidose®) to enclose isotretinoin, thereby increasing drug absorption during fasted states. An open label, single dose randomized crossover study demonstrated pharmacokinetic bioequivalence of isotretinoin-Lidose to standard isotretinoin formulations during fed states, with significantly greater absorption during fasting. Isotretinoin-Lidose, may lead to more consistent plasma levels of isotretinoin during variable dietary conditions, providing the potential for enhanced patient outcomes.

  14. [Isotretinoin, depression and medias].

    PubMed

    Wolkenstein, P

    2010-11-01

    Acne is a frequent disease with a strong impact upon quality of life. The most effective treatment of severe acne is isotretinoin. Cases of suicid have been reported during isotretinoin treatments in adolescents and were mediatised. Now a day, the link between isotretinoin intake and psychiatric troubles is not established at populational level. The pressure of public and medias led the French Drug Agency to send a letter to health professionals to summarize the scientific question. An explanative video is on line on the website of the French Society of Dermatology www.dermato-info.fr. This video summarizes the state of the art concerning the context of isotretinoin for public, dermatologists and other physicians To summarize isotretinoin is the drug for severe acne in case of failure of first line classical treatment. Dermatologists must stay the first line prescribers reminding that adolescence is a fragile period.

  15. Isotretinoin treatment inhibits lipofuscin accumulation in a mouse model of recessive Stargardt's macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Radu, Roxana A; Mata, Nathan L; Nusinowitz, Steven; Liu, Xinran; Travis, Gabriel H

    2004-01-01

    Recessive Stargardt's macular degeneration is an inherited blinding disease of children caused by mutations in the ABCR gene. The primary pathologic defect in Stargardt's discase is accumulation of toxic lipofuscin pigments such as N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E) in cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). This accumulation appears to be responsible for the photoreceptor death and severe visual loss in Stargardt's patients. Here, we tested a novel therapeutic strategy to inhibit lipofuscin accumulation in a mouse model of recessive Stargardt's disease. Isotretinoin (Accutane) has been shown to slow the synthesis of 11-cis-retinaldehyde (11cRAL) and regeneration of rhodopsin by inhibiting 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenase (11cRDH) in the visual cycle. Light activation of rhodopsin results in its release of all-trans-retinaldehyde (atRAL), which constitutes the first reactant in A2E biosynthesis. Accordingly, we tested the effects of isotretinoin on lipofuscin accumulation in abcr-/- knockout mice. Isotretinoin blocked the formation of A2E biochemically and the accumulation of lipofuscin pigments by electron microscopy. We observed no significant visual loss in treated abcr-/- mice by electroretinography. Isotretinoin also blocked the slower, age-dependent accumulation of lipofuscin in wild-type mice. These results corroborate the proposed mechanism of A2E biogenesis. Further, they suggest that treatment with isotretinoin may inhibit lipofuscin accumulation and thus delay the onset of visual loss in Stargardt's patients. Finally, the results suggest that isotretinoin may be an effective treatment for other forms of retinal or macular degeneration associated with lipofuscin accumulation.

  16. Oral treatment with ACCUTANE does not increase measures of anhedonia or depression in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Cisneros, F Javier; Hanig, Joseph P; Berry, Kimberly J

    2007-01-01

    Reports of depression and/or suicide with ACCUTANE (13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA)) use prompted studies in a rodent model to ascertain its potential effects. Previously, there were no effects on measures of anhedonia (intake of a saccharin-flavored solution) and depression (forced swim test (FST) behaviors) in rats treated with 7.5 or 22.5 mg/kg 13-cis-RA [S.A. Ferguson, F.J. Cisneros, B. Gough, J.P. Hanig, K.J. Berry, Chronic oral treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) or all-trans-retinoic acid does not alter depression-like behaviors in rats, Toxicol. Sci. 87 (2005) 451-459.]. Here, dose and temporal thresholds were investigated by increasing the maximum 13-cis-RA dose to 30 mg/kg, extending treatment duration, and measuring behaviors repeatedly. Beginning on post-natal day 59, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with soybean oil, 7.5 or 30 mg/kg/day of 13-cis-RA for approximately 19 weeks. FST behaviors were measured after 24, 82, and 131 treatment days and saccharin intake (0.03% solution) was measured at baseline and after 14, 35, 56, and 112 treatment days. Body weight and food intake were not altered by treatment. FST durations of swim, climb/struggle, and immobility were unaffected by 13-cis-RA at any time during treatment. More males than females required "rescue" in the FST but there was no treatment effect on number of rats requiring early removal. 13-cis-RA treatment had no effects on saccharin intake at any time. Given that the 7.5 mg/kg dose produces serum levels which parallel those of humans [S.A. Ferguson, P.H. Siitonen, F.J. Cisneros, B. Gough, J.F. Young, Steady state pharmacokinetics of oral treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid or all-trans-retinoic acid in male and female adult rats, Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol 98 (2006) 582-587.], these results are quite relevant. Combined with previous results, these results provide further evidence that 13-cis-RA does not produce behavioral alterations indicative of depression

  17. Isotretinoin: update on controversial issues.

    PubMed

    Prevost, Noel; English, Joseph C

    2013-10-01

    Acne vulgaris is a commonly seen dermatologic condition that plagues millions and can be very psychosocially disabling. Severe and recalcitrant acne is typically treated with isotretinoin. Isotretinoin is a synthetic vitamin A derivative that has been available since 1982.This therapeutic option has been the most effective at putting severe and recalcitrant acne vulgaris into remission. Despite its effectiveness,it has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease, depression, suicidality, and teratogenicity. We review the current literature on isotretinoin's role in inflammatory bowel disease, depression, and suicidality. In addition, we review whether or not the iPledge program has been successful at reducing pregnancy rates while on isotretinoin.

  18. Isotretinoin and Other Retinoids During Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce your risk ... the body from infection. How can you prevent birth defects from isotretinoin? Because isotretinoin can be so harmful ...

  19. Isotretinoin induced rhabdomyolysis? A case report.

    PubMed

    Trauner, M A; Ruben, B S

    1999-11-01

    Isotretinoin, an effective therapy for nodulocystic acne and dissecting cellulitis of the scalp, has many known side effects. However, its association with elevated creatine kinase levels and its potential to cause rhabdomyolysis is not well established. We describe a patient with a significant elevation in creatine kinase after beginning therapy with isotretinoin for dissecting cellulitis of the scalp. The implications of isotretinoin causing rhabdomyolysis are discussed. PMID:10673455

  20. Isotretinoin Exposure and Risk of Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rashtak, Shadi; Khaleghi, Shahryar; Marietta, Eric V.; Pittelkow, Mark R.; Larson, Joseph J.; Lahr, Brian D.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) is a metabolite of vitamin A and has anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects; however, a recent publication by DePaolo et al. demonstrated that in the presence of IL-15, retinoic acid can act as an adjuvant and promote inflammation against dietary proteins. Objective To evaluate the risk of overt and latent celiac disease (CD) among users of isotretinoin. Material and Methods Medical records of patients from 1995 to 2011 who had a mention of isotretinoin in their records (N = 8393) were searched for CD diagnosis using ICD-09CM codes. Isotretinoin exposure was compared across overt CD patients and their age- and gender-matched controls from the same pool. To evaluate the risk of latent CD with isotretinoin exposure, patients were overlapped with a community-based list of patients with waste serum samples that were tested for CD serology, excluding those with overt CD (2006–2011). Isotretinoin exposure was defined as the use of isotretinoin prior to CD diagnosis or serology. Results Of 8393 patients, 25 had a confirmed CD diagnosis. Compared to matched controls (N = 75), isotretinoin exposure was not significantly different between overt CD patients versus controls (36% versus 39%, respectively; P = 0.712). Likewise, latent CD defined as positive serology was not statistically different between isotretinoin exposed (N = 506) versus non-exposed (N = 571) groups (1.8% versus 1.4%, respectively; P = 0.474). Conclusions There was no association between isotretinoin use and risk of either overt or latent CD. PMID:26287738

  1. Sebaceous hyperplasia: systemic treatment with isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Tagliolatto, Sandra; Santos Neto, Octavio de Oliveira; Alchorne, Maurício Mota de Avelar; Enokihara, Mauro Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to verify the therapeutic action of isotretinoin in the treatment of sebaceous hyperplasia. During two months, 20 patients with sebaceous hyperplasia took isotretinoin at a dosage of 1mg/kg per day. Their skin lesions were counted and photographed before and after treatment and re-evaluated two years later. The average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions before treatment was 24 per patient. At the end of two months of therapy, the number of lesions decreased to 2 per patient. The statistically analyzed data showed a reduction in the number of lesions following isotretinoin use (p < 0.05). Two years after the end of the treatment, the average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions was 4 per patient. There were no severe side effects. Thus, the data analysis suggests that isotretinoin is a safe and effective drug for treating the disease under study.

  2. Isotretinoin for acne and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kendra D; Miest, Rachel Y; Tollefson, Megha M

    2016-06-01

    Isotretinoin is a revolutionary medicine for the treatment of acne vulgaris, with new studies showing evidence of excellent clinical outcomes in treating rosacea. After 30 years of clinical experience, new insights are being gained into dosing strategies, recurrence prevention, and dose-related side effects. Previous controversial associations with inflammatory bowel diseases and mood disorders have hampered the use of this medication in some clinical situations, with new evidence disproving these claims. The teratogenicity of this medication mandates iPLEDGE compliance with government regulations. Clinicians should be knowledgeable about this medication including its side effects, teratogenicity, and its controversies in order to adequately counsel patients, dissuade fears, and obtain the best clinical outcome when treating acne and rosacea. PMID:27416313

  3. Isotretinoin

    MedlinePlus

    ... operate machinery at night.plan to avoid hair removal by waxing, laser skin treatments, and dermabrasion (surgical ... room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication ...

  4. Isotretinoin, tetracycline and circulating hormones in acne.

    PubMed

    Palatsi, R; Ruokonen, A; Oikarinen, A

    1997-09-01

    Isotretinoin, used to treat severe acne, has been shown to induce hormonal changes, especially to reduce 5 alpha-reductase in the production of the tissue-derived dihydrotestosterone (DHT) metabolite 3 alpha-Adiol G. However, the effects of isotretinoin on other pituitary, adrenal or gonadal hormones have not been thoroughly elucidated. In the present study, isotretinoin administered at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks caused no marked changes in the serum levels of pituitary, adrenal or gonadal hormones or 3 alpha-Adiol G in patients with severe papulopustulotic acne (n = 19). After 12 weeks of therapy, there was a decrease in the levels of the precursor androgens androstenedione, testosterone and 3 alpha-Adiol G in 6/9 patients. Acne improved after 4.5 months in all but 2 male patients, who had very low serum hormone binding globulins (SHBG) and a high free androgen index (FAI). Isotretinoin did not affect the elevated LH/FSH ratio in a patient with the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS); nor did it change the high FAI or low SHBG in the male patients. For comparison, tetracycline had no effects on the serum hormonal levels of patients with mild acne (n = 19) after 7 days of treatment. This study confirms that the effects of isotretinoin on the serum hormone levels are small and unlikely to be of relevance for the resolution of acne or the suppression of sebum excretion. PMID:9298137

  5. Managing nonteratogenic adverse reactions to isotretinoin treatment for acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Bridget K; Ritsema, Tamara S

    2015-07-01

    Isotretinoin is the strongest, most effective oral treatment for patients with severe acne vulgaris, with remission rates of 89% and higher. Because of its potency, isotretinoin causes many adverse reactions. This article reviews common and severe adverse reactions to isotretinoin and how providers can best manage these reactions. Because of inconclusive research on the correlation between isotretinoin and depression and irritable bowel syndrome, providers should ask patients about symptoms monthly. Prescribing micronized isotretinoin and starting at the lowest dose with gradual upward titration also can help reduce the incidence of adverse reactions.

  6. Isotretinoin and FoxO1

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Oral isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) is the most effective drug in the treatment of acne and restores all major pathogenetic factors of acne vulgaris. isotretinoin is regarded as a prodrug which after isomerizisation to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) induces apoptosis in cells cultured from human sebaceous glands, meibomian glands, neuroblastoma cells, hypothalamic cells, hippocampus cells, Dalton's lymphoma ascites cells, B16F-10 melanoma cells, and neuronal crest cells and others. By means of translational research this paper provides substantial indirect evidence for isotretinoin's mode of action by upregulation of forkhead box class O (FoxO) transcription factors. FoxOs play a pivotal role in the regulation of androgen receptor transactivation, insulin/insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-signaling, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPArγ)- and liver X receptor-α (LXrα)-mediated lipogenesis, β-catenin signaling, cell proliferation, apoptosis, reactive oxygene homeostasis, innate and acquired immunity, stem cell homeostasis, as well as anti-cancer effects. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that the therapeutic, adverse, teratogenic and chemopreventive effecs of isotretinoin are all mediated by upregulation of FoxO-mediated gene transcription. These FoxO-driven transcriptional changes of the second response of retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-mediated signaling counterbalance gene expression of acne due to increased growth factor signaling with downregulated nuclear FoxO proteins. The proposed isotretinoin→ATRA→RAR→FoxO interaction offers intriguing new insights into the mode of isotretinoin action and explains most therapeutic, adverse and teratogenic effects of isotretinoin in the treatment of acne by a common mode of FoxO-mediated transcriptional regulation. PMID:22110774

  7. Occurrence of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes during isotretinoin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Henry, David; Dormuth, Colin; Winquist, Brandace; Carney, Greg; Bugden, Shawn; Teare, Gary; Lévesque, Linda E.; Bérard, Anick; Paterson, J. Michael; Platt, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Isotretinoin, a teratogen, is widely used to treat cystic acne. Although the risks of pregnancy during isotretinoin therapy are well recognized, there are doubts about the level of adherence with the pregnancy prevention program in Canada. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Canadian pregnancy prevention program in 4 provinces: British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario. Methods: Using administrative data, we identified 4 historical cohorts of female users of isotretinoin (aged 12–48 yr) for the period 1996 to 2011. We defined pregnancy using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and billing codes. One definition included only cases with documented pregnancy outcomes (high-specificity definition); the other definition also included individuals recorded as receiving prenatal care (high-sensitivity definition). We studied new courses of isotretinoin and detected pregnancies in 2 time windows: during isotretinoin treatment only and up to 42 weeks after treatment. Live births were followed for 1 year to identify congenital malformations. Results: A total of 59 271 female patients received 102 308 courses of isotretinoin. Between 24.3% and 32.9% of participants received prescriptions for oral contraceptives while they were taking isotretinoin, compared with 28.3% to 35.9% in the 12 months before isotretinoin was started. According to the high-specificity definition of pregnancy, there were 186 pregnancies during isotretinoin treatment (3.1/1000 isotretinoin users), compared with 367 (6.2/1000 users) according to the high-sensitivity definition. By 42 weeks after treatment, there were 1473 pregnancies (24.9/1000 users), according to the high-specificity definition. Of these, 1331 (90.4%) terminated spontaneously or were terminated by medical intervention. Among the 118 live births were 11 (9.3%) cases of congenital malformation. Pregnancy rates during isotretinoin treatment remained constant between 1996 and 2011

  8. Chronic oral treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) or all-trans-retinoic acid does not alter depression-like behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Cisneros, F Javier; Gough, B; Hanig, Joseph P; Berry, Kimberly J

    2005-10-01

    Oral treatment with the anti-acne drug Accutane (isotretinoin, 13-cis-retinoic acid) has been associated with suicide ideation and depression. Here, depression-like behaviors (i.e., behavioral despair and anhedonia) were quantified in adult Sprague-Dawley rats gavaged daily beginning at postnatal day (PND) 82 with 13-cis-RA (7.5 or 22.5 mg/kg) or all-trans-retinoic acid (10 or 15 mg/kg ). Tested at PND 130-131 in the Forced Swim Test, 7.5 mg/kg 13-cis-RA marginally decreased immobility and slightly increased climb/struggle durations whereas neither all-trans-retinoic acid group differed from controls. Voluntary saccharin solution (0.03%) intake at PND 102-104 and PND 151-153 was not different from controls in any treated group, although all RA-treated groups had lower intakes. Swim speed in a water maze at PND 180 was similar across groups, indicating no RA-induced differences in physical ability. Open field activity was mildly decreased at PND 91 in 7.5 mg/kg-treated males only, but it was within the control range at PND 119, 147, and 175. Thus, at serum levels similar to those in humans receiving the drug, chronic 13-cis-RA treatment did not severely affect depression-like behaviors in rats. These data do not substantiate the hypothesis of 13-cis-RA-induced depression.

  9. Effects of Isotretinoin on Meibomian Glands.

    PubMed

    Moy, Allison; McNamara, Nancy A; Lin, Meng C

    2015-09-01

    The authors have reviewed the potential etiology and long-standing consequences of isotretinoin use in the development of dry eye symptoms in the absence of significant clinical findings. Despite the normal appearance of meibomian gland structure on meibography and minimal signs of eyelid margin inflammation, the secretory function of these glands is reduced and symptoms of dryness can greatly impact a patient's quality of life. The available literature indicates that isotretinoin's effect on the meibomian glands likely mimics its effects on the sebaceous glands of the skin in the treatment of acne. Several representative cases seen at the University of California Berkeley School of Optometry Dry Eye Clinic provide a clinical paradigm with the goal of raising awareness of the potential prevalence of this disease in patients who experience symptoms of dry eye. These cases highlight the importance of meibomian gland expression in determining whether there is poor quality and/or quantity of meibum secondary to reduced gland function. Currently, there is no definitive method to restore the structure and function of damaged meibomian glands; thus, treatment options for isotretinoin-associated meibomian gland dysfunction are primarily palliative to manage patient symptoms. PMID:26154692

  10. Effects of Isotretinoin on Meibomian Glands.

    PubMed

    Moy, Allison; McNamara, Nancy A; Lin, Meng C

    2015-09-01

    The authors have reviewed the potential etiology and long-standing consequences of isotretinoin use in the development of dry eye symptoms in the absence of significant clinical findings. Despite the normal appearance of meibomian gland structure on meibography and minimal signs of eyelid margin inflammation, the secretory function of these glands is reduced and symptoms of dryness can greatly impact a patient's quality of life. The available literature indicates that isotretinoin's effect on the meibomian glands likely mimics its effects on the sebaceous glands of the skin in the treatment of acne. Several representative cases seen at the University of California Berkeley School of Optometry Dry Eye Clinic provide a clinical paradigm with the goal of raising awareness of the potential prevalence of this disease in patients who experience symptoms of dry eye. These cases highlight the importance of meibomian gland expression in determining whether there is poor quality and/or quantity of meibum secondary to reduced gland function. Currently, there is no definitive method to restore the structure and function of damaged meibomian glands; thus, treatment options for isotretinoin-associated meibomian gland dysfunction are primarily palliative to manage patient symptoms.

  11. Acute myocardial infarction in a young woman on isotretinoin treatment.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Natalia; Antuña, Paula; Dominguez, Lourdes; Rivero, Fernando; Bastante, Teresa; Alfonso, Fernando

    2015-02-15

    The use of isotretinoin has been associated with mild changes in the metabolic profile of adolescents. In very rare cases, a possible association with myocardial infarction, stroke and thromboembolic events has been reported. In this report we describe the potential association of isotretinoin with the occurrence of an acute myocardial infarction in a very young girl. OCT provided unique visualization of the culprit lesion.

  12. Isotretinoin exposure and risk of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Rashtak, Shadi; Khaleghi, Shahryar; Pittelkow, Mark R; Larson, Joseph J; Lahr, Brian D; Murray, Joseph A

    2014-12-01

    IMPORTANCE Isotretinoin is the standard treatment for refractory severe nodulocystic acne.A true association between prior isotretinoin use and development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is uncertain. Addressing the reality of this association is important in decision making for both the clinician and the patient when isotretinoin treatment is indicated.OBJECTIVE To assess the risk of IBD mainly in patients with acne with and without isotretinoin exposure.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this retrospective, single-center study, the electronic medical records of patients who were primarily seeking acne treatment were reviewed for isotretinoin exposure. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes were used to search for IBD diagnosis. participants included 1078 patients from 1995 to 2011,with isotretinoin referenced in their medical records, and who had ongoing local medical care defined as having had a serum sample collected between 2006 to 2011 for any reason while an Olmsted County, Minnesota, resident at the time of serum sample collection.EXPOSURES The exposed group included the patients with confirmed prior isotretinoin exposure (n = 576), and the nonexposed group were defined as patients who never received isotretinoin or received it after the diagnosis of IBD (n = 502).MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Risk of IBD among isotretinoin-exposed vs non exposed patients.RESULTS Both groups were comparable by race, prior systemic antibiotic use, and systemic tetracycline use. Inflammatory bowel disease developed less frequently in the isotretinoin-exposed group vs the nonexposed group (0.9%vs 2.6%; P = .03; unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.33; 95%CI, 0.12-0.93; P = .04). The negative association between isotretinoin exposure and IBD remained after adjusting for sex (OR, 0.28; 95%CI, 0.10-0.80;P = .02) and for sex and non acne indication (OR, 0.28; 95%CI, 0.10-0.79; P = .02).CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our study did not show an increased risk

  13. Isotretinoin exposure and risk of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Rashtak, Shadi; Khaleghi, Shahryar; Pittelkow, Mark R; Larson, Joseph J; Lahr, Brian D; Murray, Joseph A

    2014-12-01

    IMPORTANCE Isotretinoin is the standard treatment for refractory severe nodulocystic acne.A true association between prior isotretinoin use and development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is uncertain. Addressing the reality of this association is important in decision making for both the clinician and the patient when isotretinoin treatment is indicated.OBJECTIVE To assess the risk of IBD mainly in patients with acne with and without isotretinoin exposure.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this retrospective, single-center study, the electronic medical records of patients who were primarily seeking acne treatment were reviewed for isotretinoin exposure. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes were used to search for IBD diagnosis. participants included 1078 patients from 1995 to 2011,with isotretinoin referenced in their medical records, and who had ongoing local medical care defined as having had a serum sample collected between 2006 to 2011 for any reason while an Olmsted County, Minnesota, resident at the time of serum sample collection.EXPOSURES The exposed group included the patients with confirmed prior isotretinoin exposure (n = 576), and the nonexposed group were defined as patients who never received isotretinoin or received it after the diagnosis of IBD (n = 502).MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Risk of IBD among isotretinoin-exposed vs non exposed patients.RESULTS Both groups were comparable by race, prior systemic antibiotic use, and systemic tetracycline use. Inflammatory bowel disease developed less frequently in the isotretinoin-exposed group vs the nonexposed group (0.9%vs 2.6%; P = .03; unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.33; 95%CI, 0.12-0.93; P = .04). The negative association between isotretinoin exposure and IBD remained after adjusting for sex (OR, 0.28; 95%CI, 0.10-0.80;P = .02) and for sex and non acne indication (OR, 0.28; 95%CI, 0.10-0.79; P = .02).CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our study did not show an increased risk

  14. Important controversies associated with isotretinoin therapy for acne.

    PubMed

    Wolverton, Stephen E; Harper, Julie C

    2013-04-01

    Isotretinoin is a remarkably effective drug for severe, recalcitrant acne vulgaris. Soon after the drug's release in the early 1980s, a number of important adverse effects were reported subsequently leading to a variety of medical and medicolegal controversies. Three of these controversies will be highlighted concerning the putative role of isotretinoin in (1) depression and suicide, (2) inflammatory bowel disease, and (3) iPledge and pregnancy prevention programs. It appears that a very small subset of patients receiving isotretinoin for acne are at risk for depression, which is very manageable provided there is adequate patient awareness of the possibility, maximum communication between the patient and physician, and cessation of therapy if clinically important depression occurs (after which the depression rapidly resolves in a week or less). Multiple controlled studies actually suggest a very favorable effect of isotretinoin on depression and anxiety common in the population requiring isotretinoin. With regard to inflammatory bowel disease, in just one study, only ulcerative colitis association with isotretinoin reached statistical significance. The actual incidence of this association is strikingly low. Finally, it is clear that even the most recent pregnancy prevention program (iPledge) is no more successful than prior programs; there will likely always be a small number of female patients becoming pregnant while receiving isotretinoin for acne vulgaris.

  15. Does isotretinoin therapy of acne cure or cause depression?

    PubMed

    Borovaya, Alena; Olisova, Olga; Ruzicka, Thomas; Sárdy, Miklós

    2013-09-01

    Cosmetic defects in acne may provoke a wide range of mental disorders (depressive, social-phobic, etc.). Isotretinoin is a very effective acne treatment; hence, it usually resolves the associated mental disorders. However, more available data show the possible association of taking isotretinoin and the onset of a depressive syndrome that includes frank depression and even suicidal ideation. The frequency of depressive disorders during isotretinoin treatment varies from 1% to 11% in different studies, and it is unclear whether this is a consequence of isotretinoin therapy. Since it crosses the blood-brain barrier, isotretinoin affects the expression of a broad spectrum of genes in the limbic structures, thus affecting the function of the dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic neurons involved in the regulation of mood and emotion. It was suggested that isotretinoin in high concentrations inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis and induces apoptosis of hippocampal cells. However, some studies do not confirm this pathogenic role, and isotretinoin was even reported to have a therapeutic effect in acne-associated depression. In this review, we highlight epidemiological data, the underlying molecular pathogenesis, and the aspects of prevention concerning retinoid-induced depression in acne from the practical point of view of a dermatologist.

  16. Isotretinoin and mental health in adolescents: Australian consensus.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Casey; Spelman, Lynda; Oziemski, Margaret; Ryan, Alexander; Manoharan, Shobhan; Wilson, Perry; Daubney, Michael; Scott, James

    2014-05-01

    Acne is a common condition among adolescents and has the potential to negatively impact on the psychological well-being of those who suffer from it. In particular, depression and suicidal ideation are more common in adolescents with acne. Successful treatment of acne can improve the quality of life and reduce levels of anxiety and depression in these individuals. The current treatment of choice for severe or refractive acne is isotretinoin, a retinoid. While the possible causal association between isotretinoin and mental illness remains a controversial topic, a recent systematic review has presented evidence to support this relationship. In light of this evidence, a group of dermatologists and psychiatrists have collaborated to develop these recommendations to aid the safe prescribing of isotretinoin in adolescents. These clinical suggestions are aimed at practitioners in both disciplines to increase awareness of the current evidence in support of the association between isotretinoin and adolescent depression.

  17. [Isotretinoin and exercise: can the two walk together?].

    PubMed

    Dalal, Adam; Ben-Barak, Shira; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Constantini, Naama

    2014-02-01

    Since its introduction in 1982, isotretinoin has revolutionized acne treatment, targeting the underlying mechanism of the disease, with effective and long-lasting results. During the first decade of its marketing, several cases of hyperCKemia and rhabdomyolysis were linked to isotretinon therapy. A special concern was given to the possible triggering of muscle toxicity by vigorous exercise. These potential effects discouraged the prescription of isotretinoin to physically active patients or required them to abstain from exercise during treatment. Common musculoskeletal adverse effects of isotretinoin include muscle or joint pains. HyperCKemia is frequently found in patients receiving treatment for rare cases of rhabdomyolysis. Isotretinoin-associated muscle toxicity is usually detected in asymptomatic patients, even though symptoms can appear without hyperCKemia. A possible synergistic effect of isotretinoin and exercise is plausible, although supported by weak evidence and mediated by an unknown mechanism. There are only two reports of myoglobinuria and no reports of decreased renal function in exercising patient under treatment. In conclusion, we believe that current data should not deter physicians from offering isotretinoin to physically active patients nor require them to abstain from exercise. Physicians must explain to patients the possible side effects of treatment, ask them to refrain from an unusual change in their exercise regimen and advise them to avoid other triggers of rhabdomyolysis. Patients should be aware of possible signs of muscle toxicity and inform their doctors about any relevant symptoms.

  18. Isotretinoin-induced arthritis mimicking both rheumatoid arthritis and axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz Tasdelen, Ozlem; Yurdakul, Fatma Gul; Duran, Semra; Bodur, Hatice

    2015-05-01

    Isotretinoin is used for the treatment of various acne lesions that are resistant to other treatments. The most frequent rheumatologic side effect of isotretinoin is transient muscle and/or joint pains. Here, we report a case with bilateral wrist and metacarpophalangeal joint arthritis and unilateral sacroiliitis associated with isotretinoin usage to attract attention, particularly from physiatrists, rheumatologists and dermatologists, to this rare adverse effect of isotretinoin.

  19. Acne

    MedlinePlus

    ... acne and scarring may try a medicine called isotretinoin (Accutane). You will be watched closely when taking this ... its side effects. Pregnant women should NOT take Accutane, because it causes severe birth defects. Women taking ...

  20. Drug-induced ocular side-effects with isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Santodomingo-Rubido, Jacinto; Barrado-Navascués, Eva; Rubido-Crespo, María-José

    2008-09-01

    Whereas there are numerous reported ocular side-effects from isotretinoin medication, we present the first case report of corneal steepening after systemic treatment with isotretinoin for seven and a half weeks. The case was associated with a significant drop in visual acuity which could not be explained from the refractive error change. All signs and symptoms were absent seven and a half weeks after the medication was withdrawn. The case indicates that eye care professionals need to be vigilant about the possibility of adverse ocular manifestations associated with the use of systemic medications.

  1. Use of Oral Isotretinoin in the Management of Rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunhee; Del Rosso, James Q.

    2011-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting roughly 16 million Americans. Topical and oral antibiotic/anti-inflammatory agents are currently the mainstay of therapy and are often used in combination. In this article, the authors discuss the use of oral isotretinoin in the management of rosacea, exploring dosage, comparable efficacy, safety, and cost. PMID:21938271

  2. Use of oral isotretinoin in the management of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunhee; Del Rosso, James Q

    2011-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting roughly 16 million Americans. Topical and oral antibiotic/anti-inflammatory agents are currently the mainstay of therapy and are often used in combination. In this article, the authors discuss the use of oral isotretinoin in the management of rosacea, exploring dosage, comparable efficacy, safety, and cost. PMID:21938271

  3. Dissecting cellulitis of the scalp: response to isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Scerri, L; Williams, H C; Allen, B R

    1996-06-01

    We report three patients with dissecting cellulitis of the scalp. Prolonged treatment with oral isotretinoin was highly effective in all three patients. Furthermore, long-term post-treatment follow-up in two of the patients has shown a sustained therapeutic benefit. PMID:8763434

  4. Updated Physician’s Guide to the Off-label Uses of Oral Isotretinoin

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Nathan; Peterson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    While oral isotretinoin is renowned for its ability to treat acne vulgaris, many of its off-label uses continue to go underappreciated. Since the last review on the unapproved indications of isotretinoin, relevant publications have surfaced with new recommendations. This article attempts to provide physicians with the latest information regarding successful and unsuccessful use of isotretinoin as an effective treatment for dermatological conditions, such as rosacea, psoriasis, pityriasis rubra pilaris, condyloma acuminatum, granuloma annulare, Darier’s disease, systemic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, nonmelanoma skin cancer, and hidradenitis suppurativa. Variations in dosage regimens and isotretinoin viability as an alternative to other standard treatments are also discussed in relation to these conditions. PMID:24765227

  5. Updated Physician's Guide to the Off-label Uses of Oral Isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Nickle, Steven Brandon; Peterson, Nathan; Peterson, Michael

    2014-04-01

    While oral isotretinoin is renowned for its ability to treat acne vulgaris, many of its off-label uses continue to go underappreciated. Since the last review on the unapproved indications of isotretinoin, relevant publications have surfaced with new recommendations. This article attempts to provide physicians with the latest information regarding successful and unsuccessful use of isotretinoin as an effective treatment for dermatological conditions, such as rosacea, psoriasis, pityriasis rubra pilaris, condyloma acuminatum, granuloma annulare, Darier's disease, systemic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, nonmelanoma skin cancer, and hidradenitis suppurativa. Variations in dosage regimens and isotretinoin viability as an alternative to other standard treatments are also discussed in relation to these conditions.

  6. Dermatologists' attitudes, prescription, and counseling patterns for isotretinoin: a questionnaire-based study.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Arielle R; Orlow, Seth J

    2015-02-01

    Isotretinoin, the most effective therapy for severe acne, has engendered controversy. These controversies impact dermatologists' opinions of isotretinoin and prescription behaviors. This study was designed to characterize dermatologists' opinions of controversies surrounding isotretinoin, as well as counseling and prescribing practices. A 25-question survey was emailed to 7,013 dermatologists included in a proprietary database (MBD, Inc.) and anonymous responses were collected. 591 board-certified dermatologists participated. Thirty-seven percent of the responding dermatologists believe that isotretinoin may cause psychiatric disturbances. Dermatologists' opinions on this relationship did not significantly impact prescription practices in patients with history of depression (P=0.056) or in patients being treated with an antidepressant (P=0.118). A larger percentage of dermatologists surveyed believe there is a causal relationship between isotretinoin and psychiatric disturbances than isotretinoin and IBD. Of the surveyed dermatologists, 2.7% believe there is a causal association between isotretinoin and inflammatory bowel disease IBD. In addition, physicians with 20 or fewer years of experience, which included 50% of the responding dermatologists, were significantly less likely to have read the patient brochure (P=0.004), and more likely to prescribe isotretinoin to patients who had not failed systemic antibiotics (P=0.015). This questionnaire also may highlight a practice gap, as more recently trained dermatologists appear less likely to require failure of systemic antibiotics prior to initiating isotretinoin.

  7. Paronychia and granulation tissue formation during treatment with isotretinoin*

    PubMed Central

    Figueiras, Daniela de Almeida; Ramos, Ticiana Batista; Marinho, Ayana Karla de Oliveira Ferreira; Bezerra, Milena Soneley Mendonça; Cauas, Renata Cavalcanti

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the association of two unusual side effects of treatment with isotretinoin for severe acne: paronychia and excess granulation tissue in the nails furrows. We report a case of male patient aged 19 years, who in the course of the 36th week of treatment with isotretinoin for acne grade III showed erythema, edema, excess granulation tissue and onychocryptosis in various nail beds of hands and feet, with no history of trauma associated. A literature review revealed few reports of these adverse events, and two clinical patterns of exuberant granulation tissue has been described: one in periungual location and other in lesions of previous acne. The rarity and lack of knowledge on the best treatment for granuloma-like reactions make this theme a considerable challenge. PMID:27192525

  8. Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens successfully controlled with topical isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Karpouzis, Anthony; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Sivridis, Efthymios; Kouskoukis, Constantin

    2003-01-01

    Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens (or dissecting folliculitis of the scalp or dissecting cellulitis of the scalp or dissecting perifolliculitis of the scalp) is a rare entity and constitutes the equivalent over the scalp, of hidradenitis suppurativa and acne conglobata. Etiologic factors are unknown. Diagnosis is proven histologically. Management is very difficult and consists in systemic administration or intralesional injection of several drugs or in surgical manipulations. An 18 year-old white patient with cystic infiltrations, alopecia plaques, pustules and other inflammatory elements (clinicohistological features consistent with dissecting folliculitis of the scalp), is presented. Isotretinoin topical application assured successful control of the disease and averted the evolution of the clinical aspect to scarring alopecia and nodule formation. Topical isotretinoin exercises a curative, inhibitory and antiproliferative action, in perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens. PMID:12695138

  9. Isotretinoin-induced acute severe myopathy involving pelvic girdle muscles: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sameem, Farah; Semira

    2016-01-01

    Oral isotretinoin has been in widespread use for more than three decades. It causes numerous side effects; skin and mucous membrane being commonly involved. Musculoskeletal adverse effects are also known to occur, but pelvic girdle myopathy is rarely reported. We report myopathy involving pelvic girdle muscles in a young male who received oral isotretinoin for folliculitis decalvans. PMID:27721552

  10. Decreased ovarian reserve in female Sprague-Dawley rats induced by isotretinoin (retinoic acid) exposure.

    PubMed

    Abali, Remzi; Yuksel, Mehmet Aytac; Aktas, Cevat; Celik, Cem; Guzel, Savas; Erfan, Gamze; Sahin, Onder

    2013-08-01

    Isotretinoin is a retinoid widely used for the treatment of severe nodulocystic acne. Although it has broad side effects, there is no well-designed study about its effects on the ovary. This study investigated possible toxic effects of isotretinoin on female gonads. A total of 30 female rats were randomly divided into three equal groups according to the dose of isotretinoin they were administered: 0 mg/kg/day (group 1), 7.5 mg/kg/day (group 2) or 15 mg/kg/day (group 3). Thirty days after the treatment, the effects of isotretinoin on the ovaries were evaluated with serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations, apoptosis by TUNEL assay and immunohistochemical observations by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The percentage of atretic follicles was calculated for each stage of folliculogenesis. The serum AMH concentrations were found to be lower in both isotretinoin groups. The percentage of atretic follicles in both isotretinoin groups was higher than the control. The number of PCNA-positive granulosa cells was decreased in the isotretinoin groups. The number of ovarian follicles with apoptotic granulosa cells was increased in the experimental groups. These data are the first to identify that exposure of isotretinoin may be responsible for decreased ovarian reserve and toxic effects on rat ovaries.

  11. A novel patient support program to address isotretinoin adherence: proof-of-concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Krakowski, Andrew C

    2015-04-01

    The iPLEDGE protocol for isotretinoin treatment requires multiple steps to be completed within strict timing windows, resulting in many interruptions or discontinuations of treatment. The US Food and Drug Administration has indicated that approximately 40% of isotretinoin prescriptions written over the course of one year of the iPLEDGE program were denied due to failure to comply with iPLEDGE. Insurance restrictions add to the likelihood of prescriptions not being filled. Here, we describe a novel program implemented specifically to assist patients and providers with improving isotretinoin therapy adherence. This innovative isotretinoin support program provides assistance with insurance questions and hurdles, an uninterrupted treatment supply, educational support, reminder communications, and an indigent patient assistance program. Proof-of-concept analysis shows that 17 months after implementation of the program, 93% of prescriptions received have been filled. Utilization of the program appears to improve adherence to an isotretinoin treatment regimen, with fewer interruptions due directly to unfilled prescriptions.

  12. Isotretinoin-induced skin fragility in a teenaged athlete: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pavlis, Michelle B; Lieblich, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    Isotretinoin is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of severe recalcitrant nodular acne. Mucocutaneous toxicity is the most commonly observed side effect of isotretinoin use. Because atrophy and skin fragility may occur while taking isotretinoin, most warnings recommend avoidance of cosmetic procedures, such as dermabrasion, laser treatments, waxing, and chemical peels. We report a case of isotretinoin-induced skin fragility in a 16-year-old adolescent boy who presented with an unusual amount of skin erosions and excoriations on his face during wrestling season. We propose that it may be prudent to advise athletes who are involved in contact sports that skin fragility and increased erosions may occur during or after their course of treatment with isotretinoin.

  13. Effects of isotretinoin on serum vitamin E levels in patients with acne.

    PubMed

    Aktürk, Aysun Şikar; Güzel, Savaş; Bulca, Songül; Demirsoy, Evren Odyakmaz; Bayramgürler, Dilek; Bilen, Nilgün; Kıran, Rebiay

    2013-03-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that using retinoids with vitamin E leads to improvements of some side effects due to isotretinoin. However, vitamin E blood levels have not been reported previously in patients with acne treated with isotretinoin. We aimed to investigate the serum vitamin E levels before and after isotretinoin therapy in patients with acne. A total of 70 patients treated with isotretinoin for acne in our dermatology department were included in this study. The serum vitamin E levels were measured as baseline before isotretinoin treatment. All patients received 0.6-0.8 mg/kg/d isotretinoin. The treatment was finished within 5-7 months while ensuring that the cumulative dose was 120 mg/kg. Serum vitamin E levels were measured again in the last month of treatment. The mean serum vitamin E levels before and after treatment were compared. Forty-six patients completed the study. It was detected that the mean serum vitamin E level was 20.22 mg/dl before isotretinoin treatment. In the last month of treatment, the mean serum vitamin E level was 16.24 mg/dl. Serum vitamin E levels decreased in all patients except three. The mean serum vitamin E level after treatment was statistically decreased in comparison with the mean serum vitamin E level before treatment. Our results showed that vitamin E levels decreased during isotretinoin treatment. We considered that some of the side effects due to isotretinoin treatment might be related to this, and supplementation vitamin E may be useful during isotretinoin treatment.

  14. Isotretinoin use and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Alhusayen, Raed O; Juurlink, David N; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Morrow, Richard L; Shear, Neil H; Dormuth, Colin R

    2013-04-01

    Limited evidence suggests that isotretinoin may be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To explore this association, we conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study in British Columbia, Canada, among participants who were newly treated with isotretinoin or topical acne medications. The entire population of untreated provincial residents aged 12-29 years served as the reference group. During the 12-year study period, we identified 46,922 participants treated with isotretinoin, 184,824 treated with a topical acne medication, and 1,526,946 untreated individuals. Compared with untreated individuals, we observed no significant association between isotretinoin use and IBD (rate ratio (RR) 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.41). As expected, we found no association with topical acne medications (RR 1.11; 95% CI 0.99-1.24). In prespecified secondary analyses, isotretinoin was associated with IBD among individuals aged 12-19 years (RR 1.39; 95% CI 1.03-1.87) and topical acne medications were associated with ulcerative colitis (RR 1.19; 95% CI 1.00-1.42). Our primary analyses found no association between isotretinoin and IBD. In prespecified secondary analyses, some evidence was found of associations with isotretinoin as well as topical acne medications, suggesting a possible association between IBD and acne itself. Additional research is needed to explore this possibility.

  15. Effects of isotretinoin on body mass index, serum adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin levels in acne vulgaris patients

    PubMed Central

    Ayvaz, Havva Hilal; Ozturk, Gulfer; Ergin, Can; Akıs, Havva Kaya; Gonul, Muzeyyen; Arzuhal, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Isotretinoin has been successfully used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Aim To investigate the effects of isotretinoin on body mass index (BMI), to determine whether isotretinoin causes any changes in serum adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin levels in acne vulgaris patients, and to correlate variables. Material and methods Thirty-two patients were included in this study. Oral isotretinoin was begun at a dose of 0.5–0.6 mg/kg and raised to 0.6–0.75 mg/kg. Pretreatment and posttreatment third-month BMI and adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin serum levels were measured. Results The pre- and posttreatment BMI values were not significantly different. In addition, serum adiponectin and leptin levels were significantly increased following isotretinoin therapy while serum ghrelin levels were not different. Conclusions Isotretinoin may exert its anti-inflammatory activity by increasing leptin and adiponectin levels.

  16. Effects of isotretinoin on body mass index, serum adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin levels in acne vulgaris patients

    PubMed Central

    Ayvaz, Havva Hilal; Ozturk, Gulfer; Ergin, Can; Akıs, Havva Kaya; Gonul, Muzeyyen; Arzuhal, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Isotretinoin has been successfully used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Aim To investigate the effects of isotretinoin on body mass index (BMI), to determine whether isotretinoin causes any changes in serum adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin levels in acne vulgaris patients, and to correlate variables. Material and methods Thirty-two patients were included in this study. Oral isotretinoin was begun at a dose of 0.5–0.6 mg/kg and raised to 0.6–0.75 mg/kg. Pretreatment and posttreatment third-month BMI and adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin serum levels were measured. Results The pre- and posttreatment BMI values were not significantly different. In addition, serum adiponectin and leptin levels were significantly increased following isotretinoin therapy while serum ghrelin levels were not different. Conclusions Isotretinoin may exert its anti-inflammatory activity by increasing leptin and adiponectin levels. PMID:27605902

  17. Isotretinoin treatment in patients with acne vulgaris: does it impact muscle strength, fatigue, and endurance?

    PubMed

    Yıldızgören, Mustafa Turgut; Rifaioğlu, Emine Nur; Demirkapı, Musa; Ekiz, Timur; Micooğulları, Ahmet; Şen, Tuğba; Turhanoğlu, Ayşe Dicle

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of isotretinoin on muscle strength, fatigue, and endurance in patients with acne vulgaris. The study included 27 patients with acne vulgaris who underwent treatment with isotretinoin as well as 26 control patients for comparison. Participants in the treatment group received oral isotretinoin 0.5 mg/kg once daily for 1 month followed by an increased dose of 1 mg/kg once daily for 2 months. Isokinetic measurements were obtained from the hamstrings and quadriceps on the nondominant side of the body at baseline and 3-month follow-up using an isokinetic dynamometer. Results indicated that systemic isotretinoin did not significantly alter muscle strength, fatigue, and endurance.

  18. Effects of oral isotretinoin on lipids and liver enzymes in acne patients.

    PubMed

    Kızılyel, Okan; Metin, Mahmut S; Elmas, Ömer F; Çayır, Yasemin; Aktaş, Akın

    2014-11-01

    Isotretinoin has been used to treat severe inflammatory acne that is resistant to antibiotics or topical agents; however, it also may cause alterations in lipids and liver enzymes. In this retrospective study, we evaluated changes in lipids and liver enzymes in 322 acne patients who had been treated with oral isotretinoin at our institution over a 3-year period. Each patient's medical records were evaluated to determine baseline triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels compared to levels recorded at 3 and 6 months following initiation of treatment with oral isotretinoin. Overall, statistically significant increases in TG and LDL levels were noted following treatment with isotretinoin (P<.001, respectively), while HDL levels were shown to decrease (P=.016). Although ALT levels also increased, the changes were not statistically significant increases in AST levels also were noted (P=.72). In our study, isotretinoin appeared to have a greater effect on lipids than liver enzymes. Dermatologists should not avoid isotretinoin use for appropriate indications, but close follow-up is important.

  19. Temperature Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    An ingestible mini-thermometer capable of measuring and relaying internal body temperatures is marketed by Human Technologies, Inc. The CorTemp system, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center and Applied Physics Lab, incorporates space technologies, among them telemetry and microminiaturized circuit, sensor and battery technologies. The capsule is ingested and continually monitors temperature with a vibrating quartz crystal sensor, which telemeters signals to a recorder, where data is displayed and stored. The system is very accurate, and because it does not require wires, allows patients to be monitored in everyday situations. The industrial variant (CSC-100) has wide utility in commercial applications.

  20. Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

    This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

  1. The antiestrogen 4-hydroxytamoxifen protects against isotretinoin-induced permeability transition and bioenergetic dysfunction of liver mitochondria: comparison with tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Silva, Filomena S G; Ribeiro, Mariana P C; Santos, Maria S; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Santos-Silva, Alice; Custódio, José B A

    2013-08-01

    The combination of isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) with antiestrogens seems to be a promising strategy for cancer chemotherapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of isotretinoin alone or in combination with 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHTAM) and with its prodrug tamoxifen (TAM), on the functions of rat liver mitochondria, i.e., mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), bioenergetic functions and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT). Isotretinoin (5 nmol/mg protein) induced the Ca²⁺-dependent MPT pore opening in mitochondria energized with succinate, which was prevented by OHTAM, cyclosporine A, TAM and ANT ligands. When mitochondria were energized with glutamate/malate and in the absence of added Ca²⁺ isotretinoin decreased the state 3 respiration, the ATP levels, the active ANT content and increased the lag phase of the phosphorylation cycle, demonstrating that isotretinoin decreased the mitochondrial phosphorylation efficiency. These changes of isotretinoin in bioenergetic parameters were not significant in the presence of succinate. The effects of isotretinoin at 5 nmol/mg protein on the Ca²⁺-dependent MPT and phosphorylative efficacy may be related with interactions with the ANT. Above 10 nmol/mg protein isotretinoin strongly diminished the active ANT content, decreased the Δψ, inhibited the complex I and induced proton leak through the Fo fraction of complex V. The combination of OHTAM with isotretinoin only induced significant changes in the energy production systems at concentrations ≥5 nmol isotretinoin/mg protein. Therefore, our results suggest that isotretinoin-associated liver toxicity is possibly related with mitochondrial dysfunctions and that the combination with OHTAM may contribute to decrease its toxicity.

  2. Isotretinoin therapy changes the expression of antimicrobial peptides in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Borovaya, Alena; Dombrowski, Yvonne; Zwicker, Stephanie; Olisova, Olga; Ruzicka, Thomas; Wolf, Ronald; Schauber, Jürgen; Sárdy, Miklós

    2014-10-01

    In acne vulgaris, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could play a dual role; i.e., protective by acting against Propionibacterium acnes, pro-inflammatory by acting as signalling molecules. The cutaneous expression of 15 different AMPs was investigated in acne patients; furthermore, the impact of isotretinoin therapy on AMP expression was analysed in skin biopsies from 13 patients with acne vulgaris taken before, during and after a 6-month treatment cycle with isotretinoin using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cutaneous expression of the AMPs cathelicidin, human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2), lactoferrin, lysozyme, psoriasin (S100A7), koebnerisin (S100A15), and RNase 7 was upregulated in untreated acne vulgaris, whereas α-defensin-1 (HNP-1) was downregulated compared to controls. While relative expression levels of cathelicidin, HBD-2, lactoferrin, psoriasin (S100A7), and koebnerisin (S100A15) decreased during isotretinoin treatment, only those of cathelicidin and koebnerisin returned to normal after 6 months of isotretinoin therapy. The increased expression of lysozyme and RNase 7 remained unaffected by isotretinoin treatment. The levels of granulysin, RANTES (CCL5), perforin, CXCL9, substance P, chromogranin B, and dermcidin were not regulated in untreated acne patients and isotretinoin had no effect on these AMPs. In conclusion, the expression of various AMPs is altered in acne vulgaris. Isotretinoin therapy normalizes the cutaneous production of distinct AMPs while the expression of others is still increased in healing acne. Considering the antimicrobial and pro-inflammatory role of AMPs, these molecules could serve as specific targets for acne therapy and maintenance of clinical remission.

  3. The in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of isotretinoin assessed by cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay.

    PubMed

    Silva, F S G; Oliveira, H; Moreiras, A; Fernandes, J C; Bronze-da-Rocha, E; Figueiredo, A; Custódio, J B A; Rocha-Pereira, P; Santos-Silva, A

    2013-03-01

    Isotretinoin is a retinoic acid frequently used in monotherapy or combined with narrow-band ultraviolet B (NBUVB) irradiation to treat patients with acne and psoriasis vulgaris. As both diseases need frequent and/or prolonged therapeutic interventions, the study of the genotoxicity of retinoids becomes important. Our aim was to study the genotoxic effects of isotretinoin alone or combined with NBUVB. In vitro studies were performed in the absence of S9 metabolic activation using blood from five healthy volunteers, incubated 72 h with isotretinoin (1.2-20 μM) (i.e., at concentrations usually achieved in blood with therapeutic doses as well as at higher concentrations). In vivo studies were also performed using blood from two patients with acne and three patients with psoriasis vulgaris treated with isotretinoin in monotherapy (8 or 20mg/day) or combined with NBUVB (20mg isotretinoin/day+NBUVB). The genotoxic effect was evaluated by the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus and the comet assays. Our studies showed that isotretinoin alone was not genotoxic when tested in human lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. There was no clear genotoxic effect in psoriatic patients treated with isotretinoin and NBUVB. The in vitro studies showed that isotretinoin induced apoptosis and necrosis in human lymphocytes at higher doses.

  4. The Role of Isotretinoin Therapy for Cushing's Disease: Results of a Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Lucio; Albuquerque, José Luciano; Lyra, Ruy; Trovão Diniz, Erik; Rangel Filho, Frederico; Gadelha, Patrícia; Thé, Ana Carolina; Ibiapina, George Robson; Gomes, Barbara Sales; Santos, Vera; Melo da Fonseca, Maíra; Frasão Viana, Karoline; Lopes, Isis Gabriella; Araújo, Douglas; Naves, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This prospective open trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Methods. Sixteen patients with CD and persistent or recurrent hypercortisolism after transsphenoidal surgery were given isotretinoin orally for 6-12 months. The drug was started on 20 mg daily and the dosage was increased up to 80 mg daily if needed and tolerated. Clinical, biochemical, and hormonal parameters were evaluated at baseline and monthly for 6-12 months. Results. Of the 16 subjects, 4% (25%) persisted with normal urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels at the end of the study. UFC reductions of up to 52.1% were found in the rest. Only patients with UFC levels below 2.5-fold of the upper limit of normal achieved sustained UFC normalization. Improvements of clinical and biochemical parameters were also noted mostly in responsive patients. Typical isotretinoin side-effects were experienced by 7 patients (43.7%), though they were mild and mostly transient. We also observed that the combination of isotretinoin with cabergoline, in relatively low doses, may occasionally be more effective than either drug alone. Conclusions. Isotretinoin may be an effective and safe therapy for some CD patients, particularly those with mild hypercortisolism. PMID:27034666

  5. Effect of isotretinoin on serum levels of precursor and peripherally derived androgens in patients with acne.

    PubMed

    Lookingbill, D P; Demers, L M; Tigelaar, R E; Shalita, A R

    1988-04-01

    Sebaceous glands are stimulated by androgens and can convert them to more active forms. Isotretinoin, however, has a profound inhibitory effect on sebaceous gland size and function. This study evaluated the effect of isotretinoin on serum levels of precursor and tissue-derived androgens. Twenty-four subjects (15 men and nine women) were treated for 20 weeks with 1 mg/kg/d of isotretinoin. Serum samples were obtained at baseline, 8, 16, and 24 weeks, and assayed for precursor androgens--total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (free T), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S); and tissue androgens--dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and its metabolite, 3 alpha-androstanediol glucuronide (3 alpha-diol G). Isotretinoin had no meaningful effects on precursor androgens, except for producing an elevation of free T in women. In contrast, isotretinoin produced depressions in the serum levels of DHT and 3 alpha-diol G in women and in 3 alpha-diol G in men. These decreases are believed to be the result, rather than the cause, of a reduction in the size of the sebaceous glands: The magnitude of the observed decreases may represent the amount of tissue-derived androgens that sebaceous glands normally contribute to the circulating pool. PMID:2965551

  6. The Role of Isotretinoin Therapy for Cushing's Disease: Results of a Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Lucio; Albuquerque, José Luciano; Lyra, Ruy; Trovão Diniz, Erik; Rangel Filho, Frederico; Gadelha, Patrícia; Thé, Ana Carolina; Ibiapina, George Robson; Gomes, Barbara Sales; Santos, Vera; Melo da Fonseca, Maíra; Frasão Viana, Karoline; Lopes, Isis Gabriella; Araújo, Douglas; Naves, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This prospective open trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Methods. Sixteen patients with CD and persistent or recurrent hypercortisolism after transsphenoidal surgery were given isotretinoin orally for 6-12 months. The drug was started on 20 mg daily and the dosage was increased up to 80 mg daily if needed and tolerated. Clinical, biochemical, and hormonal parameters were evaluated at baseline and monthly for 6-12 months. Results. Of the 16 subjects, 4% (25%) persisted with normal urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels at the end of the study. UFC reductions of up to 52.1% were found in the rest. Only patients with UFC levels below 2.5-fold of the upper limit of normal achieved sustained UFC normalization. Improvements of clinical and biochemical parameters were also noted mostly in responsive patients. Typical isotretinoin side-effects were experienced by 7 patients (43.7%), though they were mild and mostly transient. We also observed that the combination of isotretinoin with cabergoline, in relatively low doses, may occasionally be more effective than either drug alone. Conclusions. Isotretinoin may be an effective and safe therapy for some CD patients, particularly those with mild hypercortisolism.

  7. The effects of isotretinoin on the ovarian reserve of females with acne.

    PubMed

    Sikar Aktürk, Aysun; Abalı, Remzi; Yüksel, Mehmet Aytaç; Güzel, Eda Çelik; Güzel, Savaş; Kıran, Rebiay

    2014-01-01

    There are some side effects of isotretinoin in many organs. However, a study investigating the effects of isotretinoin on the human ovarian reserve has not been reported previously. The study was conducted to investigate possible effects of isotretinoin on ovarian reserve. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels were measured at the beginning and at the end of isotretinoin treatment in 22 patients with acne and in 22 women without. The mean AMH level before treatment was 5.77 ng/mL in the study group and 3.79 ng/mL in the control group (p = 0.008). Following treatment, the mean AMH level was 4.69 ng/mL in the study group. This mean AMH level after treatment was statistically lower than the AMH level before treatment (p = 0.012). There was no significant difference between the mean AMH level at the end of treatment and that of the control group (p = 0.20). The high level of pre-treatment AMH levels could be an evidence of hyperandrogenism in women with acne, even if they are not identified as having polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or hyperandrogenism. Decrease in AMH levels following exposure to isotretinoin may suggest that it has a detrimental effect on the ovaries.

  8. The Role of Isotretinoin Therapy for Cushing's Disease: Results of a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Lucio; Albuquerque, José Luciano; Lyra, Ruy; Trovão Diniz, Erik; Rangel Filho, Frederico; Gadelha, Patrícia; Thé, Ana Carolina; Ibiapina, George Robson; Gomes, Barbara Sales; Santos, Vera; Melo da Fonseca, Maíra; Frasão Viana, Karoline; Lopes, Isis Gabriella; Araújo, Douglas; Naves, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This prospective open trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Methods. Sixteen patients with CD and persistent or recurrent hypercortisolism after transsphenoidal surgery were given isotretinoin orally for 6–12 months. The drug was started on 20 mg daily and the dosage was increased up to 80 mg daily if needed and tolerated. Clinical, biochemical, and hormonal parameters were evaluated at baseline and monthly for 6–12 months. Results. Of the 16 subjects, 4% (25%) persisted with normal urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels at the end of the study. UFC reductions of up to 52.1% were found in the rest. Only patients with UFC levels below 2.5-fold of the upper limit of normal achieved sustained UFC normalization. Improvements of clinical and biochemical parameters were also noted mostly in responsive patients. Typical isotretinoin side-effects were experienced by 7 patients (43.7%), though they were mild and mostly transient. We also observed that the combination of isotretinoin with cabergoline, in relatively low doses, may occasionally be more effective than either drug alone. Conclusions. Isotretinoin may be an effective and safe therapy for some CD patients, particularly those with mild hypercortisolism. PMID:27034666

  9. A case of isotretinoin-induced purpura annularis telangiectodes of Majocchi and review of substance-induced pigmented purpuric dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Rachel; Meehan, Shane A; Leger, Marie

    2014-02-01

    IMPORTANCE Medications as well as chemical and food exposures have been causally linked to the development of pigmented purpuric dermatosis (PPD). We describe herein what is to our knowledge the first reported case of isotretinoin-induced PPD. OBSERVATIONS A woman in her 30s presented with purpura annularis telangiectodes of Majocchi on the lower extremities 2 months after initiating isotretinoin for the treatment of refractory nodulocystic acne. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE We believe isotretinoin was the most likely causative agent in this case because the lesions began after initiation of isotretinoin treatment and resolved shortly after its termination, and the pathologic findings were consistent with other described cases of drug-induced PPD. The lesions have continued to fade, and no new lesions have developed in a 3-month follow-up period. Drug-induced PPD is distinct from idiopathic PPD, and it is important to consider isotretinoin as a potential inciting agent.

  10. BASICS OF COMPOUNDING: Capsules.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2016-01-01

    Capsules have been used for administering medications to patients more than a century and have an important role in drug delivery. When a primary care provider prescribes a tablet, the choice is usually, but not always, limited to commercially available products. A capsule, however, can be prepared extemporaneously, which provides dosing flexibility for the primary care provider and the pharmacist. This article discusses the definitions/types of capsules, their applications, composition, preparation, capsule sizes, the encapsulation process, capsule cleaning, physiochemical considerations, quality control in the preparation of capsules, packaging/storage, stability, and patient counseling to determine the proper capsule size. Also, provided are sample formulations.

  11. Congenital microtia in a neonate due to maternal isotretinoin exposure 1 month before pregnancy: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Mahboobeh; Abbariki, Ezzat; Pirjani, Reihaneh; Akhavan, Setareh; Dastgerdy, Ebrahim

    2015-06-01

    Isotretinoin is a drug used for treating severe cystic/nodular acne. Severe malformations have been documented in neonates whose mothers had taken isotretinoin during pregnancy. Women who became pregnant one cycle after completing therapy are believed to be at teratogenic risk not higher than baseline. We describe the case of a newborn whose mother had taken the drug for 4 weeks. The woman then had contraception for 4 weeks (after the drug treatment had finished), and became pregnant after that period. The newborn had isolated bilateral microtia due to suspected isotretinoin exposure. His mother also had a history of urine tract infection in the second week of pregnancy that was treated with cephalexin. The parents were not from a consanguineous marriage and had no family history of congenital malformations. To reduce the risk, effective contraception should be continued in fertile women more than 1 month after completing therapy. PMID:25773513

  12. Generation of radical oxygen species by neural crest cells treated in vitro with isotretinoin and 4-oxo-isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Davis, W L; Crawford, L A; Cooper, O J; Farmer, G R; Thomas, D; Freeman, B L

    1990-01-01

    The effects of isotretinoin (IR) and its primary metabolite (in the human), 4-oxo-isotretinoin (4-OIR or OIR), on isolated chick neural crest cells (NCC's) in culture were studied. NCC's were found to be deficient in both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, two of the enzymes known to function in the "scavenging" (dismutation) of toxic radical oxygen species (ROS) such as the superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. The addition of IR or OIR to the culture medium significantly depressed the viability of the NCC's when compared to untreated cells. OIR was more potent in this regard than IR. In the presence of either IR or OIR, NCC's generated superoxide anions (O2.), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl anions (OH.). OIR was again more potent. The cytotoxicity of IR or OIR was demonstrated by the "leakage" of radioactive chromium from prelabeled cells. The latter is suggestive of a primary surface membrane defect, most logically via the induction of lipid peroxides by the retinoids. The latter is accompanied by an increase in membrane permeability and porosity as evidenced by the fact that various fluorescently labeled molecules, including BSA-FITC (MW 69,000), gain entrance into the cytoplasm of the retinoid treated cells. No label was seen in the cytoplasm of similarly treated control cells. When SOD (200 units/ml) or catalase (400 units/ml) was added to the culture media of IR- or OIR-treated NCCs, cell viability was increased and the concentration of the various ROS generated was decreased. Membrane leakiness to chromium and FITC-BSA was also decreased in the presence of these enzymes. Free radicals, when not inactivated (dismutated), are known to be pathobiotic to most cells. Cell membranes are at a particular high risk from ROS which induce structural, physiological, and biochemical alterations in the cell membrane. The latter can have a negative effect on cell permeability, maintenance of normal ionic gradients, membrane enzyme activity, cell

  13. Dissecting cellulitis of the scalp treated with rifampicin and isotretinoin: case reports.

    PubMed

    Georgala, Sofia; Korfitis, Chrysovalantis; Ioannidou, Dikaia; Alestas, Theodosis; Kylafis, Georgios; Georgala, Caterina

    2008-09-01

    Dissecting cellulitis of the scalp, or perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens, is an uncommon chronic suppurative disease of the scalp manifested by follicular and perifollicular inflammatory nodules that suppurate and undermine, forming intercommunicating sinuses, and leading to scarring alopecia. Treatment generally fails to obtain a permanently successful result; thus, many therapeutic options have been proposed. We report 4 cases of dissecting cellulitis of the scalp successfully treated with oral rifampicin and oral isotretinoin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of oral rifampicin used concomitantly with oral isotretinoin in this disease entity. We also present a brief review of the literature on the topic. PMID:18856159

  14. Severe Facial Hirsutism Following Isotretinoin Therapy: An Under-reported Entity.

    PubMed

    Ramot, Yuval; Sheffer, Sivan; Zlotogorski, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Hirsutism is usually a manifestation of hyperandrogenism, and iatrogenic causes for excess hair growth are uncommon. Here, we report on a 48-year-old female patient, who developed severe excess facial hair following treatment with isotretinoin for papulopustular rosacea. To the best of our knowledge, only one case has been reported before, and not in the dermatology literature. Taking into consideration the fact that isotretinoin is a widely prescribed medication in the dermatology practice, information on its possible adverse effects is of major importance for the treating dermatologist. PMID:26622158

  15. Severe Facial Hirsutism Following Isotretinoin Therapy: An Under-reported Entity

    PubMed Central

    Ramot, Yuval; Sheffer, Sivan; Zlotogorski, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Hirsutism is usually a manifestation of hyperandrogenism, and iatrogenic causes for excess hair growth are uncommon. Here, we report on a 48-year-old female patient, who developed severe excess facial hair following treatment with isotretinoin for papulopustular rosacea. To the best of our knowledge, only one case has been reported before, and not in the dermatology literature. Taking into consideration the fact that isotretinoin is a widely prescribed medication in the dermatology practice, information on its possible adverse effects is of major importance for the treating dermatologist. PMID:26622158

  16. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaplaine, R. W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Capsule, with filter paper insert, is used to collect sweat for rate monitoring, chromatographic analysis, or active sweat gland location within specified area. Construction of capsule allows change of inserts while device remains strapped in place.

  17. Tolerance to systemic isotretinoin therapy in two patients using highly wettable contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Arman, Ayşegül; Demirseren, D Deniz; Akoglu, Gulsen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Numerous ocular side effects have been reported with the use of systemic isotretinoin therapy. Herein, we presented two contact lens user patients who did not have contact lens intolerance during systemic isotretinoin therapy. Methods. 25-year-old male and 20-year-old female patients with severe acne vulgaris who were using highly wettable silicone hydrogel contact lenses which increase tear film stability were examined. Tear film function tests including Schirmer tests and tear break up time (TBUT) test and ocular surface staining with fluorescein were done. Subjective ocular complaints were scored with ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire. Patients were followed up monthly and examinations were repeated at each visit. Results. Both patients completed the therapy after a cumulative dose of 140 mg/kg isotretinoin in 6 months. The OSDI score and tear film function tests before and after treatment were all within normal limits. Discussion. Highly wettable contact lenses that provide increase in the tear film stability may be used during systemic retinoid therapy under close followups. Although isotretinoin affects ocular glands, the differences between tolerances to this retinoid therapy need to be investigated in larger patient groups using contact lenses.

  18. Tolerance to Systemic Isotretinoin Therapy in Two Patients Using Highly Wettable Contact Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Arman, Ayşegül; Demirseren, D. Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Numerous ocular side effects have been reported with the use of systemic isotretinoin therapy. Herein, we presented two contact lens user patients who did not have contact lens intolerance during systemic isotretinoin therapy. Methods. 25-year-old male and 20-year-old female patients with severe acne vulgaris who were using highly wettable silicone hydrogel contact lenses which increase tear film stability were examined. Tear film function tests including Schirmer tests and tear break up time (TBUT) test and ocular surface staining with fluorescein were done. Subjective ocular complaints were scored with ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire. Patients were followed up monthly and examinations were repeated at each visit. Results. Both patients completed the therapy after a cumulative dose of 140 mg/kg isotretinoin in 6 months. The OSDI score and tear film function tests before and after treatment were all within normal limits. Discussion. Highly wettable contact lenses that provide increase in the tear film stability may be used during systemic retinoid therapy under close followups. Although isotretinoin affects ocular glands, the differences between tolerances to this retinoid therapy need to be investigated in larger patient groups using contact lenses. PMID:24707422

  19. [Exposure to isotretinoin during pregnancy in France: 25 years of follow-up].

    PubMed

    Rouzès, Agnès; Jonville-Béra, Annie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Because of its teratogenicity, isotretinoin is contraindicated in pregnant women and also among women of childbearing age in the absence of effective contraception. The objective of this work is to summarize the results of studies assessing the effects of regulatory measures successively implemented in France since 1996 to prevent foetal exposure to isotretinoin. The five pharmacovigilance studies have shown persistence of pregnancies exposed to isotretinoin, with an estimated incidence in the latter study, between 0.32 and 0.95 per 1000 treated women of childbearing age. The strengthening of the prevention plan of pregnancies, established in France in March 2010, seems to have resulted in a decrease in the incidence of pregnancies exposed, but this trend needs to be confirmed. However, these pregnancies are almost preventable, because most of them are explained by the non-compliance with the conditions of prescribing and dispensing. Then it seems mandatory to not deliver oral isotretinoin if it is not prescribed in accordance with the prescription laid down by the authorities.

  20. Retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell layer thickness in patients receiving systemic isotretinoin therapy.

    PubMed

    Sekeryapan, Berrak; Dılek, Nursel; Oner, Veysi; Turkyılmaz, Kemal; Aslan, Mehmet Gokhan

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral isotretinoin therapy on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). This prospective study included newly diagnosed nodulocystic acne patients about to receive isotretinoin treatment. Macular average GCL thickness and peripapillary average, temporal, nasal, inferior, and superior quadrant RNFL thickness were measured by OCT before and after isotretinoin treatment. Pre- and post-treatment measurements were compared with paired t test. Fifty-six eyes of 28 patients were included. The mean duration of the treatment was 6.5 ± 1.3 months. The mean average GCL thickness was 90.04 ± 5.87 (80-96) μm at baseline and 90.75 ± 6.34 (81-96) μm after treatment. The mean average RNFL thickness was 93.25 ± 6.06 μm (84-107) before treatment and 93.05 ± 5.54 μm (82-106) after treatment. There were no statistically significant differences between pre- and post-treatment values (all p > 0.05). A 6-month course of systemic isotretinoin therapy seems to have no unfavorable effect on retinal ganglion cells; however, larger studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to be conclusive.

  1. A randomized and controlled trial about the use of oral isotretinoin for photoaging.

    PubMed

    Bagatin, Ediléia; Parada, Meire O B; Miot, Hélio A; Hassun, Karime M; Michalany, Nilceo; Talarico, Sergio

    2010-02-01

    Topical retinoids are used to treat photoaging; oral isotretinoin is gold standard for acne; "off label" indications, including photoaging, have been reported with insufficient evidence of efficacy. This is a randomized controlled phase II trial with clinical and histological assessment to evaluate efficacy and safety of oral isotretinoin for photoaging. Study population was comprised of 32 menopausal or sterilized women, aged 40-55, divided in 2 groups: A (21) received 20mg isotretinoin, 3 times per week, nightly moisturizer, and daily sunscreen, for three months; B (11) just moisturizer/sunscreen. Main outcome measures were: overall clinical assessment; profilometry, corneometer and elasticity tests in periocular regions and left forearm; before/after biopsies from left forearm in patients of B and in 10 randomly selected of A. Microscopic blinded evaluation of epidermal thickness, dermal elastosis, new collagen, p53 epidermal expression was performed by quantitative digital image analysis. All data were submitted to statistical analysis. Clinical evaluation showed slight improvement; profilometry, corneometer and skin elasticity tests presented significant difference in pre/post values (P = 0.001 to 0.028), but no differences between A/B. Histological findings and p53 expression were comparable between groups before treatment (P > 0.1); microscopic analysis showed no differences between groups for most variables, after treatment. Slight but significant difference between A/B for p53 with major reduction post isotretinoin [0.66+/-0.31 vs. 0.94+/-0.34 respectively (P = 0.04) was observed. There were minor side effects and no significant laboratory test alterations. We concluded that no significant clinical, microscopic changes but p53 epidermal expression reduction were observed. The role of ultra-violet induced p53 mutation in skin carcinogenesis reinforces retinoids chemoprevention. Oral isotretinoin seemed safe but not effective to treat photoaging. Caution

  2. Novel isotretinoin microemulsion-based gel for targeted topical therapy of acne: formulation consideration, skin retention and skin irritation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mrunali R.; Patel, Rashmin B.; Parikh, Jolly R.; Patel, Bharat G.

    2016-04-01

    Isotretinoin was formulated in novel microemulsion-based gel formulation with the aim of improving its solubility, skin tolerability, therapeutic efficacy, skin-targeting efficiency and patient compliance. Microemulsion was formulated by the spontaneous microemulsification method using 8 % isopropyl myristate, 24 % Labrasol, 8 % plurol oleique and 60 % water as an external phase. All plain and isotretinoin-loaded microemulsions were clear and showed physicochemical parameters for the desired topical delivery and stability. The permeation profiles of isotretinoin through rat skin from selected microemulsion formulation followed zero-order kinetics. Microemulsion-based gel was prepared by incorporating Carbopol®971 in optimized microemulsion formulation having suitable skin permeation rate and skin uptake. Microemulsion-based gel showed desired physicochemical parameters and demonstrated advantage over marketed formulation in improving the skin tolerability of isotretinoin, indicating its potential in improving topical delivery of isotretinoin. The developed microemulsion-based gel may be a potential drug delivery vehicle for targeted topical delivery of isotretinoin in the treatment of acne.

  3. Colloidal carriers of isotretinoin for topical acne treatment: skin uptake, ATR-FTIR and in vitro cytotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Gürbüz, Aslı; Özhan, Gül; Güngör, Sevgi; Erdal, M Sedef

    2015-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is the chronical, multifactorial and complex disease of the pilosebaceous unit in the skin. The main goal of the topical therapy in acne is to target the drug to epidermal and deep dermal regions by minimizing systemic absorption . Isotretinoin, a retinoic acid derivative, is the most effective drug in acne pathogenesis. Because systemic treatment may cause many side effects, topical isotretinoin treatment is an option in the management of acne. However, due to its high lipophilic character, isotretinoin tends to accumulate in the upper stratum corneum, thus its penetration into the lower layers is limited, which restricts the efficiency of topical treatment. Microemulsions are fluid, isotropic, colloidal drug carriers that have been widely studied as drug delivery systems. The percutaneous transport of active agents can be enhanced by microemulsions when compared with their conventional formulations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate microemulsions as alternative topical carriers for isotretinoin with an objective to improve its skin uptake. After in vitro permeation studies, the dermal penetration of isotretinoin from microemulsions was investigated by tape stripping procedure. Confocal laser scanning microscopy provided insight about the localization of the drug in the skin. The interaction between the microemulsion components and stratum corneum lipids is studied by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The relative safety of the microemulsions was assessed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts using MTT viability test. The results indicate that microemulsion-based novel colloidal carriers have a potential for enhanced skin delivery and localization of isotretinoin.

  4. A Randomized-Controlled Trial of Oral Low-Dose Isotretinoin for Difficult-To-Treat Papulopustular Rosacea.

    PubMed

    Sbidian, Emilie; Vicaut, Éric; Chidiack, Henri; Anselin, Elie; Cribier, Bernard; Dréno, Brigitte; Chosidow, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory facial skin disease with psychosocial impact. Oral cyclines are recommended for moderate-to-severe papulopustular rosacea. Oral isotretinoin was found valuable for difficult-to-treat cases in several reports. This multicenter, double-blind, randomized-placebo-controlled trial compared oral isotretinoin (0.25 mg/kg/day) with placebo (2:1 ratio) for difficult-to-treat papulopustular rosacea. Included patients had at least eight papulopustular lesions. The primary endpoint after the 4-month treatment period was the response rate: at least 90% reduction of the number of papules/pustules compared with baseline. Secondary outcomes included measures on quality of life (Skindex score). Between February 2007 and August 2009, 156 patients were randomized to receive either isotretinoin (n = 108) or placebo (n = 48). In the intention-to-treat population, 57.4% of isotretinoin recipients reached the primary endpoint, compared with 10.4% of those taking the placebo (absolute difference, 47 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, 34.3-59.7; P < 0.0001). To consider therapy successful, 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.7-2.9) patients had to be treated. Skindex scores had improved significantly more for isotretinoin- than placebo-treated patients. Rosacea relapsed in 27 (58.3%) of 51 patients who accepted 4 months of continued follow-up, with a median of 15 weeks to recurrence. The percentages of patients in each arm who stopped their treatment because of adverse event(s) did not differ. Low-dose isotretinoin was an effective therapeutic option for difficult-to-treat papulopustular rosacea. Further studies should investigate the value of a minimal effective isotretinoin dose to maintain these remissions. PMID:26854486

  5. [Folliculitis nuchae scleroticans--successful treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin)].

    PubMed

    Stieler, W; Senff, H; Jänner, M

    1988-11-01

    Acne keloidalis nuchae is characterized by keloidal papules and plaques. The lesions are located on the occipital scalp and posterior neck. This rare therapy-resistant condition is nearly always seen in men, particularly in negroes. Advanced stages of the disease require surgical excision with split-thickness skin grafts or treatment with a CO2 laser. Oral therapy with 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) in a 23-year-old white man resulted in remarkable improvement within a few weeks.

  6. Oral isotretinoin in photoaging: objective histological evidence of efficacy and durability*

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Bruna Souza Felix; Azulay, David Rubem; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Mandarim-De-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Cuzzi, Tullia; Azulay, Mônica Manela

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The off-label use of oral isotretinoin in photoaging is a therapeutic tool that has been used by dermatologists. There are few studies to corroborate its effectiveness and durability. OBJECTIVES To assess, both clinically and histologically, the changes caused by the use of oral isotretinoin in skin photoaging as well as the duration of the effects. METHODS 20 female patients, aged 45-50 years, with phototypes II-VI, none of whom had experienced menopause, were treated with 20mg oral isotretinoin, 3 days a week, for 12 weeks. They underwent clinical analysis and skin biopsies in the pre-auricular region, while histologic cuts enabled assessment of the solar elastosis level and morphologic analysis. RESULTS Clinically, patients, as well as the researching and the assessor physicians, noticed improvement in skin quality. One patient presented severe solar elastosis, 11 manifested the moderate form, while 8 presented the discreet type. According to histological analysis, 65% of the patients revealed alteration in the distribution and thickness of the elastic fibers, which can be interpreted as a histological improvement, while 60% showed an increase in collagen density. We observed an increase in collagen density, from 51.2% to 57.4%, (p=0.004). At the end of the 12-week follow-up period, this density decreased to 54.7% (p=0.050). There was an increase in the density of elastic fibers, from 26.5% to 31.3%, (p=0.02), which had dropped to 27.5% at the end of the 12-week follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS The study confirmed the role of oral isotretinoin in remodeling the extracellular matrix against photoaging, as well as its durability after 12 weeks, especially when we consider collagen fibers. PMID:26375216

  7. Effects of isotretinoin treatment on cartilage and tendon thicknesses: an ultrasonographic study.

    PubMed

    Yıldızgören, Mustafa Turgut; Karataş Toğral, Arzu; Baki, Ali Erdem; Ekiz, Timur

    2015-07-01

    Effects of retinoic acid on collagen synthesis and cartilage have previously been shown. However, its effects on cartilage and tendons in humans have not been studied yet. Therefore, in order to provide a morphologic insight, the aim of this study was to measure femoral cartilage, Achilles and supraspinatus tendon thicknesses in patients under systemic isotretinoin treatment by using ultrasound. Fifteen patients (nine F, six M) who used isotretinoin for their acnes were included. All patients were treated with isotretinoin 0.5 mg/kg/day for the first month, and the dosage was escalated up to 1 mg/kg/day thereafter. Distal femoral cartilage, supraspinatus, and Achilles tendons thicknesses have been evaluated both before the treatment and at the end of the third month. Femoral cartilage thicknesses were assessed from three midpoints bilaterally; medial condyle, lateral condyle, and intercondylar area. Short/long-axis diameters and cross-sectional area of the Achilles tendons and axial tendon thicknesses of supraspinatus tendon were evaluated from the nondominant side. The mean age of the patients was 20.1 ± 4.9 years, and body mass index was 21.7 ± 2.5 kg/m(2). Although posttreatment cartilage measurements of 30 knees were lower for the three midpoints, it reached significance only for lateral condyle (p = 0.05). In addition, posttreatment tendon measurements were not statistically significant compared with pretreatment values (all p > 0.05). Systemic isotretinoin treatment seems to make cartilage thinner. Further studies considering histological and molecular evaluations with more sample sizes are awaited. PMID:24985041

  8. Isotretinoin: dose, duration and relapse. What does 30 years of usage tell us?

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Marius

    2013-08-01

    With 30 years of clinical use, it is appropriate to review the use of isotretinoin. We now understand that retinoids influence cellular growth, differentiation, morphogenesis and apoptosis, inhibit tumour promotion and malignant cell growth, exert immuno-modulatory actions and alter cellular cohesiveness. This has expanded the indications of isotretinoin from just acne and rosacea to a wide range of inflammatory and malignant skin disorders. While the standard dose of 0.5 to 1 mg/kg per day for 4 months to a cumulative dose of 120-140 mg/kg per day has served us well in the management of acne vulgaris, there is emerging evidence that much lower dosages (as low as 5 mg/day) are just as effective but have significantly fewer adverse effects. Relapse of acne vulgaris continues to be a problem but we are beginning to recognise that this is related less to the cumulative dose and more to the length of sebaceous gland suppression. Other factors important for relapse include a macrocomedonal pattern of acne, smoking and age, both younger (under 14 years) and older (over 25 years). After 30 years of use, we now understand why isotretinoin is such an effective drug. Not only does it clear acne in almost all patients, long-term remission can be achieved in 70-80% of patients with a single course. Important changes in the use of isotretinoin include using a lower daily dose for a longer period of time. New indications continue to emerge, particularly as a potential treatment for both intrinsic and extrinsic (photo) aging. Teratogenicity however, remains a very significant concern.

  9. Effects of isotretinoin treatment on cartilage and tendon thicknesses: an ultrasonographic study.

    PubMed

    Yıldızgören, Mustafa Turgut; Karataş Toğral, Arzu; Baki, Ali Erdem; Ekiz, Timur

    2015-07-01

    Effects of retinoic acid on collagen synthesis and cartilage have previously been shown. However, its effects on cartilage and tendons in humans have not been studied yet. Therefore, in order to provide a morphologic insight, the aim of this study was to measure femoral cartilage, Achilles and supraspinatus tendon thicknesses in patients under systemic isotretinoin treatment by using ultrasound. Fifteen patients (nine F, six M) who used isotretinoin for their acnes were included. All patients were treated with isotretinoin 0.5 mg/kg/day for the first month, and the dosage was escalated up to 1 mg/kg/day thereafter. Distal femoral cartilage, supraspinatus, and Achilles tendons thicknesses have been evaluated both before the treatment and at the end of the third month. Femoral cartilage thicknesses were assessed from three midpoints bilaterally; medial condyle, lateral condyle, and intercondylar area. Short/long-axis diameters and cross-sectional area of the Achilles tendons and axial tendon thicknesses of supraspinatus tendon were evaluated from the nondominant side. The mean age of the patients was 20.1 ± 4.9 years, and body mass index was 21.7 ± 2.5 kg/m(2). Although posttreatment cartilage measurements of 30 knees were lower for the three midpoints, it reached significance only for lateral condyle (p = 0.05). In addition, posttreatment tendon measurements were not statistically significant compared with pretreatment values (all p > 0.05). Systemic isotretinoin treatment seems to make cartilage thinner. Further studies considering histological and molecular evaluations with more sample sizes are awaited.

  10. Low-Dose Isotretinoin: An Option for Difficult-to-Treat Papulopustular Rosacea.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Fedorowicz, Zbys

    2016-06-01

    Rosacea is a chronic disease with a profound impact on quality of life. Although there are a range of treatments for its many manifestations, some cases are difficult to treat. Sbidian et al. show in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that low-dose isotretinoin can be effective in treating difficult-to-treat and frequently relapsing papulopustular rosacea. PMID:27212646

  11. The Lens Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Danysh, Brian P.; Duncan, Melinda K.

    2009-01-01

    The lens capsule is a modified basement membrane that completely surrounds the ocular lens. It is known that this extracellular matrix is important for both the structure and biomechanics of the lens in addition to providing informational cues to maintain lens cell phenotype. This review covers the development and structure of the lens capsule, lens diseases associated with mutations in extracellular matrix genes and the role of the capsule in lens function including those proposed for visual accommodation, selective permeability to infectious agents, and cell signaling. PMID:18773892

  12. Surgical Outcome in Patients Taking Concomitant or Recent Intake of Oral Isotretinoin: A Multicentric Study-ISO-AIMS Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevappa, Omprakash Heggadahalli; Mysore, Venkataram; Viswanath, Vishalakshi; Thurakkal, Salim; Majid, Imran; Talwar, Suresh; Aurangabadkar, Sanjeev J; Chatterjee, Manas; Bhat, M Ramesh; Barua, Shyamanta; Ganjoo, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Background: The current standard recommendation is to avoid surgical interventions in patients taking oral isotretinoin. However, this recommendation has been questioned in several recent publications. Aim: To document the safety of cosmetic and surgical interventions, among patients receiving or recently received oral isotretinoin. Materials and Methods: Association of Cutaneous Surgeons, India, in May 2012, initiated this study, at 11 centers in different parts of India. The data of 183 cases were collected monthly, from June 2012 to May 2013. Of these 61 patients had stopped oral isotretinoin before surgery and 122 were concomitantly taking oral isotretinoin during the study period. In these 183 patients, a total of 504 interventions were performed. These included[1] 246 sessions of chemical peels such as glycolic acid, salicylic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and combination peels;[2] 158 sessions of lasers such as ablative fractional laser resurfacing with erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet and CO2, conventional full face CO2 laser resurfacing, laser-assisted hair reduction with long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, diode laser, and LASIK surgery;[3] 27 sessions of cold steel surgeries such as microneedling, skin biopsy, subcision, punch elevation of scars, excision of skin lesion, and wisdom tooth extraction;[4] 1 session of electrosurgery. Results: No significant side effects were noted in most patients. 2 cases of keloid were documented which amounted to 0.4% of side effects in 504 interventions, with a significant P value of 0.000. Reversible transient side effects were erythema in 10 interventions and hyperpigmentation in 15. Conclusion: The study showed that performing dermatosurgical and laser procedures in patients receiving or recently received isotretinoin is safe, and the current guidelines of avoiding dermatosurgical and laser interventions in such patients taking isotretinoin need to be revised. PMID:27398012

  13. Hepatotoxicity of isotretinoin in patients with acne and Gilbert's syndrome: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Crehuet, Pablo; Fernández-Crehuet, José Luis; Allam, Mohamed Farouk; Fernández-Crehuet Navajas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of our follow-up study is to evaluate liver function tests (LFTs) and lipid profiles in patients with Gilbert's syndrome treated with isotretinoin because of severe acne. Setting Dermatology outpatient clinics of three regional hospitals of Jaén (Spain). Participants Over 4 years, we included all patients diagnosed with severe acne. Only 37 patients were identified, of which 11 had Gilbert's syndrome. Interventions All patients were treated with isotretinoin and followed-up in our outpatient clinics after 10 and 20 weeks. Patients were subjected to an interview questionnaire which included data on age, gender, complete blood count, coagulation profile, fasting blood glucose, LFTs and lipid profiles. Data and results of patients with severe acne and Gilbert's syndrome were compared with those of 26 patients with only severe acne (control group). Primary outcome Blood analyses were repeated in the follow-up visits. Results In patients with Gilbert's syndrome, bilirubin levels showed substantial decrease over the 20-week follow-up, with more decrease after 10 weeks. None of the control group patients had significant increase in total bilirubin levels after 10 and 20 weeks of follow-up. Liver enzymes were maintained within normal levels in both groups. Both study groups did not show significant pathological increase in lipid profile levels. LDL levels were increased in the two study groups, but this increase was less substantial in patients with Gilbert's syndrome. Conclusions Our preliminary results suggest that oral isotretinoin could be an effective, safe treatment for patients with Gilbert's syndrome, and may lower bilirubin levels in the first 10 weeks of treatment. Limitations of the study include the small numbers of participants and the fact that it is restricted to one region of Spain. PMID:24650805

  14. Isotretinoin treatment of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis complicated by coexisting dysferlinopathy.

    PubMed

    Mashiah, J; Harel, A; Bitterman, O; Sagi, L; Gat, A; Fellig, Y; Ben-Shachar, S; Sprecher, E

    2016-06-01

    Consanguinity is known to be associated with an increase in the prevalence of autosomal recessive disorders such as autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI). ARCI often responds well to retinoid treatment. We describe a patient with ARCI who improved under isotretinoin treatment. The patient subsequently developed elevated levels of serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), which led to the diagnosis of a second autosomal recessive disorder, dysferlinopathy, a rare myopathy characterized by muscle weakness, decreased tendon reflexes and marked elevation of CPK levels. This report demonstrates the need for physicians to remain alert to the possible coexistence of rare and mutually relevant disorders in populations with a high rate of consanguinity. PMID:26620441

  15. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn’s disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  16. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ryan; Enns, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn's disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  17. Buckling of spherical capsules.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Sebastian; Kierfeld, Jan

    2011-10-01

    We investigate buckling of soft elastic capsules under negative pressure or for reduced capsule volume. Based on nonlinear shell theory and the assumption of a hyperelastic capsule membrane, shape equations for axisymmetric and initially spherical capsules are derived and solved numerically. A rich bifurcation behavior is found, which is presented in terms of bifurcation diagrams. The energetically preferred stable configuration is deduced from a least-energy principle both for prescribed volume and prescribed pressure. We find that buckled shapes are energetically favorable already at smaller negative pressures and larger critical volumes than predicted by the classical buckling instability. By preventing self-intersection for strongly reduced volume, we obtain a complete picture of the buckling process and can follow the shape from the initial undeformed state through the buckling instability into the fully collapsed state. Interestingly, the sequences of bifurcations and stable capsule shapes differ for prescribed volume and prescribed pressure. In the buckled state, we find a relation between curvatures at the indentation rim and the bending modulus, which can be used to determine elastic moduli from experimental shape analysis. PMID:22181297

  18. Hollow Microporous Organic Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Li, Buyi; Yang, Xinjia; Xia, Lingling; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Tan, Bien

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of hollow microporous organic capsules (HMOCs) could be very useful because of their hollow and porous morphology, which combines the advantages of both microporous organic polymers and non-porous nanocapsules. They can be used as storage materials or reaction chambers while supplying the necessary path for the design of controlled uptake/release systems. Herein, the synthesis of HMOCs with high surface area through facile emulsion polymerization and hypercrosslinking reactions, is described. Due to their tailored porous structure, these capsules possessed high drug loading efficiency, zero-order drug release kinetics and are also demonstrated to be used as nanoscale reactors for the prepareation of nanoparticles (NPs) without any external stabilizer. Moreover, owing to their intrinsic biocompatibility and fluorescence, these capsules exhibit promising prospect for biomedical applications. PMID:23820511

  19. NIF capsule design update

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, T.R.; Haan, S.W.; Pollaine, S.; Burnham, A.K.; Strobel, G.L.

    1996-10-01

    We describe several ignition capsule designs, for use in the National Ignition Facility. We will compare these designs for ablator efficiency, ignition margin, implosion and stability performance. This study includes capsule designs driven by x-ray drive profiles with both 300 eV and 250 eV peak temperatures. All of the 300 eV designs are tuned to implode the DT fuel in a nearly identical manner. Capsule designs consist of an ablator material (CH with Br dopant; Be with Cu dopant; and B{sub 4}C) encasing a layer of solid DT. The dopants alter material opacities sufficiently to (1) shield the DT fuel from preheat effects; and (2) develop an ablation front density profile favorable to implosion stability. B{sub 4}C has sufficient opacity at 300 eV that a dopant is not necessary. Issues relating to material properties and fabrication will be described.

  20. Gelatin capsule in stomach (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect the presence of intestinal parasites. A weighted gelatin capsule attached to a string is swallowed and left in place. After about 4 hours, the gelatin capsule is pulled out of the stomach by ...

  1. A randomized comparative trial of two low-dose oral isotretinoin regimens in moderate to severe acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Dhaked, Daulat Ram; Meena, Ram Singh; Maheshwari, Anshul; Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Purohit, Saroj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral isotretinoin is highly effective in all forms and grades of acne, even in lower dosages (<0.5 mg/kg/day). There is a paucity of comparative data on the various low-dose regimens of oral isotretinoin in the Indian literature. Objectives: To assess and compare the efficacy and tolerability of two low-dose oral isotretinoin treatment regimens (20 mg daily and 20 mg alternate days) in moderate to severe acne vulgaris. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 patients with moderate to severe acne vulgaris were selected and randomized into two groups and treated with a fixed dose of 20 mg of isotretinoin (Group A - daily and Group B - alternate days) for 24 weeks and followed up for 12 weeks post therapy. Results: A total of 234 patients completed the study. At the end of therapy, decrease in the total acne loads up to 98.99% (Group A) and 97.69% (Group B) was achieved from the baseline (P < 0.01), excellent response was observed in 98.3% (Group A) and 93.96% (Group B) patients (P = 0.166). In the severe acne, Group A performed significantly better than Group B until the end of 36 weeks. While in the moderate acne, significant difference in the response between both groups was observed only up to 12 weeks. No serious side effect was observed. Conclusion: Both isotretinoin regimens were well tolerated and found to be an effective treatment for moderate to severe acne vulgaris. However, in moderate acne 20 mg alternate day regimen may be preferred. A 20 mg daily regimen is a better choice for severe acne in terms of response. Limitation: Small sample size and short follow-up period. PMID:27730033

  2. Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Henry

    1982-01-01

    An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

  3. The Effect of Evening Primrose Oil for the Prevention of Xerotic Cheilitis in Acne Patients Being Treated with Isotretinoin: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kui Young; Ko, Eun Jung; Kim, In Su; Li, Kapsok; Kim, Beom Joon; Seo, Seong Jun; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2014-01-01

    Background The most common adverse effects of oral isotretinoin are cheilitis, skin dryness, dry eyes, and conjunctivitis, whereas evening primrose oil (EPO) is known to improve skin moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in healthy adults and atopic patients. Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of EPO in preventing xerotic cheilitis in acne patients being treated with oral isotretinoin. Methods Forty Korean volunteers of Fitzpatrick skin types III and IV, having moderate acne, were enrolled and randomized to receive either isotretinoin with or without EPO for 8 weeks. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated on the basis of global acne grading system scores, number of inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions, TEWL, corneometry, physician's global assessment, and patient satisfaction. Results The results after 8 weeks of treatment showed that the TEWL of the lip increased significantly during isotretinoin treatment, whereas the TEWL of the hand dorsum showed no significant change. The increase of the TEWL of the lip was more definite in the control group than in the experimental group. The number of acne lesions decreased significantly in both groups, and there were no differences between them. Conclusion Our study suggests that the addition of EPO improved xerotic cheilitis in acne patients being treated with oral isotretinoin. However, besides TEWL and corneometry assessments, additional studies are required for a complete understanding of the role of EPO in xerotic cheilitis in acne patients being treated with oral isotretinoin. PMID:25473222

  4. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Delaplaine, R. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A sweat collection capsule permitting quantitative collection of sweat is described. The device consists of a frame held immobile on the skin, a closure secured to the frame and absorbent material located next to the skin in a cavity formed by the frame and the closure. The absorbent material may be removed from the device by removing the closure from the frame while the frame is held immobile on the skin.

  5. Capsule-train stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryngelson, Spencer H.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2016-07-01

    Elastic capsules flowing in small enough tubes, such as red blood cells in capillaries, are well known to line up into regular single-file trains. The stability of such trains in somewhat wider channels, where this organization is not observed, is studied in a two-dimensional model system that includes full coupling between the viscous flow and suspended capsules. A diverse set of linearly amplifying disturbances, both long-time asymptotic (modal) and transient (nonmodal) perturbations, is identified and analyzed. These have a range of amplification rates and their corresponding forms are wavelike, typically dominated by one of five principal perturbation classes: longitudinal and transverse translations, tilts, and symmetric and asymmetric shape distortions. Finite-amplitude transiently amplifying perturbations are shown to provide a mechanism that can bypass slower asymptotic modal linear growth and precipitate the onset of nonlinear effects. Direct numerical simulations are used to verify the linear analysis and track the subsequent transition of the regular capsule trains into an apparently chaotic flow.

  6. Matrix based system of isotretinoin as nail lacquer to enhance transungal delivery across human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Monika; Sharma, Vijay; Pathak, Kamla

    2015-01-15

    The project was aimed at development of isotretinoin nail lacquer and assessment of its penetration efficiency across human nail plate. Preliminary studies (hydration enhancement factor and SEM) aided the selection of thioglycolic acid as permeation and eugenol was selected as local anesthetic in the formulation. The nail lacquer was optimized by 3(2) factorial design and a total of nine formulations were prepared and screened. In vitro adhesion and ex vivo permeation (cumulative drug permeation per unit area (CDP/A) = 6.61 ± 0.57 mg/cm(2)) across bovine hoof guided the selection of F3 as optimized formulation that was improvised. Viscosity adjustments to improve handling characteristics were affected by incorporation of ethyl cellulose (6%; F3M1) that scaled the viscosity to 312.681 cp and insignificantly (p > 0.05) affected CDP/A (6.32 ± 0.45 mg/cm(2)). In comparison to marketed preparation (Retino-A cream) F3M1 afforded two fold increase in CDP/A. The permeation characteristics were defined by Higuchi model (r(2) = 0.964) and flux value of 176 μg/cm(2)/h. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, after 72 h of nail lacquer application, revealed extensive distribution of the fluorescent tracer across the human nail plate in comparison to control that was confined to the top layer. Conclusively, an efficacious and stable nail lacquer of isotretinoin was developed for potential clinical topical use to target the drug to nail bed in treatment of nail psoriasis. PMID:25445993

  7. Matrix based system of isotretinoin as nail lacquer to enhance transungal delivery across human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Monika; Sharma, Vijay; Pathak, Kamla

    2015-01-15

    The project was aimed at development of isotretinoin nail lacquer and assessment of its penetration efficiency across human nail plate. Preliminary studies (hydration enhancement factor and SEM) aided the selection of thioglycolic acid as permeation and eugenol was selected as local anesthetic in the formulation. The nail lacquer was optimized by 3(2) factorial design and a total of nine formulations were prepared and screened. In vitro adhesion and ex vivo permeation (cumulative drug permeation per unit area (CDP/A) = 6.61 ± 0.57 mg/cm(2)) across bovine hoof guided the selection of F3 as optimized formulation that was improvised. Viscosity adjustments to improve handling characteristics were affected by incorporation of ethyl cellulose (6%; F3M1) that scaled the viscosity to 312.681 cp and insignificantly (p > 0.05) affected CDP/A (6.32 ± 0.45 mg/cm(2)). In comparison to marketed preparation (Retino-A cream) F3M1 afforded two fold increase in CDP/A. The permeation characteristics were defined by Higuchi model (r(2) = 0.964) and flux value of 176 μg/cm(2)/h. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, after 72 h of nail lacquer application, revealed extensive distribution of the fluorescent tracer across the human nail plate in comparison to control that was confined to the top layer. Conclusively, an efficacious and stable nail lacquer of isotretinoin was developed for potential clinical topical use to target the drug to nail bed in treatment of nail psoriasis.

  8. Fixed-Dose Combination Gel of Adapalene and Benzoyl Peroxide plus Doxycycline 100 mg versus Oral Isotretinoin for the Treatment of Severe Acne: Efficacy and Cost Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Penna, Pete; Meckfessel, Matthew H.; Preston, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a chronic skin disease with a high prevalence. Left untreated or inadequately treated, acne vulgaris can lead to psychological and physical scarring, as well as to unnecessary medical expenses. Oral isotretinoin is an effective treatment for severe resistant nodular and conglobate acne vulgaris. A regimen consisting of a fixed-dose combination of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide gel, 0.1%/2.5% (A-BPO) with oral doxycycline 100 mg (A-BPO/D) has been demonstrated to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients with severe acne and may be an alternative to oral isotretinoin for some patients with severe acne. Objective The objective of this analysis was to compare the relative efficacy and associated costs of A-BPO/D versus oral isotretinoin. Methods In this analysis, comparisons of relative efficacy were made using previously published studies involving similar patient populations with severe acne that warrant the use of oral isotretinoin. The pricing for oral doxycycline and oral isotretinoin was estimated based on the maximum allowable cost from 9 states, and the pricing for A-BPO was calculated as the range between the average wholesale price and the wholesale acquisition cost. For this analysis, 2 treatment models were generated to compare costs: (1) a basic treatment model that examined the costs of an initial regimen of either A-BPO/D or oral isotretinoin without considering probable outcomes, and (2) a long-term model that factored in likely treatment outcomes and subsequent treatments into associated costs. The basic treatment model assumed that patients would be prescribed a single regimen of A-BPO/D for 12 weeks or oral isotretinoin for 20 weeks. The long-term model considered the probability of each treatment successfully managing patients' acne, as well as likely additional regimens of A-BPO monotherapy or an additional regimen of oral isotretinoin. As a result of different treatment durations, the costs for each treatment were

  9. Multi-drugs resistant acne rosacea in a child affected by Ataxia-Telangiectasia: successful treatment with Isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Cantarutti, Nicoletta; Claps, Alessia; Angelino, Giulia; Chessa, Luciana; Callea, Francesco; El Hachem, May; Diociaiuti, Andrea; Finocchi, Andrea

    2015-03-28

    Ataxia-Telangiectasia is a rare multisystem autosomal recessive disorder [OMIM 208900], caused by mutations in Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated gene. It is characterized by neurological, immunological and cutaneous involvement. Granulomas have been previously reported in Ataxia-Telangiectasia patients, even if acne rosacea has not been described.We report a case of a young Ataxia-Telangiectasia patient with a severe immunological and neurological involvement, who developed granulomatous skin lesions diagnosed by skin biopsy as acne rosacea. Considering the severe clinical picture and the lack of improvement to multiple topic and systemic therapies, treatment with Isotretinoin was started and the skin lesions disappeared after five months. However the therapy was stopped due to drug-hepatotoxicity.Systemic treatment with Isotretinoin should be carefully considered in patient with Ataxia-Telangiectasia for the treatment of multi-drug resistant acne rosacea, however its toxicity may limit long-term use and the risk/benefit ratio of the treatment should be evaluated.

  10. Inhibition of the visual cycle in vivo by 13-cis retinoic acid protects from light damage and provides a mechanism for night blindness in isotretinoin therapy.

    PubMed

    Sieving, P A; Chaudhry, P; Kondo, M; Provenzano, M; Wu, D; Carlson, T J; Bush, R A; Thompson, D A

    2001-02-13

    Isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) is frequently prescribed for severe acne [Peck, G. L., Olsen, T. G., Yoder, F. W., Strauss, J. S., Downing, D. T., Pandya, M., Butkus, D. & Arnaud-Battandier, J. (1979) N. Engl. J. Med. 300, 329-333] but can impair night vision [Fraunfelder, F. T., LaBraico, J. M. & Meyer, S. M. (1985) Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 534-537] shortly after the beginning of therapy [Shulman, S. R. (1989) Am. J. Public Health 79, 1565-1568]. As rod photoreceptors are responsible for night vision, we administered isotretinoin to rats to learn whether night blindness resulted from rod cell death or from rod functional impairment. High-dose isotretinoin was given daily for 2 months and produced systemic toxicity, but this caused no histological loss of rod photoreceptors, and rod-driven electroretinogram amplitudes were normal after prolonged dark adaptation. Additional studies showed, however, that even a single dose of isotretinoin slowed the recovery of rod signaling after exposure to an intense bleaching light, and that rhodopsin regeneration was markedly slowed. When only a single dose was given, rod function recovered to normal within several days. Rods and cones both showed slow recovery from bleach after isotretinoin in rats and in mice. HPLC analysis of ocular retinoids after isotretinoin and an intense bleach showed decreased levels of rhodopsin chromophore, 11-cis retinal, and the accumulation of the biosynthetic intermediates, 11-cis and all-trans retinyl esters. Isotretinoin was also found to protect rat photoreceptors from light-induced damage, suggesting that strategies of altering retinoid cycling may have therapeutic implications for some forms of retinal and macular degeneration. PMID:11172037

  11. Optimal Design of Capsule Transporting Pipeline carrying Spherical Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asim, Taimoor; Mishra, Rakesh; Ubbi, Kuldip

    2012-05-01

    A capsule pipeline transports material or cargo in capsules propelled by fluid flowing through a pipeline. The cargo may either be contained in capsules (such as wheat enclosed inside sealed cylindrical containers), or may itself be the capsules (such as coal compressed into the shape of a cylinder or sphere). As the concept of capsule transportation is relatively new, the capsule pipelines need to be designed optimally for commercial viability. An optimal design of such a pipeline would have minimum pressure drop due to the presence of the solid medium in the pipeline, which corresponds to minimum head loss and hence minimum pumping power required to drive the capsules and the transporting fluid. The total cost for the manufacturing and maintenance of such pipelines is yet another important variable that needs to be considered for the widespread commercial acceptance of capsule transporting pipelines. To address this, the optimisation technique presented here is based on the least-cost principle. Pressure drop relationships have been incorporated to calculate the pumping requirements for the system. The maintenance and manufacturing costs have been computed separately to analyse their effects on the optimisation process. A design example has been included to show the usage of the model presented. The results indicate that for a specific throughput, there exists an optimum diameter of the pipeline for which the total cost for the piping system is at its minimum.

  12. Magnetism in metal-organic capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, Jerry L.; Brechin, Euan K; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Inglis, Ross; Jones, Leigh F.; Mossine, Andrew; Paterson, Martin J.; Power, Nicholas P.; Teat, Simon J.

    2010-01-07

    Nickel and cobalt seamed metal-organic capsules have been isolated and studied using structural, magnetic and computational approaches. Antiferromagnetic exchange in the Ni capsule results from coordination environments enforced by the capsule framework.

  13. Spacecraft Escape Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Charles, Dingell W.; Bufkin, Ann L.; Rodriggs, Liana M.; Peterson, Wayne; Cuthbert, Peter; Lee, David E.; Westhelle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses the Gumdrop capsule a conceptual spacecraft that would enable the crew to escape safely in the event of a major equipment failure at any time from launch through atmospheric re-entry. The scaleable Gumdrop capsule would comprise a command module (CM), a service module (SM), and a crew escape system (CES). The CM would contain a pressurized crew environment that would include avionic, life-support, thermal control, propulsive attitude control, and recovery systems. The SM would provide the primary propulsion and would also supply electrical power, life-support resources, and active thermal control to the CM. The CES would include a solid rocket motor, embedded within the SM, for pushing the CM away from the SM in the event of a critical thermal-protection-system failure or loss of control. The CM and SM would normally remain integrated with each other from launch through recovery, but could be separated using the CES, if necessary, to enable the safe recovery of the crew in the CM. The crew escape motor could be used, alternatively, as a redundant means of de-orbit propulsion for the CM in the event of a major system failure in the SM.

  14. Impulse-driven Micromechanism Capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takahiro; Ishimori, Shohei; Hayashi, Teru

    We have developed a traveling small capsule, which has a smooth outer surface and is driven by inertia force and friction force. Measuring only 7 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length, it is sufficiently small to be placed in the human gullet or intestines. The capsule contains a small magnet and a coil, and an electric pulse drives the magnet to move the capsule. We performed an experimental investigation on making our capsule travel on a plastic material, which has similar elasticity characteristics to the living body. We also showed that it can travel on the surface of a pig's intestine. Our capsule may be useful for medical treatments such as inspection, drug delivery and operation.

  15. Quantitative measurements in capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Keuchel, M; Kurniawan, N; Baltes, P; Bandorski, D; Koulaouzidis, A

    2015-10-01

    This review summarizes several approaches for quantitative measurement in capsule endoscopy. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) typically provides wireless imaging of small bowel. Currently, a variety of quantitative measurements are implemented in commercially available hardware/software. The majority is proprietary and hence undisclosed algorithms. Measurement of amount of luminal contamination allows calculating scores from whole VCE studies. Other scores express the severity of small bowel lesions in Crohn׳s disease or the degree of villous atrophy in celiac disease. Image processing with numerous algorithms of textural and color feature extraction is further in the research focuses for automated image analysis. These tools aim to select single images with relevant lesions as blood, ulcers, polyps and tumors or to omit images showing only luminal contamination. Analysis of motility pattern, size measurement and determination of capsule localization are additional topics. Non-visual wireless capsules transmitting data acquired with specific sensors from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are available for clinical routine. This includes pH measurement in the esophagus for the diagnosis of acid gastro-esophageal reflux. A wireless motility capsule provides GI motility analysis on the basis of pH, pressure, and temperature measurement. Electromagnetically tracking of another motility capsule allows visualization of motility. However, measurement of substances by GI capsules is of great interest but still at an early stage of development. PMID:26299419

  16. Influence of capsule shell composition on the performance indicators of hypromellose capsule in comparison to hard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Al-Tabakha, Moawia M; Arida, Adi Issam; Fahelelbom, Khairi M S; Sadek, Bassem; Saeed, Dima Ahmed; Abu Jarad, Rami A; Jawadi, Jeevani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro performances of "vegetable" capsules in comparison to hard gelatin capsules in terms of shell weight variation, reaction to different humidity conditions, resistance to stress in the absence of moisture, powder leakage, disintegration and dissolution. Two types of capsules made of HPMC produced with (Capsule 2) or without (Capsule 3) a gelling agent and hard gelatin capsules (Capsule 1) were assessed. Shell weight variability was relatively low for all tested capsules shells. Although Capsule 1 had the highest moisture content under different humidity conditions, all capsule types were unable to protect the encapsulated hygroscopic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) powder from surrounding humidity. The initial disintegration for all Capsule 1 occurred within 3 min, but for other types of capsules within 6 min (n = 18). Dissolution of acetaminophen was better when the deionized water (DIW) temperature increased from 32 to 42 °C in case of Capsule 1, but the effect of temperature was not significant for the other types of capsules. Acetaminphen dissolution from Capsule 1 was the fastest (i.e. >90% in 10 min) and independent of the media pH or contents unlike Capsule 2 which was influenced by the pH and dissolution medium contents. It is feasible to use hypromellose capsules shells with or without gelling agent for new lines of pharmaceutical products, however, there is a window for capsule shells manufacturing companies to improve the dissolution of their hypromellose capsules to match the conventional gelatin capsule shells and eventually replace them. PMID:25586554

  17. Influence of capsule shell composition on the performance indicators of hypromellose capsule in comparison to hard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Al-Tabakha, Moawia M; Arida, Adi Issam; Fahelelbom, Khairi M S; Sadek, Bassem; Saeed, Dima Ahmed; Abu Jarad, Rami A; Jawadi, Jeevani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro performances of "vegetable" capsules in comparison to hard gelatin capsules in terms of shell weight variation, reaction to different humidity conditions, resistance to stress in the absence of moisture, powder leakage, disintegration and dissolution. Two types of capsules made of HPMC produced with (Capsule 2) or without (Capsule 3) a gelling agent and hard gelatin capsules (Capsule 1) were assessed. Shell weight variability was relatively low for all tested capsules shells. Although Capsule 1 had the highest moisture content under different humidity conditions, all capsule types were unable to protect the encapsulated hygroscopic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) powder from surrounding humidity. The initial disintegration for all Capsule 1 occurred within 3 min, but for other types of capsules within 6 min (n = 18). Dissolution of acetaminophen was better when the deionized water (DIW) temperature increased from 32 to 42 °C in case of Capsule 1, but the effect of temperature was not significant for the other types of capsules. Acetaminphen dissolution from Capsule 1 was the fastest (i.e. >90% in 10 min) and independent of the media pH or contents unlike Capsule 2 which was influenced by the pH and dissolution medium contents. It is feasible to use hypromellose capsules shells with or without gelling agent for new lines of pharmaceutical products, however, there is a window for capsule shells manufacturing companies to improve the dissolution of their hypromellose capsules to match the conventional gelatin capsule shells and eventually replace them.

  18. Orion Capsule Mockup is Dropped

    NASA Video Gallery

    An Orion capsule mockup is dropped from a plane 25,000 feet above the Arizona desert to test its parachute design. Orion will return to Earth at speeds faster than previous human spacecraft, and wi...

  19. BENCAP, LLC: CAPSULE VELOCITY TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Meidinger, Brian

    2005-09-07

    Ben Cap, LLC, has a technology that utilizes bebtonite to plug wells. The bentonite is encapsulated in a cardboard capsule, droped down to the bottom of the well where it is allowed to hydrate, causing the bentonite to expand and plug the well. This method of plugging a well is accepted in some, but not all states. This technology can save a significant amount of money when compared to cementing methods currently used to plug and abandon wells. The test objective was to obtain the terminal velocity of the capsule delivery system as it drops through a column of water in a wellbore. Once the terminal velocity is known, the bentonite swelling action can be timed not to begin swelling until it reaches the bottom of the well bore. The results of the test showed that an average speed of 8.93 plus or minus 0.12 ft/sec was achieved by the capsule as it was falling through a column of water. Plotting the data revealed a very linear function with the capsules achieving terminal velocity shortly after being released. The interference of the capsule impacting the casing was not readily apparent in any of the runs, but a siginal sampling anomaly was present in one run. Because the anomaly was so brief and not present in any of the other runs, no solid conclusions could be drawn. Additional testing would be required to determine the effects of capsules impacting a fluid level that is not at surface.

  20. Deformability-based capsule sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Anne; Munier, Nadege; Maire, Pauline; Edwards-Levy, Florence; Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2015-11-01

    Many microfluidic devices have been developed for cancer diagnosis applications, most of which relying on costly antibodies. Since some cancer cells display abnormal mechanical properties, new sorting tools based on mechanical sensing are of particular interest. We present a simple, passive pinched flow microfluidic system for capsule sorting. The device consists of a straight microchannel containing a cylindrical obstacle. Thanks to a flow-focusing module placed at the channel entrance, capsules arrive well-centered in the vicinity of the obstacle. Pure size-sorting can be achieved at low shear rate. When increasing the shear rate, capsules are deformed in the narrow space between the pillar and the wall. The softer the capsule, the more tightly it wraps around the obstacle. After the obstacle, streamlines diverge, allowing for the separation between soft capsules, that follow central streamlines, and stiff capsules, that drift away from the obstacle with a wider angle. This proves that we have developed a flexible multipurpose sorting microsystem based on a simple design.

  1. Optimisation of a Horizontal Capsule Transporting Pipeline carrying Cylindrical Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asim, Taimoor; Mishra, Rakesh; Kollar, Laszlo; Ubbi, Kuldip

    2012-05-01

    Pipelines carrying fluids and slurries are quite common. The third-generation pipelines carrying spherical or cylindrical capsules (hollow containers) filled with minerals or other materials including hazardous liquids are rather a new concept. These pipelines need to be designed optimally for commercial viability. An optimal design of such a pipeline results in minimum pressure drop in the pipeline. This corresponds to minimum head loss and hence minimum pumping power required to drive the capsules and the transporting fluid. This study uses a rigorous approach to predict pumping cost based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and hence optimize the design of the capsule transporting pipelines. Pressure drop relationship developed has been incorporated to calculate the pumping requirements for the system. Based on the least-cost principle, a methodology has been developed for the determination of the optimal diameter of cylindrical capsule carrying hydraulic pipeline. This procedure can be applied to obtain the optimal size of the capsule pipeline for minimum pumping and capital costs.

  2. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  3. Isotretinoin was not associated with depression or anxiety: A twelve-week study

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Bella; Serrano, Ana; Cova, Yves; Baptista, Trino

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the frequency and severity of depression and/or anxiety in isotretinoin (ITT)-treated subjects and in a non-ITT control group. METHODS: Sixty consecutively-admitted non-psychiatric outpatients with acne were assigned to either ITT at a fixed dose of 30 mg/d (n = 36) or “other treatment” group (OT; n = 24). The Zung depression or anxiety scales (with cut-off points), two locally developed scales for depression (GeDepr) and anxiety (Ansilet) (without cut-off points) and clinical global impression scales of acne severity were administered at baseline and at weeks 6 and 12 of treatment. Data was analyzed with the chi-squared test and covariance analysis. RESULTS: Gender distribution, age, marital status and education level did not differ between both treatment groups. The frequency of depression, as defined by the Zung scale cut-off points was similar in the ITT and in the non-ITT groups: Weeks 6 and 12: 8.3% in both groups, P = 0.9. The frequency of anxiety was similar in the groups as well: Week 6: ITT = 8.3%; OT = 0.0%, P > 0.05; week 12: ITT = 11.1%, OT = 4.2%, P > 0.05. The scores in both scales’ sets did not differ between the treatment groups at any evaluation time point (P > 0.05). Five ITT-treated subjects (13.8%) and two from the OT-treated group (8.3%) developed clinically significant anxiety and/or depression during treatment (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study confirms the safety of ITT regarding psychological side effects in regular dermatological patients. Susceptible subjects may exist but their identification requires additional strategies. PMID:27014604

  4. Adhesive capsulitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen

    2000-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis or frozen shoulder is an uncommon entity in athletes. However, it is a common cause of shoulder pain and disability in the general population. Although it is a self limiting ailment, its rather long, restrictive and painful course forces the affected person to seek treatment. Conservative management remains the mainstay treatment of adhesive capsulitis. This includes chiropractic manipulation of the shoulder, therapeutic modalities, mobilization, exercise, soft tissue therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and steroid injections. Manipulation under anesthesia is advocated when the conservative treatment fails. A case of secondary adhesive capsulitis in a forty-seven-year-old female recreational squash player is presented to illustrate clinical presentation, diagnosis, radiographic assessment and conservative chiropractic management. The patient’s shoulder range of motion was full and pain free with four months of conservative chiropractic care. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  5. Supercooling Water in Cylindrical Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, J. J. Milón; Braga, S. L.

    2005-11-01

    An experimental apparatus was developed to investigate the supercooling phenomenon of water inside cylindrical capsules used for a cold storage process. The coolant is a water-alcohol mixture controlled by a constant temperature bath (CTB). Temperatures varying with time are measured inside and outside the capsule. Cylinders with an internal diameter and thickness of 45 and 1.5 mm, respectively, were made from four different materials: acrylic, PVC, brass, and aluminum. The supercooling period of the water and the nucleation temperature were investigated for different coolant temperatures. The supercooling and nucleation probabilities are shown as a function of the coolant temperature for the four different materials.

  6. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  7. Sensor capsule for diagnosis of gastric disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holen, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Motility and pH sensor capsule is developed to monitor gastric acidity, pressure, and temperature. Capsule does not interfere with digestion. Sensor is capsule which includes pH electrode, Pitran pressure transducer, and thermistor temperature sensor all potted in epoxy and enclosed in high density polyethylene sheath.

  8. Mentoring. Information Capsule. Volume 0603

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2006-01-01

    Mentoring is a structured one-on-one relationship between an adult and youth that focuses on the needs of the youth, providing him or her with support, guidance, and assistance. This information capsule summarizes research findings on the impact of mentoring on factors such as academic achievement, social behaviors, attitudes, drug and alcohol…

  9. Osmotic buckling of spherical capsules.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Sebastian; Kierfeld, Jan

    2014-11-01

    We study the buckling of elastic spherical shells under osmotic pressure with the osmolyte concentration of the exterior solution as a control parameter. We compare our results for the bifurcation behavior with results for buckling under mechanical pressure control, that is, with an empty capsule interior. We find striking differences for the buckling states between osmotic and mechanical buckling. Mechanical pressure control always leads to fully collapsed states with opposite sides in contact, whereas uncollapsed states with a single finite dimple are generic for osmotic pressure control. For sufficiently large interior osmolyte concentrations, osmotic pressure control is qualitatively similar to buckling under volume control with the volume prescribed by the osmolyte concentrations inside and outside the shell. We present a quantitative theory which also captures the influence of shell elasticity on the relationship between osmotic pressure and volume. These findings are relevant for the control of buckled shapes in applications. We show how the osmolyte concentration can be used to control the volume of buckled shells. An accurate analytical formula is derived for the relationship between the osmotic pressure, the elastic moduli and the volume of buckled capsules. This also allows use of elastic capsules as osmotic pressure sensors or deduction of elastic properties and the internal osmolyte concentration from shape changes in response to osmotic pressure changes. We apply our findings to published experimental data on polyelectrolyte capsules. PMID:25209240

  10. Reactor for making uniform capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Anikumar, Amrutur V. (Inventor); Lacik, Igor (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel reactor for making capsules with uniform membrane. The reactor includes a source for providing a continuous flow of a first liquid through the reactor; a source for delivering a steady stream of drops of a second liquid to the entrance of the reactor; a main tube portion having at least one loop, and an exit opening, where the exit opening is at a height substantially equal to the entrance. In addition, a method for using the novel reactor is provided. This method involves providing a continuous stream of a first liquid; introducing uniformly-sized drops of the second liquid into the stream of the first liquid; allowing the drops to react in the stream for a pre-determined period of time; and collecting the capsules.

  11. Malignant schwannoma of kidney capsule.

    PubMed

    Romics, I; Bach, D; Beutler, W

    1992-11-01

    This report is of a malignant schwannoma originating in the capsule of the right kidney. Using sonography, nephroangiography, cavography, computer tomography, and bone scanning, metastases in the kidney or a retroperitoneal tumor could be diagnosed. After transperitoneal exploration, the right kidney and mesenteric metastases were removed. Due to tumor infiltration into the liver and tumor masses in the retroperitoneum, only nephrectomy and palliative excision of retroperitoneal metastases were done. Pulmonary metastases developed postoperatively, and the patient died three months after the operation.

  12. Capsule endoscopy: The road ahead

    PubMed Central

    Singeap, Ana-Maria; Stanciu, Carol; Trifan, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction into clinical practice 15 years ago, capsule endoscopy (CE) has become the first-line investigation procedure in some small bowel pathologies, and more recently, dedicated esophageal and colon CE have expanded the fields of application to include the upper and lower gastrointestinal disorders. During this time, CE has become increasingly popular among gastroenterologists, with more than 2 million capsule examinations performed worldwide, and nearly 3000 PubMed-listed studies on its different aspects published. This huge interest in CE may be explained by its non-invasive nature, patient comfort, safety, and access to anatomical regions unattainable via conventional endoscopy. However, CE has several limitations which impede its wider clinical applications, including the lack of therapeutic capabilities, inability to obtain biopsies and control its locomotion. Several research groups are currently working to overcome these limitations, while novel devices able to control capsule movement, obtain high quality images, insufflate the gut lumen, perform chromoendoscopy, biopsy of suspect lesions, or even deliver targeted drugs directly to specific sites are under development. Overlooking current limitations, especially as some of them have already been successfully surmounted, and based on the tremendous progress in technology, it is expected that, by the end of next 15 years, CE able to perform both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures will remain the major form of digestive endoscopy. This review summarizes the literature that prognosticates about the future developments of CE. PMID:26755883

  13. The role of transcription factor FoxO1 in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris and the mode of isotretinoin action.

    PubMed

    Melnik, B C

    2010-10-01

    It is the purpose of this review to demonstrate that oral isotretinoin treatment restores all major pathogenetic factors of acne vulgaris by upregulation of the nuclear transcription factor FoxO1, which will be shown to be the major target of retinoid action. Nuclear FoxO1 deficiency is the result of increased growth factor signaling with activated phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt kinase during growth hormone signaling of puberty and increased insulin/IGF-1 signaling due to consumption of insulinotropic milk/dairy products as well as hyperglycemic carbohydrates of Western diet. Nuclear FoxO1 deficiency increases androgen receptor transactivation and modifies the activity of important nuclear receptors and key genes involved in pilosebaceous keratinocyte proliferation, sebaceous lipogenesis and expression of perifollicular inflammatory cytokines. Isotretinoin-induced upregulation of nuclear FoxO1 is proposed to be responsible for the mode of action of isotretinoin on all major pathogenetic factors in acne. Acne pathogenesis can be explained at the genomic level of transcriptional regulation. All major events in acne pathogenesis as well as all major effects of isotretinoin treatment appear to be related to modifications of the PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 signaling pathway, the well-known oncogenic pathway. These insights extend our understanding of FoxO1-mediated retinoid action in acne and other hyperproliferative skin diseases, cancer chemoprevention and cutaneous immune regulation. Understanding FoxO´s pivotal regulatory role in acne allows the development of novel treatment strategies and dietary interventions in acne which focus on the restoration of growth factor- and diet-induced imbalances of nuclear FoxO protein levels.

  14. Complete remission of recalcitrant genital warts with a combination approach of surgical debulking and oral isotretinoin in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Yew, Yik Weng; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts in immunocompromised patients can be extensive and recalcitrant to treatment. We report a case of recalcitrant genital warts in a female patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who achieved complete remission with a combination approach of surgical debulking and oral isotretinoin at an initial dose of 20 mg/day with a gradual taper of dose over 8 months. She had previously been treated with a combination of topical imiquimod cream and regular fortnightly liquid nitrogen. Although there was partial response, there was no complete clearance. Her condition worsened after topical imiquimod cream was stopped because of her pregnancy. She underwent a combination approach of surgical debulking and oral isotretinoin after her delivery and achieved full clearance for more than 2 years duration. Oral isotretinoin, especially in the treatment of recalcitrant genital warts, is a valuable and feasible option when other more conventional treatment methods have failed or are not possible. It can be used alone or in combination with other local or physical treatment methods.

  15. Analysis of clinical efficacy, side effects, and laboratory changes among patients with acne vulgaris receiving single versus twice daily dose of oral isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hesham M

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a debilitating disorder and requires proper treatment. This work evaluates the clinical efficacy, side effects, and laboratory changes of serum lipids and liver function during oral isotretinoin therapy for acne vulgaris, comparing single versus twice daily dose. Fifty-eight patients with acne vulgaris were included and randomized into group I (26 patients), who received once daily dose, and group II (32 patients), who received twice daily dose of oral isotretinoin. Global acne scoring system was used to evaluate acne severity and post-treatment improvement. Both regimens resulted in highly significant clinical improvement of acne with no significant difference. However, side effects were significantly more common among patients of group I. Both regimens caused mild rise of serum cholesterol, alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) with more prominent rise of triglycerides especially with twice daily dose. Oral isotretinoin is a very effective treatment for acne vulgaris with no statistically significant difference in clinical efficacy between once and twice daily doses. However, dividing dose to twice per day might cause fewer incidence of side effects without reducing clinical efficacy. The drug causes mild clinically insignificant rise of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, AST, and ALT.

  16. Perform Ultrasonic Testing on Cs Capsule Overpacks

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-04-06

    This procedure provides a safe, uniform method for the performance of the ultrasonic weld inspection of the Cesium capsule overpacks. The inspection system will detect cracks, lack of fusion, and lack of penetration. This computer controlled automated system will perform the examination once the capsule overpack has been placed in the pool cell. Examination of the capsule overpacks will be in accordance with drawing H-283014, REV. 0 ,and a certified NDE examiner will perform the test procedure, provide analysis, and test documentation.

  17. Work capsule for lightweight hydrostatic machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, M. S.

    1983-02-01

    The theoretical feasibility of designing a lightweight flexible capsule suitable for use as the basic actuating means in the place of the conventional piston and cylinder in a high pressure hydrostatic machine was investigated. The idea was suggested by the high strength/modulus ratio obtained with glass fiber reinforced composites. It is found that the combined effect of hoop and bend stresses in the flexible walls of a bellows type capsule imposes severe limitations on the work output of the capsule.

  18. Colon Capsule Endoscopy: Review and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Modayil, Rani; Stavropoulos, Stavros

    2016-01-01

    Colon capsule endoscopy utilizing PillCam COLON 2 capsule allows for visualization potentially of the entire colon and is currently approved for patients who cannot withstand the rigors of traditional optical colonoscopy (OC) and associated sedation as well as those that had an OC that was incomplete for technical reasons other than a poor preparation. We will then describe the prior experience and current status of colon capsule endoscopy. PMID:27698664

  19. Regulation of capsule in Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Thomas, Jennifer; Stephens, David S

    2016-09-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, a devastating pathogen exclusive to humans, expresses capsular polysaccharides that are the major meningococcal virulence determinants and the basis for successful meningococcal vaccines. With rare exceptions, the expression of capsule (serogroups A, B, C, W, X, Y) is required for systemic invasive meningococcal disease. Changes in capsule expression or structure (e.g. hypo- or hyper-encapsulation, capsule "switching", acetylation) can influence immunologic diagnostic assays or lead to immune escape. The loss or down-regulation of capsule is also critical in meningococcal biology facilitating meningococcal attachment, microcolony formation and the carriage state at human mucosal surfaces. Encapsulated meningococci contain a cps locus with promoters located in an intergenic region between the biosynthesis and the conserved capsule transport operons. The cps intergenic region is transcriptionally regulated (and thus the amount of capsule expressed) by IS element insertion, by a two-component system, MisR/MisS and through sequence changes that result in post-transcriptional RNA thermoregulation. Reversible on-off phase variation of capsule expression is controlled by slipped strand mispairing of homo-polymeric tracts and by precise insertion and excision of IS elements (e.g. IS1301) in the biosynthesis operon. Capsule structure can be altered by phase-variable expression of capsular polymer modification enzymes or "switched" through transformation and homologous recombination of different polymerases. Understanding the complex regulation of meningococcal capsule has important implications for meningococcal biology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, current and future vaccine development and vaccine strategies.

  20. Regulation of capsule in Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Thomas, Jennifer; Stephens, David S

    2016-09-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, a devastating pathogen exclusive to humans, expresses capsular polysaccharides that are the major meningococcal virulence determinants and the basis for successful meningococcal vaccines. With rare exceptions, the expression of capsule (serogroups A, B, C, W, X, Y) is required for systemic invasive meningococcal disease. Changes in capsule expression or structure (e.g. hypo- or hyper-encapsulation, capsule "switching", acetylation) can influence immunologic diagnostic assays or lead to immune escape. The loss or down-regulation of capsule is also critical in meningococcal biology facilitating meningococcal attachment, microcolony formation and the carriage state at human mucosal surfaces. Encapsulated meningococci contain a cps locus with promoters located in an intergenic region between the biosynthesis and the conserved capsule transport operons. The cps intergenic region is transcriptionally regulated (and thus the amount of capsule expressed) by IS element insertion, by a two-component system, MisR/MisS and through sequence changes that result in post-transcriptional RNA thermoregulation. Reversible on-off phase variation of capsule expression is controlled by slipped strand mispairing of homo-polymeric tracts and by precise insertion and excision of IS elements (e.g. IS1301) in the biosynthesis operon. Capsule structure can be altered by phase-variable expression of capsular polymer modification enzymes or "switched" through transformation and homologous recombination of different polymerases. Understanding the complex regulation of meningococcal capsule has important implications for meningococcal biology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, current and future vaccine development and vaccine strategies. PMID:26089023

  1. Genesis Sample Return Capsule Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willcockson, Bill

    2005-01-01

    I. Simple Entry Capsule Concept: a) Spin-Stabilized/No Active Control Systems; b) Ballistic Entry for 11.04 km/sec Velocity; c) No Heatshield Separation During Entry; d) Parachute Deploy via g-Switch + Timer. II. Stardust Design Inheritance a) Forebody Shape; b) Seal Concepts; c) Parachute Deploy Control; d) Utah Landing Site (UTTR). III. TPS Systems a) Heatshield - Carbon-Carbon - First Planetary Entry; b) Backshell - SLA-561V - Flight Heritage from Pathfinder, MER; d) Forebody Structural Penetrations Aerothermal and TPS Design Process has the Same Methodology as Used for Pathfinder, MER Flight Vehicles.

  2. The future of wireless capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Swain, Paul

    2008-07-14

    We outline probable and possible developments with wireless capsule endoscopy. It seems likely that capsule endoscopy will become increasingly effective in diagnostic gastrointestinal endoscopy. This will be attractive to patients especially for cancer or varices detection because capsule endoscopy is painless and is likely to have a higher take up rate compared to conventional colonoscopy and gastroscopy. Double imager capsules with increased frame rates have been used to image the esophagus for Barrett's and esophageal varices. The image quality is not bad but needs to be improved if it is to become a realistic substitute for flexible upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. An increase in the frame rate, angle of view, depth of field, image numbers, duration of the procedure and improvements in illumination seem likely. Colonic, esophageal and gastric capsules will improve in quality, eroding the supremacy of flexible endoscopy, and become embedded into screening programs. Therapeutic capsules will emerge with brushing, cytology, fluid aspiration, biopsy and drug delivery capabilities. Electrocautery may also become possible. Diagnostic capsules will integrate physiological measurements with imaging and optical biopsy, and immunologic cancer recognition. Remote control movement will improve with the use of magnets and/or electrostimulation and perhaps electromechanical methods. External wireless commands will influence capsule diagnosis and therapy and will increasingly entail the use of real-time imaging. However, it should be noted that speculations about the future of technology in any detail are almost always wrong.

  3. Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Capsule In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Auger, Jean-Philippe; Meekhanon, Nattakan; Okura, Masatoshi; Osaki, Makoto; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Takamatsu, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    Many Streptococcus suis isolates from porcine endocarditis in slaughterhouses have lost their capsule and are considered avirulent. However, we retrieved capsule- and virulence-recovered S. suis after in vivo passages of a nonencapsulated strain in mice, suggesting that nonencapsulated S. suis are still potentially hazardous for persons in the swine industry. PMID:27648583

  4. Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Capsule In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Jean-Philippe; Meekhanon, Nattakan; Okura, Masatoshi; Osaki, Makoto; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Many Streptococcus suis isolates from porcine endocarditis in slaughterhouses have lost their capsule and are considered avirulent. However, we retrieved capsule- and virulence-recovered S. suis after in vivo passages of a nonencapsulated strain in mice, suggesting that nonencapsulated S. suis are still potentially hazardous for persons in the swine industry. PMID:27648583

  5. Fibrous capsule formation around titanium and copper.

    PubMed

    Suska, Felicia; Emanuelsson, Lena; Johansson, Anna; Tengvall, Pentti; Thomsen, Peter

    2008-06-15

    Previous studies suggest that implant material properties influence the quality and quantity of fibrous capsule around the implant. However, the precise relation between material surface chemistry, early inflammatory response, and fibrous subsequent repair outcome is still unknown. Titanium (Ti) and copper (Cu), surfaces with different inflammatory potential, were implanted subcutaneously in rats and retrieved fibrous capsules were analyzed after 28 and 56 days. Histological examinations show pronounced differences in capsule morphology. The fibrous capsule around Ti was thinner than that around Cu, with less number of the inflammatory cells in the layer close to the implant surface, and less and smaller blood vessels. The capsule around Cu was thick, with a large number of the inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages and giant cells, and increased number of blood vessels. Our study suggests that material surface properties, which initiate early, multiple cellular inflammatory events, are also associated with increased fibrosis and angiogenesis during repair phase. PMID:17896778

  6. Thermoregulation of capsule production by Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O; Tesorero, Rafael A; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface.

  7. Elastic constants of the human lens capsule.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R F

    1969-03-01

    1. A technique is described whereby the elasticity of the human lens capsule has been determined at birth and throughout life. This technique requires three separate determinations: (a) thickness; (b) stress and strain; (c) Poisson's ratio; (a) the capsule was clamped between accurately perforated ground glass plates and its thickness determined by noting the change in depth of focus between Latex spherules adhering to its upper and lower surfaces; (b) the undisturbed capsule was then placed in a specially designed glass distension apparatus and the relationship between volume and pressure recorded when it was distended with isotonic saline. The permeability of the capsule was also measured; (c) in some cases Poisson's ratio was determined by measuring the change of thickness of the capsule and the height to which it rose when distended with isotonic saline at different pressures. An apparatus was designed for this purpose.2. The average thickness of the anterior capsule increases from birth until about the 60th year but thereafter it decreases slightly.3. Poisson's ratio was about 0.47 for both cat and human capsule, and no significant variations with age in human capsule could be detected.4. Corrected volume pressure curves obeyed Hook's law almost to the point of capsule rupture.5. In childhood Young's Modulus of elasticity is about 6 x 10(7) dyn/cm(2) and decreases to 3 x 10(7) dyn/cm(2) at 60 and 1.5 x 10(7) dyn/cm(2) in extreme old age.6. The ultimate tensile stress was 2.3 x 10(7) dyn/cm(2) in young capsules and 0.7 x 10(7) dyn/cm(2) in old ones. The maximum percentage elongation was 29 per cent and independent of age.7. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to(a) the mechanical properties of the lens capsule;(b) the ageing of the lens capsule and basement membranes; and(c) the decrease in elasticity of the lens capsule as a cause of presbyopia.

  8. Hydrodynamick instabilities on ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Haan, S.W.

    1991-06-07

    This article summarizes our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities as relevant to ICF. First we discuss classical, single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and nonlinear effects in the evolution of a single mode. Then we discuss multimode systems, considering: (1) the onset of nonlinearity; (2) a second order mode coupling theory for weakly nonlinear effects, and (3) the fully nonlinear regime. Two stabilization mechanisms relevant to ICF are described next: gradient scale length and convective stabilization. Then we describe a model which is meant to estimate the weakly nonlinear evolution of multi-mode systems as relevant to ICF, given the short-wavelength stabilization. Finally, we discuss the relevant code simulation capability, and experiments. At this time we are quite optimistic about our ability to estimate instability growth on ICF capsules, but further experiments and simulations are needed to verify the modeling. 52 refs.

  9. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P < 0.01 glucose and cholesterol, P = NS triglycerides). In healthy individuals glycemia did not change with nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:1307994

  10. [Karyosphere capsule in Tribolium castaneum oocytes].

    PubMed

    Batalova, F M; Bogoliubov, D S

    2013-01-01

    Structure and composition of the karyosphere (karyosome) capsule were studied in the oocytes of a laboratory insect, Tribolium castaneum, with the use of electron microscopy and immunoelectron cytochemistry. Basing on the study of nuclear structure dynamics, we distinguished 8 stages that characterize the period of oocyte growth. At the diplotene stage, T. castaneum oocyte chromosomes conjoin early into a compact karyosphere, but a significant chromatin condensation does not occur. The process of karyosphere formation is accompanied by the development of an extensive extrachromosome capsule surrounding chromatin. The capsule consists of a material of different morphological types. Significant molecular components of the T. castaneum karyosphere capsule are represented by the proteins of nuclear matrix including F-actin and lamin B. Besides the structural proteins, the Sm proteins of small nuclear (sn) RNPs and mature 2,2,7-trimethyl guanosine (TMG) 5'-capped snRNAs are revealed immunocytochemically in the karyosphere capsule. The obtained data can form a basis for further expansion of ideas on the functions of the karyosphere capsule as a specialized extrachromosomal nuclear domain of the oocytes. We believe that the T. castaneum karyosphere capsule plays not only a structural role, but may be involved directly in the processes related to gene expression.

  11. Asymmetric Membrane Osmotic Capsules for Terbutaline Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Gobade, N. G.; Koland, Marina; Harish, K. H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate. PMID:23204625

  12. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate.

    PubMed

    Gobade, N G; Koland, Marina; Harish, K H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate. PMID:23204625

  13. Fabrication of capsule assemblies, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R.; Stemann, L. G.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen capsule assemblies were fabricated for evaluation of fuel pin design concepts for a fast spectrum lithium cooled compact space power reactor. These instrumented assemblies were designed for real time test of prototype fuel pins. Uranium mononitride fuel pins were encased in AISI 304L stainless steel capsules. Fabrication procedures were fully qualified by process development and assembly qualification tests. Instrumentation reliability was achieved utilizing specially processed and closely controlled thermocouple hot zone fabrication and by thermal screening tests. Overall capsule reliability was achieved with an all electron beam welded assembly.

  14. Required Be Capsule Strength For Room Temperature Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B

    2005-03-21

    The purpose of this memo is to lay out the criteria for the Be capsule strength necessary for room temperature transport. Ultimately we will test full thickness capsules by sealing high pressures inside, but currently we are limited to both thinner capsules and alternative measures of capsule material strength.

  15. Does magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy improve small bowel capsule endoscopy completion rate? A randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Melissa F.; Drew, Kaye; Sidhu, Reena; McAlindon, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Delayed gastric emptying is a significant factor in incomplete small bowel capsule examinations. Gastric transit could be hastened by external magnetic control of the capsule. We studied the feasibility of this approach to improve capsule endoscopy completion rates. Patients and methods: Prospective, single-center, randomized controlled trial involving 122 patients attending for small bowel capsule endoscopy using MiroCam Navi. Patients were randomized to either the control group (mobilisation for 30 minutes after capsule ingestion, followed by intramuscular metoclopramide 10 mg if the capsule failed to enter the small bowel) or the intervention group (1000 mL of water prior to capsule ingestion, followed by positional change and magnetic steering). Outcome measures were capsule endoscopy completion rate, gastric clarity and distention, relationship of body habitus to capsule endoscopy completion rate (CECR), and patient comfort scores. Results: 122 patients were recruited (61 each to the control and intervention groups: mean age 49 years [range 21 – 85], 61 females). There was no significant difference in CECR between the two groups (P = 0.39). Time to first pyloric image was significantly shorter in the intervention group (P = 0.03) but there was no difference in gastric transit times (P = 0.12), suggesting that magnetic control hastens capsular transit to the gastric antrum but does not influence duodenal passage. Gastric clarity and distention were significantly better in the intervention group (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 respectively). Conclusions: Magnetic steering of a small bowel capsule is unable to overcome pyloric contractions to enhance gastric emptying and improve capsule endoscope completion rate. Excellent mucosal visualisation within the gastric cavity suggests this technique could be harnessed for capsule examination of the stomach. PMID:26878053

  16. [Pathogenesis of posterior capsule opacification in pseudophakia].

    PubMed

    Łukaszewska-Smyk, Agnieszka; Kałuzny, Józef

    2009-01-01

    The lens epithelial cells of A and E type are involved in pathogenesis of posterior capsule opacification (PCO). They undergo metaplasia into microfibroblasts, then migrate towards posterior capsule where they proliferate and form opacification. These processes are stimulated by cytokines and interleukines. The extracellular matrix which constitutes a scaffold for migration and attachment of epithelial cells plays an important role in PCO formation. Integrines intercede in this process.

  17. Towards Polymer-Based Capsules with Drastically Reduced Controlled Permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Daria V.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.

    Small molecules (dyes, therapeutics, etc.) could be easily handled, stored, delivered, and released by polyelectrolyte capsules. To make the polyelectrolyte capsule more efficient for small molecule encapsulation, capsule permeability should be significantly decreased. Here, we demonstrate the possibility to entrap water-soluble molecular species into polyelectrolyte capsules modified by a low permeable dense polymer (polypyrrole). Possible future areas in PE capsule application as carriers for gases and volatiles in the pharmaceutical, food, and gases industry, agriculture and cosmetology are discussed.

  18. Video capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Collins, Paul D

    2016-07-25

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has evolved to become an important tool for the non-invasive examination of the small bowel, which hitherto had been relatively inaccessible to direct visualisation. VCE has been shown to play a role in monitoring the activity of small bowel Crohn's disease and can be used to assess the response to anti-inflammatory treatment in Crohn's disease. For those patients with Crohn's disease who have undergone an intestinal resection, VCE has been assessed as a tool to detect post-operative recurrence. VCE may also aid in the reclassification of patients with a diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Unclassified to Crohn's disease. The evolution of colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) has expanded the application of this technology further. The use of CCE to assess the activity of ulcerative colitis has been described. This advance in capsule technology has also fuelled interest in its potential role as a minimally invasive tool to assess the whole of GI tract opening the possibility of its use for the panenteric assessment of Crohn's disease. VCE is a safe procedure. However, the risk of a retained capsule is higher in patients with suspected or confirmed Crohn's disease compared with patients having VCE examination for other indications. A retained video capsule is rare after successful passage of a patency capsule which may be utilised to pre-screen patients undergoing VCE. This paper describes the use of VCE in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27499830

  19. Light weight escape capsule for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Emergency crew escape capabilities have been less than adequate for fighter aircraft since before WW II. From the over-the-side bailout of those days through the current ejection seat with a rocket catapult, escaping from a disabled aircraft has been risky at best. Current efforts are underway toward developing a high-tech, smart ejection seat that will give fighter pilots more room to live in the sky, but an escape capsule is needed to meet current and future fighter envelopes. Escape capsules have a bad reputation due to past examples of high weight, poor performance and great complexity. However, the advantages available demand that a capsule be developed. This capsule concept will minimize the inherent disavantages and incorporate the benefits while integrating all aspects of crew station design. The resulting design is appropriate for a crew station of the year 2010 and includes improved combat acceleration protection, chemical or biological combat capability, improved aircraft to escape system interaction, and the highest level of escape performance achievable. The capsule is compact, which can allow a reduced aircraft size and weighs only 1200 lb. The escape system weight penalty is only 120 lb higher than that for the next ejection seat and the capsule has a corresponding increase in performance.

  20. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  1. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Maneesh K.; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N.; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic–abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) “on the fly” programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  2. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients.

  3. Capsule HRB-21 postirradiation examination plan

    SciTech Connect

    Packan, N.H.; Kania, M.J.; Shrader, L.G.

    1990-03-01

    Irradiation capsule HRB-21 is a test capsule designed to provide Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) coated particle fuel performance data under test reactor conditions representative of normal MHTGR operation. The irradiated fuel will also be used for postirradiation heating in a controlled atmosphere allowing acquisition of fission product release data at sustained high temperatures. The in-reactor performance data, the postirradiation examination data, and the postirradiation heating data will be used for the validation of fuel performance models under normal and off-normal operating conditions. The accelerated irradiation is to take place in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL. This report identifies the procedures to be followed in carrying out the postirradiation disassembly and examination of HRB-21. Included is a description of the capsule, a detailed sequence of steps for disassembly of the capsule, a description of the postirradiation examination techniques to be employed, and specifications for the storage of capsule components and the reporting of results. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Lubricin in human breast tissue expander capsules.

    PubMed

    Cheriyan, Thomas; Guo, Lifei; Orgill, Dennis P; Padera, Robert F; Schmid, Thomas M; Spector, Myron

    2012-10-01

    Capsular contraction is the most common complication of breast reconstruction surgery. While presence of the contractile protein alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is considered among the causes of capsular contraction, the exact etiology and pathophysiology is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible role of lubricin in capsular formation and contraction by determining the presence and distribution of the lubricating protein lubricin in human breast tissue expander capsules. Related aims were to evaluate select histopathologic features of the capsules, and the percentage of cells expressing α-SMA, which reflects the myofibroblast phenotype. Capsules from tissue expanders were obtained from eight patients. Lubricin, at the tissue-implant interface, in the extracellular matrix, and in cells, and α-SMA-containing cells were evaluated immunohistochemically. The notable finding was that lubricin was identified in all tissue expander capsules: as a discrete layer at the tissue-implant interface, extracellular, and intracellular. There was a greater amount of lubricin in the extracellular matrix in the intimal-subintimal zone when compared with the tissue away from the implant. Varying degrees of synovial metaplasia were seen at the tissue-implant interface. α-SMA-containing cells were also seen in all but one patient. The findings might help us better understand factors involved in capsule formation.

  5. Unsteady Pressures on a Generic Capsule Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, Nathan; Ross, James C.

    2015-01-01

    While developing the aerodynamic database for the Orion spacecraft, the low-speed flight regime (transonic and below) proved to be the most difficult to predict and measure accurately. The flow over the capsule heat shield in descent flight was particularly troublesome for both computational and experimental efforts due to its unsteady nature and uncertainty about the boundary layer state. The data described here were acquired as part of a study to improve the understanding of the overall flow around a generic capsule. The unsteady pressure measurements acquired on a generic capsule shape are presented along with a discussion about the effects of various flight conditions and heat-shield surface roughness on the resulting pressure fluctuations.

  6. Laundry detergent capsules and pediatric poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Asha G.; Mazor, Suzan; Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question A 4-year-old girl was brought into the emergency department vomiting after having had ingested a laundry detergent capsule (LDC) from under the sink at her house. What is the risk of LDC poisoning? What can be done to treat these children? Answer Laundry detergent capsules are relatively new to supermarket shelves in North America, and there has been an emergence of case reports in the literature describing LDC poisoning, which is worse than poisoning from other laundry detergents. Very little is known about the mechanisms causing these severe reactions, which include airway compromise and esophageal perforation, but the attractive appearance of these capsules and easy access at home has governments and health officials concerned about an increase in poisoning. No residual problems have been associated with these cases to date; however, further research is needed to assess long-term effects. PMID:24336541

  7. The first capsule implosion experiments on Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbett, W. J.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S. G.; Leatherland, A. E.; Rubery, M. S.; Coltman, J. E.; Meadowcroft, A. E.; Rice, S. J.; Simons, A. J.; Woolhead, V. E.

    2016-05-01

    Direct drive capsule implosions are being developed on the Orion laser at AWE as a platform for ICF and HED physics experiments. The Orion facility combines both long pulse and short-pulse beams, making it well suited for studying the physics of alternative ignition approaches. Orion implosions also provide the opportunity to study aspects of polar direct drive. Limitations on drive symmetry from the relatively small number of laser beams makes predictive modelling of the implosions challenging, resulting in some uncertainty in the expected capsule performance. Initial experiments have been fielded to evaluate baseline capsule performance and inform future design optimization. Highly promising DD fusion neutron yields in excess of 109 have been recorded. Results from the experiments are presented alongside radiation-hydrocode modelling.

  8. Spectral measurements of asymmetrically irradiated capsule backlighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiter, P. A.; Drake, R. P.

    2016-11-01

    Capsule backlighters provide a quasi-continuum x-ray spectrum over a wide range of photon energies [J. F. Hansen et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 013504 (2008)]. Ideally one irradiates the capsule backlighter symmetrically, however, in complex experimental geometries, this is not always possible. In recent experiments we irradiated capsule backlighters asymmetrically and measured the x-ray spectrum from multiple directions. We will present time-integrated spectra over the photon energy range of 2-13 keV and time-resolved spectra over the photon energy range of 2-3 keV. We will compare the spectra from different lines of sight to determine if the laser asymmetry results in an angular dependence in the x-ray emission.

  9. Capsule endoscopy—A mechatronics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lin; Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Tan, Su Lim; Wong, Kai Juan; Ho, Khek Yu; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    The recent advances in integrated circuit technology, wireless communication, and sensor technology have opened the door for development of miniature medical devices that can be used for enhanced monitoring and treatment of medical conditions. Wireless capsule endoscopy is one of such medical devices that has gained significant attention during the past few years. It is envisaged that future wireless capsule endoscopies replace traditional endoscopy procedures by providing advanced functionalities such as active locomotion, body fluid/tissue sampling, and drug delivery. Development of energy-efficient miniaturized actuation mechanisms is a key step toward achieving this goal. Here, we review some of the actuators that could be integrated into future wireless capsules and discuss the existing challenges.

  10. Water Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations have been made to determine the water-landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule having a segment of a sphere as the bottom. For the experimental portion of the investigation, a 1/12-scale model capsule and a full-scale capsule were tested for nominal flight paths of 65 deg and 90 deg (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -30 deg to 30 deg, and a full-scale vertical velocity of 30 feet per second at contact. Accelerations were measured by accelerometers installed at the centers of gravity of the model and full-scale capsules. For the model test the accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) and for the full-scale test they were measured along the X-axis (roll), Y-axis (pitch), and Z-axis (yaw). Motions and displacements of the capsules that occurred after contact were determined from high-speed motion pictures. The theoretical investigation was conducted to determine the accelerations that might occur along the X-axis when the capsule contacted the water from a 90 deg flight path at a 0 deg attitude. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made from equations obtained by utilizing the principle of the conservation of momentum. The agreement among data obtained from the model test, the full-scale test, and the theory was very good. The accelerations along the X-axis, for a vertical flight path and 0 deg attitude, were in the order of 40g. For a 65 deg flight path and 0 deg attitude, the accelerations along the X-axis were in the order of 50g. Changes in contact attitude, in either the positive or negative direction from 0 deg attitude, considerably reduced the magnitude of the accelerations measured along the X-axis. Accelerations measured along the Y- and Z-axes were relatively small at all test conditions.

  11. Video capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has evolved to become an important tool for the non-invasive examination of the small bowel, which hitherto had been relatively inaccessible to direct visualisation. VCE has been shown to play a role in monitoring the activity of small bowel Crohn’s disease and can be used to assess the response to anti-inflammatory treatment in Crohn’s disease. For those patients with Crohn’s disease who have undergone an intestinal resection, VCE has been assessed as a tool to detect post-operative recurrence. VCE may also aid in the reclassification of patients with a diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Unclassified to Crohn’s disease. The evolution of colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) has expanded the application of this technology further. The use of CCE to assess the activity of ulcerative colitis has been described. This advance in capsule technology has also fuelled interest in its potential role as a minimally invasive tool to assess the whole of GI tract opening the possibility of its use for the panenteric assessment of Crohn’s disease. VCE is a safe procedure. However, the risk of a retained capsule is higher in patients with suspected or confirmed Crohn’s disease compared with patients having VCE examination for other indications. A retained video capsule is rare after successful passage of a patency capsule which may be utilised to pre-screen patients undergoing VCE. This paper describes the use of VCE in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27499830

  12. Treatment of adhesive capsulitis: a review

    PubMed Central

    D’Orsi, Giovanni Maria; Via, Alessio Giai; Frizziero, Antonio; Oliva, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Summary Adhesive capsulitis is a condition “difficult to define, difficult to treat and difficult to explain from the point of view of pathology”. This Codman’s assertion is still actual because of a variable nomenclature, an inconsistent reporting of disease staging and many types of treatment. There is no consensus on how the best way best to manage patients with this condition, so we want to provide an evidence-based overview regarding the effectiveness of conservative and surgical interventions to treat adhesive capsulitis. PMID:23738277

  13. Capsules with external navigation and triggered release.

    PubMed

    Shchukin, Dmitry G; Shchukina, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Encapsulation is an important technology for pharmaceutical industry, food production, et cetera. Its current level of development requires capsule functionalization. One of the interesting ideas to provide new functionality to the microcapsule and nanocapsule is layer-by-layer deposition of functional species. This technique provides step-by-step adsorption of various species (polyelectrolytes, nanoparticles, proteins) when the layer growth is controlled by electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic forces and forming multilayer shells with nanometer precision. This review article introduces recent achievements of layer-by-layer technique attaining external navigation ability and release properties the capsule shell.

  14. Capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans grows by enlargement of polysaccharide molecules.

    PubMed

    Frases, Susana; Pontes, Bruno; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Viana, Nathan B; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-27

    The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has a distinctive polysaccharide (PS) capsule that enlarges during infection. The capsule is essential for virulence, but the mechanism for capsular growth is unknown. In the present study, we used dynamic light scattering (LS) analysis of capsular PS and optical tweezers (OT) to explore the architecture of the capsule. Analysis of capsular PS from cells with small and large capsules by dynamic LS revealed a linear correlation between PS effective diameter and microscopic capsular diameter. This result implied that capsule growth was achieved by the addition of molecules with larger effective diameter, such that some molecules can span the entire diameter of the capsule. Measurement of polystyrene bead penetration of C. neoformans capsules by using OT techniques revealed that the outer regions were penetrable, but not the inner regions. Our results provide a mechanism for capsular enlargement based on the axial lengthening of PS molecules and suggest a model for the architecture of a eukaryotic microbial capsule.

  15. 21 CFR 520.608 - Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. 520.608 Section 520.608 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains dicloxacillin...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification. A dental amalgam capsule is a container device in which silver alloy is intended to be mixed with...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification. A dental amalgam capsule is a container device in which silver alloy is intended to be mixed with...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification. A dental amalgam capsule is a container device in which silver alloy is intended to be mixed with...

  19. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW. PMID:25376042

  20. Wireless capsule endoscopy: Perspectives beyond gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Redondo-Cerezo, Eduardo; Sánchez-Capilla, Antonio Damián; De La Torre-Rubio, Paloma; De Teresa, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) is a technology developed for the endoscopic exploration of the small bowel. The first capsule model was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2001, and its first and essential indication was occult gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Over subsequent years, this technology has been refined to provide superior resolution, increased battery life, and capabilities to view different parts of the GI tract. Indeed, cases for which CE proved useful have increased significantly over the last few years, with new indications for the small bowel and technical improvements that have expanded its use to other parts of the GI tract, including the esophagus and colon. The main challenges in the development of CE are new devices with the ability to provide therapy, air inflation for a better vision of the small bowel, biopsy sampling systems attached to the capsule and the possibility to guide and move the capsule with an external motion control. In this article we review the current and new indications of CE, and the evolving technological changes shaping this technology, which has a promising potential in the coming future of gastroenterology. PMID:25400450

  1. Extended School Year. Information Capsule. Volume 0910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Extended school years are being considered by districts around the country as educators search for new ways to raise student achievement. The addition of time to the school calendar is also supported by President Barack Obama, who recently stated that American students do not spend enough time in school. This Information Capsule addresses research…

  2. CAPS Capsule. Volume 5, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry, Ed.; And Others

    Published 3 times yearly by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, CAPS Capsule acquaints the reader with recent projects, meetings, publications and materials which are of interest to those in the helping professions. This issue introduces several new publications offered by CAPS under the name, "The Counselor's S x-Pack."…

  3. Student Mobility. Information Capsule. Volume 0608

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2007-01-01

    Mobility, rather than stability, has become the norm for students in schools across the United States. The student mobility rate is now higher in the United States than in any other industrialized country. This Information Capsule discusses the reasons for student mobility and the characteristics of highly mobile students and families. Research…

  4. Wireless capsule endoscopy: perspectives beyond gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Redondo-Cerezo, Eduardo; Sánchez-Capilla, Antonio Damián; De La Torre-Rubio, Paloma; De Teresa, Javier

    2014-11-14

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) is a technology developed for the endoscopic exploration of the small bowel. The first capsule model was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2001, and its first and essential indication was occult gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Over subsequent years, this technology has been refined to provide superior resolution, increased battery life, and capabilities to view different parts of the GI tract. Indeed, cases for which CE proved useful have increased significantly over the last few years, with new indications for the small bowel and technical improvements that have expanded its use to other parts of the GI tract, including the esophagus and colon. The main challenges in the development of CE are new devices with the ability to provide therapy, air inflation for a better vision of the small bowel, biopsy sampling systems attached to the capsule and the possibility to guide and move the capsule with an external motion control. In this article we review the current and new indications of CE, and the evolving technological changes shaping this technology, which has a promising potential in the coming future of gastroenterology.

  5. Water Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Water Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule. Experimental and theoretical investigations have been made to determine the water-landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule having a segment of a sphere as the bottom. For the experimental portion of the investigation, a 1/12-scale model capsule and a full-scale capsule were tested for nominal flight paths of 65 deg and 90 deg (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -30 deg to 30 deg, and a full-scale vertical velocity of 30 feet per second at contact. Accelerations were measured by accelerometers installed at the centers of gravity of the model and full-scale capsules. For the model test the accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) and for the full-scale test they were measured along the X-axis (roll), Y-axis (pitch), and Z-axis (yaw). Motions and displacements of the capsules that occurred after contact were determined from high-speed motion pictures. The theoretical investigation was conducted to determine the accelerations that might occur along the X-axis when the capsule contacted the water from a 90 deg flight path at a 0 deg attitude. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made from equations obtained by utilizing the principle of the conservation of momentum. The agreement among data obtained from the model test, the full-scale test, and the theory was very good. The accelerations along the X-axis, for a vertical flight path and 0 deg attitude, were in the order of 40g. For a 65 deg flight path and 0 deg attitude, the accelerations along the X-axis were in the order of 50g. Changes in contact attitude, in either the positive or negative direction from 0 deg attitude, considerably reduced the magnitude of the accelerations measured along the X-axis. Accelerations measured along the Y- and Z-axes were relatively small at all test conditions. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030955. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  6. Lack of survival advantage with autologous stem-cell transplantation in high-risk neuroblastoma consolidated by anti-GD2 immunotherapy and isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Brian H; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Cheung, Irene Y; Kuk, Deborah; Modak, Shakeel; Kramer, Kim; Roberts, Stephen S; Basu, Ellen M; Yataghene, Karima; Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2016-01-26

    Since 2003, high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) patients at our center received anti-GD2 antibody 3F8/GM-CSF + isotretinoin - but not myeloablative therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). Post-ASCT patients referred from elsewhere also received 3F8/GM-CSF + isotretinoin. We therefore accrued a study population of two groups treated during the same period and whose consolidative therapy, aside from ASCT, was identical. We analyzed patients enrolled in 1st complete/very good partial remission (CR/VGPR). Their event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from study entry. Large study size allowed robust statistical analyses of key prognosticators including MYCN amplification, minimal residual disease (MRD), FCGR2A polymorphisms, and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genotypes of natural killer cells. The 170 study patients included 60 enrolled following ASCT and 110 following conventional chemotherapy. The two cohorts had similar clinical and biological features. Five-year rates for ASCT and non-ASCT patients were, respectively: EFS 65% vs. 51% (p = .128), and OS 76% vs. 75% (p = .975). In multivariate analysis, ASCT was not prognostic and only MRD-negativity after two cycles of 3F8/GM-CSF correlated with significantly improved EFS and OS. Although a trend towards better EFS is seen with ASCT, OS is near identical. Cure rates may be similar, as close surveillance detects localized relapse and effective salvage treatments are applied. ASCT may not be needed to improve outcome when anti-GD2 immunotherapy is used for consolidation after dose-intensive conventional chemotherapy.

  7. Lack of survival advantage with autologous stem-cell transplantation in high-risk neuroblastoma consolidated by anti-GD2 immunotherapy and isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Brian H; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Cheung, Irene Y; Kuk, Deborah; Modak, Shakeel; Kramer, Kim; Roberts, Stephen S; Basu, Ellen M; Yataghene, Karima; Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2016-01-26

    Since 2003, high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) patients at our center received anti-GD2 antibody 3F8/GM-CSF + isotretinoin - but not myeloablative therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). Post-ASCT patients referred from elsewhere also received 3F8/GM-CSF + isotretinoin. We therefore accrued a study population of two groups treated during the same period and whose consolidative therapy, aside from ASCT, was identical. We analyzed patients enrolled in 1st complete/very good partial remission (CR/VGPR). Their event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from study entry. Large study size allowed robust statistical analyses of key prognosticators including MYCN amplification, minimal residual disease (MRD), FCGR2A polymorphisms, and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genotypes of natural killer cells. The 170 study patients included 60 enrolled following ASCT and 110 following conventional chemotherapy. The two cohorts had similar clinical and biological features. Five-year rates for ASCT and non-ASCT patients were, respectively: EFS 65% vs. 51% (p = .128), and OS 76% vs. 75% (p = .975). In multivariate analysis, ASCT was not prognostic and only MRD-negativity after two cycles of 3F8/GM-CSF correlated with significantly improved EFS and OS. Although a trend towards better EFS is seen with ASCT, OS is near identical. Cure rates may be similar, as close surveillance detects localized relapse and effective salvage treatments are applied. ASCT may not be needed to improve outcome when anti-GD2 immunotherapy is used for consolidation after dose-intensive conventional chemotherapy. PMID:26623730

  8. Capsule type of Streptococcus pneumoniae determines growth phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, Lucy J; Brugger, Silvio D; Morand, Brigitte; Bangert, Mathieu; Rotzetter, Jeannine U; Hauser, Christoph; Graber, Werner A; Gore, Suzanna; Kadioglu, Aras; Mühlemann, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    The polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae defines over ninety serotypes, which differ in their carriage prevalence and invasiveness for poorly understood reasons. Recently, an inverse correlation between carriage prevalence and oligosaccharide structure of a given capsule has been described. Our previous work suggested a link between serotype and growth in vitro. Here we investigate whether capsule production interferes with growth in vitro and whether this predicts carriage prevalence in vivo. Eighty-one capsule switch mutants were constructed representing nine different serotypes, five of low (4, 7F, 14, 15, 18C) and four of high carriage prevalence (6B, 9V, 19F, 23F). Growth (length of lag phase, maximum optical density) of wildtype strains, nontypeable mutants and capsule switch mutants was studied in nutrient-restricted Lacks medium (MLM) and in rich undefined brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 5% foetal calf serum (BHI+FCS). In MLM growth phenotype depended on, and was transferred with, capsule operon type. Colonization efficiency of mouse nasopharynx also depended on, and was transferred with, capsule operon type. Capsule production interfered with growth, which correlated inversely with serotype-specific carriage prevalence. Serotypes with better growth and higher carriage prevalence produced thicker capsules (by electron microscopy, FITC-dextran exclusion assays and HPLC) than serotypes with delayed growth and low carriage prevalence. However, expression of cpsA, the first capsule gene, (by quantitative RT-PCR) correlated inversely with capsule thickness. Energy spent for capsule production (incorporation of H3-glucose) relative to amount of capsule produced was higher for serotypes with low carriage prevalence. Experiments in BHI+FCS showed overall better bacterial growth and more capsule production than growth in MLM and differences between serotypes were no longer apparent. Production of polysaccharide capsule in S. pneumoniae

  9. Effects of pulse shape on indirect drive ICF capsule robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetterman, Abe; Haan, Steve; Herrmann, Mark; Salmonson, Jay; Marinak, Michael

    2004-11-01

    The pulse shape incident on an ICF capsule plays an important role in determining the capsule's performance. Keeping the capsule on a low adiabat maximizes its compressibility and reduces the energy required for ignition. However, 2D studies of direct drive designs suggest that capsules with high adiabats are more robust with respect to the growth of perturbations than capsules with lower adiabats. The question arises, what is the optimal adiabat and pulse shape for an indirect drive inertial confinement fusion capsule? Is there any advantage in having the adiabat above the absolute minimum? To answer these questions we have developed an automated pulse shaper for the HYDRA computer codefootnote[2]Marinak, M. M. et. al. ``Three-dimensional HYDRA simulations of National Ignition Facility targets'' Phys. Plasmas 8, 2275 (2001). and used it to study the sensitivity of indirect drive capsules to various pulse shapes.

  10. Capsule- and disk-filter procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skrobialowski, Stanley C.

    2016-01-01

    Capsule and disk filters are disposable, self-contained units composed of a pleated or woven filter medium encased in a polypropylene or other plastic housing that can be connected inline to a sample-delivery system (such as a submersible or peristaltic pump) that generates sufficient pressure (positive or negative) to force water through the filter. Filter media are available in several pore sizes, but 0.45 µm is the pore size used routinely for most studies at this time. Capsule or disk filters (table 5.2.1.A.1) are required routinely for most studies when filtering samples for trace-element analyses and are recommended when filtering samples for major-ion or other inorganic-constituent analyses.

  11. Polymeric multilayer capsules in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    De Cock, Liesbeth J; De Koker, Stefaan; De Geest, Bruno G; Grooten, Johan; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Antipina, Maria N

    2010-09-17

    Recent advances in medicine and biotechnology have prompted the need to develop nanoengineered delivery systems that can encapsulate a wide variety of novel therapeutics such as proteins, chemotherapeutics, and nucleic acids. Moreover, these delivery systems should be "intelligent", such that they can deliver their payload at a well-defined time, place, or after a specific stimulus. Polymeric multilayer capsules, made by layer-by-layer (LbL) coating of a sacrificial template followed by dissolution of the template, allow the design of microcapsules in aqueous conditions by using simple building blocks and assembly procedures, and provide a previously unmet control over the functionality of the microcapsules. Polymeric multilayer capsules have recently received increased interest from the life science community, and many interesting systems have appeared in the literature with biodegradable components and biospecific functionalities. In this Review we give an overview of the recent breakthroughs in their application for drug delivery.

  12. Electroformation of Janus and patchy capsules

    PubMed Central

    Rozynek, Zbigniew; Mikkelsen, Alexander; Dommersnes, Paul; Fossum, Jon Otto

    2014-01-01

    Janus and patchy particles have designed heterogeneous surfaces that consist of two or several patches with different materials properties. These particles are emerging as building blocks for a new class of soft matter and functional materials. Here we introduce a route for forming heterogeneous capsules by producing highly ordered jammed colloidal shells of various shapes with domains of controlled size and composition. These structures combine the functionalities offered by Janus or patchy particles, and those given by permeable shells such as colloidosomes. The simple assembly route involves the synergetic action of electro-hydrodynamic flow and electro-coalescence. We demonstrate that the method is robust and straightforwardly extendable to production of multi-patchy capsules. This forms a starting point for producing patchy colloidosomes with domains of anisotropic chemical surface properties, permeability or mixed liquid–solid phase domains, which could be exploited to produce functional emulsions, light and hollow supra-colloidosome structures, or scaffolds. PMID:24853057

  13. Capsule endoscopy: Present status and future expectation

    PubMed Central

    Goenka, Mahesh K; Majumder, Shounak; Goenka, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (CE) since its introduction 13 years back, has revolutionized our approach to small intestinal diseases. Obscure gastrointestinal bleed (OGIB) continues to be the most important indication for CE with a high sensitivity, specificity as well as positive and negative predictive values. It is best performed during ongoing bleed or immediately thereafter. Overt OGIB has a higher diagnostic yield than occult OGIB. However, even in iron deficiency anemia, CE is emerging as important investigation after initial negative work up. In suspected Crohn’s disease (CD), CE has been shown superior to traditional imaging and endoscopic technique and should be considered after a negative ileocolonoscopy. Although CE has also been used for evaluating established CD, a high capsule retention rate precludes its use ahead of cross-sectional imaging. Celiac disease, particularly where gastro-duodenoscopy cannot be performed or is normal, can also be investigated by CE. Small bowel tumor, hereditary polyposis syndrome, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induced intestinal damage are other indications for CE. Capsule retention is the only significant adverse outcome of CE and occurs mostly in presence of intestinal obstruction. This can be prevented by use of Patency capsule prior to CE examination. Presence of cardiac pacemaker and intracardiac devices continue to be relative contraindications for CE, though data do not suggest interference of CE with these devices. Major limitations of CE today include failure to control its movement from outside, inability of CE to acquire tissue for diagnosis, and lack of therapeutic help. With ongoing interesting and exciting developments taking place in these areas, these issues would be solved in all probability in near future. CE has the potential to become one of the most important tools in diagnostic and possibly in the therapeutic field of gastrointestinal disorder. PMID:25110430

  14. Capsule endoscopy: Present status and future expectation.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Mahesh K; Majumder, Shounak; Goenka, Usha

    2014-08-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (CE) since its introduction 13 years back, has revolutionized our approach to small intestinal diseases. Obscure gastrointestinal bleed (OGIB) continues to be the most important indication for CE with a high sensitivity, specificity as well as positive and negative predictive values. It is best performed during ongoing bleed or immediately thereafter. Overt OGIB has a higher diagnostic yield than occult OGIB. However, even in iron deficiency anemia, CE is emerging as important investigation after initial negative work up. In suspected Crohn's disease (CD), CE has been shown superior to traditional imaging and endoscopic technique and should be considered after a negative ileocolonoscopy. Although CE has also been used for evaluating established CD, a high capsule retention rate precludes its use ahead of cross-sectional imaging. Celiac disease, particularly where gastro-duodenoscopy cannot be performed or is normal, can also be investigated by CE. Small bowel tumor, hereditary polyposis syndrome, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induced intestinal damage are other indications for CE. Capsule retention is the only significant adverse outcome of CE and occurs mostly in presence of intestinal obstruction. This can be prevented by use of Patency capsule prior to CE examination. Presence of cardiac pacemaker and intracardiac devices continue to be relative contraindications for CE, though data do not suggest interference of CE with these devices. Major limitations of CE today include failure to control its movement from outside, inability of CE to acquire tissue for diagnosis, and lack of therapeutic help. With ongoing interesting and exciting developments taking place in these areas, these issues would be solved in all probability in near future. CE has the potential to become one of the most important tools in diagnostic and possibly in the therapeutic field of gastrointestinal disorder. PMID:25110430

  15. Aerodynamics for the Mars Phoenix Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Desai, Prasun N.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Pre-flight aerodynamics data for the Mars Phoenix entry capsule are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients were generated as a function of total angle-of-attack and either Knudsen number, velocity, or Mach number, depending on the flight regime. The database was constructed using continuum flowfield computations and data from the Mars Exploration Rover and Viking programs. Hypersonic and supersonic static coefficients were derived from Navier-Stokes solutions on a pre-flight design trajectory. High-altitude data (free-molecular and transitional regimes) and dynamic pitch damping characteristics were taken from Mars Exploration Rover analysis and testing. Transonic static coefficients from Viking wind tunnel tests were used for capsule aerodynamics under the parachute. Static instabilities were predicted at two points along the reference trajectory and were verified by reconstructed flight data. During the hypersonic instability, the capsule was predicted to trim at angles as high as 2.5 deg with an on-axis center-of-gravity. Trim angles were predicted for off-nominal pitching moment (4.2 deg peak) and a 5 mm off-axis center-ofgravity (4.8 deg peak). Finally, hypersonic static coefficient sensitivities to atmospheric density were predicted to be within uncertainty bounds.

  16. High-speed precision weighing of pharmaceutical capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we present a cost-effective method for fast and accurate in-line weighing of hard gelatin capsules based on the optimized capacitance sensor and real-time processing of the capsule capacitance profile resulting from 5000 capacitance measurements per second. First, the effect of the shape and size of the capacitive sensor on the sensitivity and stability of the measurements was investigated in order to optimize the performance of the system. The method was tested on two types of hard gelatin capsules weighing from 50 mg to 650 mg. The results showed that the capacitance profile was exceptionally well correlated with the capsule weight with the correlation coefficient exceeding 0.999. The mean precision of the measurements was in the range from 1 mg to 3 mg, depending on the size of the capsule and was significantly lower than the 5% weight tolerances usually used by the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, the method was found feasible for weighing pharmaceutical hard gelatin capsules as long as certain conditions are met regarding the capsule fill properties and environment stability. The proposed measurement system can be calibrated by using only two or three sets of capsules with known weight. However, for most applications it is sufficient to use only empty and nominally filled capsules for calibration. Finally, a practical application of the proposed method showed that a single system is capable of weighing around 75 000 capsules per hour, while using multiple systems could easily increase the inspection rate to meet almost any requirements.

  17. Motion of an elastic capsule in a square microfluidic channel.

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, S; Dimitrakopoulos, P

    2011-07-01

    In the present study we investigate computationally the steady-state motion of an elastic capsule along the centerline of a square microfluidic channel and compare it with that in a cylindrical tube. In particular, we consider a slightly over-inflated elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance. Under the conditions studied in this paper (i.e., small, moderate, and large capsules at low and moderate flow rates), the capsule motion in a square channel is similar to and thus governed by the same scaling laws with the capsule motion in a cylindrical tube, even though in the channel the cross section in the upstream portion of large capsules is nonaxisymmetric (i.e., square-like with rounded corners). When the hydrodynamic forces on the membrane increase, the capsule develops a pointed downstream edge and a flattened rear (possibly with a negative curvature) so that the restoring tension forces are increased as also happens with droplets. Membrane tensions increase significantly with the capsule size while the area near the downstream tip is the most probable to rupture when a capsule flows in a microchannel. Because the membrane tensions increase with the interfacial deformation, a suitable Landau-Levich-Derjaguin-Bretherton analysis reveals that the lubrication film thickness h for large capsules depends on both the capillary number Ca and the capsule size a; our computations determine the latter dependence to be (in dimensionless form) h ~ a(-2) for the large capsules studied in this work. For small and moderate capsule sizes a, the capsule velocity Ux and additional pressure drop ΔP+ are governed by the same scaling laws as for high-viscosity droplets. The velocity and additional pressure drop of large thick capsules also follow the dynamics of high-viscosity droplets, and are affected by the lubrication film thickness. The motion of our large thick capsules is characterized by a Ux-U ~ h ~ a(-2

  18. Capsule formation and asymbiotic seed germination in some hybrids of Phalaenopsis, influenced by pollination season and capsule maturity.

    PubMed

    Balilashaki, Khosro; Gantait, Saikat; Naderi, Roohangiz; Vahedi, Maryam

    2015-07-01

    We explored the influence of pollination season and maturity of capsule on post-pollination capsule formation and in vitro asymbiotic seed germination, respectively. Three Phalaenopsis orchid hybrids, namely, 'Athens', 'Moscow' and 'Lusaka' flowers were artificially self-pollinated during winter, spring, summer and fall seasons and the impact of the pollination seasons was evident during capsule formation. It was observed that winter was the most suitable season for pollination of all the three Phalanaeopsis hybrids resulting in 80-88 % capsule formation. During summer, the pollination success rate was 24-28 %, but resulted in successful capsule formation. Season of pollination further delimited the germination efficiency of seeds harvested from capsules of variable maturity levels. Invariably, seeds collected from winter-pollinated capsules performed best in germination compared to other seasons, for instance, 'Moscow' seeds took less than 14 days to germinate from capsules developed following winter-pollination. Regarding the influence of capsule maturity on seed germination, we observed that seeds derived from 5-month mature capsules, invariably took least time to germinate than that of the 3-month or 7-month in all three hybrids, e.g., for 'Moscow' it was 13.9 days with a maximum of 90.3 % germination.

  19. Role of shocks and mix caused by capsule defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, P. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Schmitt, M. J.; Obrey, K. D.; Glebov, V.; Batha, S. H.; Magelssen, G. R.; Fincke, J. R.; Hsu, S. C.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Wysocki, F. J.

    2012-09-01

    An Eulerian code with a turbulent mix model is used to model a set of plastic (CH) ablator capsules with and without equatorial grooves. The "perfect" capsule results were used to calibrate simulations of capsules with equatorial grooves of different depths that provided information on increasingly perturbed implosions. Simulations with a turbulence model were able to calculate the same yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) of 0.2 to 0.3 for thin (8-μm thick) and thick shell (15-μm thick) capsules with no grooves and thin capsules with shallow grooves. When the capsules have deep grooves, the YOM ratio increases to greater than unity, probably because the deformed shocks focus too strongly on the symmetry axis in our two-dimensional simulations. This is supported by a comparison of simulated and experimental x-ray images.

  20. A Review of Locomotion Systems for Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lejie; Towfighian, Shahrzad; Hila, Amine

    2015-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy for gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a modern technology that has the potential to replace conventional endoscopy techniques. Capsule endoscopy is a pill-shaped device embedded with a camera, a coin battery, and a data transfer. Without a locomotion system, this capsule endoscopy can only passively travel inside the GI tract via natural peristalsis, thus causing several disadvantages such as inability to control and stop, and risk of capsule retention. Therefore, a locomotion system needs to be added to optimize the current capsule endoscopy. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art locomotion methods along with the desired locomotion features such as size, speed, power, and temperature and compares the properties of different methods. In addition, properties and motility mechanisms of the GI tract are described. The main purpose of this review is to understand the features of GI tract and diverse locomotion methods in order to create a future capsule endoscopy compatible with GI tract properties. PMID:26292162

  1. Chemical mediation of egg capsule deposition by mud snails.

    PubMed

    Rittschof, Dan; Sawardecker, Prasad; Petry, Caroline

    2002-11-01

    Mud snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta = Nassarius obsoletus = Nassa obsoleta) deposit eggs in protective capsules on hard substrata in soft bottom environments. We studied sites of egg capsule deposition and snail movement responses to odors to determine if chemoreception plays a role in deposition site selection. From results of field surveys, laboratory experiments, and field experiments, we conclude that mud snails use chemoreception for capsule deposition. Attractive odors originate from mud snail and whelk egg capsules and from living bivalves. Evidence for attractive odors from conspecifics is equivocal. Capsules are deposited on living odor sources and nearby hard substrates. We hypothesize that deposition of capsules on living substrates increases the likelihood that embryos will survive by decreasing the chance of smothering of embryos by sediments. PMID:12523566

  2. Ultrasonic technique for inspection of GPHS capsule girth weld integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Placr, Arnost

    1993-05-01

    An innovative nondestructive examination (NDE) technique for the inspection of integrity of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) capsule girth welds (Figure 1) was developed employing a Lamb (plate) wave as the mode of the sound propagation. Reliability of the Lamb wave technique was tested on GPHS capsules using plutonium pallet simulators. All ten capsules, which were previously rejected, passed ultrasonic (UT) inspection using the Lamb wave technique.

  3. [Effect of eel oil capsule on mice memory].

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Xu, D; Xu, S; Huang, X

    1998-06-01

    Step-down test, step-through test and water maze in mice were used to observe the effect of eel oil capsule on mice memory. The results indicated that during the administration period (30 days), the eel oil capsule treating groups with dosages of 0.129, 0.387, and 1.161 g/kg obviously improved the learning and memory abilities. Compared with the control test, the eel oil capsule promoted the memory and smart.

  4. Small intestinal model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to propose a small intestine model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy. The electrical stimulus can cause contraction of the small intestine and propel the capsule along the lumen. The proposed model considered the drag and friction from the small intestine using a thin walled model and Stokes' drag equation. Further, contraction force from the small intestine was modeled by using regression analysis. From the proposed model, the acceleration and velocity of various exterior shapes of capsule were calculated, and two exterior shapes of capsules were proposed based on the internal volume of the capsules. The proposed capsules were fabricated and animal experiments were conducted. One of the proposed capsules showed an average (SD) velocity in forward direction of 2.91 ± 0.99 mm/s and 2.23 ± 0.78 mm/s in the backward direction, which was 5.2 times faster than that obtained in previous research. The proposed model can predict locomotion of the capsule based on various exterior shapes of the capsule. PMID:22177218

  5. ADHESIVE CAPSULITIS: USE THE EVIDENCE TO INTEGRATE YOUR INTERVENTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Labbe, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Frozen shoulder syndrome, clinically known as adhesive capsulitis, is a painful and debilitating condition affecting up to 5% of the population. Adhesive capsulitis is considered fibrosis of the glenohumeral joint capsule with a chronic inflammatory response. Patients experience pain, limited range of motion, and disability generally lasting anywhere from 1 to 24 months. The purpose of this clinical suggestion is to review the pathophysiolgy of adhesive capsulitis and discuss physical therapy interventions which are supported by evidence, thereby enhancing evidence-based practice. PMID:21655385

  6. Wireless capsule endoscopy: indications, limitations, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    El-Matary, Wael

    2008-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy is one of the recent inventions that has made an impact in the diagnostic work-up of gastrointestinal diseases, mainly in small intestinal pathology, the part of the gut that cannot be totally visualized by upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. Since the first report documenting the use of capsule endoscopy, many adult clinical trials have taken place. Although the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of the capsule in children (ages 10-18 years) in October 2003, few small clinical trials exploring the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy in pediatric populations have been published. PMID:18162827

  7. Transient dynamics of an elastic capsule in a microfluidic constriction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun-Young; Dimitrakopoulos, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate computationally the transient dynamics of an elastic capsule flowing in a square microchannel with a rectangular constriction, and compare it with that of a droplet. The confinement and expansion dynamics of the fluid flow results in a rich deformation behavior for the capsule, from an elongated shape at the constriction entrance, to a flattened parachute shape at its exit. Larger capsules are shown to take more time to pass the constriction and cause higher additional pressure difference, owing to higher flow blocking. Our work highlights the effects of two different mechanisms for non-tank-treading transient capsule dynamics. The capsule deformation results from the combined effects of the surrounding and inner fluids’ normal stresses on the soft particle’s interface, and thus when the capsule viscosity increases, its transient deformation decreases, as for droplets. However, the capsule deformation is not able to create a strong enough inner circulation (owing to restrictions imposed by the material membrane), and thus the viscosity ratio does not affect much the capsule velocity and the additional pressure difference. In addition, the weak inner circulation results in a positive additional pressure difference ΔP+ even for low-viscosity capsules, in direct contrast to low-viscosity droplets which create a negative ΔP+. Our findings suggest that the high cytoplasmatic viscosity, owing to the protein hemoglobin required for oxygen transport, does not affect adversely the motion of non-tank-trading erythrocytes in vascular capillaries. PMID:24223621

  8. Procedures For Making Precision CH Bumps On Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Letts, S; Fearon, E; Buckley, S; Klingmann, J; Cook, B

    2004-11-10

    Recently we were asked to produce target capsules with bumps on the surface. The bumps were to test the effects of fill tubes in future targets. The bumps desired were to be Gaussian in shape and from 60 to 40 {micro}m in diameter and from 1 to 6 {micro}m high. The capsules had a nominal diameter of 500 {micro}m. The approach we used was to align a precision aperture to the capsule and coat through the aperture onto the capsule surface using plasma polymer coating. The bumps were characterized using optical microscopy, Wyko interferometry, and AFM sphere mapping.

  9. Method of forming capsules containing a precise amount of material

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1986-06-24

    A method of forming a sealed capsule containing a submilligram quantity of mercury or the like, the capsule being constructed from a hollow glass tube, by placing a globule or droplet of the mercury in the tube. The tube is then evacuated and sealed and is subsequently heated so as to vaporize the mercury and fill the tube therewith. The tube is then separated into separate sealed capsules by heating spaced locations along the tube with a coiled heating wire means to cause collapse spaced locations there along and thus enable separation of the tube into said capsules. 7 figs.

  10. Method of forming capsules containing a precise amount of material

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Maya, Jakob

    1986-01-01

    A method of forming a sealed capsule containing a submilligram quantity of mercury or the like, the capsule being constructed from a hollow glass tube, by placing a globule or droplet of the mercury in the tube. The tube is then evacuated and sealed and is subsequently heated so as to vaporize the mercury and fill the tube therewith. The tube is then separated into separate sealed capsules by heating spaced locations along the tube with a coiled heating wire means to cause collapse spaced locations therealong and thus enable separation of the tube into said capsules.

  11. Video capsule endoscopy: is bowel preparation necessary?

    PubMed

    Catalano, Carmine; Companioni, Rafael Antonio Ching; Khankhanian, Pouya; Vyas, Neil; Patel, Ishan; Bansal, Raghav; Walfish, Aaron

    2016-08-01

    There is no standardized protocol for bowel preparation prior to video capsule endoscopy, although one is strongly recommended. The purpose of our study was to see if there was a statistical significance between small bowel mucosal visualization rates for those who received bowel preparation and those who did not. We retrospectively analyzed all patients who had a video capsule endoscopy from August 2014 to January 2016 at a tertiary care center. All patients fasted prior to the procedure. Bowel preparation when used consisted of polyethylene glycol. A long fast consisted of 12 or more hours. The grading system used to assess the small bowel was adapted from a previously validated system from Esaki et al Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's exact test or Welch's 2-sample t-test and statistical significance was present if the p value was ≤0.05. 76 patients were carried forward for analysis. Small bowel mucosal visualization rates were similar between those who received bowel preparation and those who did not (92.5% vs 88.9%, p=0.44). Small bowel mucosal visualization rates were significantly better in those patients who had a long fast compared with those who had a short fast (97.7% vs 81.3%, p=0.019). Our study demonstrates that the addition of bowel preparation prior to video capsule endoscopy does not significantly improve small bowel mucosal visualization rates and, in addition, there is a statistically significant relationship between increased fasting time and improved small bowel mucosal visualization. A prolonged fast without bowel preparation might be satisfactory for an adequate small bowel visualization but further randomized, prospective studies are necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:27271277

  12. Campylobacter Polysaccharide Capsules: Virulence and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Guerry, Patricia; Poly, Frédéric; Riddle, Mark; Maue, Alexander C.; Chen, Yu-Han; Monteiro, Mario A.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with numerous sequelae, including Guillain Barré Syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, and irritable bowel syndrome. C. jejuni is unusual for an intestinal pathogen in its ability to coat its surface with a polysaccharide capsule (CPS). These capsular polysaccharides vary in sugar composition and linkage, especially those involving heptoses of unusual configuration and O-methyl phosphoramidate linkages. This structural diversity is consistent with CPS being the major serodeterminant of the Penner scheme, of which there are 47 C. jejuni serotypes. Both CPS expression and expression of modifications are subject to phase variation by slip strand mismatch repair. Although capsules are virulence factors for other pathogens, the role of CPS in C. jejuni disease has not been well defined beyond descriptive studies demonstrating a role in serum resistance and for diarrhea in a ferret model of disease. However, perhaps the most compelling evidence for a role in pathogenesis are data that CPS conjugate vaccines protect against diarrheal disease in non-human primates. A CPS conjugate vaccine approach against this pathogen is intriguing, but several questions need to be addressed, including the valency of CPS types required for an effective vaccine. There have been numerous studies of prevalence of CPS serotypes in the developed world, but few studies from developing countries where the disease incidence is higher. The complexity and cost of Penner serotyping has limited its usefulness, and a recently developed multiplex PCR method for determination of capsule type offers the potential of a more rapid and affordable method. Comparative studies have shown a strong correlation of the two methods and studies are beginning to ascertain CPS-type distribution worldwide, as well as examination of correlation of severity of illness with specific CPS types. PMID:22919599

  13. An adhesive protein capsule of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Orskov, I; Birch-Andersen, A; Duguid, J P; Stenderup, J; Orskov, F

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the adhesive capacity of three hemagglutinating Escherichia coli strains that had earlier been described as nonfimbriated was studied. The strains that were isolated from human disease adhered to human buccal and urinary tract epithelial cells, an adhesion that was not inhibited by D-mannose. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis it was shown that the three strains produced a common antigen, Z1, developed after growth at 37 degrees C but not 18 degrees C. One of the strains produced an additional antigen, Z2, of almost the same electrophoretic mobility in crossed immunoelectrophoresis. A mutant of this strain deficient of its polysaccharide K antigen had maintained the adhesive capacity, indicating that the K antigen was not responsible for adhesion. A further mutant of the acapsular mutant produced a strongly reduced amount of the Z antigens and had lost the ability to adhere. The Z1 (and Z2?) antigens were therefore deemed to be responsible for adhesion. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracts of cells of the three strains, a heavy Coomassie-blue stained line was seen, indicating the presence of a protein subunit of molecular weight slightly above 14,400. By immunoblotting with absorbed antiserum, it was shown that this protein was the same as that detected by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Protease from Streptomyces griseus, but not trypsin, digested the protein. Heating to 100 degrees C did not affect it. By immunoelectron microscopy of embedded and sectioned bacteria that had first been treated with specific antisera and ferritin-labeled antirabbit immunoglobulin, the protein adhesin-antibody complex was found to surround the bacteria as a heavy capsule. After negative staining with uranylacetate (pH approximately 4), the capsule appeared as a mesh of very fine filaments. The possible role of this capsule in the pathogenesis of disease is discussed. Images PMID:2856913

  14. Dopant Distribution in NIF Beryllium Ablator Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Xu, H. W.; Youngblood, K. P.; Wall, D. R.; Stephens, R. B.; Moreno, K. A.; Nikroo, A.; Salmonson, J. D.; Haan, S. W.; Wu, K. J.; Wang, Y. M.; Hamza, A. V.

    2012-10-01

    Good implosion performance requires capsule ablator material with spherically uniform x-ray opacity, which is controlled by one of several dopants (Cu, Si, Al, etc.) in the Be shell. During production, the dopant concentration is radially stepped. However, the various Be-dopant interactions result in vastly different dopant distribution patterns, some quite inhomogeneous. We have characterized these structures and established the phenomenological basis and the magnitudes of the inhomogeneity both in spatial length scales and in atomic percent. We will discuss the case of inhomogeneous Cu diffusion in detail, followed by discussions of other dopants and the estimate of the impact of these structures on target implosion.

  15. Postirradiation examination of capsule GF-4. [HTGR

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, W.J.; Sedlak, B.J.

    1980-10-01

    The GF-4 capsule test was irradiated in the SILOE reactor at Grenoble, France between April 8, 1975 and July 26, 1976. High-enriched uranium (HEU) UC/sub 2/ and weak acid resin (WAR) UC/sub x/O/sub y/ fissile and ThO/sub 2/ fertile particles were tested. Postirradiation examination of cured-in-place fuel rods showed no fuel rod/graphite element interaction. In addition, all rods exhibited adequate structural integrity. Irradiation-induced dimensional changes for rods containing all TRISO-coated fuel were consistent with model predictions; however, rods containing BISO-coated fuel exhibited greater volumetric contractions than predicted.

  16. Identification of a functional capsule locus in Streptococcus mitis.

    PubMed

    Rukke, H V; Hegna, I K; Petersen, F C

    2012-04-01

    The polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a hallmark for virulence in humans. In its close relative Streptococcus mitis, a common human commensal, analysis of the sequenced genomes of six strains revealed the presence of a putative capsule locus in four of them. We constructed an isogenic S. mitis mutant from the type strain that lacked the 19 open reading frames in the capsule locus (Δcps mutant), using a deletion strategy similar to previous capsule functional studies in S. pneumoniae. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed a capsule-like structure in the S. mitis type strain that was absent or reduced in the Δcps mutant. Since S. mitis are predominant oral colonizers of tooth surfaces, we addressed the relevance of the capsule locus for the S. mitis overall surface properties, autoaggregation and biofilm formation. The capsule deletion resulted in a mutant with approximately two-fold increase in hydrophobicity. Binding to the Stains-all cationic dye was reduced by 40%, suggesting a reduction in the overall negative surface charge of the mutant. The mutant exhibited also increased autoaggregation in coaggregation buffer, and up to six-fold increase in biofilm levels. The results suggested that the capsule locus is associated with production of a capsule-like structure in S. mitis and indicated that the S. mitis capsule-like structure may confer surface attributes similar to those associated with the capsule in S. pneumoniae.

  17. Shapes of sedimenting soft elastic capsules in a viscous fluid.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Soft elastic capsules which are driven through a viscous fluid undergo shape deformation coupled to their motion. We introduce an iterative solution scheme which couples hydrodynamic boundary integral methods and elastic shape equations to find the stationary axisymmetric shape and the velocity of an elastic capsule moving in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds numbers. We use this approach to systematically study dynamical shape transitions of capsules with Hookean stretching and bending energies and spherical rest shape sedimenting under the influence of gravity or centrifugal forces. We find three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes for sedimenting capsules with fixed volume: a pseudospherical state, a pear-shaped state, and buckled shapes. Capsule shapes are controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the Föppl-von-Kármán number characterizing the elastic properties and a Bond number characterizing the driving force. For increasing gravitational force the spherical shape transforms into a pear shape. For very large bending rigidity (very small Föppl-von-Kármán number) this transition is discontinuous with shape hysteresis. The corresponding transition line terminates, however, in a critical point, such that the discontinuous transition is not present at typical Föppl-von-Kármán numbers of synthetic capsules. In an additional bifurcation, buckled shapes occur upon increasing the gravitational force. This type of instability should be observable for generic synthetic capsules. All shape bifurcations can be resolved in the force-velocity relation of sedimenting capsules, where up to three capsule shapes with different velocities can occur for the same driving force. All three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes are stable with respect to rotation during sedimentation. Additionally, we study capsules pushed or pulled by a point force, where we always find capsule shapes to transform smoothly without bifurcations. PMID:26465552

  18. Shapes of sedimenting soft elastic capsules in a viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Soft elastic capsules which are driven through a viscous fluid undergo shape deformation coupled to their motion. We introduce an iterative solution scheme which couples hydrodynamic boundary integral methods and elastic shape equations to find the stationary axisymmetric shape and the velocity of an elastic capsule moving in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds numbers. We use this approach to systematically study dynamical shape transitions of capsules with Hookean stretching and bending energies and spherical rest shape sedimenting under the influence of gravity or centrifugal forces. We find three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes for sedimenting capsules with fixed volume: a pseudospherical state, a pear-shaped state, and buckled shapes. Capsule shapes are controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the Föppl-von-Kármán number characterizing the elastic properties and a Bond number characterizing the driving force. For increasing gravitational force the spherical shape transforms into a pear shape. For very large bending rigidity (very small Föppl-von-Kármán number) this transition is discontinuous with shape hysteresis. The corresponding transition line terminates, however, in a critical point, such that the discontinuous transition is not present at typical Föppl-von-Kármán numbers of synthetic capsules. In an additional bifurcation, buckled shapes occur upon increasing the gravitational force. This type of instability should be observable for generic synthetic capsules. All shape bifurcations can be resolved in the force-velocity relation of sedimenting capsules, where up to three capsule shapes with different velocities can occur for the same driving force. All three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes are stable with respect to rotation during sedimentation. Additionally, we study capsules pushed or pulled by a point force, where we always find capsule shapes to transform smoothly without bifurcations.

  19. Shapes of sedimenting soft elastic capsules in a viscous fluid.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Soft elastic capsules which are driven through a viscous fluid undergo shape deformation coupled to their motion. We introduce an iterative solution scheme which couples hydrodynamic boundary integral methods and elastic shape equations to find the stationary axisymmetric shape and the velocity of an elastic capsule moving in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds numbers. We use this approach to systematically study dynamical shape transitions of capsules with Hookean stretching and bending energies and spherical rest shape sedimenting under the influence of gravity or centrifugal forces. We find three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes for sedimenting capsules with fixed volume: a pseudospherical state, a pear-shaped state, and buckled shapes. Capsule shapes are controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the Föppl-von-Kármán number characterizing the elastic properties and a Bond number characterizing the driving force. For increasing gravitational force the spherical shape transforms into a pear shape. For very large bending rigidity (very small Föppl-von-Kármán number) this transition is discontinuous with shape hysteresis. The corresponding transition line terminates, however, in a critical point, such that the discontinuous transition is not present at typical Föppl-von-Kármán numbers of synthetic capsules. In an additional bifurcation, buckled shapes occur upon increasing the gravitational force. This type of instability should be observable for generic synthetic capsules. All shape bifurcations can be resolved in the force-velocity relation of sedimenting capsules, where up to three capsule shapes with different velocities can occur for the same driving force. All three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes are stable with respect to rotation during sedimentation. Additionally, we study capsules pushed or pulled by a point force, where we always find capsule shapes to transform smoothly without bifurcations.

  20. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  1. Orbital Thermal Control of the Mercury Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, Kenneth C.

    1960-01-01

    The approach to orbital thermal control of the Project Mercury capsule environment is relatively unsophisticated compared with that for many unmanned satellites. This is made possible by the relatively short orbital flight of about 4 1/2 hours and by the presence of the astronaut who is able to monitor the capsule systems and compensate for undesirable thermal conditions. The general external features of the Mercury configuration as it appears in the orbital phase of flight are shown. The conical afterbody is a double-wall structure. The inner wall serves as a pressure vessel for the manned compartment, and the outer wall, of shingle type construction, acts as a radiating shield during reentry. Surface treatment of the shingles calls for a stably oxidized surface to minimize reentry temperatures. The shingles are supported by insulated stringers attached to the inner skin. Areas between stringers are insulated by blankets of Thermoflex insulation. This insulation is especially effective at high altitude due to the reduction of its thermal conductivity with decreasing pressure. As a result of the design of the afterbody for the severe reentry conditions, the heat balance on the manned compartment indicates the necessity for moderate internal cooling to compensate for the heat generation due to human and electrical sources. This cooling is achieved by the controlled vaporization of water in the cabin and astronaut-suit heat exchangers.

  2. Capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans grows by enlargement of polysaccharide molecules

    PubMed Central

    Frases, Susana; Pontes, Bruno; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Viana, Nathan B.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has a distinctive polysaccharide (PS) capsule that enlarges during infection. The capsule is essential for virulence, but the mechanism for capsular growth is unknown. In the present study, we used dynamic light scattering (LS) analysis of capsular PS and optical tweezers (OT) to explore the architecture of the capsule. Analysis of capsular PS from cells with small and large capsules by dynamic LS revealed a linear correlation between PS effective diameter and microscopic capsular diameter. This result implied that capsule growth was achieved by the addition of molecules with larger effective diameter, such that some molecules can span the entire diameter of the capsule. Measurement of polystyrene bead penetration of C. neoformans capsules by using OT techniques revealed that the outer regions were penetrable, but not the inner regions. Our results provide a mechanism for capsular enlargement based on the axial lengthening of PS molecules and suggest a model for the architecture of a eukaryotic microbial capsule. PMID:19164571

  3. Diamagnetically stabilized levitation control of an intraluminal magnetic capsule.

    PubMed

    Lam, Michael; Mintchev, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Controlled navigation promotes full utilization of capsule endoscopy for reliable real-time diagnosis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but intermittent natural peristalsis can disturb the navigational control, destabilize the capsule and take it out of levitation. The focus of the present work was to develop an economical and effective real-time magnetic capsule-guiding system that can operate in the presence of naturally existing peristalsis while retaining navigational control. A real-size magnetic navigation system that can handle peristaltic forces of up to 1.5 N was designed utilizing the computer-aided design (CAD) system Maxwell 3D (Ansoft, Pittsburg, PA) and was verified using a small-size physical experimental setup. The proposed system contains a pair of 50 cm diameter, 10,000-turn copper electromagnets with a 10 cm x 10 cm ferrous core driven by currents of up to 300 A and can successfully maintain position control over the levitating capsule during peristalsis. The addition of bismuth diamagnetic casing for stabilizing the levitating capsule was also studied. A modeled magnetic field around the diamagnetically cased permanent magnet was shown to be redistributed aligning its interaction with the external electromagnets, thus stabilizing the levitating capsule. In summary, a custom-designed diamagnetically facilitated capsule navigation system can successfully steer an intraluminal magnet-carrying capsule. PMID:19550023

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule determines disease severity in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Grandgirard, Denis; Valente, Luca G.; Täuber, Martin G.; Leib, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria can be characterized into over 90 serotypes according to the composition of their polysaccharide capsules. Some serotypes are common in nasopharyngeal carriage whereas others are associated with invasive disease, but when carriage serotypes do invade disease is often particularly severe. It is unknown whether disease severity is due directly to the capsule type or to other virulence factors. Here, we used a clinical pneumococcal isolate and its capsule-switch mutants to determine the effect of capsule, in isolation from the genetic background, on severity of meningitis in an infant rat model. We found that possession of a capsule was essential for causing meningitis. Serotype 6B caused significantly more mortality than 7F and this correlated with increased capsule thickness in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a stronger inflammatory cytokine response in the CSF and ultimately more cortical brain damage. We conclude that capsule type has a direct effect on meningitis severity. This is an important consideration in the current era of vaccination targeting a subset of capsule types that causes serotype replacement. PMID:27009189

  5. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification....

  6. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification....

  7. Analysing intracellular deformation of polymer capsules using structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Cui, Jiwei; Sun, Huanli; Müllner, Markus; Yan, Yan; Noi, Ka Fung; Ping, Yuan; Caruso, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces, which induce capsule deformation during cell uptake, vary between cell lines, indicating that the capsules are exposed to higher mechanical forces in HeLa cells, followed by RAW264.7 and then differentiated THP-1 cells. Our study demonstrates the use of super-resolution SIM in analysing intracellular capsule deformation, offering important insights into the cellular processing of drug carriers in cells and providing fundamental knowledge of intracellular mechanobiology. Furthermore, this study may aid in the design of novel drug carriers that are sensitive to deformation for enhanced drug release properties.Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces

  8. Analysis of Fission Products on the AGR-1 Capsule Components

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Jason M. Harp; Philip L. Winston; Scott A. Ploger

    2013-03-01

    The components of the AGR-1 irradiation capsules were analyzed to determine the retained inventory of fission products in order to determine the extent of in-pile fission product release from the fuel compacts. This includes analysis of (i) the metal capsule components, (ii) the graphite fuel holders, (iii) the graphite spacers, and (iv) the gas exit lines. The fission products most prevalent in the components were Ag-110m, Cs 134, Cs 137, Eu-154, and Sr 90, and the most common location was the metal capsule components and the graphite fuel holders. Gamma scanning of the graphite fuel holders was also performed to determine spatial distribution of Ag-110m and radiocesium. Silver was released from the fuel components in significant fractions. The total Ag-110m inventory found in the capsules ranged from 1.2×10 2 (Capsule 3) to 3.8×10 1 (Capsule 6). Ag-110m was not distributed evenly in the graphite fuel holders, but tended to concentrate at the axial ends of the graphite holders in Capsules 1 and 6 (located at the top and bottom of the test train) and near the axial center in Capsules 2, 3, and 5 (in the center of the test train). The Ag-110m further tended to be concentrated around fuel stacks 1 and 3, the two stacks facing the ATR reactor core and location of higher burnup, neutron fluence, and temperatures compared with Stack 2. Detailed correlation of silver release with fuel type and irradiation temperatures is problematic at the capsule level due to the large range of temperatures experienced by individual fuel compacts in each capsule. A comprehensive Ag 110m mass balance for the capsules was performed using measured inventories of individual compacts and the inventory on the capsule components. For most capsules, the mass balance was within 11% of the predicted inventory. The Ag-110m release from individual compacts often exhibited a very large range within a particular capsule.

  9. Three-dimensional simulations of Nova capsule implosion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Marinak, M.M.; Tipton, R.E.; Landen, O.L.

    1995-11-01

    Capsule implosion experiments carried out on the Nova laser are simulated with the three-dimensional HYDRA radiation hydrodynamics code. Simulations of ordered near single mode perturbations indicate that structures which evolve into round spikes can penetrate farthest into the hot spot. Bubble-shaped perturbations can burn through the capsule shell fastest, however, causing even more damage. Simulations of a capsule with multimode perturbations shows spike amplitudes evolving in good agreement with a saturation model during the deceleration phase. The presence of sizable low mode asymmetry, caused either by drive asymmetry or perturbations in the capsule shell, can dramatically affect the manner in which spikes approach the center of the hot spot. Three-dimensional coupling between the low mode shell perturbations intrinsic to Nova capsules and the drive asymmetry brings the simulated yields into closer agreement with the experimental values.

  10. Aerobic methane emissions from stinkweed (Thlaspi arvense) capsules

    PubMed Central

    Qaderi, Mirwais M; Reid, David M

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic methane (CH4) emission from plant vegetative parts has been confirmed by many studies. However, the origin of aerobic CH4 from plants and its emission from reproductive parts have not been well documented. We determined the effects of developmental stages (early, mid, late) and incubation conditions (darkness, dim light, bright light) on CH4 emissions from stinkweed (Thlaspi arvense) capsules. We found that CH4 emissions from capsules varied with developmental stage and incubation light. Methane emission was highest for the late harvested capsules and for those incubated under lower (dim) light condition. Our results also showed a significant negative correlation between CH4 emission and capsule moisture content. We conclude that CH4 emissions vary with capsule age and diurnal light environment. PMID:25482797

  11. Rupture of anterior lens capsule from blunt ocular injury.

    PubMed

    Banitt, Michael R; Malta, João B; Mian, Shahzad I; Soong, H Kaz

    2009-05-01

    We report 3 cases of blunt trauma causing rupture of the anterior lens capsule with cataract formation. The injuries were caused by a paintball gun, a ball-bearing air pistol, and an aluminum rivet. In all 3 cases, the anterior capsule tears were central and the posterior capsules and zonules intact; uneventful cataract extraction with implantation of an intraocular lens was performed. The postoperative visual acuities was 20/40 in 1 case and 20/20 in the other 2 cases. We propose that the anterior lens capsule may have been torn by direct contusion from rapid focal indentation of the cornea onto the lens (coup injury) or by a fluid-mechanical, anteriorly directed rebound of the vitreous, bursting open the anterior capsule (contrecoup injury).

  12. Primate lens capsule elasticity assessed using Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ziebarth, Noël M; Arrieta, Esdras; Feuer, William J; Moy, Vincent T; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to measure the elasticity of the human and non-human primate lens capsule at the microscopic scale using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Elasticity measurements were performed using AFM on the excised anterior lens capsule from 9 cynomolgus monkey (5.9-8.0 years), 8 hamadryas baboon (2.8-10.1 years), and 18 human lenses (33-79 years). Anterior capsule specimens were obtained by performing a 5 mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis and collecting the resulting disk of capsular tissue. To remove the lens epithelial cells the specimen was soaked in 0.1% trypsin and 0.02% EDTA for 5 min, washed, and placed on a Petri dish and immersed in DMEM. Elasticity measurements of the capsule were performed with a laboratory-built AFM system custom designed for force measurements of ophthalmic tissues. The capsular specimens were probed with an AFM cantilever tip to produce force-indentation curves for each specimen. Young's modulus was calculated from the force-indentation curves using the model of Sneddon for a conical indenter. Young's modulus of elasticity was 20.1-131 kPa for the human lens capsule, 9.19-117 kPa for the cynomolgus lens capsule, and 13.1-62.4 kPa for the baboon lens capsule. Young's modulus increased significantly with age in humans (p = 0.03). The age range of the monkey and baboon samples was not sufficient to justify an analysis of age dependence. The capsule elasticity of young humans (<45 years) was not statistically different from that of the monkey and baboon. In humans, there is an increase in lens capsule stiffness at the microscale that could be responsible for an increase in lens capsule bulk stiffness.

  13. A comparative study on liquid core formulation on the diameter on the alginate capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Hui-Yen; Lee, Boon-Beng; Radzi, AkmalHadi Ma'; Zakaria, Zarina; Chan, Eng-Seng

    2015-08-01

    Liquid core capsule has vast application in biotechnology related industries such as pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture and food. Formulation of different types of capsule was important to determine the performance of the capsule. Generally, the liquid core capsule with different formulations generated different size of capsule.Therefore, the aim of this project is to investigate the effect of different liquid core solution formulations on the diameter of capsule. The capsule produced by extruding liquid core solutions into sodium alginate solution. Three types of liquid core solutions (chitosan, xanthan gum, polyethylene glycol (PEG)) were investigated. The results showed that there is significant change in capsule diameter despite in different types of liquid core solution were used and a series of capsule range in diameter of 3.1 mm to 4.5 mm were produced. Alginate capsule with chitosan formulation appeared to be the largest capsule among all.

  14. Dissolution test for silymarin tablets and capsules.

    PubMed

    Campodónico, A; Collado, E; Ricci, R; Pappa, H; Segall, A; Pizzorno, M T

    2001-01-01

    Silybine (SBN), isosilybine (ISBN), silycristine (SCN), silydianine (SDN), and taxifoline (TXF) are the main active flavonoids commonly found in the dried fruits of Silybum marianum, Gaertner (Compositae). Concentrations of these compounds, except TXF, are usually expressed together as silymarin content. This paper describes a simple dissolution test developed to estimate silymarin (Sl) in pharmaceutical formulations. Five commercial products were tested using this new method (including tablets, sugar tablets, and capsules): two from Argentina, one from Brazil, one from Spain, and one from Italy. Results demonstrated that, provided the dosage form disintegrates, amounts dissolved range from 50 to 90% of the labeled value. Products were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV spectrophotometry.

  15. Gastrointestinal motility revisited: The wireless motility capsule

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Adam D; Scott, S Mark

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The wireless motility capsule (WMC) is a novel ambulatory technology that concurrently measures intraluminal pH, temperature, and pressure as it traverses the gastrointestinal tract. Objectives We aim to provide a concise summary of the WMC, detailing the procedure for its administration and the parameters it records. We also review the evidence that has validated the WMC against other methods currently regarded as ‘gold standard’. Conclusions The WMC offers a number of advantages over and above current techniques, especially with respect to patient tolerability, safety, and standardization. The WMC represents a considerable enhancement of the researchers’ and clinicians’ investigatory armamentarium. If this technology becomes widely adopted, coupled with international consensus upon the interpretation of physiological data derived therein, it may herald a new and exciting era in gastrointestinal physiology. PMID:24917991

  16. Genesis Capsule Yields Solar Wind Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Burnett, Donald S.; Stansbery, Eileen K.; McNamara, Karen M.

    2004-11-01

    NASA's Genesis capsule, carrying the first samples ever returned from beyond the Moon, took a hard landing in the western Utah desert on 8 September after its parachutes failed to deploy. Despite the impact, estimated at 310 km per hour, some valuable solar wind collector materials have been recovered. With these samples, the Genesis team members are hopeful that nearly all of the primary science goals may be met. The Genesis spacecraft was launched in August 2001 to collect and return samples of solar wind for precise isotopic and elemental analysis. The spacecraft orbited the Earth-Sun Lagrangian point (L1), ~1.5 million km sunward of the Earth, for 2.3 years. It exposed ultrapure materials-including wafers of silicon, silicon carbide, germanium, chemically deposited diamond, gold, aluminum, and metallic glass-to solar wind ions, which become embedded within the substrates' top 100 nm of these materials.

  17. Environmental Fluid Dynamics in Space Capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhaohua

    Environmental fluid dynamics began to get more and more concern recently because of its effects on indoor air quality and ventilation strategy. Our research is trying to use the tools of Environmental fluid dynamics to investigate the life support system (LSS) for manned space flight, especially for future long-term planetary exploration flight (permanent space station and lunar base, space greenhouse of controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) etc.). The PIV technique will be adopted to obtain the velocity of the flow field and dyed fluids to capture the temperature field. On the other hand, we will use the commercial software (FLUENT) to numerical simulate the same problem. The results in this work can be used to improve the ventilation efficiency, reduce the energy costs and try to make the air in space capsule less effluvial.

  18. Multilevel wireless capsule endoscopy video segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sae; Celebi, M. Emre

    2010-03-01

    Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology (FDA approved in 2002) allowing doctors to view most of the small intestine. WCE transmits more than 50,000 video frames per examination and the visual inspection of the resulting video is a highly time-consuming task even for the experienced gastroenterologist. Typically, a medical clinician spends one or two hours to analyze a WCE video. To reduce the assessment time, it is critical to develop a technique to automatically discriminate digestive organs and shots each of which consists of the same or similar shots. In this paper a multi-level WCE video segmentation methodology is presented to reduce the examination time.

  19. High speed receiver for capsule endoscope.

    PubMed

    Woo, S H; Yoon, K W; Moon, Y K; Lee, J H; Park, H J; Kim, T W; Choi, H C; Won, C H; Cho, J H

    2010-10-01

    In this study, a high-speed receiver for a capsule endoscope was proposed and implemented. The proposed receiver could receive 20 Mbps data that was sufficient to receive images with a higher resolution than conventional receivers. The receiver used a 1.2 GHz band to receive radio frequency (RF) signal, and demodulated the signal to an intermediate frequency (IF) stage (150 MHz). The demodulated signal was amplified, filtered, and under-sampled by a high-speed analog-to-digital converter (ADC). In order to decode the under-sampled data in real time, a simple frequency detection algorithm was selected and was implemented by using a FPGA. The implemented system could receive 20 Mbps data.

  20. Capsule HRB-15B postirradiation examination report

    SciTech Connect

    Ketterer, J.W.; Bullock, R.E.

    1981-06-01

    Capsule HRB-15B design tested 184 thin graphite trays containing unbonded fuel particles to peak exposures of 6.6 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/ (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/ fast fluence, approx. 27% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) fissile burnup, and 6% FIMA fertile burnup at nominal time-averaged temperatures of 815 to 915/sup 0/C. The capsule tested a variety of low-enriched uranium (approx. 19.5% U-235) fissile particle types, including UC/sub 2/, UC/sub x/O/sub y/, UO/sub 2/, zirconium-buffered UO/sub 2/ (referred to in this report as UO/sub 2//sup *), and 1:1(Th,U)O/sub 2/ with both TRISO and silicon-BISO coatings. All fertile particles were ThO/sub 2/ with BISO, silicon-BISO, or TRISO coatings. The findings indicated that all TRISO particles retained virtually all of their fission product inventories, except small quantities of silver, at these irradiation temperatures, while some of the silicon-BISO particles released significant amounts of both silver and cesium. No kernel migration, pressure vessel, or outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) failures were observed in the fuel particles, which had total diameters of < 900 ..mu..m; however, the incidence of failed OPyC coatings was found to increase with particle size in the TRISO inert particles, which had diameters of 1000 to 1200 ..mu..m. UO/sub 2//sup */ particles exhibited no detrimental irradiation effects, but they contained pure carbon precipitates in the kernels after irradiation which were not observed in the undoped UO/sub 2/ particles. Postirradiation examination revealed no differences in the irradiation performance of three UC/sub x/O/sub y/ kernel types with varying oxygen/uranium ratios.

  1. Adhesion and detachment of a capsule in axisymmetric flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keh, M. P.; Leal, L. G.

    2016-05-01

    The adhesion and detachment of a capsule on a solid boundary surface is studied via a combination of scaling theory and numerical simulation and the behavior is compared and contrasted with a vesicle. It is shown that the dominant physical property for both capsules and vesicles is the area dilation modulus Ks of the membrane. The nonzero shear modulus Gs for capsules increases the resistance to deformation and thus decreases slightly the equilibrium contact radius for an adhered capsule compared to an adhered vesicle. The detachment process in this study is due to an external axisymmetric flow. Unlike a rigid body that must be pulled away without change of shape, capsules (and vesicles) almost always detach dominantly by peeling in which the contact radius decreases but the minimum separation distance does not change until the final moments of detachment. Compared to a vesicle with the same Ks, a capsule maintains a more compact shape and is harder to elongate under a given external flow. Hence, the detachment process is slower for capsules compared to vesicles with the same Ks.

  2. Effects of powder flow properties on capsule filling weight uniformity.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Juan G; Muzzio, Fernando J

    2013-09-01

    Filling capsules with the right amount of powder ingredients is an important quality parameter. The purpose of this study was to develop effective laboratory methods for characterizing flow properties of pharmaceutical powder blends and correlating such properties to weight variability in filled capsules. The methods used for powder flow characterization were bulk and tapped density, gravitational displacement rheometer (GDR) flow index, Freeman Technology V.4 (FT4) powder rheometer compressibility, FT4 basic flow energy (BFE), and cohesion parameters [cohesion, (C) and flow factor (ffc)] measured in a shear cell also using the FT4. Capsules were filled using an MG2-G140 continuous nozzle dosator capsule-filling machine. Powder flow properties were the most predominant factors affecting the weight and weight variability in the filled capsules. Results showed that the weight variability decreased with increasing bulk and tapped density, ffc and BFE, while the weight variability increased with increasing compressibility, cohesion and GDR flow index. Powder flow properties of the final blends were significantly correlated to the final capsule weight and weight variability of the filled capsules.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Adhesive Capsulitis: Correlation with Clinical Staging

    PubMed Central

    Ciavarra, Gina A.; Hannafin, Jo A.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of adhesive capsulitis and correlate them with clinical stages of adhesive capsulitis. This will hopefully define a role for shoulder MR imaging in the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis as well as in potentially directing appropriate treatment. Forty-seven consecutive non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging examinations of 46 patients with a clinical diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with clinical staging. Specific MRI criteria correlated with the clinical stage of adhesive capsulitis, including the thickness and signal intensity of the joint capsule and synovium as well as the presence and severity of scarring in the rotator interval. Routine MRI of the shoulder without intraarticular administration of gadolinium can be used to diagnose all stages of adhesive capsulitis, including stage 1, where findings may be subtle on clinical examination. We believe that future studies assessing the role of MRI in guiding the initiation of appropriate treatment should be undertaken. PMID:18815860

  4. Cell cycle constraints on capsulation and bacteriophage susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Ardissone, Silvia; Fumeaux, Coralie; Bergé, Matthieu; Beaussart, Audrey; Théraulaz, Laurence; Radhakrishnan, Sunish Kumar; Dufrêne, Yves F; Viollier, Patrick H

    2014-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of bacterial capsules in pathogenesis, it is still unknown if systemic cues such as the cell cycle can control capsule biogenesis. In this study, we show that the capsule of the synchronizable model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is cell cycle regulated and we unearth a bacterial transglutaminase homolog, HvyA, as restriction factor that prevents capsulation in G1-phase cells. This capsule protects cells from infection by a generalized transducing Caulobacter phage (φCr30), and the loss of HvyA confers insensitivity towards φCr30. Control of capsulation during the cell cycle could serve as a simple means to prevent steric hindrance of flagellar motility or to ensure that phage-mediated genetic exchange happens before the onset of DNA replication. Moreover, the multi-layered regulatory circuitry directing HvyA expression to G1-phase is conserved during evolution, and HvyA orthologues from related Sinorhizobia can prevent capsulation in Caulobacter, indicating that alpha-proteobacteria have retained HvyA activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03587.001 PMID:25421297

  5. The capsule of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Oscar; Rodrigues, Marcio L; De Jesus, Magdia; Frases, Susana; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    The capsule of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has been studied extensively in recent decades and a large body of information is now available to the scientific community. Well-known aspects of the capsule include its structure, antigenic properties and its function as a virulence factor. The capsule is composed primarily of two polysaccharides, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) and galactoxylomannan (GalXM), in addition to a smaller proportion of mannoproteins (MPs). Most of the studies on the composition of the capsule have focused on GXM, which comprises more than 90% of the capsule's polysaccharide mass. It is GalXM, however, that is of particular scientific interest because of its immunological properties. The molecular structure of these polysaccharides is very complex and has not yet been fully elucidated. Both GXM and GalXM are high molecular mass polymers with the mass of GXM equaling roughly 10 times that of GalXM. Recent findings suggest, however, that the actual molecular weight might be different to what it has traditionally been thought to be. In addition to their structural roles in the polysaccharide capsule, these molecules have been associated with many deleterious effects on the immune response. Capsular components are therefore considered key virulence determinants in C. neoformans, which has motivated their use in vaccines and made them targets for monoclonal antibody treatments. In this review, we will provide an update on the current knowledge of the C. neoformans capsule, covering aspects related to its structure, synthesis and particularly, its role as a virulence factor.

  6. The capsule of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Zaragoza, Oscar; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; De Jesus, Magdia; Frases, Susana; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    The capsule of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has been studied extensively in recent decades, and a large body of information is now available to the scientific community. Well-known aspects of the capsule include its structure, antigenic properties and its function as a virulence factor. The capsule is composed primarily of two polysaccharides, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) and galactoxylomannan (GalXM), in addition to a smaller proportion of mannoproteins (MP). Most of the studies on the composition of the capsule have focused on GXM, which comprises more than 90% of the capsule's polysaccharide mass. It is GalXM, however, that is of particular scientific interest because of its immunological properties. The molecular structure of these polysaccharides is very complex and has not yet been fully elucidated. Both GXM and GalXM are high molecular mass polymers with the mass of GXM equaling roughly 10 times that of GalXM. Recent findings suggest, however, that the actual Mw might be different to what it has traditionally been thought to be. In addition to their structural roles in the polysaccharide capsule, these molecules have been associated with many deleterious effects on the immune response. Capsular components are therefore considered key virulence determinants in Cryptococcus neoformans, which has motivated their use in vaccines and made them targets for monoclonal antibody treatments. In this review we will provide an update on the current knowledge of the C. neoformans capsule, covering aspects related to its structure, synthesis, and particularly, its role as a virulence factor. PMID:19426855

  7. Emerging Issues and Future Developments in Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Slawinski, Piotr R.; Obstein, Keith L.; Valdastri, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) has transformed from a research venture into a widely used clinical tool and the primary means for diagnosing small bowel pathology. These orally administered capsules traverse passively through the gastrointestinal tract via peristalsis and are used in the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and colon. The primary focus of CE research in recent years has been enabling active CE manipulation and extension of the technology to therapeutic functionality; thus, widening the scope of the procedure. This review outlines clinical standards of the technology as well as recent advances in CE research. Clinical capsule applications are discussed with respect to each portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Promising research efforts are presented with an emphasis on enabling active capsule locomotion. The presented studies suggest, in particular, that the most viable solution for active capsule manipulation is actuation of a capsule via exterior permanent magnet held by a robot. Developing capsule procedures adhering to current healthcare standards, such as enabling a tool channel or irrigation in a therapeutic device, is a vital phase in the adaptation of CE in the clinical setting. PMID:26028956

  8. Elastic capsule deformation in general irrotational linear flows

    PubMed Central

    Szatmary, Alex C.; Eggleton, Charles D.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the response of elastic capsules to imposed fluid flow is necessary for predicting deformation and motion of biological cells and synthetic capsules in microfluidic devices and in the microcirculation. Capsules have been studied in shear, planar extensional, and axisymmetric extensional flows. Here, the flow gradient matrix of a general irrotational linear flow is characterized by two parameters, its strain rate, defined as the maximum of the principal strain rates, and by a new term, q, the difference in the two lesser principal strain rates, scaled by the maximum principal strain rate; this characterization is valid for ellipsoids in irrotational linear flow, and it gives good results for spheres in general linear flows at low capillary numbers. We demonstrate that deformable non-spherical particles align with the principal axes of an imposed irrotational flow. Thus, it is most practical to model deformation of non-spherical particles already aligned with the flow, rather than considering each arbitrary orientation. Capsule deformation was modeled for a sphere, a prolate spheroid, and an oblate spheroid, subjected to combinations of uniaxial, biaxial, and planar extensional flows; modeling was performed using the immersed boundary method. The time response of each capsule to each flow was found, as were the steady-state deformation factor, mean strain energy, and surface area. For a given capillary number, planar flows led to more deformation than uniaxial or biaxial extensional flows. Capsule behavior in all cases was bounded by the response of capsules to uniaxial, biaxial, and planar extensional flow. PMID:23426110

  9. In vitro study on sustained release capsule formulation of acetazolamide.

    PubMed

    Pandey, V P; Kannan, K; Manavalan, R; Desai, N

    2003-10-01

    In the present study formulation of sustained release capsule of acetazolamide 250 mg was tried using nonpareil seeds. Nonpareil seeds were coated with drug, polyvinylpyrrolidone, glyceryl monostearate, microcrystalline wax, and glyceryl distearate either individually or in combination to achieve sustained release capsule 250 mg. In successful formulation 20% drug coated pellets and 80% wax coated pellets were taken. Wax coated pellets for successful formulation contained coating of microcrystalline wax and glyceryl distearate on drug coated pellets of the same concentration of 1.6% w/w. Successful formulated sustained release capsule 250 mg of acetazolamide was compared in in vitro study with theoretical sustained release formulation suggested by wagner and one marketed sustained release capsule 250 mg. Formulated capsule showed result superior to or on par with marketed capsule. For successful formulation pellets were filled in '1' size hard gelatin capsule and stability study was carried out in hot air over at room temperature and 45 degrees C for 5 weeks. The formulation was found stable in respect of drug content and release rate.

  10. Direct Drive Beryllium Ablator Capsules for the Omega Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, P. A.; Wilson, D. C.; Cobble, J. A.; Murphy, T. J.; Cooley, J. C.; Salazar, M. A.; Rivera Nobile, G., Jr.

    2001-10-01

    We are designing direct drive beryllium ablator capsules for the Omega laser as part of our effort to develop beryllium ablator ignition capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The main goals for this experimental campaign is to develop the fabrication expertise for roughly NIF size capsules and obtain experimental data on how the copper- brazed joint between the beryllium hemispheres affects the implosion. Our proposed design calls for an 1180 micron outisde diameter capsule with 40 micron thick beryllium walls containing 50 atm of deuterium gas. Some of the capsules will also have 0.05 atm of argon. We plan to image the joints with argon fluorescence from inside the capsule. Our plan is to use a 1 ns square pulse with 30 kJ of laser energy. With this drive, we expect the convergence ratio to be about 6.5 to 7. Depending on the capsule design details, we expect that the peak temperature will be 490 ± 40 eV, and the neutron yield will be anywhere from 1× 10^8 to 8× 10^8 neutrons. Some of the uncertainty comes from whether or not we use argon and questions about how much mix the copper-brazed joint will cause. The yield also depends strongly on which beryllium alloy we use. We calculate better implosions in direct drive with pure beryllium, but requirements on allowable grain size may force us to use copper-doped beryllium, which would reduce the yield by about 50%.

  11. Reduced Compression and Yield for Direct Drive ICF Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrala, George; Benage, John; Dodd, Evan; Wilson, Douglas

    2010-11-01

    We report on a series of experiments conducted at the LLE's Omega Laser to study the effect of high z dopant gases on the performance of D2 filled capsules. The experiments all consisted of thin, ˜ 4.5 microns, glass capsules filled with 7-10 atm. of gas that were imploded using the direct drive laser beams at Omega. The laser conditions for these experiments were 1 ns flat pulses with a total energy of ˜ 23 kJ. The typical implosion times were ˜ 1.3 ns and yields ranged from 10^9 neutrons to > 10^11 neutrons. The capsules were doped with varying levels of Kr gas and also in several cases contained He3. A key finding of these experiments was that the capsules did not reach the full compression predicted by simulation. Specifically, we found that the capsule diameter matched the simulation until the time when the main reflected shock reached the shell. After that time, the capsule diameter is measured to be larger than predicted. In this presentation, we quantify the effect of this reduced compression on the yield of the capsule.

  12. Solid State Stability of Extemporaneously Prepared Levothyroxine Aliquots and Capsules.

    PubMed

    Fortner, Jeff; Salton, Jason; Carlson, Christie; Wheeler, Rich; Cote, Brianna; Rao, Deepa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect, analyze, and compare stability data for levothyroxine (T4) powder in the anhydrous and pentahydrate form when prepared as an aliquot and in capsules. Two different compounding pharmacies, Central Iowa Compounding and Gateway Medical Pharmacy, used different forms of T4 and aliquot formulations, which were studied to determine the beyond-use date at ±5% or ±10% of labeled strength. T4 was extracted from aliquot and capsule formulations and assessed using reverse-phase high- performance liquid chromatography validated to differentiate between the degraded and original forms of T4. The results indicate that T4 1:100 aliquot formulation prepared with silica gel or Avicel as filler are stable for 120 days at ±10% labeled potency, but at ±5% labeled potency, the silica gel and Avicel aliquot formulations are stable for 45 and 30 days, respectively. The silica gel capsules prepared from fresh aliquot were stable for 120 days at ±10% labeled potency and 90 days at ±5% labeled potency, while the Avicel capsules prepared from fresh aliquot were stable for 180 days at both ±10% and ±5% labeled potency. Avicel capsules prepared from old aliquot (120 days) and fresh aliquot (1 day) were also compared for stability. The old aliquot Avicel capsules were stable for 14 days at ±5% labeled potency and 150 days at ±10% labeled potency, while new aliquot Avicel capsules were stable for 180 days at both ±10% and ±5% labeled potency. Based on our data, there can be significant variation in the beyond-use dates assigned to T4 capsules based on the diluents used for aliquots, the final capsule formulations, and the potency standards applied. These results also indicate that pharmacists must exercise caution when using older aliquots and may have to assign shorter beyond-use dates.

  13. [Video capsule endoscopy in the diagnostics of small intestine diseases].

    PubMed

    Nakatis, Ia A; Borisov, A E; Kashchenko, V A; Sishkova, E A; Raspereza, D V; Lobach, S M; Tiniakova, T V; Pavlov, A V

    2008-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy is a safe and noninvasive, well-endurable method of the direct visual inspection of the whole of the small intestine. The most frequent indications for video capsule endoscopy are the diagnostics of latent gastro-intestinal bleedings, angiodysplasias, Crohn disease, celiac disease, syndromes of hereditary polyposis and tumors of the small intestine. The authors describe the first experience of using this new method in the domestic clinical practice. Data concerning the diagnostics of lesions of the small intestine by the method of video capsule endoscopy as well as the wide range of lesions of the mucous membrane in different diseases of the small intestine are presented.

  14. Subphthalocyanines hydrogen bonded capsules featuring norbornadiene tethers: Promising fullerene receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, Pablo A.; Yanney, Michael

    2015-11-01

    We have employed density functional theory to study new subphthalocyanine based receptors which feature the 1,4-dithiino and norbornadiene linkages. The latter linkage significantly improves the host binding capabilities with respect to subphthalocyanine based receptors. Moreover, the interaction energy of the new subphthalocyanine-norbornadiene receptor is larger than that computed for the C60H28 buckycatcher. The dimerization of the new receptor forms a hydrogen-bonded capsule. Through a combination of non-bonded interactions, this capsule can bind C60 with an unprecedented affinity. Due to the exceptional stability of this capsule, it is our hope that it can be used for other guests besides fullerenes.

  15. Characterisation of two AGATA asymmetric high purity germanium capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colosimo, S. J.; Moon, S.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Judson, D. S.; Lazarus, I. H.; Nolan, P. J.; Simpson, J.; Unsworth, C.

    2015-02-01

    The AGATA spectrometer is an array of highly segmented high purity germanium detectors. The spectrometer uses pulse shape analysis in order to track Compton scattered γ-rays to increase the efficiency of nuclear spectroscopy studies. The characterisation of two high purity germanium detector capsules for AGATA of the same A-type has been performed at the University of Liverpool. This work will examine the uniformity of performance of the two capsules, including a comparison of the resolution and efficiency as well as a study of charge collection. The performance of the capsules shows good agreement, which is essential for the efficient operation of the γ-ray tracking array.

  16. Design and synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid capsules for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiafu; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Hong; Yang, Dong; Pan, Fusheng; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2014-08-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid capsules, which typically possess a hollow lumen and a hybrid wall, have emerged as a novel and promising class of hybrid materials and have attracted enormous attention. In comparison to polymeric capsules or inorganic capsules, the hybrid capsules combine the intrinsic physical/chemical properties of the organic and inorganic moieties, acquire more degrees of freedom to manipulate multiple interactions, create hierarchical structures and integrate multiple functionalities. Thus, the hybrid capsules exhibit superior mechanical strength (vs. polymeric capsules) and diverse functionalities (vs. inorganic capsules), which may give new opportunities to produce high-performance materials. Much effort has been devoted to exploring innovative and effective methods for the synthesis of hybrid capsules that exhibit desirable performance in target applications. This tutorial review firstly presents a brief description of the capsular structure and hybrid materials in nature, then classifies the hybrid capsules into molecule-hybrid capsules and nano-hybrid capsules based upon the size of the organic and inorganic moieties in the capsule wall, followed by a detailed discussion of the design and synthesis of the hybrid capsules. For each kind of hybrid capsule, the state-of-the-art synthesis methods are described in detail and a critical comment is embedded. The applications of these hybrid capsules in biotechnological areas (biocatalysis, drug delivery, etc.) have also been summarized. Hopefully, this review will offer a perspective and guidelines for the future research and development of hybrid capsules.

  17. Nanoparticle-Stabilized Capsules for the Treatment of Bacterial Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Bradley; Li, Xiaoning; Landis, Ryan F; Kim, Sung Tae; Gupta, Akash; Wang, Li-Sheng; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Tang, Rui; Boerth, Jeffrey A; Rotello, Vincent M

    2015-08-25

    Bacterial biofilms are widely associated with persistent infections. High resistance to conventional antibiotics and prevalent virulence makes eliminating these bacterial communities challenging therapeutic targets. We describe here the fabrication of a nanoparticle-stabilized capsule with a multicomponent core for the treatment of biofilms. The peppermint oil and cinnamaldehyde combination that comprises the core of the capsules act as potent antimicrobial agents. An in situ reaction at the oil/water interface between the nanoparticles and cinnamaldehyde structurally augments the capsules to efficiently deliver the essential oil payloads, effectively eradicating biofilms of clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria strains. In contrast to their antimicrobial action, the capsules selectively promoted fibroblast proliferation in a mixed bacteria/mammalian cell system making them promising for wound healing applications. PMID:26083534

  18. Mechanical properties of liquid-filled shellac composite capsules.

    PubMed

    Leick, Sabine; Kott, Maureen; Degen, Patrick; Henning, Stefan; Päsler, Tobias; Suter, Dieter; Rehage, Heinz

    2011-02-21

    This paper describes the mechanical properties of thin-walled, liquid-filled composite capsules consisting of calcium pectinate and shellac. In a series of experiments we measured the deformation of these particles in a spinning drop apparatus. For different pH-values we studied the elastic properties of these particles and compared the obtained results with the mechanical response measured by squeezing capsule experiments. In analogy to these experiments, we also investigated liquid-filled unloaded calcium pectinate capsules without the addition of shellac. The deformation properties of these experiments and the surface Young moduli were in good agreement. Furthermore we investigated the liquid-filled calcium pectinate and the composite capsules by NMR microscopy. These experiments allowed investigations of the membrane thickness and the kinetics of membrane growing. Additional characterizations by stress controlled small amplitude surface shear experiments of similar composed gel layers provided coherent results for the surface Young modulus.

  19. Nanoparticle-Stabilized Capsules for the Treatment of Bacterial Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Bradley; Li, Xiaoning; Landis, Ryan F; Kim, Sung Tae; Gupta, Akash; Wang, Li-Sheng; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Tang, Rui; Boerth, Jeffrey A; Rotello, Vincent M

    2015-08-25

    Bacterial biofilms are widely associated with persistent infections. High resistance to conventional antibiotics and prevalent virulence makes eliminating these bacterial communities challenging therapeutic targets. We describe here the fabrication of a nanoparticle-stabilized capsule with a multicomponent core for the treatment of biofilms. The peppermint oil and cinnamaldehyde combination that comprises the core of the capsules act as potent antimicrobial agents. An in situ reaction at the oil/water interface between the nanoparticles and cinnamaldehyde structurally augments the capsules to efficiently deliver the essential oil payloads, effectively eradicating biofilms of clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria strains. In contrast to their antimicrobial action, the capsules selectively promoted fibroblast proliferation in a mixed bacteria/mammalian cell system making them promising for wound healing applications.

  20. Description and nomenclature of Neisseria meningitidis capsule locus.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Odile B; Claus, Heike; Jiang, Ying; Bennett, Julia S; Bratcher, Holly B; Jolley, Keith A; Corton, Craig; Care, Rory; Poolman, Jan T; Zollinger, Wendell D; Frasch, Carl E; Stephens, David S; Feavers, Ian; Frosch, Matthias; Parkhill, Julian; Vogel, Ulrich; Quail, Michael A; Bentley, Stephen D; Maiden, Martin C J

    2013-04-01

    Pathogenic Neisseria meningitidis isolates contain a polysaccharide capsule that is the main virulence determinant for this bacterium. Thirteen capsular polysaccharides have been described, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has enabled determination of the structure of capsular polysaccharides responsible for serogroup specificity. Molecular mechanisms involved in N. meningitidis capsule biosynthesis have also been identified, and genes involved in this process and in cell surface translocation are clustered at a single chromosomal locus termed cps. The use of multiple names for some of the genes involved in capsule synthesis, combined with the need for rapid diagnosis of serogroups commonly associated with invasive meningococcal disease, prompted a requirement for a consistent approach to the nomenclature of capsule genes. In this report, a comprehensive description of all N. meningitidis serogroups is provided, along with a proposed nomenclature, which was presented at the 2012 XVIIIth International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference.

  1. The longest duration of retention of a video capsule.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Chris; Rodgers, Colin

    2014-07-08

    An underweight 15-year-old boy had a video capsule endoscopy (VCE) to investigate iron deficient anaemia associated with elevated platelet and white cell counts. The suspicion was of subclinical small bowel Crohn's disease after the findings of a radiolabelled white cell scan. The VCE in May 2007 found patchy inflammation and superficial ulcers in the terminal ileum consistent with Crohn's disease. By March 2008, the patient remained asymptomatic but the capsule had not passed. He was treated with steroids to improve the inflammation and allow the capsule to pass. This was unsuccessful. Abdominal X-rays appeared to show that it was in the rectum. CT of the abdomen and pelvis in July 2012 showed that it was actually in the mid-distal ileum within a mass of inflamed and matted small bowel loops. He was last reviewed in March 2014. He has now retained the capsule asymptomatically for 6 years and 10 months.

  2. 52. CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE SITTING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE SITTING ON TOP OF THE REDSTONE ROCKET IN THE TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  3. 50. HISTORIC CLOSEUP VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. HISTORIC CLOSE-UP VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE ON THE GROUND BEFORE BEING HOISTED ON TOP OF THE REDSTONE ROCKET. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  4. Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit previews at Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Children on a tour at the KSC Visitor Complex get an early look at the Discovery Channel's Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit, which opens to the public on Saturday, June 17. They are on a re- creation of the deck of Ocean Project, the ship that located and recovered the space capsule from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. Liberty Bell 7 launched U.S. Air Force Captain Virgil '''Gus''' Grissom July 21, 1961, on a mission that lasted 15 minutes and 37 seconds before sinking. It lay undetected for nearly four decades before a Discovery Channel expedition located it and recovered it. The space capsule, now restored and preserved, is part of an interactive exhibit touring science centers and museums in 12 cities throughout the United States until 2003. The exhibit also includes hands-on elements such as a capsule simulator, a centrifuge, and ROV pilot.

  5. Diamagnetically-stabilized levitation control of an intraluminal magnetic capsule.

    PubMed

    Lam, Michael; Mintchev, Martin P

    2008-01-01

    Controlled navigation promotes full utilization of capsule endoscopy for reliable real-time diagnosis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but intermittent natural peristalsis can disturb the navigational control, destabilize the capsule and take it out of levitation. A real-size magnetic navigation system that can handle peristaltic forces of up to 1.5 N was designed utilizing the computer-aided design (CAD) system Maxwell 3D (Ansoft, Pittsburg, PA), and was verified using a small-size physical experimental setup. The proposed system contains a pair of 50-cm in diameter, 10,000-turns copper electromagnets with a 10-cm by 10-cm ferrous core driven by currents of up to 300 Amperes and can successfully maintain position control over the levitating capsule during peristalsis. The addition of Bismuth diamagnetic casing for stabilizing the levitating capsule was also studied. PMID:19163990

  6. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule.

  7. Capsule endoscopy of the future: What's on the horizon?

    PubMed

    Slawinski, Piotr R; Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2015-10-01

    Capsule endoscopes have evolved from passively moving diagnostic devices to actively moving systems with potential therapeutic capability. In this review, we will discuss the state of the art, define the current shortcomings of capsule endoscopy, and address research areas that aim to overcome said shortcomings. Developments in capsule mobility schemes are emphasized in this text, with magnetic actuation being the most promising endeavor. Research groups are working to integrate sensor data and fuse it with robotic control to outperform today's standard invasive procedures, but in a less intrusive manner. With recent advances in areas such as mobility, drug delivery, and therapeutics, we foresee a translation of interventional capsule technology from the bench-top to the clinical setting within the next 10 years.

  8. Constraining fundamental plasma physics processes using doped capsule implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbett, W. J.; James, S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Wilson, D. C.; Benage, J.; Wysocki, F. J.; Gunderson, M.; Frenje, J.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V. Y.; Yaakobi, B.

    2008-05-01

    A standard technique in inertial confinement fusion research is the use of low levels of spectroscopic dopants as a passive diagnostic of fuel conditions. Using higher dopant levels it becomes possible to modify the plasma conditions. Doped capsule experiments may thus provide a way to control and study fundamental plasma physics processes in the inertial fusion regime. As a precursor to eventual experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we have performed a series of capsule implosions using the Omega laser. These are intended to guide the modelling of high-Z dopants and explore the feasibility of using such capsule implosions for quantitative physics experiments. We have fielded thin glass shells filled with D-He3 fuel and varying levels of Ar, Kr and Xe dopants. X-ray emission spectroscopy is combined with simultaneous measurements of primary neutron and proton yields and energy spectra in an attempt to fully constrain capsule behaviour.

  9. Capsule endoscopy of the future: What's on the horizon?

    PubMed

    Slawinski, Piotr R; Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2015-10-01

    Capsule endoscopes have evolved from passively moving diagnostic devices to actively moving systems with potential therapeutic capability. In this review, we will discuss the state of the art, define the current shortcomings of capsule endoscopy, and address research areas that aim to overcome said shortcomings. Developments in capsule mobility schemes are emphasized in this text, with magnetic actuation being the most promising endeavor. Research groups are working to integrate sensor data and fuse it with robotic control to outperform today's standard invasive procedures, but in a less intrusive manner. With recent advances in areas such as mobility, drug delivery, and therapeutics, we foresee a translation of interventional capsule technology from the bench-top to the clinical setting within the next 10 years. PMID:26457013

  10. 24. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ENTRANCE TO ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. SHOCK ISOLATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ENTRANCE TO ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. SHOCK ISOLATOR AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  11. 31. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. LOOKING TOWARD BLAST DOOR AND TUNNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. LOOKING TOWARD BLAST DOOR AND TUNNEL VESTIBULE. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  12. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule. PMID:27254279

  13. Deformation of an elastic capsule in a uniform electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyappa, Rahul B.; Deshmukh, Shivraj. D.; Thaokar, Rochish. M.

    2014-12-01

    The deformation of a thin elastic capsule subjected to a uniform electric field is investigated in the Stokes flow regime. The electrohydrodynamic flow is analyzed using a perfect conductor and a perfect dielectric model for the capsule and the fluid phase, respectively. A theoretical analysis is carried out using an asymptotic expansion in the electric capillary number (Ca) (a ratio of the electric stress to the elastic tension) in the small deformation limit using the finite deformation Hooke's law. The analysis is used to determine the elasticity of polysiloxane capsules suspended in oil, the deformation of which is obtained using videography. The boundary element method is implemented to seek numerical solutions to the hydrodynamic, elastic, and electrostatics equations. The finite deformation Hooke's law, the Mooney-Rivlin, and Skalak's model for elasticity are employed. The effect of electric capillary number, unstressed geometry, and the type of membrane material on the deformation of a capsule is presented in the high Ca number limit using numerical simulation. Capsules synthesized with higher monomer concentration displayed electric stress induced wrinkling process at high electric field strengths. Burst of a capsule is characterized by poration of the polymer membrane, which could be symmetric or asymmetric at the two poles, depending upon the value of the capillary number. The results should be useful in understanding the response of elastic capsules such as red blood cells and polymerized membranes, to an electric field, in applications such as electrodeformation and electroporation. It also provides a theoretical framework for a possible way of determining the elastic parameters of a capsule.

  14. A chromogenic molecular capsule attributable to dipolar amide resonance structure.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeon Sil; Park, Juwan; Paek, Kyungsoo

    2015-04-01

    A new chromogenic, self-assembled molecular capsule G@22 is developed by introducing four (N,N-dimethyl-4-aminophenyl) azobenzyl moieties on the upper rim of a resorcin[4]arene-based amidoimino-cavitand. The tuning of conjugation between amido and (N,N-dimethyl-4-aminophenyl)azobenzyl groups by acid-base titration allows naked-eye detection of molecular capsule formation. PMID:25740710

  15. Benchtop Delivery of Ni(cod)2 using Paraffin Capsules.

    PubMed

    Dander, Jacob E; Weires, Nicholas A; Garg, Neil K

    2016-08-01

    A facile method that allows for Ni(cod)2 to be used on the benchtop is reported. The procedure involves the preparation of paraffin-Ni(cod)2 capsules, which are stable to air and moisture. It is demonstrated that these readily available capsules can be used to promote a range of Ni(cod)2-catalyzed transformations. These studies are expected to promote the further use of Ni(cod)2 in organic synthesis.

  16. Tacrolimus-Induced Intestinal Angioedema: Diagnosis by Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zvidi, I.; Gal, E.; Rachamimov, R.; Niv, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Small intestinal angioedema has been reported with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors therapy, but not in implanted patients treated with tacrolimus. We present a kidney transplanted patient, hospitalized with severe diarrhea, diagnosed with tacrolimus-induced intestinal angioedema with abdominal computerized tomography and capsule endoscopy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first described case of tacrolimus-induced small bowel angioedema diagnosed with capsule endoscopy. PMID:20376210

  17. Simulating Space Capsule Water Landing with Explicit Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2007-01-01

    A study of using an explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element code for simulating the water landing of a space capsule was performed. The finite element model contains Lagrangian shell elements for the space capsule and Eulerian solid elements for the water and air. An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) solver and a penalty coupling method were used for predicting the fluid and structure interaction forces. The space capsule was first assumed to be rigid, so the numerical results could be correlated with closed form solutions. The water and air meshes were continuously refined until the solution was converged. The converged maximum deceleration predicted is bounded by the classical von Karman and Wagner solutions and is considered to be an adequate solution. The refined water and air meshes were then used in the models for simulating the water landing of a capsule model that has a flexible bottom. For small pitch angle cases, the maximum deceleration from the flexible capsule model was found to be significantly greater than the maximum deceleration obtained from the corresponding rigid model. For large pitch angle cases, the difference between the maximum deceleration of the flexible model and that of its corresponding rigid model is smaller. Test data of Apollo space capsules with a flexible heat shield qualitatively support the findings presented in this paper.

  18. The Elastic Properties of the Cryptococcus neoformans Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Frases, Susana; Pontes, Bruno; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Viana, Nathan B.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Microbial capsules are important for virulence, but their architecture and physical properties are poorly understood. The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has a large polysaccharide capsule that is necessary for virulence and is the target of protective antibody responses. To study the C. neoformans capsule we developed what we believe is a new approach whereby we probed the capsular elastic properties by applying forces using polystyrene beads manipulated with optical tweezers. This method allowed us to determine the Young's modulus for the capsule in various conditions that affect capsule growth. The results indicate that the Young's modulus of the capsule decreases with its size and increases with the Ca2+ concentration in solution. Also, capsular polysaccharide manifests an unexpected affinity for polystyrene beads, a property that may function in attachment to host cells and environmental structures. Bead probing with optical tweezers provides a new, nondestructive method that may have wide applicability for studying the effects of growth conditions, immune components, and drugs on capsular properties. PMID:19686640

  19. The elastic properties of the Cryptococcus neoformans capsule.

    PubMed

    Frases, Susana; Pontes, Bruno; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Viana, Nathan B; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-08-19

    Microbial capsules are important for virulence, but their architecture and physical properties are poorly understood. The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has a large polysaccharide capsule that is necessary for virulence and is the target of protective antibody responses. To study the C. neoformans capsule we developed what we believe is a new approach whereby we probed the capsular elastic properties by applying forces using polystyrene beads manipulated with optical tweezers. This method allowed us to determine the Young's modulus for the capsule in various conditions that affect capsule growth. The results indicate that the Young's modulus of the capsule decreases with its size and increases with the Ca(2+) concentration in solution. Also, capsular polysaccharide manifests an unexpected affinity for polystyrene beads, a property that may function in attachment to host cells and environmental structures. Bead probing with optical tweezers provides a new, nondestructive method that may have wide applicability for studying the effects of growth conditions, immune components, and drugs on capsular properties.

  20. Regional Variation Is Present in Elbow Capsules after Injury

    PubMed Central

    Germscheid, Niccole M.; Hildebrand, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    Myofibroblast numbers and α-smooth muscle actin expression are increased in anterior joint capsules of patients with posttraumatic elbow contractures. The purpose of our study was to determine whether these changes occur regionally or throughout the entire joint capsule. We hypothesized that the α-smooth muscle actin mRNA expression and the myofibroblast numbers in posterior joint capsules would be elevated in elbows obtained from patients with posttraumatic joint contractures compared with joint capsules obtained from organ donor elbows without contractures. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate relative mRNA levels of α-smooth muscle actin. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was used to normalize the levels. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to determine the myofibroblast cell numbers. Higher α-smooth muscle actin mRNA levels were observed in elbows of patients with contractures compared with organ donor elbows without contractures. Immunohistochemical studies determined that myofibroblast numbers and the percentage of total cells that were myofibroblasts were elevated (2–2.5-fold) in the joint capsules from patients with posttraumatic joint contractures compared with similar tissue obtained from organ donor elbows without contractures. These results suggest elevated myofibroblast numbers occur throughout the whole joint capsule in posttraumatic elbow contractures, although there is some regional variation. PMID:17001766

  1. A UWB wireless capsule endoscopy device.

    PubMed

    Thotahewa, Kasun M S; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2014-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) presents many advantages over traditional wired endoscopic methods. The performance of WCE devices can be improved using high-frequency communication systems such as Impulse Radio-Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) to enable a high data rate transmission with low-power consumption. This paper presents the hardware implementation and experimental evaluation of a WCE device that uses IR-UWB signals in the frequency range of 3.5 GHz to 4.5 GHz to transmit image data from inside the body to a receiver placed outside the body. Key components of the IR-UWB transmitter, such as the narrow pulse generator and up-conversion based RF section are described in detail. This design employs a narrowband receiver in the WCE device to receive a control signal externally in order to control and improve the data transmission from the device in the body. The design and performance of a wideband implantable antenna that operates in the aforementioned frequency range is also described. The operation of the WCE device is demonstrated through a proof-of-concept experiment using meat. PMID:25571601

  2. Internal capsule stroke in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Puentes, S; Kaido, T; Hanakawa, T; Ichinohe, N; Otsuki, T; Seki, K

    2015-01-22

    White matter (WM) impairment and motor deficit after stroke are directly related. However, WM injury mechanisms and their relation to motor disturbances are still poorly understood. In humans, the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) irrigates the internal capsule (IC), and stroke to this region can induce isolated motor impairment. The goal of this study was to analyze whether AChA occlusion can injure the IC in the marmoset monkey. The vascular distribution of the marmoset brain was examined by colored latex perfusion and revealed high resemblance to the human brain anatomy. Next, a new approach to electrocoagulate the AChA was developed and chronic experiments showed infarction compromising the IC on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning (day 4) and histology (day 11). Behavioral analysis was performed using a neurologic score previously developed and our own scoring method. Marmosets showed a decreased score that was still evident at day 10 after AChA electrocoagulation. We developed a new approach able to induce damage to the marmoset IC that may be useful for the detailed study of WM impairment and behavioral changes after stroke in the nonhuman primate.

  3. Capsule Endoscopy for Portal Hypertensive Enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seong Ran; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2016-01-01

    Portal hypertensive enteropathy (PHE) is a mucosal abnormality of the small bowel that is observed in patients with portal hypertension (PH) and can lead to gastrointestinal bleeding and anemia. The pathogenesis is still not completely understood. The introduction of new endoscopic methods, including capsule endoscopy (CE) or balloon-assisted enteroscopy, has increased the detection of these abnormalities. CE can also serve as a road map for deciding subsequent interventions and evaluating the treatment effect. The prevalence of PHE is reportedly 40-70% in patients with PH. Endoscopic findings can be roughly divided into vascular and nonvascular lesions such as inflammatory-like lesions. Traditionally, PHE-associated factors include large esophageal varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy or colopathy, Child-Turcotte-Pugh class B or C, a history of variceal treatment, and acute gastrointestinal bleeding. More recently, on using scoring systems, a high computed tomography or transient elastography score was reportedly PHE-related factors. However, the prevalence of PHE and its related associated factors remain controversial. The management of PHE has not yet been standardized. It should be individualized according to each patient's situation, the availability of therapy, and each institutional expertise. PMID:26819613

  4. Sputter deposited beryllium fuel capsules for NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, C.S.

    1998-02-12

    The objective of our effort is to systematically study the properties of films produced under different conditions, with an emphasis on improving surface morphology and microstructure while studying permeability and capsule strength. We have made extensive use of atomic force and electron microscopy to determine the microstructure of the films, along with composition probes (mainly x-ray fluorescence) to quantify the chemical structure. Our studies can be roughly divided into three categories. First, there are those in which the effects of substrate biasing have been investigated. This includes varying the substrate voltage from 0 to 120 V and applying an intermittent bias. Next there are studies of Be combined with boron, a non-soluble dopant Because of it`s low Z this dopant is of particular interest for x-ray related applications. Finally, there are experiments in which pulses of nitrogen are admitted to the vacuum chamber during deposition. The layers of nitride formed tended to disrupt the growth of Be grains, leading to a more fine-grained microstructure. For all these studies, we have most often used hollow plastic spheres for our substrate material. However, there have been some samples deposited on glass spheres or silicon flats.

  5. Orion Capsule Handling Qualities for Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigges, Michael A.; Bihari, Brian D.; Stephens, John-Paul; Vos, Gordon A.; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Law, Howard G.; Johnson, Wyatt; Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted at NASA's Johnson Space Center using the Cooper-Harper scale to study the handling qualities of the Orion Command Module capsule during atmospheric entry flight. The simulations were conducted using high fidelity 6-DOF simulators for Lunar Return Skip Entry and International Space Station Return Direct Entry flight using bank angle steering commands generated by either the Primary (PredGuid) or Backup (PLM) guidance algorithms. For both evaluations, manual control of bank angle began after descending through Entry Interface into the atmosphere until drogue chutes deployment. Pilots were able to use defined bank management and reversal criteria to accurately track the bank angle commands, and stay within flight performance metrics of landing accuracy, g-loads, and propellant consumption, suggesting that the pilotability of Orion under manual control is both achievable and provides adequate trajectory performance with acceptable levels of pilot effort. Another significant result of these analyses is the applicability of flying a complex entry task under high speed entry flight conditions relevant to the next generation Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle return from Mars and Near Earth Objects.

  6. Internal capsule stroke in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Puentes, S; Kaido, T; Hanakawa, T; Ichinohe, N; Otsuki, T; Seki, K

    2015-01-22

    White matter (WM) impairment and motor deficit after stroke are directly related. However, WM injury mechanisms and their relation to motor disturbances are still poorly understood. In humans, the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) irrigates the internal capsule (IC), and stroke to this region can induce isolated motor impairment. The goal of this study was to analyze whether AChA occlusion can injure the IC in the marmoset monkey. The vascular distribution of the marmoset brain was examined by colored latex perfusion and revealed high resemblance to the human brain anatomy. Next, a new approach to electrocoagulate the AChA was developed and chronic experiments showed infarction compromising the IC on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning (day 4) and histology (day 11). Behavioral analysis was performed using a neurologic score previously developed and our own scoring method. Marmosets showed a decreased score that was still evident at day 10 after AChA electrocoagulation. We developed a new approach able to induce damage to the marmoset IC that may be useful for the detailed study of WM impairment and behavioral changes after stroke in the nonhuman primate. PMID:25453768

  7. [Anticonvulsant and psychotropic effects of topamax capsules].

    PubMed

    Kalinin, V V; Zheleznova, E V; Sokolova, L V; Zemlianaia, A A

    2009-01-01

    Anticonvulsant and psychotropic effects of "Topamax capsules"(TC) were compared to a traditional form of topiramate (TFT) and some other anticonvulsant drugs (ACD). Thirty-six patients (12 men and 24 women) with partial temporary epilepsy were examined. Sixteen patients received TFT in tablets and 20 patients received ACD before the beginning of the study. Drug effect was assessed by frequency of seizures and some neuropsychiatric parameters. The results revealed that TC was comparable to TFT and ACD in the reduction of seizures of any semiotics. After 3 months of therapy, total MMSE scores increased from 27 to 28. There were less perseverant errors and more right responses in the WCST. Verbal fluency and memory measured with Sunderland test improved as well. TC led to decreased latencies of negative responses in the WCST and increased verbal fluency compared to TFT. Patients who received TFT prior to TC did fewer errors in the WCST than patients who received ACD prior to TC. Verbal fluency improved compared to patients who received other ACD. At the same time, a somewhat increase of paranoid signs on the scale SCL-90 was noted in the group treated with topiramate only. It has been concluded that TC has an activating effect on frontal brain areas.

  8. Overview of technical solutions and assessment of clinical usefulness of capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of endoscopic capsules with particular emphasis on technical aspects. It indicates common problems in capsule endoscopy such as: (1) limited wireless communication (2) the use of capsule endoscopy in the case of partial patency of the gastrointestinal tract, (3) limited imaging area, (4) external capsule control limitations. It also presents the prospects of capsule endoscopy, the most recent technical solutions for biopsy and the mobility of the capsule in the gastrointestinal tract. The paper shows the possibilities of increasing clinical usefulness of capsule endoscopy resulting from technological limitations. Attention has also been paid to the current role of capsule endoscopy in screening tests and the limitations of its effectiveness. The paper includes the author's recommendations concerning the direction of further research and the possibility of enhancing the scope of capsule endoscopy. PMID:26626725

  9. Implantable telemetry capsule for monitoring arterial oxygen saturation and heartbeat.

    PubMed

    Kuwana, K; Dohi, T; Hashimoto, Y; Matsumoto, K; Shimoyama, I

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have developed an implantable telemetry capsule for monitoring heartbeat. The capsule has three main functions, monitoring vital signs, transmitting the vital signs, and receiving energy for driving the capsule without wires. We used two wavelengths of LEDs and a photodiode sensitive to the two wavelengths for heartbeat sensor. The arterial oxygen saturation is calculated from the amplitude of the heartbeat signal. We fabricated an FM transmitter whose carrier frequency was 80 MHz. Though the GHz range frequency is generally used in transmission, the attenuation in the human body is large. The size of a common linear antenna is about a quarter of its operating wavelength. We employed a coil-based antenna which can reduce size below the quarter of the wavelength. We fabricated a miniaturized transmitter with the coil-based antenna at lower frequency. Our capsule was driven intermittently. We used a rechargeable battery. When the battery ran down, the battery was charged by wireless using the induced electromotive force. This means that the capsule is capable of monitoring vital signs over the long term. We measured the heartbeat from the middle finger of hand in a water tank as a model of a human body. PMID:19163388

  10. Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit previews at Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Discovery Channel's Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit, which opens to the public at the KSC Visitor Complex on Saturday, June 17, had a preview for the press today. Liberty Bell 7 launched U.S. Air Force Captain Virgil 'Gus' Grissom July 21, 1961, on a mission that lasted 15 minutes and 37 seconds before sinking. The capsule lay undetected for nearly four decades before a Discovery Channel expedition located it and recovered it. Standing in front of the restored Liberty Bell 7 capsule are (left to right) KSC's Deputy Director Jim Jennings; Gunther Wendt, who worked on the Liberty Bell 7 before its launch; Jim Lewis, who piloted the Hunt Club 1 helicopter that rescued Gus Grissom; and Larry Grissom, brother of Gus Grissom. The space capsule, now restored and preserved, is part of an interactive exhibit touring science centers and museums in 12 cities throughout the United States until 2003. The exhibit also includes hands-on elements such as a capsule simulator, a centrifuge, and ROV pilot.

  11. Expansion capsules for diet control with artificial organ technology.

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Miura, Hidekazu; Sugita, Norihiro; Yoshizawa, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    When we consider the medical economy, the Obesity is one of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide. However, a lot of previous scientific papers reported that 95% of obesity patients would not be able to control their weight by the diet. The surgical operation has been considered to the subjects with severe obesity. But, there is a possibility of complication or comorbidity in surgical operation. Tohoku University started to develop the expanding capsule with transcutaneous energy transmission system (TETS) having the same effect as the surgical operation. The capsule in the stomach will expand mechanically by energy transmission from outsides of the body, when the obesity patients will felt hungry. Small linear drive with folding umbrella type actuator would enable us the expansion of the diet capsules. Satisfactory characteristic of the energy transmission was obtained by the trial model of TETS during animal experiments. Animal experiments with healthy adult goats enabled us the evaluation of the inner stomach pressure time series changes, and feasibility study. Double blind test of the expanding capsule is now under planning. If the expanding capsule diet control system will be embodied, it becomes the gospel of the obese subject.

  12. Effect of Counterflow Jet on a Supersonic Reentry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Cheng, Gary C.

    2006-01-01

    Recent NASA initiatives for space exploration have reinvigorated research on Apollo-like capsule vehicles. Aerothermodynamic characteristics of these capsule configurations during reentry play a crucial role in the performance and safety of the planetary entry probes and the crew exploration vehicles. At issue are the forebody thermal shield protection and afterbody aeroheating predictions. Due to the lack of flight or wind tunnel measurements at hypersonic speed, design decisions on such vehicles would rely heavily on computational results. Validation of current computational tools against experimental measurement thus becomes one of the most important tasks for general hypersonic research. This paper is focused on time-accurate numerical computations of hypersonic flows over a set of capsule configurations, which employ a counterflow jet to offset the detached bow shock. The accompanying increased shock stand-off distance and modified heat transfer characteristics associated with the counterflow jet may provide guidance for future design of hypersonic reentry capsules. The newly emerged space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method is used to perform time-accurate, unstructured mesh Navier-Stokes computations for all cases investigated. The results show good agreement between experimental and numerical Schlieren pictures. Surface heat flux and aerodynamic force predictions of the capsule configurations are discussed in detail.

  13. Novel capsules for potential theranostics of obscure gastrointestinal bleedings.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Bayram; Şakalak, Hüseyin; Çavuşoğlu, Halit; Yavuz, Mustafa Selman

    2016-09-01

    Obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is identified as persistent or repeated bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract which could not be defined by conventional gastrointestinal endoscopy and radiological examinations. These GI bleedings are assessed through invasive diagnostic and treatment methods including enteroscopy, angiography and endoscopy. In addition, video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a non-invasive method used to determine the location of the bleeding, however, this does not provide any treatment. Despite of these successful but invasive methods, an effective non-invasive treatment is desperately needed. Herein, we prepare non-invasive theranostic capsules to cure obscure GI bleeding. An effective theranostic capsule containing endothelin as the targeting agent, thrombin-fibrinogen or fibrin as the treating agent, and fluorescein dye as the diagnostic tool is suggested. These theranostic capsules can be administered orally in a simple and non-invasive manner without a risk of complication. By using these novel capsules, one can diagnose obscure GI bleeding with having a possibility of curing. PMID:27515212

  14. FEM analysis of escape capsule suffered to gas explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chang-lu; Mei, Rui-bin; Li, Chang-sheng; Cai, Ban; Liu, Xiang-hua

    2013-05-01

    Escape capsules are new devices for underground coal mines that provide air, water, food and supplies in the event of an emergency in where miners are unable to escape. It is difficult to carry out the experiments of explosion and safety because the danger and nonrepeatability of explosion. The structure deformation and distribution of equivalent stress has been investigated under different impact pressure conditions including unimodal and bimodal loads based on the FEM and software LS-DYNA. The results show that the distribution of deformation and equivalent stress has the same trend on the same surface with the increment of explosion pressure. The deformation and stress are larger with side impact pressure compared with that of the same front impact pressure. Furthermore, the maximum equivalent stress is 246MPa and 260MPa on the front and sides of capsule with five times for national standard impact pressure 1.5MPa. Under these conditions, the deformation is less than about 9.97mm and 10.47mm, respectively. When the front impact pressure is 2.0MPa, the deformation of capsule still belongs to elasticity but the less plastic deformation occurs on the Ushape stiffening channels with the same side impact pressure. However, it is safe for capsule structure because the equivalent stress 283MPa is much less than the tensile strength. It is noted that bimodal load accelerates the capsule deformation so that it is more dangerous compared with unimodal load.

  15. Deformations of micro-capsules through channels with corners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Luca; Zhu, Lailai

    2013-11-01

    Deformable micro-particles moving in confined geometries are ubiquitous in nature from biological cells to biomedical and industrial applications such as synthetic capsules. Previous studies have demonstrated rich and complex behaviors of capsules and vesicles in the 2D Poiseuille flow, in a duct and in a pipe. Nevertheless, micro-particles commonly need to go through asymmetric geometries, for example a corner. Here we numerically study the dynamics of a Neo-Hookean capsule transported in a 3D channel with a 90 degree straight corner. We use the boundary integral method to solve the Stokes flow, accelerated by the general geometry Ewald method (GGEM) implemented in the framework of the general Navier-Stokes solver NEK5000 based on the spectral element method. A global spectral description utilizing spherical harmonics is incorporated to resolve simultaneously the membrane dynamics. We analyze the trajectory and deformation of the capsule, as well as the variation of area, velocity, principle stress and elastic energy. The influence of the capsule elasticity and wall confinement is also investigated. Finally, the flow in a smooth corner is simulated and compared with the straight counterpart, to provide hints for the design of micro-devices. We acknowledge the funding from VR (Swedish research council) and computer time from SNIC.

  16. The effect of glicerol and sorbitol plasticizers toward disintegration time of phyto-capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Hendradi, Esti; Wafiroh, Siti; Harsini, Muji; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko

    2016-03-01

    The aim of research is determining the effect of glycerol and sorbitol toward the disintegration time of phyto-capsules, originated capsules from plant polysaccharides. Phyto-capsules were made from polysaccharides and 0.5% (v/v) of glycerol and sorbitol of each. The seven capsules of each were determined the disintegration time using Erweka disintegrator. The mean of disintegration time of phyto-capsules without plasticizers, with glycerol and sorbitol were 25'30"; 45'15" and 35'30" respectively. The color and colorless gelatin capsules showed the mean of disintegration time 7'30" and 2'35" respectively.

  17. Thin Oxides as a Cu Diffusion Barrier for NIF Be Ablator Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, Kelly P.; Huang, H.; Xu, H. W.; Hayes, J.; Moreno, K. A.; Wu, J. J.; Nikroo, A.; Alford, C. A.; Hamza, A. V.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Wang, Y. M.; Wu, K. J.

    2013-03-01

    The NIF point design uses a five-layer capsule to modify the X-ray absorption in order to achieve optimized shock timing. A stepped copper dopant design defines the layer structure. The production of the capsule involves pyrolysis to remove the inner plastic mandrel. Copper atoms diffuse radially and azimuthally throughout the capsule during pyrolysis. This diffusion significantly diminishes the capsule performance during implosion. Thermal and coated oxide barrier layers employed between layers mitigate the diffusion of copper during the mandrel removal process. The copper atoms do not diffuse through this barrier during pyrolysis. A capsule fabrication method that produces a capsule with a thin oxide layer will be discussed.

  18. Wzy-dependent bacterial capsules as potential drug targets.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Daniel J; Standish, Alistair; Kobe, Bostjan; Morona, Renato

    2012-10-01

    The bacterial capsule is a recognized virulence factor in pathogenic bacteria. It likely works as an antiphagocytic barrier by minimizing complement deposition on the bacterial surface. With the continual rise of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibiotics, there is an increasing need for novel drugs. In the Wzy-dependent pathway, the biosynthesis of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is regulated by a phosphoregulatory system, whose main components consist of bacterial-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) and their cognate phosphatases. The ability to regulate capsule biosynthesis has been shown to be vital for pathogenicity, because different stages of infection require a shift in capsule thickness, making the phosphoregulatory proteins suitable as drug targets. Here, we review the role of regulatory proteins focusing on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli and discuss their suitability as targets in structure-based drug design.

  19. Ingestible wireless capsules for enhanced diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Huynh, Van An; Ting, Eng Kiat; Lai, Joshua Chong Yue; Wong, Kai Juan; Tan, Su Lim; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy has become a common procedure for diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract. This method offers a less-invasive alternative to traditional endoscopy by eliminating uncomfortable procedures of the traditional endoscopy. Moreover, it provides the opportunity for exploring inaccessible areas of the small intestine. Current capsule endoscopes, however, move by peristalsis and are not capable of detailed and on-demand inspection of desired locations. Here, we propose and develop two wireless endoscopes with maneuverable vision systems to enhance diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. The vision systems in these capsules are equipped with mechanical actuators to adjust the position of the camera. This may help to cover larger areas of the digestive tract and investigate desired locations. The preliminary experimental results showed that the developed platform could successfully communicate with the external control unit via human body and adjust the position of camera to limited degrees.

  20. Trade study for the disposition of cesium and strontium capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Claghorn, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    This trade study analyzes alternatives for the eventual disposal of cesium and strontium capsules currently stored at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility as by-product. However, for purposes of this study, it is assumed that at some time in the future, the capsules will be declared high-level waste and therefore will require disposal at an offsite geologic repository. The study considered numerous alternatives and selected three for detailed analysis: (1) overpack and storage at high-level waste canister storage building, (2) overpack at the high-level waste vitrification facility followed by storage at a high-level waste canister storage building, and (3) blend capsule contents with other high-level waste feed streams and vitrify at the high-level waste vitrification facility.

  1. Entry Dispersion Analysis for the Genesis Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    2005-01-01

    Genesis will be the first mission to return samples from beyond the Earth-Moon system. The spacecraft will be inserted into a halo orbit about the L1 (Sun-Earth) libration point where it will remain for two years collecting solar wind particles. Upon Earth return, the sample return capsule, which is passively controlled, will descend under parachute to Utah. The present study describes the analysis of the entry, descent, and landing scenario of the returning sample capsule. The robustness of the entry sequence is assessed through a Monte Carlo dispersion analysis where the impact of off-nominal conditions is ascertained. The dispersion results indicate that the capsule attitude excursions near peak heating and drogue chute deployment are within Genesis mission limits. Additionally, the size of the resulting 3-sigma landing ellipse is 47.8 km in downrange by 15.2 km in crossrange, which is within the Utah Test and Training Range boundaries.

  2. Swallowable Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: Progress and Technical Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Guobing; Wang, Litong

    2012-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE) is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT) is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed. PMID:22253621

  3. Capsule performance optimization in the national ignition campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Haan, S. W.; Edwards, J.

    2010-08-01

    A capsule performance optimization campaign will be conducted at the National Ignition Facility [1] to substantially increase the probability of ignition. The campaign will experimentally correct for residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition attempts. The required tuning techniques using a variety of ignition capsule surrogates have been demonstrated at the Omega facility under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design and shown to meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, a roll-up of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors has been derived that meets the required budget.

  4. Capsule Performance Optimization in the National Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Haan, S W; Edwards, J

    2009-10-13

    A capsule performance optimization campaign will be conducted at the National Ignition Facility to substantially increase the probability of ignition. The campaign will experimentally correct for residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition attempts. The required tuning techniques using a variety of ignition capsule surrogates have been demonstrated at the Omega facility under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design and shown to meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, a roll-up of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors has been derived that meets the required budget.

  5. Capsule performance optimization in the National Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Landen, O. L.; Bradley, D. K.; Braun, D. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Dewald, E. L.; Divol, L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hamza, A.; Hicks, D. G.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Michel, P.; Milovich, J.; Munro, D. H.; Robey, H. F.; Spears, B. K.; Thomas, C. A.

    2010-05-15

    A capsule performance optimization campaign will be conducted at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)] to substantially increase the probability of ignition by laser-driven hohlraums [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)]. The campaign will experimentally correct for residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition attempts. The required tuning techniques using a variety of ignition capsule surrogates have been demonstrated at the OMEGA facility under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design and shown to meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, a roll-up of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors has been derived that meets the required budget.

  6. Capsule performance optimization in the National Ignition Campaigna)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landen, O. L.; Boehly, T. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Braun, D. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Dewald, E. L.; Divol, L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hamza, A.; Hicks, D. G.; Hoffman, N.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Kyrala, G. A.; Michel, P.; Milovich, J.; Munro, D. H.; Nikroo, A.; Olson, R. E.; Robey, H. F.; Spears, B. K.; Thomas, C. A.; Weber, S. V.; Wilson, D. C.; Marinak, M. M.; Suter, L. J.; Hammel, B. A.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Atherton, J.; Edwards, J.; Haan, S. W.; Lindl, J. D.; MacGowan, B. J.; Moses, E. I.

    2010-05-01

    A capsule performance optimization campaign will be conducted at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)] to substantially increase the probability of ignition by laser-driven hohlraums [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)]. The campaign will experimentally correct for residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition attempts. The required tuning techniques using a variety of ignition capsule surrogates have been demonstrated at the OMEGA facility under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design and shown to meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, a roll-up of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors has been derived that meets the required budget.

  7. Imaging of High-Z doped, Imploded Capsule Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisbrey, Shon T.; Edwards, M. John; Suter, Larry J.

    2006-10-01

    The ability to correctly ascertain the shape of imploded fusion capsules is critical to be able to achieve the spherical symmetry needed to maximize the energy yield of proposed fusion experiments for the National Ignition Facility. Implosion of the capsule creates a hot, dense core. The introduction of a high-Z dopant into the gas-filled core of the capsule increases the amount of bremsstrahlung radiation produced in the core and should make the imaging of the imploded core easier. Images of the imploded core can then be analyzed to ascertain the symmetry of the implosion. We calculate that the addition of Ne gas into a deuterium gas core will increase the amount of radiation emission while preserving the surrogacy of the radiation and hydrodynamics in the indirect drive NIF hohlraum in the proposed cryogenic hohlraums. The increased emission will more easily enable measurement of asymmetries and tuning of the implosion.

  8. An O antigen capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis in Shigella sonnei.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Mariaelena; Pédron, Thierry; Rossi, Omar; Goulding, David; Pickard, Derek; Citiulo, Francesco; MacLennan, Calman A; Dougan, Gordon; Thomson, Nicholas R; Saul, Allan; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Gerke, Christiane

    2015-03-01

    Shigella is the leading cause for dysentery worldwide. Together with several virulence factors employed for invasion, the presence and length of the O antigen (OAg) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a key role in pathogenesis. S. flexneri 2a has a bimodal OAg chain length distribution regulated in a growth-dependent manner, whereas S. sonnei LPS comprises a monomodal OAg. Here we reveal that S. sonnei, but not S. flexneri 2a, possesses a high molecular weight, immunogenic group 4 capsule, characterized by structural similarity to LPS OAg. We found that a galU mutant of S. sonnei, that is unable to produce a complete LPS with OAg attached, can still assemble OAg material on the cell surface, but a galU mutant of S. flexneri 2a cannot. High molecular weight material not linked to the LPS was purified from S. sonnei and confirmed by NMR to contain the specific sugars of the S. sonnei OAg. Deletion of genes homologous to the group 4 capsule synthesis cluster, previously described in Escherichia coli, abolished the generation of the high molecular weight OAg material. This OAg capsule strongly affects the virulence of S. sonnei. Uncapsulated knockout bacteria were highly invasive in vitro and strongly inflammatory in the rabbit intestine. But, the lack of capsule reduced the ability of S. sonnei to resist complement-mediated killing and to spread from the gut to peripheral organs. In contrast, overexpression of the capsule decreased invasiveness in vitro and inflammation in vivo compared to the wild type. In conclusion, the data indicate that in S. sonnei expression of the capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis resulting in balanced capabilities to invade and persist in the host environment.

  9. Chemical inhibition of bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase suppresses capsule production.

    PubMed

    Standish, Alistair J; Salim, Angela A; Zhang, Hua; Capon, Robert J; Morona, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to date. In order to study this regulation further, we performed a screen to find inhibitors of the phosphatase, CpsB. This led to the observation that a recently discovered marine sponge metabolite, fascioquinol E, inhibited CpsB phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that did not affect the growth of the bacteria. This inhibition resulted in decreased capsule synthesis in D39 and Type 1 S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, concentrations of Fascioquinol E that inhibited capsule also lead to increased attachment of pneumococci to a macrophage cell line, suggesting that this compound would inhibit the virulence of the pathogen. Interestingly, this compound also inhibited the phosphatase activity of the structurally unrelated gram-negative PTP, Wzb, which belongs to separate family of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, incubation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which contains a homologous phosphatase, resulted in decreased capsule synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that PTPs are critical for Wzy-dependent capsule production across a spectrum of bacteria, and as such represents a valuable new molecular target for the development of anti-virulence antibacterials.

  10. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Olson, R. E.; Wilson, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Khan, S. F.; Haan, S. W.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Kozioziemski, B.; Schneider, M. B.; Marinak, M. M.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ma, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Stadermann, M.; Baxamusa, S.; Alford, C.; Wang, M.; Nikroo, A.; Rice, N.; Hoover, D.; Youngblood, K. P.; Xu, H.; Huang, H.; Sio, H.

    2016-05-01

    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosion shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.

  11. Water-Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGehee, John R.; Hathaway, Melvin E.; Vaughan, Victor L., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations have been made to determine the water-landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule having a segment of a sphere as the bottom. For the experimental portion of the investigation, a 1/12-scale model capsule and a full-scale capsule were tested for nominal flight paths of 65 deg and 90 deg (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -30 deg to 30 deg, and a full-scale vertical velocity of 30 feet per second at contact. Accelerations were measured by accelerometers installed at the centers of gravity of the model and full-scale capsules. For the model test the accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) and for the full-scale test they were measured along the X-axis (roll), Y-axis (pitch), and Z-axis (yaw). Motions and displacements of the capsules that occurred after contact were determined from high-speed motion pictures. The theoretical investigation was conducted to determine the accelerations that might occur along the X-axis when the capsule contacted the water from a 90 deg flight path at a 0 deg attitude. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made from equations obtained by utilizing the principle of the conservation of momentum. The agreement among data obtained from the model test, the full-scale test, and the theory was very good. The accelerations along the X-axis, for a vertical flight path and 0 deg attitude, were in the order of 40g. For a 65 deg flight path and 0 deg attitude, the accelerations along the X-axis were in the order of 50g. Changes in contact attitude, in either the positive or negative direction from 0 deg attitude, considerably reduced the magnitude of the accelerations measured along the X-axis. Accelerations measured along the Y- and Z-axes were relatively small at all test conditions.

  12. An O Antigen Capsule Modulates Bacterial Pathogenesis in Shigella sonnei

    PubMed Central

    Caboni, Mariaelena; Pédron, Thierry; Rossi, Omar; Goulding, David; Pickard, Derek; Citiulo, Francesco; MacLennan, Calman A.; Dougan, Gordon; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Saul, Allan; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Gerke, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Shigella is the leading cause for dysentery worldwide. Together with several virulence factors employed for invasion, the presence and length of the O antigen (OAg) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a key role in pathogenesis. S. flexneri 2a has a bimodal OAg chain length distribution regulated in a growth-dependent manner, whereas S. sonnei LPS comprises a monomodal OAg. Here we reveal that S. sonnei, but not S. flexneri 2a, possesses a high molecular weight, immunogenic group 4 capsule, characterized by structural similarity to LPS OAg. We found that a galU mutant of S. sonnei, that is unable to produce a complete LPS with OAg attached, can still assemble OAg material on the cell surface, but a galU mutant of S. flexneri 2a cannot. High molecular weight material not linked to the LPS was purified from S. sonnei and confirmed by NMR to contain the specific sugars of the S. sonnei OAg. Deletion of genes homologous to the group 4 capsule synthesis cluster, previously described in Escherichia coli, abolished the generation of the high molecular weight OAg material. This OAg capsule strongly affects the virulence of S. sonnei. Uncapsulated knockout bacteria were highly invasive in vitro and strongly inflammatory in the rabbit intestine. But, the lack of capsule reduced the ability of S. sonnei to resist complement-mediated killing and to spread from the gut to peripheral organs. In contrast, overexpression of the capsule decreased invasiveness in vitro and inflammation in vivo compared to the wild type. In conclusion, the data indicate that in S. sonnei expression of the capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis resulting in balanced capabilities to invade and persist in the host environment. PMID:25794007

  13. Capsule Performance Optimization for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landen, Otto

    2009-11-01

    The overall goal of the capsule performance optimization campaign is to maximize the probability of ignition by experimentally correcting for likely residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition attempts. This will be accomplished using a variety of targets that will set key laser, hohlraum and capsule parameters to maximize ignition capsule implosion velocity, while minimizing fuel adiabat, core shape asymmetry and ablator-fuel mix. The targets include high Z re-emission spheres setting foot symmetry through foot cone power balance [1], liquid Deuterium-filled ``keyhole'' targets setting shock speed and timing through the laser power profile [2], symmetry capsules setting peak cone power balance and hohlraum length [3], and streaked x-ray backlit imploding capsules setting ablator thickness [4]. We will show how results from successful tuning technique demonstration shots performed at the Omega facility under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. We will also present estimates of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors, and show that these get reduced after a number of shots and iterations to meet an acceptable level of residual uncertainty. Finally, we will present results from upcoming tuning technique validation shots performed at NIF at near full-scale. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. [4pt] [1] E. Dewald, et. al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79 (2008) 10E903. [0pt] [2] T.R. Boehly, et. al., Phys. Plasmas 16 (2009) 056302. [0pt] [3] G. Kyrala, et. al., BAPS 53 (2008) 247. [0pt] [4] D. Hicks, et. al., BAPS 53 (2008) 2.

  14. Cross-sectional Pilot Study of Antibiotic Resistance in Propionibacterium Acnes Strains in Indian Acne Patients Using 16S-RNA Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Comparison Among Treatment Modalities Including Antibiotics, Benzoyl Peroxide, and Isotretinoin

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, Kabir; Gupta, Tanvi; Kumar, Bipul; Gautam, Hemant K; Garg, Vijay K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem in acne patients due to regional prescription practices, patient compliance, and genomic variability in Propionibacterium acnes, though the effect of treatment on the resistance has not been comprehensively analyzed. Aims: Our primary objective was to assess the level of antibiotic resistance in the Indian patients and to assess whether there was a difference in the resistance across common treatment groups. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional, institutional based study was undertaken and three groups of patients were analyzed, treatment naïve, those on antibiotics and patients on benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and/isotretinoin. The follicular content was sampled and the culture was verified with 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction, genomic sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessment was done for erythromycin (ERY), azithromycin (AZI), clindamycin (CL), tetracycline (TET), doxycycline (DOX), minocycline (MINO), and levofloxacin (LEVO). The four groups of patients were compared for any difference in the resistant strains. Results: Of the 52 P. acnes strains isolated (80 patients), high resistance was observed to AZI (100%), ERY (98%), CL (90.4%), DOX (44.2%), and TETs (30.8%). Low resistance was observed to MINO (1.9%) and LEVO (9.6%). Statistical difference was seen in the resistance between CL and TETs; DOX/LEVO and DOX/MINO (P < 0.001). High MIC90 (≥256 μg/ml) was seen with CL, macrolides, and TETs; moreover, low MIC90 was observed to DOX (16 μg/ml), MINO (8 μg/ml), and LEVO (4 μg/ml). Though the treatment group with isotretinoin/BPO had the least number of resistant strains there was no statistical difference in the antibiotic resistance among the various groups of patients. Conclusions: High resistance was seen among the P. acnes strains to macrolides-lincosamides (AZI and CL) while MINO and LEVO resistance was low. PMID:26955094

  15. Capsule implosions driven by dynamic hohlraum x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, James

    2005-10-01

    Dynamic hohlraum experiments at the Z facility already implode capsules with up to 80 kJ absorbed x-ray energy. However, many challenging issues remain for ICF. The present experiments use diagnostic capsules to address two of these issues: symmetry measurement and control and building understanding of the capsule/hohlraum implosion system. A suite of x-ray spectrometers record time and space resolved spectra emitted by Ar tracer atoms in the implosion core, simultaneously from up to three different quasi-orthogonal directions. Comparing the results with simulation predictions provide severe tests of understanding. These data also can used to produce a tomographic reconstruction of the time resolved core temperature and density profiles. X-ray and neutron diagnostics are used to examine how the implosion conditions change as the capsule design changes. The capsule design changes include variations in CH wall thickness and diameter, Ge-doped CH shells, and SiO2 shells. In addition, a new campaign investigating Be capsule implosions is beginning. Be capsules may offer superior performance for dynamic hohlraum research and it may be possible to investigate NIF-relevant Be implosion issues such as the fill tube effects, sensitivity to columnar growth associated with sputtered Be capsule fabrication, and the effect of Cu dopants on implosion conditions. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. * In collaboration with G.A. Rochau, G.A. Chandler, S.A. Slutz, P.W. Lake, G. Cooper, G.S. Dunham, R.J. Leeper, R. Lemke, T.A. Mehlhorn, T.J. Nash, D.S. Nielsen, K. Peterson, C.L. Ruiz, D.B. Sinars, J. Torres, W. Varnum, Sandia; R.C. Mancini, T.J. Buris-Mog, UNR; I. Golovkin, J.J. MacFarlane, PRISM; A. Nikro, D. Steinman, J.D. Kilkenny, H. Xu, General Atomics; M. Bump, T.C. Moore, K-tech; D.G. Schroen, Schafer

  16. Wireless endoscopy in 2020: Will it still be a capsule?

    PubMed Central

    Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Iakovidis, Dimitris K; Karargyris, Alexandros; Rondonotti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the major problem of all existing commercial capsule devices is the lack of control of movement. In the future, with an interface application, the clinician will be able to stop and direct the device into points of interest for detailed inspection/diagnosis, and therapy delivery. This editorial presents current commercially-available new designs, European projects and delivery capsule and gives an overview of the progress required and progress that will be achieved -according to the opinion of the authors- in the next 5 year leading to 2020. PMID:25954085

  17. Colon capsule endoscopy: Current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Andrea O; Vermehren, Johannes; Albert, Jörg G

    2014-01-01

    Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE; PillCam Colon; Given Imaging; Yoqneam, Israel) is a minimally invasive wireless technique for the visualization of the colon. With the recent introduction of the second generation colon capsule the diagnostic accuracy of CCE for polyp detection has significantly improved and preliminary data suggest it may be useful to monitor mucosal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Limitations include the inability to take biopsies and the procedural costs. However, given the potentially higher acceptance within an average risk colorectal cancer (CRC) screening population, its usefulness as a screening tool with regard to CRC prevention should be further evaluated. PMID:25469027

  18. Preshot Predictions for Defect Induced Mix (DIME) Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Paul A.; Krasheninnikova, Natalia S.; Tregillis, Ian L.; Schmitt, Mark J.

    2012-07-31

    In this memo, we evaluate the most probable yield and other results for the Defect Induced Mix (DIME-12A) Polar Direct Drive (PDD) capsule-only shots. We evaluate the expected yield, bang time, burn averaged ion temperature, and the average electron temperature of the Ge line-emitting region. We also include synthetic images of the capsule backlit by Cu K-{alpha} emission (8.39 keV) and core self-emission synthetic images. This memo is a companion to the maximum credible yield memo (LA-UR-12-00287) published earlier.

  19. Mechanism of Erhuang capsule for treatment of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangning; Fan, Yongping; Yang, Tao; Wang, Lei

    2013-02-25

    Erhuang capsule, a typical formula based on traditional Chinese medicine theory, is widely used to ameliorate multiple sclerosis, inflammation and side effects of glucocorticoid treatment. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells are neural stem cells that are important for myelin repair and regeneration. In the present study, Erhuang capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function scores, reduced mortality and promoted recovery of neurological functions of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The mechanism of action involved significant increases in oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation in specific regions of the brain and spinal cord, increased oligodendrocyte lineage gene 2 expression and enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation.

  20. Mechanism of Erhuang capsule for treatment of multiple sclerosis☆

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kangning; Fan, Yongping; Yang, Tao; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Erhuang capsule, a typical formula based on traditional Chinese medicine theory, is widely used to ameliorate multiple sclerosis, inflammation and side effects of glucocorticoid treatment. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells are neural stem cells that are important for myelin repair and regeneration. In the present study, Erhuang capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function scores, reduced mortality and promoted recovery of neurological functions of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The mechanism of action involved significant increases in oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation in specific regions of the brain and spinal cord, increased oligodendrocyte lineage gene 2 expression and enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation. PMID:25206695

  1. Colon capsule endoscopy: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline.

    PubMed

    Spada, C; Hassan, C; Galmiche, J P; Neuhaus, H; Dumonceau, J M; Adler, S; Epstein, O; Gay, G; Pennazio, M; Rex, D K; Benamouzig, R; de Franchis, R; Delvaux, M; Devière, J; Eliakim, R; Fraser, C; Hagenmuller, F; Herrerias, J M; Keuchel, M; Macrae, F; Munoz-Navas, M; Ponchon, T; Quintero, E; Riccioni, M E; Rondonotti, E; Marmo, R; Sung, J J; Tajiri, H; Toth, E; Triantafyllou, K; Van Gossum, A; Costamagna, G

    2012-05-01

    PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is an innovative noninvasive, and painless ingestible capsule technique that allows exploration of the colon without the need for sedation and gas insufflation. Although it is already available in European and other countries, the clinical indications for CCE as well as the reporting and work-up of detected findings have not yet been standardized. The aim of this evidence-based and consensus-based guideline, commissioned by the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) is to furnish healthcare providers with a comprehensive framework for potential implementation of this technique in a clinical setting.

  2. Arthroscopic Superior Capsule Reconstruction for Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Petri, Maximilian; Greenspoon, Joshua A; Millett, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    Massive irreparable rotator cuff tears in young patients are a particular challenge for the orthopaedic surgeon. Surgical treatment options include debridement, partial rotator cuff repair, patch-augmented rotator cuff repair, bridging rotator cuff reconstruction with graft interposition, tendon transfer, and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Recently, reconstruction of the superior glenohumeral capsule using a fascia lata autograft has been suggested to reduce superior glenohumeral translation and restore superior stability. Promising clinical results have been reported in 1 case series of 23 patients, indicating that superior capsular reconstruction may be a promising tool to manage massive irreparable rotator cuff tears. This article describes our preferred technique for arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction. PMID:27284506

  3. Dynamic capsule restructuring by the main pneumococcal autolysin LytA in response to the epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kietzman, Colin C; Gao, Geli; Mann, Beth; Myers, Lance; Tuomanen, Elaine I

    2016-02-29

    Bacterial pathogens produce complex carbohydrate capsules to protect against bactericidal immune molecules. Paradoxically, the pneumococcal capsule sensitizes the bacterium to antimicrobial peptides found on epithelial surfaces. Here we show that upon interaction with antimicrobial peptides, encapsulated pneumococci survive by removing capsule from the cell surface within minutes in a process dependent on the suicidal amidase autolysin LytA. In contrast to classical bacterial autolysis, during capsule shedding, LytA promotes bacterial survival and is dispersed circumferentially around the cell. However, both autolysis and capsule shedding depend on the cell wall hydrolytic activity of LytA. Capsule shedding drastically increases invasion of epithelial cells and is the main pathway by which pneumococci reduce surface bound capsule during early acute lung infection of mice. The previously unrecognized role of LytA in removing capsule to combat antimicrobial peptides may explain why nearly all clinical isolates of pneumococci conserve this enzyme despite the lethal selective pressure of antibiotics.

  4. Dynamic capsule restructuring by the main pneumococcal autolysin LytA in response to the epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Kietzman, Colin C.; Gao, Geli; Mann, Beth; Myers, Lance; Tuomanen, Elaine I.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens produce complex carbohydrate capsules to protect against bactericidal immune molecules. Paradoxically, the pneumococcal capsule sensitizes the bacterium to antimicrobial peptides found on epithelial surfaces. Here we show that upon interaction with antimicrobial peptides, encapsulated pneumococci survive by removing capsule from the cell surface within minutes in a process dependent on the suicidal amidase autolysin LytA. In contrast to classical bacterial autolysis, during capsule shedding, LytA promotes bacterial survival and is dispersed circumferentially around the cell. However, both autolysis and capsule shedding depend on the cell wall hydrolytic activity of LytA. Capsule shedding drastically increases invasion of epithelial cells and is the main pathway by which pneumococci reduce surface bound capsule during early acute lung infection of mice. The previously unrecognized role of LytA in removing capsule to combat antimicrobial peptides may explain why nearly all clinical isolates of pneumococci conserve this enzyme despite the lethal selective pressure of antibiotics. PMID:26924467

  5. Representative surface profile power spectra from capsules used in NOVA and Omega implosion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R C; McEachern, R L; Stephens, R

    1998-10-20

    Typical surface profile power spectra of capsules used in Nova and Omega implosion experiments are presented. All Nova capsules are essentially identical in size and composition; their differences reflect small shell-to-shell variations. Differences among the Omega capsule power spectra can be attributed to changes in material properties with doping and (very importantly) differences in processing experience. These capsule power spectra accurately reflect past and current production, but are only a starting point for future capabilities.

  6. Analysis of the biosynthesis genes and chemical components of the capsule of Avibacterium paragallinarum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Ru; Chen, Ping-Yi; Shien, Jui-Hung; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Shieh, Happy K; Chang, Fanny; Chang, Poa-Chun

    2010-09-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate biosynthesis genes and chemical components of the capsule of Avibacterium paragallinarum. The sequence of a 10-kb region containing the capsule biosynthetic locus of Av. paragallinarum was determined. Two reference strains, i.e., 221 (serovar A) and H18 (serovar C), together with four Taiwanese field strains (all serovar C) were sequenced. The results showed that there are two genotypes (I and II) of the capsule biosynthetic locus in Av. paragallinarum, and the capsule genotype is independent of the serovar. The capsule biosynthetic loci of genotypes I and II consisted of six and five genes, respectively. The genotype I genes encoded proteins that are most similar to proteins from Pasteurella multocida capsule types A and F while the genotype II genes encoded proteins most similar to proteins from P. multocida capsule type D and Escherichia coli K5. The results suggested that genotype I strains contain hyaluronan or chondroitin in the capsule wall while genotype II contain heparosan. Enzymatic digestion of the capsule materials extracted from Av. paragallinarum showed that genotype I strains contained chondroitin while genotype II strains contained heparosan in the capsule. This is the first report on the existence of different genotypes of capsule biosynthesis genes in Av. paragallinarum and the presence of chondroitin and heparosan as chemical components of the capsule of Av. paragallinarum.

  7. 21 CFR 520.1921 - Prochlorperazine, isopropamide, with neomycin sustained-release capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE... orally twice daily to dogs as follows: Animal weight (pounds) Number of capsules per dose Capsule No. 1 Capsule No. 3 10 to 20 1 20 to 30 2 Over 30 3 1 Over 60 2 (2) Indications for use. For treatment of...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1921 - Prochlorperazine, isopropamide, with neomycin sustained-release capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE... orally twice daily to dogs as follows: Animal weight (pounds) Number of capsules per dose Capsule No. 1 Capsule No. 3 10 to 20 1 20 to 30 2 Over 30 3 1 Over 60 2 (2) Indications for use. For treatment of...

  9. Investigation on the aerosol performance of dry powder inhalation hypromellose capsules with different lubricant levels.

    PubMed

    Saleem, I Y; Diez, F; Jones, B E; Kayali, N; Polo, L

    2015-08-15

    HPMC capsules are made by a dipping process and a surface lubricant for the mould pins is an essential processing aid for removing dried capsules shells. For the purpose of this study, the level was determined by quantifying methyloleate (MO) a component found in the lubricant but not in the hypromellose capsules. Here we investigated the influence of the lubricant, low (10.81 μg/capsule=60 mg/kg MO), medium (15.97 μg/capsule=90 mg/kg MO) and high (23.23 μg/capsule=127 mg/kg MO) content on powder (binary mixture of salbutamol: lactose, 1:50 w/w) aerosolization properties was investigated. Results indicated significantly lower emitted dose from capsules with 60 mg/kg MO. Furthermore, the 90 and 127 mg/kg MO level of lubricant capsules produced almost double the Fine Particle Dose & Fine Particle Fraction compared with the low level of lubricant. The data indicates that lubricant level within capsules has an influence on deposition profiles and amount of drug remaining in capsule and inhaler device after actuation. It is suggested lubricant levels greater than 60 mg/kg MO per capsule are required to minimise powder retention within capsules and maximise deposition profiles. AFM (atomic force microscopy) data suggest that internal surface roughness may be related with this phenomena.

  10. Successful Retrieval of a Retained Capsule Endoscope with Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Yoshihiko; Kawai, Masaya; Takehara, Kazuhiro; Munakata, Shinya; Ishiyama, Shun; Sugimoto, Kiichi; Takahashi, Makoto; Kojima, Yutaka; Goto, Michitoshi; Tomiki, Yuichi; Shibuya, Tomoyoshi; Osada, Taro; Watanabe, Sumio; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is commonly used for examining and diagnosing gastrointestinal disease, especially small bowel disease. Capsule retention is a well-known and significant complication of CE and requires surgical or endoscopic removal. Most reports described the retrieval of retained CE via laparotomy. We report a case of successful retrieval of the capsule using single incision laparoscopic surgery. PMID:25028577

  11. Improved sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood consists of a measured section of polytetrafluoroethylene tubing equipped at each end with a connector and a stopcock valve. This method eliminates errors from air entrainment or from the use of mercury or syringe lubricant.

  12. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... milligrams of piperazine base in each capsule. (b) Sponsor. See No. 021091 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara... animal has finished eating the dosed food, the remainder of the food may be given. Dogs and cats may...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... milligrams of piperazine base in each capsule. (b) Sponsor. See No. 021091 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara... animal has finished eating the dosed food, the remainder of the food may be given. Dogs and cats may...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... milligrams of piperazine base in each capsule. (b) Sponsor. See No. 021091 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara... animal has finished eating the dosed food, the remainder of the food may be given. Dogs and cats may...

  15. 21 CFR 520.390b - Chloramphenicol capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol capsules. 520.390b Section 520.390b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED..., and bacterial infections associated with canine distemper caused by susceptible organisms....

  16. 21 CFR 520.2605 - Trimeprazine tartrate and prednisolone capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trimeprazine tartrate and prednisolone capsules. 520.2605 Section 520.2605 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... allergic bronchitis, tonsillitis, acute upper respiratory infections, and coughs of nonspecific origin....

  17. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: NOVOCS EVALUATION AT NAS NORTH ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a SITE Technology Capsule. The MACTEC, Inc. (MACTEC), NoVOCs(TM) in-well volatile organic compounds (VOC) stripping technology is an in-situ groundwater remediation technology designed for the cleanup of groundwater contaminated with VOCs. The NoVOCs(TM) technology was ev...

  18. Surface Modification of ICF Target Capsules by Pulsed Laser Ablation

    DOE PAGES

    Carlson, Lane C.; Johnson, Michael A.; Bunn, Thomas L.

    2016-06-30

    Topographical modifications of spherical surfaces are imprinted on National Ignition Facility (NIF) target capsules by extending the capabilities of a recently developed full surface (4π) laser ablation and mapping apparatus. The laser ablation method combines the precision, energy density and long reach of a focused laser beam to pre-impose sinusoidal modulations on the outside surface of High Density Carbon (HDC) capsules and the inside surface of Glow Discharge Polymer (GDP) capsules. Sinusoidal modulations described in this paper have sub-micron to 10’s of microns vertical scale and wavelengths as small as 30 μm and as large as 200 μm. The modulatedmore » patterns are created by rastering a focused laser fired at discrete capsule surface locations for a specified number of pulses. The computer program developed to create these raster patterns uses inputs such as laser beam intensity profile, the material removal function, the starting surface figure and the desired surface figure. The patterns are optimized to minimize surface roughness. Lastly, in this paper, simulated surfaces are compared with actual ablated surfaces measured using confocal microscopy.« less

  19. Ultrahigh speed en face OCT capsule for endoscopic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Kaicheng; Traverso, Giovanni; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Wang, Zhao; Potsaid, Benjamin; Giacomelli, Michael; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Barman, Ross; Cable, Alex; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Langer, Robert; Fujimoto, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Depth resolved and en face OCT visualization in vivo may have important clinical applications in endoscopy. We demonstrate a high speed, two-dimensional (2D) distal scanning capsule with a micromotor for fast rotary scanning and a pneumatic actuator for precision longitudinal scanning. Longitudinal position measurement and image registration were performed by optical tracking of the pneumatic scanner. The 2D scanning device enables high resolution imaging over a small field of view and is suitable for OCT as well as other scanning microscopies. Large field of view imaging for screening or surveillance applications can also be achieved by proximally pulling back or advancing the capsule while scanning the distal high-speed micromotor. Circumferential en face OCT was demonstrated in living swine at 250 Hz frame rate and 1 MHz A-scan rate using a MEMS tunable VCSEL light source at 1300 nm. Cross-sectional and en face OCT views of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract were generated with precision distal pneumatic longitudinal actuation as well as proximal manual longitudinal actuation. These devices could enable clinical studies either as an adjunct to endoscopy, attached to an endoscope, or as a swallowed tethered capsule for non-endoscopic imaging without sedation. The combination of ultrahigh speed imaging and distal scanning capsule technology could enable both screening and surveillance applications. PMID:25909001

  20. The Cryptococcus neoformans Capsule: a Sword and a Shield

    PubMed Central

    O'Meara, Teresa R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is characterized by its ability to induce a distinct polysaccharide capsule in response to a number of host-specific environmental stimuli. The induction of capsule is a complex biological process encompassing regulation at multiple steps, including the biosynthesis, transport, and maintenance of the polysaccharide at the cell surface. By precisely regulating the composition of its cell surface and secreted polysaccharides, C. neoformans has developed intricate ways to establish chronic infection and dormancy in the human host. The plasticity of the capsule structure in response to various host conditions also underscores the complex relationship between host and parasite. Much of this precise regulation of capsule is achieved through the transcriptional responses of multiple conserved signaling pathways that have been coopted to regulate this C. neoformans-specific virulence-associated phenotype. This review focuses on specific host stimuli that trigger the activation of the signal transduction cascades and on the downstream transcriptional responses that are required for robust encapsulation around the cell. PMID:22763631

  1. Ultrahigh speed en face OCT capsule for endoscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kaicheng; Traverso, Giovanni; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Wang, Zhao; Potsaid, Benjamin; Giacomelli, Michael; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Barman, Ross; Cable, Alex; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Langer, Robert; Fujimoto, James G

    2015-04-01

    Depth resolved and en face OCT visualization in vivo may have important clinical applications in endoscopy. We demonstrate a high speed, two-dimensional (2D) distal scanning capsule with a micromotor for fast rotary scanning and a pneumatic actuator for precision longitudinal scanning. Longitudinal position measurement and image registration were performed by optical tracking of the pneumatic scanner. The 2D scanning device enables high resolution imaging over a small field of view and is suitable for OCT as well as other scanning microscopies. Large field of view imaging for screening or surveillance applications can also be achieved by proximally pulling back or advancing the capsule while scanning the distal high-speed micromotor. Circumferential en face OCT was demonstrated in living swine at 250 Hz frame rate and 1 MHz A-scan rate using a MEMS tunable VCSEL light source at 1300 nm. Cross-sectional and en face OCT views of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract were generated with precision distal pneumatic longitudinal actuation as well as proximal manual longitudinal actuation. These devices could enable clinical studies either as an adjunct to endoscopy, attached to an endoscope, or as a swallowed tethered capsule for non-endoscopic imaging without sedation. The combination of ultrahigh speed imaging and distal scanning capsule technology could enable both screening and surveillance applications.

  2. Teacher Transfer and Turnover. Research Capsule. Volume 0601

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2006-01-01

    Studies indicate that as many as 20 percent of teachers nationwide leave the profession after three years and close to 30 percent leave after five years. This research capsule examines the characteristics of teachers who move or leave and the types of schools they are most likely to leave. Findings on the impact of financial compensation on…

  3. 21 CFR 520.1920 - Prochlorperazine, isopropamide sustained release capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... dogs in which gastrointestinal disturbances are associated with emotional stress. (2)(i) Capsules described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section are administered orally to dogs weighing from 4 to 15...

  4. Intraoperative bowel cleansing tool in active locomotion capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ciuti, G; Tognarelli, S; Verbeni, A; Menciassi, A; Dario, P

    2013-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) can be considered an example of "disruptive technology" since it represents a bright alternative to traditional diagnostic methodologies. If compared with traditional endoscopy, bowel cleansing procedure in CE becomes of greater importance, due to the impossibility to intraoperatively operate on unclean gastrointestinal tract areas. Considering the promising results and benefits obtained in the field of CE for gastrointestinal diagnosis and intervention, the authors approached the bowel cleansing issue with the final aim to propose an innovative and easy-to-use intraoperative cleansing system to be applied to an active locomotion softly-tethered capsule device, already developed by the authors. The system, that has to be intended as an additional tool for intraoperatively cleansing procedure of the colonic tract, is composed by a flexible tube with a metallic deflector attached to the distal end; it can be headed to the target area through the capsule operating channel. Performances of the colonoscopic capsule and intraoperative cleansing capabilities were successfully confirmed both in an in-vitro and ex-vivo experimental session. The innovative intraoperative cleansing system demonstrated promising results in terms of water injection, colonic wall cleansing procedure and subsequent water suction, thus guaranteeing to reduce the risk of inadequate visualization of the mucosa in endoscopic procedures. PMID:24110819

  5. Pickering emulsions and capsules stabilized by wool powder particles.

    PubMed

    Hikima, Takako; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2011-01-01

    We prepared emulsions and capsules that were stabilized by wool powder particles. These powder particles were adsorbed on oil-water interfaces, and they formed both oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions. These emulsions were observed in ternary systems containing silicone oil, n-dodecane, fluoric oil, oleic acid, or linoleic acid as the oil phase.

  6. Research Update: Performance Pay for Teachers. Information Capsule. Volume 0911

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a growing recognition that the traditional teacher salary schedule does not reward the most effective teachers, most U.S. school districts don't offer teacher incentives for improving student performance and the vast majority of teachers actually oppose such a plan. This Information Capsule reviewed recent studies conducted…

  7. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section 520.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... canis and Toxascaris leonina. 1 (ii) Cats. It is used for the removal of large roundworms...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section 520.1804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... canis and Toxascaris leonina. 1 (ii) Cats. It is used for the removal of large roundworms...

  9. Pneumococcal Capsules and Their Types: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Geno, K. Aaron; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.; Song, Joon Young; Skovsted, Ian C.; Klugman, Keith P.; Jones, Christopher; Konradsen, Helle B.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is an important human pathogen. Its virulence is largely due to its polysaccharide capsule, which shields it from the host immune system, and because of this, the capsule has been extensively studied. Studies of the capsule led to the identification of DNA as the genetic material, identification of many different capsular serotypes, and identification of the serotype-specific nature of protection by adaptive immunity. Recent studies have led to the determination of capsular polysaccharide structures for many serotypes using advanced analytical technologies, complete elucidation of genetic basis for the capsular types, and the development of highly effective pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Conjugate vaccine use has altered the serotype distribution by either serotype replacement or switching, and this has increased the need to serotype pneumococci. Due to great advances in molecular technologies and our understanding of the pneumococcal genome, molecular approaches have become powerful tools to predict pneumococcal serotypes. In addition, more-precise and -efficient serotyping methods that directly detect polysaccharide structures are emerging. These improvements in our capabilities will greatly enhance future investigations of pneumococcal epidemiology and diseases and the biology of colonization and innate immunity to pneumococcal capsules. PMID:26085553

  10. Sequential release of nanoparticle payloads from ultrasonically burstable capsules.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Stephen; Hu, Jennifer; Kearney, Cathal; Skaat, Hadas; Gu, Luo; Gentili, Marco; Vandenburgh, Herman; Mooney, David

    2016-01-01

    In many biomedical contexts ranging from chemotherapy to tissue engineering, it is beneficial to sequentially present bioactive payloads. Explicit control over the timing and dose of these presentations is highly desirable. Here, we present a capsule-based delivery system capable of rapidly releasing multiple payloads in response to ultrasonic signals. In vitro, these alginate capsules exhibited excellent payload retention for up to 1 week when unstimulated and delivered their entire payloads when ultrasonically stimulated for 10-100 s. Shorter exposures (10 s) were required to trigger delivery from capsules embedded in hydrogels placed in a tissue model and did not result in tissue heating or death of encapsulated cells. Different types of capsules were tuned to rupture in response to different ultrasonic stimuli, thus permitting the sequential, on-demand delivery of nanoparticle payloads. As a proof of concept, gold nanoparticles were decorated with bone morphogenetic protein-2 to demonstrate the potential bioactivity of nanoparticle payloads. These nanoparticles were not cytotoxic and induced an osteogenic response in mouse mesenchymal stem cells. This system may enable researchers and physicians to remotely regulate the timing, dose, and sequence of drug delivery on-demand, with a wide range of clinical applications ranging from tissue engineering to cancer treatment. PMID:26496382

  11. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E capsules. 520.2100 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2100 Selenium, vitamin... to 1 milligram of selenium) and 56.2 milligrams of vitamin E (68 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E capsules. 520.2100 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2100 Selenium, vitamin... to 1 milligram of selenium) and 56.2 milligrams of vitamin E (68 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E capsules. 520.2100 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2100 Selenium, vitamin... to 1 milligram of selenium) and 56.2 milligrams of vitamin E (68 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E capsules. 520.2100 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2100 Selenium, vitamin... to 1 milligram of selenium) and 56.2 milligrams of vitamin E (68 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E capsules. 520.2100 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2100 Selenium, vitamin... to 1 milligram of selenium) and 56.2 milligrams of vitamin E (68 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1920 - Prochlorperazine, isopropamide sustained release capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... capsules. 520.1920 Section 520.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... dogs in which gastrointestinal disturbances are associated with emotional stress. (2)(i)...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1920 - Prochlorperazine, isopropamide sustained release capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... capsules. 520.1920 Section 520.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... dogs in which gastrointestinal disturbances are associated with emotional stress. (2)(i)...

  18. 30. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. OPERATORS' CHAIR AND COMMUNICATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. OPERATORS' CHAIR AND COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE IN FOREGROUND. ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT RACK AT LEFT; LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE WITH CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. IN CENTER. LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  19. 28. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBERS (FRONT TO BACK) LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AND CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. SHOCK ISOLATOR AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT RACK AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  20. 27. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE AT LEFT; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE AT LEFT; LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE AT RIGHT. PADLOCKED PANEL AT TOP CENTER CONTAINS MISSILE LAUNCH KEYS. SHOCK ISOLATOR AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  1. 26. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBER LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AT COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE. LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  2. High stress actuation by dielectric elastomer with oil capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong; Shiau, Li-Lynn; Tan, Adrian W. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Though capable of generating a large strain, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) generate only a moderate actuation stress not more than 200kPa, which seriously limits its use as artificial muscles for robotic arm. Enhancement of dielectric strength (greater than 500MV/m) by dielectric oil immersion could possibly enable it a larger force generation. Previously, the immersion was done in an oil bath, which limits portability together with DEAs. In this study, we developed portable capsules to enclose oil over the DEA substrate (VHB 4905). The capsules is made of a thinner soft acrylic membrane and they seals dielectric liquid oil (Dow Corning Fluid 200 50cSt). The DEA substrate is a graphiteclad VHB membrane, which is pre-stretched with pure-shear boundary condition for axial actuation. When activated under isotonic condition, the oil-capsule DEA can sustain a very high dielectric field up to 903 MV/m and does not fail; whereas, the dry DEA breaks down at a lower electric field at 570 MV/m. Furthermore, the oil-capsule DEA can produces higher isometric stress change up to 1.05MPa, which is 70% more than the maximum produced by the dry DEA. This study confirmed that oil capping helps DEA achieve very high dielectric strength and generate more stress change for work.

  3. Are Social Networking Websites Educational? Information Capsule. Volume 0909

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    More and more school districts across the country are joining social networking sites, such as Facebook and MySpace. This Information Capsule discusses the frequency with which school districts are using social networking sites, how districts are using the sites, and potential drawbacks associated with their use. Issues for districts to consider…

  4. Pneumococcal Capsules and Their Types: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Geno, K Aaron; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Song, Joon Young; Skovsted, Ian C; Klugman, Keith P; Jones, Christopher; Konradsen, Helle B; Nahm, Moon H

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is an important human pathogen. Its virulence is largely due to its polysaccharide capsule, which shields it from the host immune system, and because of this, the capsule has been extensively studied. Studies of the capsule led to the identification of DNA as the genetic material, identification of many different capsular serotypes, and identification of the serotype-specific nature of protection by adaptive immunity. Recent studies have led to the determination of capsular polysaccharide structures for many serotypes using advanced analytical technologies, complete elucidation of genetic basis for the capsular types, and the development of highly effective pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Conjugate vaccine use has altered the serotype distribution by either serotype replacement or switching, and this has increased the need to serotype pneumococci. Due to great advances in molecular technologies and our understanding of the pneumococcal genome, molecular approaches have become powerful tools to predict pneumococcal serotypes. In addition, more-precise and -efficient serotyping methods that directly detect polysaccharide structures are emerging. These improvements in our capabilities will greatly enhance future investigations of pneumococcal epidemiology and diseases and the biology of colonization and innate immunity to pneumococcal capsules. PMID:26085553

  5. Sequential release of nanoparticle payloads from ultrasonically burstable capsules.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Stephen; Hu, Jennifer; Kearney, Cathal; Skaat, Hadas; Gu, Luo; Gentili, Marco; Vandenburgh, Herman; Mooney, David

    2016-01-01

    In many biomedical contexts ranging from chemotherapy to tissue engineering, it is beneficial to sequentially present bioactive payloads. Explicit control over the timing and dose of these presentations is highly desirable. Here, we present a capsule-based delivery system capable of rapidly releasing multiple payloads in response to ultrasonic signals. In vitro, these alginate capsules exhibited excellent payload retention for up to 1 week when unstimulated and delivered their entire payloads when ultrasonically stimulated for 10-100 s. Shorter exposures (10 s) were required to trigger delivery from capsules embedded in hydrogels placed in a tissue model and did not result in tissue heating or death of encapsulated cells. Different types of capsules were tuned to rupture in response to different ultrasonic stimuli, thus permitting the sequential, on-demand delivery of nanoparticle payloads. As a proof of concept, gold nanoparticles were decorated with bone morphogenetic protein-2 to demonstrate the potential bioactivity of nanoparticle payloads. These nanoparticles were not cytotoxic and induced an osteogenic response in mouse mesenchymal stem cells. This system may enable researchers and physicians to remotely regulate the timing, dose, and sequence of drug delivery on-demand, with a wide range of clinical applications ranging from tissue engineering to cancer treatment.

  6. Acceleration and deceleration model of indirect drive ICF capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saillard, Yves

    2006-12-01

    A general zero-dimensional modelling of implosion without thermonuclear reactions is presented, for standard indirectly driven capsules. It is not substantially a new theory, but new demonstrations and improvements of existing models. The model is derived directly from the gas dynamics conservation equations written in integral form for fluid domains with variable mass, in effect the whole non-ablated capsule, the hot spot and the dense shell. The necessary approximations which involve global or mean quantities are justifed theoretically and checked by comparisons with numerical simulations. Two different sets of approximations are developed, one for each of the acceleration and the deceleration phases of the implosion. An improved—in the sense that the time variation of the hohlraum temperature is fully taken into account as it is required for high gain capsules—rocket model is proposed for the acceleration phase. With further approximations, it gives the maximum implosion velocity and the initial capsule mass corresponding to a given final capsule mass, in terms of the initial outer deuterium-tritium radius and the maximum hohlraum temperature. For the deceleration phase, the present model gives an analytical solution for the time decrease in the implosion velocity up to stagnation. Assuming the invariance of PVγ for the different media considered—a property only approximately verified—this model defines the state of these mediums in deceleration and at stagnation, in terms of the mean entropy parameters, the capsule mass, the mean implosion velocity at the end of acceleration and the initial gas mass filling the shell. A simple ODE, which can be easily integrated numerically, is derived for the hot spot mass which depends on the heat conduction wave ablating the fuel from the inside. All the numerical coefficients presently involved in the model can be calculated from the EOS, opacities and heat conduction parameters, except for the value of the

  7. Noncontact optical measurement of lens capsule thickness ex vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebarth, Noel M.; Manns, Fabrice; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: To design a non-contact optical system to measure lens capsule thickness in cadaver eyes. Methods: The optical system uses a 670nm laser beam delivered to a single-mode fiber coupler. The output of the fiber coupler is focused onto the tissue using an aspheric lens (NA=0.68) mounted on a motorized translation stage. Light reflected from the sample is collected by the fiber coupler and sent to a silicon photodiode connected to a power meter. Peaks in the power signal are detected when the focal point of the aspheric lens coincides with the capsule boundaries. The capsule thickness is proportional to the distance between successive peaks. Anterior and posterior lens capsule thickness measurements were performed on 13 human, 10 monkey, and 34 New Zealand white rabbit lenses. The cadaver eyes were prepared for optical measurements by bonding a PMMA ring on the sclera. The posterior pole was sectioned, excess vitreous was removed, and the eye was placed on a Teflon slide. The cornea and iris were then sectioned. After the experiments, the lenses were excised, placed in 10% buffered formalin, and prepared for histology. Results: Central anterior lens capsule thickness was 9.4+/-2.9μm (human), 11.2+/-6.6μm (monkey), and 10.3+/-3.6μm (rabbit) optically and 14.9+/-1.6μm (human), 17.7+/-4.9μm (monkey), and 12.6+/-2.3μm (rabbit) histologically. The values for the central posterior capsule were 9.4+/-2.9μm (human), 6.6+/-2.5μm (monkey), and 7.9+/-2.3μm (rabbit) optically and 4.6+/-1.4μm (human), 4.5+/-1.2μm (monkey), and 5.7+/-1.7μm (rabbit) histologically. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a non-contact optical system can successfully measure lens capsule thickness in cadaver eyes.

  8. Solution Based Deposition of Polyimide Ablators for NIF Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R

    2002-07-11

    Between June 1997 and March 2002 Luxel Corporation was contracted to explore the possibility of preparing NIF scale capsules with polyimide ablators using solution-based techniques. This work offered a potential alternative to a vapor deposition approach talking place at LLNL. The motivation for pursuing the solution-based approach was primarily two-fold. First, it was expected that much higher strength capsules (relative to vapor deposition) could be prepared since the solution precursors were known to produce high strength films. Second, in applying the ablator as a fluid it was expected that surface tension effects would lead to very smooth surfaces. These potential advantages were offset by expected difficulties, primary among them that the capsules would need to be levitated in some fashion (for example acoustically) during coating and processing, and that application of the coating uniformly to thicknesses of 150 pm on levitated capsules would be difficult. Because of the expected problems with the coupling of levitation and coating, most of the initial effort was to develop coating and processing techniques on stalk-mounted capsules. The program had some success. Using atomizer spray techniques in which application of {approx}5 {micro}m fluid coatings were alternated with heating to remove solvent resulted in up to 70 {micro}m thick coatings that were reasonably smooth at short wavelengths, and showed only about a 1 {micro}m thickness variation over long wavelengths. More controlled deposition with an inkjet devise was also developed. However difficult technical problems remained, and these problems coupled with the relative success of the vapor deposition approach led to the termination of the solution-based work in 2002. What follows is a compilation of the progress reports submitted by Luxel for this work which spanned a number of separate contracts. The reports are arranged chronologically, the last report in the collection has a modest summary of what

  9. Buckling and its effect on the confined flow of a model capsule suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryngelson, Spencer; Freund, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    The rheology of confined flowing suspensions, such as blood, depend upon the dynamics of the components, which can be particularly rich when they are elastic capsules. Using boundary integral methods, we simulate a two-dimensional model channel through which flows a dense suspension of fluid-filled capsules. A parameter of principal interest is the equilibrium membrane perimeter, which ranges from round capsules to capsules with an elongated dog-bone-like equilibrium shape. It is shown that the minimum effective viscosity occurs for capsules with a biconcave equilibrium shape, similar to that of a red blood cell. The rheological behavior changes significantly over this range; transitions are linked to specific changes in the capsule dynamics. Most noteworthy is an abrupt change in behavior when capsules transition to a dog-bone-like equilibrium shape, which correlates with the onset of capsule buckling. The buckled capsules have a more varied orientation and make significant rotational (rotlet) contributions to the capsule-capsule interactions. Supported under NSF Grant No. CBET 13-36972.

  10. Three-dimensional tracking of sensor capsules mobilised by fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Robert L.; Šutalo, Ilija D.; Wong, Chong Y.

    2015-03-01

    A new technique for simultaneously measuring particle trajectories and temperature in fluids using specially designed light-emitting sensor capsules/particles is reported. The sensor capsules each contain a microcontroller (with integrated temperature sensor), uniquely coloured light emitting diodes (LEDs), a battery, and other components. When inserted into a fluid, the sensor capsules are mobilised by fluid flow. As they emit light they can be readily tracked and their 3D position over time measured, using an externally positioned camera along with a planar mirror in a calibrated set-up. The capsules can also take intra-fluid temperature measurements and transmit encoded data by modulating their LEDs whilst moving. Controlled experiments with a sensor capsule placed on a rotating turntable and unconstrained fluid-driven motion of multiple sensor capsules placed in a mixing tank are reported. The results demonstrate how the pathlines of capsules (and instantaneous velocities) and temperature can be simultaneously measured.

  11. Adaptive dosing approaches to the individualization of 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) treatment for children with high-risk neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Veal, Gareth J.; Errington, Julie; Rowbotham, Sophie E.; Illingworth, Nicola A.; Malik, Ghada; Cole, Michael; Daly, Ann K.; Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Boddy, Alan V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility of adaptive dosing and the impact of pharmacogenetic variation on 13-cisRA disposition in high-risk neuroblastoma patients. Experimental Design 13cisRA (160mg/m2 or 5.33mg/kg/day) was administered to 103 patients ≤21 years and plasma concentrations of 13-cisRA and 4-oxo-13-cisRA quantitated on day 14 of treatment. 71 patients were recruited to a dose adjustment group, targeting a 13-cisRA Cmax of 2μM, with dose increases of 25-50% implemented for patients with Cmax values <2μM. A population pharmacokinetic model was applied and polymorphisms in relevant cytochrome P450 genes analyzed. Results 13-cisRA Cmax values ranged from 0.42–11.2μM, with 34/103 (33%) patients failing to achieve a Cmax >2μM. Dose increases carried out in 20 patients in the dose adjustment study group led to concentrations >2μM in 18 patients (90%). 8/11 (73%) patients <12kg, receiving a dose of 5.33mg/kg, failed to achieve a Cmax ≥2μM. Significantly lower Cmax values were observed for patients treated with 5.33mg/kg versus 160mg/m2 (1.9±1.2 versus 3.1±2.0μM; mean±SD; P=0.023). Cmax was higher in patients who swallowed 13-cisRA capsules as compared to receiving the drug extracted from capsules (4.0±2.2 versus 2.6±1.8μM; P=0.0012). The target Cmax was achieved by 93% (25/27) versus 55% (42/76) of patients in these two groups respectively. No clear relationships were found between genetic variants and 13-cisRA pharmacokinetic parameters. Conclusions Dosing regimen and method of administration have a marked influence on 13-cisRA plasma concentrations. Body weight-based dosing should not be implemented for children <12kg and pharmacological data support higher doses for children unable to swallow 13-cisRA capsules. PMID:23087409

  12. Material Properties of the Human Lumbar Facet Joint Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Little, Jesse S.; Khalsa, Partap S.

    2005-01-01

    The human facet joint capsule is one of the structures in the lumbar spine that constrains motions of vertebrae during global spine loading (e.g., physiological flexion). Computational models of the spine have not been able to include accurate nonlinear and viscoelastic material properties, as they have not previously been measured. Capsules were tested using a uniaxial ramp-hold protocol or a haversine displacement protocol using a commercially available materials testing device. Plane strain was measured optically. Capsules were tested both parallel and perpendicular to the dominant orientation of the collagen fibers in the capsules. Viscoelastic material properties were determined. Parallel to the dominant orientation of the collagen fibers, the complex modulus of elasticity was E* = 1.63MPa, with a storage modulus of E′ = 1.25MPa and a loss modulus of: E″ = 0.39MPa. The mean stress relaxation rates for static and dynamic loading were best fit with first-order polynomials: B (ɛ) = 0.1110 ɛ − 0.0733 and B (ɛ) = −0.1249ɛ 11794-8181 +0.0190, respectively. Perpendicular to the collagen fiber orientation, the viscous and elastic secant moduli were 1.81 and 1.00 MPa, respectively. The mean stress relaxation rate for static loading was best fit with a first-order polynomial: B (ɛ) = − 0.04ɛ − 0.06. Capsule strength parallel and perpendicular to collagen fiber orientation was 1.90 and 0.95 MPa, respectively, and extensibility was 0.65 and 0.60, respectively. Poisson’s ratio parallel and perpendicular to fiber orientation was 0.299 and 0.488, respectively. The elasticity moduli were nonlinear and anisotropic, and capsule strength was larger aligned parallel to the collagen fibers. The phase lag between stress and strain increased with haversine frequency, but the storage modulus remained large relative to the complex modulus. The stress relaxation rate was strain dependent parallel to the collagen fibers, but was strain independent perpendicularly

  13. Protective role of the capsule and impact of serotype 4 switching on Streptococcus mitis.

    PubMed

    Rukke, Håkon V; Kalluru, Raja Sab; Repnik, Urska; Gerlini, Alice; José, Ricardo J; Periselneris, Jimstan; Marshall, Helina; Griffiths, Gareth; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Brown, Jeremy S; Petersen, Fernanda C

    2014-09-01

    The polysaccharide capsule surrounding Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential for virulence. Recently, Streptococcus mitis, a human commensal and a close relative of S. pneumoniae, was also shown to have a capsule. In this study, the S. mitis type strain switched capsule by acquisition of the serotype 4 capsule locus of S. pneumoniae TIGR4, following induction of competence for natural transformation. Comparison of the wild type with the capsule-switching mutant and with a capsule deletion mutant showed that the capsule protected S. mitis against phagocytosis by RAW 264.7 macrophages. This effect was enhanced in the S. mitis strain expressing the S. pneumoniae capsule, which showed, in addition, increased resistance against early clearance in a mouse model of lung infection. Expression of both capsules also favored survival in human blood, and the effect was again more pronounced for the capsule-switching mutant. S. mitis survival in horse blood or in a mouse model of bacteremia was not significantly different between the wild type and the mutant strains. In all models, S. pneumoniae TIGR4 showed higher rates of survival than the S. mitis type strain or the capsule-switching mutant, except in the lung model, in which significant differences between S. pneumoniae TIGR4 and the capsule-switching mutant were not observed. Thus, we identified conditions that showed a protective function for the capsule in S. mitis. Under such conditions, S. mitis resistance to clearance could be enhanced by capsule switching to serotype 4, but it was enhanced to levels lower than those for the virulent strain S. pneumoniae TIGR4. PMID:24958712

  14. Edible liquid marbles and capsules covered with lipid crystals.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Yuki; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2012-01-01

    Liquid marbles are water droplets covered with solid particles. Here we show a method for the preparation of edible liquid marbles and capsules covered with fatty acid crystals and triacylglycerol crystals. We prepared liquid marbles using a simple method; namely, a water droplet was rolled on lipid crystals in petri dishes. The resulting marbles were converted to capsules covered with a lipid shell by heating. These marbles were stable not only on glass surfaces but also on water surfaces because they had rigid hydrophobic exteriors. The lifetime of the liquid marbles on water depended on the alkyl chain length of the lipid molecules and the pH of the water. These findings are useful for applying liquid marbles to food, cosmetic, and medical products. PMID:22975781

  15. [A newly-developed capsule endoscope in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Haruhiko

    2008-07-01

    A new video capsule endoscope (VCE) developed by Olympus Medical Systems provides upgrade resolution, depth of the field, and brightness of the image, by improving the optical system, contained with the new function to adjust the level of lighting automatically coordinate with the brightness around, and the original handy displayed real-time viewer. Clinical trial using this capsule demonstrated the significantly higher diagnostic yield compared with barium contrast radiography of small bowel, especially for vascular involvement. Real-time viewer could be useful for detecting the gastric transit abnormality as well as for increasing the likelihood of a complete small-bowel examination with metoclopramide administration. Together with balloon-equipped enteroscopy, VCE is a new device which contributes to the diagnosis and the treatment of the small bowel lesion.

  16. Capsule Design for Blue Light Therapy against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhangyong; Ren, Binbin; Tan, Haiyan; Liu, Shengrong; Wang, Wei; Pang, Yu; Lin, Jinzhao; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    A photo-medical capsule that emits blue light for Helicobacter pylori treatment was described in this paper. The system consists of modules for pH sensing and measuring, light-emitting diode driver circuit, radio communication and microcontroller, and power management. The system can differentiate locations by monitoring the pH values of the gastrointestinal tract, and turn on and off the blue light according to the preset range of pH values. Our experimental tests show that the capsule can operate in the effective light therapy mode for more than 32 minutes and the wireless communication module can reliably transmit the measured pH value to a receiver located outside the body.

  17. Arthroscopic capsule reconstruction in the hip using iliotibial band allograft.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Christiano A C; Sawyer, Gregory A; Fukui, Kiyokazu; Briggs, Karen K; Philippon, Marc J

    2015-02-01

    The hip capsule has been identified as an important static stabilizer of the hip joint. Despite the intrinsic bony stability of the hip socket, the capsule plays a key role in hip stability, particularly at the extremes of motion, and the iliofemoral ligament is the most important stabilizer in extension and external rotation. Patients who do not undergo capsular closure or plication may continue to complain of hip pain and dysfunction postoperatively, likely because of microinstability or muscle invagination into the capsular defect, and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic resonance arthrography will identify the capsular defect. Seen primarily in the revision setting, capsular defects can cause recurrent stress at the chondrolabral junction. An attempt at secondary closure can be challenging because of capsular limb adherence to the surrounding soft tissues. Therefore reconstruction may be the only possible surgical solution for this problem. We describe our new surgical technique for arthroscopic hip capsular reconstruction using iliotibial band allograft.

  18. Arthroscopic capsule reconstruction in the hip using iliotibial band allograft.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Christiano A C; Sawyer, Gregory A; Fukui, Kiyokazu; Briggs, Karen K; Philippon, Marc J

    2015-02-01

    The hip capsule has been identified as an important static stabilizer of the hip joint. Despite the intrinsic bony stability of the hip socket, the capsule plays a key role in hip stability, particularly at the extremes of motion, and the iliofemoral ligament is the most important stabilizer in extension and external rotation. Patients who do not undergo capsular closure or plication may continue to complain of hip pain and dysfunction postoperatively, likely because of microinstability or muscle invagination into the capsular defect, and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic resonance arthrography will identify the capsular defect. Seen primarily in the revision setting, capsular defects can cause recurrent stress at the chondrolabral junction. An attempt at secondary closure can be challenging because of capsular limb adherence to the surrounding soft tissues. Therefore reconstruction may be the only possible surgical solution for this problem. We describe our new surgical technique for arthroscopic hip capsular reconstruction using iliotibial band allograft. PMID:25973378

  19. Laminar-to-turbulent transitions over an ablating reentry capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komurasaki, Kimiya; Candler, Graham V.

    2000-11-01

    The aerodynamic mechanism of early transition phenomena over an ablating reentry capsule has been analytically examined. A two-equation turbulence model ( k- ɛ model) was coupled with Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Low-Reynolds-number effects on the solid wall were taken into account by modifying the Chien's correction. As a result, transition occurred at the lower Reynolds number with higher ablation rate. The predicted transition-point Reynolds number was 3×10 4 at the surface-mass-injection rate of 100 g/sm 2. The principal mechanism of this early transition is thought as follows; the viscosity damping effects are reduced and re-laminarization is prevented in the downstream of the capsule surface, due to the turbulence on the surface and due to the pushing out of near-surface stream-lines from the surface by successive mass injection.

  20. Improved modeling of electromagnetic localization for implantable wireless capsules.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xudong; Yan, Guozheng; He, Wenhui; Jiang, Pingping

    2010-01-01

    An electromagnetic localization method for implantable wireless capsules has been developed that employs a three-axial magnetic sensor embedded in the capsules and three energized coils attached on the abdomen. In order to further improve the localization accuracy, a novel localization model has been derived based on the Biot-Savart Law. For simplicity of the calculation without increasing the position error, the method of truncated series expansion has been used in modeling. The experiment showed that the improved model had higher precision than the original dipole model. Using the improved model, the localization error can be greatly reduced. The improved model is an elementary math function and suitable for resolving some inverse magnetic problems in engineering. PMID:20715967

  1. Capsule-controlled selectivity of a rhodium hydroformylation catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocokić, Vladica; Kalkan, Ayfer; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L.; Gryko, Daniel T.; Reek, Joost N. H.

    2013-10-01

    Chemical processes proceed much faster and more selectively in the presence of appropriate catalysts, and as such the field of catalysis is of key importance for the chemical industry, especially in light of sustainable chemistry. Enzymes, the natural catalysts, are generally orders of magnitude more selective than synthetic catalysts and a major difference is that they take advantage of well-defined cavities around the active site to steer the selectivity of a reaction via the second coordination sphere. Here we demonstrate that such a strategy also applies for a rhodium catalyst; when used in the hydroformylation of internal alkenes, the selectivity of the product formed is steered solely by changing the cavity surrounding the metal complex. Detailed studies reveal that the origin of the capsule-controlled selectivity is the capsule reorganization energy, that is, the high energy required to accommodate the hydride migration transition state, which leads to the minor product.

  2. Doubly Cavitand-Capped Porphyrin Capsule by Hydrogen Bonds.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Kazuki; Nakamura, Munechika; Kobayashi, Kenji

    2016-02-18

    The components of a 1:2 mixture of meso-tetrakis(4-dodecyl-3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)porphyrin (1) and a bowl-shaped tetrakis(4-pyridylethynyl)cavitand (2) in CDCl3 or C6 D6 self-assemble quantitatively into the doubly cavitand-capped porphyrin capsule 2⋅1⋅2 through eight ArOH⋅⋅⋅Npy hydrogen bonds. Capsule 2⋅1⋅2 possesses two cavities divided by the porphyrin ring and encapsulates two molecules of 1-acetoxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzene (G) as a guest to form G/G@(2⋅1⋅2). Remarkable solvent effect was observed, in which the apparent association constant of 2⋅1⋅2 with G in C6 D6 was much greater than that in CDCl3. PMID:26728330

  3. Plastic ablator ignition capsule design for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Daniel S.; Haan, Steven W.; Hammel, Bruce A.; Salmonson, Jay D.; Callahan, Debra A.; Town, Richard P. J.

    2010-05-15

    The National Ignition Campaign, tasked with designing and fielding targets for fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)], has carried forward three complementary target designs for the past several years: a beryllium ablator design, a plastic ablator design, and a high-density carbon or synthetic diamond design. This paper describes current simulations and design optimization to develop the plastic ablator capsule design as a candidate for the first ignition attempt on NIF. The trade-offs in capsule scale and laser energy that must be made to achieve a comparable ignition probability to that with beryllium are emphasized. Large numbers of one-dimensional simulations, meant to assess the statistical behavior of the target design, as well as two-dimensional simulations to assess the target's susceptibility to Rayleigh-Taylor growth are presented.

  4. Plastic ablator ignition capsule design for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D S; Haan, S W; Hammel, B A; Salmonson, J D; Callahan, D A; Town, R P

    2009-12-01

    The National Ignition Campaign, tasked with designing and fielding targets for fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), has carried forward three complementary target designs for the past several years: a beryllium ablator design, a plastic ablator design, and a high-density carbon or synthetic diamond design. This paper describes current simulations and design optimization to develop the plastic ablator capsule design as a candidate for the first ignition attempt on NIF. The trade-offs in capsule scale and laser energy that must be made to achieve a comparable ignition probability to that with beryllium are emphasized. Large numbers of 1-D simulations, meant to assess the statistical behavior of the target design, as well as 2-D simulations to assess the target's susceptibility to Rayleigh-Taylor growth are presented.

  5. Capsule enteroscopy and radiology of the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Fork, Frans-Thomas; Aabakken, Lars

    2007-12-01

    In a very few years, the video capsule for small bowel enteroscopy has gained widespread clinical acceptance. It is readily ingested, disposable, and allows for a complete, low-invasive endoscopic examination of the entire mucosa of the small bowel. It is a patient-friendly method and a first-line procedure in the difficult evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It has the highest proven figure of diagnostic sensitivity for detecting lesions of the mucosa, irrespective of aetiology. The limitations of capsule endoscopy include difficulty in localising mucosal lesions anatomically and its restricted use in patients with dysphagia, strictures or motor dysfunction. Strictures, transmural and extra-mural lesions in patients with small bowel Crohn's disease are evaluated by MRI- enterography and CT-enterography.

  6. Capsule Design for Blue Light Therapy against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Haiyan; Liu, Shengrong; Wang, Wei; Pang, Yu; Lin, Jinzhao; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    A photo-medical capsule that emits blue light for Helicobacter pylori treatment was described in this paper. The system consists of modules for pH sensing and measuring, light-emitting diode driver circuit, radio communication and microcontroller, and power management. The system can differentiate locations by monitoring the pH values of the gastrointestinal tract, and turn on and off the blue light according to the preset range of pH values. Our experimental tests show that the capsule can operate in the effective light therapy mode for more than 32 minutes and the wireless communication module can reliably transmit the measured pH value to a receiver located outside the body. PMID:26814481

  7. Adhesive capsulitis of the wrist. Diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hanson, E C; Wood, V E; Thiel, A E; Maloney, M D; Sauser, D D

    1988-09-01

    Adhesive capsulitis occurs as a pathologic entity in the shoulder, hip, and ankle joints. Thickening and contracture of the wrist joint capsule were demonstrated on arthrograms performed on ten patients ranging in age from 20 to 82 years. The patients had pain and limited range of motion in the wrist. The findings included: (1) resistance to the injection of smaller than normal volumes of contrast material, (2) obliteration of recesses, and (3) extravasation of the contrast agent along the needle tract. Closed manipulation under general anesthesia of the wrist on four patients resulted in some improvement in range of motion. A distal ulna fracture in one older patient occurred as a complication of manipulation. Careful technique and judicious patient selection are of paramount importance.

  8. Active hepatic capsulitis caused by Paragonimus westermani infection.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michiro; Kamiyama, Takuro; Yano, Takeshi; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2002-08-01

    Paragonimiasis is an important re-emerging parasitosis in Japan. Although the lungs and pleural cavity are the principal sites affected with the parasite, ectopic infection can occur in unexpected sites such as skin and brain. This case report describes a patient with active hepatic capsulitis due to Paragonimus westermani infection. The patient was successfully treated with praziquantel at the dose of 75 mg/kg/day for 3 days.

  9. Acetylene bubble-powered autonomous capsules: towards in situ fuel.

    PubMed

    Moo, James Guo Sheng; Wang, Hong; Pumera, Martin

    2014-12-28

    A fuel-free autonomous self-propelled motor is illustrated. The motor is powered by the chemistry of calcium carbide and utilising water as a co-reactant, through a polymer encapsulation strategy. Expulsion of acetylene bubbles powers the capsule motor. This is an important step, going beyond the toxic hydrogen peroxide fuel used normally, to find alternative propellants for self-propelled machines.

  10. Using Numerical Modeling to Simulate Space Capsule Ground Landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Ernie; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental work is being conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) to investigate ground landing capabilities of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The Orion capsule is NASA s replacement for the Space Shuttle. The Orion capsule will service the International Space Station and be used for future space missions to the Moon and to Mars. To evaluate the feasibility of Orion ground landings, a series of capsule impact tests are being performed at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR). The experimental results derived at LandIR provide means to validate and calibrate nonlinear dynamic finite element models, which are also being developed during this study. Because of the high cost and time involvement intrinsic to full-scale testing, numerical simulations are favored over experimental work. Subsequent to a numerical model validated by actual test responses, impact simulations will be conducted to study multiple impact scenarios not practical to test. Twenty-one swing tests using the LandIR gantry were conducted during the June 07 through October 07 time period to evaluate the Orion s impact response. Results for two capsule initial pitch angles, 0deg and -15deg , along with their computer simulations using LS-DYNA are presented in this article. A soil-vehicle friction coefficient of 0.45 was determined by comparing the test stopping distance with computer simulations. In addition, soil modeling accuracy is presented by comparing vertical penetrometer impact tests with computer simulations for the soil model used during the swing tests.

  11. Diagnosis of Jejunal Metastases from Lung Cancer Using Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Charlotte; Prim, Nathalie; Mennecier, Bertrand; Delvaux, Michel; Gangi, Afshin; Quoix, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal metastases from lung cancer are rare and usually asymptomatic. We report a case of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer revealed by abdominal pain and severe recurrent anaemia. The diagnosis was obtained with capsule endoscopy. This non-invasive procedure thus represents a valuable method contributing to a rapid and detailed diagnosis while reducing underdiagnosis, and it should thus be considered for lung cancer patients complaining of abdominal symptoms, which may indeed be related to gastrointestinal metastases. PMID:27790115

  12. 25. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBERS (FRONT TO BACK) CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. AT LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE AND LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AT COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE. RADIO TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER RACKS AT FAR RIGHT; ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT RACKS AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  13. 29. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBERS (FRONT TO BACK) LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AND CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. AT CONSOLES. REFRIGERATOR AT RIGHT FLANKED BY RADIO EQUIPMENT (RIGHT) AND FILE CABINETS (LEFT). VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  14. Cable attachment for a radioactive brachytherapy source capsule

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Ian G; Pierce, Larry A

    2006-07-18

    In cancer brachytherapy treatment, a small californium-252 neutron source capsule is attached to a guide cable using a modified crimping technique. The guide cable has a solid cylindrical end, and the attachment employs circumferential grooves micromachined in the solid cable end. The attachment was designed and tested, and hardware fabricated for use inside a radioactive hot cell. A welding step typically required in other cable attachments is avoided.

  15. Inflated Sporopollenin Exine Capsules Obtained from Thin-Walled Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Jackman, Joshua A.; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Sporopollenin is a physically robust and chemically resilient biopolymer that comprises the outermost layer of pollen walls and is the first line of defense against harsh environmental conditions. The unique physicochemical properties of sporopollenin increasingly motivate the extraction of sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) from pollen walls as a renewable source of organic microcapsules for encapsulation applications. Despite the wide range of different pollen species with varying sizes and wall thicknesses, faithful extraction of pollen-mimetic SECs has been limited to thick-walled pollen capsules with rigid mechanical properties. There is an unmet need to develop methods for producing SECs from thin-walled pollen capsules which constitute a large fraction of all pollen species and have attractive materials properties such as greater aerosol dispersion. Herein, we report the first successful extraction of inflated SEC microcapsules from a thin-walled pollen species (Zea mays), thereby overcoming traditional challenges with mechanical stability and loss of microstructure. Morphological and compositional characterization of the SECs obtained by the newly developed extraction protocol confirms successful protein removal along with preservation of nanoscale architectural features. Looking forward, there is excellent potential to apply similar strategies across a wide range of unexplored thin-walled pollen species.

  16. Controllable light capsules employing modified Bessel-Gauss beams.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Weiwei; Zhao, Qian; Ren, Yuxuan; Qiu, Xingze; Zhong, Mincheng; Li, Yinmei

    2016-01-01

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a novel class of controlled light capsules with nearly perfect darkness, directly employing intrinsic properties of modified Bessel-Gauss beams. These beams are able to naturally create three-dimensional bottle-shaped region during propagation as long as the parameters are properly chosen. Remarkably, the optical bottle can be controlled to demonstrate various geometries through tuning the beam parameters, thereby leading to an adjustable light capsule. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of the light capsule derived from modified Bessel-Gauss beams. Moreover, a binary digital micromirror device (DMD) based scheme is first employed to shape the bottle beams by precise amplitude and phase manipulation. Further, we demonstrate their ability for optical trapping of core-shell magnetic microparticles, which play a particular role in biomedical research, with holographic optical tweezers. Therefore, our observations provide a new route for generating and controlling bottle beams and will widen the potentials for micromanipulation of absorbing particles, aerosols or even individual atoms. PMID:27388558

  17. Controllable light capsules employing modified Bessel-Gauss beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Weiwei; Zhao, Qian; Ren, Yuxuan; Qiu, Xingze; Zhong, Mincheng; Li, Yinmei

    2016-07-01

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a novel class of controlled light capsules with nearly perfect darkness, directly employing intrinsic properties of modified Bessel-Gauss beams. These beams are able to naturally create three-dimensional bottle-shaped region during propagation as long as the parameters are properly chosen. Remarkably, the optical bottle can be controlled to demonstrate various geometries through tuning the beam parameters, thereby leading to an adjustable light capsule. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of the light capsule derived from modified Bessel-Gauss beams. Moreover, a binary digital micromirror device (DMD) based scheme is first employed to shape the bottle beams by precise amplitude and phase manipulation. Further, we demonstrate their ability for optical trapping of core-shell magnetic microparticles, which play a particular role in biomedical research, with holographic optical tweezers. Therefore, our observations provide a new route for generating and controlling bottle beams and will widen the potentials for micromanipulation of absorbing particles, aerosols or even individual atoms.

  18. High-Density Carbon (HDC) Ablator for NIC Ignition Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, D.; Haan, S.; Salmonson, J.; Milovich, J.; Callahan, D.

    2012-10-01

    HDC ablators show high performance based on simulations, despite the fact that the shorter pulses for HDC capsules result in higher M-band radiation compared to that for plastic capsules. HDC capsules have good 1-D performance because HDC has relatively high density (3.5 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator that absorbs more radiation. HDC ablators have good 2-D performance because the ablator surface is more than an order-of-magnitude smoother than Be or plastic ablators. Refreeze of the ablator near the fuel region can be avoided by appropriate dopant placement. Here we present two HDC ignition designs doped with W and Si. For the design with maximum W concentration of 1.0 at% (and respectively with maximum Si concentration of 2.0 at%): peak velocity = 0.395 (0.397) mm/ns, mass weighted fuel entropy = 0.463 (0.469) kJ/mg/eV, peak core hydrodynamic stagnation pressure = 690 (780) Gbar, and yield = 17.3 (20.2) MJ. 2-D simulations show that yield is close to 80% YoC even with 2.5x of nominal surface roughness on all surfaces. The clean fuel fraction is about 75% at peak velocity. Doping HDC with the required concentration of W and Si is in progress. A first undoped HDC Symcap is scheduled to be fielded later this year.

  19. Lipophilic dye staining of Cryptococcus neoformans extracellular vesicles and capsule.

    PubMed

    Nicola, André Moraes; Frases, Susana; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-09-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that causes systemic mycosis in immunosuppressed individuals. Recent studies have determined that this fungus produces vesicles that are released to the extracellular environment both in vivo and in vitro. These vesicles contain assorted cargo that includes several molecules associated with virulence and implicated in host-pathogen interactions, such as capsular polysaccharides, laccase, urease, and other proteins. To date, visualization of extracellular vesicles has relied on transmission electron microscopy, a time-consuming technique. In this work we report the use of fluorescent membrane tracers to stain lipophilic structures in cryptococcal culture supernatants and capsules. Two dialkylcarbocyanine probes with different spectral characteristics were used to visualize purified vesicles by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Dual staining of vesicles with dialkylcarbocyanine and RNA-selective nucleic acid dyes suggested that a fraction of the vesicle population carried RNA. Use of these dyes to stain whole cells, however, was hampered by their possible direct binding to capsular polysaccharide. A fluorescent phospholipid was used as additional membrane tracer to stain whole cells, revealing punctate structures on the edge of the capsule which are consistent with vesicular trafficking. Lipophilic dyes provide new tools for the study of fungal extracellular vesicles and their content. The finding of hydrophobic regions in the capsule of C. neoformans adds to the growing evidence for a structurally complex structure composed of polysaccharide and nonpolysaccharide components.

  20. Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit previews at Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Media gather at the KSC Visitor Complex for the kickoff of the Discovery Channel's Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit, which will open to the public on Saturday, June 17. At the podium is Mike Quattrone, executive vice president and general manager, Discovery Channel. Standing to the left of the podium is Rick Abramson, president and chief operating officer of Delaware North Parks Services of Spaceport, Inc., and far left, Jim Jennings, deputy director of Kennedy Space Center. Liberty Bell 7 launched U.S. Air Force Captain Virgil '''Gus''' Grissom July 21, 1961 on a mission that lasted 15 minutes and 37 seconds before sinking to the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, three miles deep. It lay undetected for nearly four decades before a Discovery Channel expedition located it and recovered it. The space capsule is now restored and preserved, and part of an interactive exhibit touring science centers and museums in 12 cities throughout the United States until 2003. The exhibit includes hands-on elements such as a capsule simulator, a centrifuge, and ROV pilot.

  1. Current status and future perspectives of capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun Joo

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel capsule endoscopy (CE) was first introduced 15 years ago, and a large amount of literature has since been produced, focused on its indication, diagnostic yields, and safety. Guidelines that have made CE the primary diagnostic tool for small bowel disease have been created. Since its initial use in the small bowel, CE has been used for the esophagus, stomach, and colon. The primary indications for small bowel CE are obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, unexplained iron deficiency anemia, suspected Crohn's disease, small bowel tumors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug enteropathy, portal hypertensive enteropathy, celiac disease, etc. Colon CE provides an alternative to conventional colonoscopy, with possible use in colorectal cancer screening. Guidelines for optimal bowel preparation of CE have been suggested. The main challenges in CE are the development of new devices with the ability to provide therapy, air inflation for better visualization of the small bowel, biopsy sampling systems attached to the capsule, and the possibility of guiding and moving the capsule by an external motion controller. We review the current status and future directions of CE, and address all aspects of clinical practice, including the role of CE and long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:26884731

  2. Lateral migration of a capsule in a parabolic flow.

    PubMed

    Nix, S; Imai, Y; Ishikawa, T

    2016-07-26

    Red blood cells migrate to the center of the blood vessel in a process called axial migration, while other blood cells, such as white blood cells and platelets, are disproportionately found near the blood vessel wall. However, much is still unknown concerning the lateral migration of cells in the blood; the specific effect of hydrodynamic factors such as a wall or a shear gradient is still unclear. In this study, we investigate the lateral migration of a capsule using the boundary integral method, in order to compute exactly an infinite computational domain for an unbounded parabolic flow and a semi-infinite computational domain for a near-wall parabolic flow in the limit of Stokes flow. We show that the capsule lift velocity in an unbounded parabolic flow is linear with respect to the shear gradient, while the lift velocity in a near-wall parabolic flow is dependent on the distance to the wall. Then, using these relations, we give an estimation of the relative effect of the shear gradient as a function of channel width and distance between the capsule and the wall. This estimation can be used to determine cases in which the effect of the shear gradient or wall can be neglected; for example, the formation of the cell-free layer in blood vessels is determined to be unaffected by the magnitude of the shear gradient.

  3. Controllable light capsules employing modified Bessel-Gauss beams

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Weiwei; Zhao, Qian; Ren, Yuxuan; Qiu, Xingze; Zhong, Mincheng; Li, Yinmei

    2016-01-01

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a novel class of controlled light capsules with nearly perfect darkness, directly employing intrinsic properties of modified Bessel-Gauss beams. These beams are able to naturally create three-dimensional bottle-shaped region during propagation as long as the parameters are properly chosen. Remarkably, the optical bottle can be controlled to demonstrate various geometries through tuning the beam parameters, thereby leading to an adjustable light capsule. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of the light capsule derived from modified Bessel-Gauss beams. Moreover, a binary digital micromirror device (DMD) based scheme is first employed to shape the bottle beams by precise amplitude and phase manipulation. Further, we demonstrate their ability for optical trapping of core-shell magnetic microparticles, which play a particular role in biomedical research, with holographic optical tweezers. Therefore, our observations provide a new route for generating and controlling bottle beams and will widen the potentials for micromanipulation of absorbing particles, aerosols or even individual atoms. PMID:27388558

  4. Low-Density Aerodynamics of the Stardust Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, Richard G.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Moss, James N.

    1997-01-01

    The aerodynamics of the Stardust Sample Return Capsule are analyzed in the low- density, transitional flow regime using free-molecular, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo, Navier-Stokes, and Newtonian methods to provide inputs for constructing a transitional flow bridging relation. The accuracy of this bridging relation in reconstructing the aero- dynamic coefficients given by the more exact methods is presented for a range of flight conditions and vehicle attitudes. There is good agreement between the various prediction methods, and a simple sine-squared bridging relation is shown to provide a reasonably good description of the axial force, normal force, and pitching moment over a range of Knudsen numbers from 0.001 to 10. The predictions show a static instability of the Star- dust capsule in the free-molecular regime that persists well into the transitional flow. The addition of a thin disk to the base of the capsule is shown to remove this static instability. However, the extremely high entry velocity of 12.6 km/s for the proposed trajectory introduces difficult design issues for incorporating this disk caused by the high aerothermal loads that occur even under relatively rarefied conditions.

  5. Inflated Sporopollenin Exine Capsules Obtained from Thin-Walled Pollen.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Jackman, Joshua A; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-06-15

    Sporopollenin is a physically robust and chemically resilient biopolymer that comprises the outermost layer of pollen walls and is the first line of defense against harsh environmental conditions. The unique physicochemical properties of sporopollenin increasingly motivate the extraction of sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) from pollen walls as a renewable source of organic microcapsules for encapsulation applications. Despite the wide range of different pollen species with varying sizes and wall thicknesses, faithful extraction of pollen-mimetic SECs has been limited to thick-walled pollen capsules with rigid mechanical properties. There is an unmet need to develop methods for producing SECs from thin-walled pollen capsules which constitute a large fraction of all pollen species and have attractive materials properties such as greater aerosol dispersion. Herein, we report the first successful extraction of inflated SEC microcapsules from a thin-walled pollen species (Zea mays), thereby overcoming traditional challenges with mechanical stability and loss of microstructure. Morphological and compositional characterization of the SECs obtained by the newly developed extraction protocol confirms successful protein removal along with preservation of nanoscale architectural features. Looking forward, there is excellent potential to apply similar strategies across a wide range of unexplored thin-walled pollen species.

  6. Software for enhanced video capsule endoscopy: challenges for essential progress.

    PubMed

    Iakovidis, Dimitris K; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2015-03-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has revolutionized the diagnostic work-up in the field of small bowel diseases. Furthermore, VCE has the potential to become the leading screening technique for the entire gastrointestinal tract. Computational methods that can be implemented in software can enhance the diagnostic yield of VCE both in terms of efficiency and diagnostic accuracy. Since the appearance of the first capsule endoscope in clinical practice in 2001, information technology (IT) research groups have proposed a variety of such methods, including algorithms for detecting haemorrhage and lesions, reducing the reviewing time, localizing the capsule or lesion, assessing intestinal motility, enhancing the video quality and managing the data. Even though research is prolific (as measured by publication activity), the progress made during the past 5 years can only be considered as marginal with respect to clinically significant outcomes. One thing is clear-parallel pathways of medical and IT scientists exist, each publishing in their own area, but where do these research pathways meet? Could the proposed IT plans have any clinical effect and do clinicians really understand the limitations of VCE software? In this Review, we present an in-depth critical analysis that aims to inspire and align the agendas of the two scientific groups.

  7. Inflated Sporopollenin Exine Capsules Obtained from Thin-Walled Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Jackman, Joshua A.; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Sporopollenin is a physically robust and chemically resilient biopolymer that comprises the outermost layer of pollen walls and is the first line of defense against harsh environmental conditions. The unique physicochemical properties of sporopollenin increasingly motivate the extraction of sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) from pollen walls as a renewable source of organic microcapsules for encapsulation applications. Despite the wide range of different pollen species with varying sizes and wall thicknesses, faithful extraction of pollen-mimetic SECs has been limited to thick-walled pollen capsules with rigid mechanical properties. There is an unmet need to develop methods for producing SECs from thin-walled pollen capsules which constitute a large fraction of all pollen species and have attractive materials properties such as greater aerosol dispersion. Herein, we report the first successful extraction of inflated SEC microcapsules from a thin-walled pollen species (Zea mays), thereby overcoming traditional challenges with mechanical stability and loss of microstructure. Morphological and compositional characterization of the SECs obtained by the newly developed extraction protocol confirms successful protein removal along with preservation of nanoscale architectural features. Looking forward, there is excellent potential to apply similar strategies across a wide range of unexplored thin-walled pollen species. PMID:27302853

  8. Mission Capture with a Multi-Role Capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempsell, M.

    The multi-role system concept is to maximise the number of mission that a system can undertake, thus maximising the value of its acquisition cost. The viability of this concept was explored by matching missions from International Space Station (ISS) support through to to Mars Landing with a feasibility design for a multi-role capsule. It was found that as the missions became more ambitious and moved further from lunar/Earth space, so increasing large add-on modules were required. However, these modules contained only simple elements like propellant tanks, increased pressurised space and supplies, and therefore represented lower cost developments; the expensive functions having been undertaken by the capsule. When it came to human interplanetary missions such as to Mars it was found that new primary transportation systems were required, but the capsule could still play a key role in support, for example Mars lander ascent stage, conducting Martian moon excursion missions and as the crew return to earth system. Given the immediate future of manned space flight is to maintain ISS operations combined with a range of exploration objectives beyond earth orbit, it is clearly not viable to develop specialist systems for each mission and multi-role systems will be essential. The feasibility concept illustrated how systems that require heavy development investment can made with sufficiently flexible to cover all these missions with only minimal additional investments.

  9. Myofibroblast Upregulators are Elevated in Joint Capsules in Posttraumatic Contractures

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Kevin A.; Zhang, Mei; Hart, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized specific growth factors are increased in the elbow capsules of patients with post traumatic elbow contractures. A model of surgically induced joint contracture in rabbit knees was developed to study the growth factor expression in joint contractures. This study demonstrates this model mimics the human condition and analyzes how the growth factor levels decrease with time in rabbit knees with contractures. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure mRNA levels of transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, ED-A of fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin normalized to a housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. In the joint capsules of patients with elbow contractures, mRNA levels were increased for transforming growth factor- β1, connective tissue growth factor, and α-smooth muscle actin. In the joint capsules of rabbit knees with contractures, mRNA levels were increased for transforming growth factor- β1, connective tissue growth factor, ED-A of fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin. The mRNA levels for transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, and α-smooth muscle actin decreased with time in rabbit knees. The elevated levels of these myofibroblast up-regulators and fibrogenic growth factors could explain the previously reported increase in myofibroblasts and collagen mRNA levels. The rabbit knee model correlated well with the human post traumatic elbow contractures. PMID:17195814

  10. Low-fouling, biofunctionalized, and biodegradable click capsules.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Christopher J; Such, Georgina K; Städler, Brigitte; Caruso, Frank

    2008-12-01

    We report the synthesis of covalently stabilized hollow capsules from biodegradable materials using a combination of click chemistry and layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. The biodegradable polymers poly(L-lysine) (PLL) and poly(L-glutamic acid) (PGA) were modified with alkyne and azide moieties. Linear film buildup was observed for both materials on planar surfaces and colloidal silica templates. A variation of the assembly conditions, such as an increase in the salt concentration and variations in pH, was shown to increase the individual layer thickness by almost 200%. The biodegradable click capsules were analyzed with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Capsules were uniform in size and had a regular, spherical shape. They were found to be stable between pH 2 and 11 and showed reversible, pH-responsive shrinking/swelling behavior. We also show that covalently stabilized PLL films can be postfunctionalized by depositing a monolayer of heterobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), which provides low-fouling properties and simultaneously enhances specific protein binding. The responsive, biodegradable click films reported herein are promising for a range of applications in the biomedical field.

  11. Impaired capsule formation of tumors in periostin-null mice

    SciTech Connect

    Shimazaki, Masashi; Kudo, Akira

    2008-03-21

    Being a secreted protein, periostin is a multifunctional matricellular glycoprotein. In vitro, periostin has the ability to promote the proliferation and migration of fibroblasts. Previously, it was demonstrated that periostin is mainly produced by cancer-associated fibroblasts or tumor stromal cells. In the present study, we show that periostin regulates capsule formation in a positive manner and inhibits tumor growth. Consistent with a previous finding, several tumor cell lines did not exhibit expression of periostin in vitro or in vivo; and the growth of tumors that had been allografted into periostin -/- mice was significantly accelerated compared with that of the same kind of tumors grafted into periostin +/+ mice. Immunostaining and biochemical analyses revealed that mature collagen was detected abundantly in the capsules and interstitium of the wild-type-grafted tumors but not in those of the periostin -/- grafted tumors. Moreover, the number of activated tumor stromal cells was decreased significantly in the periostin -/- grafted tumors. Our studies suggest that host-derived periostin negatively regulates tumor growth by promoting capsule formation and by mediating changes in the deposition and organization of the tumor microenvironment coordinated by periostin-producing stromal cells.

  12. The development and application of wireless capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Glukhovsky, A; Jacob, H

    2004-06-01

    The introduction of the Video Capsule Endoscope (VCE) by Given Imaging Ltd. (Yoqneam, Israel) in 2001, and its subsequent approval by the FDA as a first line tool in the detection of abnormalities of the small bowel, is indicative of the rapid acceptance of capsule endoscopy by the practicing gastroenterological community. An extensive clinical trials program consistently revealed a high diagnostic yield of the VCE when compared to other diagnostic modalities of the small intestine. The capsule endoscope contains a miniature color video camera, illumination sources, lens, transmitter/controller, antenna, and a power source. It is small enough to easily swallow (11 x 26 mm), and it is propelled through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by peristalsis. Its development was enabled by a series of technological breakthroughs that occurred at the close of the 20th century. The VCE is one of the most exciting examples of the recent trend for minimally invasive autonomous medical tools in diagnostic, monitoring, and therapeutic applications. Expanding applications of the VCE to additional parts of the GI tract, adding physiological sensors, and--in the more remote future--addition of therapeutic capabilities will likely occur as this new branch of endoscopy develops.

  13. Metabolic characteristics of 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) and anti-tumour activity of the 13-cis-retinoic acid metabolite 4-oxo-13-cis-retinoic acid in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, Poonam; Cho, Hwang Eui; Tagde, Ashujit; Verlekar, Dattesh; Yu, Alice L; Reynolds, C Patrick; Kang, Min H

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid; 13-cRA) is a differentiation inducer used to treat minimal residual disease after myeloablative therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma. However, more than 40% of children develop recurrent disease during or after 13-cRA treatment. The plasma concentrations of 13-cRA in earlier studies were considered subtherapeutic while 4-oxo-13-cis-RA (4-oxo-13-cRA), a metabolite of 13-cRA considered by some investigators as inactive, were greater than threefold higher than 13-cRA. We sought to define the metabolic pathways of 13-cRA and investigated the anti-tumour activity of its major metabolite, 4-oxo-13-cRA. Experimental Approach Effects of 13-cRA and 4-oxo-13-cRA on human neuroblastoma cell lines were assessed by DIMSCAN and flow cytometry for cell proliferation, MYCN down-regulation by reverse transcription PCR and immunoblotting, and neurite outgrowth by confocal microscopy. 13-cRA metabolism was determined using tandem MS in human liver microsomes and in patient samples. Key Results Six major metabolites of 13-cRA were identified in patient samples. Of these, 4-oxo-13-cRA was the most abundant, and 4-oxo-13-cRA glucuronide was also detected at a higher level in patients. CYP3A4 was shown to play a major role in catalysing 13-cRA to 4-oxo-13-cRA. In human neuroblastoma cell lines, 4-oxo-13-cRA and 13-cRA were equi-effective at inducing neurite outgrowth, inhibiting proliferation, decreasing MYCN mRNA and protein, and increasing the expression of retinoic acid receptor-β mRNA and protein levels. Conclusions and Implications We showed that 4-oxo-13-cRA is as active as 13-cRA against neuroblastoma cell lines. Plasma levels of both 13-cRA and 4-oxo-13-cRA should be evaluated in pharmacokinetic studies of isotretinoin in neuroblastoma. PMID:25039756

  14. The roles of Tenascin C and Fibronectin 1 in adhesive capsulitis: a pilot gene expression study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Carina; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Cohen, Moises; Ejnisman, Benno; Faloppa, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated mRNA expression levels of genes that encode TGF-β1; the TGF-β1 receptor; the collagen-modifying enzymes LOX, PLOD1, and PLOD2; and the extracellular matrix proteins COMP, FN1, TNC and TNXB in synovial/capsule specimens from patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. Possible associations between the measured mRNA levels and clinical parameters were also investigated. METHODS: We obtained glenohumeral joint synovium/capsule specimens from 9 patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis who had not shown improvement in symptoms after 5 months of physiotherapy. Adhesive capsulitis was confirmed in all patients by magnetic resonance imaging. We also obtained specimens from 8 control patients who had underwent surgery for acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation and who had radiological indication of glenohumeral capsule alteration based on arthroscopic evaluation. mRNA expression in the synovium/capsule specimens was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The B2M and HPRT1 genes were used as references to normalize target gene expression in the shoulder tissue samples. RESULTS: The synovium/capsule samples from the patients with adhesive capsulitis had significantly higher TNC and FN1 expression than those from the controls. Additionally, symptom duration directly correlated with expression of TGFβ1 receptor I. CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of TNC and FN1 expression may be a marker of capsule injury. Upregulation of TGFβ1 receptor I seems to be dependent on symptom duration; therefore, TGFβ signaling may be involved in adhesive capsulitis. As such, TNC, FN1 and TGFβ1 receptor I may also play roles in adhesive capsulitis by contributing to capsule inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:27438566

  15. Internalization of Red Blood Cell-Mimicking Hydrogel Capsules with pH-Triggered Shape Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report on naturally inspired hydrogel capsules with pH-induced transitions from discoids to oblate ellipsoids and their interactions with cells. We integrate characteristics of erythrocytes such as discoidal shape, hollow structure, and elasticity with reversible pH-responsiveness of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) to design a new type of drug delivery carrier to be potentially triggered by chemical stimuli in the tumor lesion. The capsules are fabricated from cross-linked PMAA multilayers using sacrificial discoid silicon templates. The degree of capsule shape transition is controlled by the pH-tuned volume change, which in turn is regulated by the capsule wall composition. The (PMAA)15 capsules undergo a dramatic 24-fold volume change, while a moderate 2.3-fold volume variation is observed for more rigid PMAA–(poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PMAA–PVPON)5 capsules when solution pH is varied between 7.4 and 4. Despite that both types of capsules exhibit discoid-to-oblate ellipsoid transitions, a 3-fold greater swelling in radial dimensions is found for one-component systems due to a greater degree of the circular face bulging. We also show that (PMAA–PVPON)5 discoidal capsules interact differently with J774A.1 macrophages, HMVEC endothelial cells, and 4T1 breast cancer cells. The discoidal capsules show 60% lower internalization as compared to spherical capsules. Finally, hydrogel capsules demonstrate a 2-fold decrease in size upon internalization. These capsules represent a unique example of elastic hydrogel discoids capable of pH-induced drastic and reversible variations in aspect ratios. Considering the RBC-mimicking shape, their dimensions, and their capability to undergo pH-triggered intracellular responses, the hydrogel capsules demonstrate considerable potential as novel carriers in shape-regulated transport and cellular uptake. PMID:24848786

  16. Hexameric Capsules Studied by Magic Angle Spinning Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy: Identifying Solvent Molecules in Pyrogallol[4]arene Capsules.

    PubMed

    Avram, Liat; Goldbourt, Amir; Cohen, Yoram

    2016-01-18

    Powders of pyrogallol[4]arene hexamers were produced by evaporation from organic solvents and were studied, for the first time, by magic angle spinning solid-state NMR (MAS ssNMR). Evaporation selectively removed non-encapsulated solvent molecules leaving stable hexameric capsules encapsulating solvent molecules. After exposure of the powder to solvent vapors, (1)H/(13)C heteronuclear correlation MAS ssNMR experiments were used to assign the signals of the external and encapsulated solvent molecules. The formed capsules were stable for months and the process of solvent encapsulation was reversible. According to the ssNMR experiments, the encapsulated solvent molecules occupy different sites and those sites differ in their mobility. The presented approach paves the way for studying guest exchange, guest affinity, and gas storage in hexamers of this type in the solid state.

  17. Dynamic Symmetry of Indirectly Driven ICF Capsules on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Town, R. P. J.

    2013-10-01

    In order to achieve ignition it is important to control the growth of low-mode asymmetries as the capsule is compressed. Understanding the time-dependent evolution of the shape of the imploding capsule, hot spot and surrounding fuel layer is crucial to optimizing implosion performance. A design and experimental campaign to examine the sources of asymmetry and to measure the symmetry throughout the implosion has been developed and executed on the NIF. For the first time on NIF, two-dimensional radiographs of the capsule during its implosion phase have been measured to infer the symmetry of the radiation drive. Time dependent equatorial symmetry has been measured of gas-filled capsules and capsules with cryogenic DT layers. These measurements have been used to modify the hohlraum geometry and the wavelength tuning to improve the inflight implosion symmetry. The technique is being extended to study azimuthal symmetry by imaging along the hohlraum axis. We have also expanded our shock timing measurements by the addition of extra mirrors inside the re-entrant cone to allow the simultaneous measurement of shock symmetry in three locations on a single shot, providing a measurement of asymmetries up to mode 4 in both the equatorial and azimuthal planes. The shape of the hot spot during final stagnation is measured using time-resolved imaging of the self-emission, and information on the shape of the fuel at stagnation can be obtained from Compton radiography using a wire-backlighter. In addition to x-ray diagnostics, a series of neutron and proton measurements of the low-mode areal density of the fuel at peak compression and at shock-flash time have been made. This talk will discuss the new imaging techniques, the results, and the analysis of the experiments done to date and their implication for ignition on NIF. The sensitivity of the in-flight and final implosion symmetry to imposed changes will be presented and compared to model predictions. This work performed under the

  18. Investigating the effects of membrane deformability on artificial capsule adhesion to the functionalized surface.

    PubMed

    Balsara, Hiren D; Banton, Rohan J; Eggleton, Charles D

    2016-10-01

    Understanding, manipulating and controlling cellular adhesion processes can be critical in developing biomedical technologies. Adhesive mechanisms can be used to the target, pattern and separate cells such as leukocytes from whole blood for biomedical applications. The deformability response of the cell directly affects the rolling and adhesion behavior under viscous linear shear flow conditions. To that end, the primary objective of the present study was to investigate numerically the influence of capsule membrane's nonlinear material behavior (i.e. elastic-plastic to strain hardening) on the rolling and adhesion behavior of representative artificial capsules. Specifically, spherical capsules with radius of [Formula: see text] were represented using an elastic membrane governed by a Mooney-Rivlin strain energy functions. The surfaces of the capsules were coated with P-selectin glycoprotein-ligand-1 to initiate binding interaction with P-selectin-coated planar surface with density of [Formula: see text] under linear shear flow varying from 100 to [Formula: see text]. The numerical model is based on the Immersed Boundary Method for rolling of deformable capsule in shear flow coupled with Monte Carlo simulation for receptor/ligand interaction modeled using Bell model. The results reveal that the mechanical properties of the capsule play an important role in the rolling behavior and the binding kinetics between the capsule contact surface and the substrate. The rolling behavior of the strain hardening capsules is relatively smoother and slower compared to the elastic-plastic capsules. The strain hardening capsules exhibits higher contact area at any given shear rate compared to elastic-plastic capsules. The increase in contact area leads to decrease in rolling velocity. The capsule contact surface is not in complete contact with the substrate because of thin lubrication film that is trapped between the capsule and substrate. This creates a concave shape on the bottom

  19. Revealed: The spy who regulates neuroblastoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Vora, Parvez; Venugopal, Chitra; Singh, Sheila K

    2014-11-30

    Neuroblastoma (NB), an embryonal tumour of the sympathetic nervous system, is thought to originate from undifferentiated neural crest cells and is known to exhibit extremely heterogeneous biological and clinical behaviors. Occurring in very young children, the median age at diagnosis is 17 months and it accounts for 10% of all pediatric cancer mortalities. The standard treatment regimen for patients with high-risk NB includes induction and surgery followed by isotretinoin or Accutane (13-cis retinoic acid) treatment, which is shown to induce terminal differentiation of NB cells. However, molecular regulators that maintain an undifferentiated phenotype in NB cells are still poorly understood. PMID:25483101

  20. Shuganjieyu capsule increases neurotrophic factor expression in a rat model of depression

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jinhua; Zhang, Yingjin; Wu, Renrong; Zheng, Yingjun; Zhang, Xianghui; Yang, Mei; Zhao, Jingping; Liu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Shuganjieyu capsule has been approved for clinical treatment by the State Food and Drug Ad-ministration of China since 2008. In the clinic, Shuganjieyu capsule is often used to treat mild to moderate depression. In the rat model of depression established in this study, Shuganjieyu capsule was administered intragastrically daily before stress. Behavioral results confirmed that depressive symptoms lessened after treatment with high-dose (150 mg/kg) Shuganjieyu capsule. Immunohistochemistry results showed that high-dose Shuganjieyu capsule significantly increased phosphorylation levels of phosphorylation cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampal CA3 area. Overall, our results suggest that in rats, Shuganjieyu capsule effec-tively reverses depressive-like behaviors by increasing expression levels of neurotrophic factors in the brain. PMID:25206843

  1. Characterization of two WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) capsules after five years of service

    SciTech Connect

    Sasmor, D.J.; Pierce, J.D.; Tingey, G.L.; Kjarmo, H.E.; Tills, J.; McKeon, D.C.

    1988-04-01

    Two Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) /sup 137/Cs capsules have been analyzed destructively after five years of service in the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids (SIDSS). The program concentrated on studies of the inner capsule, inner capsule weld areas, and analysis of the CsCl salt. No measurable corrosion was observed on the capsule wall or welds after the five years in the SIDSS Facility. The operating temperatures of the inner capsule wall were calculated to be between 140 and 180/degree/C. Radiochemistry and isotopic analyses provided data for specific activity calculations. There was good correlation between the measured calorimetry of the capsules before sectioning, 53 and 55 kCi, and the activity calculations, 54 and 59 kCi, respectively. 21 refs., 43 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. Osmotic capsules: A universal oral, controlled-release drug delivery dosage form.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Kenneth C; Goeken, G Scott; Konagurthu, Sanjay; Likar, Michael D; MacDonald, Bruce C; Mahajan, Nidhi; Swaminathan, Vidya

    2011-06-10

    An osmotic, oral, controlled-release capsule is described. This capsule provides drug delivery at fixed delivery rates (T(80%)=6 or 14h) independent of drug properties (e.g., solubility) or drug loading, thereby allowing rapid development of investigational or commercial drugs, especially for proof-of-concept type clinical studies. The capsule body and cap are prepared with cellulose acetate and polyethylene glycol in acetone and water using high density polyethylene molds as templates and a conventional tablet pan coater. After the shells are removed from the molds manually, a laser hole is drilled in the end of the capsule body. The drug is introduced as a shaped tablet admixed with polyethylene oxide. A "push" tablet consisting of high molecular weight polyethylene oxide, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium chloride is also inserted into the capsule body. The capsule halves lock together due to ridges, alleviating the need for a banding operation.

  3. The Antiphagocytic Activity of SeM of Streptococcus equi Requires Capsule.

    PubMed

    Timoney, John F; Suther, Pranav; Velineni, Sridhar; Artiushin, Sergey C

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to phagocytosis is a crucial virulence property of Streptococcus equi (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi; Se), the cause of equine strangles. The contribution and interdependence of capsule and SeM to killing in equine blood and neutrophils were investigated in naturally occurring strains of Se. Strains CF32, SF463 were capsule and SeM positive, strains Lex90, Lex93 were capsule negative and SeM positive and strains Se19, Se1-8 were capsule positive and SeM deficient. Phagocytosis and killing of Se19, Se1-8, Lex90 and Lex93 in equine blood and by neutrophils suspended in serum were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) greater compared to CF32 and SF463. The results indicate capsule and SeM are both required for resistance to phagocytosis and killing and that the anti-phagocytic property of SeM is greatly reduced in the absence of capsule.

  4. State diagram for adhesion dynamics of deformable capsules under shear flow.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zheng Yuan; Bai, Bo Feng

    2016-08-17

    Due to the significance of understanding the underlying mechanisms of cell adhesion in biological processes and cell capture in biomedical applications, we numerically investigate the adhesion dynamics of deformable capsules under shear flow by using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model. This model is based on the coupling of the front tracking-finite element method for elastic mechanics of the capsule membrane and the adhesion kinetics simulation for adhesive interactions between capsules and functionalized surfaces. Using this model, three distinct adhesion dynamic states are predicted, such as detachment, rolling and firm-adhesion. Specifically, the effects of capsule deformability quantified by the capillary number on the transitions of these three dynamic states are investigated by developing an adhesion dynamic state diagram for the first time. At low capillary numbers (e.g. Ca < 0.0075), whole-capsule deformation confers the capsule a flattened bottom in contact with the functionalized surface, which hence promotes the rolling-to-firm-adhesion transition. It is consistent with the observations from previous studies that cell deformation promotes the adhesion of cells lying in the rolling regime. However, it is surprising to find that, at relatively high capillary numbers (e.g. 0.0075 < Ca < 0.0175), the effect of capsule deformability on its adhesion dynamics is far more complex than just promoting adhesion. High deformability of capsules makes their bottom take a concave shape with no adhesion bond formation in the middle. The appearance of this specific capsule shape inhibits the transitions of both rolling-to-firm-adhesion and detachment-to-rolling, and it means that capsule deformation no longer promotes the capsule adhesion. Besides, it is interesting to note that, when the capillary number exceeds a critical value (e.g. Ca = 0.0175), the rolling state no longer appears, since capsules exhibit large deviation from the spherical shape

  5. Can we improve the diagnostic yield of small bowel video-capsule endoscopy?

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2010-05-16

    Video-capsule endoscopy has revolutionized the examination of small bowel mucosa. However, this modality is relatively young and its diagnostic yield is low. Herein, we discuss different approaches to improve examination's diagnostic yield. There are strong data supporting some of them while there is speculation about the rest. As capsule endoscopy continues to evolve there is also a strong belief that technology will overcome at least some of the obstacles that hamper capsule endoscopy's diagnostic yield sometime in the near future.

  6. Retained Wireless Capsule Endoscope in a Girl with suspected Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Herle, Koushik; Jehangir, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is one of the great milestones in the field of gastroenterology. It is versatile in image acquisition, painless and can reach parts of the small bowel not amenable to conventional endoscopy. The commonest complication with WCE is retention of the capsule. We report a case of retained capsule in a child who was being investigated for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Operative intervention was required for its retrieval after two weeks of expectant management. PMID:27672577

  7. Retained Wireless Capsule Endoscope in a Girl with suspected Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Herle, Koushik

    2016-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is one of the great milestones in the field of gastroenterology. It is versatile in image acquisition, painless and can reach parts of the small bowel not amenable to conventional endoscopy. The commonest complication with WCE is retention of the capsule. We report a case of retained capsule in a child who was being investigated for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Operative intervention was required for its retrieval after two weeks of expectant management. PMID:27672577

  8. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one or both sides with a thin layer of tin. Tin-coated lead foil has been used as a capsule (i.e., as...

  9. Moisture diffusion and permeability characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and hard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Barham, Ahmad S; Tewes, Frederic; Healy, Anne Marie

    2015-01-30

    The primary objective of this paper is to compare the sorption characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and hard gelatin (HG) capsules and their ability to protect capsule contents. Moisture sorption and desorption isotherms for empty HPMC and HG capsules have been investigated using dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) at 25°C. All sorption studies were analysed using the Young-Nelson model equations which distinguishes three moisture sorption types: monolayer adsorption moisture, condensation and absorption. Water vapour diffusion coefficients (D), solubility (S) and permeability (P) parameters of the capsule shells were calculated. ANOVA was performed with the Tukey comparison test to analyse the effect of %RH and capsule type on S, P, and D parameters. The moisture uptake of HG capsules were higher than HPMC capsules at all %RH conditions studied. It was found that values of D and P across HPMC capsules were greater than for HG capsules at 0-40 %RH; whereas over the same %RH range S values were higher for HG than for HPMC capsules. S values decreased gradually as the %RH was increased up to 60% RH. To probe the effect of moisture ingress, spray dried lactose was loaded into capsules. Phase evolution was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The capsules under investigation are not capable of protecting spray dried lactose from induced solid state changes as a result of moisture uptake. For somewhat less moisture sensitive formulations, HPMC would appear to be a better choice than HG in terms of protection of moisture induced deterioration. PMID:25526672

  10. Moisture diffusion and permeability characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and hard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Barham, Ahmad S; Tewes, Frederic; Healy, Anne Marie

    2015-01-30

    The primary objective of this paper is to compare the sorption characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and hard gelatin (HG) capsules and their ability to protect capsule contents. Moisture sorption and desorption isotherms for empty HPMC and HG capsules have been investigated using dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) at 25°C. All sorption studies were analysed using the Young-Nelson model equations which distinguishes three moisture sorption types: monolayer adsorption moisture, condensation and absorption. Water vapour diffusion coefficients (D), solubility (S) and permeability (P) parameters of the capsule shells were calculated. ANOVA was performed with the Tukey comparison test to analyse the effect of %RH and capsule type on S, P, and D parameters. The moisture uptake of HG capsules were higher than HPMC capsules at all %RH conditions studied. It was found that values of D and P across HPMC capsules were greater than for HG capsules at 0-40 %RH; whereas over the same %RH range S values were higher for HG than for HPMC capsules. S values decreased gradually as the %RH was increased up to 60% RH. To probe the effect of moisture ingress, spray dried lactose was loaded into capsules. Phase evolution was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The capsules under investigation are not capable of protecting spray dried lactose from induced solid state changes as a result of moisture uptake. For somewhat less moisture sensitive formulations, HPMC would appear to be a better choice than HG in terms of protection of moisture induced deterioration.

  11. Current and future role of magnetically assisted gastric capsule endoscopy in the upper gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Hey-Long; Hale, Melissa Fay; McAlindon, Mark Edward

    2016-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy first captivated the medical world when it provided a means to visualize the small bowel, which was previously out of endoscopic reach. In the subsequent decade and a half we continue to learn of the true potential that capsule endoscopy has to offer. Of particular current interest is whether capsule endoscopy has any reliable investigative role in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Much research has already been dedicated to enhancing the diagnostic and indeed therapeutic properties of capsule endoscopy. Specific modifications to tackle the challenges of the gut have already been described in the current literature. In the upper gastrointestinal tract, the capacious anatomy of the stomach represents one of many challenges that capsule endoscopy must overcome. One solution to improving diagnostic yield is to utilize external magnetic steering of a magnetically receptive capsule endoscope. Notionally this would provide a navigation system to direct the capsule to different areas of the stomach and allow complete gastric mucosal examination. To date, several studies have presented promising data to support the feasibility of this endeavour. However the jury is still out as to whether this system will surpass conventional gastroscopy, which remains the gold standard diagnostic tool in the foregut. Nevertheless, a minimally invasive and patient-friendly alternative to gastroscopy remains irresistibly appealing, warranting further studies to test the potential of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy. In this article the authors would like to share the current state of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy and anticipate what is yet to come. PMID:27134661

  12. Elastic properties of polyelectrolyte capsules studied by atomic-force microscopy and RICM.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, F; Elsner, N; Fery, A

    2003-10-01

    Mechanical properties of polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules were studied using a new method combining atomic-force microscopy and reflection interference contrast microscopy. By measuring the force vs. deformation for poly(styrene sulfonate)/poly(allylamine) capsules the existence of different deformation regimes depending on the applied deformation was shown. The present paper focuses on the small-deformation regime. The elastic response of the deformed capsule was studied as a function of the wall thickness and the capsule size, and showed the theoretically expected variations. The Young modulus obtained from the experiments ranges between 1.3 and 1.9 GPa.

  13. Biomimetic/Bioinspired Design of Enzyme@capsule Nano/Microsystems.

    PubMed

    Shi, J; Jiang, Y; Zhang, S; Yang, D; Jiang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems, which refer to the enzyme-immobilized capsules, have received tremendous interest owing to the combination of the high catalytic activities of encapsulated enzymes and the hierarchical structure of the capsule. The preparation of capsules and simultaneous encapsulation of enzymes is recognized as the core process for the rational design and construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. The strategy used has three major steps: (a) generation of the templates, (b) surface coating on the templates, and (c) removal of the templates, and it has been proven to be effective and versatile for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. Several conventional methods, including layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolytes, liquid crystalline templating method, etc., were used to design and construct enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems, but these have two major drawbacks. One is the low mechanical stability of the systems and the second is the harsh conditions used in the construction process. Learning from nature, several biomimetic/bioinspired methods such as biomineralization, biomimetic/bioinspired adhesion, and their combination have been exploited for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. In this chapter, we will present a general protocol for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems using the latter approach. Some suggestions for improved design, construction, and characterization will also be presented with detailed procedures for specific examples. PMID:27112396

  14. Improvement in Capsule Abort Performance Using Supersonic Aerodynamic Interaction by Fences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Hiroto; Wang, Yunpeng; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Katsunori; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    The space transportation system will need advanced abort systems to secure crew against serious accidents. Here this study deals with the capsule-type space transportation systems with a Launch Abort System (LAS). This system is composed of a conic capsule as a Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) and a cylindrical rocket as a Service Module (SM), and the capsule is moved away from the rocket by supersonic aerodynamic interactions in an emergency. We propose a method to improve the performance of the LAV by installing fences at the edges of surfaces on the rocket and capsule sides. Their effects were investigated by experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Experimental results show that the fences on the rocket and capsule surfaces increase the aerodynamic thrust force on the capsule by 70% in a certain clearance between the capsule and rocket. Computational results show the detailed flow fields where the centripetal flow near the surface on the rocket side is induced by the fence on the rocket side and the centrifugal flow near the surface on the capsule side is blocked by the fence on the capsule side. These results can confirm favorable effects of the fences on the performance of the LAS.

  15. Stress analysis and testing of the outer capsule design for the Strontium Heat Source Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, F.A.; Shippell, R.J. Jr.; Atteridge, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the Strontium Heat Source Development Program is to obtain the data needed to license /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat sources - specifically the /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ capsules produced in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) at Hanford. Toward this end, a high integrity outer capsule has been designed to replace the present outer capsule of the WESF /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ capsule. The proposed design of a Hastelloy S outer capsule which features a mechanical interlock type of end closure is described. Qualification testing requirements are outlined, and stress analyses and developmental tests are described. These tests were performed on AISI-1018 steel stand-in capsules, and included both external pressure and impact tests. The external pressure tests showed that stress calculations seriously overestimated the pressure capability of the outer capsule. Possible reasons for the lack of agreement between the tests and the analyses are evaluated. The stress analyses and tests results indicate that the proposed outer capsule will meet the heat source qualification requirements. Future tests will be conducted to experimentally verify that the Hastelloy S outer capsule in an aged condition meets the structural integrity requirements.

  16. Simulations of indirectly driven gas-filled capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Eder, D. C.; Pino, J. E.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Remington, B. A.; Rowley, D. P.; Yeamans, C. B.; Tipton, R. E.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, R.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Clark, D. S.; Divol, L.; and others

    2014-11-15

    Gas-filled capsules imploded with indirect drive on the National Ignition Facility have been employed as symmetry surrogates for cryogenic-layered ignition capsules and to explore interfacial mix. Plastic capsules containing deuterated layers and filled with tritium gas provide a direct measure of mix of ablator into the gas fuel. Other plastic capsules have employed DT or D{sup 3}He gas fill. We present the results of two-dimensional simulations of gas-filled capsule implosions with known degradation sources represented as in modeling of inertial confinement fusion ignition designs; these are time-dependent drive asymmetry, the capsule support tent, roughness at material interfaces, and prescribed gas-ablator interface mix. Unlike the case of cryogenic-layered implosions, many observables of gas-filled implosions are in reasonable agreement with predictions of these simulations. Yields of TT and DT neutrons as well as other x-ray and nuclear diagnostics are matched for CD-layered implosions. Yields of DT-filled capsules are over-predicted by factors of 1.4–2, while D{sup 3}He capsule yields are matched, as well as other metrics for both capsule types.

  17. Symptomatic retention of the patency capsule: a multicenter real life case series

    PubMed Central

    Kopylov, Uri; Nemeth, Artur; Cebrian, Alba; Wurm Johansson, Gabriele; Thorlacius, Henrik; Fernandez-Urien Sainz, Ignacio; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Eliakim, Rami; Toth, Ervin

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: The patency capsule is designed to evaluate the patency of the small bowel before administration of small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) in patients at high risk of retention. The utilization of a patency capsule may be associated with a risk of symptomatic retention, but very few cases have been reported to date. The aim of our study was to describe our experience with this rare complication of a patency capsule. Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective case series. The medical records of patients who underwent a patency capsule test were scanned and all cases of symptomatic retention were collected. Results: In total, 20 symptomatic cases of retention out of 1615 (1.2 %) patency capsule tests were identified; in one patient, the patency capsule was retained in the esophagus, in the rest, the capsule was detected in the small bowel resulting in abdominal pain or small-bowel obstruction. One patient (5 %) required surgery; all other patients resolved spontaneously or after corticosteroid therapy. Conclusions: Symptomatic patency capsule retention is a very rare complication with a favorable prognosis. It should be recognized but its use in patients with suspected small-bowel stenosis should not be discouraged.

  18. ULTRASONIC AND RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGING OF NIOBIUM TARGET CAPSULES FOR RADIOISOTOPE PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, H. T.; Claytor, T. N.; Hunter, J. F.; Dozier, B. E.; Nortier, F. M.; Smith, D. M.; Lenz, J. W.; Moddrell, C.; Smith, P. A.

    2009-03-03

    In the case of proton-irradiated radioisotope production, niobium target capsules containing gallium are exposed to intense radiation, thermally induced stress, for extended periods. The structural integrity of the target capsules is of crucial importance for containing the accelerator-produced radioisotopes and target material. The capsule window should be as thin and transparent to the proton beam as possible, and preferably should not become significantly activated under proton irradiation. In addition, the material for the capsule needs to be as defect-free as possible. Niobium encapsulated gallium targets have a history of unpredictable failure under intense irradiation with 100 MeV protons. This study illustrates the utility of non-destructive testing in order to detect defects that may result in mechanical failure of the capsules during irradiation. Prior to this work, it was not known if the gallium initially wets the niobium capsule that encapsulates it, and if it does, it is not known to what degree. However, the imaging techniques used in this work show that local areas of wetting do occur. We used ultrasonic images from various lots of niobium capsule material to assess the integrity of the capsules. Digital radiography is also used to detect any voids in the gallium that will tend to cause local heating in the capsules.

  19. M2L4 coordination capsules with tunable anticancer activity upon guest encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Ahmedova, Anife; Mihaylova, Rositsa; Momekova, Denitsa; Shestakova, Pavletta; Stoykova, Silviya; Zaharieva, Joana; Yamashina, Masahiro; Momekov, Georgi; Akita, Munetaka; Yoshizawa, Michito

    2016-08-16

    Metallosupramolecular cages and capsules have gained increasing popularity as both molecular containers and anticancer agents. For successful combination of these properties a thorough analysis of the effect of guest encapsulation on the host's cytotoxic properties is highly required. Here we report on the cytotoxicity modulation of Pt(ii) and Pd(ii)-linked M2L4 coordination capsules upon encapsulation of guest molecules such as pyrene and caffeine. The anticancer activity of the capsules against various human cancer cells (HT-29, T-24, HL-60 and its resistant counterparts HL-60/Dox and HL-60/CDDP) significantly altered upon the guest encapsulation. The encapsulation of pyrene molecules causes a decrease in the cytotoxicity of the Pt(ii) capsule, which is stronger than that of the Pd(ii) capsule. The cytotoxicities of the caffeine containing capsules are lower than that of the empty capsules (except for HL-60), but still superior to cisplatin under the same conditions. The observed trends in the anticancer activity of the capsules and their host-guest complexes correlate with their different stabilities toward glutathione, estimated by NMR-based kinetic experiments. Mechanistic insights into the observed cytotoxicities are obtained by fluorescence microscopy imaging of tumor cells treated with the capsules and their pyrene complexes. The data suggest the glutathione-triggered disassembly of the capsular structures as a potential activation pathway for their cytotoxicities. PMID:27488015

  20. Capsule Endoscopy in the Assessment of Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Palimaka, S; Blackhouse, Gord; Goeree, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Background Small-bowel capsule endoscopy is a tool used to visualize the small bowel to identify the location of bleeds in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Capsule endoscopy is currently funded in Ontario in cases where there has been a failure to identify a source of bleeding via conventional diagnostic procedures. In Ontario, capsule endoscopy is a diagnostic option for patients whose findings on esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, and push enteroscopy have been negative (i.e., the source of bleeding was not found). Objectives This economic analysis aims to estimate the budget impact of different rates of capsule endoscopy use as a complement to push enteroscopy procedures in patients aged 18 years and older. Data Sources Population-based administrative databases for Ontario were used to identify patients receiving push enteroscopy and small-bowel capsule endoscopy in the fiscal years 2008 to 2012. Review Methods A systematic literature search was performed to identify economic evaluations of capsule endoscopy for the investigation of OGIB. Studies were assessed for their methodological quality and their applicability to the Ontarian setting. An original budget impact analysis was performed using data from Ontarian administrative sources and published literature. The budget impact was estimated for different levels of use of capsule endoscopy as a complement to push enteroscopy due to the uncertain clinical utility of the capsule based on current clinical evidence. The analysis was conducted from the provincial public payer perspective. Results With varying rates of capsule endoscopy use, the budgetary impact spans from savings of $510,000,1 when no (0%) push enteroscopy procedures are complemented with capsule endoscopy, to $2,036,000, when all (100%) push enteroscopy procedures are complemented with capsule endoscopy. A scenario where 50% of push enteroscopy procedures are complemented with capsule endoscopy (expected use based on expert opinion

  1. Presence of a Prophage Determines Temperature-Dependent Capsule Production in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Leslie; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2016-01-01

    A hyaluronic acid capsule is a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Streptococcus pyogenes. It acts as an anti-phagocytic agent and adhesin to keratinocytes. The expression of the capsule is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level by the two-component regulatory system CovRS, in which CovR acts as a transcriptional repressor. The covRS genes are frequently mutated in many invasive strains, and a subset of the invasive CovRS mutants does not produce a detectable level of the capsule at 37 °C, but produces a significant amount of the capsule at sub-body temperatures. Here, we report that a prophage has a crucial role in this capsule thermoregulation. Passaging CovR-null strains showing capsule thermoregulation using a lab medium produced spontaneous mutants producing a significant amount of the capsule regardless of incubation temperature and this phenotypic change was caused by curing of a particular prophage. The lab strain HSC5 contains three prophages on the chromosome, and only ΦHSC5.3 was cured in all spontaneous mutants. This result indicates that the prophage ΦHSC5.3 plays a crucial role in capsule thermoregulation, most likely by repressing capsule production at 37 °C. PMID:27669311

  2. Presence of a Prophage Determines Temperature-Dependent Capsule Production in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Leslie; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2016-01-01

    A hyaluronic acid capsule is a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Streptococcus pyogenes. It acts as an anti-phagocytic agent and adhesin to keratinocytes. The expression of the capsule is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level by the two-component regulatory system CovRS, in which CovR acts as a transcriptional repressor. The covRS genes are frequently mutated in many invasive strains, and a subset of the invasive CovRS mutants does not produce a detectable level of the capsule at 37 °C, but produces a significant amount of the capsule at sub-body temperatures. Here, we report that a prophage has a crucial role in this capsule thermoregulation. Passaging CovR-null strains showing capsule thermoregulation using a lab medium produced spontaneous mutants producing a significant amount of the capsule regardless of incubation temperature and this phenotypic change was caused by curing of a particular prophage. The lab strain HSC5 contains three prophages on the chromosome, and only ΦHSC5.3 was cured in all spontaneous mutants. This result indicates that the prophage ΦHSC5.3 plays a crucial role in capsule thermoregulation, most likely by repressing capsule production at 37 °C. PMID:27669311

  3. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a novel capsule for colon-specific drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Han, Min; Fang, Qiu-Li; Zhan, Hong-Wei; Luo, Tao; Liang, Wen-Quan; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate colon-specific drug delivery of a novel capsule (CS capsule). Theophylline was used as model drug and little was released from the CS capsules in the release medium mimicking physiological environment of stomach to small intestine. However, 66.7 +/- 8.8% theophylline was released from the capsules in the phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) mimicking the physiological environment of colon in the next 4 h, while the addition of galactomannanase (39.3 U/L) accelerated the disintegration of the CS capsule and enhanced the release rate to 92.6 +/- 6.0%. Rats in vivo pharmacokinetics demonstrated that the relative bioavailability of theophylline after intragastric administration of CS capsules was 76.72% with delayed T(max) of 8 h comparing to that of theophylline solution with T(max) of 1.5 h. Radiolabeled with technetium-99m, the CS capsule could keep intact from stomach to small intestine while disintegration of the CS capsule was observed in the proximal colon or the joint between the distal small intestine and right colon. A great quantity of radiolabeled marker was released as well as distributed in the whole colon at 10 h after administration. As a whole, the CS capsule prepared could provide an alternative carrier for the colon-specific drug delivery.

  4. Fabrication of novel silicone capsules with tunable mechanical properties by microfluidic techniques.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Neus; Rodríguez-Abreu, Carlos; Fernández-Nieves, Alberto; Solans, Conxita

    2013-06-12

    A novel approach for the synthesis of silicone capsules using double W/O/W emulsions as templates is introduced. The low viscosity of the silicone precursors enables the use of microfluidic techniques to accurately control the size and morphology of the double emulsion droplets, which after cross-linking result in the desired monodisperse silicone capsules. Their shell thickness can be finely tuned, which in turn allows control over their permeability and mechanical properties; the latter are particularly important in a variety of practical applications where the capsules are subjected to large external forces. The potential of these capsules for controlled release is also demonstrated using a model hydrophilic substance. PMID:23659612

  5. Symptomatic retention of the patency capsule: a multicenter real life case series

    PubMed Central

    Kopylov, Uri; Nemeth, Artur; Cebrian, Alba; Wurm Johansson, Gabriele; Thorlacius, Henrik; Fernandez-Urien Sainz, Ignacio; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Eliakim, Rami; Toth, Ervin

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: The patency capsule is designed to evaluate the patency of the small bowel before administration of small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) in patients at high risk of retention. The utilization of a patency capsule may be associated with a risk of symptomatic retention, but very few cases have been reported to date. The aim of our study was to describe our experience with this rare complication of a patency capsule. Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective case series. The medical records of patients who underwent a patency capsule test were scanned and all cases of symptomatic retention were collected. Results: In total, 20 symptomatic cases of retention out of 1615 (1.2 %) patency capsule tests were identified; in one patient, the patency capsule was retained in the esophagus, in the rest, the capsule was detected in the small bowel resulting in abdominal pain or small-bowel obstruction. One patient (5 %) required surgery; all other patients resolved spontaneously or after corticosteroid therapy. Conclusions: Symptomatic patency capsule retention is a very rare complication with a favorable prognosis. It should be recognized but its use in patients with suspected small-bowel stenosis should not be discouraged. PMID:27652302

  6. Biomimetic/Bioinspired Design of Enzyme@capsule Nano/Microsystems.

    PubMed

    Shi, J; Jiang, Y; Zhang, S; Yang, D; Jiang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems, which refer to the enzyme-immobilized capsules, have received tremendous interest owing to the combination of the high catalytic activities of encapsulated enzymes and the hierarchical structure of the capsule. The preparation of capsules and simultaneous encapsulation of enzymes is recognized as the core process for the rational design and construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. The strategy used has three major steps: (a) generation of the templates, (b) surface coating on the templates, and (c) removal of the templates, and it has been proven to be effective and versatile for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. Several conventional methods, including layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolytes, liquid crystalline templating method, etc., were used to design and construct enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems, but these have two major drawbacks. One is the low mechanical stability of the systems and the second is the harsh conditions used in the construction process. Learning from nature, several biomimetic/bioinspired methods such as biomineralization, biomimetic/bioinspired adhesion, and their combination have been exploited for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. In this chapter, we will present a general protocol for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems using the latter approach. Some suggestions for improved design, construction, and characterization will also be presented with detailed procedures for specific examples.

  7. Simulations of indirectly driven gas-filled capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Eder, D. C.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Pino, J. E.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Grim, G. P.; Remington, B. A.; Rowley, D. P.; Yeamans, C. B.; Tipton, R. E.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, R.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Clark, D. S.; Divol, L.; Edgell, D. H.; Edwards, M. J.; Eckart, M. J.; Fittinghoff, D.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Glebov, V. Y.; Glenn, S.; Guler, N.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H.; Hoover, D.; Hsing, W. W.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Kervin, M.; Khan, S.; Kline, J.; Knauer, J.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O. L.; Pape, S. Le; Ma, T.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Marinak, M. M.; Mcnaney, J. M.; Meezan, N. B.; Merrill, F. E.; Mintz, M.; Moore, A.; Munro, D. H.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Parham, T.; Petrasso, R.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sayre, D. B.; Sepke, S. M.; Spears, B. K.; Stoeffl, W.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P.; Volegov, P.; Widmann, K.; Wilson, D. C.; Zylstra, A. B.

    2014-11-01

    Gas-filled capsules imploded with indirect drive on the National Ignition Facility have been employed as symmetry surrogates for cryogenic-layered ignition capsules and to explore interfacial mix. Plastic capsules containing deuterated layers and filled with tritium gas provide a direct measure of mix of ablator into the gas fuel. Other plastic capsules have employed DT or D3He gas fill. We present the results of two-dimensional simulations of gas-filled capsule implosions with known degradation sources represented as in modeling of inertial confinement fusion ignition designs; these are time-dependent drive asymmetry, the capsule support tent, roughness at material interfaces, and prescribed gas-ablator interface mix. Unlike the case of cryogenic-layered implosions, many observables of gas-filled implosions are in reasonable agreement with predictions of these simulations. Yields of TT and DT neutrons as well as other x-ray and nuclear diagnostics are matched for CD-layered implosions. Yields of DT-filled capsules are over-predicted by factors of 1.4-2, while D3He capsule yields are matched, as well as other metrics for both capsule types.

  8. Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Expression of the K1 Polysaccharide Capsule of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Downregulation of the Capsule Genes during Growth in Urine.

    PubMed

    King, Jane E; Aal Owaif, Hasan A; Jia, Jia; Roberts, Ian S

    2015-07-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the major causative agent of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI). The K1 capsule on the surface of UPEC strains is a key virulence factor, and its expression may be important in the onset and progression of UTI. In order to understand capsule expression in more detail, we analyzed its expression in the UPEC strain UTI89 during growth in rich medium (LB medium) and urine and during infection of a bladder epithelial cell line. Comparison of capsule gene transcription using a chromosomal gfp reporter fusion showed a significant reduction in transcription during growth in urine compared to that during growth in LB medium. When examined at the single-cell level, following growth in both media, capsule gene expression appears to be heterogeneous, with two distinct green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing populations. Using anti-K1 antibody, we showed that this heterogeneity in gene expression results in two populations of encapsulated and unencapsulated cells. We demonstrated that the capsule hinders attachment to and invasion of epithelial cells and that the unencapsulated cells within the population preferentially adhere to and invade bladder epithelial cells. We found that once internalized, UTI89 starts to produce capsule to aid in its intracellular survival and spread. We propose that this observed phenotypic diversity in capsule expression is a fitness strategy used by the bacterium to deal with the constantly changing environment of the urinary tract.

  9. Panning of a phage display library against a synthetic capsule for peptide ligands that bind to the native capsule of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Beer, Michael; Liu, Chun-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax with the ability to not only produce a tripartite toxin, but also an enveloping capsule comprised primarily of γ-D-glutamic acid residues. The purpose of this study was to isolate peptide ligands capable of binding to the native capsule of B. anthracis from a commercial phage display peptide library using a synthetic form of the capsule consisting of 12 γ-D-glutamic acid residues. Following four rounds of selection, 80 clones were selected randomly and analysed by DNA sequencing. Four clones, each containing a unique consensus sequence, were identified by sequence alignment analysis. Phage particles were prepared and their derived 12-mer peptides were also chemically synthesized and conjugated to BSA. Both the phage particles and free peptide-BSA conjugates were evaluated by ELISA for binding to encapsulated cells of B. anthracis as well as a B. anthracis capsule extract. All the phage particles tested except one were able to bind to both the encapsulated cells and the capsule extract. However, the peptide-BSA conjugates could only bind to the encapsulated cells. One of the peptide-BSA conjugates, with the sequence DSSRIPMQWHPQ (termed G1), was fluorescently labelled and its binding to the encapsulated cells was further confirmed by confocal microscopy. The results demonstrated that the synthetic capsule was effective in isolating phage-displayed peptides with binding affinity for the native capsule of B. anthracis.

  10. Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Expression of the K1 Polysaccharide Capsule of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Downregulation of the Capsule Genes during Growth in Urine

    PubMed Central

    King, Jane E.; Aal Owaif, Hasan A.; Jia, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the major causative agent of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI). The K1 capsule on the surface of UPEC strains is a key virulence factor, and its expression may be important in the onset and progression of UTI. In order to understand capsule expression in more detail, we analyzed its expression in the UPEC strain UTI89 during growth in rich medium (LB medium) and urine and during infection of a bladder epithelial cell line. Comparison of capsule gene transcription using a chromosomal gfp reporter fusion showed a significant reduction in transcription during growth in urine compared to that during growth in LB medium. When examined at the single-cell level, following growth in both media, capsule gene expression appears to be heterogeneous, with two distinct green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing populations. Using anti-K1 antibody, we showed that this heterogeneity in gene expression results in two populations of encapsulated and unencapsulated cells. We demonstrated that the capsule hinders attachment to and invasion of epithelial cells and that the unencapsulated cells within the population preferentially adhere to and invade bladder epithelial cells. We found that once internalized, UTI89 starts to produce capsule to aid in its intracellular survival and spread. We propose that this observed phenotypic diversity in capsule expression is a fitness strategy used by the bacterium to deal with the constantly changing environment of the urinary tract. PMID:25870229

  11. Arthroscopic Superior Capsule Reconstruction for Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Mihata, Teruhisa; Lee, Thay Q.; Itami, Yasuo; HASEGAWA, Akihiko; Ohue, Mutsumi; Neo, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: An arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction, in which the fascia lata autograft attached medially to the superior glenoid and laterally to the greater tuberosity, restores shoulder stability and muscle balance in patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears; consequently, it improves shoulder function specifically deltoid muscle function and relieves pain. We assessed the clinical outcome of arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction (Figure 1) in 100 consecutive patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears. Specifically, we focused on the rates of return to sport and work. Methods: From 2007 to 2014, we performed arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction on 107 consecutive patients (mean 66.7 years; range, 43 to 82) with irreparable rotator cuff tears that had failed conservative treatment. Seven patients were lost to follow-up because of other medical problems or reasons. In the remaining 100 patients there were 56 supraspinatus and infraspinatus tears; 39 supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis tears; 3 supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis tears; and 2 supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor tears. Physical examination, radiography, and MRI were performed before surgery; at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery; and yearly thereafter. Rates of return to sport and work were also investigated in those patients who had been employed (34 patients: 21 manual workers, 10 farmers, 1 butcher, 1 cook, and 1 athletic trainer) or played sport (26 patients: 6 golf, 4 table tennis, 4 swimming, 3 martial arts, 2 baseball, 2 yoga, 1 tennis, 1 badminton, 1 skiing, 1 mountain-climbing, and 1 ground golf) before injury. Results: The average preoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score was 31.6 points (range, 3.3 to 63.3 points) and the average Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score was 51.6 points (26.5 to 68.5 points). Average postoperative clinical outcome scores all improved significantly at final

  12. Inpatient capsule endoscopy leads to frequent incomplete small bowel examinations

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Cemal; Losurdo, John; Brown, Michael D; Oosterveen, Scott; Rahimi, Robert; Keshavarzian, Ali; Bozorgnia, Leila; Mutlu, Ece

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To examine the predictive factors of capsule endoscopy (CE) completion rate (CECR) including the effect of inpatient and outpatient status. METHODS: We identified 355 consecutive patients who completed CE at Rush University Medical Center between March 2003 and October 2005. Subjects for CE had either nothing by mouth or clear liquids for the afternoon and evening of the day before the procedure. CE exams were reviewed by two physicians who were unaware of the study hypotheses. After retrospective analysis, 21 cases were excluded due to capsule malfunction, prior gastric surgery, endoscopic capsule placement or insufficient data. Of the remaining 334 exams [264 out-patient (OP), 70 in-patient (IP)], CE indications, findings, location of the patients [IP vs OP and intensive care unit (ICU) vs general medical floor (GMF)] and gastrointestinal transit times were analyzed. Statistical analysis was completed using SPSS version 17 (Chicago, IL). Chi-square, t test or fisher exact-tests were used as appropriate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with incomplete CE exams. RESULTS: The mean age for the entire study population was 54.7 years. Sixty-one percent of the study population was female, and gender was not different between IPs vs OPs (P = 0.07). The overall incomplete CECR was 14% in our study. Overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB) was significantly more common for the IP CE (P = 0.0001), while abdominal pain and assessment of IBD were more frequent indications for the OP CE exams (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively). Occult OGB was the most common indication and arteriovenous malformations were the most common finding both in the IPs and OPs. The capsule did not enter the small bowel (SB) in 6/70 IPs and 8/264 OPs (P = 0.04). The capsule never reached the cecum in 31.4% (22/70) of IP vs 9.5% (25/ 264) of OP examinations (P < 0.001). The mean gastric transit time (GTT) was delayed in IPs compared to

  13. Adiabat Shaping of ICF Capsules Using Ramped Pressure Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K.; Betti, R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Marinak, M. M.; Haan, S. W.

    2002-11-01

    Target design of direct-drive ICF capsules has historically involved a compromise between high 1-D (clean) yield and capsule stability. Low-adiabat fuel is desirable to achieve high compression and, hence, high yield. A higher adiabat at the ablation front reduces the growth rate of the Raleigh--Taylor instability due to higher ablation velocity. An optimal target design will take advantage of both by shaping the adiabat of the capsule to allow for high adiabat in the material that is to be ablated and low adiabat in the remaining fuel. We present here a method of adiabat shaping using a low-intensity prepulse followed by laser shutoff before beginning the main drive pulse. This creates a decaying shock with a ramped pressure profile behind it. Since the prepulse is low intensity, the adiabat is not strongly affected by the prepulse. The main shock is then launched up this ramped pressure profile to set the adiabat. Because the main shock sees an increasing pressure profile, the effective strength of the shock decreases as it propagates through the shell, thus creating a smooth adiabat profile from high outer-shell adiabat to low inner-shell adiabat. Results of simulations using 1-D LILAC and 2-D DRACO (LLE), as well as 1-D and 2-D HYDRA (LLNL), are presented. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460 and by the University of California LLNL under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  14. Anti-proliferative effect of olmesartan on Tenon's capsule fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; Fan, Ya-Zhi; Yao, Liang; Wang, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the inhibitive effect of olmesartan to fibroblast proliferation and the anti-scarring effect in Tenon's capsule, both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS Human primary Tenon's capsule fibroblasts were cultured in vitro, treated with up titrating concentrations of olmesartan. The rate of inhibition was tested with methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method. Real-time PCR was performed to analyze changes in mRNA expressions of the fibrosis-related factors: matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1,2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Thirty rabbits were divided into 5 groups (3, 7, 14, 21, and 28d). A rabbit conjunctiva flap model was created in each eye. Olmesartan solution was injected subconjunctivally and then evaluated its anti-proliferation and anti-fibrosis effects through the histological morphology and immunohistochemistry of MMP-2 and PCNA in each group. Only the 7d group was treated with Masson's trichrome to compare the neovascularization in the subconjunctiva area. RESULTS In vitro, cultured Tenon's capsule human fibroblasts showed a dose dependent inhibition by olmesartan in MTT. Olmesartan reduced mRNA expressions of MMP-2 and PCNA but increased mRNA expressions of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. In vivo, the rabbit eyes treated with olmesartan at 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st days demonstrated a significant reduced expressions of MMP-2 and PCNA compared with control eye, no significant difference observed in 28th day group. The cellular proliferation and neovascularization was suppressed by olmesartan in Masson's trichrome observation. CONCLUSION By inhibiting fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo, olmesartan prevents the proliferation and activity of fibroblasts in scar tissue formation, which might benefit glaucoma filtering surgery. PMID:27275419

  15. Egg capsules of the dusky catshark Bythaelurus canescens (Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae) from the south-eastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Concha, F; Bustamante, C; Oddone, M C; Hernández, S; Lamilla, J

    2010-09-01

    The external morphology of the egg capsule of Bythaelurus canescens and its fixation to the substratum are described. Bythaelurus canescens egg capsules are typically vase-shaped, dorso-ventrally flattened, pale yellow in colour when fresh and covered by 12-15 longitudinal ridges. The anterior border of the capsule is straight, whereas the posterior border is semicircular. Two horns bearing long, coiled tendrils arise from the anterior and posterior ends of the capsule. The presence of longitudinal ridges and long coiled tendrils at both anterior and posterior ends of the capsule readily distinguish these egg capsules from those of other chondrichthyans occurring in the south-east Pacific Ocean.

  16. Training in Capsule Endoscopy: Are We Lagging behind?

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Reena; McAlindon, Mark E.; Davison, Carolyn; Panter, Simon; Humbla, Olaf; Keuchel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a new modality to investigate the small bowel. Since it was invented in 1999, CE has been adopted in the algorithm of small bowel investigations worldwide. Reporting a CE video requires identification of landmarks and interpretation of pathology to formulate a management plan. There is established training infrastructure in place for most endoscopic procedures in Europe; however despite its wide use, there is a lack of structured training for CE. This paper focuses on the current available evidence and makes recommendations to standardise training in CE. PMID:22566997

  17. Space Courier - Return capsule for in-flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Klaus

    1988-12-01

    Space Courier is a returnable capsule for inexpensive space transport of experiments, especially experiments concerned with materials processing. With a total weight of 1400 kg, it can be launched by a variety of available launchers and can transport a payload of 400 kg. The first flight is scheduled for 1991. Space Courier will fill a gap left by the shortage of Shuttle flights. The basic mission length is set at seven days, with a 200 W capacity for the payload. Longer flights will require a reduction in payload.

  18. Simulation of Atmospheric-Entry Capsules in the Subsonic Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, Scott M.; Childs, Robert E.; Garcia, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of Computational Fluid Dynamics predictions of subsonic capsule aerodynamics is examined by comparison against recent NASA wind-tunnel data at high-Reynolds-number flight conditions. Several aspects of numerical and physical modeling are considered, including inviscid numerical scheme, mesh adaptation, rough-wall modeling, rotation and curvature corrections for eddy-viscosity models, and Detached-Eddy Simulations of the unsteady wake. All of these are considered in isolation against relevant data where possible. The results indicate that an improved predictive capability is developed by considering physics-based approaches and validating the results against flight-relevant experimental data.

  19. Construction of an intermittent-motion capsule filling machine simulator.

    PubMed

    Britten, J R; Barnett, M I; Armstrong, N A

    1995-02-01

    A pneumatically operated apparatus is described which simulates the forces generated by and the component movements encountered in a Macofar 13/2 dosator type capsule filling machine. Force transducers are fitted to the dosing piston and dosator tip, and the movement of the dosator piston and the powder bed followed by displacement transducers. Calibration of the transducers is described. The output from the transducers is collated, stored and manipulated by microcomputer. The manufacturing parameters which can be studied using this apparatus are discussed. PMID:7784333

  20. Magnesium Ion Acts as a Signal for Capsule Induction in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Sudarshan S; Raman, Thiagarajan; Ramakrishnan, Jayapradha

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, is a common opportunistic neural infection in immunocompromised individuals. Cryptococcus meningitis is associated with fungal burden with larger capsule size in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To understand the role of CSF constituents in capsule enlargement, we have evaluated the effect of artificial CSF on capsule induction in comparison with various other capsule inducing media. Two different strains of C. neoformans, an environmental and a clinical isolates were used in the present study. While comparing the various capsule inducing media for the two different strains of C. neoformans, it was observed that the capsule growth was significantly increased when grown in artificial CSF at pH 5.5, temperature 34°C for ATCC C. neoformans and 37°C for Clinical C. neoformans and with an incubation period of 72 h. In addition, artificial CSF supports biofilm formation in C. neoformans. While investigating the individual components of artificial CSF, we found that Mg(2+) ions influence the capsule growth in both environmental and clinical strains of C. neoformans. To confirm our results we studied the expression of four major CAP genes namely, CAP10, CAP59, CAP60, and CAP64 in various capsule inducing media and in different concentrations of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+). Our results on gene expression suggest that, Mg(2+) does have an effect on CAP gene expression, which are important for capsule biosynthesis and virulence. Our findings on the role of Mg(2+) ion as a signal for capsule induction will promote a way to elucidate the control mechanisms for capsule biosynthesis in C. neoformans. PMID:27014245

  1. Magnesium Ion Acts as a Signal for Capsule Induction in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Sudarshan S.; Raman, Thiagarajan; Ramakrishnan, Jayapradha

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, is a common opportunistic neural infection in immunocompromised individuals. Cryptococcus meningitis is associated with fungal burden with larger capsule size in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To understand the role of CSF constituents in capsule enlargement, we have evaluated the effect of artificial CSF on capsule induction in comparison with various other capsule inducing media. Two different strains of C. neoformans, an environmental and a clinical isolates were used in the present study. While comparing the various capsule inducing media for the two different strains of C. neoformans, it was observed that the capsule growth was significantly increased when grown in artificial CSF at pH 5.5, temperature 34°C for ATCC C. neoformans and 37°C for Clinical C. neoformans and with an incubation period of 72 h. In addition, artificial CSF supports biofilm formation in C. neoformans. While investigating the individual components of artificial CSF, we found that Mg2+ ions influence the capsule growth in both environmental and clinical strains of C. neoformans. To confirm our results we studied the expression of four major CAP genes namely, CAP10, CAP59, CAP60, and CAP64 in various capsule inducing media and in different concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+. Our results on gene expression suggest that, Mg2+ does have an effect on CAP gene expression, which are important for capsule biosynthesis and virulence. Our findings on the role of Mg2+ ion as a signal for capsule induction will promote a way to elucidate the control mechanisms for capsule biosynthesis in C. neoformans. PMID:27014245

  2. NIF Target Capsule Wall And Hohlraum Transfer Gas Effects On Deuterium-Tritium Redistribution Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Giedt, W H; Sanchez, J J

    2005-06-27

    The effects of temperature and age on the times required for beta-heating-induced redistribution of a 50-50 mole percent mixture of deuterium and tritium (DT) in a spherical capsule are investigated analytically and numerically. The derivation of an analytical solution for the redistribution time in a one-dimensional binary diffusion model, which includes the capsule thermal resistance, is first described. This result shows that the redistribution time for a high conductivity capsule wall is approximately doubled after 8 days of {sup 3}He formation. In contrast, with a low thermal conductivity capsule wall (e.g., polyimide), the redistribution time would increase by less than 10%. The substantial effect of the capsule wall resistance suggested that the resistance to heat transfer from the capsule through the surrounding transfer gas to the hohlraum wall would also influence the redistribution process. This was investigated with a spherical model, which was based on accounting for energy transfer by diffusion with a conduction heat transfer approximation. This made it possible to solve for the continuous temperature distribution throughout the capsule and surrounding gas. As with the capsule the redistribution times depended on the relative values of the thermal resistances of the vapor, the capsule, and the transfer gas. With increasing thermal resistance of the vapor (increased concentration of {sup 3}He) redistributions times for hydrocarbon capsules were significantly less than predicted by the one-dimensional model, which included the capsule wall resistance. In particular for low {sup 3}He concentrations the time constant was approximately 10% less than the minimum one-dimensional value of 27 minutes. Further analytical and experimental investigation focused on defining the relations between the thermal resistances under which the one-dimensional model analysis applies is recommended.

  3. Handling Qualities of a Capsule Spacecraft During Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.

    2010-01-01

    A piloted simulation was conducted to study handling qualities for capsule spacecraft entering the Earth s atmosphere. Eight evaluation pilots, including six pilot astronauts, provided Cooper-Harper ratings, workload ratings, and qualitative comments. The simulation began after descending through the atmospheric entry interface point and continued until the drogue parachutes deployed. There were two categories of piloting tasks, both of which required bank angle control. In one task category, the pilot followed a closed-loop bank angle command computed by the backup guidance system to manage g-loads during entry. In the other task category, the pilot used intuitive rules to determine the desired bank angle independently, based on an open-loop schedule of vertical speed, Mach, and total energy specified at several range-to-target gates along the entry trajectory. Pilots were able to accurately track the bank angle guidance commands and steered the capsule toward the recovery site with essentially the same range error as the benchmark autopilot trajectory albeit with substantially higher propellant usage, and the handling qualities for this task were satisfactory. Another key result was that the complex piloting task of atmospheric entry could be performed satisfactorily, even in the presence of large dispersions, by controlling bank angle to follow a simple open-loop schedule.

  4. A review of localization systems for robotic endoscopic capsules.

    PubMed

    Than, Trung Duc; Alici, Gursel; Zhou, Hao; Li, Weihua

    2012-09-01

    Obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, Crohn disease, Celiac disease, small bower tumors, and other disorders that occur in the GI tract have always been challenging to be diagnosed and treated due to the inevitable difficulty in accessing such a complex environment within the human body. With the invention of wireless capsule endoscope, the next generation of the traditional cabled endoscope, not only a dream has come true for the patients who have experienced a great discomfort and unpleasantness caused by the conventional endoscopic method, but also a new research field has been opened to develop a complete miniature robotic device that is swallowable and has full functions of diagnosis and treatment of the GI diseases. However, such an ideal device needs to be equipped with a highly accurate localization system to be able to exactly determine the location of lesions in the GI tract and provide essential feedback to an actuation mechanism controlling the device's movement. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the localization systems for robotic endoscopic capsules, for which the motivation, challenges, and possible solutions of the proposed localization methods are also discussed. PMID:22736628

  5. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Capsule Aerothermodynamics and Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Hollis, Brian R.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Laub, Bernard; Wright, Michael J.; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Slimko, Eric M.; Willcockson, William H.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft is being designed to carry a large rover (greater than 800 kg) to the surface of Mars using a blunt-body entry capsule as the primary decelerator. The spacecraft is being designed for launch in 2009 and arrival at Mars in 2010. The combination of large mass and diameter with non-zero angle-of-attack for MSL will result in unprecedented convective heating environments caused by turbulence prior to peak heating. Navier-Stokes computations predict a large turbulent heating augmentation for which there are no supporting flight data1 and little ground data for validation. Consequently, an extensive experimental program has been established specifically for MSL to understand the level of turbulent augmentation expected in flight. The experimental data support the prediction of turbulent transition and have also uncovered phenomena that cannot be replicated with available computational methods. The result is that the flight aeroheating environments predictions must include larger uncertainties than are typically used for a Mars entry capsule. Finally, the thermal protection system (TPS) being used for MSL has not been flown at the heat flux, pressure, and shear stress combinations expected in flight, so a test program has been established to obtain conditions relevant to flight. This paper summarizes the aerothermodynamic definition analysis and TPS development, focusing on the challenges that are unique to MSL.

  6. Compounding of slow-release niacinamide capsules: feasibility and characterization.

    PubMed

    Radojkovic, Branko; Milić, Jela; Calija, Bojan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of extemporaneous compounding of slow-release oral dosage form of niacinamide and to evaluate its release kinetics. The model formulation (preparation) was developed in the form of powder-filled hard gelatin capsules. Two slow-release preparations with different ratios of hypromellose have been prepared and evaluated in comparison with an immediate-release preparation. The dissolution tests were performed as per United States Pharmacopoeia requirements: Type I Apparatus, over 7 hours. Both slow-release preparations, containing 40% and 60% v/v hypromellose, respectively, have showed slow release kinetics. The dissolution profiles were significantly different, with similarity factor f2<50. The dissolution data demonstrated Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetics with n values indicating anomalous transport. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that slow-release niacinamide capsules can be successfully compounded using hypromellose as a sole release rate modifier, and that the release mechanism is comparable to hydrophilic polymer matrix-based systems.

  7. Motion analysis for duplicate frame removal in wireless capsule endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Choi, Min-Kook; Lee, Sang-Chul

    2011-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has been intensively researched recently due to its convenience for diagnosis and extended detection coverage of some diseases. Typically, a full recording covering entire human digestive system requires about 8 to 12 hours for a patient carrying a capsule endoscope and a portable image receiver/recorder unit, which produces 120,000 image frames on average. In spite of the benefits of close examination, WCE based test has a barrier for quick diagnosis such that a trained diagnostician must examine a huge amount of images for close investigation, normally over 2 hours. The main purpose of our work is to present a novel machine vision approach to reduce diagnosis time by automatically detecting duplicated recordings caused by backward camera movement, typically containing redundant information, in small intestine. The developed technique could be integrated with a visualization tool which supports intelligent inspection method, such as automatic play speed control. Our experimental result shows high accuracy of the technique by detecting 989 duplicate image frames out of 10,000, equivalently to 9.9% data reduction, in a WCE video from a real human subject. With some selected parameters, we achieved the correct detection ratio of 92.85% and the false detection ratio of 13.57%.

  8. Reduction of capsule endoscopy reading times by unsupervised image mining.

    PubMed

    Iakovidis, D K; Tsevas, S; Polydorou, A

    2010-09-01

    The screening of the small intestine has become painless and easy with wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) that is a revolutionary, relatively non-invasive imaging technique performed by a wireless swallowable endoscopic capsule transmitting thousands of video frames per examination. The average time required for the visual inspection of a full 8-h WCE video ranges from 45 to 120min, depending on the experience of the examiner. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to WCE reading time reduction by unsupervised mining of video frames. The proposed methodology is based on a data reduction algorithm which is applied according to a novel scheme for the extraction of representative video frames from a full length WCE video. It can be used either as a video summarization or as a video bookmarking tool, providing the comparative advantage of being general, unbounded by the finiteness of a training set. The number of frames extracted is controlled by a parameter that can be tuned automatically. Comprehensive experiments on real WCE videos indicate that a significant reduction in the reading times is feasible. In the case of the WCE videos used this reduction reached 85% without any loss of abnormalities.

  9. Theoretical study of symmetry of flux onto a capsule

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Hao; Wu, Changshu; Zou, Shiyang; Pei, Wenbing

    2015-09-15

    An analytic model to describe the flux asymmetry onto a capsule based on the viewfactor approximation is developed and verified with numerical simulations. By using a nested spheres technique to represent the various sources of flux asymmetry, the model can treat spherically and cylindrically symmetric hohlraums, e.g., cylinder, elliptic, and rugby. This approach includes the more realistic case of frequency-dependent flux asymmetry compared with the more standard frequency-integrated or single-frequency approaches [D. W. Phillion and S. M. Pollaine, Phys. Plasmas 1, 2963 (1994)]. Correspondingly, the approach can be used to assess x-ray preheat asymmetry generated from localized laser absorption in the high-Z hohlraum wall. For spherical hohlraums with 4, 6, or 8 laser entrance holes (LEHs), an optimal configuration of LEHs, laser spot placement, and angle-of-incidence of the single-ringed laser beams is defined. An analogy between minimizing the flux asymmetry onto a capsule and the Thomson problem of point charge placement on a sphere for minimized energy is shown.

  10. Development of CMOS Imager Block for Capsule Endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie, S.; Fodzi, F. A. M.; Tung, L. Q.; Lioe, D. X.; Halin, I. A.; Hasan, W. Z. W.; Jaafar, H.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the development of imager block to be associated in a capsule endoscopy system. Since the capsule endoscope is used to diagnose gastrointestinal diseases, the imager block must be in small size which is comfortable for the patients to swallow. In this project, a small size 1.5V button battery is used as the power supply while the voltage supply requirements for other components such as microcontroller and CMOS image sensor are higher. Therefore, a voltage booster circuit is proposed to boost up the voltage supply from 1.5V to 3.3V. A low power microcontroller is used to generate control pulses for the CMOS image sensor and to convert the 8-bits parallel data output to serial data to be transmitted to the display panel. The results show that the voltage booster circuit was able to boost the voltage supply from 1.5V to 3.3V. The microcontroller precisely controls the CMOS image sensor to produce parallel data which is then serialized again by the microcontroller. The serial data is then successfully translated to 2fps image and displayed on computer.

  11. Sputter-deposited Be ablators for NIF target capsules

    SciTech Connect

    McEachern, R.; Clford, C.; Cook, R.; Makowiecki, E.; Wallace, R.

    1997-03-26

    We have performed a series of preliminary experiments to determine whether sputter deposition of doped Be is a practical route to producing NIF target capsules with Be ablators. Films ranging in thickness from 7 to {approximately} 120 {micro}m have been deposited on spherical polymer mandrels using a bounce pan to ensure uniform coating. With no voltage bias applied to the pan, relatively porous coatings were formed that were highly permeable to hydrogen. The surface finish of these films ranged from {approximately}250 nm rms for 13-{micro}m-thick films to a minimum of {approximately}75 nm rms for an 80-{micro}m-thick film. Application of a voltage bias was found to significantly modify the film morphology. At a bias of 120 V, 7-{micro}m-thick films with a dense, fine-grained microstructure were produced. These capsules had a reflective surface with a 50 nm rms roughness. Finally, to demonstrate the ability to produce a graded dopant profile, a coating was produced in which the concentration of added Cu was varied from 2.5 atom % at the beginning to zero after 40 {micro}m of deposition.

  12. Laparoscopic radical cystectomy with prostate capsule sparing. Initial experience

    PubMed Central

    Gregorio, Sergio Alonso y; Gómez, Ángel Tabernero; Alvarez-Maestro, Mario; Sebastián, Jesús Díez; Ledo, Jesús Cisneros

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 2008, our department introduced a modified technique of laparoscopic radical cystectomy in which the prostatic capsule is spared in selected patients with bladder cancer. The different series published are mostly using the standard open procedure. The aim of this study is to describe this technique using the laparoscopic approach and present our preliminary results. Material and methods This study includes 20 patients selected by clinical analysis and imaging criteria operated using laparoscopic radical cystectomy with prostate capsule sparing at our department in the period between 2008 and 2012. Results Patient mean age was 58 years. Mean operative time was 390 minutes. Median follow-up was 36 months. No patient had bladder cancer recurrence. Only one patient died of disease progression, as the pathological findings was a pT3 pN1 Mx. Mean PSA before surgery: 1.3 ng/ml (03–2), mean PSA after surgery 1.0 ng/ml (0.08–1.7). No patients had prostate cancer recurrence. Satisfactory daytime and night-time continence was achieved. 90% of patients have sexual function preserved. Conclusions Prostate-sparing radical cystectomy remains one of the most controversial topics in urology today. The laparoscopic approach could be an alternative to conventional radical cystoprostatectomy in well selected patients, done in experienced institutions in order to find better functional results, with a low disease progression and recurrence rate. PMID:27123320

  13. Five years’ experience with capsule endoscopy in a single center

    PubMed Central

    Kav, Taylan; Bayraktar, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a novel technology that facilitates highly effective and noninvasive imaging of the small bowel. Although its efficacy in the evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) has been proven in several trials, data on uses of CE in different small bowel diseases are rapidly accumulating in the literature, and it has been found to be superior to alternative diagnostic tools in a range of such diseases. Based on literature evidence, CE is recommended as a first-line investigation for OGIB after negative bi-directional endoscopy. CE has gained an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of Crohn’s disease and celiac disease and in the surveillance of small bowel tumors and polyps in selected patients. Capsule retention is the major complication, with a frequency of 1%-2%. The purpose of this review was to discuss the procedure, indications, contraindications and adverse effects associated with CE. We also review and share our five-year experience with CE in various small bowel diseases. The recently developed balloon-assisted enteroscopies have both diagnostic and therapeutic capability. At the present time, CE and balloon-assisted enteroscopies are complementary techniques in the diagnosis and management of small bowel diseases. PMID:19399924

  14. (HFR-B1 experiment reporting and capsule disassembly)

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.F.

    1991-02-22

    The traveler visited the Joint Research Centre (JRC), Petten, The Netherlands, the Forschungszentrum GmbH (KFA), Juelich, Germany; and the Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung (ZfK), Rossendorf, Germany, during the period January 28 through February 9. At JRC, the analysis of the experiment HFR-B1 was discussed; a new schedule for issuance of the final data report was established. Other discussions at JRC concerned the capabilities of Petten to conduct two reactor experiments being proposed under the US/FRG cooperative program and the initial results of a proof test of Germany fuel spheres. At KFA, the main emphasis was on the disassembly of capsules 2 and 3 of the HFR-B1 experiment and agreement on the examinations and tests to be conducted with the disassembled components. The disassembly of capsule 3 was observed. Extensive discussions were conducted on the work, both experimental and analytical, being conducted in the Institut fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktor Technologie. A major portion of the experimental work is being conducted at ZfK and a visit to this laboratory, sponosored by the KFA, was made on February 6 and 7. Cooperation with the US on the experimental and analytical work in the safety area was strongly emphasized. 1 tab.

  15. Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides infection using capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Eduardo Tomohissa; Takahashi, Wagner; Kuwashima, Daniel Yuiti; Langoni, Tiago Ribeiro; Costa-Genzini, Adriana

    2013-04-16

    Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) is the most common intestinal roundworm parasite, infecting approximately one quarter of the world's population. Infection can lead to various complications because it can spread along the gastrointestinal tract. Although A. lumbricoides infection is a serious healthcare issue in developing countries, it now also has a worldwide distribution as a result of increased immigration and travel. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication of A. lumbricoides infection, potentially leading to even more serious consequences such as small bowel perforation and peritonitis. Diagnosis is based primarily on stool samples and the patient's history. Early diagnosis, aided in part by knowledge of the local prevalence, can result in early treatment, thereby preventing surgical complications associated with intestinal obstruction. Further, delay in diagnosis may have fatal consequences. Capsule endoscopy can serve as a crucial, non-invasive diagnostic tool for A. lumbricoides infection, especially when other diagnostic methods have failed to detect the parasite. We report a case of A. lumbricoides infection that resulted in intestinal obstruction at the level of the ileum. Both stool sample examination and open surgery failed to indicate the presence of A. lumbricoides, and the cause of the obstruction was only revealed by capsule endoscopy. The patient was treated with anthelmintics.

  16. Swallowable fluorometric capsule for wireless triage of gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Nemiroski, A; Ryou, M; Thompson, C C; Westervelt, R M

    2015-12-01

    Real-time detection of gastrointestinal bleeding remains a major challenge because there does not yet exist a minimally invasive technology that can both i) monitor for blood from an active hemorrhage and ii) uniquely distinguish it from blood left over from an inactive hemorrhage. Such a device would be an important tool for clinical triage. One promising solution, which we have proposed previously, is to inject a fluorescent dye into the blood stream and to use it as a distinctive marker of active bleeding by monitoring leakage into the gastrointestinal tract with a wireless fluorometer. This paper reports, for the first time to our knowledge, the development of a swallowable, wireless capsule with a built-in fluorometer capable of detecting fluorescein in blood, and intended for monitoring gastrointestinal bleeding in the stomach. The embedded, compact fluorometer uses pinholes to define a microliter sensing volume and to eliminate bulky optical components. The proof-of-concept capsule integrates optics, low-noise analog sensing electronics, a microcontroller, battery, and low power Zigbee radio, all into a cylindrical package measuring 11 mm × 27 mm and weighing 10 g. Bench-top experiments demonstrate wireless fluorometry with a limit-of-detection of 20 nM aqueous fluorescein. This device represents a major step towards a technology that would enable simple, rapid detection of active gastrointestinal bleeding, a capability that would save precious time and resources and, ultimately, reduce complications in patients. PMID:26490455

  17. Blood detection in wireless capsule endoscopy using expectation maximization clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Cox, Jay; Tang, Shou Jiang; Tibbals, Harry F.

    2006-03-01

    Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology (FDA approved in 2002) allowing doctors to view most of the small intestine. Other endoscopies such as colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, push enteroscopy, and intraoperative enteroscopy could be used to visualize up to the stomach, duodenum, colon, and terminal ileum, but there existed no method to view most of the small intestine without surgery. With the miniaturization of wireless and camera technologies came the ability to view the entire gestational track with little effort. A tiny disposable video capsule is swallowed, transmitting two images per second to a small data receiver worn by the patient on a belt. During an approximately 8-hour course, over 55,000 images are recorded to a worn device and then downloaded to a computer for later examination. Typically, a medical clinician spends more than two hours to analyze a WCE video. Research has been attempted to automatically find abnormal regions (especially bleeding) to reduce the time needed to analyze the videos. The manufacturers also provide the software tool to detect the bleeding called Suspected Blood Indicator (SBI), but its accuracy is not high enough to replace human examination. It was reported that the sensitivity and the specificity of SBI were about 72% and 85%, respectively. To address this problem, we propose a technique to detect the bleeding regions automatically utilizing the Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering algorithm. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed bleeding detection method achieves 92% and 98% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  18. Hydrogenated fullerenes dimer, peanut and capsule: An atomic comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EL-Barbary, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogenated fullerenes are detected in the Universe in space but their identification is still unsolved task. Therefore, this paper provides useful information about hydrogenated fullerenes (dimer, peanut and capsule) using DFT method at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The stability, geometric structures, hydrogen adsorption energies and NMR chemical shifts are calculated. The results show that the energy of most stable isomer of C118 dimer is lower than the energies sum of C60 and C58 cages by 1.77 eV and the energy per carbon atom of C144 capsule is more stable than C60 cage by 126.98 meV. Also, endohedral Ti-doped C118 dimer and C128 peanut are found to be most stable structures than exohedral Ti-doped C118 dimer and C128 peanut by 2.19 eV/Ti and 3.52 eV/Ti, respectively. The hydrogenation process is found to be enhanced (especially at the caps) for endohedral Ti-doped C118 dimer and C128 peanut through electronic surface modifications. The most active hydrogenation sites are selected and it is found that the most stable hydrogenation sites are Houts1 and Houts3 for fullerenes and endohedral Ti-doped fullerenes, respectively.

  19. High-Density Carbon (HDC) Ablator for Ignition Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, D.; Haan, S.; Milovich, J.; Salmonson, J.; Zimmerman, G.; Benedict, L.; Biener, J.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D.; Dewalds, E.; Edwards, J.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; MacKinnon, A.; Marinak, M.; McNaney, J.; Meezan, N.; Ross, S.; Tommasini, R.

    2013-10-01

    HDC ablators show high performance based on simulations and experiments. HDC capsules have good 1-D performance because HDC has high density (3.5 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator that absorbs more radiation, and have good 2-D performance because the ablator surface is substantially smoother than plastic ablators. A 25 μm thick layer doped with 0.26 at.% of W is sufficient to block the M-band radiation. W can be doped very uniformly in HDC. Simulations using NLTE model for W shows that the capsule can tolerate close to 300 ng of W-doped ablator material in the hot spot. If W is replaced with Si, the entire ablator has to be uniformly doped with 3 at.% of Si. Surprisingly, the hot spot can tolerate about the same amount of ablator mass for the 3 at.% Si-doped HDC as it can for W-doped. The main reason is that Si radiates less and consequently raises the hot spot temperature which in term increases the electron heat conduction. 4, 3, and 2-shock designs and their stabilites will be presented. An undoped HDC Symcap with DT fill reached a record neutron yield of 1.7e15. W-doped HDC Symcap and DT-layered shots will be conducted in Fall. Comparison of simulations with measured data will be presented. Performed under US DOE Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Facile Separation of Regioisomeric Compounds by a Heteronuclear Organometallic Capsule.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Ying; Lin, Yue-Jian; Han, Ying-Feng; Jin, Guo-Xin

    2016-08-24

    Owing to the often-similar physical and chemical properties of structural isomers of organic molecules, large efforts have been made to develop efficient strategies to isolate specific isomers. However, facile separation of regioisomeric compounds remains difficult. Here we demonstrate a universal organometallic capsule in which two silver centers are rigidly separated from each other by two tetranuclear [Rh4] pyramidal frustums, which selectively encapsulate a specific isomer from mixtures. Not only is the present heterometallic capsule suitable as a host for the encapsulation of a series of aromatic compounds, but also the receptor shows widely differing specificity for the various isomers. Direct experimental evidence is provided for the selective encapsulation of a series of para (p)-disubstituted benzene derivatives, such as p-xylene, p-dichlorobenzene, p-dibromobenzene, and p-diiodobenzene. The size and shape matching, as well as the Ag-π interactions, are the main forces governing the extent of molecular recognition. The encapsulated guest p-xylene can be released by using the solid-liquid solvent washing strategy, and the other guest molecules are easily liberated by using light stimulus. PMID:27463561

  1. A new capsule platinum resistance thermometer for cryogenic use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, S. S.; Krause, J. K.

    2013-09-01

    Standards grade platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs) obtain their high stability in part due to the strain-free mounting of the sensing wire. The space required for this strain-free mounting normally results in thermometers on the order of 6 mm diameter by 40 mm length in size. While these SPRTs are acceptable in many applications, it is desirable to reduce the size as much as possible for cryogenic use where space is of major concern. For over 40 years Minco Products, Inc. provided a smaller alternative with their model S1059, a high-stability cryogenic capsule platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) packaged in a copper canister sized only 3.2 mm diameter by 9.7 mm length. The packaging was compatible for use over the 13 K to 533 K temperature range. Unfortunately, this product was discontinued in 2009. In its absence, Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc., has worked with Advanced Sensing Products to develop a similarly sized replacement sensor for cryogenic use. The replacement capsule PRT is manufactured using the model S1059 design, but with modifications to reduce the chance of lead breakage at the epoxy-lead interface. Test devices have been fabricated and tested for temperature response and stability upon repeated calibration from 13 K to 330 K. The new sensor design features and performance data are presented in this work.

  2. Aerothermodynamic Environment Definition for the Genesis Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Merski, N. Ronald, Jr.; Riley, Christopher J.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Genesis sample return mission will be the first to return material from beyond the Earth-Moon system. NASA Langley Research Center supported this mission with aerothermodynamic analyses of the sample return capsule. This paper provides an overview of that effort. The capsule is attached through its forebody to the spacecraft bus. When the attachment is severed prior to Earth entry, forebody cavities remain. The presence of these cavities could dramatically increase the heating environment in their vicinity and downstream. A combination of computational fluid dynamics calculations and wind tunnel phosphor thermography tests were employed to address this issue. These results quantify the heating environment in and around the cavities, and were a factor in the decision to switch forebody heat shield materials. A transition map is developed which predicts that the flow aft of the penetrations will still be laminar at the peak heating point of the trajectory. As the vehicle continues along the trajectory to the peak dynamic pressure point, fully turbulent flow aft of the penetrations could occur. The integrated heat load calculations show that a heat shield sized to the stagnation point levels will be adequate for the predicted environment aft of the penetrations.

  3. Out-of-School Factors Affecting Academic Achievement. Information Capsule. Volume 1004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanik, Dale

    2010-01-01

    This Information Capsule is the third in a series of papers addressing factors contributing to low academic achievement. The two previous papers addressed issues relevant to class size reduction and teacher quality/preparation. The premise of this Information Capsule is that there is no single smoking gun relative to improving school performance.…

  4. Development and Testing of a Magnetically Actuated Capsule Endoscopy for Obesity Treatment.

    PubMed

    Do, Thanh Nho; Seah, Tian En Timothy; Ho, Khek Yu; Yu, Ho Khek; Phee, Soo Jay

    2016-01-01

    Intra-gastric balloons (IGB) have become an efficient and less invasive method for obesity treatment. The use of traditional IGBs require complex insertion tools and flexible endoscopes to place and remove the balloon inside the patient's stomach, which may cause discomfort and complications to the patient. This paper introduces a new ingestible weight-loss capsule with a magnetically remote-controlled inflatable and deflatable balloon. To inflate the balloon, biocompatible effervescent chemicals are used. As the source of the actuation is provided via external magnetic fields, the magnetic capsule size can be significantly reduced compared to current weight-loss capsules in the literature. In addition, there are no limitations on the power supply. To lose weight, the obese subject needs only to swallow the magnetic capsule with a glass of water. Once the magnetic capsule has reached the patient's stomach, the balloon will be wirelessly inflated to occupy gastric space and give the feeling of satiety. The balloon can be wirelessly deflated at any time to allow the magnetic capsule to travel down the intestine and exit the body via normal peristalsis. The optimal ratio between the acid and base to provide the desired gas volume is experimentally evaluated and presented. A prototype capsule (9.6mm x 27mm) is developed and experimentally validated in ex-vivo experiments. The unique ease of delivery and expulsion of the proposed magnetic capsule is slated to make this development a good treatment option for people seeking to lose excess weight.

  5. One-way implodable tag capsule with hemispherical beaded end cap for LWR fuel manufacturing

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.; Lambert, J.

    1999-04-06

    A capsule is disclosed containing a tag gas in a zircaloy body portion having a hemispherical top curved toward the bottom of the body portion. The hemispherical top has a rupturable portion upon exposure to elevated gas pressure and the capsule is positioned within a fuel element in a nuclear reactor. 3 figs.

  6. A School-Wide Effort for Learning History via a Time Capsule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, C. Glennon; Hickey, M. Gail; Gecsei, Kendall; Klein, Stacy

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how a time capsule project helped students at Ridgedale Elementary School in Knoxville, Tennessee understand the nature of events and the relationships of events in a segment of history. The time capsule preparation motivated students to hypothesize about important events and significant artifacts of their…

  7. Visual quality inspection of capsule heads utilizing shape and gray information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Tie; Cai, Zhenlin; Jiang, Nan; Wu, Jiamei; Zhang, Xiangde

    2015-11-01

    Capsule quality inspection is important and necessary in the pharmaceutical industry. The popular methods often mis-detect capsule head defects. To solve this problem, we propose a high-quality visual defect inspection method for capsule heads. In detail, first, capsule head images are captured by high-speed cameras with ring illuminators. Then, radial symmetry transform (RST) is employed to locate region of interest (ROI). Next, the ROI image is enhanced by homomorphic filter and binarized by basic global thresholding. After that, six discriminative features of ROI are extracted, which are skeleton feature, binary density, number of connected boundaries, RST power, mean, and variance. Finally, these features are classified by support vector machine to inspect the quality of the capsule head. The experiment is carried out on a self-established capsule image database, Northeastern University Capsule Image Database Version 1.0. According to our experiment, the proposed method can detect ROI correctly for all of the capsule head images and inspection accuracy achieves a true positive rate of 100.00% and true negative rate of 100.00%.

  8. What the Research Tells Us: Class Size Reduction. Information Capsule. Volume 1001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanik, Dale

    2010-01-01

    This Information Capsule examines the background and history in addition to research findings pertaining to class size reduction (CSR). This Capsule concludes that although educational researchers have not definitively agreed upon the effectiveness of CSR, given its almost universal public appeal, there is little doubt it is here to stay in some…

  9. Effects of plasma physics on capsule implosions in gas-filled hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Lindman, E.L.; Delamater, N.D.; Magelssen, G.R.; Hauer, A.

    1994-10-01

    Initial experiments on capsule implosions in gas-filled hohlraums have been carried out on the NOVA Laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Observed capsule shapes from preliminary experiments are more oblate than predicted. Improvements in modeling required to calculate these experiments and additional experiments are being pursued.

  10. Summary of the irradiation history of the TRIST-ER1 capsule

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, A.L.; Eatherly, W.S.; Heatherly, D.W.

    1996-10-01

    The TRIST-ERI capsule was assembled and irradiated in a large Removable Beryllium (RB{star}) position of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) during this reporting period. Irradiation began on March 8, 1996, was completed on June 20, 1996, during operating cycles 344, 345, and 346. This report describes the thermal operation of the capsule.

  11. 21 CFR 520.2345f - Tetracycline phosphate complex and sodium novobiocin capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline phosphate complex and sodium novobiocin capsules. 520.2345f Section 520.2345f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2345f Tetracycline phosphate complex and sodium novobiocin capsules....

  12. Capsule Growth in Cryptococcus neoformans Is Coordinated with Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodas, Rocío; Cordero, Radames J. B.; Trevijano-Contador, Nuria; Janbon, Guilhem; Moyrand, Frédérique; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has several virulence factors, among which the most important is a polysaccharide capsule. The size of the capsule is variable and can increase significantly during infection. In this work, we investigated the relationship between capsular enlargement and the cell cycle. Capsule growth occurred primarily during the G1 phase. Real-time visualization of capsule growth demonstrated that this process occurred before the appearance of the bud and that capsule growth arrested during budding. Benomyl, which arrests the cells in G2/M, inhibited capsule growth, while sirolimus (rapamycin) addition, which induces G1 arrest, resulted in cells with larger capsule. Furthermore, we have characterized a mutant strain that lacks a putative G1/S cyclin. This mutant showed an increased capacity to enlarge the capsule, both in vivo (using Galleria mellonella as the host model) and in vitro. In the absence of Cln1, there was a significant increase in the production of extracellular vesicles. Proteomic assays suggest that in the cln1 mutant strain, there is an upregulation of the glyoxylate acid cycle. Besides, this cyclin mutant is avirulent at 37°C, which correlates with growth defects at this temperature in rich medium. In addition, the cln1 mutant showed lower intracellular replication rates in murine macrophages. We conclude that cell cycle regulatory elements are involved in the modulation of the expression of the main virulence factor in C. neoformans. PMID:24939886

  13. One-way implodable tag capsule with hemispherical beaded end cap for LWR fuel manufacturing

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny; Lambert, John

    1999-01-01

    A capsule containing a tag gas in a zircaloy body portion having a hemispical top curved toward the bottom of the body portion. The hemispherical top has a rupturable portion upon exposure to elevated gas pressure and the capsule is positioned within a fuel element in a nuclear reactor.

  14. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles... Substances Prohibited From Indirect Addition to Human Food Through Food-Contact Surfaces § 189.301 Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on...

  15. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles... Substances Prohibited From Indirect Addition to Human Food Through Food-Contact Surfaces § 189.301 Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on...

  16. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles... Substances Prohibited From Indirect Addition to Human Food Through Food-Contact Surfaces § 189.301 Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on...

  17. Cross-type optical separation of elastic oblate capsules in a uniform flow

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Cheong Bong; Sung, Hyung Jin; Huang, Wei-Xi

    2015-01-21

    The dynamic behavior of an elastic capsule with an initially oblate spheroidal shape during cross-type optical separation was numerically investigated. The penalty immersed boundary method was adopted for the fluid-membrane interaction, and the optical force calculation was conducted by using the ray optics method including the ray-surface intersection algorithm. The oblate elastic capsule of b/a = 0.5 with different surface Young's moduli and different initial inclination angles was considered. The oblate capsule with higher surface Young's moduli was less deformed, and was more migrated for each initial inclination angle. Unlike the oblate rigid particle, the initially inclined capsules with moderate inclination angles were similarly migrated since the oblate elastic capsule was deformed during rotation near the laser beam axis. The oblate capsules can be separated according to the surface Young's modulus, except for nearly non-inclined capsules. As the fluid velocity decreased, the migration distance increased. The maximum deformation parameter was insensitive to the fluid velocity. Furthermore, a new dimensionless number (S{sub ec}) was introduced to predict the migration distance of the oblate elastic capsule.

  18. Hydrocolloid liquid-core capsules for the removal of heavy-metal cations from water.

    PubMed

    Nussinovitch, A; Dagan, O

    2015-12-15

    Liquid-core capsules with a non-crosslinked alginate fluidic core surrounded by a gellan membrane were produced in a single step to investigate their ability to adsorb heavy metal cations. The liquid-core gellan-alginate capsules, produced by dropping alginate solution with magnesium cations into gellan solution, were extremely efficient at adsorbing lead cations (267 mg Pb(2+)/g dry alginate) at 25 °C and pH 5.5. However, these capsules were very weak and brittle, and an external strengthening capsule was added by using magnesium cations. The membrane was then thinned with the surfactant lecithin, producing capsules with better adsorption attributes (316 mg Pb(+2)/g dry alginate vs. 267 mg Pb(+2)/g dry alginate without lecithin), most likely due to the thinner membrane and enhanced mass transfer. The capsules' ability to adsorb other heavy-metal cations - copper (Cu(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)) and nickel (Ni(2+)) - was tested. Adsorption efficiencies were 219, 197 and 65 mg/g, respectively, and were correlated with the cation's affinity to alginate. Capsules with the sorbed heavy metals were regenerated by placing in a 1M nitric acid suspension for 24h. Capsules could undergo three regeneration cycles before becoming damaged.

  19. Effects of lipophilic components on the compatibility of lipid-based formulations with hard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng-Jing; Etzler, Frank M; Ubben, Johanna; Birch, Amy; Zhong, Li; Schwabe, Robert; Dudhedia, Mayur S

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of lipophilic components on the compatibility of propylene glycol (PG)-containing lipid-based drug delivery system (LBDDS) formulations with hard gelatin capsules. The presence of a lipophilic active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) (log P approximately 6.1) and an additional lipophilic excipient (Capmul MCM) significantly affected the activity of PG in the fills and the equilibrium of PG between capsule shells and fills. These changes in activity and equilibrium of PG were furthermore correlated to the mechanical and thermal properties of the liquid-filled capsules and subsequently linked to the shelf-life of the capsules on stability with respect to capsule deformation. The present study also investigated the mechanism by which lipophilic component(s) might affect the activity of PG in the fill formulations and the equilibrium of PG between capsule shells and fills. The activities of PG in two series of "binary" mixtures with Capmul MCM and with Cremophor EL were measured, respectively. The mixtures of PG containing Capmul MCM were found to be more nearly ideal than those containing Cremophor EL. The observed negative deviation from Rauolt's law indicates that the excess free energies of mixing are less then zero indicating favorable interaction between PG and the other component. It is speculated that enhanced hydrogen bonding opportunities with Cremophor EL are responsible for the decreased excess free energy of mixing. Replacement of Cremophor EL with lipophilic API also reduces the hydrogen bonding opportunities for PG in the mixtures. This hypothesis may further explain the increased activity of PG in the fills and the shifted equilibrium of PG toward the capsule shells. Activity determination utilizing headspace gas chromatography (GC) using short 30 min incubation time seems to be a time-efficient approach for assessing capsule-fill compatibility. Direct measurements of PG migration and other physical properties of

  20. "Pierce and inhale" design in capsule based dry powder inhalers: Effect of capsule piercing and motion on aerodynamic performance of drugs.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Francesco; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Rossi, Alessandra; Sonvico, Fabio; Colombo, Paolo; Buttini, Francesca

    2015-06-20

    In this work three capsule-based dry powder inhalers, available for generics product development, were compared. Two technologically different dry powder formulations were used in order to relate the capsule piercing position and motion in the device to their aerodynamic performance. A "pierce and inhale" design, in which the capsules pierced with RS01, HandiHaler or Turbospin devices were aerosolized in the same device or transferred and aerosolized with another device, was constructed and carried out. The results obtained showed that two dry powder formulations, i.e., a drug/lactose blend or a carrier-free powder, aerosolized using capsule based inhalers, performed differently. The aerosolization of drug carrier mixture in terms of drug dispersion and emitted dose, was more sensible to the piercing and device combination than the carrier free powder. The motion of the capsule during the aerosolization boosted the powder emission, whereas the powder disaggregation was more influenced by the airflow pattern around the capsule and inside the inhaler turbulence chamber.