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Sample records for accutech remedial systems

  1. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: PNEUMATIC FRACTURING EXTRACTION™ AND HOT GAS INJECTION, PHASE I - ACCUTECH REMEDIAL SYSTEMS, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pneumatic Fracturing Extraction(PFE) process developed by Accutech Remedial Systems, Inc. makes it possible to use vapor extraction to remove volatile organics at increased rates from a broader range of vadose zones. The low permeability of silts, clays, shales, etc. would ot...

  2. ACCUTECH PNEUMATIC FRACTURING EXTRACTION AND HOT GAS INJECTION, PHASE I - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes and analyzes the results of a 4-wk evaluation of the Accutech Remedial Systems, Inc. (ARS) Pneumatic Fracturing Extraction™ (PFE™) process for increasing the removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vadose zone, particularly where the ground form...

  3. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: ACCUTECH PNEUMATIC FRACTURING EXTRACTION AND HOT GAS INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pneumatic Fracturing Extraction (PFE) process developed by Accutech Remedial Systems, Inc. makes it possible to use vapor extraction to remove volatile organics at increased rates from a broader range of vadose zones. he low permeability of sits, clays, shales, etc. would oth...

  4. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST - ACCUTECH PNEUMATIC FRACTURING EXTRACTION AND HOT GAS INJECTION, PHASE 1 - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pneumatic Fracturing Extraction (PFE) process developed by Accutech Remedial Systems, Inc. makes it possible to use vapor extraction to remove volatile organics at increased rates from a broader range of vadose zones. The low permeability of silts, clays, shales, etc. would o...

  5. Accutech pneumatic fracturing extraction and hot gas injection, phase 1. Applications analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Skovronek, H.S.

    1993-03-01

    The report summarizes and analyzes the SITE demonstration of Accutech's Pneumatic Fracturing Extraction (PFE) process at an industrial park in NJ. Based on the results of 4-hr tests before and after fracturing, extracted air flow rate increased an average 600% and trichloroethene (TCE) mass removal rate increased about 675%, primarily due to the increased air flow. The radius for effective vapor extraction also is enlarged by fracturing; extracted air flow rates increased 700% to 1,400% in wells at a 10 ft radius and 200% to 1,100% in wells 20 ft from the fracture well. With passive air inlets, the extracted air flow rate increased about 19,500%, and TCE mass removal rate increased 2,300%. The estimated cost for full-scale remediation of the site with PFE was $307/kg ($140/lb) of TCE removed based on the SITE demonstration experience and information provided by the developer. Major contributing factors were: Labor (29%); Capital Equipment (22); and Emissions Collection/disposal (19%). Numerous assumptions were used in arriving at this cost. Results of two Hot Gas Injection (HGI) tests were inconclusive.

  6. Remedial Action Assessment System

    1997-02-01

    RAAS1.1 is a software-based system designed to assist remediation professionals at each stage of the environmental analysis process. RAAS1.1 provides a template for environmental restoration analysis, and provides the user with key results at each step in the analysis. RAAS1.1 assists the user to develop a coherent and consistent site description, estimate baseline and residual risk to public health from the contaminated site, identify applicable environmental restoration technologies, and formulate feasible remedial response alternatives. Inmore » addition, the RAAS1.1 methodology allows the user to then assess and compare those remedial response alternatives across EPA criteria, including: compliance with objectives; short-term and long-term effectiveness; extent of treatment; and implementability of the technologies. The analytic methodology is segmented and presented in a standardized, concise, easy-to-use format that can be viewed on the personal computer screen, saved and further manipulated, or printed for later use. Each screen and analytic step is accessed via a user-friendly personal computer graphical interface. Intuitively-designed buttons, menus, and lists help the user focus in on the particular information and analysis component of interest; the corresponding results are presented in a format that facilitates their use in decision-making.« less

  7. Toxic Remediation System And Method

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Stephen M.; Schonberg, Russell G.; Fadness, David R.

    1996-07-23

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  8. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  9. COST ESTIMATING SYSTEMS FOR REMEDIAL ACTION PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper details the ongoing collaboration between the U.S. EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the development of complementary micro-computer based cost estimating systems for hazardous waste remediations. he U.S. EPA system, "Remedial Action Cost Estimating System" (...

  10. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-06

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis Report identifies the initial states of the system and the desired final states of the system. The Mission Analysis Report identifies target measures of success appropriate to program-level accomplishments. It also identifies program-level requirements and major system boundaries and interfaces.

  11. WASTE PACKAGE REMEDIATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    N.D. Sudan

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Package Remediation System remediates waste packages (WPs) and disposal containers (DCs) in one of two ways: preparation of rejected DC closure welds for repair or opening of the DC/WP. DCs are brought to the Waste Package Remediation System for preparation of rejected closure welds if testing of the closure weld by the Disposal Container Handling System indicates an unacceptable, but repairable, welding flaw. DC preparation of rejected closure welds will require removal of the weld in such a way that the Disposal Container Handling System may resume and complete the closure welding process. DCs/WPs are brought to the Waste Package Remediation System for opening if the Disposal Container Handling System testing of the DC closure weld indicates an unrepairable welding flaw, or if a WP is recovered from the subsurface repository because suspected damage to the WP or failure of the WP has occurred. DC/WP opening will require cutting of the DC/WP such that a temporary seal may be installed and the waste inside the DC/WP removed by another system. The system operates in a Waste Package Remediation System hot cell located in the Waste Handling Building that has direct access to the Disposal Container Handling System. One DC/WP at a time can be handled in the hot cell. The DC/WP arrives on a transfer cart, is positioned within the cell for system operations, and exits the cell without being removed from the cart. The system includes a wide variety of remotely operated components including a manipulator with hoist and/or jib crane, viewing systems, machine tools for opening WPs, and equipment used to perform pressure and gas composition sampling. Remotely operated equipment is designed to facilitate DC/WP decontamination and hot cell equipment maintenance, and interchangeable components are provided where appropriate. The Waste Package Remediation System interfaces with the Disposal Container Handling System for the receipt and transport of WPs and DCs. The Waste

  12. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-05

    This program plan establishes the framework for conduct of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and is specifically intended to support the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing firm contracts for waste immobilization.

  13. Tank waste remediation system configuration management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, J.M.

    1998-01-08

    The configuration management program for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Mission supports management of the project baseline by providing the mechanisms to identify, document, and control the functional and physical characteristics of the products. This document is one of the tools used to develop and control the mission and work. It is an integrated approach for control of technical, cost, schedule, and administrative information necessary to manage the configurations for the TWRS Project Mission. Configuration management focuses on five principal activities: configuration management system management, configuration identification, configuration status accounting, change control, and configuration management assessments. TWRS Project personnel must execute work in a controlled fashion. Work must be performed by verbatim use of authorized and released technical information and documentation. Application of configuration management will be consistently applied across all TWRS Project activities and assessed accordingly. The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) configuration management requirements are prescribed in HNF-MP-013, Configuration Management Plan (FDH 1997a). This TWRS Configuration Management Plan (CMP) implements those requirements and supersedes the Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Program Plan described in Vann, 1996. HNF-SD-WM-CM-014, Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Implementation Plan (Vann, 1997) will be revised to implement the requirements of this plan. This plan provides the responsibilities, actions and tools necessary to implement the requirements as defined in the above referenced documents.

  14. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-09

    This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors` facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission.

  15. SADA: Ecological Risk Based Decision Support System for Selective Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is freeware that implements terrestrial ecological risk assessment and yields a selective remediation design using its integral geographical information system, based on ecological and risk assessment inputs. Selective remediation ...

  16. Environmental remediation and waste management information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to document a few of the many environmental information systems that currently exist worldwide. The paper is not meant to be a comprehensive list; merely a discussion of a few of the more technical environmental database systems that are available. Regulatory databases such as US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) RODS (Records of Decision System) database [EPA, 1993] and cost databases such as EPA`s CORA (Cost of Remedial Action) database [EPA, 1993] are not included in this paper. Section 2 describes several US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) information systems and databases. Section 3 discusses several US EPA information systems on waste sites and technologies. Section 4 summarizes a few of the European Community environmental information systems, networks, and clearinghouses. And finally, Section 5 provides a brief overview of Geographical Information Systems. Section 6 contains the references, and the Appendices contain supporting information.

  17. Information Management System for Site Remediation Efforts.

    PubMed

    Laha; Mukherjee; Nebhrajani

    2000-05-01

    / Environmental regulatory agencies are responsible for protecting human health and the environment in their constituencies. Their responsibilities include the identification, evaluation, and cleanup of contaminated sites. Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) constitute a major source of subsurface and groundwater contamination. A significant portion of a regulatory body's efforts may be directed toward the management of UST-contaminated sites. In order to manage remedial sites effectively, vast quantities of information must be maintained, including analytical dataon chemical contaminants, remedial design features, and performance details. Currently, most regulatory agencies maintain such information manually. This makes it difficult to manage the data effectively. Some agencies have introduced automated record-keeping systems. However, the ad hoc approach in these endeavors makes it difficult to efficiently analyze, disseminate, and utilize the data. This paper identifies the information requirements for UST-contaminated site management at the Waste Cleanup Section of the Department of Environmental Resources Management in Dade County, Florida. It presents a viable design for an information management system to meet these requirements. The proposed solution is based on a back-end relational database management system with relevant tools for sophisticated data analysis and data mining. The database is designed with all tables in the third normal form to ensure data integrity, flexible access, and efficient query processing. In addition to all standard reports required by the agency, the system provides answers to ad hoc queries that are typically difficult to answer under the existing system. The database also serves as a repository of information for a decision support system to aid engineering design and risk analysis. The system may be integrated with a geographic information system for effective presentation and dissemination of spatial data. PMID:10742478

  18. Tank waste remediation system engineering plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rifaey, S.H.

    1998-01-09

    This Engineering Plan describes the engineering process and controls that will be in place to support the Technical Baseline definition and manage its evolution and implementation to the field operations. This plan provides the vision for the engineering required to support the retrieval and disposal mission through Phase 1 and 2, which includes integrated data management of the Technical Baseline. Further, this plan describes the approach for moving from the ``as is`` condition of engineering practice, systems, and facilities to the desired ``to be`` configuration. To make this transition, Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Engineering will become a center of excellence for TWRS which,will perform engineering in the most effective manner to meet the mission. TWRS engineering will process deviations from sitewide systems if necessary to meet the mission most effectively.

  19. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  20. CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. n gene...

  1. Cooperative expert system reasoning for waste remediations

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, S.J.; Pennock, K.A.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a large task in completing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) for hazardous waste sites across the nation. One of the primary objectives of an RI/FS is the specification of viable sequences of technology treatment trains which can provide implementable site solutions. We present a methodology which integrates expert system technology within an object-oriented framework to create a cooperative reasoning system designed to provide a comprehensive list of these implementable solutions. The system accomplishes its goal of specifying technology trains by utilizing a ``team`` of expert system objects. The system distributes the problem solving among the individual expert objects, and then coordinates the combination of individual decisions into a joint solution. Each expert object possesses the knowledge of an expert in a particular technology. An expert object can examine the parameters and characteristics of the waste site, seek information and support from other expert objects, and then make decisions concerning its own applicability. This methodology has at least two primary benefits. First, the creation of multiple expert objects provides a more direct mapping from the actual process to a software system, making the system easier to build. Second, the distribution of the inferencing among a number of loosely connected expert objects allows for a more robust and maintainable final product.

  2. Cooperative expert system reasoning for waste remediations

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, S.J.; Pennock, K.A.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a large task in completing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) for hazardous waste sites across the nation. One of the primary objectives of an RI/FS is the specification of viable sequences of technology treatment trains which can provide implementable site solutions. We present a methodology which integrates expert system technology within an object-oriented framework to create a cooperative reasoning system designed to provide a comprehensive list of these implementable solutions. The system accomplishes its goal of specifying technology trains by utilizing a team'' of expert system objects. The system distributes the problem solving among the individual expert objects, and then coordinates the combination of individual decisions into a joint solution. Each expert object possesses the knowledge of an expert in a particular technology. An expert object can examine the parameters and characteristics of the waste site, seek information and support from other expert objects, and then make decisions concerning its own applicability. This methodology has at least two primary benefits. First, the creation of multiple expert objects provides a more direct mapping from the actual process to a software system, making the system easier to build. Second, the distribution of the inferencing among a number of loosely connected expert objects allows for a more robust and maintainable final product.

  3. Cost-estimating systems for remedial-action projects

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.M.; Peterson, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper details the ongoing collaboration between the U.S. EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the development of complementary microcomputer based cost estimating systems for hazardous waste remediations. The U.S. EPA system, Remedial Action Cost Estimating System (RACES), is a technology based application. Estimates generated by RACES are based upon cost engineering relationships. The estimates are designed for use in the early stages of remediation design. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers system, Micro-Computer Aided Cost Engineering System (M-CACES), is a bottoms-up system for use in situations where detailed design information is available. While both systems will stand alone, they have been designed to allow the transfer of estimates generated by RACES directly into the M-CACES system.

  4. Tank waste remediation system systems engineering management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, L.G.

    1998-01-08

    This Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) implementation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) systems engineering policy provided in 97-IMSD-193. The SEMP defines the products, process, organization, and procedures used by the TWRS Project to implement the policy. The SEMP will be used as the basis for tailoring the systems engineering applications to the development of the physical systems and processes necessary to achieve the desired end states of the program. It is a living document that will be revised as necessary to reflect changes in systems engineering guidance as the program evolves. The US Department of Energy-Headquarters has issued program management guidance, DOE Order 430. 1, Life Cycle Asset Management, and associated Good Practice Guides that include substantial systems engineering guidance.

  5. Integrated Systems-Based Approach to Monitoring Environmental Remediation - 13211

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Mike; Oostrom, Mart; Carroll, K.C.; Bunn, Amoret; Wellman, Dawn

    2013-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for risk reduction and cleanup of its nuclear weapons complex. Remediation strategies for some of the existing contamination use techniques that mitigate risk, but leave contaminants in place. Monitoring to verify remedy performance and long-term mitigation of risk is a key element for implementing these strategies and can be a large portion of the total cost of remedy implementation. Especially in these situations, there is a need for innovative monitoring approaches that move away from the cost and labor intensive point-source monitoring. A systems-based approach to monitoring design focuses monitoring on controlling features and processes to enable effective interpretation of remedy performance. (authors)

  6. Integrated Systems-Based Approach to Monitoring Environmental Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2013-02-24

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for risk reduction and cleanup of its nuclear weapons complex. Remediation strategies for some of the existing contamination use techniques that mitigate risk, but leave contaminants in place. Monitoring to verify remedy performance and long-term mitigation of risk is a key element for implementing these strategies and can be a large portion of the total cost of remedy implementation. Especially in these situations, there is a need for innovative monitoring approaches that move away from the cost and labor intensive point-source monitoring. A systems-based approach to monitoring design focuses monitoring on controlling features and processes to enable effective interpretation of remedy performance.

  7. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-10-02

    These Quality Policies (QPs) describe the Quality Management System of the Tank Waste Characterization Project (hereafter referred to as the Characterization Project), Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The Quality Policies and quality requirements described herein are binding on all Characterization Project organizations. To achieve quality, the Characterization Project management team shall implement this Characterization Project Quality Management System.

  8. Bioelectrochemical system platform for sustainable environmental remediation and energy generation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heming; Luo, Haiping; Fallgren, Paul H; Jin, Song; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the energy-environment nexus is compelling the development of technologies that reduce environmental impacts during energy production as well as energy consumption during environmental remediation. Countries spend billions in pollution cleanup projects, and new technologies with low energy and chemical consumption are needed for sustainable remediation practice. This perspective review provides a comprehensive summary on the mechanisms of the new bioelectrochemical system (BES) platform technology for efficient and low cost remediation, including petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, perchlorate, azo dyes, and metals, and it also discusses the potential new uses of BES approach for some emerging contaminants remediation, such as CO2 in air and nutrients and micropollutants in water. The unique feature of BES for environmental remediation is the use of electrodes as non-exhaustible electron acceptors, or even donors, for contaminant degradation, which requires minimum energy or chemicals but instead produces sustainable energy for monitoring and other onsite uses. BES provides both oxidation (anode) and reduction (cathode) reactions that integrate microbial-electro-chemical removal mechanisms, so complex contaminants with different characteristics can be removed. We believe the BES platform carries great potential for sustainable remediation and hope this perspective provides background and insights for future research and development. PMID:25886880

  9. Electrokinetic Remediation: I. Modeling of simple systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.J.; Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M.; Gomez-Lahoz, C.

    1995-09-01

    A one-dimensional model is developed for simulating the electrokinetic treatment of saturated porous media contaminated with an ionic salt. Simulations of simple, unenhanced electrokinetic treatment for the removal of a nonamphoteric salt such as cadmium sulfate exhibit a severe drop-off in electric current and in remediation rate after about 50-60% of the cation has been removed. Simulation of electrokinetic treatment in which the OH{sup -} generated in the cathode compartment is partially neutralized by the addition of acid show rapid and complete removal of the cation. Partial neutralization of H{sup +} in the anode compartment by addition of base results in immobilization of the toxic metal as the solid hydroxide, although this should be a useful technique for the removal of arsenate and selenate.

  10. In-situ remediation system for groundwater and soils

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil. In particular the present invention relates to stabilizing toxic metals in groundwater and soil. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  11. Tank waste remediation system environmental program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Borneman, L.E.

    1998-01-09

    This Environmental Program Plan has been developed in support of the Integrated Environmental, Safety and Health Management System and consistent with the goals of DOE/RL-96-50, Hanford Strategic Plan (RL 1996a), and the specifications and guidance for ANSI/ISO 14001-1996, Environmental Management Systems Specification with guidance for use (ANSI/ISO 1996).

  12. Isotope Specific Remediation Media and Systems - 13614

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, Mark S.; Mertz, Joshua L.; Morita, Keisuke

    2013-07-01

    On March 11, 2011, now two years ago, the magnitude 9.0 Great East Japan earthquake, Tohoku, hit off the Fukushima coast of Japan. While, of course, most of the outcome of this unprecedented natural and manmade disaster was a negative, both in Japan and worldwide, there have been some extremely invaluable lessons learned and new emergency recovery technologies and systems developed. As always, the mother of invention is necessity. Among these developments has been the development and full-scale implementation of proven isotope specific media (ISMs) with the intent of surgically removing specific hazardous isotopes for the purpose of minimizing dose to workers and the environment. The first such ISMs to be deployed at the Fukushima site were those removing cesium (Cs-137) and iodine (I-129). Since deployment on June 17, 2011, along with treated cooling water recycle, some 70% of the curies in the building liquid wastes have been removed by the Kurion system alone. The current levels of cesium are now only 2% of the original levels. Such an unprecedented, 'external cooling system' not only allowed the eventual cold shut down of the reactors in mid-December, 2011, but has allowed workers to concentrate on the cleanup of other areas of the site. Water treatment will continue for quite some time due to continued leakage into the buildings and the eventual goal of cleaning up the reactors and fuel pools themselves. With the cesium removal now in routine operation, other isotopes of concern are likely to become priorities. One such isotope is that of strontium, and yttrium (Sr-90 and Y-90), which is still at original levels causing further dose issues as well as impediments to discharge of the treated waste waters. For over a year now, a new synthetic strontium specific media has been under development and testing both in our licensed facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, but also in confirmatory tests by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in Japan for Tokyo Electric Power

  13. Tandem microwave waste remediation and decontamination system

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Clark, David E.; Schulz, Rebecca L.

    1999-01-01

    The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

  14. The Development and Evaluation of Listening and Speaking Diagnosis and Remedial Teaching System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Lin, Chiou-Yan; Chen, Berlin; Wu, Chia-Hou; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a system was developed to offer adaptive remedial instruction materials to learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL). The Chinese Listening and Speaking Diagnosis and Remedial Instruction (CLSDRI) system integrated computerized diagnostic tests and remedial instruction materials to diagnose errors made in listening…

  15. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate buffer concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. The remediation steps include changes in the coolant chemistry specification, development of a suite of new antimicrobial additives, and development of devices for the removal of nickel and phosphate ions from the coolant. This paper presents an overview of the anomalies, their known and suspected system effects, their causes, and the actions being taken to remediate the coolant.

  16. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-09

    This TWRS Program plan presents the planning requirements and schedules and management strategies and policies for accomplishing the TWRS Project mission. It defines the systems and practices used to establish consistency for business practices, engineering, physical configuration and facility documentation, and to maintain this consistency throughout the program life cycle, particularly as changes are made. Specifically, this plan defines the following: Mission needs and requirements (what must be done and when must it be done); Technical objectives/approach (how well must it be done); Organizational structure and philosophy (roles, responsibilities, and interfaces); and Operational methods (objectives and how work is to be conducted in both management and technical areas). The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and supports the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing contracts with private contractors for the treatment (immobilization) of Hanford tank high-level radioactive waste.

  17. Tank waste remediation system risk management list

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    1995-10-31

    The Tank Waste Remedation System (TWRS) Risk Management List and it`s subset of critical risks, the Critical Risk Management List, provide a tool to senior RL and WHC management (Level-1 and -2) to manage programmatic risks that may significantly impact the TWRS program. The programmatic risks include cost, schedule, and performance risks. Performance risk includes technical risk, supportability risk (such as maintainability and availability), and external risk (i.e., beyond program control, for example, changes in regulations). The risk information includes a description, its impacts, as evaluation of the likelihood, consequences and risk value, possible mitigating actions, and responsible RL and WHC managers. The issues that typically form the basis for the risks are presented in a separate table and the affected functions are provided on the management lists.

  18. Control of Groundwater Remediation Process as Distributed Parameter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendel, M.; Kovács, T.; Hulkó, G.

    2014-12-01

    Pollution of groundwater requires the implementation of appropriate solutions which can be deployed for several years. The case of local groundwater contamination and its subsequent spread may result in contamination of drinking water sources or other disasters. This publication aims to design and demonstrate control of pumping wells for a model task of groundwater remediation. The task consists of appropriately spaced soil with input parameters, pumping wells and control system. Model of controlled system is made in the program MODFLOW using the finitedifference method as distributed parameter system. Control problem is solved by DPS Blockset for MATLAB & Simulink.

  19. Tank waste remediation system dangerous waste training plan

    SciTech Connect

    POHTO, R.E.

    1999-05-13

    This document outlines the dangerous waste training program developed and implemented for all Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Units operated by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in the Hanford 200 East, 200 West and 600 Areas and the <90 Day Accumulation Area at 209E. Operating TSD Units operated by TWRS are: the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System (including 204-AR Waste Transfer Building), the 600 Area Purgewater Storage and the Effluent Treatment Facility. TSD Units undergoing closure are: the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System, 207-A South Retention Basin, and the 216-B-63 Trench.

  20. Optimization of remediation strategies using vadose zone monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahan, Ofer

    2016-04-01

    In-situ bio-remediation of the vadose zone depends mainly on the ability to change the subsurface hydrological, physical and chemical conditions in order to enable development of specific, indigenous, pollutants degrading bacteria. As such the remediation efficiency is much dependent on the ability to implement optimal hydraulic and chemical conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. These conditions are usually determined in laboratory experiments where parameters such as the chemical composition of the soil water solution, redox potential and water content of the sediment are fully controlled. Usually, implementation of desired optimal degradation conditions in deep vadose zone at full scale field setups is achieved through infiltration of water enriched with chemical additives on the land surface. It is assumed that deep percolation into the vadose zone would create chemical conditions that promote biodegradation of specific compounds. However, application of water with specific chemical conditions near land surface dose not necessarily results in promoting of desired chemical and hydraulic conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. A vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) that was recently developed allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of deep sections of the unsaturated zone. The VMS includes flexible time-domain reflectometry (FTDR) probes which allow continuous monitoring of the temporal variation of the vadose zone water content, and vadose-zone sampling ports (VSPs) which are designed to allow frequent sampling of the sediment pore-water and gas at multiple depths. Implementation of the vadose zone monitoring system in sites that undergoes active remediation provides real time information on the actual chemical and hydrological conditions in the vadose zone as the remediation process progresses. Up-to-date the system has been successfully implemented in several studies on water flow and contaminant transport in

  1. Hanford site tank waste remediation system programmatic environmental review report

    SciTech Connect

    Haass, C.C.

    1998-09-03

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) committed in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Record of Decision (ROD) to perform future National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis at key points in the Program. Each review will address the potential impacts that new information may have on the environmental impacts presented in the TWRS EIS and support an assessment of whether DOE`s plans for remediating the tank waste are still pursuing the appropriate plan for remediation or whether adjustments to the program are needed. In response to this commitment, DOE prepared a Supplement Analysis (SA) to support the first of these reevaluations. Subsequent to the completion of the SA, the Phase IB negotiations process with private contractors resulted in several changes to the planned approach. These changes along with other new information regarding the TWRS Program have potential implications for Phase 1 and Phase 2 of tank waste retrieval and waste storage and/or disposal that may influence the environmental impacts of the Phased Implementation alternative. This report focuses on identifying those potential environmental impacts that may require NEPA analysis prior to authorization to begin facility construction and operations.

  2. Remedial action assessment system: Decision support for environmental cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Pennock, K.A.; Bohn, S.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    A large number of hazardous waste sites across the United States await treatment. Waste sites can be physically complex entities composed of multiple, possibly interacting contaminants distributed throughout one or more media. The sites may be active as well with contaminants escaping through one or more potential escape paths. Treatment of these sites requires a long and costly commitment involving the coordination of activities among several waste treatment professionals. In order to reduce the cost and time required for the specification of treatment at these waste sites. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) was proposed. RAAS is an automated information management system which utilizes a combination of expert reasoning and numerical models to produce the combinations of treatment technologies, known as treatment trains, which satisfy the treatment objectives of a particular site. In addition, RAAS supports the analysis of these trains with regard to effectiveness and cost so that the viable treatment trains can be measured against each other. The Remedial Action Assessment System is a hybrid system designed and constructed using object-oriented tools and techniques. RAAS is advertised as a hybrid system because it combines, in integral fashion, numerical computing (primarily quantitative models) with expert system reasoning. An object-oriented approach was selected due to many of its inherent advantages, among these the naturalness of modeling physical objects and processes.

  3. Light Duty Utility Arm System applications for tank waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Carteret, B.A.

    1994-10-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System is being developed by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Technology Development (OTD, EM-50) to obtain information about the conditions and contents of the DOE`s underground storage tanks. Many of these tanks are deteriorating and contain hazardous, radioactive waste generated over the past 50 years as a result of defense materials production at a member of DOE sites. Stabilization and remediation of these waste tanks is a high priority for the DOE`s environmental restoration program. The LDUA System will provide the capability to obtain vital data needed to develop safe and cost-effective tank remediation plans, to respond to ongoing questions about tank integrity and leakage, and to quickly investigate tank events that raise safety concerns. In-tank demonstrations of the LDUA System are planned for three DOE sites in 1996 and 1997: Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This paper provides a general description of the system design and discusses a number of planned applications of this technology to support the DOE`s environmental restoration program, as well as potential applications in other areas. Supporting papers by other authors provide additional in-depth technical information on specific areas of the system design.

  4. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 6 Thermal Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  5. Method and system for extraction of chemicals from aquifer remediation effluent water

    DOEpatents

    McMurtrey, Ryan D.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Moor, Kenneth S.; Shook, G. Michael; Barker, Donna L.

    2003-01-01

    A method and system for extraction of chemicals from an groundwater remediation aqueous effluent are provided. The extraction method utilizes a critical fluid for separation and recovery of chemicals employed in remediating groundwater contaminated with hazardous organic substances, and is particularly suited for separation and recovery of organic contaminants and process chemicals used in surfactant-based remediation technologies. The extraction method separates and recovers high-value chemicals from the remediation effluent and minimizes the volume of generated hazardous waste. The recovered chemicals can be recycled to the remediation process or stored for later use.

  6. System description for DART (Decision Analysis for Remediation Technologies)

    SciTech Connect

    Nonte, J.; Bolander, T.; Nickelson, D.; Nielson, R.; Richardson, J.; Sebo, D.

    1997-09-01

    DART is a computer aided system populated with influence models to determine quantitative benefits derived by matching requirements and technologies. The DART database is populated with data from over 900 DOE sites from 10 Field Offices. These sites are either source terms, such as buried waste pits, or soil or groundwater contaminated plumes. The data, traceable to published documents, consists of site-specific data (contaminants, area, volume, depth, size, remedial action dates, site preferred remedial option), problems (e.g., offsite contaminant plume), and Site Technology Coordinating Group (STCG) need statements (also contained in the Ten-Year Plan). DART uses this data to calculate and derive site priorities, risk rankings, and site specific technology requirements. DART is also populated with over 900 industry and DOE SCFA technologies. Technology capabilities can be used to match technologies to waste sites based on the technology`s capability to meet site requirements and constraints. Queries may be used to access, sort, roll-up, and rank site data. Data roll-ups may be graphically displayed.

  7. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Bitz, D.A.; Berry, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1994-03-01

    Hanford`s underground tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report.

  8. UXO detection, characterization, and remediation using intelligent robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, Saed; Shirkhodaie, Amir; Rababaah, Haroun

    2008-04-01

    An intelligent robotic system can be distinguished from other machines by its ability to sense, learn, and react to its environment despite various task uncertainties. One of the most powerful sensing modality for robotic system is vision as it enables the robot to see its environment, recognize objects around it and interact with objects to accomplish its task. This paper discusses vision enabling techniques that allows a robot to detect, characterize, classify, and discriminate UneXploded Ordnance (UXO) from clutters in unstructured environments. A soft-computing approach is proposed and validated via indoor and outdoor experiments to measure its performance efficiency and effectiveness in correctly detection and classifying UXO vs. XO and other clutter. The proposed technique has many potential applications for military, homeland security, law enforcement, and in particular, environment UXO remediation and clean-up operations.

  9. Tank waste remediation system functions and requirements document

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, K.E

    1996-10-03

    This is the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Functions and Requirements Document derived from the TWRS Technical Baseline. The document consists of several text sections that provide the purpose, scope, background information, and an explanation of how this document assists the application of Systems Engineering to the TWRS. The primary functions identified in the TWRS Functions and Requirements Document are identified in Figure 4.1 (Section 4.0) Currently, this document is part of the overall effort to develop the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline, and contains the functions and requirements needed to properly define the top three TWRS function levels. TWRS Technical Baseline information (RDD-100 database) included in the appendices of the attached document contain the TWRS functions, requirements, and architecture necessary to define the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline. Document organization and user directions are provided in the introductory text. This document will continue to be modified during the TWRS life-cycle.

  10. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    SciTech Connect

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-05

    This document provides a summary of the proposed Tank Waste Remediation System Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost) developed to demonstrate the Tank Waste Remediation System contractor`s Readiness-to-Proceed in support of the Phase 1B mission.

  11. The Rush to Remediate: Long Term Performance Favors Passive Systems at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.; Cauthen, K.; Beul. R. R.

    2003-02-24

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the long-term performance of groundwater remediation systems at SRS and compare active versus passive systems. The presentation will focus on the limited effectiveness of active pump and treat systems and share the experience with more passive and natural systems such as soil vapor extraction, barometric pumping, bioremediation, and phytoremediation. Three remediation projects are presented. In each case the waste source is capped with clay or synthetic barriers; however, extensive groundwater contamination remains. The first project features the cleanup of the largest plume in the United States. The second project entails solvent and vinyl chloride remediation of groundwater beneath a hazardous waste landfill. The third project discusses tritium containment from a 160-acre radioactive waste disposal area. Special emphasis is placed on performance data from alternate technology cleanup. The goals are to share remediation data, successes and lessons learned, while making a case for passive systems use in groundwater remediation.

  12. Analysis of the remediation systems on the contaminant plume at the Plainville landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, R.L.

    1999-06-01

    The Plainville landfill, located in Plainville, Massachusetts, has been the subject of study by several groups in recent years. A contaminant plume, exiting from the southwest corner of the landfill, is contaminating the groundwater downgradient and may affect drinking water wells located there. A two-phase remediation scheme, consisting of an interim overburden air sparging system and a final proposed pump and treat and air sparging system, has been proposed to mitigate the groundwater contaminant plume. This thesis assesses these remediation systems to determine their ability to remediate the contaminants in the groundwater plume. The interim and final proposed air sparging systems were analyzed using existing quarterly reports and a literature review. A MODFLOW groundwater flow model was used to analyze the pump and treat system. These analyses were then compared to the model utilized to design the remediation scheme. Several discrepancies in the design of the remediation scheme were noted as a result of this analysis. First, the presence of till lenses throughout the remediation zone was not addressed. Also, the extraction of water from the competent bedrock layer appears counterproductive. In addition, the air sparging system was not field tested to ascertain the flow pattern in the subsurface. Finally, the installation of the bedrock air sparging wells appears redundant. These discrepancies, however, will only decrease the projected efficiency of the proposed remediation schemes and increase clean up time. Consequently, the results of this study seem to indicate that the proposed remediation scheme is adequately designed.

  13. Dynamic simulation of the Hanford tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Harmsen, R.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-03

    Cleaning up and disposing of approximately 50 years of nuclear waste is the main mission at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Nuclear Reservation, located in the southeastern part of the state of Washington. A major element of the total cleanup effort involves retrieving, processing, and disposing of radioactive and hazardous waste stored in 177 underground storage tanks. This effort, referred to as the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), is expected to cost billions of dollars and take approximately 25 years to complete. Several computer simulations of this project are being created, focusing on both programmatic and detailed engineering issues. This paper describes one such simulation activity, using the ithink(TM)computer simulation software. The ithink(TM) simulation includes a representation of the complete TWRS cleanup system, from retrieval of waste through intermediate processing and final vitrification of waste for disposal. Major issues addressed to date by the simulation effort include the need for new underground storage tanks to support TWRS activities, and the estimated design capacities for various processing facilities that are required to support legally mandated program commitment dates. This paper discusses how the simulation was used to investigate these questions.

  14. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1993-10-01

    Hanford`s underground storage tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report. The IRG`s Preliminary Report assessed retrieval systems for underground storage tank wastes at Hanford in 1992. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) concurred with the report`s recommendation that a tool should be developed for evaluating retrieval concepts. The report recommended that this tool include (1) important considerations identified previously by the IRG, (2) a means of documenting important decisions concerning retrieval systems, and (3) a focus on evaluations and assessments for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) and the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID).

  15. Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, B.; Ignatov, A.; Johnson, S.; Mann, M.; Morasch, L.; Ortiz, S.; Novak, P.

    1995-02-28

    The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program.

  16. Tank waste remediation system process engineering instruction manual

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, M.R.

    1998-11-04

    The purpose of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Process Engineering Instruction Manual is to provide guidance and direction to TWRS Process Engineering staff regarding conduct of business. The objective is to establish a disciplined and consistent approach to business such that the work processes within TWRS Process Engineering are safe, high quality, disciplined, efficient, and consistent with Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Policies and Procedures. The sections within this manual are of two types: for compliance and for guidance. For compliance sections are intended to be followed per-the-letter until such time as they are formally changed per Section 2.0 of this manual. For guidance sections are intended to be used by the staff for guidance in the conduct of work where technical judgment and discernment are required. The guidance sections shall also be changed per Section 2.0 of this manual. The required header for each manual section is illustrated in Section 2.0, Manual Change Control procedure. It is intended that this manual be used as a training and indoctrination resource for employees of the TWRS Process Engineering organization. The manual shall be required reading for all TWRS Process Engineering staff, matrixed, and subcontracted employees.

  17. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Alumkal, W.T.; Babad, H.; Harmon, H.D.; Wodrich, D.D.

    1994-01-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste in the United States. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 230,000 m{sup 3} (61 Mgal) of caustic liquids, slurries, saltcakes, and sludges have {sup 137}Cs accumulated in 177 tanks. In addition, significant amounts of {sup 90}Sr and were removed from the tank waste, converted to salts, doubly encapsulated in metal containers., and stored in water basins. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1991 to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal of the high-level waste fraction in a geologic repository. Since 1991, progress has been made resolving waste tank safety issues, upgrading Tank Farm facilities and operations, and developing a new strategy for retrieving, treating, and immobilizing the waste for disposal.

  18. In-situ remediation system for groundwater and soils

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.

    1993-11-23

    A method and system are presented for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil where the contaminants, such as toxic metals, are carried in a subsurface plume. The method comprises selection and injection into the soil of a fluid that will cause the contaminants to form stable, non-toxic compounds either directly by combining with the contaminants or indirectly by creating conditions in the soil or changing the conditions of the soil so that the formation of stable, non-toxic compounds between the contaminants and existing substances in the soil are more favorable. In the case of non-toxic metal contaminants, sulfides or sulfates are injected so that metal sulfides or sulfates are formed. Alternatively, an inert gas may be injected to stimulate microorganisms in the soil to produce sulfides which, in turn, react with the metal contaminants. Preferably, two wells are used, one to inject the fluid and one to extract the unused portion of the fluid. The two wells work in combination to create a flow of the fluid across the plume to achieve better, more rapid mixing of the fluid and the contaminants. 4 figures.

  19. In-situ remediation system for groundwater and soils

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John C.; Kaback, Dawn S.; Looney, Brian B.

    1993-01-01

    A method and system for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil where the contaminants, such as toxic metals, are carried in a subsurface plume. The method comprises selection and injection into the soil of a fluid that will cause the contaminants to form stable, non-toxic compounds either directly by combining with the contaminants or indirectly by creating conditions in the soil or changing the conditions of the soil so that the formation of stable, non-toxic compounds between the contaminants and existing substances in the soil are more favorable. In the case of non-toxic metal contaminants, sulfides or sulfates are injected so that metal sulfides or sulfates are formed. Alternatively, an inert gas may be injected to stimulate microorganisms in the soil to produce sulfides which, in turn, react with the metal contaminants. Preferably, two wells are used, one to inject the fluid and one to extract the unused portion of the fluid. The two wells work in combination to create a flow of the fluid across the plume to achieve better, more rapid mixing of the fluid and the contaminants.

  20. Tank waste remediation system multi-year work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) documents the detailed total Program baseline and was constructed to guide Program execution. The TWRS MYWP is one of two elements that comprise the TWRS Program Management Plan. The TWRS MYWP fulfills the Hanford Site Management System requirement for a Multi-Year Program Plan and a Fiscal-Year Work Plan. The MYWP addresses program vision, mission, objectives, strategy, functions and requirements, risks, decisions, assumptions, constraints, structure, logic, schedule, resource requirements, and waste generation and disposition. Sections 1 through 6, Section 8, and the appendixes provide program-wide information. Section 7 includes a subsection for each of the nine program elements that comprise the TWRS Program. The foundation of any program baseline is base planning data (e.g., defendable product definition, logic, schedules, cost estimates, and bases of estimates). The TWRS Program continues to improve base data. As data improve, so will program element planning, integration between program elements, integration outside of the TWRS Program, and the overall quality of the TWRS MYWP. The MYWP establishes the TWRS baseline objectives to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The TWRS Program will complete the baseline mission in 2040 and will incur costs totalling approximately 40 billion dollars. The summary strategy is to meet the above objectives by using a robust systems engineering effort, placing the highest possible priority on safety and environmental protection; encouraging {open_quotes}out sourcing{close_quotes} of the work to the extent practical; and managing significant but limited resources to move toward final disposition of tank wastes, while openly communicating with all interested stakeholders.

  1. Tank waste remediation system privatization infrastructure program requirements and document management process guide

    SciTech Connect

    ROOT, R.W.

    1999-05-18

    This guide provides the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Infrastructure Program management with processes and requirements to appropriately control information and documents in accordance with the Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Plan (Vann 1998b). This includes documents and information created by the program, as well as non-program generated materials submitted to the project. It provides appropriate approval/control, distribution and filing systems.

  2. The effect on ecological systems of remediation to protect human health.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2007-09-01

    Environmental remediation of contaminated eco-systems reduces stresses to these ecosystems, including stresses caused by the production, use, and storage of weapons of mass destruction. The effects of these various stressors on humans can be reduced by remediation or by blocking the exposure of humans, but blocking the exposure of resident biota is almost impossible. Remediation may involve trade-offs between reducing a minor risk to public health and increasing risks to workers and ecosystems. Remediation practices such as soil removal disrupt ecosystems, which take decades to recover. Without further human disturbances, and with low levels of exposure to stress-ors, ecosystems can recover from physical disruptions and spills. Remediation to remove negligible risk to humans can destroy delicate ecosystems for very little gain in public health. PMID:17666693

  3. IMPACT OF REDOX DISEQUILIBRIA ON CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT AND REMEDIATION IN SUBSURFACE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Partitioning to mineral surfaces exerts significant control on inorganic contaminant transport in subsurface systems. Remedial technologies for in-situ treatment of subsurface contamination are frequently designed to optimize the efficiency of contaminant partitioning to solid s...

  4. NANOSTRUCTURED MEMBRANES FOR FILTRATION, DISINFECTION, AND REMEDIATION OF AQUEOUS AND GASEOUS SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The expected result of this research is a new nanostructured system for the treatment and remediation of aqueous and gaseous environments with improved efficiency over current filtration technologies. The multiple functions that these chitosan membranes will serve (removal,...

  5. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Request

    SciTech Connect

    L. Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  6. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  7. A niched Pareto tabu search for multi-objective optimal design of groundwater remediation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yun; Wu, Jianfeng; Sun, Xiaomin; Wu, Jichun; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2013-05-01

    This study presents a new multi-objective optimization method, the niched Pareto tabu search (NPTS), for optimal design of groundwater remediation systems. The proposed NPTS is then coupled with the commonly used flow and transport code, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, to search for the near Pareto-optimal tradeoffs of groundwater remediation strategies. The difference between the proposed NPTS and the existing multiple objective tabu search (MOTS) lies in the use of the niche selection strategy and fitness archiving to maintain the diversity of the optimal solutions along the Pareto front and avoid repetitive calculations of the objective functions associated with the flow and transport model. Sensitivity analysis of the NPTS parameters is evaluated through a synthetic pump-and-treat remediation application involving two conflicting objectives, minimizations of both remediation cost and contaminant mass remaining in the aquifer. Moreover, the proposed NPTS is applied to a large-scale pump-and-treat groundwater remediation system of the field site at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, involving minimizations of both total pumping rates and contaminant mass remaining in the aquifer. Additional comparison of the results based on the NPTS with those obtained from other two methods, namely the single objective tabu search (SOTS) and the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II), further indicates that the proposed NPTS has desirable computation efficiency, stability, and robustness and is a promising tool for optimizing the multi-objective design of groundwater remediation systems.

  8. Biogeochemical dynamics of pollutants in Insitu groundwater remediation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, N.; Millot, R.; Rose, J.; Négrel, P.; Battaglia-Brunnet, F.; Diels, L.

    2010-12-01

    Insitu (bio) remediation of groundwater contaminants has been area of potential research interest in last few decades as the nature of contaminant encountered has also changed drastically. This gives tough challenge to researchers in finding a common solution for all contaminants together in one plume. Redox processes play significant role in pollutant dynamics and mobility in such systems. Arsenic particularly in reduced environments can get transformed into its reduced form (As3+), which is apparently more mobile and highly toxic. Also parallel sulfate reduction can lead to sulfide production and formation of thioarsenic species. On the other hand heavy metals (Zn, Fe, and Cd) in similar conditions will favour more stable metal sulfide precipitation. In the present work, we tested Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) in handling such issues and found promising results. Although it has been well known for contaminants like arsenic and chlorinated compounds but not much explored for heavy metals. Its high available surface area supports precipitation and co -precipitation of contaminants and its highly oxidizing nature and water born hydrogen production helps in stimulation of microbial activities in sediment and groundwater. These sulfate and Iron reducing bacteria can further fix heavy metals as stable metal sulfides by using hydrogen as potential electron donor. In the present study flow through columns (biotic and control) were set up in laboratory to understand the behaviour of contaminants in subsurface environments, also the impact of microbiology on performance of ZVI was studied. These glass columns (30 x 4cm) with intermediate sampling points were monitored over constant temperature (20°C) and continuous groundwater (up)flow at ~1ml/hr throughout the experiment. Simulated groundwater was prepared in laboratory containing sulfate, metals (Zn,Cd) and arsenic (AsV). While chemical and microbial parameters were followed regularly over time, solid phase has been

  9. Feasibility study of a self-remediation system for mine drainage using its thermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chamteut; Cheong, Youngwook; Yim, Giljae; Ji, Sangwoo

    2016-04-01

    Mine drainage is defined as the water which is discharged to the ground surface through shafts and/or cracks formed by mining activities. Typically, mine drainage features high concentration of acidity and metals since it passes through the underground. Therefore, for the purpose of protecting the surrounding natural environment, mine drainage should be remediated before being discharged to nature. Mine drainage, due to its nature of being retained underground, shows constant temperature which is independent from the temperature of the atmosphere above ground. This condition allows mine drainage to become a promising renewable energy source since energy can be recovered from water with constant temperature. In this research, a self-remediation system is proposed which remediates the mine drainage through electrochemical reactions powered by the thermal energy of mine drainage. High energy efficiency is able to be achieved by shortening the distance between the energy source and consumption, and therefore, this system has a strong advantage to be actualized. A feasibility study for the system was conducted in this research where the thermal energy of mine drainage over time and depth was calculated as energy supply and the required electrical energy for remediating the mine drainage was measured as energy consumption. While the technology of converting thermal energy directly into electrical energy is yet to be developed, energy balance analysis results showed that the proposed self-remediation system is theoretically possible.

  10. Analysis of the remediation of a contaminated aquifer by a multi-well system. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.C.; Booker, J.R.; Carter, J.P.

    1998-10-01

    This paper presents a study of the remediation of a contaminated aquifer of uniform thickness by multi-well systems, which include both discharge wells and recharge wells. These investigations show that an appropriately designed pump and treat system (PAT) can have a significant effect on the decontamination of a polluted aquifer and can preclude the further spreading of a contaminant plume. However, if the system is not designed appropriately, it may cause a further serious spreading of the contamination. This possibility is illustrated by the examples presented in the paper, which highlight the need for care in the design of remediation strategies.

  11. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION OF PNEUMATIC FRACTURING EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with Accutech Remedial Systems (ARS) and the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) performed a field demonstration of Pneumatic Fracturing Extraction (PFE) for the removal of chlorinated volatile organics (VOCS) f...

  12. Bases for solid waste volume estimates for tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Reddick, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This document presents the background and basis for the Tank Waste Remediation System forecast for solid waste submitted in June 1996. The forecast was generated for single-shell tank and double-shell tank activities including operations through retrieval and disposal of chemical tank waste.

  13. Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. Waste management 1993 symposium papers and viewgraphs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste of any site in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program has been established within the DOE to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Management 1993 Symposium Papers and Viewgraphs covered the following topics: Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Overview; Tank Waste Retrieval Issues and Options for their Resolution; Tank Waste Pretreatment - Issues, Alternatives and Strategies for Resolution; Low-Level Waste Disposal - Grout Issue and Alternative Waste Form Technology; A Strategy for Resolving High-Priority Hanford Site Radioactive Waste Storage Tank Safety Issues; Tank Waste Chemistry - A New Understanding of Waste Aging; Recent Results from Characterization of Ferrocyanide Wastes at the Hanford Site; Resolving the Safety Issue for Radioactive Waste Tanks with High Organic Content; Technology to Support Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Objectives.

  14. REDUCED PERMEABILITY IN GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION SYSTEMS: ROLE OF MOBILIZED COLLOIDS AND INJECTED CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The success of pump-and-treat or in situ remediation of contaminated aquifers depends in part on the ability to maintain the permeability of the aquifer, withdrawal wells, and delivery systems at a reasonable cost while moving significant quantities of water. We have considered o...

  15. Mobility Controlled Flooding (MCF) Technology for Enhanced Sweeping and NAPL Remediation in Heterogeneous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Oostrom, M.; Wietsma, T.

    2005-12-01

    Heterogeneity is often encountered in subsurface contamination characterization and remediation. Low-permeability zones are bypassed when remedial fluid is injected into heterogeneous systems. The contaminant in the bypassed areas is therefore untouched by the remedial fluid, which can prolong the remediation operations significantly. Methods of forcing fluids into low-permeability flow paths have been developed and widely implemented to solve the heterogeneity-induced bypassing problem encountered during oil recovery in the petroleum industry over the past 40 years. Since the intent of the petroleum reservoir engineers is to control the mobility of the injected fluid in the high-permeable zones so that the fluid can be pushed through the low-permeable zones to contact and mobilize the remaining oil in these zones, this method are referred as mobility controlled flooding (MCF) technology in the petroleum engineering literature. Two methods of mobility control have been developed. One method is to use a water-soluble polymer to increase the viscosity of the injectate so that the in situ pore pressure is raised, and cross-flow between layers with different permeability occurs. The other method is to use surfactant-foam flood to generate foam in high permeable zones in situ; therefore, the injected fluid is forced into the low-permeable areas. A water-soluble polymer, xanthan gum, and surfactant MA-80 was used to formulate MCF remedial fluids to remediate nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminated heterogonous systems in two-dimensional (2-D) flow-cell (40 by 50 by 5 cm) experiments. It was demonstrated that the MCF technology is capable of sweeping the low-permeability flow paths. The bypassing of low-permeable zones was significantly reduced. The removal of NAPL trapped in the low-perm zones was remarkable enhanced attributed to more efficient NAPL mobilization. The results also indicate that the MCF technology is able to manage the fluid density effects. The

  16. MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM REMEDIATION OFF-GASES

    SciTech Connect

    J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-17

    In situ vacuum extraction, air or steam sparging, and vitrification are widely used to remediate soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All of these processes produce a VOC-laden air stream from which the VOC must be removed before the air can be discharged or recycled to the generating process. Treatment of these off-gases is often a major portion of the cost of the remediation project. Currently, carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration are the most common methods of treating these gas streams. Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) proposed an alternative treatment technology based on selective membranes that separate the organic components from the gas stream, producing a VOC-free air stream. This technology can be applied to off-gases produced by various remediation activities and the systems can be skid-mounted and automated for easy transportation and unattended operation. The target performance for the membrane systems is to produce clean air (less than 10 ppmv VOC) for discharge or recycle, dischargeable water (less than 1 ppmw VOC), and a concentrated liquid VOC phase. This report contains the results obtained during Phase II of a two-phase project. In Phase I, laboratory experiments were carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. In the subsequent Phase II project, a demonstration system was built and operated at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, California. The membrane system was fed with off-gas from a Soil Vacuum Extraction (SVE) system. The work performed in Phase II demonstrated that the membrane system can reduce the VOC concentration in remediation off-gas to 10 ppmv, while producing a concentrated VOC phase and dischargeable water containing less than 1 ppmw VOC. However, the tests showed that the presence of 1 to 3% carbon dioxide in the SVE off-gas reduced the treatment capacity of the system by a factor of three to four. In an economic analysis, treatment costs of the membrane

  17. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies

    SciTech Connect

    Trible, T.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This quality plan describes the system used by Characterization Project management to achieve quality. This plan is comprised on eleven quality policies which, when taken together, form a management system deployed to achieve quality. This quality management system is based on the customer`s quality requirements known as the `RULE`, 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance.

  18. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies

    SciTech Connect

    Board, D.C.

    1997-09-24

    This quality plan describes the system used by Characterization Project management to achieve quality. This plan is comprised of eleven quality policies which, when taken together, form a management system deployed to achieve quality. This quality management system is based on the customer`s quality requirements known as the `RULE`, 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance.

  19. Design and Cost of Solar Photocatalytic Systems for Groundwater Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C. S.; Mehos, M. S.; Link, H. F.

    1992-05-01

    Laboratory and small-scale field experiments have shown that sunlight in conjunction with a simple catalyst can be used to detoxify water contaminated with a variety of hazardous chemicals. This study builds on previous analyses and recent field test data to predict the cost and performance of a representative commercial water detoxification system. Three different solar operating configurations are explored for the treatment of 100,000 gal/day of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene. Current costs for solar water detoxification systems are projected to be comparable to those for conventional treatment technologies such as carbon adsorption and electric lamp-powered, ultraviolet light/hydrogen peroxide systems.

  20. USE OF THE AERIAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM HELICOPTER EMERGENCY RESPONSE ACQUISITION SYSTEMS WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE SOIL REMEDIATION - [11504

    SciTech Connect

    BROCK CT

    2011-02-15

    The Aerial Measurement System (AMS) Helicopter Emergency Response Acquisition System provides a thorough and economical means to identify and characterize the contaminants for large area radiological surveys. The helicopter system can provide a 100-percent survey of an area that qualifies as a scoping survey under the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) methodology. If the sensitivity is adequate when compared to the clean up values, it may also be used for the characterization survey. The data from the helicopter survey can be displayed and manipulated to provide invaluable data during remediation activities.

  1. Application of a constructed wetland system for polluted stream remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Y. T.; Chiang, P. C.; Yang, J.; Chen, S. H.; Kao, C. M.

    2014-03-01

    In 2010, the multi-function Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland (KRRBW) was constructed to improve the stream water quality and rehabilitate the ecosystem of the surrounding environment of Dashu Region, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The KRRBW consists of five wetland basins with a total water surface area of 15 ha, a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10.1 days at a averaged flow rate of 14 740 m3/day, and an averaged water depth of 1.1 m. The influent of KRRBW coming from the local drainage systems containing untreated domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastewaters. Based on the quarterly investigation results of water samples taken in 2011-2012, the overall removal efficiencies were 91% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 75% for total nitrogen (TN), 96% for total phosphorus (TP), and 99% for total coliforms (TC). The calculated first-order decay rates for BOD, TN, TP, NH3-N, and TC ranged from 0.14 (TN) to 0.42 (TC) 1/day. This indicates that the KRRBW was able to remove organics, TC, and nutrients effectively. The high ammonia/nitrate removal efficiency indicates that nitrification and denitrification processes occurred simultaneously in the wetland system, and the detected nitrite concentration confirmed the occurrence of denitrification/nitrification. Results from sediment analyses reveal that the sediment contained high concentrations of organics (sediment oxygen demand = 1.9-5.2 g O2/m2 day), nutrients (up to 15.8 g total nitrogen/kg of sediment and 1.48 g total phosphorus/kg of sediment), and metals (up to 547 mg/kg of Zn and 97 mg/kg of Cu). Appropriate wetland management strategies need to be developed to prevent the release of contaminants into the wetland system. The wetland system caused the variations in the microbial diversities and dominant microbial bacteria. Results show the dominant nitrogen utilization bacteria including Denitratisoma oestradiolicum, Nitrosospira sp., Nitrosovibrio sp., D. oestradiolicum, Alcaligenes sp

  2. Toxic remediation

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Stephen M.; Schonberg, Russell G.; Fadness, David R.

    1994-01-01

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  3. Collocation and Pattern Recognition Effects on System Failure Remediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Press, Hayes N.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research found that operators prefer to have status, alerts, and controls located on the same screen. Unfortunately, that research was done with displays that were not designed specifically for collocation. In this experiment, twelve subjects evaluated two displays specifically designed for collocating system information against a baseline that consisted of dial status displays, a separate alert area, and a controls panel. These displays differed in the amount of collocation, pattern matching, and parameter movement compared to display size. During the data runs, subjects kept a randomly moving target centered on a display using a left-handed joystick and they scanned system displays to find a problem in order to correct it using the provided checklist. Results indicate that large parameter movement aided detection and then pattern recognition is needed for diagnosis but the collocated displays centralized all the information subjects needed, which reduced workload. Therefore, the collocated display with large parameter movement may be an acceptable display after familiarization because of the possible pattern recognition developed with training and its use.

  4. MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM REMEDIATION OFF-GASES

    SciTech Connect

    J.G. Wijmans; R. Daniels; R. Olsen

    2000-01-13

    In situ vacuum extraction, air or steam sparging, and vitrification are widely used methods of remediating soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All of these processes produce a VOC.-laden air stream from which the VOC must be removed before the air can be discharged or recycled to the generating process. Treatment of these off-gases is often a major portion of the cost of the remediation project. Carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration, the most common methods of treating these gas streams, suffer from significant drawbacks. Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (NITR) proposes an alternative treatment technology, based on permselective membranes that separate the organic components from the gas stream, producing a VOC-free air stream. The technology we propose to develop can be applied to all of these off-gas streams and is not tied to a particular off-gas generating source. We propose to develop a completely self-contained system because remediation projects are frequently in remote locations where access to trained operators and utilities is limited. The system will be a turnkey unit, skid-mounted and completely automatic, requiring power but no other utilities. The system will process the off-gas, producing a concentrated liquid VOC stream and a purified gas containing less than 10 ppm VOC that can be discharged or recycled to the gas-generating process.

  5. In-situ remediation system and method for contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.; Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.

    1989-05-23

    A system for removing volatile contaminants from a subsurface plume of contamination comprising two sets of wells, a well for injecting a fluid into a saturated zone on one side of the plume and an extracting well for collecting the fluid together with volatilized contaminants from the plume on the other side of the plume. The fluid enables the volatile contaminants to be volatilized and carried therewith through the ground to the extracting well. Injecting and extracting wells are preferably horizontal wells positioned below the plume in the saturated zone and above the plume in the vadose zone, respectively. The fluid may be air or other gas or a gas and liquid mixture depending on the type of contaminant to be removed and may be preheated to facilitate volatilization. Treatment of the volatilized contamination may be by filtration, incineration, atmospheric dispersion or the like. 3 figs.

  6. In-situ remediation system and method for contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John C.; Looney, Brian B.; Kaback, Dawn S.

    1989-01-01

    A system for removing volatile contaminants from a subsurface plume of contamination comprising two sets of wells, a well for injecting a fluid into a saturated zone on one side of the plume and an extracting well for collecting the fluid together with volatilized contaminants from the plume on the other side of the plume. The fluid enables the volatile contaminants to be volatilized and carried therewith through the ground to the extracting well. Injecting and extracting wells are preferably horizontal wells positioned below the plume in the saturated zone and above the plume in the vadose zone, respectively. The fluid may be air or other gas or a gas and liquid mixture depending on the type of contaminant to be removed and may be preheated to facilitate volatilization. Treatment of the volatilized contamination may be by filtration, incineration, atmospheric dispersion or the like.

  7. Recovery of Rare Earth Elements and Yttrium from Passive-Remediation Systems of Acid Mine Drainage.

    PubMed

    Ayora, Carlos; Macías, Francisco; Torres, Ester; Lozano, Alba; Carrero, Sergio; Nieto, José-Miguel; Pérez-López, Rafael; Fernández-Martínez, Alejandro; Castillo-Michel, Hiram

    2016-08-01

    Rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) are raw materials of increasing importance for modern technologies, and finding new sources has become a pressing need. Acid mine drainage (AMD) is commonly considered an environmental pollution issue. However, REY concentrations in AMD can be several orders of magnitude higher than in naturally occurring water bodies. With respect to shale standards, the REY distribution pattern in AMD is enriched in intermediate and valuable REY, such as Tb and Dy. The objective of the present work is to study the behavior of REY in AMD passive-remediation systems. Traditional AMD passive remediation systems are based on the reaction of AMD with calcite-based permeable substrates followed by decantation ponds. Experiments with two columns simulating AMD treatment demonstrate that schwertmannite does not accumulate REY, which, instead, are retained in the basaluminite residue. The same observation is made in two field-scale treatments from the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB, southwest Spain). On the basis of the amplitude of this process and on the extent of the IPB, our findings suggest that the proposed AMD remediation process can represent a modest but suitable REY source. In this sense, the IPB could function as a giant heap-leaching process of regional scale in which rain and oxygen act as natural driving forces with no energy investment. In addition to having environmental benefits of its treatment, AMD is expected to last for hundreds of years, and therefore, the total reserves are practically unlimited. PMID:27351211

  8. PCB concentration in fish in a river system after remediation of contaminated sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Bremle, G.; Larsson, P.

    1998-11-15

    An 1991 investigation of PCB concentrations in water and fish along a river was repeated in 1996 after the completion of a remediation of PCB-containing sediment in a lake within the river system. The PCB concentrations in the lake water decreased significantly, and the concentrations in fish was halved (significantly lower) after remediation. PCB still remaining in littoral sediment was probably the cause for a recorded gradient of PCB concentrations in fish from the lake and downstream. The PCB concentrations in water and fish was lower in 1996 compared to 1991 in all locations studied. The decreased levels of PCB in fish between the years for the two upstream locations, probably results from a decline in background PCB exposure. Monitoring data from 30 years back, recorded in a south Swedish lake, has shown a 5% decline per year in the PCB concentration in pike. The data on PCB concentration in fish from the two upstream locations were recalculated on the basis of this yearly decline and resulted in concentrations close to those measured in 1996. The results indicated, that changes in background exposure must be taken into account when evaluating the success of remedial actions measures carried out over several years.

  9. Measurement systems in the area of land remediation and soil segregation activities

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Gerold G.; Sokcic-Kostic, Marina; Auler, Ingolf; Eickelpasch, Ludger; Betts, Jonathan

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The remediation of radioactively contaminated land is a small but growing sector in the area of decommissioning of nuclear facilities. This also includes the material from buildings after demolition. Contamination comprises in general alpha and beta activities and emission of alpha, beta and gamma radiation. The measurement is in practice restricted to the measurement of gamma emission, because of the high penetration of material by gamma rays. All isotopes, which do not emit gammas are estimated on the basis of given relation between alpha and beta emitters without gamma radiation and emitters with gamma radiation. This method is called 'key nuclide method'. Whilst many studies have been completed, others still continue in the processing of large volumes of concrete, steel and soil. An important conclusion from these and similar research programs is that a significant proportion of the waste contains only low concentrations of radioactive nuclides. Therefore, much of the material from the remediation can be considered for 'free release'. It was often not possible to attain adequate specific information on these materials, so a measurement system is needed for their classification and characterization. NUKEM Technologies has practical experience in characterising and remediating of nuclear sites. Recently, it has pioneered the use of innovative in-situ and ex-situ characterisation and waste segregation technologies, which enhance the efficiency of remedial actions and provide assurance to customers, regulators and the public that all significant contamination has been removed and sites can be used for new purposes. (authors)

  10. Real-Time Remediation Utilizing The Backpack Sodium Iodide System And The U.S. EPA Triad Approach

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Giles; Michael V. Carpenter; Lyle G. Roybal; C. P. Oertel; J. J. Jacobson; D. L. Eaton; G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-03-01

    Real-time characterization during remediation activities is being accomplished at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the use of the backpack sodium iodide system (BaSIS). The BaSIS is comprised of a 3-in. by 5-in. sodium iodide (NaI) detector, differential corrected global positioning system (GPS), and portable computer, integrated into a lightweight backpack deployment platform. The system is operated with specialized software that allows the operator and/or remediation field manager to view data as they are collected. Upon completion of planned excavation stages, the area is surveyed for residual radiological contamination. After data collection is complete, data is available to the remediation field manager as a contour map showing the area(s) that require further excavation. The use of real-time measurement systems, rapid turn-around time of data, and dynamic work strategy support the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Triad approach. Decisions are made in real-time as to the need for further remediation. This paper describes the BaSIS system calibration, testing and use, and outlines negotiations with the appropriate CERCLA regulatory agencies (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, and U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office) to allow the use of real-time instrumentation during the remediation process, and for confirmation surveys. By using the BaSIS in such a manner, the INL seeks to demonstrate compliance with remediation objectives.

  11. Ecopiling: a combined phytoremediation and passive biopiling system for remediating hydrocarbon impacted soils at field scale.

    PubMed

    Germaine, Kieran J; Byrne, John; Liu, Xuemei; Keohane, Jer; Culhane, John; Lally, Richard D; Kiwanuka, Samuel; Ryan, David; Dowling, David N

    2014-01-01

    Biopiling is an ex situ bioremediation technology that has been extensively used for remediating a wide range of petrochemical contaminants in soils. Biopiling involves the assembling of contaminated soils into piles and stimulating the biodegrading activity of microbial populations by creating near optimum growth conditions. Phytoremediation is another very successful bioremediation technique and involves the use of plants and their associated microbiomes to degrade, sequester or bio-accumulate pollutants from contaminated soil and water. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a combined phytoremediation/biopiling system, termed Ecopiling, to remediate hydrocarbon impacted industrial soil. The large scale project was carried out on a sandy loam, petroleum impacted soil [1613 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) kg(-1) soil]. The contaminated soil was amended with chemical fertilizers, inoculated with TPH degrading bacterial consortia and then used to construct passive biopiles. Finally, a phyto-cap of perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens) was sown on the soil surface to complete the Ecopile. Monitoring of important physico-chemical parameters was carried out at regular intervals throughout the trial. Two years after construction the TPH levels in the petroleum impacted Ecopiles were below detectable limits in all but one subsample (152 mg TPH kg(-1) soil). The Ecopile system is a multi-factorial bioremediation process involving bio-stimulation, bio-augmentation and phytoremediation. One of the key advantages to this system is the reduced costs of the remediation process, as once constructed, there is little additional cost in terms of labor and maintenance (although the longer process time may incur additional monitoring costs). The other major advantage is that many ecological functions are rapidly restored to the site and the process is esthetically pleasing. PMID:25601875

  12. Ecopiling: a combined phytoremediation and passive biopiling system for remediating hydrocarbon impacted soils at field scale

    PubMed Central

    Germaine, Kieran J.; Byrne, John; Liu, Xuemei; Keohane, Jer; Culhane, John; Lally, Richard D.; Kiwanuka, Samuel; Ryan, David; Dowling, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Biopiling is an ex situ bioremediation technology that has been extensively used for remediating a wide range of petrochemical contaminants in soils. Biopiling involves the assembling of contaminated soils into piles and stimulating the biodegrading activity of microbial populations by creating near optimum growth conditions. Phytoremediation is another very successful bioremediation technique and involves the use of plants and their associated microbiomes to degrade, sequester or bio-accumulate pollutants from contaminated soil and water. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a combined phytoremediation/biopiling system, termed Ecopiling, to remediate hydrocarbon impacted industrial soil. The large scale project was carried out on a sandy loam, petroleum impacted soil [1613 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) kg-1 soil]. The contaminated soil was amended with chemical fertilizers, inoculated with TPH degrading bacterial consortia and then used to construct passive biopiles. Finally, a phyto-cap of perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens) was sown on the soil surface to complete the Ecopile. Monitoring of important physico-chemical parameters was carried out at regular intervals throughout the trial. Two years after construction the TPH levels in the petroleum impacted Ecopiles were below detectable limits in all but one subsample (152 mg TPH kg-1 soil). The Ecopile system is a multi-factorial bioremediation process involving bio-stimulation, bio-augmentation and phytoremediation. One of the key advantages to this system is the reduced costs of the remediation process, as once constructed, there is little additional cost in terms of labor and maintenance (although the longer process time may incur additional monitoring costs). The other major advantage is that many ecological functions are rapidly restored to the site and the process is esthetically pleasing. PMID:25601875

  13. Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility.

  14. Vibration diagnosis and remediation design for an x-ray optics stitching interferometer system.

    SciTech Connect

    Preissner, C.; Assoufid, L.; Shu, D.; Experimental Facilities Division

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) x-ray optics Metrology Laboratory currently operates a small-aperture Wyko laser interferometer in a stitching configuration. While the stitching configuration allows for easier surface characterization of long x-ray substrates and mirrors, the addition of mechanical components for optic element translation can compromise the ultimate measurement performance of the interferometer. A program of experimental vibration measurements, quantifying the laboratory vibration environment and identifying interferometer support-system behavior, has been conducted. Insight gained from the ambient vibration assessment and modal analysis has guided the development of a remediation technique. Discussion of the problem diagnosis and possible solutions are presented in this paper.

  15. Decommissioning of the remediation systems at Waverly, Nebraska, in 2011-2012.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2012-06-29

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility in Waverly, Nebraska, from 1952 to 1974. During this time, the grain fumigant '80/20' (carbon tetrachloride/carbon disulfide) was used to preserve stored grain. In 1982, sampling by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found carbon tetrachloride contamination in the town's groundwater. After an investigation of the contaminant distribution, the site was placed on the National Priority List (NPL) in 1986, and the CCC/USDA accepted responsibility for the contamination. An Interagency Compliance Agreement between the EPA and the CCC/USDA was finalized in May 1988 (EPA 1990). The EPA (Woodward-Clyde Consultants, contractor) started immediate cleanup efforts in 1987 with the installation of an air stripper, a soil vapor extraction system, a groundwater extraction well, and groundwater and soil gas monitoring wells (Woodward-Clyde 1986, 1988a,b). After the EPA issued its Record of Decision (ROD; EPA 1990), the CCC/USDA (Argonne National Laboratory, contractor) took over operation of the treatment systems. The CCC/USDA conducted a site investigation (Argonne 1991, 1992a,b), during which a carbon tetrachloride plume in groundwater was discovered northeast of the former facility. This plume was not being captured by the existing groundwater extraction system. The remediation system was modified in 1994 (Argonne 1993) with the installation of a second groundwater extraction well to contain the contamination further. Subsequently, a detailed evaluation of the system resulted in a recommendation to pump only the second well to conserve water in the aquifer (Argonne 1995). Sampling and analysis after implementation of this recommendation showed continued decreases in the extent and concentrations of the contamination with only one well pumping (Argonne 1999). The CCC/USDA issued quarterly monitoring reports from 1988 to 2009. Complete documentation of

  16. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project -2006 Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. This paper presents a status of the coolant stability over the past year as well as results from destructive analyses of hardware removed from the on-orbit system and the current approach to coolant remediation.

  17. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in a passive treatment system built for acid mine drainage remediation.

    PubMed

    Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Valente, Teresa; Marques, Rosa; Sequeira Braga, Maria Amália; Pamplona, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) were used to assess attenuation processes in a passive system for acid mine drainage treatment (Jales, Portugal). Hydrochemical parameters and REE contents in water, soils and sediments were obtained along the treatment system, after summer and winter. A decrease of REE contents in the water resulting from the interaction with limestone after summer occurs; in the wetlands REE are significantly released by the soil particles to the water. After winter, a higher water dynamics favors the AMD treatment effectiveness and performance since REE contents decrease along the system; La and Ce are preferentially sequestered by ochre sludge but released to the water in the wetlands, influencing the REE pattern of the creek water. Thus, REE fractionation occurs in the passive treatment systems and can be used as tracer to follow up and understand the geochemical processes that promote the remediation of AMD. PMID:26247412

  18. Dynamic remediation test of polluted river water by Eco-tank system.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jibo; Wang, Huiming; Chu, Shuyi; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic remediation of river water polluted by domestic sewage using an aquatic plants bed-based Eco-tank system was investigated. Over a period of 18 days, the test demonstrated that average effluent concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and total phosphorus (TP) were as low as 17.28, 0.23 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively, under the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8.7 d. The average removal efficiencies in terms of COD, NH4(+)-N and TP could reach 71.95, 97.96 and 97.84%, respectively. The loss of both NH4(+)-N and TP was mainly ascribed to the uptake by plants. Hydrocotyle leucocephala was effective in promoting the dissolved oxygen (DO) level, while Pistia stratiotes with numerous fibrous roots was significantly effective for the removal of organic compounds. The net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and biomass accumulation rate of Myriophyllum aquaticum were the highest among all tested plants. Thus, the Eco-tank system could be considered as an alternative approach for the in situ remediation of polluted river water, especially nutrient-laden river water. PMID:23530371

  19. Membrane System for Recovery of Volatile Organic Compounds from Remediation Off-Gases.: Phase 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmans, J.G.; Goakey, S.; Wang, X.; Baker, R.W.; Kaschemekat, J.H.

    1997-04-01

    In situ vacuum extraction, air or steam sparging, and vitrification are widely used methods of remediating soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All of these processes produce a VOC-laden air stream from which the VOC must be removed before the air can be discharged or recycled to the generating process. Treatment of these off-gases is often a major portion of the cost of the remediation project. Carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration, the most common methods of treating these gas streams, suffer from significant drawbacks. This report covers the first phase of a two-phase project. The first phase involved the laboratory demonstration of the water separation section of the unit, the production and demonstration of new membrane modules to improve the separation, the design studies required for the demonstration system, and initial contacts with potential field sites. In the second phase, the demonstration system will be built and, after a short laboratory evaluation, will be tested at two field sites.

  20. Enhanced removal of petroleum hydrocarbons using a bioelectrochemical remediation system with pre-cultured anodes.

    PubMed

    Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Marzorati, Massimo; Lockington, Robin; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical remediation (BER) systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have recently emerged as a green technology for the effective remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants (PH) coupled with simultaneous energy recovery. Recent research has shown that biofilms previously enriched for substrate degrading bacteria resulted in excellent performance in terms of substrate removal and electricity generation but the effects on hydrocarbon contaminant degradation were not examined. Here we investigate the differences between enriched biofilm anodes and freshly inoculated new anodes in diesel fed single chamber mediatorless microbial fuel cells (DMFC) using various techniques for the enhancement of PH contaminant remediation with concomitant electricity generation. An anodophilic microbial consortium previously selected for over a year through continuous culturing with a diesel concentration of about 800mgl(-1) and which now showed complete removal of this concentration of diesel within 30days was compared to that of a freshly inoculated new anode MFC (showing 83.4% removal of diesel) with a simultaneous power generation of 90.81mW/m(2) and 15.04mW/m(2) respectively. The behaviour of pre-cultured anodes at a higher concentration of PH (8000mgl(-1)) was also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed a thick biofilm covering the pre-cultured anodic electrode but not the anode from the freshly inoculated MFC. High resolution imaging showed the presence of thin 60nm diametre pilus-like projections emanating from the cells. Anodic microbial community profiling confirmed that the selection for diesel degrading exoelectrogenic bacteria had occurred. Identification of a biodegradative gene (alkB) provided strong evidence of the catabolic pathway used for diesel degradation in the DMFCs. PMID:26360455

  1. An analysis of alternative New Technical Strategy flowsheets for tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, C.P.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Tank remediation plans have gone through a few revisions for the best waste processing system. Some designs have been complex while others have been fairly simple. One of the key means in understanding and selecting among the various proposed systems is a discrete events modeling of the system. This modeling provides insight into (1) The total required size of the system; (2) The amount of material, such as reagents and other added materials that must be supplied; (3) The final mass of waste that must be stored; and (4) Areas within the system where a small change can greatly effect the total system. Discrete events modeling also provides the means by which various proposed systems may be compared. It is the framework in which variations within a particular system may be explored and compared to other instantiations. This study examines the current New Technical Strategy flowsheet system with discrete event modeling. Some of the possible variations within that system are examined and compared. Further, an previously proposed, more complex system is examined.

  2. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission phase 1 financial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.W.

    1998-01-09

    The purpose of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval and Disposal Mission Phase 1 Financial Analysis is to provide a quantitative and qualitative cost and schedule risk analysis of HNF-1946, Tank Waste Remediation System Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (Swita et al. 1998). The Updated Baseline (Section 3.0) is compared to the current TWRS Project Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) for fiscal year (FY) 1998 and target budgets for FY 1999 through FY 2011 (Section 4.1). The analysis then evaluates the executability of HNF-1946 (Sections 4.2 through 4.5) and recommends a path forward for risk mitigation (Sections 4.6, 4.7, and 5.0). A sound systems engineering approach was applied to understand and analyze the Phase 1B Retrieval and Disposal mission. Program and Level 1 Logics were decomposed to Level 8 of the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) where logic was detailed, scope was defined, detail durations and estimates prepared, and resource loaded schedules developed. Technical Basis Review (TBR) packages were prepared which include this information and, in addition, defined the enabling assumptions for each task, and the risks associated with performance. This process is discussed in Section 2.1. Detailed reviews at the subactivity within the Level 1 Logic TBR levels were conducted to provide the recommended solution to the Phase 1B Retrieval and Disposal Mission. Independent cost analysis and risk assessments were performed by members of the Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) Business Management and Chief Financial Officer organization along with specialists in risk analysis from TRW, Inc. and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems. The process evaluated technical, schedule, and cost risk by category (program specific fixed and variable, integrated program, and programmatic) based on risk certainly from high probability well defined to very low probability that is not bounded or priceable as discussed in Section 2.2. The results have been

  3. Design of a permeable reactive barrier in situ remediation system, Vermont site

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J.J.; Marcus, D.L.

    1997-12-31

    EMCON designed a Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) for a site in Vermont to passively remediate in situ groundwater impacted with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs). The PRB was selected over more conventional remediation approaches because it is a potentially low maintenance and long lasting solution for containment of groundwater impacts. Iron media are used as an agent to produce reductive dehalogenation reactions that break down the CVOCs. At the Vermont site, impacted groundwater is found from approximately 1.3 to 4.3 meters (4 to 14 feet) below ground surface in the uppermost aquifer, which is underlain by a silty clay aquitard. These are virtually optimum conditions for the implementation of this kind of technology. Effective design of the PRB required site specific hydrogeologic, geochemical, and geotechnical data, a substantial amount that was already available and some which was collected during the recent Corrective Action Feasibility Investigation (CAFI). Most PRBs have been constructed using sheet pilings to shore excavations backfilled by iron filings. On the Vermont project, continuous trenching is proposed to install HDPE sheeting for the funnel and alternative reactive media may be used in the reactive gates. The Funnel and Gate{trademark} system is being designed to regulate flow velocity through the gate to yield critical contact time between the CVOCs and the reactive media.

  4. Data and Information Management System for the ORNL Remedial Action Program

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; Hook, L.A.; Gentry, M.J.; Owen, P.T.; Newman, K.A.; McCord, R.A.; Faulkner, M.A.; Bledsoe, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    A Remedial Action Program (RAP) was established in FY 1985 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide corrective measures at areas contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes. To achieve this goal, numerous and varied studies are being conducted to characterize the waste disposal sites. Environmental data collected in support of other programs at ORNL are also of use to RAP. Collectively, these studies are generating a voluminous amount of data on a scale unprecedented for ORNL. A computerized Data and Information Management System (DIMS) was developed to (1) provide a centralized repository for data pertinent to RAP and (2) provide support for the investigations and assessments leading to the long-term remediation of contaminated sites and facilities. The current DIMS and its role in supporting RAP are described. The DIMS consists of three components: (1) the Bibliographic Data Base, (2) the Records Control Data Base, and (3) the Numeric Data Base. This paper/poster emphasizes the Numeric Data Base, including its development and organization, and also summarizes the status of other activities associated with management and use of such data (i.e., bibliographic information, records control, geographic information, and quality assurance). The types of data currently available have been summarized, and a synopsis of the contents of the RAP numeric data base has been compiled in a menu-driven program available on PC diskettes. The synopsis will be demonstrated at the conference. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  5. A new method to control electrolytes pH by circulation system in electrokinetic soil remediation.

    PubMed

    Lee, H H; Yang, J W

    2000-10-01

    To simultaneously avoid a decrease of electro-osmotic flow by hydrogen ions and to increase heavy metal precipitation due to hydroxide ions, simulated electrokinetic remediation was conducted in saturated kaolinite specimens loaded with lead(II) using an electrolyte circulation method to control electrolyte pH. At an electrolyte circulation rate of 1.1 ml/min, it was possible to increase the anolyte pH from 2 to 4 and decrease the catholyte pH from 12 to 8. Using electrolyte circulation, it was observed that the rate of decrease of clay pH due to the change of electrolyte pH was reduced. As a result, the operable period was extended and the removal efficiency for lead(II) was also increased. It was observed that most of the effluent lead(II) from the cathode compartment was electroplated onto the cathode and that residual effluent lead(II) did not precipitate onto, or adsorb to, the clay at the anode compartment during circulation. Therefore, there was no need to treat the electrolyte because there was virtually no effluent from the cathode compartment in the circulation system. It was also found that the electrolyte volume required to sustain the electrolytic reaction was sufficient for the whole electrokinetic remediation process. PMID:10946130

  6. Interface control document for tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure support Project W-519

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-04-23

    This document describes the functional and physical interfaces between the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Project W-519 and the various other projects (i.e., Projects W-314, W-464, W-465, and W-520) supporting Phase 1 that will require the allocation of land in and about the Privatization Phase 1 Site and/or interface with the utilities extended by Project W-519. Project W-519 will identify land use allocations and upgrade/extend several utilities in the 200-East Area into the Privatization Phase 1 Site (formerly the Grout Disposal Compound) in preparation for the Privatization Contractors (PC) to construct treatment facilities. The project will upgrade/extend: Roads, Electrical Power, Raw Water (for process and fire suppression), Potable Water, and Liquid Effluent collection. The replacement of an existing Sanitary Sewage treatment system that may be displaced by Phase 1 site preparation activities may also be included.

  7. Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) microcomputer-operated bibliography management system

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Washburn, D.K.; Denham, D.H.

    1985-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided technical assistance to the Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in developing their Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA). The APRA Bibliography Management System (BMS), a microcomputer-operated system designed to file, locate and retrieve project-specific bibliographic data, was developed to manage the documentation associated with APRA. The BMS uses APRABASE, a PNL-developed computer program written in dBASE II language, which is designed to operate using the commercially available dBASE II database software. This document describes the APRABASE computer program, its associated subprograms, and the dBASE II APRA file. A User's Manual is also provided in the document. Although the BMS was designed to manage APRA-associated documents, it could be easily adapted for use in handling bibliographic data associated with any project.

  8. The Influence of Chinese Character Handwriting Diagnosis and Remedial Instruction System on Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Chen, Chiao-Jia; Wu, Chia-Hou; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study designed and developed a Chinese character handwriting diagnosis and remedial instruction (CHDRI) system to improve Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners' ability to write Chinese characters. The CFL learners were given two tests based on the CHDRI system. One test focused on Chinese character handwriting to diagnose the CFL…

  9. Management assessment of tank waste remediation system contractor readiness to proceed with phase 1B privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Honeyman, J.O.

    1998-01-09

    This Management Assessment of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Contractor Readiness to Proceed With Phase 1B Privatization documents the processes used to determine readiness to proceed with tank waste treatment technologies from private industry, now known as TWRS privatization. An overall systems approach was applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and disposal mission of the TWRS Project. The systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed to ensure they exist when needed. Since October 1996 a robust system engineering approach to establishing integrated Technical Baselines, work breakdown structures, tank farms organizational structure and configurations, work scope, and costs has become part of the culture within the TWRS Project. An analysis of the programmatic, management, and technical activities necessary to declare readiness to proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, personnel, and hardware will be on-line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team to support initiation of waste processing by the private contractors in June 2002 and to receive immobilized waste shortly thereafter. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the private contractor Requests for Proposal were reviewed. Transfer piping routes were mapped, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined.

  10. Risk-based systems analysis of emerging high-level waste tank remediation technologies. Volume 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormack, W.D.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of DOE`s Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area is to identify and develop new technologies that will reduce the risk and/or cost of remediating DOE underground waste storage tanks and tank contents. There are, however, many more technology investment opportunities than the current budget can support. Current technology development selection methods evaluate new technologies in isolation from other components of an overall tank waste remediation system. This report describes a System Analysis Model developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) program. The report identifies the project objectives and provides a description of the model. Development of the first ``demonstration`` version of this model and a trial application have been completed and the results are presented. This model will continue to evolve as it undergoes additional user review and testing.

  11. Tank waste remediation system FSAR hazard identification/facility configuration verification report

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, D.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-01

    This document provides the results of the Tank Waste Remediation System Final Safety Analysis Report (TWRS FSAR) hazards identification/facility configuration activities undertaken from the period of March 7, 1996 to May 31, 1996. The purpose of this activity was to provide an independent overview of the TWRS facility specific hazards and configurations that were used in support of the TWRS FSAR hazards and accident analysis development. It was based on a review of existing published documentation and field inspections. The objective of the verification effort was to provide a `snap shot` in time of the existing TWRS facility hazards and configurations and will be used to support hazards and accident analysis activities.

  12. Causes and remedies for the dominant risk factors in Enterprise System implementation projects: the consultants' perspective.

    PubMed

    Lech, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the causes of the dominant risk factors, affecting Enterprise System implementation projects and propose remedies for those risk factors from the perspective of implementation consultants. The study used a qualitative research strategy, based on e-mail interviews, semi-structured personal interviews with consultants and participant observation during implementation projects. The main contribution of this paper is that it offers viable indications of how to mitigate the dominant risk factors. These indications were grouped into the following categories: stable project scope, smooth communication supported by the project management, dedicated, competent and decision-making client team, competent and engaged consultant project manager, schedule and budget consistent with the project scope, use of methodology and procedures, enforced and enabled by the project managers, competent and dedicated consultants. A detailed description is provided for each category. PMID:27026932

  13. Duct Remediation Program: Remediation operations and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, T.d.; Davis, M.M.; Karas, T.M.

    1992-11-01

    Plutonium holdup material has accumulated in the process ventilation duct systems at Rocky Flats. Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) measurements identified ducts containing this material. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board and the Department of Energy established the criteria for remediation of these ducts. A remediation team was assembled and a program plan created. This program plan included activities such as fissile material accumulation identification, criticality safety assessments, radiation dose determinations, facility safety evaluations, prevention of future accumulation, and removal of holdup material. Several operational considerations had to be evaluated in determining completion of remediation.

  14. Learning for Mastery Versus Personalized System of Instruction: A Comparison of Remediation Strategies with Secondary School Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, David H.; Denton, Jon J.

    1977-01-01

    Compares student achievement and retention scores of secondary school chemistry students who were involved in: (1) learning-for-mastery, (2) personalized system of instruction and (3) control (independent study) modes of remediation work. Higher retention and more objectives were recorded by the learning-for-mastery group. (CP)

  15. Innovative technology summary report: System for Tracking Remediation, Exposure, Activities and Materials

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The System for Tracking Remediation, Exposure, Activities, and Materials (STREAM) technology is a multi-media database that consolidates project information into a single, easily-accessible place for day-to-day work performance and management tracking. Information inputs can range from procedures, reports, and references to waste generation logs and manifests to photographs and contaminant survey maps. Key features of the system are quick and easy information organization and retrieval, versatile information display options, and a variety of visual imaging methods. These elements enhance productivity and compliance and facilitate communications with project staff, clients, and regulators. Use of STREAM also gives visual access to contaminated areas, reducing the number of physical entries and promoting safety and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principles. The STREAM system can be customized to focus on the information needs of a specific project, and provides a capability and work process improvement well beyond the usual collection of paperwork and independent databases. Especially when incorporated early in project planning and implemented to the fullest extent, it is a systematic and cost-effective tool for controlling and using project information. The STREAM system can support up to 50 different work stations. This report covers the period February through October 1997, when the STREAM software program, owned by Delphinus Engineering, was demonstrated at the Hanford Site`s Reactor Interim Safe Storage (ISS) Project.

  16. Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Effects of Homeopathic Remedies on Multiscale Entropy and Correlation Dimension of Slow Wave Sleep EEG in Young Adults with Histories of Coffee-Induced Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Iris R.; Howerter, Amy; Jackson, Nicholas; Aickin, Mikel; Bootzin, Richard R.; Brooks, Audrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Investigators of homeopathy have proposed that nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) and complex systems science offer conceptual and analytic tools for evaluating homeopathic remedy effects. Previous animal studies demonstrate that homeopathic medicines alter delta electroencephalographic (EEG) slow wave sleep. The present study extended findings of remedy-related sleep stage alterations in human subjects by testing the feasibility of using two different NDS analytic approaches to assess remedy effects on human slow wave sleep EEG. Methods Subjects (N=54) were young adult male and female college students with a history of coffee-related insomnia who participated in a larger 4-week study of the polysomnographic effects of homeopathic medicines on home-based all-night sleep recordings. Subjects took one bedtime dose of a homeopathic remedy (Coffea cruda or Nux vomica 30c). We computed multiscale entropy (MSE) and the correlation dimension (Mekler-D2) for stage 3 and 4 slow wave sleep EEG sampled in artifact-free 2-minute segments during the first two rapid-eye-movement (REM) cycles for remedy and post-remedy nights, controlling for placebo and post-placebo night effects. Results MSE results indicate significant, remedy-specific directional effects, especially later in the night (REM cycle 2) (CC: remedy night increases and post-remedy night decreases in MSE at multiple sites for both stages 3 and 4 in both REM cycles; NV: remedy night decreases and post-remedy night increases, mainly in stage 3 REM cycle 2 MSE). D2 analyses yielded more sporadic and inconsistent findings. Conclusions Homeopathic medicines Coffea cruda and Nux vomica in 30c potencies alter short-term nonlinear dynamic parameters of slow wave sleep EEG in healthy young adults. MSE may provide a more sensitive NDS analytic method than D2 for evaluating homeopathic remedy effects on human sleep EEG patterns. PMID:22818237

  17. Risk-based systems analysis of emerging high-level waste tank remediation technologies. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormack, W.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a System Analysis Model developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) program to aid technology development funding decisions for radioactive tank waste remediation. Current technology development selection methods evaluate new technologies in isolation from other components of an overall tank waste remediation system. These methods do not show the relative effect of new technologies on tank remediation systems as a whole. Consequently, DOE may spend its resources on technologies that promise to improve a single function but have a small or possibly negative, impact on the overall system, or DOE may overlook a technology that does not address a high priority problem in the system but that does, if implemented, offer sufficient overall improvements. Systems engineering and detailed analyses often conducted under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA 1969) use a ``whole system`` approach but are costly, too time-consuming, and often not sufficiently focused to support the needs of the technology program decision-makers. An alternative approach is required to evaluate these systems impacts but still meet the budget and schedule needs of the technology program.

  18. Optimal design of groundwater remediation system using a probabilistic multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qiankun; Wu, Jianfeng; Yang, Yun; Qian, Jiazhong; Wu, Jichun

    2014-11-01

    This study develops a new probabilistic multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm (PMOFHS) for optimal design of groundwater remediation systems under uncertainty associated with the hydraulic conductivity (K) of aquifers. The PMOFHS integrates the previously developed deterministic multi-objective optimization method, namely multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm (MOFHS) with a probabilistic sorting technique to search for Pareto-optimal solutions to multi-objective optimization problems in a noisy hydrogeological environment arising from insufficient K data. The PMOFHS is then coupled with the commonly used flow and transport codes, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, to identify the optimal design of groundwater remediation systems for a two-dimensional hypothetical test problem and a three-dimensional Indiana field application involving two objectives: (i) minimization of the total remediation cost through the engineering planning horizon, and (ii) minimization of the mass remaining in the aquifer at the end of the operational period, whereby the pump-and-treat (PAT) technology is used to clean up contaminated groundwater. Also, Monte Carlo (MC) analysis is employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Comprehensive analysis indicates that the proposed PMOFHS can find Pareto-optimal solutions with low variability and high reliability and is a potentially effective tool for optimizing multi-objective groundwater remediation problems under uncertainty.

  19. The effects of a stannous chloride-based remediation system in a mercury contaminated stream

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mathews, Teresa J; Looney, Brian; BryanJr., Larry; Smith, John G; Miller, Carrie L; Peterson, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Remediation of mercury (Hg)-contaminated watersheds is often challenging because of the complex nature of Hg biogeochemistry. Stream ecosystems have been shown to be particularly susceptible to Hg contamination and bioaccumulation in fish. Decreasing total Hg loading to stream systems, however, has shown variable performance in decreasing Hg concentrations in fish tissues. In this study, we assess the impacts of an innovative treatment system in reducing releases of Hg to a small stream system in the southeastern United States. The treatment system, installed in 2007, removes Hg from water using tin (Sn) (II) chloride followed by air stripping. Mercury concentrations inmore » the receiving stream, Tims Branch, decreased from > 100 to ~10 ng/L in the four years following treatment, and Hg body burdens in redfin pickerel (Esox americanus) decreased by 70 % at the most contaminated site. Tin concentrations in water and fish increased significantly in the tributary leading to Tims Branch, but concentrations remain below levels of concern for human health or ecological risks. While other studies have shown that Sn may be environmentally methylated and methyltin can transfer its methyl group to Hg, results from our field studies and sediment incubation experiments suggest that the added Sn to the Tims Branch watershed is not contributing to MeHg production and bioaccumulation. The stannous chloride treatment system installed at Tims Branch was effective at removing Hg inputs and reducing Hg bioaccumulation in the stream with minimal impacts on the environment due to the increased Sn in the system.« less

  20. Tank waste remediation system fiscal year 1997 multi-year workplan WBS 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.E.

    1996-09-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program to manage and immobilize for disposal the waste contained in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The TWRS program was established as a DOE major system acquisition under an approved Justification of Mission Need (JMN) dated January 19, 1993. The JMN states that the purpose of the TWRS Program is to: Resolve the tank waste safety issues; Integrate the waste disposal mission with the ongoing waste management mission; Assess the technical bases for tank waste management and disposal; Determine the technology available and develop any needed technologies; and Establish a dedicated organization and provide the resources to meet the technical challenge. The principal objectives of management of existing and future tank wastes is to cost-effectively minimize the environmental, safety, and health risks associated with stored wastes, with reduction of safety risks given the highest priority. The potentials must be minimized for release of tank wastes to the air and to the ground (and subsequently to the groundwater) and for exposure of the operating personnel to tank wastes.

  1. Tank Waste Remediation System fiscal year 1996 multi-year program plan WBS 1.1. Revision 1, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document is a compilation of data relating to the Tank Waste Remediation System Multi-Year Program. Topics discussed include: management systems; waste volume, transfer and evaporation management; transition of 200 East and West areas; ferricyanide, volatile organic vapor, and flammable gas management; waste characterization; retrieval from SSTs and DSTs; heat management; interim storage; low-level and high-level radioactive waste management; and tank farm closure.

  2. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) privatization contractor samples waste envelope D material 241-C-106

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-04-14

    This report represents the Final Analytical Report on Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Contractor Samples for Waste Envelope D. All work was conducted in accordance with ''Addendum 1 of the Letter of Instruction (LOI) for TWRS Privatization Contractor Samples Addressing Waste Envelope D Materials - Revision 0, Revision 1, and Revision 2.'' (Jones 1996, Wiemers 1996a, Wiemers 1996b) Tank 241-C-1 06 (C-106) was selected by TWRS Privatization for the Part 1A Envelope D high-level waste demonstration. Twenty bottles of Tank C-106 material were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company using a grab sampling technique and transferred to the 325 building for processing by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). At the 325 building, the contents of the twenty bottles were combined into a single Initial Composite Material. This composite was subsampled for the laboratory-scale screening test and characterization testing, and the remainder was transferred to the 324 building for bench-scale preparation of the Privatization Contractor samples.

  3. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    SciTech Connect

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-09

    This document provides a summary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost), developed to demonstrate Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) in support of the TWRS Phase 1B mission. This Updated Baseline is the proposed TWRS plan to execute and measure the mission work scope. This document and other supporting data demonstrate that the TWRS Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team is prepared to fully support Phase 1B by executing the following scope, schedule, and cost baseline activities: Deliver the specified initial low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) feed batches in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner to support private contractors` operations starting in June 2002; Deliver specified subsequent LAW and HLW feed batches during Phase 1B in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner; Provide for the interim storage of immobilized HLW (IHLW) products and the disposal of immobilized LAW (ILAW) products generated by the private contractors; Provide for disposal of byproduct wastes generated by the private contractors; and Provide the infrastructure to support construction and operations of the private contractors` facilities.

  4. Public values related to decisions in the Tank Waste Remediation System Program

    SciTech Connect

    Armacost, L.L.; Robershotte, M.; von Winterfeldt, D.; Creighton, J.

    1994-10-01

    Managers of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program have to make numerous decisions, ranging from the strategic decisions on the fundamental tank cleanup goals to technical decisions on which types of equipment to use in mechanical retrieval of wastes. Furthermore, many of these decisions have to be made repeatedly (e.g., the annual allocation of research and development funds to TWRS activities). These decisions have many potential consequences in terms of risks to workers, risks to the public, environmental impacts, and economic development and cost. Because these consequences affect the values of many parties, the consequences need to be evaluated in terms that are accepted and understood by the interested parties. Therefore, an effort needs to be made to incorporate public concerns and values into the TWRS decision-making process. The purpose of this report is to review and integrate this past work on values and to create a maser list of values in order to create a consistent value framework for the numerous TWRS decisions; efficiently and effectively use public values in the decision-making process by updating this report on a regular basis to ensure that the information represents the public`s current views; provide guidance about using values in technical TWRS decisions.

  5. Geophysical Monitoring of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils Remediated with a Bioelectrochemical System.

    PubMed

    Mao, Deqiang; Lu, Lu; Revil, André; Zuo, Yi; Hinton, John; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-08-01

    Efficient noninvasive techniques are desired for monitoring the remediation process of contaminated soils. We applied the direct current resistivity technique to image conductivity changes in sandbox experiments where two sandy and clayey soils were initially contaminated with diesel hydrocarbon. The experiments were conducted over a 230 day period. The removal of hydrocarbon was enhanced by a bioelectrochemical system (BES) and the electrical potentials of the BES reactors were also monitored during the course of the experiment. We found that the variation in electrical conductivity shown in the tomograms correlate well with diesel removal from the sandy soil, but this is not the case with the clayey soil. The clayey soil is characterized by a larger specific surface area and therefore a larger surface conductivity. In sandy soil, the removal of the diesel and products from degradation leads to an increase in electrical conductivity during the first 69 days. This is expected since diesel is electrically insulating. For both soils, the activity of BES reactors is moderately imaged by the inverted conductivity tomogram of the reactor. An increase in current production by electrochemically active bacteria activity corresponds to an increase in conductivity of the reactor. PMID:27386889

  6. Countercurrent soil washing system for remediation of viscous hydrocarbons, heavy metals, radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, M.I.; Karlsson, M.K.; Downie, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Drying augers and multicell DAF tanks are excellent machines in which to countercurrently wash soil and remove hazardous hydrocarbons, metals or radionuclides. An auger works well because it preferentially moves soil along one side of its trough. Thus, when enough high pressure and temperature water jets are placed along that path, contaminants can be melted, or dissolved and scoured from the soil. Contaminants and fines flow down the opposite side of the auger and out for extraction in a series of flotation tanks. Countercurrent washing of the silt results when soil settles in tanks through rising water and air bubbles then is pumped through cyclones placed above the next DAF tank of the series. LNAPLs, DNAPLs, or metallic contaminants made hydrophobic by chemicals in the system are removed at the overflow of the cyclones or by flotation in the tanks. The overflow from the cyclones and DAF tanks flows into the previous tank of the series. Examples of contaminants remediated include; arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), uranium, solid oils, polyaromatic hydrocarbons in creosote and coal tars, and polychlorinated hydrocarbons.

  7. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

    2009-01-01

    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  8. Building 834 -- Cost-effective and innovative design of remediation systems using surplus equipment from former weapons programs

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, P.F.; Landgraf, R.K.; Lima, M.R.; Lamarre, A.L.

    1995-07-01

    The Building 834 Complex at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300, has been used by the weapons development programs at LLNL as a testing facility for measuring component response to environmental stresses such as extreme temperature. The heat-exchange system at the facility used trichloroethene TCE, at times with adjuvants, as the primary heat-transfer media for over 20 years. Accidental spills, pipe failures, and seal blowouts over that period contributed to a substantial contaminant plume in a perched water-bearing zone underlying the Complex. Individual wells near the source area have produced ground water samples with TCE concentrations exceeding 800,000 ppb. In the last several years, the authors have developed a modular ground water and soil vapor extraction system for remediating the plume source area. The modular facility design permits the testing of new technologies to expedite remediation, and/or reduce the quantity of hazardous wastes generated as byproducts of the primary remedial activities. To contain costs, the authors have used equipment and components recycled from the original Building 834 Complex heat-exchange system, and surplus equipment from other LLNL divisions. The authors have executed two large-scale tests of energy injection systems for TCE destruction in air (a free-air electron beam and a pulsed, ultraviolet photolysis system), and a soil heating test for accelerating vapor extraction. New work plans for this unique site are being prepared, incorporating the lessons learned in developing new technology with recycled equipment.

  9. Optimal groundwater remediation design of pump and treat systems via a simulation-optimization approach and firefly algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javad Kazemzadeh-Parsi, Mohammad; Daneshmand, Farhang; Ahmadfard, Mohammad Amin; Adamowski, Jan; Martel, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, an optimization approach based on the firefly algorithm (FA) is combined with a finite element simulation method (FEM) to determine the optimum design of pump and treat remediation systems. Three multi-objective functions in which pumping rate and clean-up time are design variables are considered and the proposed FA-FEM model is used to minimize operating costs, total pumping volumes and total pumping rates in three scenarios while meeting water quality requirements. The groundwater lift and contaminant concentration are also minimized through the optimization process. The obtained results show the applicability of the FA in conjunction with the FEM for the optimal design of groundwater remediation systems. The performance of the FA is also compared with the genetic algorithm (GA) and the FA is found to have a better convergence rate than the GA.

  10. The Dnieper River Aquatic System Radioactive Contamination; Long-tern Natural Attenuation And Remediation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Laptev, Genadiy; Kanivets, Vladimir; Konoplev, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    Near 27 year passed after the Chernobyl Accident, and the experience gained to study radionuclide behavior in the aquatic systems and to mitigate water contamination are still pose of interest for scientists, society and regulatory austerities. There are different aspects of radionuclide transport in the environment were studied since the Chernobyl fallout in 1986 covered the river catchments, wetlands, river, lakes/reservoirs and reached the Black Sea. The monitoring time series data set and also data on the radionuclides behavior studies in the water bodies (river, lakes and the Black Sea) are available now in Ukraine and other affected countries. Its causation analyses, considering the main geochemical, physical and chemical and hydrological process, governing by radionuclide mobility and transport on the way from the initially contaminated catchments, through the river-reservoir hydrological system to the Black Sea can help in better understanding of the main factors governing be the radionuclide behavior in the environment. Radionuclide washout and its hydrological transport are determined speciation of radionuclides as well as soil types and hydrological mode and also geochemistry and landscape conditions at the affected areas. Mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are determined by ratio of radionuclide chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining rates of leaching, fixation/remobilization as well as sorption-desorption of mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). In many cases the natural attenuation processes governing by the above mentioned processes supported by water flow transportation and sedimentation played the key role in self-rehabilitation of the aquatic ecosystems. The models developed during post-Chernobyl decade and process parameters studies can help in monitoring and remediation programs planed for Fukusima Daichi affected watersheds areas as well. Some most important monitoring data

  11. [Continuous remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by co-cropping system enhanced with chelator].

    PubMed

    Wei, Ze-Bin; Guo, Xiao-Fang; Wu, Qi-Tang; Long, Xin-Xian

    2014-11-01

    In order to elucidate the continuous effectiveness of co-cropping system coupling with chelator enhancement in remediating heavy metal contaminated soils and its environmental risk towards underground water, soil lysimeter (0.9 m x 0.9 m x 0.9 m) experiments were conducted using a paddy soil affected by Pb and Zn mining in Lechang district of Guangdong Province, 7 successive crops were conducted for about 2.5 years. The treatments included mono-crop of Sedum alfredii Hance (Zn and Cd hyperaccumulator), mono-crop of corn (Zea mays, cv. Yunshi-5, a low-accumulating cultivar), co-crop of S. alfredii and corn, and co-crop + MC (Mixture of Chelators, comprised of citric acid, monosodium glutamate waste liquid, EDTA and KCI with molar ratio of 10: 1:2:3 at the concentration of 5 mmol x kg(-1) soil). The changes of heavy metal concentrations in plants, soil and underground water were monitored. Results showed that the co-cropping system was suitable only in spring-summer seasons and significantly increased Zn and Cd phytoextraction. In autumn-winter seasons, the growth of S. alfredii and its phytoextraction of Zn and Cd were reduced by co-cropping and MC application. In total, the mono-crops of S. alfredii recorded a highest phytoextraction of Zn and Cd. However, the greatest reduction of soil Zn, Cd and Pb was observed with the co-crop + MC treatment, the reduction rates were 28%, 50%, and 22%, respectively, relative to the initial soil metal content. The reduction of this treatment was mainly attributed to the downwards leaching of metals to the subsoil caused by MC application. The continuous monitoring of leachates during 2. 5 year's experiment also revealed that the addition of MC increased heavy metal concentrations in the leaching water, but they did not significantly exceed the III grade limits of the underground water standard of China. PMID:25639110

  12. The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative--Performance Monitoring for DOE Environmental Remediation and Contaminant Containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, W. J.; Venedam, R. J.; Lohrstorfer, C. F.; Weeks, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Advanced Monitoring System Initiative (AMSI) is a new approach to accelerate the development and application of advanced sensors and monitoring systems in support of Department of Energy needs in monitoring the performance of environmental remediation and contaminant containment activities. The Nevada Site Office of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Bechtel Nevada manage AMSI, with funding provided by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM). AMSI has easy access to unique facilities and capabilities available at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including the Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Spill Center, a one-of-a-kind facility built and permitted for releases of hazardous materials for training purposes, field-test detection, plume dispersion experimentation, and equipment and materials testing under controlled conditions. AMSI also has easy access to the facilities and considerable capabilities of the DOE and NNSA National Laboratories, the Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, and Nevada Universities. AMSI provides rapid prototyping, systems integration, and field-testing, including assistance during initial site deployment. The emphasis is on application. Important features of the AMSI approach are: (1) customer investment, involvement and commitment to use - including definition of needs, desired mode of operation, and performance requirements; and (2) employment of a complete systems engineering approach, which allows the developer to focus maximum attention on the essential new sensing element or elements while AMSI assumes principal responsibility for infrastructure support elements such as power, packaging, and general data acquisition, control, communication, visualization and analysis software for support of decisions. This presentation describes: (1) the needs for sensors and performance monitoring for environmental systems as seen by the DOE Long Term Stewardship Science and

  13. A Framework for Remediating Number Combination Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a framework for the remediation of number combination (NC) deficits. Research on the remediation of NC deficits is summarized, and research program studies are used to illustrate the 3 approaches to remediation. The Framework comprises a 2-stage system of remediation. The less intensive stage implementing 1 of 3…

  14. A model for homeopathic remedy effects: low dose nanoparticles, allostatic cross-adaptation, and time-dependent sensitization in a complex adaptive system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper proposes a novel model for homeopathic remedy action on living systems. Research indicates that homeopathic remedies (a) contain measurable source and silica nanoparticles heterogeneously dispersed in colloidal solution; (b) act by modulating biological function of the allostatic stress response network (c) evoke biphasic actions on living systems via organism-dependent adaptive and endogenously amplified effects; (d) improve systemic resilience. Discussion The proposed active components of homeopathic remedies are nanoparticles of source substance in water-based colloidal solution, not bulk-form drugs. Nanoparticles have unique biological and physico-chemical properties, including increased catalytic reactivity, protein and DNA adsorption, bioavailability, dose-sparing, electromagnetic, and quantum effects different from bulk-form materials. Trituration and/or liquid succussions during classical remedy preparation create “top-down” nanostructures. Plants can biosynthesize remedy-templated silica nanostructures. Nanoparticles stimulate hormesis, a beneficial low-dose adaptive response. Homeopathic remedies prescribed in low doses spaced intermittently over time act as biological signals that stimulate the organism’s allostatic biological stress response network, evoking nonlinear modulatory, self-organizing change. Potential mechanisms include time-dependent sensitization (TDS), a type of adaptive plasticity/metaplasticity involving progressive amplification of host responses, which reverse direction and oscillate at physiological limits. To mobilize hormesis and TDS, the remedy must be appraised as a salient, but low level, novel threat, stressor, or homeostatic disruption for the whole organism. Silica nanoparticles adsorb remedy source and amplify effects. Properly-timed remedy dosing elicits disease-primed compensatory reversal in direction of maladaptive dynamics of the allostatic network, thus promoting resilience and recovery from

  15. Potential enhancements to addressing programmatic risk in the tank waste remediation system (TWRS) program

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, A.; Fassbender, L.; Bilyard, G.; Levine, L.

    1996-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Risk Management methodology development task. The objective of this task was to develop risk management methodology focused on (1) the use of programmatic risk information in making TWRS architecture selection decisions and (2) the identification/evaluation/selection of TWRS risk-handling actions. Methods for incorporating programmatic risk/uncertainty estimates into trade studies are provided for engineers/analysts. Methods for identifying, evaluating, and selecting risk-handling actions are provided for managers. The guidance provided in this report is designed to help decision-makers make difficult judgments. Current approaches to architecture selection decisions and identification/evaluation/selection of risk-handling actions are summarized. Three categories of sources of programmatic risk (parametric, external, and organizational) are examined. Multiple analytical approaches are presented to enhance the current alternative generation and analysis (AGA) and risk-handling procedures. Appendix A describes some commercially available risk management software tools and Appendix B provides a brief introduction to quantification of risk attitudes. The report provides three levels of analysis for enhancing the AGA Procedure: (1) qualitative discussion coupled with estimated uncertainty ranges for scores in the alternatives-by-criteria matrix; (2) formal elicitation of probability distributions for the alternative scores; and (3) a formal, more structured, comprehensive risk analysis. A framework is also presented for using the AGA programmatic risk analysis results in making better decisions. The report also presents two levels of analysis for evaluation and selection of risk-handling actions: (1) qualitative analysis and judgmental rankings of alternative actions, and (2) Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART).

  16. A comparison of physicochemical methods for the remediation of porous medium systems contaminated with tar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, Scott C.; Miller, Cass T.

    2014-10-01

    The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) sites contaminated with tar DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids) presents a significant challenge. The tars are viscous mixtures of thousands of individual compounds, including known and suspected carcinogens. This work investigates the use of combinations of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation approaches to remove and degrade tars and tar components in porous medium systems. Column experiments were conducted using several flushing solutions, including an alkaline-polymer (AP) solution containing NaOH and xanthan gum (XG), a surfactant-polymer (SP) solution containing Triton X-100 surfactant (TX100) and XG, an alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solution containing NaOH, TX100, and XG, and base-activated sodium persulfate both with and without added TX100. The effectiveness of the flushing solutions was assessed based on both removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mass and on the reduction of dissolved-phase PAH concentrations. SP flushes of 6.6 to 20.9 PV removed over 99% of residual PAH mass and reduced dissolved-phase concentrations by up to two orders of magnitude. ASP flushing efficiently removed 95-96% of residual PAH mass within about 2 PV, and significantly reduced dissolved-phase concentrations of several low molar mass compounds, including naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and phenanthrene. AP flushing removed a large portion of the residual tar (77%), but was considerably less effective than SP and ASP in terms of the effect on dissolved PAH concentrations. Persulfate was shown to oxidize tar components, primarily those with low molar mass, however, the overall degradation was relatively low (30-50% in columns with low initial tar saturations), and the impact on dissolved-phase concentrations was minimal.

  17. Tank waste remediation system operation and utilization plan,vol. I {ampersand} II

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkbride, R.A.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL) is in the first stages of contracting with private companies for the treatment and immobilization of tank wastes. The components of tank waste retrieval, treatment, and immobilization have been conceived in two phases (Figure 1.0-1). To meet RL's anticipated contractual requirements, the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) companies will be required to provide waste feeds to the private companies consistent with waste envelopes that define the feeds in terms of quantity, and concentration of both chemicals and radionuclides. The planning that supports delivery of the feed must be well thought out in four basic areas: (1) Low-activity waste (LAW)/high-level waste (HLW) feed staging plans. How is waste moved within the existing tanks to deliver waste that corresponds to the defined feed envelopes to support the Private Contractor's processing schedule and processing rate? (2) Single-shell tank (SST) retrieval sequence. How are Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1994) milestones for SST retrieval integrated into the Phase I processing to set the stage for Phase II processing to complete the mission? (3) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flowsheet. How do materials flow from existing tank inventories through: (1) blending and pretreatment functions in the double-shell tanks (DSTs), (2) contractor processing facilities, and (3) stored waste forms (Figure 1.0-2); (4) Storage and disposal of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) and immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) product. How is the ILAW and IHLW product received from the private companies, the ILAW disposed onsite, and the IHLW stored onsite until final disposal?

  18. Final report of the systems engineering technical advisory board for the Tank Waste Remediation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Baranowski, F.P.; Goodlett, C.B.; Beard, S.J.; Duckworth, J.P.; Schneider, A.; Zahn, L.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is one segment of the environmental restoration program at the Hanford site. The scope is to retrieve the contents of both the single shell and double shell tanks and process the wastes into forms acceptable for long term storage and/or permanent disposal. The quantity of radioactive waste in tanks is significantly larger and substantially more complex in composition than the radioactive waste stored in tanks at other DOE sites. The waste is stored in 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks. The waste was produced over a period from the mid 1940s to the present. The single shell tanks have exceeded their design life and are experiencing failures. The oldest of the double shell tanks are approaching their design life. Spar double shell tank waste volume is limited. The priorities in the Board`s view are to manage safely the waste tank farms, accelerate emptying of waste tanks, provide spare tank capacity and assure a high degree of confidence in performance of the TWRS integrated program. At its present design capacity, the glass vitrification plant (HWVP) will require a period of about 15 years to empty the double shell tanks; the addition of the waste in single shell tanks adds another 100 years. There is an urgent need to initiate now a well focused and centralized development and engineering program on both larger glass melters and advanced separations processes that reduce radioactive constituents in the low-level waste (LLW). The Board presents its conclusions and has other suggestions for the management plan. The Board reviews planning schedules for accelerating the TWRS program.

  19. VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION IN WEST VIRGINIA: A HEDONIC MODELING APPROACH INCORPORATING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    States with active and abandoned mines face large private and public costs to remediate damage to streams and rivers from acid mine drainage (AMD). Appalachian states have an especially large number of contaminated streams and rivers, and the USGS places AMD as the primary source...

  20. A Comparison of Remediation Systems Affecting Achievement and Retention in Mastery Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, David H.; Denton, Jon J.

    Data from experiments with high school chemistry students revealed (1) that remediation positively influences cognitive achievement and retention, and (2) recycling, which introduces alternate materials and activities under teacher direction, provides more optimum learning conditions than repeating the learning activities and reviewing the reading…

  1. Building a Systemic Remedy for Educational Adequacy: Starting With What We Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clune, William H.

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the concern of educational adequacy: the availability of properly financed and managed accelerated-education programs that produce high minimum educational outcomes for disadvantaged students. Offers 11 specific educational policy and organizational elements that can be implemented to "remedy" educational inadequacy by courts in…

  2. The ultrasonic ranging and data system for radiological surveys in the UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.A.; Berven, B.A.; Blair, M.S.; Dickerson, K.S.; Pickering, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) was developed to allow radiation exposure data and positional information to be collected, stored and analyzed in a more efficient manner than currently employed on the (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) project. USRADS is a portable unit which employs ultrasonics, radio frequency transmissions, and a personal computer. Operational experience indicates that the system results in increased information about the property with decreased data analysis and transcription effort and only slightly more field effort. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Impact of heavy metal toxicity and constructed wetland system as a tool in remediation.

    PubMed

    Usharani, B; Vasudevan, N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review is to throw light upon the global concern of heavy metal-contaminated sites and their remediation through an ecofriendly approach. Accumulated heavy metals in soil and water bodies gain entry through the food chain and pose serious threat to all forms of life. This has engendered interest in phytoremediation techniques where hyperaccumulators are used. Constructed wetland has a pivotal role and is a cost-effective technique in the remediation of heavy metals. Metal availability and mobility are influenced by the addition of chelating agents, which enhance the availability of metal uptake. This review helps in identifying the critical knowledge gaps and areas to enhance research in the future to develop strategies such as genetically engineered hyperaccumulators to attain an environment devoid of heavy metal contamination. PMID:25454352

  4. Optimal design of active spreading systems to remediate sorbing groundwater contaminants in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piscopo, Amy N.; Neupauer, Roseanna M.; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of in situ remediation to treat contaminated aquifers is limited by the degree of contact between the injected treatment chemical and the groundwater contaminant. In this study, candidate designs that actively spread the treatment chemical into the contaminant are generated using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. Design parameters pertaining to the amount of treatment chemical and the duration and rate of its injection are optimized according to objectives established for the remediation - maximizing contaminant degradation while minimizing energy and material requirements. Because groundwater contaminants have different reaction and sorption properties that influence their ability to be degraded with in situ remediation, optimization was conducted for six different combinations of reaction rate coefficients and sorption rates constants to represent remediation of the common groundwater contaminants, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and toluene, using the treatment chemical, permanganate. Results indicate that active spreading for contaminants with low reaction rate coefficients should be conducted by using greater amounts of treatment chemical mass and longer injection durations relative to contaminants with high reaction rate coefficients. For contaminants with slow sorption or contaminants in heterogeneous aquifers, two different design strategies are acceptable - one that injects high concentrations of treatment chemical mass over a short duration or one that injects lower concentrations of treatment chemical mass over a long duration. Thus, decision-makers can select a strategy according to their preference for material or energy use. Finally, for scenarios with high ambient groundwater velocities, the injection rate used for active spreading should be high enough for the groundwater divide to encompass the entire contaminant plume.

  5. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - groundwater circulation well environmental cleanup systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    When a contaminant is treated in place on the original site it is termed in situ remediation. Bioremediation refers to cleanup effected by living organisms such as bacteria and fungi. Certain species of bacteria are able to consume pollutants as a food source, thus detoxifying these compounds. In situ bioremediation is being considered as a viable and practical solution for reducing petroleum contamination levels in groundwater.

  6. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - in situ air sparging system (revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Health, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    Air sparging is the process of injecting clean air directly into an aquifer for remediation of contaminated groundwater. For removing contaminants, air sparging relies on two basic mechanisms working either alone or in tandem: biodegradation and volatilization. The objective of air sparging is to force air through contaminated aquifer materials to provide oxygen for bioremediation and/or to strip contaminants out of the aquifer.

  7. Optimal design of active spreading systems to remediate sorbing groundwater contaminants in situ.

    PubMed

    Piscopo, Amy N; Neupauer, Roseanna M; Kasprzyk, Joseph R

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of in situ remediation to treat contaminated aquifers is limited by the degree of contact between the injected treatment chemical and the groundwater contaminant. In this study, candidate designs that actively spread the treatment chemical into the contaminant are generated using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. Design parameters pertaining to the amount of treatment chemical and the duration and rate of its injection are optimized according to objectives established for the remediation - maximizing contaminant degradation while minimizing energy and material requirements. Because groundwater contaminants have different reaction and sorption properties that influence their ability to be degraded with in situ remediation, optimization was conducted for six different combinations of reaction rate coefficients and sorption rates constants to represent remediation of the common groundwater contaminants, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and toluene, using the treatment chemical, permanganate. Results indicate that active spreading for contaminants with low reaction rate coefficients should be conducted by using greater amounts of treatment chemical mass and longer injection durations relative to contaminants with high reaction rate coefficients. For contaminants with slow sorption or contaminants in heterogeneous aquifers, two different design strategies are acceptable - one that injects high concentrations of treatment chemical mass over a short duration or one that injects lower concentrations of treatment chemical mass over a long duration. Thus, decision-makers can select a strategy according to their preference for material or energy use. Finally, for scenarios with high ambient groundwater velocities, the injection rate used for active spreading should be high enough for the groundwater divide to encompass the entire contaminant plume. PMID:27153361

  8. Performance assessment of biofuel production in an algae-based remediation system.

    PubMed

    Wuang, Shy Chyi; Luo, Yanpei Darren; Wang, Simai; Chua, Pei Qiang Danny; Tee, Pok Siang

    2016-03-10

    The production of biofuel from microalgae has been an area of great interest as microalgae have higher productivities than land plants, and certain species have high lipid constituents which are the major feedstock for biodiesel production. One way to enhance the economic feasibility of algal-based biofuel is to couple it with waste remediation. This study investigated the technical feasibility of cultivating Chlorella sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. with fish water for biofuel production. The remediation potential of Chlorella sp. was found to be higher but the lipid yield is lower, when compared to Nannochloropsis sp. Lipid productivities were found to be similar for both types of algae at 1.1-1.3mgL(-1)h(-1). The fatty acid profiles of the obtained lipids were found suitable for biofuel production, and the calorific values were high at 30-32MJ/kg. The results provide insights into lipid production in Chlorella sp. and Nannochloropsis sp., when coupled with waste remediation. PMID:26808868

  9. Implications of soil mixing for NAPL source zone remediation: Column studies and modeling of field-scale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Mitchell R.; Sale, Tom C.

    2015-06-01

    Soil remediation is often inhibited by subsurface heterogeneity, which constrains contaminant/reagent contact. Use of soil mixing techniques for reagent delivery provides a means to overcome contaminant/reagent contact limitations. Furthermore, soil mixing reduces the permeability of treated soils, thus extending the time for reactions to proceed. This paper describes research conducted to evaluate implications of soil mixing on remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zones. The research consisted of column studies and subsequent modeling of field-scale systems. For column studies, clean influent water was flushed through columns containing homogenized soils, granular zero valent iron (ZVI), and trichloroethene (TCE) NAPL. Within the columns, NAPL depletion occurred due to dissolution, followed by either column-effluent discharge or ZVI-mediated degradation. Complete removal of TCE NAPL from the columns occurred in 6-8 pore volumes of flow. However, most of the TCE (> 96%) was discharged in the column effluent; less than 4% of TCE was degraded. The low fraction of TCE degraded is attributed to the short hydraulic residence time (< 4 days) in the columns. Subsequently, modeling was conducted to scale up column results. By scaling up to field-relevant system sizes (> 10 m) and reducing permeability by one-or-more orders of magnitude, the residence time could be greatly extended, potentially for periods of years to decades. Model output indicates that the fraction of TCE degraded can be increased to > 99.9%, given typical post-mixing soil permeability values. These results suggest that remediation performance can be greatly enhanced by combining contaminant degradation with an extended residence time.

  10. Remediation of DDTs contaminated soil in a novel Fenton-like system with zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Cao, Menghua; Wang, Linling; Wang, Li; Chen, Jing; Lu, Xiaohua

    2013-02-01

    Application of a novel Fenton-like system with zero-valent iron, EDTA and Air (ZVI/EDTA/Air) was investigated to degrade dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in the actual contaminated soil from an organochlorine pesticide site. It was found DDTs in the soil were effectively degraded by the system at room temperature, ambient atmosphere pressure and near neutral pH. The dosages of EDTA and ZVI were the dominant factors influencing the removal of contaminants. An increase of EDTA from 0.05 to 0.2 mM and ZVI from 1 to 5 g L(-1) improved the removal of the contaminants significantly. However, excessive amount of EDTA led to a negative effect on the degradation process. Meanwhile, EDTA was simultaneously degraded so as to avoid the secondary pollution risk on soil remediation. Only a small amount of 4,4'-DDE and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1-chloroethylene (4,4'-DDMU) generated as the intermediates of DDT degradation during the process. Our investigation suggests that the Fenton-like system is a promising alternative for remediation of organochlorine pesticides contaminated soils. PMID:23102698

  11. Respiratory Allergies: A General Overview of Remedies, Delivery Systems, and the Need to Progress

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giselda; Celenza, Cinzia

    2014-01-01

    The spread of respiratory allergies is increasing in parallel with the alarm of the scientific community. Evidently, our knowledge of the onset mechanisms of these diseases and, as a consequence, of the available remedies is inadequate. This review provides a brief, general description of current therapeutic resources and the state of research with regard to both drugs and medical devices in order to highlight their limits and the urgent need for progress. Increasing the amount of basic biochemical research will improve our knowledge of such onset mechanisms and the potential efficacy of therapeutic preparations. PMID:25006500

  12. Optimal design of groundwater remediation systems using a probabilistic multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Q.; Wu, J.; Qian, J.

    2013-12-01

    This study develops a new probabilistic multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm (PMOFHS) for optimal design of groundwater remediation system under uncertainty associated with the hydraulic conductivity of aquifers. The PMOFHS integrates the previously developed deterministic multi-objective optimization method, namely multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm (MOFHS) with a probabilistic Pareto domination ranking and probabilistic niche technique to search for Pareto-optimal solutions to multi-objective optimization problems in a noisy hydrogeological environment arising from insufficient hydraulic conductivity data. The PMOFHS is then coupled with the commonly used flow and transport codes, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, to identify the optimal groundwater remediation system of a two-dimensional hypothetical test problem involving two objectives: (i) minimization of the total remediation cost through the engineering planning horizon, and (ii) minimization of the percentage of mass remaining in the aquifer at the end of the operational period, which uses the Pump-and-Treat (PAT) technology to clean up contaminated groundwater. Also, Monte Carlo (MC) analysis is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The MC analysis is taken to each Pareto solutions for every K realization. Then the statistical mean and the upper and lower bounds of uncertainty intervals of 95% confidence level are calculated. The MC analysis results show that all of the Pareto-optimal solutions are located between the upper and lower bounds of the MC analysis. Moreover, the root mean square errors (RMSEs) between the Pareto-optimal solutions by the PMOFHS and the average values of optimal solutions by the MC analysis are 0.0204 for the first objective and 0.0318 for the second objective, quite smaller than those RMSEs between the results by the existing probabilistic multi-objective genetic algorithm (PMOGA) and the MC analysis, 0.0384 and 0.0397, respectively. In

  13. The Impact of Traditional Septic Tank Soakaway Systems and the Effects of Remediation on Water Quality in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilroy, Kate; Keggan, Mary; Barrett, Maria; Dubber, Donata; Gill, Laurence W.; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    In Ireland the domestic wastewater of over 1/3 of the population is treated by on-site systems. These systems are based on a traditional design for disposal of domestic wastewater and rely on the surrounding subsoil for further treatment. Inefficient treatment is often associated with these systems and can cause pollution of local aquifers and waterways. The effluent nutrient load can contribute to eutrophication, depletion of dissolved oxygen and excessive algae growth in surface water bodies. Human enteric pathogens associated with faecal pollution of water sources may promote the outbreak of disease through contamination of drinking water supplies. The subsoil attenuation plays an important role in the protection of groundwater from effluent pollution. Therefore, as over 25% of the countries domestic water supplies are provided by groundwater, the protection of groundwater resources is crucial. This project involves both the assessment of traditional septic tank soakaway systems and the effects of remediation in low permeability subsoil settings on water quality in Ireland. The study aims to confirm by microbial source tracking (MST), the source (human and/or animal) of faecal microorganisms detected in groundwater, surface water and effluent samples, and to monitor the transport of pathogens specific to on-site wastewater outflows. In combination with MST, the evaluation of nitrification and denitrification in surrounding soil and effluent samples aims to assess nitrogen removal at specific intervals; pre-remediation and post-remediation. Two experimental sites have been routinely sampled for effluent, soil and groundwater samples as well as soil moisture samples using suction lysimeters located at various depths. A robust and reproducible DNA extraction method was developed, applicable to both sites. MST markers based on host-specific Bacteriodales bacteria for universal, human and cow-derived faecal matter are being employed to determine quantitative target

  14. Experimental logistics plan in support of Extensive Separations for Hanford tank waste remediation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Enderlin, W.I.; Swanson, J.L.; Carlson, C.D.; Hirschi, E.J.

    1993-12-01

    All proposed methods for remediating the radioactive and chemical waste stored in single- and double-shell tanks (SSTs and DSTs) at the Hanford Site require the separation of the waste mixtures in the tank into high-level and low-level fractions, the safe transport of this separated waste to appropriate immobilization facilities, and the long-term disposal of the immobilized waste forms. Extensive experimentation, especially in waste separations, will be required to develop the technologies and to produce the data that support the most effective and safe cleanup processes. As part of this effort, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing this detailed experimental logistics plan to determine the logistical/resource requirements, and ultimately the critical paths, necessary to effectively and safely conduct the multitude of experiments within the Extensive Separations Development Program, which addresses the experimental needs of a concept that provides a high degree of separation for the high-level and low-level waste fractions. The logistics issues developed for this program are expected to be similar to those for other programs aimed at remediating and disposing of the wastes.

  15. Reimagining Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handel, Stephen J.; Williams, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the College Board's Community College Advisory Panel--a group of college presidents that advises the organization's membership on community college issues--asked these authors to write a paper describing effective remedial education programs. They never wrote the paper. The problem was not the lack of dedicated faculty and staff working…

  16. Natural wetlands are efficient at providing long-term metal remediation of freshwater systems polluted by acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Dean, Andrew P; Lynch, Sarah; Rowland, Paul; Toft, Benjamin D; Pittman, Jon K; White, Keith N

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the first long-term (14-year) evaluation of the efficacy of an established (>100 years) natural wetland to remediate highly acidic mine drainage (AMD). Although natural wetlands are highly valued for their biodiversity, this study demonstrates that they also provide important ecosystem service functions through their ability to consistently and reliably improve water quality by mitigating AMD. The Afon Goch river flows from Parys Mountain copper mine via a natural wetland, and was the major source of Zn and Cu contamination to the Irish Sea. Prior to 2003 the wetland received severe acidic metal contamination and retained a large proportion of the contamination (55, 64, and 37% in dissolved Fe, Zn, and Cu) leading to a greatly reduced metal flow to the Irish Sea. Reduced wetland loadings midway through the sampling period led to a reduction of metals by 83-94% and a pH increase from 2.7 to 5.5, resulting in long-term improvements in the downstream benthic invertebrate community. High root metal accumulation by the dominant wetland plant species and the association of acidophilic bacteria in the wetland rhizosphere indicate that multiple interacting processes provide an efficient and self-sustaining system to remediate AMD. PMID:24088022

  17. Funnel-and-gate remediation systems augmented with passive filter wells.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Paul F

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of funnel-and-gate structures augmented with passive wells containing filter cartridges to capture contaminated groundwater in hypothetical, homogeneous and heterogeneous, unconfined aquifers. Perpendicular to groundwater flow, linear structures were 15 m wide, 1 m thick, and keyed into the base of the aquifer. Gates occupied 4 m of the total width of each simulated structure; one gate was 5 m from a contaminant plume's leading tip, while others occupied cross-gradient margins of the plume. Results suggest a modest reduction in remediation timeframes, up to 425 d per well added in these simulations; however, incremental benefits are highly variable and case specific. PMID:20694882

  18. In-situ remediation system for volatile organic compounds with deep recharge mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Jr., Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Nichols, Ralph L.; Phifer, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the treatment and remediation of a contaminated aquifer in the presence of an uncontaminated aquifer at a different hydraulic potential. The apparatus consists of a wellbore inserted through a first aquifer and into a second aquifer, an inner cylinder within the wellbore is supported and sealed to the wellbore to prevent communication between the two aquifers. Air injection is used to sparge the liquid having the higher static water level and, to airlift it to a height whereby it spills into the inner cylinder. The second treatment area provides treatment in the form of aeration or treatment with a material. Vapor stripped in sparging is vented to the atmosphere. Treated water is returned to the aquifer having the lower hydraulic potential.

  19. A demonstration of the applicability of implementing the enhanced Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) for environmental releases

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Strenge, D.L.; Walter, M.B.; Buck, J.W.

    1989-12-01

    The Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) and the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) were developed to prioritize problems associated with potential releases of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials in a scientific and objective manner based on limited site information. This report documents the model testing efforts of the RAPS/MEPAS methodology for the atmospheric, surface water, groundwater, and exposure components. Comparisons are given of model outputs with measured data at three sites: the US Department of Energy's Mound facility in Ohio and Hanford facility in Washington, and a chromium-cadmium plating site in New York. The results show that the simulated magnitudes, spacial and temporal trends, and distributions of contaminants corresponded well with the measured data. 25 refs., 86 figs., 26 tabs.

  20. Removing Remediation Requirements: Effectiveness of Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Anne; Duggan, Mickle; Braddy, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Remediation of incoming college freshman students is a national concern because remediated students are at higher risk of failing to complete their degrees. Some Oklahoma higher education institutions are working to assist K-12 systems in finding ways to reduce the number of incoming college freshman students requiring remediation. This study…

  1. 40 CFR 205.174 - Remedial orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Remedial orders. 205.174 Section 205... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.174 Remedial orders. The Administrator may issue appropriate remedial orders to a manufacturer if products are distributed into...

  2. Exploring the biochemical properties and remediation applications of the unusual explosive-degrading P450 system XplA/B

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rosamond G.; Rylott, Elizabeth L.; Fournier, Diane; Hawari, Jalal; Bruce, Neil C.

    2007-01-01

    Widespread contamination of land and groundwater has resulted from the use, manufacture, and storage of the military explosive hexa-hydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). This contamination has led to a requirement for a sustainable, low-cost method to remediate this problem. Here, we present the characterization of an unusual microbial P450 system able to degrade RDX, consisting of flavodoxin reductase XplB and fused flavodoxin-cytochrome P450 XplA. The affinity of XplA for the xenobiotic compound RDX is high (Kd = 58 μM) and comparable with the Km of other P450s toward their natural substrates (ranging from 1 to 500 μM). The maximum turnover (kcat) is 4.44 per s, only 10-fold less than the fastest self-sufficient P450 reported, BM3. Interestingly, the presence of oxygen determines the final products of RDX degradation, demonstrating that the degradation chemistry is flexible, but both pathways result in ring cleavage and release of nitrite. Carbon monoxide inhibition is weak and yet the nitroaromatic explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a potent inhibitor. To test the efficacy of this system for the remediation of groundwater, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing both xplA and xplB were generated. They are able to remove saturating levels of RDX from liquid culture and soil leachate at rates significantly faster than those of untransformed plants and xplA-only transgenic lines, demonstrating the applicability of this system for the phytoremediation of RDX-contaminated sites. PMID:17940033

  3. Data Management Plan and Functional System Design for the Information Management System of the Clinch River Remedial Investigation and Waste Area Grouping 6

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, T.; Brandt, C.; Calfee, J.; Garland, M.; Holladay, S.; Nickle, B.; Schmoyer, D.; Serbin, C.; Ward, M.

    1994-03-01

    The Data Management Plan and Functional System Design supports the Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) and Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 Environmental Monitoring Program. The objective of the Data Management Plan and Functional System Design is to provide organization, integrity, security, traceability, and consistency of the data generated during the CRRI and WAG 6 projects. Proper organization will ensure that the data are consistent with the procedures and requirements of the projects. The Information Management Groups (IMGs) for these two programs face similar challenges and share many common objectives. By teaming together, the IMGs have expedited the development and implementation of a common information management strategy that benefits each program.

  4. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil at a gas manufacturing plant by a combined two-phase partition system washing and microbial degradation process.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xuan; Xu, Xinyang; Gong, Zongqiang; Li, Xiaojun; Jia, Chunyun; Guo, Meixia; Li, Haibo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to design a remediation technique using both soil washing and microbial degradation to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil. PAH biodegradation by inoculation of Mycobacterium sp. was first tested. The effectiveness of washing agents (Tween 80 solution, biodiesel, and a two-phase partition system (TPPS)) was then evaluated with column experiments. Third, the combination of TPPS washing and microbial degradation was studied. PAH bioavailability before and after biodegradation and the joint remediation was also assessed using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction. Only phenanthrene and anthracene were noticeably biodegradable when the soil was inoculated with Mycobacterium sp. TPPS containing 2% (v/v) biodiesel and 2.5% (w/v) Tween 80 was used as the washing agent for the joint remediation test because it gave higher PAH extractions than Tween 80 solution with lower doses, and there was less residue in the soil. Joint TPPS washing and microbial degradation gave a total PAH removal of 92.6%, which was much higher than the results from either the biodegradation or washing experiments alone. Removals of all high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were improved. Bioavailable concentrations of all PAHs decreased significantly after the joint remediation process, indicating that there were reduced risks from all PAHs. The results demonstrate that the combination of TPPS washing and microbial degradation is a useful and innovative process for remediation of PAH-contaminated soils. PMID:25874432

  5. DESIGN OF AQUIFER REMEDIATION SYSTEMS: (2) Estimating site-specific performance and benefits of partial source removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Lagrangian stochastic model is proposed as a tool that can be utilized in forecasting remedial performance and estimating the benefits (in terms of flux and mass reduction) derived from a source zone remedial effort. The stochastic functional relationships that describe the hyd...

  6. Tank waste remediation system year 2000 dedicated file server project HNF-3418 project plan

    SciTech Connect

    SPENCER, S.G.

    1999-04-26

    The Server Project is to ensure that all TWRS supporting hardware (fileservers and workstations) will not cause a system failure because of the BIOS or Operating Systems cannot process Year 2000 dates.

  7. Remotely controlled vehicles and systems for integrated remediation of buried tru wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, H.J.; Ballantyne, J.; Rife, G.; Fung, P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the design, implementation and testing of remotely controlled vehicle systems developed for cooperative retrieval and transportation of Transuranic (TRU) buried wastes. The systems described are for the control of a Remote Excavator (REMEX), a Self Guided Transfer Vehicle (SGTV), a Remotely Controlled Materials Handling System and a Virtual Environment for Remote Operations (VERO), using imaging by a 3D Laser Camera.

  8. Simulation of the injection of colloidal suspensions for the remediation of contaminated aquifer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosco, Tiziana; Gastone, Francesca; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-05-01

    Concentrated suspensions of microscale and nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (MZVI and NZVI) have been studied in recent years for the remediation of contaminated aquifers. The suspensions are injected into the subsurface to generate a reactive zone, and consequently the prediction of the particles distribution during the injection is a key aspect in the design of a field-scale injection. Colloidal dispersions of MZVI and NZVI are not stable in pure water, and shear thinning, environmentally friendly fluids (guar gum and xanthan gum solutions) were found to be effective in improving colloidal stability, thus greatly improving handling and injectability (1 - 3). Shear thinning fluids exhibit high viscosity in static conditions, improving the colloidal stability, and lower viscosity at high flow rates enabling the injection at limited pressures. Shear thinning fluids exhibit high viscosity in static conditions, improving the colloidal stability, and lower viscosity at high flow rates enabling the injection at limited pressures. In this work, co-funded by European Union project AQUAREHAB (FP7 - Grant Agreement Nr. 226565), laboratory and pilot field tests for MZVI injection in saturated porous media are reported. MZVI was dispersed in guar gum solutions, and the transport behaviour under several polymer concentrations and injection rates was assessed in column tests (4). Based on the experimental results, a modelling approach is proposed to simulate the transport in porous media of nanoscale iron slurries, implemented in E-MNM1D (www.polito.it/groundwater/software). Colloid transport mechanisms are controlled by particle-collector and particle-particle interactions, usually modelled by a non equilibrium kinetic model accounting for deposition and release processes. The key aspects included in the E-MNM1D are clogging phenomena (i.e. reduction of porosity and permeability due to particles deposition), and the rheological properties of the carrier fluid (in this

  9. Use of natural and applied tracers to guide targeted remediation efforts in an acid mine drainage system, Colorado Rockies, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowie, Rory; Williams, Mark W.; Wireman, Mike; Runkel, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Stream water quality in areas of the western United States continues to be degraded by acid mine drainage (AMD), a legacy of hard-rock mining. The Rico-Argentine Mine in southwestern Colorado consists of complex multiple-level mine workings connected to a drainage tunnel discharging AMD to passive treatment ponds that discharge to the Dolores River. The mine workings are excavated into the hillslope on either side of a tributary stream with workings passing directly under the stream channel. There is a need to define hydrologic connections between surface water, groundwater, and mine workings to understand the source of both water and contaminants in the drainage tunnel discharge. Source identification will allow targeted remediation strategies to be developed. To identify hydrologic connections we employed a combination of natural and applied tracers including isotopes, ionic tracers, and fluorescent dyes. Stable water isotopes (δ18O/δD) show a well-mixed hydrological system, while tritium levels in mine waters indicate a fast flow-through system with mean residence times of years not decades or longer. Addition of multiple independent tracers indicated that water is traveling through mine workings with minimal obstructions. The results from a simultaneous salt and dye tracer application demonstrated that both tracer types can be successfully used in acidic mine water conditions.

  10. Performance Assessment of the Waste Dislodging Conveyance System During the Gunite And Associated Tanks Remediation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, P.D.

    2001-02-21

    The Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System (WD and CS) and other components of the Tank Waste Retrieval System (TWRS) were developed to address the need for removal of hazardous wastes from underground storage tanks (USTs) in which radiation levels and access limitations make traditional waste retrieval methods impractical. Specifically, these systems were developed for cleanup of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Operable Unit (OU) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WD and CS is comprised of a number of different components. The three primary hardware subsystems are the Hose Management System (HMS), the Confined Sluicing End-Effector (CSEE), and the Flow Control Equipment and Containment Box (FCE/CB). In addition, a Decontamination Spray Ring (DSR) and a control system were developed for the system. The WD and CS is not a stand-alone system; rather, it is designed for deployment with either a long-reach manipulator like the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) or a remotely operated vehicle system such as the Houdini{trademark}. The HMS was designed to act as a pipeline for the transfer of dislodged waste; as a hose-positioning and tether-management system; and as a housing for process equipment such as the water-powered jet pump that provides the necessary suction to vacuum slurried waste from the UST. The HMS was designed to facilitate positioning of an end-effector at any point within the 25-ft- or 50-ft-diameter USTs in the GAAT OU.

  11. MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMAL DESIGN OF GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION SYSTEMS: APPLICATION OF THE NICHED PARETO GENETIC ALGORITHM (NPGA). (R826614)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multiobjective optimization algorithm is applied to a groundwater quality management problem involving remediation by pump-and-treat (PAT). The multiobjective optimization framework uses the niched Pareto genetic algorithm (NPGA) and is applied to simultaneously minimize the...

  12. Constructed wetland treatment systems for the remediation of metal- bearing aqueous discharges. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Woodis, A.L.

    1995-08-01

    Electric utility activities, such as coal mining, processing, and combustion, often produce aqueous (wastewater) discharges containing metals. Chemical treatment of these discharges to achieve compliance with National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) requirements can be costly. Constructed wetland treatment systems offer an inexpensive, natural, low-maintenance, and potentially long-term solution for the treatment of aqueous discharges without chemical additives. At the present time, several electric utilities are using constructed wetland treatment systems to achieve NPDES compliance. Constructed wetland treatment systems take advantage of natural biogeochemical processes to treat utility wastewaters, thus meeting NPDES compliance levels in an environmentally effective manner. This report provides information on the natural science, wastewater treatment, and regulatory/jurisdictional aspects of constructed wetland treatment systems used within the electric utility industry. Included is data from a number of electric utility constructed wetland treatment sites. The principal advantages of using constructed wetland systems to treat wastewater are the low overall cost compared to more conventional chemical treatment methods, the simplicity of operation, and the capacity to provide long-term resource recovery. For example, using a lined constructed wetland treatment system with high retention efficiency for heavy metals provides the option of resource recovery at some future date from a discrete volume of wetland material. Contaminants that can be removed with high efficiency in a number of constructed wetland treatment systems include heavy metals, toxic organics, suspended solids, and nutrients. This report discusses the treatability of specific contaminants as well as metal uptake and translocation processes in constructed wetlands.

  13. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission key enabling assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1998-01-09

    An overall systems approach has been applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and immobilization waste disposal mission. The review concluded that the systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed. An analysis of the programmatic, management and technical activities necessary to declare Readiness to Proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, people, and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and immobilized waste disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the TWRS contractor to supply waste feed to the private contractors in June 2002. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the Private Contractor Request for Proposals were reviewed, transfer piping routes were mapped on it, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined. Technical Basis Reviews were completed to define work scope in greater detail, cost estimates and associated year by year financial analyses were completed. Personnel training, qualifications, management systems and procedures were reviewed and shown to be in place and ready to support the Phase 1B mission. Key assumptions and risks that could negatively impact mission success were evaluated and appropriate mitigative actions plans were planned and scheduled.

  14. Management assessment of tank waste remediation system contractor readiness to proceed with phase 1B privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Certa, P.J.

    1998-01-07

    Readiness to Proceed With Phase 1B Privatization documents the processes used to determine readiness to proceed with tank waste treatment technologies from private industry, now known as TWRS privatization. An overall systems approach was applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and disposal mission of the TWRS Project. The systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed to ensure they exist when needed. Since October 1996 a robust system engineering approach to establishing integrated Technical Baselines, work breakdown structures, tank farms organizational structure and configurations, work scope, and costs has become part of the culture within the TWRS Project. An analysis of the programmatic, management, and technical activities necessary to declare readiness to proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, personnel, and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team to support initiation of waste processing by the private contractors in June 2002 and to receive immobilized waste shortly thereafter. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the private contractor Requests for Proposal were reviewed. Transfer piping routes were mapped, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined.

  15. Contaminated Groundwater Remediation by Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide and Persulfate Oxidants System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, N.; Wang, Y.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    A binary oxidant system, catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) coupled with persulfate (S2O82-), was investigated for use in in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) applications. Trichloroethene (TCE) and 1,4-dioxane were used as target contaminants. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the catalytic efficiency between ferrous ion (Fe2+) and base (NaOH), oxidant decomposition rates, and contaminant degradation efficiency. For the base-catalyzed H2O2-S2O82- system, oxidant release was moderate and sustained over the entire test period of 96 hours. Conversely, the oxidants were depleted within 24 hours for the Fe2+-catalyzed system. Solution pH decreased slightly for the Fe2+-catalyzed system, whereas the pH increased for the base-catalyzed system. The rates of degradation for TCE and 1,4-dioxane are compared as a function of system conditions. The results of this study indicate that the binary H2O2-S2O82- oxidant system is effective for oxidation of the tested contaminants.

  16. Field demonstration of a full-scale in situ thermal desorption system for the remediation of soil containing PCBS and other hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, R.B.; Iben, I.E.T.; Edelstein, W.A.

    1996-12-31

    A field demonstration of a full-sale, innovative and cost-effective remediation system using in situ thermal description (ISTD) was conducted at a state Superfund site in the northeastern United States in early 1996. The Demonstration was performed as part of the regulatory process to obtain a nationwide Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) permit for the remediation of soils containing PCBs at concentrations up to 5,000 ppm. An area of approximately 4800 square feet was remediated during six applications of an in situ Thermal Blanket covering an area of 800 square feet. Each application utilized five 160 square foot, electrically heated, 100-kilowatt modules. The Thermal Blanket heaters were operated at temperatures as high as 925 C. The modules contain 10 in. of vermiculite insulation to reduce upward heat losses to less than 10% of total power. The modules are covered with an impermeable silicone sheet and the in situ process is run at negative pressure to collect contaminants, prevent contaminant migration and eliminate odors. Off-gas emissions are controlled by a vapor extraction system comprised of a cyclonic separator for particulate removal, a flameless thermal oxidizer for destruction of residual contaminants, and a carbon polishing unit. Treatment times ranged from slightly more than 24 hours to treat the upper six inches to approximately four days to treat soil 12 to 18 inches deep. Temperature profiles and remedial efficiency are consistent with results from a computer thermal simulator. Post-treatment soil samples demonstrated the capability to achieve stringent soil cleanup levels of less than 2 ppm for PCBs while concurrently meeting ambient air quality standards with respect to air emissions and worker exposure limits. The Thermal Blanket is less intrusive than other permanent remedies and produces less noise, generates less dust and has a minimum of other impacts on the surrounding community.

  17. Environmental impact of phosphogypsum stockpile in remediated Schistos waste site (Piraeus, Greece) using a combination of γ-ray spectrometry with geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, F; Godelitsas, A; Mertzimekis, T J; Xanthos, S; Voulgaris, N; Katsantonis, G

    2016-03-01

    From 1979 to 1989, ten million tons of phosphogypsum, a waste by-product of the Greek phosphate fertilizer industry, was disposed into an abandoned limestone quarry in Schistos former waste site, Piraeus (Greece). The quarry has been recently closed and remediated using geomembranes and thick soil cover with vegetation. A part of the deposited phosphogypsum has been exposed due to intense rainfall episodes leading to concerns about how could potentially released radioactivity affect the surrounding environment. This study seeks to assess the environmental impact of the phosphogypsum deposited in the Schistos quarry, using laboratory-based γ-ray spectrometry measurements and geographical information systems. Radioactivity concentrations were mapped onto spatial-data to yield a spatial-distribution of radioactivity in the area. The data indicate elevated (226)Ra concentrations in a specific area on the steep south-eastern cliff of the remediated waste site that comprises uncovered phosphogypsum and is known to be affected by local weather conditions. (226)Ra concentrations range from 162 to 629 Bq/kg, with an average activity being on the low side, compared to the global averages for phosphogypsum. Nevertheless, the low environmental risk may be minimized by remediating this area with geomembranes and thick soil cover with vegetation, a technique, which has worked successfully over the remainder of the remediated quarry. PMID:26837381

  18. Acid Mine Drainage Research in Gauteng Highlighting Impacts on Infrastructure and Innovation of Concrete-Based Remedial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, S.; Ekolu, S.; Azene, F.

    2013-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is presently one of the most important environmental problems in in the densely populated Gauteng Province, South Africa. The threat of acid mine drainage has demanded short-term interventions (some of which are being implemented by government) but more importantly sustainable long-term innovative solutions. There have been moments of public apprehension with some media reports dubbing the current scenario as a future 'nightmare of biblical proportions' and 'South Africa's own Chernobyl' that could cause dissolving of concrete foundations of buildings and reinforcement steel, leading to collapse of structures. In response to the needs of local and provincial authorities, this research was conducted to (1) generate scientific understanding of the effects of AMD on infrastructure materials and structures, and (2) propose innovative long-term remedial systems based on cementitious materials for potential AMD treatment applications of engineering scale. Two AMD solutions from the goldfields and two others from the coalfields were used to conduct corrosion immersion tests on mild steel, stainless steel, mortars, pastes and concretes. Results show that AMD water from the gold mines is more corrosive than that from the coal mines, the corrosion rate of the former being about twice that of the latter. The functionality of metal components of mild steel can be expected to fail within one month of exposure to the mine water. The investigation has also led to development of a pervious concrete filter system of water-cement ratio = 0.27 and cement content = 360 kg/m3, to be used as a permeable reactive barrier for AMD treatment. Early results show that the system was effective in removing heavy metal contaminants with removal levels of 30% SO4, 99% Fe, 50-83% Mn, 85% Ca, and 30% TDS. Further work is on-going to improve and optimise the system prior to field demonstration studies.

  19. Environmental assessment and management of metal-rich wastes generated in acid mine drainage passive remediation systems.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco; Caraballo, Manuel A; Nieto, José Miguel

    2012-08-30

    As acid mine drainage (AMD) remediation is increasingly faced by governments and mining industries worldwide, the generation of metal-rich solid residues from the treatments plants is concomitantly raising. A proper environmental management of these metal-rich wastes requires a detailed characterization of the metal mobility as well as an assessment of this new residues stability. The European standard leaching test EN 12457-2, the US EPA TCLP test and the BCR sequential extraction procedure were selected to address the environmental assessment of dispersed alkaline substrate (DAS) residues generated in AMD passive treatment systems. Significant discrepancies were observed in the hazardousness classification of the residues according to the TCLP or EN 12457-2 test. Furthermore, the absence of some important metals (like Fe or Al) in the regulatory limits employed in both leaching tests severely restricts their applicability for metal-rich wastes. The results obtained in the BCR sequential extraction suggest an important influence of the landfill environmental conditions on the metals released from the wastes. To ensure a complete stability of the pollutants in the studied DAS-wastes the contact with water or any other leaching solutions must be avoided and a dry environment needs to be provided in the landfill disposal selected. PMID:22717063

  20. Configuration management plan for waste tank farms and the 242-A evaporator of tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, T.

    1994-08-30

    The configuration management architecture presented in this Configuration Management Plan is based on the functional model established by DOE-STD-1073-93, ``Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program.`` The DOE Standard defines the configuration management program by the five basic program elements of ``program management,`` ``design requirements,`` ``document control,`` ``change control,`` and ``assessments,`` and the two adjunct recovery programs of ``design reconstitution,`` and ``material condition and aging management.`` The CM model of five elements and two adjunct programs strengthen the necessary technical and administrative control to establish and maintain a consistent technical relationship among the requirements, physical configuration, and documentation. Although the DOE Standard was originally developed for the operational phase of nuclear facilities, this plan has the flexibility to be adapted and applied to all life-cycle phases of both nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. The configuration management criteria presented in this plan endorses the DOE Standard and has been tailored specifically to address the technical relationship of requirements, physical configuration, and documentation during the full life cycle of the Waste Tank Farms and 242-A Evaporator of Tank Waste Remediation System.

  1. Factors affecting air sparging remediation systems using field data and numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Benner, Michael L; Mohtar, Rabi H; Lee, Linda S

    2002-12-01

    Field data from five air sparging sites were used to assess the effect of several soil, contaminant, and air sparging system factors on the removal time and associated costs required to reach specified clean-up criteria. Numerical simulations were also performed to better assess the field data and to expand the data sets beyond the five field sites. Ten factors were selected and evaluated individually over a range of values based on information from practitioners and the literature. Trends in removal time and removal cost to reach a specified clean-up criterion were analyzed to ascertain the conditions controlling contaminant removal with variations in each factors' value. A linear sensitivity equation was used to quantify system dynamics controlling the observed contaminant removal trends for each factor. Factors found most critical across all field sites in terms of removal time and/or cost were contaminant type, sparge pulsing schedule, number of wells, maximum biodecay rate, total soil porosity, and aquifer organic carbon content. Factors showing moderate to low effect included the depth of the sparge point below the water table, air injection rate/pressure, horizontal air conductivity, and anisotropy ratio. At each field site, subsurface coverage of sparged air, sparged air residence time, contaminant equilibrium in the system, contaminant phase distribution, oxygen availability to microbes, and contaminant volatility seem to control the system responses and were affected by one or more of the 10 factors evaluated. PMID:12423944

  2. Remediation of Stratified Soil Acidity Through Surface Application of Lime in No-Till Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield reduction and reduced crop vigor, resulting from soil acidification, are of increasing concern in eastern Washington and northern Idaho. In this region, soil pH has been decreasing at an accelerated rate, primarily due to the long-term use of ammonium based fertilizers. In no-till systems, the...

  3. Remediation of transuranic-contaminated coral soil at Johnston Atoll using the segmented gate system

    SciTech Connect

    Bramlitt, E.; Johnson, N.

    1994-12-31

    Thermo Analytical, Inc. (TMA) has developed a system to remove clean soil from contaminated soil. The system consists of a soil conveyor, an array of radiation detectors toward the conveyor feed end, a gate assembly at the conveyor discharge end, and two additional conveyors which move discharged soil to one or another paths. The gate assembly is as wide as the ``sorter conveyor,`` and it has eight individual gates or segments. The segments automatically open or close depending on the amount of radioactivity present. In one position they pass soil to a clean soil conveyor, and in the other position they let soil fall to a hot soil conveyor. The soil sorting process recovers clean soil for beneficial use and it substantially reduces the quantity of soil which must be decontaminated or prepared for waste disposal. The Segmented Gate System (SGS) was developed for the cleanup of soil contaminated with some transuranium elements at Johnston Atoll. It has proven to be an effective means for recovering clean soil and verifying that soil is clean, minimizing the quantity of truly contaminated soil, and providing measures of contamination for waste transport and disposal. TMA is constructing a small, transportable soil cleanup as it is confident the SGS technology can be adapted to soils and contaminants other than those at Johnston Atoll. It will use this transportable plant to demonstrate the technology and to develop site specific parameters for use in designing plants to meet cleanup needs.

  4. Scientific Opportunities for Monitoring at Environmental Remediation Sites (SOMERS): Integrated Systems-Based Approaches to Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elizabeth L.; Truex, Michael J.; Peterson, Mark; Freshley, Mark D.; Pierce, Eric M.; McCord, John; Young, Michael H.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Miller, Rick; Miracle, Ann L.; Kaback, Dawn; Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Rossabi, Joe; Lee, Michelle H.; Bush, Richard P.; Beam , Paul; Chamberlain, G. M.; Marble, Justin; Whitehurst, Latrincy; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Collazo, Yvette

    2012-05-15

    Through an inter-disciplinary effort, DOE is addressing a need to advance monitoring approaches from sole reliance on cost- and labor-intensive point-source monitoring to integrated systems-based approaches such as flux-based approaches and the use of early indicator parameters. Key objectives include identifying current scientific, technical and implementation opportunities and challenges, prioritizing science and technology strategies to meet current needs within the DOE complex for the most challenging environments, and developing an integrated and risk-informed monitoring framework.

  5. Tank Waste Remediation System tank waste pretreatment and vitrification process development testing requirements assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Howden, G.F.

    1994-10-24

    A multi-faceted study was initiated in November 1993 to provide assurance that needed testing capabilities, facilities, and support infrastructure (sampling systems, casks, transportation systems, permits, etc.) would be available when needed for process and equipment development to support pretreatment and vitrification facility design and construction schedules. This first major report provides a snapshot of the known testing needs for pretreatment, low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification, and documents the results of a series of preliminary studies and workshops to define the issues needing resolution by cold or hot testing. Identified in this report are more than 140 Hanford Site tank waste pretreatment and LLW/HLW vitrification technology issues that can only be resolved by testing. The report also broadly characterizes the level of testing needed to resolve each issue. A second report will provide a strategy(ies) for ensuring timely test capability. Later reports will assess the capabilities of existing facilities to support needed testing and will recommend siting of the tests together with needed facility and infrastructure upgrades or additions.

  6. Integration of microalgal cultivation system for wastewater remediation and sustainable biomass production.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prabuddha L; Lee, Seung-Mok; Choi, Hee-Jeong

    2016-08-01

    Untreated wastewaters have been a great concern and can cause major pollution problems for environment. Conventional approaches for treating wastewater involve tremendous capital cost, have major short comings and are not sustainable. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatment. Microalgae serve the dual purpose of phycoremediation along with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. The ability of microalgae to accumulate nitrogen, phosphorus, heavy metals and other toxic compounds can be integrated with wastewater treatment system to offer an elegant solution towards tertiary and quaternary treatment. The current review explores possible role of microalgal based wastewater treatment and explores the current progress, key challenges, limitations and future prospects with special emphasis on strategies involved in harvesting, boosting biomass and lipid yield. PMID:27357407

  7. Remediation System Design Optimization: Field Demonstration at the Umatilla Army Deport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, C.; Wang, P. P.

    2002-05-01

    Since the early 1980s, many researchers have shown that the simulation-optimization (S/O) approach is superior to the traditional trial-and-error method for designing cost-effective groundwater pump-and-treat systems. However, the application of the S/O approach to real field problems has remained limited. This paper describes the application of a new general simulation-optimization code to optimize an existing pump-and-treat system at the Umatilla Army Depot in Oregon, as part of a field demonstration project supported by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP). Two optimization formulations were developed to minimize the total capital and operational costs under the current and possibly expanded treatment plant capacities. A third formulation was developed to minimize the total contaminant mass of RDX and TNT remaining in the shallow aquifer by the end of the project duration. For the first two formulations, this study produced an optimal pumping strategy that would achieve the cleanup goal in 4 years with a total cost of 1.66 million US dollars in net present value. For comparison, the existing design in operation was calculated to require 17 years for cleanup with a total cost of 3.83 million US dollars in net present value. Thus, the optimal pumping strategy represents a reduction of 13 years in cleanup time and a reduction of 56.6 percent in the expected total expenditure. For the third formulation, this study identified an optimal dynamic pumping strategy that would reduce the total mass remaining in the shallow aquifer by 89.5 percent compared with that calculated for the existing design. In spite of their intensive computational requirements, this study shows that the global optimization techniques including tabu search and genetic algorithms can be applied successfully to large-scale field problems involving multiple contaminants and complex hydrogeological conditions.

  8. Profiling microbial communities in manganese remediation systems treating coal mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Dominique L; Hansel, Colleen M; Burgos, William D; Santelli, Cara M

    2015-03-01

    Water discharging from abandoned coal mines can contain extremely high manganese levels. Removing this metal is an ongoing challenge. Passive Mn(II) removal beds (MRBs) contain microorganisms that oxidize soluble Mn(II) to insoluble Mn(III/IV) minerals, but system performance is unpredictable. Using amplicon pyrosequencing, we profiled the bacterial, fungal, algal, and archaeal communities in four MRBs, performing at different levels, in Pennsylvania to determine whether they differed among MRBs and from surrounding soil and to establish the relative abundance of known Mn(II) oxidizers. Archaea were not detected; PCRs with archaeal primers returned only nontarget bacterial sequences. Fungal taxonomic profiles differed starkly between sites that remove the majority of influent Mn and those that do not, with the former being dominated by Ascomycota (mostly Dothideomycetes) and the latter by Basidiomycota (almost entirely Agaricomycetes). Taxonomic profiles for the other groups did not differ significantly between MRBs, but operational taxonomic unit-based analyses showed significant clustering by MRB with all three groups (P < 0.05). Soil samples clustered separately from MRBs in all groups except fungi, whose soil samples clustered loosely with their respective MRB. Known Mn(II) oxidizers accounted for a minor proportion of bacterial sequences (up to 0.20%) but a greater proportion of fungal sequences (up to 14.78%). MRB communities are more diverse than previously thought, and more organisms may be capable of Mn(II) oxidation than are currently known. PMID:25595765

  9. Profiling Microbial Communities in Manganese Remediation Systems Treating Coal Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Colleen M.; Burgos, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Water discharging from abandoned coal mines can contain extremely high manganese levels. Removing this metal is an ongoing challenge. Passive Mn(II) removal beds (MRBs) contain microorganisms that oxidize soluble Mn(II) to insoluble Mn(III/IV) minerals, but system performance is unpredictable. Using amplicon pyrosequencing, we profiled the bacterial, fungal, algal, and archaeal communities in four MRBs, performing at different levels, in Pennsylvania to determine whether they differed among MRBs and from surrounding soil and to establish the relative abundance of known Mn(II) oxidizers. Archaea were not detected; PCRs with archaeal primers returned only nontarget bacterial sequences. Fungal taxonomic profiles differed starkly between sites that remove the majority of influent Mn and those that do not, with the former being dominated by Ascomycota (mostly Dothideomycetes) and the latter by Basidiomycota (almost entirely Agaricomycetes). Taxonomic profiles for the other groups did not differ significantly between MRBs, but operational taxonomic unit-based analyses showed significant clustering by MRB with all three groups (P < 0.05). Soil samples clustered separately from MRBs in all groups except fungi, whose soil samples clustered loosely with their respective MRB. Known Mn(II) oxidizers accounted for a minor proportion of bacterial sequences (up to 0.20%) but a greater proportion of fungal sequences (up to 14.78%). MRB communities are more diverse than previously thought, and more organisms may be capable of Mn(II) oxidation than are currently known. PMID:25595765

  10. Exploiting Expert Knowledge to Enhance Simulation-based Optimization of Environmental Remediation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reslink, C. F.; Matott, L. S.

    2012-12-01

    Designing cost-effective systems to safeguard national water supplies from contaminated sites is often aided by simulation-based optimization - where a flow or transport model is linked with an "off-the-shelf" global optimization search algorithm. However, achieving good performance from these types of optimizers within a reasonable computational budget has proven to be difficult. Therefore, this research seeks to boost optimization efficiency by augmenting search procedures with non-traditional information, such as site-specific knowledge and practitioner rules-of-thumb. An example application involving pump-and-treat optimization is presented in which a series of extraction wells are to be installed to intercept pollutants at a contaminated site in Billings, Montana. Selected heuristic algorithms (e.g. Genetic Algorithm) are interfaced with a rules engine that makes inline adjustments to the well locations of candidate pump-and-treat designs. If necessary, the rules engine modifies a given pump-and-treat design so that: (1) wells are placed within plume boundaries; and (2) well placement is biased toward areas where, if left untreated, the plume is predicted to spread most rapidly. Results suggest that incorporating this kind of expert knowledge can significantly increase the search efficiency of many popular global optimizers.

  11. REMEDIATION SYSTEM EVALUATION (RSE) FOR TWO REGION 10 FUND-LEAD PUMP AND TREAT SYSTEM, (1) COMMENCEMENT BAY, SOUTH TACOMA CHANNEL, WELL 12A AND (2) MCCORMICK AND BAXTER CREOSOTING CO.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is Phase 2 of a Superfund Reform Initiative being conducted by EPA-TIO Office. A team of senior engineers and hydrogeologists will perform a Remediation System Evaluation (RSE) and write a report detailing the site and system characteristics, closure criteria, operational p...

  12. 48 CFR 2009.570-10 - Remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Remedies. 2009.570-10 Section 2009.570-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 2009.570-10 Remedies....

  13. Use of three-dimensional, high-resolution seismic technology to optimize the location of remedial systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bainer, R.W.; Adams, M.L.

    1993-02-01

    Two three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution seismic reflection pilot studies were conducted in California at two sites, where the primary contaminants of concern are solvents. Identify pathways of contaminant migration. Determine the subsurface stratigraphy and structure to optimize the location for placement of remedial systems. The geology at the first site, located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, is characterized by unconsolidated alluvium. Ground water varies in depth from about 30 to 100 ft. The site typically is subjected to extensive cultural noise. The second site, in Southern California, is located in a broad, synclinal depression in the Transverse Range. Shallow alluvium overlies a marine turbidite sequence that crops out as massive sandstone beds. Field work for both surveys took place in August 1992. A Bison Model 90120-A, 120-channel (DIFP) seismograph was used to record the data. Thirty-hertz, natural-frequency geophones were used to receive the data, and an Elastic Wave Generator (EWG) was used as the seismic source. The use of a signal-stacking, noninvasive source was found to be an effective method of overriding background noise at the sites. Prior to the commencement of the 3-D pilot studies, a two-dimensional (2-D) profile was recorded to test the acquisition parameters, which included the geometry of the survey, digital sample rate, and analog filter settings. The data were monitored in the field with a Bison 486 Explorer outdoor computer. The 2-D data were processed and displayed in the field. Both sites displayed coherent seismic reflections from the depths of interest on the field-stacked sections.

  14. The development of alum rates to enhance the remediation of phosphorus in fluvial systems following manure spills

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the remediation of animal manure spills that reach surface waters, contaminated streambed sediments are often left in place and become a source for internal P loading within the stream in subsequent flow. The objective of this study was to develop treatment rates and combinations of alum a...

  15. Louisiana Compensatory/Remedial Education Student Profile: Development and Use of an Individualized Basic Skills Reporting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Charles M.

    This paper examines the characteristics of the Louisiana Compensatory/Remedial Education Student Profile form and the nature of the compensatory education program evaluation served by the Student Profile. The Student Profile is a one page, triplicate form prepared by the Louisiana State Department of Education for each grade 2 student who failed…

  16. Waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-12-29

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  17. Reinventing Remedial Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Remedial education, although widely used and disguised with other names, was rarely talked about for it could tarnish a school's reputation if widely discussed. Today, more and more colleges and universities are ditching the old stigma associated with remedial education, reinventing their remedial education and retention programs and, in the…

  18. Research issues for thermal remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.L.; Heron, G.

    1998-06-01

    In order to optimize thermal remediation techniques, all of the effects of the heat on the subsurface system must be understood and taken into consideration during the remediation. Research is needed to provide a better understanding of the effects of temperature on capillarity in soils. This should include laboratory data on the effect of temperature on capillarity in soils. This should include laboratory data on the effect of temperature on displacement pressures which is needed to determine the potential for downward movement of DNAPLS.

  19. Enhanced Remedial Amendment Delivery to Low Permeability Zones in Subsurface Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Oostrom, M.; Wietsma, T.; Cantrell, K.

    2006-12-01

    Heterogeneity is often encountered in subsurface contamination characterization and remediation. Low- permeability zones are typically bypassed when remedial fluids are injected into subsurface heterogeneous aquifer systems. Therefore, contaminants in the bypassed areas may not be contacted by the amendments in the remedial fluid, which may significantly prolong the remediation operations. An experimental and numerical study has been completed to demonstrate the capability of Mobility-Controlled Flood (MCF) technology to enhance the remedial amendments delivery to the lower permeability zones. This technology, developed in the petroleum industry, has been demonstrated to significantly improve the sweeping efficiency in heterogeneous petroleum reservoirs. Xanthan gum, a water-soluble bio-polymer, was used to modify the viscosity of the amendment-added remedial solutions. Surfactants and (poly)phosphate were the remedial amendments for non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and uranium remediation, respectively. Batch and column experiments were conducted to select the polymer-amendment solutions. The enhanced delivery of the remedial solutions was demonstrated in two- dimensional (2-D) flow cell experiments, packed with heterogeneous systems, as a function of polymer concentration and injection flow rate. The STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) simulator was modified to include polymer-induced shear thinning effects. The results clearly show that the MCF technology is capable of enhancing the delivery of remedial amendments to subsurface lower permeability zones. The enhanced delivery significantly improved the NAPL removal from these zones and the sweeping efficiency on a heterogeneous system was remarkably increased when a polymer fluid was applied. MCF technology is also able to stabilize the fluid displacing front when there is a density difference between the fluids. The modified STOMP simulator was able to predict the experimental observed fluid

  20. [Rhizospheric Mechanisms of Hemerocallis middendorfii Trautv. et Mey. Remediating Petroleum-contaminated Soil and Metabonomic Analyses of the Root Systems].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-nan; Cheng, Li-juan; Zhou, Qi-xing

    2016-05-15

    The effects of a special ornamental plant Hemerocallis middendorfii Trautv. et Mey. on remediating petroleum-contaminated soil from the Dagang Oilfield in Tianjin, China, was studied by a greenhouse pot-culture experiment and the gradients of TPHs were 0, 10,000 and 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹. The results suggested that H. middendorfii had a high tolerance to TPHs (≤ 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹). And H. middendorfii significantly (P < 0.05) promoted the removal rate of TPHs (53.7% and 33.4%) compared with corresponding controls (31.8% and 12.0%) by natural degradation, respectively. The relative abundance of amino acids, organic acids and sugars and others in soil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and PCA and PLS-DA models were to investigate the rhizospheric mechanisms. The results suggested that H. middendorfii changed the distribution characteristics of each component in soil, and the glucopyranoside played a key role in the removal of TPHs. Furthermore, the results about comparative metabolic profile showed that some special metabolites were only found in the contaminated groups, including alanine, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid. Additionally, the exposure of TPHs changed the primary metabolic flux of roots, and caused the significant (P < 0.01) change of metabolites. In conclusion, H. middendorfii might be an enduring ornamental plant for effective remediating TPHs (≤ 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹) in soil. But the exposure of TPHs had changed the metabolic profile of H. middendorfii in roots, which might be the metabolic response of H. middendorfii to petroleum-contaminated soil. PMID:27506056

  1. SCOPE safety-controls optimization by performance evaluation: A systematic approach for safety-related decisions at the Hanford Tank Remediation System. Phase 1, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, K.D.; Williams, D.C.; Slezak, S.E.; Young, M.L.

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s Hanford Tank Waste Remediation system poses a significant challenge for hazard management because of the uncertainty that surrounds many of the variables that must be considered in decisions on safety and control strategies. As a result, site managers must often operate under excessively conservative and expensive assumptions. This report describes a systematic approach to quantifying the uncertainties surrounding the critical parameters in control decisions (e.g., condition of the tanks, kinds of wastes, types of possible accidents) through the use of expert elicitation methods. The results of the elicitations would then be used to build a decision support system and accident analysis model that would allow managers to see how different control strategies would affect the cost and safety of a facility configuration.

  2. DDE remediation and degradation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John E; Ou, Li-Tse; All-Agely, Abid

    2008-01-01

    breakdown of DDE by the extracellular lignolytic enzymes produced by white rot fungi. The addition of adjutants such as sodium ion, surfactants, and cellulose increased the rate of DDT aerobic or anaerobic degradation but did little to enhance the rate of DDE disappearance under anaerobic conditions. Only in the past decade has it been demonstrated that DDE can undergo reductive dechlorination under methanogenic and sulfidogenic conditions to form the degradation product DDMU, 1-chloro-2,2'-bis-(4'-chlorophenyl)ethane. The only pure culture reported to degrade DDE under anaerobic conditions was the denitrifier Alcaligens denitrificans. The degradation of DDE by this bacterium was enhanced by glucose, whereas biphenyl fumes had no effect. Abiotic remediation by DDE volatilization was enhanced by flooding and irrigation and deepplowing inhibited the volatilization. The use of zero-valent iron and surfactants in flooded soils enhanced DDT degradation but did not significantly alter the rate of DDE removal. Other catalysts (palladized magnesium, palladium on carbon, and nickel/aluminum alloys) degraded DDT and its metabolites, including DDE. However, these systems are often biphasic or involve explosive gases or both. Safer abiotic alternatives use UV light with titanium oxide or visible light with methylene green to degrade DDT, DDD, and DDE in aqueous or mixed solvent systems. Remediation and degradation of DDE in soil and water by phytoextraction, aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, or abiotic methods can be accomplished. However, success has been limited, and great care must be taken that the method does not transfer the contaminants to another locale (by volatilization, deep plowing, erosion, or runoff) or to another species (by ingestion of accumulating plants or contaminated water). Although the remediation of DDT-, DDD-, and DDE-contaminated soil and water is beset with myriad problems, there remain many open avenues of research. PMID:18069646

  3. SEDIMENT ASSESSMENT AND REMEDIATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) is an integrated program for the development and testing of assessment and remedial action alternatives for contaminated sediments. Information from ARCS program activities will be used to guide the development of Remedi...

  4. Transfer of Physical and Hydraulic Properties Databases to the Hanford Environmental Information System - PNNL Remediation Decision Support Project, Task 1, Activity 6

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Middleton, Lisa A.

    2009-03-31

    This report documents the requirements for transferring physical and hydraulic property data compiled by PNNL into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) Project is managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support Hanford Site waste management and remedial action decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy and one of their current site contractors - CH2M-Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). The objective of Task 1, Activity 6 of the RDS project is to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for sediments from the Hanford Site, to port these data into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), and to make the data web-accessible to anyone on the Hanford Local Area Network via the so-called Virtual Library.1 These physical and hydraulic property data are used to estimate parameters for analytical and numerical flow and transport models that are used for site risk assessments and evaluation of remedial action alternatives. In past years efforts were made by RDS project staff to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for Hanford sediments and to transfer these data into SoilVision{reg_sign}, a commercial geotechnical software package designed for storing, analyzing, and manipulating soils data. Although SoilVision{reg_sign} has proven to be useful, its access and use restrictions have been recognized as a limitation to the effective use of the physical and hydraulic property databases by the broader group of potential users involved in Hanford waste site issues. In order to make these data more widely available and useable, a decision was made to port them to HEIS and to make them web-accessible via a Virtual Library module. In FY08 the original objectives of this activity on the RDS project were to: (1) ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data currently residing in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database

  5. Designing Clinical Remediation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleszewski, Susan C.

    1989-01-01

    Elements and considerations in the provision of effective remediation for optometry students not achieving in clinical competence are discussed. Remediation of technical, cognitive, and noncognitive skills are included. A course in professional communication offered by the Pennsylvania College of Optometry is described. (MSE)

  6. Preventing remediation problems

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, W.H.

    1994-12-31

    Remediation, the design and construction of a remedy, typically represents the most significant portion of the cleanup process. The cost may be 5 to 10 times the cost of earlier investigation and feasibility efforts. Furthermore, the risks associated with remediation activities and their ability to meet ultimate cleanup goals and objectives are far greater than those associated with earlier efforts. Often times there are unrealistic expectations interjected throughout the design and construction process in the remediation field. The simple fact that most problems are buried, and one cannot see all that is below the ground surface provides sufficient uncertainty to result in problems. There are three key points during the remediation process which provide opportunities to prevent and avoid problems. These are: (1) during design; (2) during procurement and contracting; and (3) during construction. This paper examines actions which the author has found or believes will assist in providing a formula for success.

  7. Cognitive remediation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Medalia, Alice; Choi, Jimmy

    2009-09-01

    Cognitive deficits are routinely evident in schizophrenia, and are of sufficient magnitude to influence functional outcomes in work, social functioning and illness management. Cognitive remediation is an evidenced-based non-pharmacological treatment for the neurocognitive deficits seen in schizophrenia. Narrowly defined, cognitive remediation is a set of cognitive drills or compensatory interventions designed to enhance cognitive functioning, but from the vantage of the psychiatric rehabilitation field, cognitive remediation is a therapy which engages the patient in learning activities that enhance the neurocognitive skills relevant to their chosen recovery goals. Cognitive remediation programs vary in the extent to which they reflect these narrow or broader perspectives but six meta-analytic studies report moderate range effect sizes on cognitive test performance, and daily functioning. Reciprocal interactions between baseline ability level, the type of instructional techniques used, and motivation provide some explanatory power for the heterogeneity in patient response to cognitive remediation. PMID:19444614

  8. Decision making software for site remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Kulik, C.; Aroeste, H.

    1995-12-31

    Choosing the appropriate technologies to remediate a contaminated site can be a problem. AccOn Services, a joint venture of Accord Services, Inc. (Henry Aroeste, Pres., software development) and ANCON International (Conrad Kulik) are developing a computer program capable of determining whether the Simplified Clean Soil Process being commercially demonstrated in 1995 is the appropriate technology for remediating a particular site. Dr. Aroeste (Ph.D., physical chemistry) has, over the past 15 years, applied his innovation of GIST (Guided Inquiry System Technique) for acquiring and processing information in an easily comprehensible framework at NASA, EPRI and elsewhere. This program has been adapted to the field of environmental remediation.

  9. D and D (System Closure) Mockup Testing Demonstration. Remediation of Legacy Radioactive Piping and Tank Systems at the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) (2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne-Kelly, D.; Brown, Ch.; Hart, A.; Welty, B.; Winterholler, K.

    2008-07-01

    operators received valuable hands-on training using the selected equipment and tooling in situations very similar to what they will encounter at INL. Proper tool selection and tool change procedures were defined as situations requiring these operations were encountered. Methodologies for approaching similar trench and vault situations (including safety concerns) were identified and experienced, and wax filled pipes were successfully cut and removed without spilling the surrogate materials within the pipes. All of the tools performed well except the band saw tool. The band saw was specifically designed to cut pipe; however, it was not robust enough and generally the shear was used in its place. Mockups are essential in gaining actual hands on training before going to the field. Mockups improve efficiency and safety that results in cost effective remediation. The MSE facility provides a valuable resource for demonstration of mockups. The facility has several acres of available space and a highly qualified support staff. The integrated mockup demonstration was considered a great success by all involved parties. ICP operators received valuable experience using the equipment selected for catch tank system closure before field deployment in a radiological contaminated environment. The selected equipment proved to be applicable to the safe and effective closure of the catch tank systems, and MSE demonstrated the ability to provide facility and services necessary to support closure mockup demonstrations. (authors)

  10. Innovative Vitrification for Soil Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, James G.; Patten, John S.; Jetta, Norman W.

    1996-12-31

    Vortec has successfully completed Phases 1 and 2 of a technology demonstration program for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation.'' The principal objective of the program is to demonstrate the ability of a Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS) to remediate DOE contaminated soils and other waste forms containing TM RCRA hazardous materials, low levels of radionuclides and TSCA (PCB) containing wastes. The demonstration program will verify the ability of this vitrification process to produce a chemically stable glass final waste form which passes both TCLP and PCT quality control requirements, while meeting all federal and state emission control regulations. The demonstration system is designed to process 36 ton/day of as-received drummed or bulk wastes. The processing capacity equates to approximately 160 barrels/day of waste materials containing 30% moisture at an average weight of 450 lbs./barrel.

  11. Using Technology in Remedial Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keup, Jennifer Rinella

    This digest discusses two specific computer-aided instruction systems used in two-year colleges in the United States and Canada, and addresses critical points regarding system implementation in remedial education programs. As developed in the Nova Scotia Community College System in Canada, the INVEST computer system provides literacy-based…

  12. Resource characterization and residuals remediation, Task 1.0: Air quality assessment and control, Task 2.0: Advanced power systems, Task 3.0: Advanced fuel forms and coproducts, Task 4.0

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Timpe, R.C.; Hartman, J.H.

    1994-02-01

    This report addresses three subtasks related to the Resource Characterization and Residuals Remediation program: (1) sulfur forms in coal and their thermal transformations, (2) data resource evaluation and integration using GIS (Geographic Information Systems), and (3) supplementary research related to the Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) UCG (Underground Coal Gasification) test program.

  13. A qualitative study using a systemic perspective exploring the remediation of abusive interactions in intimate heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Bonham, Elizabeth; Vetere, Arlene Louise

    2012-03-01

    Very little attention has been paid to both partners beliefs about why violence in their previously abusive relationship has stopped or significantly reduced despite well-documented details in the research literature outlining the characteristics of both victims and perpetrators. This study aimed to provide some understanding of how each partner believed that the violence has ended. However their answers often were not definitive; instead, they uncovered the complexities in their relationship and their struggle to overcome the uncertainty they have to achieve and maintain successful remediation. The article is based on a qualitative Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) study that explored the nature of the relationship between six heterosexual couples before and after a therapeutic intervention for the men perpetrators, which followed the Duluth Model. The study included how they both understood the violence and how they maintained nonviolence in their relationship. The men were notably still in the process of reprocessing their understanding of why they were violent and they needed to further understand their reactions to maintain their nonviolence. The IPA themes provided some understanding of how the participants thought they had a better understanding of the factors that had maintained their relationship since the termination of the intervention. The themes, generated from the interviews provided by the perpetrators and their victims, are explored and some explanations for the successful continuation of their relationship following treatment are suggested. Implications for widening the treatment options for men perpetrators are suggested in addition to providing treatment options for couples who wish to remain within their relationships and need help to identify unhelpful and dangerous patterns of interaction. PMID:22203613

  14. Remediating Common Math Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Rudolph F.

    1981-01-01

    Explanations and remediation suggestions for five types of mathematics errors due either to perceptual or cognitive difficulties are given. Error types include directionality problems, mirror writing, visually misperceived signs, diagnosed directionality problems, and mixed process errors. (CL)

  15. Remedial Parathyroid Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Udelsman, Robert; Donovan, Patricia Irvin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To review the outcomes in 130 consecutive remedial explorations for primary hyperparathyroidism. Summary Background Data: Remedial surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism is challenging and requires meticulous preoperative evaluation and imaging to expedite a focused surgical exploration that has traditionally been performed under general anesthesia. This prospective series of 130 consecutive remedial operations for primary hyperparathyroidism selectively used minimally invasive techniques and tested the hypothesis that these techniques could improve outcomes. Methods: Between 1990 and 2005, 1090 patients were evaluated and explored for primary hyperparathyroidism. Of these, 130 remedial explorations were performed in 128 patients who underwent either conventional exploration under general anesthesia (n = 107) or minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (n = 23) employing cervical block anesthesia, directed exploration, and curative confirmation with the rapid intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay. Results: The sensitivity of preoperative imaging were: Sestamibi (79%), ultrasound (74%), MRI (47%), CT (50%), venous localization (93%), and ultrasound guided parathyroid fine needle aspiration (78%). The cure rate in the conventional remedial group (n = 107) was 94% and was associated with a mean length of stay of 1.6 ± 0.2 days. Remedial exploration employing minimally invasive techniques (n = 23) resulted in a cure rate of 96% and a mean length of stay of 0.4 ± 0.1 days. Complications were rare in both remedial groups. These results were almost identical to those achieved in 960 unexplored patients. Conclusions: Remedial parathyroid surgery can be accomplished with acceptable cure and complication rates. Minimally invasive techniques can achieve outcomes that are similar to those obtained in unexplored patients. PMID:16926573

  16. Biopulsing: An in situ aeration remediation strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, H.S.; Marshall, T.R.

    1997-12-31

    In situ soil aeration is an accepted technology for remediation of soil and groundwater impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons. This technology was utilized for remediating soil and groundwater at an aerospace components manufacturing facility located in southern California, Soil and groundwater had been impacted at the facility from historical releases of petroleum and halogenated hydrocarbons. Innovations in remediation system design, installation and monitoring strategies are described in this paper. The following tasks were conducted; (1) evaluation of the extent of impacted soil and groundwater; (2) collection of site-specific data necessary to evaluate and implement an appropriate remediation system to address the hydrocarbon-impacted soil; and (3) design, installation and operation of an in situ aeration system for remediation of soil and groundwater. The in situ aeration system operates on the principles of bioventing. Air was injected weekly into the subsurface by a system of wells placed at selected locations in short pulses lasting several hours. Oxygen utilization in the subsurface was monitored using subsurface sensors. Subsurface oxygen utilization rates of up to 1.5 percent resulted in an estimate of mass reduction of 71 pounds of hydrocarbons. The concentration of halogenated hydrocarbons was reduced in groundwater following commencement of aeration was observed in subsequent sampling events. The contribution of vadose zone aeration in reducing the concentrations of halogenated hydrocarbons in groundwater is currently being evaluated.

  17. An Electronic Encyclopedia of Remedial Options

    1992-10-01

    REOPT has been developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information about remedial action technologies, including application and regulatory information for over 700 contaminants. REOPT is a user-friendly personal computer program and database that functions like an electronic encyclopedia, sorting and presenting information to quickly familiarize engineers and planners with available remediation technologies. The system will help users focus quickly on the remediation technologies most likely to be effective for a particular site and problem,more » and presents concise, easy-to-use information about those technologies, helping users identify the key factors and constraints to consider in evaluating the use of each technology. REOPT contains information on approximately 90 established (i.e., proven) remediation technologies that could potentially be used for DOE waste-site cleanup. REOPT also contains auxiliary information about hazardous and radioactive contaminants and the federal regulations that govern their disposal. REOPT contains data for approximately 90 remedial action technologies, divided into categories according to the portion of a remedial action (i.e., containment, treatment, disposal, etc.) that they relate to or perform. Technologies are also classified according to the contaminants to which they may be applied. Contaminants may be selected from a list of approximately 700 in ten organic and four inorganic categories. The information for each technology is organized into the broad categories of descriptive information, application information, and additional information sources; these are then subdivided to allow the user to access more specific information about the technology.« less

  18. Zero-Valent Metallic Treatment System and Its Application for Removal and Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen B. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    PCBs are removed from contaminated media using a treatment system including zero-valent metal particles and an organic hydrogen donating solvent. The treatment system may include a weak acid in order to eliminate the need for a coating of catalytic noble metal on the zero-valent metal particles. If catalyzed zero-valent metal particles are used, the treatment system may include an organic hydrogen donating solvent that is a non-water solvent. The treatment system may be provided as a "paste-like" system that is preferably applied to natural media and ex-situ structures to eliminate PCBs.

  19. Environmental Remediation Data Management Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Wierowski, J. V.; Henry, L. G.; Dooley, D. A.

    2002-02-26

    Computer software tools for data management can improve site characterization, planning and execution of remediation projects. This paper discusses the use of two such products that have primarily been used within the nuclear power industry to enhance the capabilities of radiation protection department operations. Advances in digital imaging, web application development and programming technologies have made development of these tools possible. The Interactive Visual Tour System (IVTS) allows the user to easily create and maintain a comprehensive catalog containing digital pictures of the remediation site. Pictures can be cataloged in groups (termed ''tours'') that can be organized either chronologically or spatially. Spatial organization enables the user to ''walk around'' the site and view desired areas or components instantly. Each photo is linked to a map (floor plan, topographical map, elevation drawing, etc.) with graphics displaying the location on the map and any available tour/component links. Chronological organization enables the user to view the physical results of the remediation efforts over time. Local and remote management teams can view these pictures at any time and from any location. The Visual Survey Data System (VSDS) allows users to record survey and sample data directly on photos and/or maps of areas and/or components. As survey information is collected for each area, survey data trends can be reviewed for any repetitively measured location or component. All data is stored in a Quality Assurance (Q/A) records database with reference to its physical sampling point on the site as well as other information to support the final closeout report for the site. The ease of use of these web-based products has allowed nuclear power plant clients to plan outage work from their desktop and realize significant savings with respect to dose and cost. These same tools are invaluable for remediation and decommissioning planning of any scale and for recording

  20. Academic Stratification and Endemic Conflict: Remedial Education Policy at CUNY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumport, Patricia J.; Bastedo, Michael N.

    2001-01-01

    Examines remedial education policy change at City University of New York (CUNY) both in historical context and from the perspective of system design. Interprets the policy to phase out remedial education in CUNY senior colleges as strategy to create "more of a system" by increasing differentiation of missions and stratification among campuses…

  1. An Empirical Measure of Computer Security Strength for Vulnerability Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Remediating all vulnerabilities on computer systems in a timely and cost effective manner is difficult given that the window of time between the announcement of a new vulnerability and an automated attack has decreased. Hence, organizations need to prioritize the vulnerability remediation process on their computer systems. The goal of this…

  2. Remediation; An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1988-09-01

    The U.SD. government began committing the nation legally and financially in the last decade to the ultimate remediation of virtually all of the hazardous wastes that were produced in the past and remain to threaten human health and the environment, all that continue to be generated, and all that will be created in the future. Whether engendered by acts of God or human industry, the laws and regulations mandate, hazardous wastes and the threats they pose will be removed or rendered harmless. As mobilization for tackling the monumental task implied by those commitments has progressed, key concepts have changed in meaning. The remedy of remediation once literally meant burying our hazardous waste problems in landfills, for example, a solution now officially defined as the least desirable-although still commonly chosen - course of action. The process of identifying hazardous substances and determining in what quantities they constitute health and environmental hazards continues apace. As measurement technologies become increasingly precise and capable to detecting more 9s to the right of the decimal point, acceptable levels of emissions into the air and concentrations in the ground or water are reduced. This article is intended as a sketch of where the national commitment of remediation currently stands, with examples of implications for both generators of hazardous wastes and those who have entered-or seek to enter-the rapidly growing business of remediation.

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF PILOT-SCALE PERVAPORATION SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM A SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION FLUID. II. HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANE MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-scale demonstration of pervaporation-based removal of volatile organic compounds from a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) fluid has been conducted at USEPA's Test & Evaluation Facility using hollow fiber membrane modules. The membranes consisted of microporous...

  4. Strategies for Promoting Gatekeeper Course Success among Students Needing Remediation: Research Report for the Virginia Community College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roksa, Josipa; Jenkins, Davis; Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Zeidenberg, Matthew; Cho, Sung-Woo

    2009-01-01

    The Virginia Community College System (VCCS) is engaged in a strategic planning process to improve performance beyond the goals in "Dateline 2009," the system's current vision and plan. A key objective is to encourage colleges to improve retention and academic success for students, particularly the substantial numbers who arrive unprepared for…

  5. Remedial design/remedial action strategy report

    SciTech Connect

    Dieffenbacher, R.G.

    1994-06-30

    This draft Regulatory Compliance Strategy (RCS) report will aid the ER program in developing and implementing Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) projects. The intent of the RCS is to provide guidance for the implementation of project management requirements and to allow the implementation of a flexible, graded approach to design requirements depending on the complexity, magnitude, schedule, risk, and cost for any project. The RCS provides a functional management-level guidance document for the identification, classification, and implementation of the managerial and regulatory aspects of an ER project. The RCS has been written from the perspective of the ER Design Manager and provides guidance for the overall management of design processes and elements. The RCS does not address the project engineering or specification level of detail. Topics such as project initiation, funding, or construction are presented only in the context in which these items are important as sources of information or necessary process elements that relate to the design project phases.

  6. Development of a geophysical data fusion system for assessment and remediation studies of polluted groundwater aquifers. Scientific report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.R.; O`Neill, D.C.; Barker, B.W.

    1994-10-01

    The research described in this report is directed toward the development of a workstation-based data management, analysis and visualization system which can be used to improve the Air Force`s capability to evaluate site specific environmental hazards. The initial prototype system described in this report is directed toward a specific application to the Massachusetts Military Reservation (formerly Otis Air Force Base) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This system integrates a comprehensive, on-line environmental database for the site together with a map-based graphical user interface which facilitates analyst access to the databases and analysis tools needed to characterize the subsurface geologic and hydrologic environments at the site.

  7. Status Report on Transfer of Physical and Hydraulic Properties Databases to the Hanford Environmental Information System - PNNL Remediation Decision Support Project, Task 1, Activity 6

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Middleton, Lisa A.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2009-06-30

    This document provides a status report on efforts to transfer physical and hydraulic property data from PNNL to CHPRC for incorporation into HEIS. The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) Project is managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support Hanford Site waste management and remedial action decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy and their contractors. The objective of Task 1, Activity 6 of the RDS project is to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for sediments from the Hanford Site, to port these data into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), and to make the data web-accessible to anyone on the Hanford Local Area Network via the so-called Virtual Library. These physical and hydraulic property data are used to estimate parameters for analytical and numerical flow and transport models that are used for site risk assessments and evaluation of remedial action alternatives. In past years efforts were made by RDS project staff to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for Hanford sediments and to transfer these data into SoilVision{reg_sign}, a commercial geotechnical software package designed for storing, analyzing, and manipulating soils data. Although SoilVision{reg_sign} has proven to be useful, its access and use restrictions have been recognized as a limitation to the effective use of the physical and hydraulic property databases by the broader group of potential users involved in Hanford waste site issues. In order to make these data more widely available and useable, a decision was made to port them to HEIS and to make them web-accessible via a Virtual Library module. In FY08 the original objectives of this activity on the RDS project were to: (1) ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data currently residing in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database maintained by PNNL, (2) transfer the physical and hydraulic property data from the Microsoft

  8. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  9. Coupling of bio-PRB and enclosed in-well aeration system for remediation of nitrobenzene and aniline in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Ding, Feng; Wang, Liu; Liu, Peng; Yu, Xiaolong; Ye, Kang

    2016-05-01

    A laboratory-scale bio-permeable reactive barrier (bio-PRB) was constructed and combined with enclosed in-well aeration system to treat nitrobenzene (NB) and aniline (AN) in groundwater. Batch-style experiments were first conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of NB and AN degradation, using suspension (free cells) of degrading consortium and immobilized consortium by a mixture of perlite and peat. The NB and AN were completely degraded in <3 days using immobilized consortium, while 3-5 days were required using free cells. The O2 supply efficiency of an enclosed in-well aeration system was assessed in a box filled with perlite and peat. Dissolved O2 (DO) concentrations increased to 8-12 mg L(-1) in 12 h for sampling ports within 12 cm of the aeration well. A diffusion coefficient as 33.5 cm(2) s(-1) was obtained. The DO concentration was >4 mg L(-1) when the aeration system was applied into the bio-PRB system. The NB and AN were effectively removed when the aeration system was functional in the bio-PRB. The removal efficiency decreased when the aeration system malfunctioned for 20 days, thus indicating that DO was an important factor for the degradation of NB and AN. The regain of NB and AN removal after the malfunction indicates the robustness of degradation consortium. No original organics and new formed by-products were observed in the effluent. The results indicate that NB and AN in groundwater can be completely mineralized in a bio-PRB equipped with enclosed in-well aeration system and filled with perlite and peat attached with degrading consortium. PMID:26865481

  10. Evidence is good for your health system: policy reform to remedy catastrophic and impoverishing health spending in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Méndez-Carniado, Oscar; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Barofsky, Jeremy; Maguire, Rachel; Miranda, Martha; Sesma, Sergio

    2006-11-18

    Absence of financial protection in health is a recently diagnosed "disease" of health systems. The most obvious symptom is that families face economic ruin and poverty as a consequence of financing their health care. Mexico was one of the first countries to diagnose the problem, attribute it to lack of financial protection, and propose systemic therapy through health reform. In this article we assess how Mexico turned evidence on catastrophic and impoverishing health spending into a catalyst for institutional renovation through the reform that created Seguro Popular (Popular Health Insurance). We present 15-year trends on the evolution of catastrophic and impoverishing health spending, including evidence on how the situation is improving. The results of the Mexican experience suggest an important role for the organisation and financing of the health system in reducing impoverishment and protecting households during periods of individual and collective financial crisis. PMID:17113432

  11. [Evidence is good for your health system: policy reform to remedy catastrophic and impoverishing health spending in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Méndez-Carniado, Oscar; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Barofsky, Jeremy; Maguire, Rachel; Miranda, Martha; Sesma, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Absence of financial protection in health is a recently diagnosed "disease" of health systems. The most obvious symptom is that families face economic ruin and poverty as a consequence of financing their health care. Mexico was one of the first countries to diagnose the problem, attribute it to lack of financial protection, and propose systemic therapy through health reform. In this article we assess how Mexico turned evidence on catastrophic and impoverishing health spending into a catalyst for institutional renovation through the reform that created Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance). We present 15-year trends on the evolution of catastrophic and impoverishing health spending, including evidence on how the situation is improving. The results of the Mexican experience suggest an important role for the organisation and financing of the health system in reducing impoverishment and protecting households during periods of individual and collective financial crisis. PMID:17469400

  12. Remediation and Reuse of Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zihms, Stephanie; Switzer, Christine; Tarantino, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Links between contaminant remediation and impacts on soil properties have not been explored in a systematic way. Most remediation studies focus on the effectiveness of the remediation process. Contamination and remediation can have significant effects on soil properties and function. Considering that in most remediation cases the soil will be re-used in some way, it is important to understand the effects of the remediation process on soil properties and the post-remediation soil behaviour. This understanding can help to determine the best re-use of the soil and therefore improve post-remediation site development. Laboratory experiments on coal tar contaminated soil treated with smouldering remediation show that thermal treatments affect a variety of soil properties ranging from mineralogical composition, particle size distribution, and pH. Dynamic responses like permeability and shear strength are impacted as well and these responses are linked to the changes in soil properties. Soil permeability, capillary rise, and contact angle change dramatically after this remediation process, indicating some degree of hydrophobicity and significant implications for water movement through the post-remediation soil. The observed changes in permeability are linked to physical changes to the soil grain surface combined with small amounts (<1ppm) of coal tar and combustion product residue. Decoupling these effects is essential to understanding the extent of impact remediation processes have on long-term soil function. While chemical residue within the pores can be removed through "polishing" remediation steps, physical changes are likely to be permanent. Physical changes and chemical residue also have important implications with respect to the response of the soil under shear. These observed changes indicate that the remediated soil and its behaviour should be considered by remediation research. Monitoring of soil properties and behaviour during aggressive remediation can improve

  13. Lau Remedies Outlined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas, Jose A.

    The understanding of two principles is important if school districts are to develop comprehensive plans responsive to the Lau v. Nichols remedies specified by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) in ways that both adhere to the spirit of the Lau decision and allow the school district to develop coherent educational programs for…

  14. Modularizing Remedial Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As remedial mathematics education has become an increasingly important topic of conversation in higher education. Mathematics departments have been put under increased pressure to change their programs to increase the student success rate. A number of models have been introduced over the last decade that represent a wide range of new ideas and…

  15. 2014 Ohio Remediation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In fulfillment of Ohio Revised Code 3333.041 (A) (1) the Chancellor has published a listing by school district of the number of the 2013 high school graduates who attended a state institution of higher education in academic year 2013-2014 and the percentage of each district's graduates required by the institution to enroll in a remedial course in…

  16. COST OF MTBE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread contamination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in ground water has raised concerns about the increased cost of remediation of MTBE releases compared to BTEX-only sites. To evaluate these cost, cost information for 311 sites was furnished by U.S. EPA Office of Undergr...

  17. Developing Remedial Mathematics Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowski, Barbara R.

    The paper describes strategies for remediating mathematics difficulties (particularly the process of regrouping or "borrowing" in whole number subtraction) in children. Three interrelated aspects of the process (the meaning of subtraction, understanding of non-standard numerals, and the function of the subtraction algorithm), are considered. The…

  18. ORC-GAC-Fe0 system for the remediation of trichloroethylene and monochlorobenzene contaminated aquifer: 1. Adsorption and degradation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qi; Chen, Ying-xu; Plagentz, V; Schäfer, D; Dahmke, A

    2004-01-01

    Activities at a former Chemistry Triangle in Bitterfeld, Germany, resulted in contamination of groundwater with a mixture of trichloroethylene(TCE) and monochlorobenzene(MCB). The objective of this study was to develop a barrier system, which includes an ORC(oxygen release compounds) and GAC(granular activated carbon) layer for adsorption of MCB and bioregeneration of GAC, a Fe0 layer for chemical reductive dechlorination of TCE and other chlorinated hydrocarbon in situ. A laboratory-scale column experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed system. This experiment was performed using a series of continuous flow Teflon columns including an ORC column, a GAC column, and a Fe0 column. Simulated MCB and TCE contaminated groundwater was pumped upflow into this system at a flow rate of 1.1 ml/min. Results showed that 17%-50% of TCE and 28%-50% of MCB were dissipated in ORC column. Chloride ion, however, was not released, which suggest the dechlorination do not happen in ORC column. In GAC column, the adsorption of contaminants on activated carbon and their induced degradation by adapted microorganisms attached to the carbon surface were observed. Due to competitive exchange processes, TCE can be desorbed by MCB in GAC column and further degraded in iron column. The completely dechlorination rate of TCE was 0.16-0.18 cm(-1), 1-4 magnitudes more than the formation rate of three dichloroethene isomers. Cis-DCE is the main chlorinated product, which can be cumulated in the system, not only depending on the formation rate and its decaying rate, but also the initial concentration of TCE. PMID:14971463

  19. [Cognitive remediation and nursing care].

    PubMed

    Schenin-King, Palmyre; Thomas, Fanny; Braha-Zeitoun, Sonia; Bouaziz, Noomane; Januel, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Therapies based on cognitive remediation integrate psychiatric care. Cognitive remediation helps to ease cognitive disorders and enable patients to improve their day-to-day lives. It is essential to complete nurses' training in this field. This article presents the example of a patient with schizophrenia who followed the Cognitive Remediation Therapy programme, enabling him to access mainstream employment. PMID:27615702

  20. 22 CFR 16.5 - Relationship to other remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship to other remedies. 16.5 Section 16.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.5 Relationship to other remedies. (a) A grievant may not file a grievance under these procedures if the...

  1. 22 CFR 16.5 - Relationship to other remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relationship to other remedies. 16.5 Section 16.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.5 Relationship to other remedies. (a) A grievant may not file a grievance under these procedures if the...

  2. Title VII Seniority Remedies in a Time of Economic Downturn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Donald R.

    1975-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the application of rules against employment discrimination by examining the nature of the seniority system and examining the theory and mechanism of federal court and administrative agency remedies. Reviews recent problems that have tested these remedies, focusing on layoffs and liability-minimizing initiatives open to…

  3. Bimetallic Treatment System (BTS) for Removal and Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyl from Marshall Space Flight Center's 4696 Fl Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    This Office of Space Flight (OSF)-funded project sought to demonstrate the application of a Bi-metallic Treatment System (BTS) to remove and degrade PCBs found on NASA facilities. The project initiated with the collection of PCB-containing materials from various MSFC and KSC structures, followed by laboratory evaluation of the BTS' PCB-removal efficiency, and concluded with a field demonstration at MSFC. The project evaluated the optimum formulation required to remove PCBs from aged and weathered paint with the goal of achieving final PCB concentrations less than 50 mg/Kg or 50 percent reduction where PCB starting levels were already below the 50 mg/Kg levels. Using lessons learned from this study, it was anticipated that the research team would be better able to make further recommendation on application strategies for future use of BTS for the treatment of PCB laden coatings on structures.

  4. Remediation of groundwater containing radionuclides and heavy metals using ion exchange and the AlgaSORB[reg sign] biosorbent system

    SciTech Connect

    Feiler, H.D. ); Darnall, D.W. )

    1991-11-07

    Bio-Recovery Systems, Inc. (BRS) studied the application of an immobilized algal biomass, termed AlgaSORB[reg sign], which has high affinity for heavy metal ions to DOE-contaminated groundwaters. The material can be packed into columns similar to commercial ion exchange resins. Dilute solutions containing heavy metals are passed through columns where metals are absorbed by the AlgaSORB[reg sign] resins. Once saturated, metal ions can be stripped from the resin biomass in a highly concentrated solution. Groundwaters contaminated with heavy metal ions from three different Department of Energy (DOE) sites: Savannah River, Hanford and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant were studied. The objective was to perform bench-scale treatability studies to establish treatment protocols and to optimize an AlgaSORB[reg sign]/ion exchange technology system to remove and recover toxic metal ions from these contaminated groundwaters. The specialty ion exchange/AlgaSORB[reg sign] resins tested in these studies show promise for selectively removing chromium, mercury and uranium from contaminated groundwater at DOE sites. The data show that effluents which satisfy the allowable metal ion limits are possible and most likely achievable. The use of these highly selective resins also offer advantages in terms of cost/benefit, risk and scheduling. Their high selectivity allows for high capacity and opportunities for recovery of removed constituents due to high pollutant concentration possible (3 to 4 orders of magnitude). Ion exchange is a proven technology which is easily automated and can be cost-effective, depending on the application.

  5. Decision analysis of mitigation and remediation of sedimentation within large wetland systems: a case study using Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Post van der Burg, Max; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Eash, Josh D.; Knutsen, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentation has been identified as an important stressor across a range of wetland systems. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has the responsibility of maintaining wetlands within its National Wildlife Refuge System for use by migratory waterbirds and other wildlife. Many of these wetlands could be negatively affected by accelerated rates of sedimentation, especially those located in agricultural parts of the landscape. In this report we document the results of a decision analysis project designed to help U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service staff at the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (herein referred to as the Refuge) determine a strategy for managing and mitigating the negative effects of sediment loading within Refuge wetlands. The Refuge’s largest wetland, Agassiz Pool, has accumulated so much sediment that it has become dominated by hybrid cattail (Typha × glauca), and the ability of the staff to control water levels in the Agassiz Pool has been substantially reduced. This project consisted of a workshop with Refuge staff, local and regional stakeholders, and several technical and scientific experts. At the workshop we established Refuge management and stakeholder objectives, a range of possible management strategies, and assessed the consequences of those strategies. After deliberating a range of actions, the staff chose to consider the following three strategies: (1) an inexpensive strategy, which largely focused on using outreach to reduce external sediment inputs to the Refuge; (2) the most expensive option, which built on the first option and relied on additional infrastructure changes to the Refuge to increase management capacity; and (3) a strategy that was less expensive than strategy 2 and relied mostly on existing infrastructure to improve management capacity. Despite the fact that our assessments were qualitative, Refuge staff decided they had enough information to select the third strategy. Following our qualitative assessment, we discussed

  6. Development of a combined soil-wash/in-furnace vitrification system for soil remediation at DOE sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, I.L.; Guo, Y.; Lahoda, E.J.; Lai, Shan-Tao; Muller, I.S.; Ruller, J.; Grant, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report addresses research and development of technologies for treatment of radioactive and hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. Weldon Spring raffinate sludges were used in a direct vitrification study to investigate their use as fluxing agents in glass formulations when blended with site soil. Storm sewer sediments from the Oak Ridge, TN, Y-12 facility were used for soil washing followed by vitrification of the concentrates. Both waste streams were extensively characterized. Testing showed that both mercury and uranium could be removed from the Y-12 soil by chemical extraction resulting in an 80% volume reduction. Thermal desorption was used on the contaminant-enriched minority fraction to separate the mercury from the uranium. Vitrification tests demonstrated that high waste loading glasses could be produced from the radioactive stream and from the Weldon Spring wastes which showed very good leach resistance, and viscosities and electrical conductivities in the range suitable for joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM) processing. The conceptual process described combines soil washing, thermal desorption, and vitrification to produce clean soil (about 90% of the input waste stream), non-radioactive mercury, and a glass wasteform; the estimated processing costs for that system are about $260--$400/yd{sup 3}. Results from continuous melter tests performed using Duratek`s advanced JHCM (Duramelter) system are also presented. Since life cycle cost estimates are driven largely by volume reduction considerations, the large volume reductions possible with these multi-technology, blended waste stream approaches can produce a more leach resistant wasteform at a lower overall cost than alternative technologies such as cementation.

  7. Characterization technologies for environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Pruett, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Improved site characterization technologies are being developed at Martin Marietta Energy Systems for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) in support of environmental restoration activities throughout the DOE complex. Since site characterization is an expensive and time consuming process that must be performed prior to, during, and following remediation efforts, an obvious way to reduce the overall cost of remediation is to develop improved characterization methods. For example, the Derivative Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrometer (DUVAS), which is being field tested as part of the OTD program, is a fiberoptic device for in situ, real time measurement of aromatic organic compounds in groundwater. A transportable, direct sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (ITMS) is being developed for continuous monitoring of hazardous organic compounds in air. In areas where the environment is hazardous to human health, it is desirous to perform site characterization remotely; if robotics are to be employed, the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) can be used to provide telemetry information on robot location as well as sensor measurements. Once fully developed, these technologies can be transferred to the private sector. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for operation of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility Complex (ICDF). This facility includes (a) an engineered landfill that meets the substantial requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl landfill requirements; (b) centralized receiving, inspections, administration, storage/staging, and treatment facilities necessary for CERCLA investigation-derived, remedial, and removal waste at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to final disposition in the disposal facility or shipment off-Site; and (c) an evaporation pond that has been designated as a corrective action management unit. The ICDF Complex, including a buffer zone, will cover approximately 40 acres, with a landfill disposal capacity of approximately 510,000 yd3. The ICDF Complex is designed and authorized to accept INL CERCLA-generated wastes, and includes the necessary subsystems and support facilities to provide a complete waste management system. This Remedial Action Work Plan presents the operational approach and requirements for the various components that are part of the ICDF Complex. Summaries of the remedial action work elements are presented herein, with supporting information and documents provided as appendixes to this work plan that contain specific detail about the operation of the ICDF Complex. This document presents the planned operational process based upon an evaluation of the remedial action requirements set forth in the Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision.

  9. Remediation technologies for contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, L.M.

    1995-09-01

    Although soil and groundwater remediation has been conducted for many years, sediment remediation is still in its infancy. Regulatory agencies are now beginning to identify areas where contaminated sediments exist and evaluate their environmental impact. As these evaluations are completed, the projects must shift focus to how these sediments can be remediated. Also as the criteria for aquatic disposal of dredged sediments become more stringent, remediation technologies must be developed to address contaminated sediments generated by maintenance dredging.This report describes the various issues and possible technologies for sediment remediation.

  10. A flexible system of remediation to stabilize a road affected by landslide in the area of Val di Maso (North-Eastern Italian Apls)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessari, G.; Cioli, C.; Floris, M.; Stevan, G.; Genevois, R.

    2012-04-01

    Slope stabilization follows different design procedures and approaches finalized to reduce the driving forces or increase resisting forces or avoid the problem at all by completely or partially remove unstable materials. But often the cost of stabilization works is very high. Therefore it is necessary to find new effective solutions with low or moderate costs. In this frame, this work reports the case study of a road in the area of Val di Maso, located in the North-Eastern Italian Alps. The road is threatened by the evolution of a mass movement occurred on November 2010 due to an extreme rainfall event that hit the entire North-Eastern sector of Italy. The complex landslide consists of a debris flow involving eluvial/colluvial deposits and past landslide debris. In the upper part, clear morphological evidences indicate that the instability is rapidly retrogressing by multiple rotational slides involving volcanic deposits that can be referred to a paleo-landslide. In the crown area, unstable materials have a thickness of around 20 m. For this reason, a stabilization system using rigid structures anchored to the stable bedrock for an appropriate length would be burdensome and costly. Starting from the geological model of the unstable slope, an innovative stabilization solution is proposed, a numerical simulation to analyze the effects of the stabilization is performed and an integrated monitoring system to control and verify the slope behaviour is planned. The proposed remediation works consist of a "floating belt", placed close to the edge of the road, and some "floating anchors" some meters further down behind the main scarp of the landslide. The system allows small displacements to induce a stress re-distribution favourable to the stability of the slope. The main advantages of the proposed solution are the adaptability to different geo-environmental situations and the low cost compared to other alternatives. On the basis of field data collected, a geological

  11. Tank Waste Remediation System fiscal year 1996 multi-year program plan WBS 1.1. Revision 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The 1995 Hanford Mission Plan specifically addresses the tank waste issue and clarifies the link with other initiatives, such as improving management practices and the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE/RL-91-31). This document captures the results of decision making regarding the application of systems engineering at the Hanford Site, external involvement policy, and site end-state goals. Section 3.5 of the Hanford Mission Plan on Decisions and Directives provides an integrating discussion of the actions of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and DOE policy, guidance, and decisions associated with binding agreements such as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Two significant components of the Hanford Mission Plan 1994 planning basis are (1) the decisions regarding the disposition of onsite material inventory, and the key programs and interfaces to accomplish this; and (2) the Program Interface Issues section, which identified issues that stretch across program boundaries.

  12. Remediation of lindane using engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Mugdha; Abhilash, P C; Singh, Nandita

    2011-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, toxaphene and hexachlorocyclohexane) are chemical pollutants found in all environmental media. There is an urgent need to stop the usage and develop innovative strategies for the remediation of contaminated soil and water. The present work was aimed to evaluate the (i) interaction of fullerene with lindane and its role in the remediation of lindane from contaminated systems and (ii) compare the interaction of fullerene with lindane and trichloroethylene. Strong molecule-surface bonding of fullerene-lindane complex than fullerene-TCE complex indicates that fullerene can be used as a potential nanoparticle for remediation of lindane. However, toxicity and fate of nanoparticles is under investigation and more studies are needed before utilization of fullerene and other nanoparticles for phytoremediation. PMID:21485857

  13. Nodal failure index approach to groundwater remediation design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.; Reeves, H.W.; Dowding, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations often are used to design and to optimize groundwater remediation systems. We present a new computationally efficient approach that calculates the reliability of remedial design at every location in a model domain with a single simulation. The estimated reliability and other model information are used to select a best remedial option for given site conditions, conceptual model, and available data. To evaluate design performance, we introduce the nodal failure index (NFI) to determine the number of nodal locations at which the probability of success is below the design requirement. The strength of the NFI approach is that selected areas of interest can be specified for analysis and the best remedial design determined for this target region. An example application of the NFI approach using a hypothetical model shows how the spatial distribution of reliability can be used for a decision support system in groundwater remediation design. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  14. A Demonstration of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) Rev. 1 Software for the Hanford Remediation Assessment Project

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Nichols, William E.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2006-11-06

    The System Assessment Capability (SAC) is a suite of interrelated computer codes that provides the capability to conduct large-scale environmental assessments on the Hanford Site. Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, SAC models the fate and transport of radioactive and chemical contaminants, starting with the inventory of those contaminants in waste sites, simulating transport through the environment, and continuing on through impacts to the environment and humans. Separate modules in the SAC address inventory, release from waste forms, water flow and mass transport in the vadose zone, water flow and mass transport in the groundwater, water flow and mass transport in the Columbia River, air transport, and human and ecological impacts. The SAC supports deterministic analyses as well as stochastic analyses using a Monte Carlo approach, enabling SAC users to examine the effect of uncertainties in a number of key parameters. The initial assessment performed with the SAC software identified a number of areas where both the software and the analysis approach could be improved. Since that time the following six major software upgrades have been made: (1) An air pathway model was added to support all-pathway analyses. (2) Models for releases from glass waste forms, buried graphite reactor cores, and buried naval reactor compartments were added. (3) An air-water dual-phase model was added to more accurately track the movement of volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. (4) The ability to run analyses was extended from 1,000 years to 10,000 years or longer after site closure. (5) The vadose zone flow and transport model was upgraded to support two-dimensional or three-dimensional analyses. (6) The ecological model and human risk models were upgraded so the concentrations of contaminants in food products consumed by humans are produced by the ecological model. This report documents the functions in the SAC software and provides a

  15. 36 CFR 223.198 - Administrative remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative remedies. 223.198 Section 223.198 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  16. EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION REMEDIES - VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume was prepared as part of an evaluation of groundwater extraction remedies completed under EPA Contract No. 68-W8-0098. It presents 19 case studies of individual sites where ground-water extraction systems have been implemented. These case studies present site characte...

  17. 20 CFR 658.704 - Remedial actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... such a notice is the result of violations of regulations governing services to MSFWs (20 CFR 653.100 et seq.) or the JS complaint system (20 CFR 658.400 et seq.), a copy of said notice shall be sent to the... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Remedial actions. 658.704 Section...

  18. 20 CFR 658.704 - Remedial actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... violations of regulations governing services to MSFWs (20 CFR 653.100 et seq.) or the JS complaint system (20 CFR 658.400 et seq.), a copy of said notice shall be sent to the OWI Administrator, who shall publish... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remedial actions. 658.704 Section...

  19. 5 CFR 1215.23 - Other remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other remedies. 1215.23 Section 1215.23 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Claims... upon a debtor for prolonged or repeated failure to pay a debt. For example, the Chairman or...

  20. Remedial action selection using groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, B.I.; Parish, G.B.; Hauge, L.

    1996-12-31

    An environmental investigation uncovered petroleum contamination at a gasoline station in southern Wisconsin. The site was located in part of the ancestral Rock River valley in Rock County, Wisconsin where the valley is filled with sands and gravels. Groundwater pump tests were conducted for determination of aquifer properties needed to plan a remediation system; the results were indicative of a very high hydraulic conductivity. The site hydrogeology was modeled using the U.S. Geological Survey`s groundwater model, Modflow. The calibrated model was used to determine the number, pumping rate, and configuration of recovery wells to remediate the site. The most effective configuration was three wells pumping at 303 liters per minute (1/m) (80 gallons per minute (gpm)), producing a total pumping rate of 908 l/m (240 gpm). Treating 908 l/min (240 gpm) or 1,308,240 liters per day (345,600 gallons per day) constituted a significant volume to be treated and discharged. It was estimated that pumping for the two year remediation would cost $375,000 while the air sparging would cost $200,000. The recommended remedial system consisted of eight air sparging wells and four vapor recovery laterals. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) approved the remedial action plan in March, 1993. After 11 months of effective operation the concentrations of removed VOCs had decreased by 94 percent and groundwater sampling indicated no detectable concentrations of gasoline contaminants. Groundwater modeling was an effective technique to determine the economic feasibility of a groundwater remedial alternative.

  1. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  2. Remediating munitions contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, P.J.; Comfort, S.D.

    1995-10-01

    The former Nebraska Ordnance Plant (NOP) at Mead, NE was a military loading, assembling, and packing facility that produced bombs, boosters and shells during World War II and the Korean War (1942-1945, 1950-1956). Ordnances were loaded with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), amatol (TNT and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}), tritonal (TNT and Al) and Composition B (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine [RDX] and TNT). Process waste waters were discharged into wash pits and drainage ditches. Soils within and surrounding these areas are contaminated with TNT, RDX and related compounds. A continuous core to 300 cm depth obtained from an NOP drainage ditch revealed high concentrations of TNT in the soil profile and substantial amounts of monoamino reduction products, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT) and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT). Surface soil contained TNT in excess of 5000 mg kg{sup -1} and is believed to contain solid phase TNT. This is supported by measuring soil solution concentrations at various soil to solution ratios (1:2 to 1:9) and obtaining similar TNT concentrations (43 and 80 mg L{sup -1}). Remediating munitions-contaminated soil at the NOP and elsewhere is of vital interest since many of the contaminants are carcinogenic, mutagenic or otherwise toxic to humans and the environment. Incineration, the most demonstrated remediation technology for munitions-containing soils, is costly and often unacceptable to the public. Chemical and biological remediation offer potentially cost-effective and more environmentally acceptable alternatives. Our research objectives are to: (a) characterize the processes affecting the transport and fate of munitions in highly contaminated soil; (b) identify effective chemical and biological treatments to degrade and detoxify residues; and (c) integrate these approaches for effective and practical remediation of soil contaminated with TNT, RDX, and other munitions residues.

  3. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  4. Bioelectrical Perchlorate Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrash, C.; Achenbach, L. A.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    low-level perchlorate (100 μg.L-1) influent as well as mixed-waste influents more typically found in the environment containing both nitrate and perchlorate. Through extended periods of operation (>70 days), no loss in treatment efficiency was noted and no measurable growth in biomass was observed. Gas phase analysis indicated that low levels of H2 produced at the cathode surface through electrolysis can provide enough reducing equivalents to mediate this metabolism. The results of these studies demonstrate that perchlorate remediation can be facilitated through the use of a cathode as the primary electron donor, and that continuous treatment in such a system approaches current industry standards. This has important implications for the continuous treatment of this critical contaminant in industrial waste streams and drinking water. Such a process has the advantage of long-term, low-maintenance operation with ease of online monitoring and control while limiting the injection of additional chemicals into the water treatment process and outgrowth of the microbial populations. This would negate the need for the continual removal and disposal of biomass produced during treatment and also the downstream issues associated with corrosion and biofouling of distribution systems and the production of toxic disinfection byproducts.

  5. Preparing Underprepared Students for College: Remedial Education and Early Assessment Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.; Garcia, Lisa D.

    2008-01-01

    Postsecondary level remediation has recently received a great deal of attention with the public questioning the efficacy of spending money on remedial classes, and scholars questioning whether such courses are effective in helping students graduate. The California State University (CSU) system has responded to the challenge of remediation by…

  6. Lasagna{trademark} soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    Lasagna{trademark} is an integrated, in situ remediation technology being developed which remediates soils and soil pore water contaminated with soluble organic compounds. Lasagna{trademark} is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils where electroosmosis can move water faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods, with very low power consumption. The process uses electrokinetics to move contaminants in soil pore water into treatment zones where the contaminants can be captured and decomposed. Initial focus is on trichloroethylene (TCE), a major contaminant at many DOE and industrial sites. Both vertical and horizontal configurations have been conceptualized, but fieldwork to date is more advanced for the vertical configuration. Major features of the technology are electrodes energized by direct current, which causes water and soluble contaminants to move into or through the treatment layers and also heats the soil; treatment zones containing reagents that decompose the soluble organic contaminants or adsorb contaminants for immobilization or subsequent removal and disposal; and a water management system that recycles the water that accumulates at the cathode (high pH) back to the anode (low pH) for acid-base neutralization. Alternatively, electrode polarity can be reversed periodically to reverse electroosmotic flow and neutralize pH.

  7. DEMONSTRATION OF PILOT-SCALE PREVAPORATION SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM A SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION FLUID. I. SPIRAL WOUND MEMBRANE MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 1996, a pilot-scale demonstration of a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) process for removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) from soils was conducted at Hill Air Force Base in Layton, Utah. Five thousand gallons of the extracted DNAP...

  8. Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Evaluation of selected feasibility studies of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G. ); Hartz, K.E.; Hilliard, N.D. and Associates, Seattle, WA )

    1990-04-01

    Congress and the public have mandated much closer scrutiny of the management of chemically hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes. Legislative language, regulatory intent, and prudent technical judgment, call for using scientifically based studies to assess current conditions and to evaluate and select costeffective strategies for mitigating unacceptable situations. The NCP requires that a Remedial Investigation (RI) and a Feasibility Study (FS) be conducted at each site targeted for remedial response action. The goal of the RI is to obtain the site data needed so that the potential impacts on public health or welfare or on the environment can be evaluated and so that the remedial alternatives can be identified and selected. The goal of the FS is to identify and evaluate alternative remedial actions (including a no-action alternative) in terms of their cost, effectiveness, and engineering feasibility. The NCP also requires the analysis of impacts on public health and welfare and on the environment; this analysis is the endangerment assessment (EA). In summary, the RI, EA, and FS processes require assessment of the contamination at a site, of the potential impacts in public health or the environment from that contamination, and of alternative RAs that could address potential impacts to the environment. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    SciTech Connect

    L. O. Nelson

    2003-09-01

    This operations and maintenance plan supports the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF) remedial action work plan and identifies the approach and requirements for the operations and maintenance activities specific to the final medical zone treatment remedy. The NPTF provides the treatment system necessary to remediate the medical zone portion of the OU 1-07B contaminated groundwater plume. Design and construction of the New Pump and Treat Facility is addressed in the NPTF remedial action work plan. The scope of this operation and maintenance plan includes facility operations and maintenance, remedy five-year reviews, and the final operations and maintenance report for the NPTF.

  10. Mapping Contaminant Remediation with Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, J.; Power, C.; Tsourlos, P.; Karaoulis, M.; Giannopoulos, A.; Soupios, P. M.; Simyrdanis, K.

    2014-12-01

    The remediation of sites contaminated with industrial chemicals - specifically dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) like coal tar and chlorinated solvents - represents a major geoenvironmental challenge. Remediation activities would benefit from a non-destructive technique to map the evolution of DNAPL mass in space and time. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has long-standing potential in this context but has not yet become a common tool at DNAPL sites. This work evaluated the potential of time-lapse ERT for mapping DNAPL mass reduction in real time during remediation. Initially, a coupled DNAPL-ERT numerical model was developed for exploring this potential at the field scale, generating realistic DNAPL scenarios and predicting the response of an ERT survey. Also, new four-dimensional (4D) inversion algorithms were integrated for tracking DNAPL removal over time. 4D ERT applied at the surface for mapping an evolving DNAPL distribution was first demonstrated in a laboratory experiment. Independent simulation of the experiment demonstrated the reliability of the DNAPL-ERT model for simulating real systems. The model was then used to explore the 4D ERT approach at the field scale for a range of realistic DNAPL remediation scenarios. The approach showed excellent potential for mapping shallow DNAPL changes. However, remediation at depth was not as well resolved. To overcome this limitation, a new surface-to-horizontal borehole (S2HB) ERT configuration is proposed. A second laboratory experiment was conducted that demonstrated that S2HB ERT does better resolve changes in DNAPL distribution relative to surface ERT, particularly at depth. The DNAPL-ERT model was also used to demonstrate the improved mapping of S2HB ERT for field scale DNAPL scenarios. Overall, this work demonstrates that, with these innovations, ERT exhibits significant potential as a real time, non-destructive geoenvironmental remediation site monitoring tool.

  11. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hart, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project. During Phase 2, the basic nitrification process design was modified to meet the specific needs of the new waste streams available at Paducah. The system design developed for Paducah has significantly enhanced the processing capabilities of the Vortec vitrification process. The overall system design now includes the capability to shred entire drums and drum packs containing mud, concrete, plastics and PCB`s as well as bulk waste materials. This enhanced processing capability will substantially expand the total DOE waste remediation applications of the technology.

  12. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  13. Integrated in-situ remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Fustos, V.; Lieberman, P.

    1996-01-01

    This article presents an integrated approach to ex-situ and in-situ remediation. A sequence of processes, used successfully in their own right, but used synergistically in this approach, have achieved short-term, economic remediation. In addition the range of contaminants that can be treated is extended. The Process uses ozone, compressed oxygen, water vapor, heat, bioaugmentation and vapor extraction to remediate lower molecular weight hydrocarbons and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. 3 figs.

  14. Electrokinetic remediation prefield test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods for determining the parameters critical in designing an electrokinetic soil remediation process including electrode well spacing, operating current/voltage, electroosmotic flow rate, electrode well wall design, and amount of buffering or neutralizing solution needed in the electrode wells at operating conditions are disclosed These methods are preferably performed prior to initiating a full scale electrokinetic remediation process in order to obtain efficient remediation of the contaminants.

  15. Saxton soil remediation project

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Facility (SNEF) consists of a 23-MW(thermal) pressurized light water thermal reactor located in south central Pennsylvania. The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC), a wholly owned subsidiary of the General Public Utilities (GPU) Corporation, is the licensee for the SNEF. Maintenance and decommissioning activities at the site are conducted by GPU Nuclear, also a GPU subsidiary and operator of the Three Mile Island and Oyster Creek nuclear facilities. The remediation and radioactive waste management of contaminated soils is described.

  16. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    groundwater tainted by chlorinated solvents once used to clean rocket engine components. The award-winning innovation (Spinoff 2010) is now NASA s most licensed technology to date. PCBs in paint presented a new challenge. Removing the launch stand for recycling proved a difficult operation; the toxic paint had to be fully stripped from the steel structure, a lengthy and costly process that required the stripped paint to be treated before disposal. Noting the lack of efficient, environmentally friendly options for dealing with PCBs, Quinn and her colleagues developed the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS). AMTS is a paste consisting of a solvent solution containing microscale particles of activated zero-valent metal. When applied to a painted surface, the paste extracts and degrades the PCBs into benign byproducts while leaving the paint on the structure. This provides a superior alternative to other methods for PCB remediation, such as stripping the paint or incinerating the structure, which prevents reuse and can release volatized PCBs into the air. Since its development, AMTS has proven to be a valuable solution for removing PCBs from paint, caulking, and various insulation and filler materials in older buildings, naval ships, and former munitions facilities where the presence of PCBs interferes with methods for removing trace explosive materials. Miles of potentially toxic caulking join sections of runways at airports. Any of these materials installed before 1979 potentially contain PCBs, Quinn says. "This is not just a NASA problem," she says. "It s a global problem."

  17. Remediating Remediation: From Basic Writing to Writing across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article challenges faculty members and administrators to rethink current definitions of remediation. First year college students are increasingly placed into basic writing courses due to a perceived inability to use English grammar correctly, but it must be acknowledged that all students will encounter the need for remediation as they attempt…

  18. Home Assessment and Remediation.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Charles S; Horner, W Elliott; Kennedy, Kevin; Grimes, Carl; Miller, J David

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of the relationship of fungi to asthma in indoor air is very old and well documented. There is substantial evidence that mold and dampness exacerbate asthma in sensitized individuals. Many governmental and nongovernmental organizations around the world have issued guidelines to the effect that the elimination of moisture intrusion and the removal of moldy items from living space can improve respiratory health. The process of home assessment for moisture and mold presence is discussed along with factors that can be used to guide fungal exposure reduction efforts. An approach to the assessment process itself is outlined, and common causes of moisture and mold damage are described. Points that should be included in a report resulting from a home assessment and rudimentary elements of report interpretation are discussed. Emphasis is that interpretation of sampling for moisture and fungal presence should be provided by the person performing the assessment. We conclude that multifaceted remediation contributes to fungal allergen avoidance. The use of an indoor environmental professional to generate evaluation reports and remediation activities can be a valuable contribution to an overall allergen avoidance strategy. PMID:27157934

  19. Soil Remediation Test

    SciTech Connect

    Manlapig, D. M.; Williamsws

    2002-04-01

    Soils contaminated with petroleum by-products can now be effectively remediated using a variety of technologies. Among these are in-situ bioremediation, land farming, and landfill/replacing of soil. The range of efficiencies and cost effectiveness of these technologies has been well documented. Exsorbet Plus is showing promise as an in-situ bioremediation agent. It is made of naturally grown Spaghnum Peat Moss which has been activated for encapsulation and blended with nitrogen-rich fertilizer. In its initial field test in Caracas, Venezuela, it was able to remediate crude oil-contaminated soil in 90 days at less than half of the cost of competing technologies. Waste Solutions, Corp and the US Department of Energy signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement to test Exsorbet Plus at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center near Casper, Wyoming. As part of the test, soil contaminated with crude oil was treated with Exsorbet Plus to aid the in-situ bioremediation process. Quantitative total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) measurements were acquired comparing the performance of Exsorbet Plus with an adjacent plot undergoing unaided in-situ bioremediation.

  20. Effects of a remedial system and its operation on volatile organic compound-contaminated ground water, Operable Unit 1, Savage Municipal Well Superfund Site, Milford, New Hampshire, 1998-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.

    2006-01-01

    The Savage Municipal Well Superfund site in the Town of Milford, N.H., is underlain by a 0.5-square mile plume of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), mostly tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The plume occurs mostly within a highly transmissive sand and gravel layer, but also extends into underlying till and bedrock. The plume has been divided into two areas called Operable Unit 1 (OU1), which contains the primary source area, and Operable Unit 2 (OU2), which is defined as the extended plume area. PCE concentrations in excess of 100,000 parts per billion (ppb) had been detected in the OU1 area in 1995, indicating a likely Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) source. In the fall of 1998, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) installed a remedial system in OU1 to contain and capture the dissolved VOC plume. The OU1 remedial system includes a low-permeability barrier wall that encircles the highest detected concentrations of PCE, and a series of injection and extraction wells to contain and remove contaminants. The barrier wall likely penetrates the full thickness of the sand and gravel; in most places, it also penetrates the full thickness of the underlying basal till and sits atop bedrock. Remedial injection and extraction wells have been operating since the spring of 1999 and include a series of interior (inside the barrier wall) injection and extractions wells and exterior (outside the barrier wall) injection and extraction wells. A recharge gallery outside the barrier wall receives the bulk of the treated water and reinjects it into the shallow aquifer. From 1998 to 2004, PCE concentrations decreased by an average of 80 percent at most wells outside the barrier wall. This decrease indicates (1) the barrier wall and interior extraction effectively contained high PCE concentrations inside the wall, (2) other sources of PCE did not appear to be outside of the wall, and (3) ambient ground

  1. Observational Approach to Chromium Site Remediation - 13266

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Myers, R.

    2013-07-01

    Production reactors at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, required massive quantities of water for reactor cooling and material processing. To reduce corrosion and the build-up of scale in pipelines and cooling systems, sodium dichromate was added to the water feedstock. Spills and other releases at the makeup facilities, as well as leaks from miles of pipelines, have led to numerous areas with chromium-contaminated soil and groundwater, threatening fish populations in the nearby Columbia River. Pump-and-treat systems have been installed to remove chromium from the groundwater, but significant contamination remain in the soil column and poses a continuing threat to groundwater and the Columbia River. Washington Closure Hanford, DOE, and regulators are working on a team approach that implements the observational approach, a strategy for effectively dealing with the uncertainties inherent in subsurface conditions. Remediation of large, complex waste sites at a federal facility is a daunting effort. It is particularly difficult to perform the work in an environment of rapid response to changing field and contamination conditions. The observational approach, developed by geotechnical engineers to accommodate the inherent uncertainties in subsurface conditions, is a powerful and appropriate method for site remediation. It offers a structured means of quickly moving into full remediation and responding to the variations and changing conditions inherent in waste site cleanups. A number of significant factors, however, complicate the application of the observational approach for chromium site remediation. Conceptual models of contamination and site conditions are difficult to establish and get consensus on. Mid-stream revisions to the design of large excavations are time-consuming and costly. And regulatory constraints and contract performance incentives can be impediments to the flexible responses required under the observational

  2. Home Remedy Use Among African American and White Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Home remedy use is an often overlooked component of health self-management, with a rich tradition, particularly among African Americans and others who have experienced limited access to medical care or discrimination by the health care system. Home remedies can potentially interfere with biomedical treatments. This study documented the use of home remedies among older rural adults, and compared use by ethnicity (African American and white) and gender. A purposeful sample of 62 community-dwelling adults ages 65+ from rural North Carolina was selected. Each completed an in-depth interview, which probed current use of home remedies, including food and non-food remedies, and the symptoms or conditions for use. Systematic, computer-assisted analysis was used to identify usage patterns. Five food and five non-food remedies were used by a large proportion of older adults. African American elders reported greater use than white elders; women reported more use for a greater number of symptoms than men. Non-food remedies included long-available, over-the-counter remedies (e.g., Epsom salts) for which “off-label” uses were reported. Use focused on alleviating common digestive, respiratory, skin, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Some were used for chronic conditions in lieu of prescription medications. Home remedy use continues to be a common feature of the health self-management of older adults, particularly among African Americans, though at lower levels than previously reported. While some use is likely helpful or benign, other use has the potential to interfere with medical management of disease. Health care providers should be aware of the use of remedies by their patients. PMID:26543255

  3. Integrated technologies for expedited soil and groundwater remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.; Wellman, D.

    1996-12-01

    A fast-track and economic approach was necessary to meet the needs of a property transfer agreement and to minimize impact to future usage of a site in the Los Angeles Basin. Woodward-Clyde responded by implementing site investigation, remedial action plan preparation for soil and groundwater, and selection and installation of remedial alternatives in an aggressive schedule of overlapped tasks. Assessment of soil and groundwater was conducted at the site, followed by design and construction of remediation systems. This phase of activity was completed within 2 years. Soil and groundwater were found to be impacted by chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons. A vapor extraction system (2,000 scfm capacity) was installed for soil remediation, and an innovative air sparging system was installed for cost effective groundwater cleanup. A bioventing system was also applied in selected areas. The vapor extraction wellfield consists of 26 extraction and monitoring well points, with multiple screened casings. The air sparging wellfield consists of 32 sparging wells with a designed maximum flow of 400 scfm. The systems began operation in 1993, and have resulted in the estimated removal of approximately 30,000 pounds of contaminants, or about 90% of the estimated mass in place. The combined vapor extraction/air sparging system is expected to reduce the time for on-site groundwater remediation from 1/3 to 1/6 the time when compared to the conventional pump and treat method for groundwater remediation.

  4. Carbon Nanotube Based Groundwater Remediation: The Case of Trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Jha, Kshitij C; Liu, Zhuonan; Vijwani, Hema; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M; Tsige, Mesfin

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of chlorinated organic contaminants (COCs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been gaining ground as a remedial platform for groundwater treatment. Applications depend on our mechanistic understanding of COC adsorption on CNTs. This paper lays out the nature of competing interactions at play in hybrid, membrane, and pure CNT based systems and presents results with the perspective of existing gaps in design strategies. First, current remediation approaches to trichloroethylene (TCE), the most ubiquitous of the COCs, is presented along with examination of forces contributing to adsorption of analogous contaminants at the molecular level. Second, we present results on TCE adsorption and remediation on pure and hybrid CNT systems with a stress on the specific nature of substrate and molecular architecture that would contribute to competitive adsorption. The delineation of intermolecular interactions that contribute to efficient remediation is needed for custom, scalable field design of purification systems for a wide range of contaminants. PMID:27455218

  5. Innovative Technologies for Chlorinated Solvent Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennell, Kurt D.; Cápiro, Natalie L.

    2014-07-01

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * TRADITIONAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (1980s) * RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (1990s-2000s) * CURRENT TRENDS IN CHLORINATED SOLVENT REMEDIATION (2010s) * CLOSING THOUGHTS * REFERENCES

  6. Novel sorbents for environmental remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Werner, David

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the major environmental problems is the pollution of aquatic systems and soil by persistent pollutants. Persistent pollutants have been found widespread in sediments, surface waters, and drinking water supplies. The removal of pollutants can be accomplished prior to their discharge to receiving bodies or by immobilizing them onto soil. Sorption is the most commonly applied process, and activated carbons have been widely used. Rapid progress in nanotechnology and a new focus on biomass-based instead of non-renewable starting materials have produced a wide range of novel engineered sorbents including biosorbents, biochars, carbon-based nanoparticles, bio-nano hybrid materials, and iron-impregnated activated carbons. Sorbent materials have been used in environmental remediation processes and especially in agricultural soil, sediments and contaminated soil, water treatment, and industrial wastewater treatment. Furthermore, sorbents may enhance the synergistic action of other processes, such as volatilization and biodegradation. Novel sorbents have been employed for the removal or immobilization of persistent pollutants such as and include heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg), halogenated organic compounds, endocrine disrupting chemicals, metalloids and non-metallic elements, and other organic pollutants. The development and evaluation of novel sorbents requires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing environmental, nanotechnology, physical, analytical, and surface chemistry. The necessary evaluations encompass not only the efficiency of these materials to remove pollutants from surface waters and groundwater, industrial wastewater, polluted soils and sediments, etc., but also the potential side-effects of their environmental applications. The aim of this work is to present the results of the use of biochar and impregnated carbon sorbents for the removal of organic pollutants and metals. Furthermore, the new findings from the forthcoming session

  7. Sulfate Reduction in Groundwater: Characterization and Applications for Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Z.; Brusseau, M. L.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Carreon-Diazconti, C.; Johnson, B.

    2012-06-01

    Sulfate is ubiquitous in groundwater, with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Sulfate reduction reactions play a significant role in mediating redox conditions and biogeochemical processes for subsurface systems. They also serve as the basis for innovative in-situ methods for groundwater remediation. An overview of sulfate reduction in subsurface environments is provided, with a specific focus on implications for groundwater remediation. A case study presenting the results of a pilot-scale ethanol injection test illustrates the advantages and difficulties associated with the use of electron-donor amendments for sulfate remediation.

  8. Common herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Turkoski, B B

    2000-01-01

    Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular as people seek more effective, natural, or safer methods for treating a variety of complaints. As a result, nurses in every setting may expect to see increased numbers of patients who are using herbal products. When patients assume that the nurses will be critical of their use of herbals, they may withhold such information to avoid unpleasantness. This could place patients at risk for adverse effects, drug interactions, and complications related to ineffective treatment. Nurses who are knowledgeable about herbal products and who are open to discussion about these products can provide information and advice about safe use. The discussion in this article addresses actions, possible benefits, and dangers of the most common herbal products. Guidelines for assessing and teaching clients about herbal use are included. PMID:11062629

  9. Remediation of Estuarine Barrages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, F.; Lamping, J.; Wright, J.

    2003-04-01

    Estuarine barrages have become a popular component of urban regeneration in the UK. However, a range of problems have been identified with the construction and operation of barrages, including: excess sediment build up; low oxygen conditions and eutrophication. This project has examined 3 strategies for the remediation of estuarine barrages: use of aerators; flushing of the impoundment by lock management; and use of boom/skirt technologies. The results show that: flushing of the barrage is ineffective; and that boom/skirt technologies could be successful in stratified impoundments. Aerators were shown to give significant increases in dissolved oxygen levels and field studies were able to delimit times when aeration would be effective. The study has shown that most problems experienced by the barrage are the result of inputs to the barrage rather than caused by the internal processes of the barrage itself and as such esturies must be managed as part of the catchment as a whole.

  10. Case study of an approved corrective action integrating active remediation with intrinsic remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Teets, D.B.; Guest, P.R.; Blicker, B.R.

    1996-12-01

    Parsons Engineering Science, Inc., performed UST removals and/or site assessments at UST system locations at a former US Air Force Base (AFB) in Denver, Colorado. Four UST systems, incorporating 17 USTs, were located within the petroleum, oils, and lubricants bulk storage yard (POL Yard) of the former AFB. During the tank removals and subsequent site investigations, petroleum hydrocarbon contamination was found in soils at each site. Significant releases from two of the UST systems resulted in a dissolved benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) plume in the groundwater, and smear-zone contamination of soils beneath the majority of the POL Yard. Because of the close proximity of the UST systems, and the presence of the groundwater plume beneath the POL Yard, a corrective action plan (CAP) was prepared that encompassed all four UST systems. An innovative, risk-based CAP integrated active remediation of petroleum-contaminated soils with intrinsic remediation of groundwater. A natural attenuation evaluation for the dissolved BTEX was performed to demonstrate that natural attenuation processes are providing adequate remediation of groundwater and to predict the fate of the groundwater plume. BTEX concentrations versus distance were regressed to obtain attenuation rates, which were then used to calculate BTEX degradation rates using a one-dimensional, steady-state analytical solution. Additionally, electron acceptor concentrations in groundwater were compared to BTEX concentrations to provide evidence that natural attenuation of BTEX compounds was occurring. The natural attenuation evaluation was used in the CAP to support the intrinsic remediation with long-term monitoring alternative for groundwater, thereby avoiding the installation of an expensive groundwater remediation system.

  11. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  12. Overview of lead remediation effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Elias, Robert W; Gulson, Brian

    2003-02-15

    A Symposium on Lead Remediation Effectiveness, sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency, was held at Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, USA from 22-25 May, 2000. International participants from various levels of government, educational institutions, industry, and community representatives presented papers and posters on themes that ranged from engineering practices through community participation in the remediation processes. The papers in this volume represent a global distribution of sites, especially those outside the USA. In providing an overview of the symposium and the theme of Lead Remediation Effectiveness we have drawn on information from some presentations at the symposium, besides those described in this volume. PMID:12568760

  13. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  14. The role of innovative remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    There are currently over 1200 sites on the US Superfund`s National Priorities List (NPL) of hazardous waste sites, and there are over 30, 000 sites listed by the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS). The traditional approach to remediating sites in the US has been to remove the material and place it in a secure landfill, or in the case of groundwater, pump and treat the effluent. These technologies have proven to be very expensive and don`t really fix the problem. The waste is just moved from one place to another. In recent years, however, alternative and innovative technologies have been increasingly used in the US to replace the traditional approaches. This paper will focus on just such innovative remediation technologies in the US, looking at the regulatory drivers, the emerging technologies, some of the problems in deploying technologies, and a case study.

  15. The role of innovative remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    There are currently over 1200 sites on the US Superfund's National Priorities List (NPL) of hazardous waste sites, and there are over 30, 000 sites listed by the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS). The traditional approach to remediating sites in the US has been to remove the material and place it in a secure landfill, or in the case of groundwater, pump and treat the effluent. These technologies have proven to be very expensive and don't really fix the problem. The waste is just moved from one place to another. In recent years, however, alternative and innovative technologies have been increasingly used in the US to replace the traditional approaches. This paper will focus on just such innovative remediation technologies in the US, looking at the regulatory drivers, the emerging technologies, some of the problems in deploying technologies, and a case study.

  16. Total quality management -- Remedial actions planning program

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, J.L.; Horne, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the management approach being taken within the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) Support Contractor Office (SCO) to ensure quality of services in a highly competitive waste management environment. An overview is presented of the contractor support role assigned to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) national program for managing hazardous waste. The HAZWRAP SCO mission, organizational structure, and major programs are outlined, with emphasis on waste management planning for the DOE Work for Others (WFO) Program. The HAZWRAP SCO provides waste management technical support, via interagency agreements between DOE and various Department of Defense (DOD) agencies for DOD sponsors planning remedial response actions. The remainder of the paper focuses on how the concept of Total Quality Management is applied to the HAZWRAP Remedial Actions Planning (RAP) Program. The management challenge is to achieve quality on a ''system'' basis where all functional elements of program management synergistically contribute to the total quality of the effort. The quality assurance (QA) program requirements applied to the RAP Program and its subcontractors are discussed. The application of management principles in the areas of program management, procurement, and QA to achieve total quality is presented. 3 refs.

  17. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Report

    SciTech Connect

    W. M. Heileson

    2007-09-26

    This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.

  18. REMEDIAL ACTION COSTING PROCEDURES MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual provides specific procedures for the cost estimating and economic analysis steps required for preparing engineering cost estimates for selecting remedial action alternatives in response to the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and ...

  19. Teacher Burnout: Diagnosis, Prevention, Remediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossack, Sharon W.; Woods, Sandra L.

    1980-01-01

    Practical suggestions for diagnosing, preventing, and remediating teacher burnout include changing the school environment, health habits, supportive behavior, time management, and general perspective on teaching and job situations. (JD)

  20. Remediation of contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnan, R.; Ariza, C.H.

    1997-07-01

    At least three types of zones of contamination exist whenever there is a chemical release. The impact of Non-Aqueous-Phase Liquids (NAPL) on soils and groundwater, together with the ultimate transport and migration of constituent chemicals in their dissolved or sorbed states, had led environmentalists to develop several techniques for cleaning a contaminated soil. Zone 1 represents the unsaturated zone which could be contaminated to retention capacity by both Dense Non-Aqueous-Phase Liquids (DNAPL) and Light Non-Aqueous-Phase Liquids (LNAPL). Zone 2 represents residual DNAPL or LNAPL contamination found below the groundwater table in the saturated zone. Zone 3 is represented by either the presence of NAPL dissolved in the aqueous phase, volatilized in the unsaturated zone or sorbed to either saturated or unsaturated soils. Cleanup of petroleum contaminated soils is presented in this paper. Among several techniques developed for this purpose, in-situ biological remediation is discussed in detail as a technique that does not involve excavation, thus, the costs and disruption of excavating soil are eliminated.

  1. Characterization and Monitoring Strategy for MNA and Enhanced Passive Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Tyler J.; Looney, Brian B.; Riha, Brian D.; Waugh, Jody; Sink, Claire H.

    2004-06-01

    A framework for characterizing and monitoring the Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and Enhanced Passive Remediation (EPR) options was developed to facilitate the use of these naturally passive remedial options. The framework provides the technical basis for evaluating, applying and monitoring MNA/EPR over the lifetime of application. The mass balance concept is used as the scientific and technical framework for this characterization and monitoring approach. The approach is organized into four transitional phases: screening characterization, decision characterization, process monitoring and system verification. The framework overlays the CERCLA process with the intent to expand the description of characterizations and monitoring and not to replace nor increase the requirements of the Remediation Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). The use of natural processes to promote cleanup is, in many ways, unique from engineered solutions. And, this framework allows MNA to be evaluated holistically taking into consideration the requirements over the lifetime of the remedy.

  2. Report on the remedial action to isolate DDT from people and the environment in the Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek System, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama: Review panel activities, (United States v. Olin Corporation consent decree), May 31, 1983-June 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The Consent Decree requires the Olin Corporation to develop and implement a remedial plan that will meet a performance standard of 5 parts per million (ppM) of DDT in fillets of channel catfish, largemouth bass, and smallmouth buffalo in specified reaches of the HSB-IC System. This performance standard is to be achieved by a remedy that is consistent with the goals and objectives of the Consent Decree. A Review Panel, consisting of members from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the Department of the Army (DA), the State of Alabama (ADEM), and nonvoting participants from the town of Triana, Alabama (Triana), and the Olin Corporation (Olin), was established by the Consent Decree. Review Panel responsibilities include technical overview and approval of Olin's proposals to achieve the requirements of the Consent Decree. This report summarizes the activities of the Review Panel associated with implementation of Consent Decree requirements from May 31, 1983 through June 30, 1986.

  3. Reduction of nitro aromatic compounds in Fe(0)-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O systems: Implications for groundwater remediation with iron metal

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, A.

    1995-07-01

    The properties of iron metal that make it useful in remediation of chlorinated solvents may also lead to reduction of other groundwater contaminants such as nitro aromatic compounds (NACs). This possibility has been investigated in batch experiments using aqueous carbonate media to determine the kinetics and mechanism of nitro reduction by iron metal, and to learn more about the effect of precipitation on the reactivity of the metal surfaces under geochemical conditions. Nitrobenzene is reduced by iron under anaerobic conditions to aniline with nitrosobenzene as an intermediate product. Detectable amounts of coupling products such as azobenzene and azoxybenzene were not found. First-order reduction rates are similar for nitrobenzene and nitrosobenzene, but aniline appearance occurs more slowly. The nitro reduction rate increased linearly with concentration of iron surface area, giving a specific reaction rate constant which is roughly 16-fold greater than has been reported for dehalogenation of carbon tetrachloride.

  4. ERT monitoring of environmental remediation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Brecque, D. J.; Ramirez, A. L.; Daily, W. D.; Binley, A. M.; Schima, S. A.

    1996-03-01

    The use of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) to monitor new environmental remediation processes is addressed. An overview of the ERT method, including design of surveys and interpretation, is given. Proper design and lay-out of boreholes and electrodes are important for successful results. Data are collected using an automated collection system and interpreted using a nonlinear least squares inversion algorithm. Case histories are given for three remediation technologies: Joule (ohmic) heating, in which clay layers are heated electrically; air sparging, the injection of air below the water table; and electrokinetic treatment, which moves ions by applying an electric current. For Joule heating, a case history is given for an experiment near Savannah River, Georgia, USA. The target for Joule heating was a clay layer of variable thickness. During the early stages of heating, ERT images show increases in conductivity due to the increased temperatures. Later, the conductivities decreased as the system became dehydrated. For air sparging, a case history from Florence, Oregon, USA is described. Air was injected into a sandy aquifer at the site of a former service station. Successive images clearly show the changes in shape of the region of air saturation with time. The monitoring of an electrokinetic laboratory test on core samples is shown. The electrokinetic treatment creates a large change in the core resistivity, decreasing near the anode and increasing near the cathode. Although remediation efforts were successful both at Savannah River and at Florence, in neither case did experiments progress entirely as predicted. At Savannah River, the effects of heating and venting were not uniform and at Florence the radius of air flow was smaller than expected. Most sites are not as well characterized as these two sites. Improving remediation methods requires an understanding of the movements of heat, air, fluids and ions in the sub-surface which ERT can provide. The

  5. TiO2 nanoparticles for the remediation of eutrophic shallow freshwater systems: Efficiency and impacts on aquatic biota under a microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Bessa da Silva, Márcia; Abrantes, Nelson; Nogueira, Verónica; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    The application of nanomaterials (NMs) in the remediation of eutrophic waters, particularly in the control of internal loading of nutrients, has been started, but limited investigations evaluated the effectiveness of these new treatment approaches and of their potential impacts on species from shallow freshwater lakes. The present work investigated, under a microcosm experiment, the application of a TiO2 nanomaterial both for reducing nutrient (mainly phosphorus and nitrogen forms) desorption and release from sediments (preventive treatment-PT) and for eliminating algal blooms (remediation treatment-RT). Furthermore, we also intended to assess the potential impacts of nano-TiO2 application on key freshwater species. The results showed the effectiveness of nano-TiO2 in controlling the release of phosphates from surface sediment and the subsequent reduction of total phosphorus in the water column. A reduction in total nitrogen was also observed. Such changes in nutrient dynamics contributed to a progressive inhibition of development of algae after the application of the NM in PT microcosms. Concerning the ability of nano-TiO2 to interact with algal cells, this interaction has likely occurred, mainly in RT, enhancing the formation of aggregates and their rapid settlement, thus reducing the algal bloom. Both treatments caused deleterious effects on freshwater species. In PT, Daphnia magna and Lemna minor showed a significant inhibition of several endpoints. Conversely, no inhibitory effect on the growth of Chironomus riparius was recorded. In opposite, C. riparius was the most affected species in RT microcosms. Such difference was probably caused by the formation of larger TiO2-algae aggregates in RT, under a high algal density, that rapidly settled in the sediment, becoming less available for pelagic species. In summary, despite the effectiveness of both treatments in controlling internal nutrient loading and in the mitigating algal bloom episodes, their negative

  6. Remediation of Uranium Impacted Sediments in a Watercourse - 12486

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, E.; Walter, N.; Downey, H.; Collopy, P.; Conant, J.

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, remediation was initiated for a non-operational fuel cycle facility previously used for government contract work. Between 2009 and the spring of 2011, remediation efforts were focused on demolition of contaminated buildings and removal of contaminated soil. In the late spring of 2011, the last phase of remediation commenced involving the removal of contaminated sediments from portions of a 1,200 meter long gaining stream. Planning and preparation for remediation of the stream began in 2009 with submittal of permit applications to undertake construction activities in a wetland area. The permitting process was lengthy and involved securing permits from multiple agencies. However, early and frequent communication with stakeholders played an integral role in efficiently obtaining the permit approvals. Frequent communication with stakeholders throughout the planning and remediation process also proved to be a key factor in timely completion of the project. The remediation of the stream involved the use of temporary bladder berms to divert surface water flow, water diversion piping, a sediment vacuum removal system, excavation of sediments using small front-end loaders, sediment dewatering, and waste packaging, transportation and disposal. Many safeguards were employed to protect several species of concern in the work area, water management during project activities, challenges encountered during the project, methods of Final Status Survey, and stream restoration. The planning and permitting effort for the Site Brook remediation began in May 2009 and permits were approved and in place by February 2011. The remediation and restoration of the Site Brook began in April 2011 and was completed in November 2011. The remediation of the Site Brook involved the use of temporary bladder berms to divert surface water flow, water diversion piping, a sediment vacuum removal system, excavation of sediments using small front-end loaders, sediment dewatering, and waste

  7. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase I consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project.

  8. Preliminary remediation goals for ecological endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, R.A.; Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.

    1996-07-01

    Preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) are useful for risk assessment and decision making at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites. PRGs are upper concentration limits for specific chemicals in specific environmental media that are anticipated to protect human health or the environment. They can be used for multiple remedial investigations at multiple facilities. In addition to media and chemicals of potential concern, the development of PRGs generally requires some knowledge or anticipation of future land use. In Preliminary Remediation Goals for Use at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (Energy Systems 1995), PRGs intended to protect human health were developed with guidance from Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I - Human Health Evaluation Manual, Part B (RAGS) (EPA 1991). However, no guidance was given for PRGs based on ecological risk. The numbers that appear in this volume have, for the most part, been extracted from toxicological benchmarks documents for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and have previously been developed by ORNL. The sources of the quantities, and many of the uncertainties associated with their derivation, are described in this technical memorandum.

  9. Innovative mathematical modeling in environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Gwo, Jin-Ping; Siegel, Malcolm D; Li, Ming-Hsu; Fang, Yilin; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Yabusaki, Steve B

    2013-05-01

    There are two different ways to model reactive transport: ad hoc and innovative reaction-based approaches. The former, such as the Kd simplification of adsorption, has been widely employed by practitioners, while the latter has been mainly used in scientific communities for elucidating mechanisms of biogeochemical transport processes. It is believed that innovative mechanistic-based models could serve as protocols for environmental remediation as well. This paper reviews the development of a mechanistically coupled fluid flow, thermal transport, hydrologic transport, and reactive biogeochemical model and example-applications to environmental remediation problems. Theoretical bases are sufficiently described. Four example problems previously carried out are used to demonstrate how numerical experimentation can be used to evaluate the feasibility of different remediation approaches. The first one involved the application of a 56-species uranium tailing problem to the Melton Branch Subwatershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the parallel version of the model. Simulations were made to demonstrate the potential mobilization of uranium and other chelating agents in the proposed waste disposal site. The second problem simulated laboratory-scale system to investigate the role of natural attenuation in potential off-site migration of uranium from uranium mill tailings after restoration. It showed inadequacy of using a single Kd even for a homogeneous medium. The third example simulated laboratory experiments involving extremely high concentrations of uranium, technetium, aluminum, nitrate, and toxic metals (e.g., Ni, Cr, Co). The fourth example modeled microbially-mediated immobilization of uranium in an unconfined aquifer using acetate amendment in a field-scale experiment. The purposes of these modeling studies were to simulate various mechanisms of mobilization and immobilization of radioactive wastes and to illustrate how to apply reactive transport

  10. Hydrogeological modeling of prb for remediation of a contaminated site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. S.; McGeogh, K. L.; Kalin, R. M.

    2003-04-01

    In recent decades great effort has been spent on restoration of contaminated environment and considerable progress has been made in improving environmental quality. However, challenges still exist in some areas, such as remediation of contaminated land and groundwater. To provide sufficient remediation and protection for land and groundwater underneath, minimize environmental risk in infrastructure maintenance and urban re-development in terms of contamination remediation, it is necessary to incorporate understanding of the sub-surface conditions in the decision-making process. Characterization of regional and site-specific hydrogeological systems plays an important role in remediation of contaminated sites. Advanced modeling techniques can realize and improve characterization of complex hydrogeological systems. Numerical models can provide straightforward approaches for remediation designs. In this paper, a case study on hydrogeologic modeling of Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRB) for remediation of a contaminated site in the dockland area of Dublin, Ireland, is presented. The groundwater modeling maneuvers were carried out in three strands: regional characterization, zoom-in model in a smaller area; and detailed site-specific study. The regional hydrogeology and groundwater systems were characterized to form a regional conceptual model; a more detailed zoom-in 3-D model was further constructed in the quayside area to simulate the impact of adjacent remedial action and diurnally tidal fluctuation; finally, a site-specific model was built to study the detailed flow field and design the best remediation option. This site model was calibrated with field-monitored data under natural condition; hydraulic parameter, time varying river boundary and head-dependant boundary conditions were calibrated to achieve best fits between modeled and observed groundwater heads. The calibrated model then was used to carry out a remediation plan design using Permeable Reactive Barriers

  11. Remediation of Deep Vadose Zone Radionuclide and Metal Contamination: Status and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P. Evan; Truex, Michael J.; Cantrell, Keri

    2008-12-30

    This report documents the results of a PNNL literature review to report on the state of maturity of deep vadose zone remediation technologies for metal contaminants including some radionuclides. Its recommendations feed into decisionmakers need for scientific information and cost-effective in situ remediation technlogies needed under DOE's Environmental Management initiative Enhanced Remediation Methods: Scientific & Technical Basis for In Stu Treatment Systems for Metals and Radionuclides.

  12. Integrated approach to hazardous and radioactive waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Reece, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development is supporting the demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of waste retrieval technologies. An integration of leading-edge technologies with commercially available baseline technologies will form a comprehensive system for effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the complex of DOE nuclear facilities. This paper discusses the complexity of systems integration, addressing organizational and engineering aspects of integration as well as the impact of human operators, and the importance of using integrated systems in remediating buried hazardous and radioactive waste.

  13. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    united in its desire to protect the Columbia River and have a voice in Hanford's future. This paper presents the challenges, and then discusses the progress and efforts underway to reduce the risk posed by contaminated groundwater at Hanford. While Hanford groundwater is not a source of drinking water on or off the Site, there are possible near-shore impacts where it flows into the Columbia River. Therefore, this remediation is critical to the overall efforts to clean up the Site, as well as protect a natural resource.

  14. Hanford Groundwater Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Charboneau, B.; Thompson, K. M.; Wilde, R.; Ford, B.; Gerber, M.

    2006-07-01

    united in its desire to protect the Columbia River and have a voice in Hanford's future. This paper presents the challenges, and then discusses the progress and efforts underway to reduce the risk posed by contaminated groundwater at Hanford. While Hanford groundwater is not a source of drinking water on or off the Site, there are possible near-shore impacts where it flows into the Columbia River. Therefore, this remediation is critical to the overall efforts to clean up the Site, as well as protect a natural resource. (authors)

  15. Phyto remediation groundwater trends at the DOE portsmouth gaseous

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, A.C.; Baird, D.R.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the progress of a phyto-remediation action being performed at the Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) X-740 Waste Oil Handling Facility to remediate contaminated groundwater under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure action. This action was effected by an Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) decision to use phyto-remediation as the preferred remedy for the X-740 groundwater contamination. This remedy was recognized as a cost-effective, low-maintenance, and promising method to remediate groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily trichloroethylene (TCE). During 1999, prior to the tree installation at the X-740 Phyto-remediation Area, water level measurements in the area were collected from 10 monitoring wells completed in the Gallia Formation. The Gallia is the uppermost water-bearing zone and contains most of the groundwater contamination at PORTS. During the tree installation which took place during the summer of 1999, four new Gallia monitoring wells were installed at the X-740 Area in addition to the 10 Gallia wells which had been installed in the same area during the early 1990's. Manual water level measurements were collected quarterly from these 14 Gallia monitoring wells between 1998 and 2001. These manual water level measurements were collected to monitor the combined impact of the trees on the groundwater prior to root development. Beginning in 2001, water level measurements were collected monthly during the growing season (April-September) and quarterly during the dormant season (October-March). A total of eight water level measurements were collected annually to monitor the phyto-remediation system's effect on the groundwater in the X- 740 Area. The primary function of the X-740 Phyto-remediation Area is to hydraulically prevent further spreading of the TCE plume. This process utilizes deep-rooted plants, such as poplar trees, to extract large

  16. Remedial Action Contacts Directory - 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This document, which was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), is a directory of 2628 individuals interested or involved in environmental restoration and/or remedial actions at radioactively contaminated sites. This directory contains a list of mailing addresses and phone numbers of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor offices; an index of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor office sorted by state; a list of individuals, presented by last name, facsimile number, and e-mail address; an index of affiliations presented alphabetically, with individual contacts appearing below each affiliation name; and an index of foreign contacta sorted by country and affiliation. This document was generated from the Remedial Action Contacts Database, which is maintained by the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC).

  17. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE /NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  18. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 4

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE /NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  19. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE /NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  20. Salmon Site Remediation Investigation Report, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE /Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  1. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE /NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  2. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  3. Enhanced Remedial Amendment Delivery through Fluid Viscosity Modifications: Experiments and numerical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.

    2008-07-29

    Abstract Heterogeneity is often encountered in subsurface contamination characterization and remediation. Low-permeability zones are typically bypassed when remedial fluids are injected into subsurface heterogeneous aquifer systems. Therefore, contaminants in the bypassed areas may not be contacted by the amendments in the remedial fluid, which may significantly prolong the remediation operations. Laboratory experiments and numerical studies have been conducted to develop the Mobility-Controlled Flood (MCF) technology for subsurface remediation and to demonstrate the capability of this technology in enhancing the remedial amendments delivery to the lower permeability zones in heterogeneous systems. Xanthan gum, a bio-polymer, was used to modify the viscosity of the amendment-containing remedial solutions. Sodium mono-phosphate and surfactant were the remedial amendment used in this work. The enhanced delivery of the amendments was demonstrated in two-dimensional (2-D) flow cell experiments, packed with heterogeneous systems. The impact of polymer concentration, fluid injection rate, and permeability contract in the heterogeneous systems has been studied. The Subsurface Transport over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator was modified to include polymer-induced shear thinning effects. Shear rates of polymer solutions were computed from pore-water velocities using a relationship proposed in the literature. Viscosity data were subsequently obtained from empirical viscosity-shear rate relationships derived from laboratory data. The experimental and simulation results clearly show that the MCF technology is capable of enhancing the delivery of remedial amendments to subsurface lower permeability zones. The enhanced delivery significantly improved the NAPL removal from these zones and the sweeping efficiency on a heterogeneous system was remarkably increased when a polymer fluid was applied. MCF technology is also able to stabilize the fluid displacing front when there is a

  4. Intelligent Unmanned Monitoring of Remediated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Emile Fiesler, Ph.D.

    2001-06-01

    During this Phase I project, IOS demonstrated the feasibility of combining digital signal processing and neural network analysis to analyze spectral signals from pure samples of several typical contaminants. We fabricated and tested a prototype system by automatically analyzing Raman spectral data taken in the Vadose zone at the 321 M site in the M area of DOE's Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This test demonstration proved the ability of IOS's technology to detect the target contaminants, tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), in isolation, and to detect the spectra of these contaminants in real-world noisy samples taken from a mixture of materials obtained from this typical remediation target site.

  5. SURFACES PRELIMINARY REMEDIATION GOALS FOR RADIONUCLIDES (SPRG)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Internet based Calculational tool for establishing 10(-6) cancer risk based Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for radioactively contaminated outside hard surfaces (e.g., streets, sidewalks, slabs, and outside of buildings) for CERCLA remedial response actions.

  6. 39 CFR 927.3 - Other remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remedies available to the Postal Service, including such remedies as summary action to withhold tender of mail to protect the public interest in the event of major irregularities such as theft, deliberate...

  7. 39 CFR 927.3 - Other remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remedies available to the Postal Service, including such remedies as summary action to withhold tender of mail to protect the public interest in the event of major irregularities such as theft, deliberate...

  8. 39 CFR 927.3 - Other remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remedies available to the Postal Service, including such remedies as summary action to withhold tender of mail to protect the public interest in the event of major irregularities such as theft, deliberate...

  9. Remediation plan for fluorescent light fixtures containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-30

    This report describes the remedial action to achieve compliance with 29 CFR 1910 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements of fluorescent light fixtures containing PCBs at K-25 site. This remedial action is called the Remediation Plan for Fluorescent Light Fixtures Containing PCBs at the K-25 Site (The Plan). The Plan specifically discusses (1) conditions of non-compliance, (2) alternative solutions, (3) recommended solution, (4) remediation plan costs, (5) corrective action, (6) disposal of PCB waste, (7) training, and (8) plan conclusions. The results from inspections by Energy Systems personnel in 2 buildings at K-25 site and statistical extension of this data to 91 selected buildings at the K-25 site indicates that there are approximately 28,000 fluorescent light fixtures containing 47,036 ballasts. Approximately 38,531 contain PCBs and 2,799 of the 38,531 ballasts are leaking PCBs. Review of reportable occurrences at K-25 for the 12 month period of September 1990 through August 1991 shows that Energy Systems personnel reported 69 ballasts leaking PCBs. Each leaking ballast is in non-compliance with 29 CFR 1910 - Table Z-1-A. The age of the K-25 facilities indicate a continued and potential increase in ballasts leaking PCBs. This report considers 4 alternative solutions for dealing with the ballasts leaking PCBs. The advantages and disadvantages of each alternative solution are discussed and ranked using cost of remediation, reduction of health risks, and compliance with OSHA as criteria.

  10. Multiphase fluid simulation tools for winning remediation solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Deschaine, L.M.

    1997-07-01

    Releases of petroleum product such as gasoline and diesel fuels from normal operating practices to aquifers are common. The costs to remediate these releases can run in the billions of dollars. Solutions to remediate these releases usually consist of some form of multiphase (air, water, oil) fluid movement, whether it be a multiphase high vacuum extraction system, bioslurping, groundwater pump and treat system, an air sparging system, a soil vapor extraction system, a free product recovery system, bioremediation or the like. The software being tested in Test Drive, Multiphase Organic Vacuum Enhanced Recovery Simulator (MOVER) is a computer simulation tool that will give the practitioner the ability to design high vacuum enhanced multiple phase recovery systems and bioslurping systems, which are often the low cost effective remediation approach. It will also allow for the comparison of various proposed remediation approaches and technologies so the best solution can be chosen for a site. This is a key competitive advantage to translate conceptual ideas into winning bids.

  11. Re/Mediating Adolescent Literacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, John, Ed.; Luke, Allan, Ed.

    Suggesting that teaching in New Times requires that educators read and re/mediate the social relations, the cultural knowledges, and the relationships of power between adolescents and their social, biological, and semiotic universes, this collection of essays offers new ways of seeing and talking about adolescents and their literacies. Most of the…

  12. Green Chemistry and Environmental Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Nutrient remediation and recovery is a growing concern for two key reasons: (i) the prevention of harmful algal bloom proliferation, and (ii) the recycling of nutrients (e.g., phosphates) as they are non-renewable resources which are quickly being depleted. A wide range...

  13. Adolescent Literacy: More than Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biancarosa, Gina

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of adolescent literacy involves more than providing remediation for students who have not mastered basic reading skills. To become successful learners, adolescents must master complex texts, understand the diverse literacy demands of the different content areas, and navigate digital texts. In this article, Biancarosa reviews what the…

  14. Remediation Technology for Contaminated Groundwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation is the most commonly selected technology for remediation of ground water at Superfund sites in the USA. The next most common technology is Chemical treatment, followed by Air Sparging, and followed by Permeable Reactive Barriers. This presentation reviews the the...

  15. Preferential Remedies for Employment Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Zaretsky, Barry L.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of the problem of preferential remedies to achieve equal employment opportunities for women and minority groups. Contends that "color blindness" will not end discrimination but that some form of "color conscious" affirmative action program must be employed. Temporary preferential treatment is justified, according to the author, by the…

  16. Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, Andre; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2008-01-01

    Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the mathematics problem, a remedial mathematics…

  17. Development of an Automated Remedy Performance Evaluation Program - 13622

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkin, Matthew J.; Kennel, Jonathan; Biebesheimer, Frederick; Dooley, David

    2013-07-01

    Performance monitoring is a vital element of groundwater remediation. Unfortunately, the enormous efforts and costs that are expended procuring, managing, processing and storing monitoring data are often not subject to correspondingly rigorous evaluation. This is despite the fact that many steps in the process are predictable and are repeated many times over the remedy life cycle. At the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, a program is underway to automate many of these steps - processing, formatting any analyzing large volumes of heterogeneous data associated with the operation of several groundwater pump-and-treat (P and T) and in-situ remedies. The Automated Remedy Performance Evaluation Program (ARPEP) was developed from a work-flow process designed to deliver (a) monthly data summaries and preliminary analysis, (b) quarterly performance assessments, and (c) annual roll-up analyses that detect changes in long-term monitoring datasets and support remedy optimization. The intent of the ARPEP is to provide detailed, systematic and traceable data summaries, depictions and analyses that can be used by project scientists to complete their evaluation of remedy performance. The ARPEP work-flow was formalized following extensive review of applicable guidance, regulation and industry standards. The ARPEP incorporates disparate data types collected over different frequencies, such as water levels and pumping rates recorded every minute, and groundwater sample results obtained on quarterly, annual or irregular intervals. The data are processed, reduced to frequencies suitable for assessment, and combined in various ways leading to performance indicators such as (a) pumped well capacities and system downtime that reflect operational performance; (b) hydraulic gradients and areas of hydraulic containment that reflect hydraulic performance; and (c) time-series (longitudinal) and geo-statistical (spatial) trend analyses that reflect progress toward attainment of Remedial

  18. 49 CFR 193.2637 - Remedial measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Remedial measures. 193.2637 Section 193.2637 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2637 Remedial measures. Prompt corrective or remedial...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2637 - Remedial measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remedial measures. 193.2637 Section 193.2637 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2637 Remedial measures. Prompt corrective or remedial...

  20. 49 CFR 193.2637 - Remedial measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Remedial measures. 193.2637 Section 193.2637 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2637 Remedial measures. Prompt corrective or remedial...

  1. 49 CFR 193.2637 - Remedial measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Remedial measures. 193.2637 Section 193.2637 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2637 Remedial measures. Prompt corrective or remedial...

  2. 49 CFR 193.2637 - Remedial measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial measures. 193.2637 Section 193.2637 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2637 Remedial measures. Prompt corrective or remedial...

  3. Remediation: Higher Education's Bridge to Nowhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Complete College America, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The intentions were noble. It was hoped that remediation programs would be an academic bridge from poor high school preparation to college readiness. Sadly, remediation has become instead higher education's "Bridge to Nowhere." This broken remedial bridge is travelled by some 1.7 million beginning students each year, most of whom will…

  4. INTERPRETING TRACER DATA TO FORECAST REMEDIAL PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cost of remediating sites contaminated with organics is high. Prior to investing in remedial technologies, decision makers want to know the benefits, both short term and long term, which will be derived from a proposed remedial activity. Recent studies have shown significant ...

  5. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (ECRTS) DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) process was developed by P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. P-2 Soil Remediation, Inc. formed a partnership with Weiss Associates and ElectroPetroleum, Inc. to apply the technology to contaminated sites. The ECRTs process was evaluated ...

  6. Ground-water contamination control: Detection and remedial planning

    SciTech Connect

    Woldt, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    The dissertation is divided into three main sections that correspond to a typical sequence of actions resulting in a final remedial action plan for handling contamination at a particular site. The first section develops a methodology for detecting and mapping suspected contamination using multiple sources of data. Different data types are combined by using a modified form of kriging with uncertain data, termed compound kriging. In addition, the use of fuzzy set theory merged with geostatistics is explored as a possible mapping technique when variogram parameters are difficult to quantify. A decision support system for observation network design is presented in the second section. Network design is approached from a multiple objective decision making perspective. The objective is to identify the most cost-effective network design while considering the trade-off between performance and cost. Geostatistical variance reduction analysis and prior knowledge related to the site are used as performance measures in the decision support system. A remedial action design support system is described in the third section. Three dimensional geostatistical simulation and analytical ground water modeling are used to assess the need for further remedial action planning. In addition, a methodology for measuring the performance of candidate remediation systems under conditions of uncertainty in aquifer parameters and plume location is presented. These performance measures, combined with cost factors, are used in a multiple-criteria decision making system to determine the preferred clean up system for a site being investigated.

  7. Core Principles for Transforming Remediation within a Comprehensive Student Success Strategy: A Joint Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Colleges and postsecondary systems across the nation have demonstrated remarkable progress since "Core Principles for Transforming Remediation" was published in 2012. States and institutions are phasing out stand alone or multi-course remediation sequences, resulting in tens of thousands of students more quickly enrolling in and…

  8. Development, Discouragement, or Diversion? New Evidence on the Effects of College Remediation Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Clayton, Judith; Rodriguez, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Half of all college students will enroll in remedial coursework but evidence of its effectiveness is mixed. Using a regression-discontinuity design with data from a large urban community college system, we make three contributions. First, we articulate three alternative hypotheses regarding the potential impacts of remediation. Second, in addition…

  9. Innovative mathematical modeling in environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Gour T.; Gwo, Jin Ping; Siegel, Malcolm D.; Li, Ming-Hsu; Fang, Yilin; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2013-05-01

    There are two different ways to model reactive transport: ad hoc and innovative reaction-based approaches. The former, such as the Kd simplification of adsorption, has been widely employed by practitioners, while the latter has been mainly used in scientific communities for elucidating mechanisms of biogeochemical transport processes. It is believed that innovative mechanistic-based models could serve as protocols for environmental remediation as well. This paper reviews the development of a mechanistically coupled fluid flow, thermal transport, hydrologic transport, and reactive biogeochemical model and example-applications to environmental remediation problems. Theoretical bases are sufficiently described. Four example problems previously carried out are used to demonstrate how numerical experimentation can be used to evaluate the feasibility of different remediation approaches. The first one involved the application of a 56-species uranium tailing problem to the Melton Branch Subwatershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the parallel version of the model. Simulations were made to demonstrate the potential mobilization of uranium and other chelating agents in the proposed waste disposal site. The second problem simulated laboratory-scale system to investigate the role of natural attenuation in potential off-site migration of uranium from uranium mill tailings after restoration. It showed inadequacy of using a single Kd even for a homogeneous medium. The third example simulated laboratory experiments involving extremely high concentrations of uranium, technetium, aluminum, nitrate, and toxic metals (e.g.,Ni, Cr, Co).The fourth example modeled microbially-mediated immobilization of uranium in an unconfined aquifer using acetate amendment in a field-scale experiment. The purposes of these modeling studies were to simulate various mechanisms of mobilization and immobilization of radioactive wastes and to illustrate how to apply reactive transport models

  10. Sustainable Remediation for Enhanced NAPL Recovery from Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaher, M.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainable remediation relates to the achievement of balance between environmental, social, and economic elements throughout the remedial lifecycle. A significant contributor to this balance is the use of green and sustainable technologies which minimize environmental impacts, while maximizing social and economic benefits of remedial implementation. To this end, a patented mobile vapor energy generation (VEG) technology has been developed targeting variable applications, including onsite soil remediation for unrestricted reuse and enhanced non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) recover at the water table. At the core of the mobile VEG technology is a compact, high efficiency vapor generator, which utilizes recycled water and propane within an entirely enclosed system to generate steam as high as 1100°F. Operating within a fully enclosed system and capturing all heat that is generated within this portable system, the VEG technology eliminates all emissions to the atmosphere and yields an undetected carbon footprint with resulting carbon dioxide concentrations that are below ambient levels. Introduction of the steam to the subsurface via existing wells results in a desired change in the NAPL viscosity and the interfacial tension at the soil, water, NAPL interface; in turn, this results in mobilization and capture of the otherwise trapped, weathered NAPL. Approved by the California Air Resources Control Board (and underlying Air Quality Management Districts) and applied in California's San Joaquin Valley, in-well heating of NAPLs trapped at the water table using the VEG technology has proven as effective as electrical resistivity heating (ERH) in changing the viscosity of and mobilizing NAPLs in groundwater in support of recovery, but has achieved these results while minimizing the remedial carbon footprint by 90%, reducing energy use by 99%, and reducing remedial costs by more than 95%. NAPL recovery using VEG has also allowed for completion of source removal historically

  11. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer{trademark}, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made.

  12. Guiding principles for resident remediation: recommendations of the CORD remediation task force.

    PubMed

    Katz, Eric D; Dahms, Rachel; Sadosty, Annie T; Stahmer, Sarah A; Goyal, Deepi

    2010-10-01

    Remediation of residents is a common problem and requires organized, goal-directed efforts to solve. The Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) has created a task force to identify best practices for remediation and to develop guidelines for resident remediation. Faculty members of CORD volunteered to participate in periodic meetings, organized discussions and literature reviews to develop overall guidelines for resident remediation and in a collaborative authorship of this article identifying best practices for remediation. The task force recommends that residency programs: 1. Make efforts to understand the challenges of remediation, and recognize that the goal is successful correction of deficits, but that some deficits are not remediable. 2. Make efforts aimed at early identification of residents requiring remediation. 3. Create objective, achievable goals for remediation and maintain strict adherence to the terms of those plans, including planning for resolution when setting goals for remediation. 4. Involve the institution's Graduate Medical Education Committee (GMEC) early in remediation to assist with planning, obtaining resources, and documentation. 5. Involve appropriate faculty and educate those faculty into the role and terms of the specific remediation plan. 6. Ensure appropriate documentation of all stages of remediation. Resident remediation is frequently necessary and specific steps may be taken to justify, document, facilitate, and objectify the remediation process. Best practices for each step are identified and reported by the task force. PMID:21199091

  13. Radioactive Tank Waste Remediation Focus Area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In February 1991, DOE`s Office of Technology Development created the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID), to develop technologies for tank remediation. Tank remediation across the DOE Complex has been driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements with individual sites. In 1994, the DOE Office of Environmental Management created the High Level Waste Tank Remediation Focus Area (TFA; of which UST-ID is now a part) to better integrate and coordinate tank waste remediation technology development efforts. The mission of both organizations is the same: to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. The TFA has focused on four DOE locations: the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina.

  14. Design, installation and operational methods of implementing horizontal wells for in situ groundwater and soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    The design and installation of horizontal wells is the primary factor in the efficiency of the remedial actions. Often, inadequacies in the design and installation of remediation systems are not identified until remedial actions have commenced, at which time, required modifications of operational methods can be costly. The parameters required for designing a horizontal well remediation system include spatial variations in contaminant concentrations and lithology, achievable injection and/or extraction rates, area of influence from injection and/or extraction processes, and limitations of installation methods. As with vertical wells, there are several different methods for the installation of horizontal wells. This paper will summarize four installation methods for horizontal wells, including four sites where horizontal wells have been utilized for in-situ groundwater and soil remediation.

  15. Core Principles for Transforming Remedial Education: A Joint Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, 2012

    2012-01-01

    As a result of new research and promising practice, we have more clarity than ever about how we can fundamentally transform our developmental education system to improve success for all students. To propel the movement forward, this statement offers a set of clear and actionable principles that, although not the final word on remedial education…

  16. 41 CFR 101-8.724 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 101-8.724 Section 101-8.724 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 8-NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE...

  17. 15 CFR 700.74 - Violations, penalties, and remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Compliance § 700.74 Violations, penalties, and remedies.... The maximum penalty provided by the Defense Production Act is a $10,000 fine, or one year in prison... fine, or three years in prison, or both. (b) The government may also seek an injunction from a court...

  18. COUPLED IRON CORROSION AND CHROMATE REDUCTION: MECHANISMS FOR SUBSURFACE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reduction of chromium from the Cr(VI) to the Cr- (Ill) state by the presence of elemental, or zero-oxidation-state, iron metal was studied to evaluate the feasibility of such a process for subsurface chromate remediation. Reactions were studied in systems of natural aquifer m...

  19. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

  20. Surfactant-enhanced aquifier remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    Surfactants can be used to rapidly remove NAPL from contaminated aquifers. They are effective for virtually any organic contaminant. Use in LNAPL contaminated sites requires adequate hydraulic conductivity and control of flow using either hydraulic or physical methods. The presence of DNAPL requires consideration of vertical mobility; a competent confining layer (aquitard) is required if additional aquifers are present at greater depths. Surfactant processes, whether based upon mobilization or solubilization, can be effective at mass removal, but cannot be expected to provide resortation to drinking water standards. The fraction of mass removal, and the cost of remediation using surfactants are dependent upon a sites hydrogeology. Both minimization of cost and maximization of NAPL removal requires detailed characterization of sites contaminant distribution and hydrogeology. Assessment of the feasibility of surfactant-enhanced remediation is dependent upon a detailed site characterization.

  1. Innovative THMC Modeling for Environmental Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C. H.; Yeh, G. T.; Ni, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    To simulate comprehensively coupled processes of thermal-hydrology-mechanics-chemistry (THMC), governing equations are needed for transport of an arbitrary number of chemical species, hydrological flow of an arbitrary number of fluid and solid phases, displacement, and temperature. These governing equations are supplemented with Darcy's law for fluid phase velocities, constraints on species concentrations, equation of states, and constitutive laws. Conventionally, these equations are implicitly coupled via the calculations of secondary variables based on primary variables. The mechanisms of coupling are obscured. In this paper, an innovation THMC modeling is proposed, that explicitly couples governing equations for primary variables. The coupling is accomplished via the storage coefficients, effective transporting velocities, and equivalent conduction-dispersion-diffusion coefficient tensors, one set each for every primary variable. It is believed that this THMC model could serve as a prototype for simulating many types of environmental remediation. Examples will demonstrate the intuition and superiority of this THMC modeling system. Case studies illustrate how to apply this model for environmental remediation as well.

  2. Optimal remediation policy selection under general conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Zheng, C.

    1997-09-01

    A new simulation-optimization model has been developed for the optimal design of ground-water remediation systems under a variety of field conditions. The model couples genetic algorithm (GA), a global search technique inspired by biological evolution, with MODFLOW and MT3D, two commonly used ground-water flow and solute transport codes. The model allows for multiple management periods in which optimal pumping/injection rates vary with time to reflect the changes in the flow and transport conditions during the remediation process. The objective function of the model incorporates multiple cost terms including the drilling cost, the installation cost, and the costs to extract and treat the contaminated ground water. The simulation-optimization model is first applied to a typical two-dimensional pump-and-treat example with one and three management periods to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the new model. The model is then applied to a large-scale three-dimensional field problem to determine the minimum pumping needed to contain an existing contaminant plume. The optimal solution as determined in this study is compared with a previous solution based on trial-and-error selection.

  3. Installation of an innovative remedial technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, B.

    1995-12-31

    The major goal of the Lasagna{trademark} project was to design, construct, install, and operate an in situ remediation system in low-permeability soil. A new technology--the Lasagna process--uses electro-osmosis to move contaminated groundwater through treatment zones. The treatment zones are installed in contaminated soils, thereby forming an integrated in situ remedial process. Electro-osmosis, well known for its effectiveness and extremely low power consumption, uses a direct current to cause Groundwater to travel through low-permeability soil. When a bench-scale version of the technology was 98 percent effective in removing contamination, an actual field test was the next step. The site chosen for this first field effort was the DOE-owned Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant located in Paducah, Kentucky. The target contaminant for this project was trichloroethylene (TCE) because it is found at many sites across the country and is present at approximately 60 percent of DOE`s sites.

  4. Promotion of Mn(II) Oxidation and Remediation of Coal Mine Drainage in Passive Treatment Systems by Diverse Fungal and Bacterial Communities ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Santelli, Cara M.; Pfister, Donald H.; Lazarus, Dana; Sun, Lu; Burgos, William D.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Biologically active, passive treatment systems are commonly employed for removing high concentrations of dissolved Mn(II) from coal mine drainage (CMD). Studies of microbial communities contributing to Mn attenuation through the oxidation of Mn(II) to sparingly soluble Mn(III/IV) oxide minerals, however, have been sparse to date. This study reveals a diverse community of Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi and bacteria existing in several CMD treatment systems. PMID:20495049

  5. Remediation plans in family medicine residency

    PubMed Central

    Audétat, Marie-Claude; Voirol, Christian; Béland, Normand; Fernandez, Nicolas; Sanche, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of the remediation instrument that has been implemented in training sites at the University of Montreal in Quebec to support faculty in diagnosing and remediating resident academic difficulties, to examine whether and how this particular remediation instrument improves the remediation process, and to determine its effects on the residents’ subsequent rotation assessments. Design A multimethods approach in which data were collected from different sources: remediation plans developed by faculty, program statistics for the corresponding academic years, and students’ academic records and rotation assessment results. Setting Family medicine residency program at the University of Montreal. Participants Family medicine residents in academic difficulty. Main outcome measures Assessment of the content, process, and quality of remediation plans, and students’ academic and rotation assessment results (successful, below expectations, or failure) both before and after the remediation period. Results The framework that was developed for assessing remediation plans was used to analyze 23 plans produced by 10 teaching sites for 21 residents. All plans documented cognitive problems and implemented numerous remediation measures. Although only 48% of the plans were of good quality, implementation of a remediation plan was positively associated with the resident’s success in rotations following the remediation period. Conclusion The use of remediation plans is well embedded in training sites at the University of Montreal. The residents’ difficulties were mainly cognitive in nature, but this generally related to deficits in clinical reasoning rather than knowledge gaps. The reflection and analysis required to produce a remediation plan helps to correct many academic difficulties and normalize the academic career of most residents in difficulty. Further effort is still needed to improve the quality of plans and to support teachers.

  6. The norms, rules and motivational values driving sustainable remediation of contaminated environments: A study of implementation.

    PubMed

    Prior, Jason

    2016-02-15

    Efforts to achieve sustainability are transforming the norms, rules and values that affect the remediation of contaminated environments. This is altering the ways in which remediation impacts on the total environment. Despite this transformation, few studies have provided systematic insights into the diverse norms and rules that drive the implementation of sustainable remediation at contaminated sites, and no studies have investigated how values motivate compliance with these norms and rules. This study is a systematic analysis of the rules, norms and motivational values embedded in sustainable remediation processes at three sites across Australia, using in-depth interviews conducted with 18 participants between 2011 and 2014, through the application of Crawford and Ostrom's Institutional Grammar and Schwartz's value framework. These approaches offered methods for identifying the rules, norms, and motivational values that guided participants' actions within remediation processes at these sites. The findings identify a core set of 16 norms and 18 rules (sanctions) used by participants to implement sustainable remediation at the sites. These norms and rules: define the position of participants within the process, provide means for incorporating sustainability into established remediation practices, and define the scope of outcomes that constitute sustainable remediation. The findings revealed that motivational values focused on public interest and self-interest influenced participants' compliance with norms and rules. The findings also found strong interdependence between the norms and rules (sanctions) within the remediation processes and the normative principles operating within the broader domain of environmental management and planning. The paper concludes with a discussion of: the system of norms operating within sustainable remediation (which far exceed those associated with ESD); their link, through rules (sanctions) to contemporary styles of regulatory

  7. Characterization of controlled-release KMnO4 (CRP) barrier system for groundwater remediation: a pilot-scale flow-tank study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eung Seok; Woo, Nam Chil; Schwartz, Franklin W; Lee, Byung Sun; Lee, Ki Churl; Woo, Myung Ha; Kim, Jeong Hee; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2008-03-01

    Release and spreading of permanganate (MnO(4)(-)) in the well-based controlled-release potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) barrier system (CRP system) was investigated by conducting column release tests, model simulations, soil oxidant demand (SOD) analyses, and pilot-scale flow-tank experiments. A large flow tank (L x W x D=8m x 4m x 3m) was constructed. Pilot-scale CRP pellets (OD x L=0.05 m x1.5m; n=110) were manufactured by mixing approximately 198 kg of KMnO(4) powders with paraffin wax and silica sands in cylindrical moulds. The CRP system (L x W x D=3m x 4m x 1.5m) comprising 110 delivery wells in three discrete barriers was constructed in the flow tank. Natural sands (organic carbon content=0.18%; SOD=3.7-11 g MnO(4)(-)kg(-1)) were used as porous media. Column release tests and model simulations indicated that the CRP system could continuously release MnO(4)(-) over several years, with slowly decreasing release rates of 2.5 kg d(-1) (day one), 109 g d(-1) (day 100), 58 g d(-1) (year one), 22 g d(-1) (year five), and 12 g d(-1) (year 10). Mean MnO(4)(-) concentrations within the CRP system ranged from 0.5 to 6 mg l(-1) during the 42 days of testing period. The continuously releasing MnO(4)(-) was gradually removed by SOD limiting the length of MnO(4)(-) zone in the porous media. These data suggested that the CRP system could create persistent and confined oxidation zone in the subsurface. Through development of advanced tools for describing agent transport and facilitating lateral agent spreading, the CRP system could provide new approach for long-term in situ treatment of contaminant plumes in groundwater. PMID:18207217

  8. Development of a multi-functional scarifier dislodger with an integral pneumatic conveyance retrieval system for single-shell tank remediation. FY93 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.; McKinnon, M.A.; Alberts, D.A.; Steele, D.E.; Crowe, C.T.

    1994-10-01

    The Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) is evaluating several hydraulic dislodger concepts and retrieval technologies to develop specifications for system that can retrieve wastes from single-shell tanks. Each of the dislodgers will be evaluated sequentially to determine its ability to fracture and dislodge various waste simulants such as salt cake, sludge, and viscous liquid. The retrieval methods will be evaluated to determine their ability to convey this dislodged material from the tank. This report describes on-going research that commenced in FY93 to develop specifications for a scarifier dislodger coupled with a pneumatic conveyance retrieval system. The scarifier development is described in Section 3; pneumatic conveyance development is described in Section 4. Preliminary system specifications are listed in Section 5. FY94 plans are summarized in Section 6.

  9. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN THE SINGLE, BINARY, AND TERNARY SYSTEMS OF COTTON BURR COMPOST, ZEROVALENT IRON, AND SEDIMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION USING PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent research has shown that carbonaceous solid materials and zerovalent iron (Fe0) may potentially be used as media in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to degrade groundwater nitrate via heterotrophic denitrification in the solid carbon system, and via abiotic reduction and ...

  10. Enhanced remedial amendment delivery through fluid viscosity modifications: Experiments and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Oostrom, M.; Wietsma, T. W.; Covert, M. A.

    2008-10-01

    Low-permeability zones are typically bypassed when remedial fluids are injected into subsurface heterogeneous aquifer systems. Therefore, contaminants in the bypassed areas may not be contacted by the amendments in the remedial fluid, which may significantly prolong remediation operations. Laboratory experiments and numerical studies have been conducted to investigate the use of a shear-thinning polymer (Xanthan gum) to improve access to low-permeability zones in heterogeneous systems. The chemicals sodium mono-phosphate and the surfactant MA-80 were used as the remedial amendments. The impact of polymer concentration, fluid injection rate, and permeability contrast in the heterogeneous systems has been studied in a series of eleven two-dimensional flow cell experiments. The Subsurface Transport over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator was modified to include polymer-induced shear-thinning effects. The experimental and simulation results clearly show that using the polymer leads to an enhanced delivery of remedial amendments to lower-permeability zones and an increased sweeping efficiency. An added benefit of using the polymer is the stabilization of the displacing front when density differences exist between displaced and displacing fluids. The modified STOMP simulator was able to predict the experimental observed fluid displacing behavior well and might be used to predict subsurface remediation performance when a shear-thinning fluid is used to remediate a heterogeneous system at larger scales.

  11. Enhanced remedial amendment delivery through fluid viscosity modifications: experiments and numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Oostrom, M; Wietsma, T W; Covert, M A

    2008-10-23

    Low-permeability zones are typically bypassed when remedial fluids are injected into subsurface heterogeneous aquifer systems. Therefore, contaminants in the bypassed areas may not be contacted by the amendments in the remedial fluid, which may significantly prolong remediation operations. Laboratory experiments and numerical studies have been conducted to investigate the use of a shear-thinning polymer (Xanthan gum) to improve access to low-permeability zones in heterogeneous systems. The chemicals sodium mono-phosphate and the surfactant MA-80 were used as the remedial amendments. The impact of polymer concentration, fluid injection rate, and permeability contrast in the heterogeneous systems has been studied in a series of eleven two-dimensional flow cell experiments. The Subsurface Transport over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator was modified to include polymer-induced shear-thinning effects. The experimental and simulation results clearly show that using the polymer leads to an enhanced delivery of remedial amendments to lower-permeability zones and an increased sweeping efficiency. An added benefit of using the polymer is the stabilization of the displacing front when density differences exist between displaced and displacing fluids. The modified STOMP simulator was able to predict the experimental observed fluid displacing behavior well and might be used to predict subsurface remediation performance when a shear-thinning fluid is used to remediate a heterogeneous system at larger scales. PMID:18786743

  12. Remediation tradeoffs addressed with simulated annealing optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, L. L., LLNL

    1998-02-01

    Escalation of groundwater remediation costs has encouraged both advances in optimization techniques to balance remediation objectives and economics and development of innovative technologies to expedite source region clean-ups. We present an optimization application building on a pump-and-treat model, yet assuming a prior removal of different portions of the source area to address the evolving management issue of more aggressive source remediation. Separate economic estimates of in-situ thermal remediation are combined with the economic estimates of the subsequent optimal pump-and-treat remediation to observe tradeoff relationships of cost vs. highest remaining contamination levels (hot spot). The simulated annealing algorithm calls the flow and transport model to evaluate the success of a proposed remediation scenario at a U.S.A. Superfund site contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  13. Remedial assets: Treating cleanup as a corporate business element helps manage costs, satisfy stakeholder needs

    SciTech Connect

    Lambe, R.; Langseth, D.

    1996-04-01

    Site remediation programs have given companies little satisfaction while costing them millions. As a result, leading organizations are finding ways to gain control over their remediation programs and obtain greater value from expenditures. These gains in performance help companies: make the most of their remediation; spend more on cleanup, and less on litigation and negotiation; measure site remediation performance and target areas for improvement; better align their needs with those of other stakeholders in the project, including regulators and local communities; and manage costs better than peer companies, gaining competitive advantage. Developing a remediation program with a strong business vision may mean going against corporate tradition. In the past, the regulatory framework and insurance system for cost recovery often encouraged companies to resist taking action rather than work toward solutions. However, as every facet of the organization strives for results that strengthen business performance and add value, the time is right for adopting fresh approaches to remediation management that include focusing on future land uses, taking the lead with regulators, managing remediation as a business process, and measuring and communicating remediation performance.

  14. Remediation of old environmental liabilities in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc

    SciTech Connect

    Podlaha, J.

    2007-07-01

    The Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (NRI) is a leading institution in all areas of nuclear R and D in the Czech Republic. The NRI's activity encompasses nuclear physics, chemistry, nuclear power, experiments at research nuclear reactors and many other topics. The NRI operates two research nuclear reactors, many facilities as a hot cell facility, research laboratories, technology for radioactive waste (RAW) management, radionuclide irradiators, an electron accelerator, etc. After 50 years of activities in the nuclear field, there are some environmental liabilities that shall be remedied in the NRI. There are three areas of remediation: (1) decommissioning of old obsolete facilities (e.g. decay tanks, RAW treatment technology, special sewage system), (2) treatment of RAW from operation and dismantling of nuclear facilities, and (3) elimination of spent fuel from research nuclear reactors operated by the NRI. The goal is to remedy the environmental liabilities and eliminate the potential negative impact on the environment. Based on this postulate, optimal remedial actions have been selected and recommended for the environmental remediation. Remediation of the environmental liabilities started in 2003 and will be finished in 2012. Some liabilities have already been successfully remedied. The most significant items of environmental liabilities are described in the paper together with information about the history, the current state, the progress, and the future activities in the field of remediation of environmental liabilities in the NRI. (authors)

  15. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 8 Air-Based Remediation Technology Selection Logic

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  16. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 7 Sustainable Remediation And Air-Based Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites, " the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Enviro...

  17. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (ECRTS) - IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Innovative Technology Evaulation Report summarizes the results of the evaluation of the Electrochemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) process, developed by P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. (in partnership with Weiss Associates and Electro-Petroleum, Inc.). This evaluation was co...

  18. Strategy to develop and test a multi-function scarifier end effector with an integral conveyance system for waste tank remediation. Strategy plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Keska, J.K.; Elmore, M.R.; Lombardo, N.J.

    1993-08-01

    This strategy plan describes a coupled analytical/experimental approach to develop a multi-functional scarifier end effector coupled with a pneumatic conveyance system to retrieve wastes from underground storage tanks. The scarifier uses ultra-high-pressure water jets to rubblize and entrain waste forms such as salt cake, sludge, and viscous liquid that can be transported pneumatically. The three waste types (hard, brittle, salt cake, viscous liquid, and deformable sludge) present increasingly complex challenges for scarification and pneumatic conveyance. Salt cake is anticipated to be the easiest to retrieve because (1) a theoretical model of hydraulic rock fracture can be applied to estimate jet performance to fracture salt cake, and (2) gas-solids transport correlations can be used to predict pneumatic transport. Deformable sludge is anticipated to be the most difficult to retrieve: no theories, correlations, or data exist to predict this performance. However order-of-magnitude gas-solid correlations indicate particulate wastes of prototypic density can be transported to a height of 20 m within allowable pressure limits provided that the volume fraction of the gaseous phase is kept above 95%. Viscous liquid is anticipated to be of intermediate complexity to retrieve. Phenomena that are expected to affect system performance are ranked. Experiments and analyses necessary to evaluate the effects of these phenomena are proposed. Subsequent strategies for experiment test plans, system deployment, and operation and control will need to be developed.

  19. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  20. 42 CFR 488.406 - Available remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Enforcement of Compliance for... State plan; and (2) Demonstrate to CMS's satisfaction that those remedies are as effective as...

  1. Remediation of mercury contaminated sites - A review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxu; Feng, Xinbin; Anderson, Christopher W N; Xing, Ying; Shang, Lihai

    2012-06-30

    Environmental contamination caused by mercury is a serious problem worldwide. Coal combustion, mercury and gold mining activities and industrial activities have led to an increase in the mercury concentration in soil. The objective of this paper is to present an up-to-date understanding of the available techniques for the remediation of soil contaminated with mercury through considering: mercury contamination in soil, mercury speciation in soil; mercury toxicity to humans, plants and microorganisms, and remediation options. This paper describes the commonly employed and emerging techniques for mercury remediation, namely: stabilization/solidification (S/S), immobilization, vitrification, thermal desorption, nanotechnology, soil washing, electro-remediation, phytostabilization, phytoextraction and phytovolatilization. PMID:22579459

  2. Night Blindness and Ancient Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Al Binali, H.A. Hajar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

  3. Neuropsychological remediation of hyperactive children.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, N; Rao, S L

    1997-10-01

    Hyperkinesis is associated with deficits of attention (poor allocation of attention resources, susceptibility to interference and perseveration); vigilance and perceptual sensitivity. Three boys aged 7-8 years with simple hyperkinesis were given cognitive tasks to improve the above functions in daily one hour sessions for a month. The children improved significantly in the above functions and behaviour. Three other children aged 5-8 years with simple hyperkinesis who were on medication improved only slightly in their behaviour during this period. Behavioural intervention and parental counselling were additional inputs to the children in both groups. Neuropsychological remediation combined with parental counselling and behavioural intervention shows promise in treating hyperactive children. PMID:21584098

  4. Night blindness and ancient remedy.

    PubMed

    Al Binali, H A Hajar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

  5. Geomaterials: their application to environmental remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hirohisa; Tamura, Kenji; Watanabe, Yujiro; Iyi, Nobuo; Morimoto, Kazuya

    2011-12-01

    Geomaterials are materials inspired by geological systems originating from the billion years long history of the Earth. This article reviews three important classes of geomaterials. The first one is smectites—layered silicates with a cation-exchange capacity. Smectites are useful for removing pollutants and as intercalation compounds, catalysts and polymer nanocomposites. The second class is layered double hydroxides (LDHs). They have an anion-exchange capacity and are used as catalysts, catalyst precursors, sorbents and scavengers for halogens. The third class of geomaterials is zeolites—microporous materials with a cation-exchange capacity which are used for removing harmful cations. Zeolite composites with LDHs can absorb ammonium and phosphate ions in rivers and lakes, whereas zeolite/apatite composites can immobilize the radioactive iodine. These geomaterials are essential for environmental remediation.

  6. INTENSIVE STUDY OF RADON AND REMEDIAL MEASURES IN NEW JERSEY HOMES: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an intensive investigation of radon source characterization, entry mechanisms, procedures for remediation diagnosis, and mitigation system performance evaluation being conducted in occupied New Jersey, USA, homes. The aim of the investigation is to examine the...

  7. Deep Vadose Zone Remediation: Technical and Policy Challenges, Opportunities, and Progress in Achieving Cleanup Endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.; Lee, Michelle H.

    2013-02-24

    Current requirements for site remediation and closure are standards-based and are often overly conservative, costly, and in some cases, technically impractical. Use of risk-informed alternate endpoints provides a means to achieve remediation goals that are permitted by regulations and are protective of human health and the environment. Alternate endpoints enable the establishment of a path for cleanup that may include intermediate remedial milestones and transition points and/or regulatory alternatives to standards-based remediation. A framework is presented that is centered around developing and refining conceptual models in conjunction with assessing risks and potential endpoints as part of a system-based assessment that integrates site data with scientific understanding of processes that control the distribution and transport of contaminants in the subsurface and pathways to receptors. This system-based assessment and subsequent implementation of the remediation strategy with appropriate monitoring are targeted at providing a holistic approach to addressing risks to human health and the environment. This holistic approach also enables effective predictive analysis of contaminant behavior to provide defensible criteria and data for making long-term decisions. Developing and implementing an alternate endpoint-based approach for remediation and waste site closure presents a number of challenges and opportunities. Categories of these challenges include scientific and technical, regulatory, institutional, and budget and resource allocation issues. Opportunities exist for developing and implementing systems-based approaches with respect to supportive characterization, monitoring, predictive modeling, and remediation approaches.

  8. Remediation of groundwater containing radionuclides and heavy metals using ion exchange and the AlgaSORB{reg_sign} biosorbent system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Feiler, H.D.; Darnall, D.W.

    1991-11-07

    Bio-Recovery Systems, Inc. (BRS) studied the application of an immobilized algal biomass, termed AlgaSORB{reg_sign}, which has high affinity for heavy metal ions to DOE-contaminated groundwaters. The material can be packed into columns similar to commercial ion exchange resins. Dilute solutions containing heavy metals are passed through columns where metals are absorbed by the AlgaSORB{reg_sign} resins. Once saturated, metal ions can be stripped from the resin biomass in a highly concentrated solution. Groundwaters contaminated with heavy metal ions from three different Department of Energy (DOE) sites: Savannah River, Hanford and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant were studied. The objective was to perform bench-scale treatability studies to establish treatment protocols and to optimize an AlgaSORB{reg_sign}/ion exchange technology system to remove and recover toxic metal ions from these contaminated groundwaters. The specialty ion exchange/AlgaSORB{reg_sign} resins tested in these studies show promise for selectively removing chromium, mercury and uranium from contaminated groundwater at DOE sites. The data show that effluents which satisfy the allowable metal ion limits are possible and most likely achievable. The use of these highly selective resins also offer advantages in terms of cost/benefit, risk and scheduling. Their high selectivity allows for high capacity and opportunities for recovery of removed constituents due to high pollutant concentration possible (3 to 4 orders of magnitude). Ion exchange is a proven technology which is easily automated and can be cost-effective, depending on the application.

  9. Lasagna{trademark} soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    Lasagna{trademark} is an integrated, in situ remediation technology being developed by an industrial consortium consisting of Monsanto, E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. (DuPont), and General Electric, with participation from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (EM-50), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development (Figure 1). Lasagna{trademark} remediates soils and soil pore water contaminated with soluble organic compounds. Lasagna{trademark} is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils where electroosmosis can move water faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods, with very low power consumption. The process uses electrokinetics to move contaminants in soil pore water into treatment zones where the contaminants can be captured or decomposed. Initial focus is on trichloroethylene (TCE), a major contaminant at many DOE and industrial sites. Both vertical and horizontal configurations have been conceptualized, but fieldwork to date is more advanced for the vertical configuration.

  10. Managing Complex Environmental Remediation amidst Aggressive Facility Revitalization Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Richter Pack, S.

    2008-07-01

    Unlike the final closure projects at Rocky Flats and Fernald, many of the Department of Energy's future CERCLA and RCRA closure challenges will take place at active facilities, such as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) central campus. ORNL has aggressive growth plans for a Research Technology Park and cleanup must address and integrate D and D, soil and groundwater remediation, and on-going and future business plans for the Park. Different planning and tracking tools are needed to support closures at active facilities. To support some large Airport redevelopment efforts, we created tools that allowed the Airline lease-holder to perform environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and new building construction, which in turn allowed them to migrate real estate from unusable to usable within an aggressive schedule. In summary: The FIM and OpenGate{sup TM} spatial analysis system were two primary tools developed to support simultaneous environmental remediation, D and D, and construction efforts at an operating facility. These tools helped redevelopers to deal with environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and construction, thereby meeting their goals of opening gates, restarting their revenue streams, at the same time complying with all environmental regulations. (authors)

  11. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

  12. Microemulsion-enhanced remediation of soils contaminated with organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanlin; Wong, Jonathan W C; Zhao, Zhenyong; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

    2011-12-01

    Soil contaminated by organic pollutants, especially chlorinated aromatic compounds such as DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane), is an environmental concern because of the strong sorption of organochlorine pesticide onto the soil matrix and persistence in the environment. The remediation of organochlorine pesticide contaminated soils through microemulsion is an innovative technology to expedite this process. The remediation efficiency was evaluated by batch experiments through studying the desorption of DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (y-HCH) and sorption of microemulsion composed of Triton X-100, 1-pentanol and linseed oil in the soil-surfactant-water suspension system. The reduction of desorption efficiency caused by the sorption loss of microemulsion components onto the soil could be corrected by the appropriate adjustment of C/S (Cosurfactant/Surfactant) and O/S (Oil/Surfactant) ratio. The C/S and O/S ratios of 1:2 and 3:20 were suitable to desorb DDT and gamma-HCH from the studied soils because of the lower sorption of Triton X-100 onto the soil. Inorganic salts added in microemulsion increased the pesticides desorption efficiency of pesticides and calcium chloride has a stronger ability to enhance the desorption of DDT than sodium chloride. From the remediation perspective, the balance of surfactant or cosurfactant sorbed to soil and desorption efficiency should be taken into consideration to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated by organochlorine pesticides. PMID:22439580

  13. Use of plant toxicity assays to evaluate a mobile solvent extraction system for remediation of soil from a hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.; Meckes, M.

    1995-11-01

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and several other organic and inorganic compounds was treated with a full-scale, mobile solvent extraction system, which is being evaluated by the USEPA`s Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The present study employed several plant bioassays to examine the genotoxicity and acute toxicity of the soil before and after the treatment. The toxicity endpoints were mitotic alterations in root tip cells of Allium cepa (common onion), micronuclei in pollen mother cells of Tradescantia, and seed germination and root elongation in oats and lettuce. Bulbs or inflorescences of Allium and Tradescantia, respectively, were exposed to aqueous extracts (20% w/v) of the soils at three concentrations (undiluted, 1/2, or 1/4). Oat and lettuce seeds were exposed to the soils mixed with sand at concentrations from 25 to 100% (w/w). The results were as follows: (1) no evidence of genotoxicity for either the untreated or treated soils in Tradescantia; (2) dose-related increases in chromosomal aberrations for both soils in Allium; (3) inhibition of seed germination for lettuce but not oats for both soils; (4) inhibition of root elongation for both lettuce and oats for the treated soil. The toxicity and genotoxicity remaining after treatment appears to be due to residual solvent introduced during the solvent extraction treatment process, or to inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment.

  14. Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program annual progress report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Programs (HAZWRAP), a unit of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., supports the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office in broadly environmental areas, especially those relating to waste management and environmental restoration. HAZWRAP comprises six program areas, which are supported by central administrative and technical organizations. Existing programs deal with airborne hazardous substances, pollution prevention, remedial actions planning, environmental restoration, technology development, and information and data systems. HAZWRAP's mission to develop, promote, and apply-cost-effective hazardous waste management and environmental technologies to help solve national problems and concerns. HAZWRAP seeks to serve as integrator for hazardous waste and materials management across the federal government. It applies the unique combination of research and development (R D) capabilities, technologies, management expertise, and facilities in the Energy Systems complex to address problems of national importance. 24 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Inactive Tanks Remediation Program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Remediation Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed fimn service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA and CERCLA requirements. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) will be addressed in choosing a remediation alternative. Preference will be given to remedies that are highly reliable and provide long-term protection. Efforts will be directed toward permanently and significantly reducing the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous substances, pollutants, and contaminants associated with the tank systems. Where indicated by operational or other restraints, interim measures short of full and complete remediation may be taken to maintain human health and ecological risks at acceptable levels until full remediation can be accomplished.

  16. High altitude mine waste remediation -- Implementation of the Idarado remedial action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, A.J.; Redmond, J.V.; River, R.A.; Davis, C.S.

    1999-07-01

    The Idarado Mine in Colorado's San Juan Mountains includes 11 tailing areas, numerous waste rock dumps, and a large number of underground openings connected by over 100 miles of raises and drifts. The tailings and mine wastes were generated from different mining and milling operations between 1975 and 1978. the Idarado Remedial Action Plan (RAP) was an innovative 5-year program developed for remediating the impacts of historic mining activities in the San Miguel River and Red Mountain Creek drainages. The challenges during implementation included seasonal access limitations due to the high altitude construction areas, high volumes of runoff during snow melt, numerous abandoned underground openings and stopped-out veins, and high profile sites adjacent to busy jeep trails and a major ski resort town. Implementation of the RAP has included pioneering efforts in engineering design and construction of remedial measures. Innovative engineering designs included direct revegetation techniques for the stabilization of tailings piles, concrete cutoff walls and French drains to control subsurface flows, underground water controls that included pipelines, weeplines, and portal collection systems, and various underground structures to collect and divert subsurface flows often exceeding 2,000 gpm. Remote work locations have also required the use of innovative construction techniques such as heavy lift helicopters to move construction materials to mines above 10,000 feet. This paper describes the 5-year implementation program which has included over 1,000,000 cubic yards of tailing regrading, application of 5,000 tons of manure and 26,000 tons of limestone, and construction of over 10,000 feet of pipeline and approximately 45,000 feet of diversion channel.

  17. Statewide Mandatory Remediation Policies: National, State, and Institutional Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peak, Charity S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite uncertainty related to student outcomes resulting from remediation (Bettinger & Long, 2009), eleven states mandate remedial education through common placement testing and standardized cutoff scores rather than permitting individual postsecondary institutions to establish remediation guidelines. Colorado, in particular, offers an…

  18. 45 CFR 83.3 - Remedial and affirmative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall take such remedial action as the Director deems necessary to overcome the effects of such...; Coverage § 83.3 Remedial and affirmative actions. (a) Remedial action. If the Director finds that an...

  19. 10 CFR 205.199I - Remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Remedies. 205.199I Section 205.199I Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Notice of Probable Violation, Remedial Order, Notice... person to whom it is directed to roll back prices, to make refunds equal to the amount (plus...

  20. 10 CFR 205.199I - Remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Remedies. 205.199I Section 205.199I Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Notice of Probable Violation, Remedial Order, Notice... person to whom it is directed to roll back prices, to make refunds equal to the amount (plus...

  1. Greener and sustainable remediation using iron nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main goal of remediation is to protect humans and the environment. Unfortunately, many remedial actions in the past concentrated more on site-specific environmental risks and conditions completely ignoring external social and economic impacts. Thus, new approach called green ...

  2. 7 CFR 7.17 - Remedial measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Remedial measures. 7.17 Section 7.17 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF FARM SERVICE AGENCY STATE AND COUNTY COMMITTEES § 7.17 Remedial measures. (a) FSA will consider additional efforts to achieve the objective...

  3. 7 CFR 7.17 - Remedial measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Remedial measures. 7.17 Section 7.17 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF FARM SERVICE AGENCY STATE AND COUNTY COMMITTEES § 7.17 Remedial measures. (a) FSA will consider additional efforts to achieve the objective...

  4. 10 CFR 205.199I - Remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedies. 205.199I Section 205.199I Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Notice of Probable Violation, Remedial Order, Notice... person to whom it is directed to roll back prices, to make refunds equal to the amount (plus...

  5. Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This document describes how to investigate and evaluate moisture and mold problems in educational facilities, and presents the key steps for implementing a remediation plan. A checklist is provided for conducting mold remediation efforts along with a resource list of helpful organizations and governmental agencies. Appendices contain a glossary,…

  6. Large-Group Instruction in Remedial English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freligh, Edith A.

    For three years (including 1968-69), remedial English has been taught at Golden West College (California) to groups of 200-365 students. Follow-up studies, begun with the opening of the College, have indicated that the student who completes the remedial program and proceeds to freshman composition has a better chance of success (C or better) than…

  7. Remedial Reading Students at Moraine Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Elizabeth

    In an effort to assess the effectiveness of their remedial reading courses, Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) in Palos Hills, Illinois, undertook a study of the retention, course completion, and graduation rates of students who completed one of three remedial reading courses: RDG-040, basic skills for students reading below the 7th grade…

  8. Laboratory Experiment on Electrokinetic Remediation of Soil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed-Ali, Alya H.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is a method of decontaminating soil containing heavy metals and polar organic contaminants by passing a direct current through the soil. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory is described to demonstrate electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with copper. A 30 cm electrokinetic cell with an applied voltage of 30…

  9. 29 CFR 35.15 - Remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Remedial action. 35.15 Section 35.15 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Remedial action. Even in the absence of a finding of discrimination, a recipient, in administering...

  10. 18 CFR 706.103 - Remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Remedial action. 706.103 Section 706.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT General Provisions § 706.103 Remedial action. (a) A violation of this part by...

  11. 18 CFR 706.103 - Remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Remedial action. 706.103 Section 706.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT General Provisions § 706.103 Remedial action. (a) A violation of this part by...

  12. 18 CFR 706.103 - Remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Remedial action. 706.103 Section 706.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT General Provisions § 706.103 Remedial action. (a) A violation of this part by...

  13. Autonomy and Motivation in Remedial Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that a significant majority of students in remedial mathematics do not remediate successfully. Such widespread failure raises the question of motivation. Some would argue that the instructor should directly compel students to commit themselves to the course and its work. This can be done by mandating attendance and/or by…

  14. READING AND WRITING, THE REMEDIAL PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euclid English Demonstration Center, OH.

    THE PAPERS IN THIS COLLECTION EXPLAIN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL REMEDIAL PROGRAM IN READING AND WRITING DEVELOPED BY THE EUCLID ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER, THEY ARE (1) "REMEDIAL CLASSES AND THE TOTAL ENGLISH PROGRAM," BY GEORGE HILLOCKS, (2) "DEFINITION, ORIGIN, AND TREATMENT OF UNDERACHIEVEMENT," BY JANE W. KESSLER, (3) "READING SKILLS IN JUNIOR…

  15. 10 CFR 1706.10 - Remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedies. 1706.10 Section 1706.10 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD ORGANIZATIONAL AND CONSULTANT CONFLICTS OF INTERESTS § 1706.10 Remedies. The refusal to provide the certificate, or upon request of the contracting officer the additional...

  16. SIMULATION OF SURFACTANT-ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) is currently under active investigation as one of the most promising alternatives to conventional pump-and-treat remediation for aquifers contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase organic liquids. An existing three-dimensional finite-di...

  17. 45 CFR 1177.3 - Other remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.3 Other remedies. The remedies and sanctions available to the National Endowment for the Humanities under this part are not intended to be exclusive. The Chairperson of the National Endowment for the Humanities or his designee may impose...

  18. 45 CFR 1177.3 - Other remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.3 Other remedies. The remedies and sanctions available to the National Endowment for the Humanities under this part are not intended to be exclusive. The Chairperson of the National Endowment for the Humanities or his designee may impose...

  19. 45 CFR 1177.3 - Other remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.3 Other remedies. The remedies and sanctions available to the National Endowment for the Humanities under this part are not intended to be exclusive. The Chairperson of the National Endowment for the Humanities or his designee may impose...

  20. 45 CFR 1177.3 - Other remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.3 Other remedies. The remedies and sanctions available to the National Endowment for the Humanities under this part are not intended to be exclusive. The Chairperson of the National Endowment for the Humanities or his designee may impose...

  1. 45 CFR 1177.3 - Other remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.3 Other remedies. The remedies and sanctions available to the National Endowment for the Humanities under this part are not intended to be exclusive. The Chairperson of the National Endowment for the Humanities or his designee may impose...

  2. 10 CFR 430.73 - Remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Remedies. 430.73 Section 430.73 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Certification and Enforcement § 430.73 Remedies. If DOE determines that a basic model of a covered product does not comply with an applicable energy conservation standard...

  3. 18 CFR 706.103 - Remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remedial action. 706.103 Section 706.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT General Provisions § 706.103 Remedial action. (a) A violation of this part by...

  4. 18 CFR 706.103 - Remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Remedial action. 706.103 Section 706.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT General Provisions § 706.103 Remedial action. (a) A violation of this part by...

  5. 14 CFR 1212.800 - Civil remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Civil remedies. 1212.800 Section 1212.800... Comply With Requirements of This Part § 1212.800 Civil remedies. Failure to comply with the requirements of the Privacy Act and this part could subject NASA to civil suit under the provisions of 5...

  6. 32 CFR 310.47 - Civil remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil remedies. 310.47 Section 310.47 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.47 Civil remedies. In addition to specific...

  7. 10 CFR 1008.15 - Civil remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1008.15 Section 1008.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) Requests for Access or Amendment § 1008.15 Civil remedies. Subsection (g) of the Act provides that an individual may bring...

  8. 14 CFR 1212.800 - Civil remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1212.800 Section 1212.800... Comply With Requirements of This Part § 1212.800 Civil remedies. Failure to comply with the requirements of the Privacy Act and this part could subject NASA to civil suit under the provisions of 5...

  9. 32 CFR 310.47 - Civil remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil remedies. 310.47 Section 310.47 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.47 Civil remedies. In addition to specific...

  10. 32 CFR 310.47 - Civil remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil remedies. 310.47 Section 310.47 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.47 Civil remedies. In addition to specific...

  11. 14 CFR 1212.800 - Civil remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1212.800 Section 1212.800... Comply With Requirements of This Part § 1212.800 Civil remedies. Failure to comply with the requirements of the Privacy Act and this part could subject NASA to civil suit under the provisions of 5...

  12. 10 CFR 1008.15 - Civil remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1008.15 Section 1008.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) Requests for Access or Amendment § 1008.15 Civil remedies. Subsection (g) of the Act provides that an individual may bring...

  13. 32 CFR 310.47 - Civil remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Civil remedies. 310.47 Section 310.47 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.47 Civil remedies. In addition to specific...

  14. 10 CFR 1008.15 - Civil remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1008.15 Section 1008.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) Requests for Access or Amendment § 1008.15 Civil remedies. Subsection (g) of the Act provides that an individual may bring...

  15. 10 CFR 1008.15 - Civil remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1008.15 Section 1008.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) Requests for Access or Amendment § 1008.15 Civil remedies. Subsection (g) of the Act provides that an individual may bring...

  16. ASYMMETRIC LOSS FUNCTION FOR SUPERFUND REMEDIATION DECISIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    At a Superfund remediation site the decision is a classification problem, discriminating between polluted blocks to be remediated and background blocks to be left untreated. he concentration of the pollutant in a block is estimated from sampling. he more samples taken the better ...

  17. 32 CFR 310.47 - Civil remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil remedies. 310.47 Section 310.47 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.47 Civil remedies. In addition to specific...

  18. 14 CFR 1212.800 - Civil remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1212.800 Section 1212.800... Comply With Requirements of This Part § 1212.800 Civil remedies. Failure to comply with the requirements of the Privacy Act and this part could subject NASA to civil suit under the provisions of 5...

  19. 10 CFR 1008.15 - Civil remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1008.15 Section 1008.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) Requests for Access or Amendment § 1008.15 Civil remedies. Subsection (g) of the Act provides that an individual may bring...

  20. 45 CFR 94.6 - Remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedies. 94.6 Section 94.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RESPONSIBLE PROSPECTIVE CONTRACTORS § 94.6 Remedies. (a) If the failure of an Investigator to comply with the conflict of interest policy of...

  1. GROUND WATER REMEDIATION POWERED WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical challenge: Resource conservation has become a critical concept in the remediation of contaminated ground water supplies. Ground water remedies which include surface discharge of treated ground water are often viewed as wasteful and non-sustainable....

  2. Remedial Online Teaching on a Summer Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienties, Bart; Tempelaar, Dirk; Waterval, Dominique; Rehm, Martin; Gijselaers, Wim

    2006-01-01

    This paper is based on experiences with remedial online learning from a national collaboration initiative in the Netherlands involving the University of Amsterdam, Erasmus Rotterdam University and Maastricht University (www.web-spijkeren.nl). The central question is how prior knowledge tests and online remedial summer courses can contribute to…

  3. Electrokinetic in situ oxidation remediation: Assessment of parameter sensitivities and the influence of aquifer heterogeneity on remediation efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming Zhi; Reynolds, David A.; Fourie, Andy; Prommer, Henning; Thomas, David G.

    2012-08-01

    A newly developed groundwater and electrokinetic (EK) flow and reactive transport numerical model was applied to simulate electrokinetic in situ chemical oxidation (EK-ISCO) remediation. Scenario simulations that considered the oxidation of a typical organic contaminant (tetrachloroethene) by permanganate were used to gain a better understanding of the key processes and parameters that control remediation efficiency. In a first step a sensitivity analysis was carried out to investigate a range of EK, hydraulic and engineering parameters on the performance of EK-ISCO. While all investigated parameters affected the remediation process to some extent, the duration and energy required for remediation were shown to be most dependent upon the applied voltage gradient, the natural oxidant demand and the concentration of the injected oxidant. Secondly, the efficacy of EK-induced oxidant transport was further examined for a heterogeneous aquifer system with random permeability fields. Oxidant migration under EK was slower in low-permeability media due to the increased oxidant consumption of competing reductants. Instead of injecting oxidant only at the cathode, locating injection wells between the electrodes greatly increased the contaminant degradation by decreasing the distance the amendment had to migrate before reaching the contaminant.

  4. Electrokinetic in situ oxidation remediation: assessment of parameter sensitivities and the influence of aquifer heterogeneity on remediation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming Zhi; Reynolds, David A; Fourie, Andy; Prommer, Henning; Thomas, David G

    2012-08-01

    A newly developed groundwater and electrokinetic (EK) flow and reactive transport numerical model was applied to simulate electrokinetic in situ chemical oxidation (EK-ISCO) remediation. Scenario simulations that considered the oxidation of a typical organic contaminant (tetrachloroethene) by permanganate were used to gain a better understanding of the key processes and parameters that control remediation efficiency. In a first step a sensitivity analysis was carried out to investigate a range of EK, hydraulic and engineering parameters on the performance of EK-ISCO. While all investigated parameters affected the remediation process to some extent, the duration and energy required for remediation were shown to be most dependent upon the applied voltage gradient, the natural oxidant demand and the concentration of the injected oxidant. Secondly, the efficacy of EK-induced oxidant transport was further examined for a heterogeneous aquifer system with random permeability fields. Oxidant migration under EK was slower in low-permeability media due to the increased oxidant consumption of competing reductants. Instead of injecting oxidant only at the cathode, locating injection wells between the electrodes greatly increased the contaminant degradation by decreasing the distance the amendment had to migrate before reaching the contaminant. PMID:22684143

  5. Progress in remediation of groundwater at petroleum sites in California.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Thomas E; Kulkarni, Poonam R; Newell, Charles J; Connor, John A; Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the overall progress in remediation of contaminated groundwater has been a significant challenge. We utilized the GeoTracker database to evaluate the progress in groundwater remediation from 2001 to 2011 at over 12,000 sites in California with contaminated groundwater. This paper presents an analysis of analytical results from over 2.1 million groundwater samples representing at least $100 million in laboratory analytical costs. Overall, the evaluation of monitoring data shows a large decrease in groundwater concentrations of gasoline constituents. For benzene, half of the sites showed a decrease in concentration of 85% or more. For methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), this decrease was 96% and for TBE, 87%. At remediation sites in California, the median source attenuation rate was 0.18/year for benzene and 0.36/year for MTBE, corresponding to half-lives of 3.9 and 1.9 years, respectively. Attenuation rates were positive (i.e., decreasing concentration) for benzene at 76% of sites and for MTBE at 85% of sites. An evaluation of sites with active remediation technologies suggests differences in technology effectiveness. The median attenuation rates for benzene and MTBE are higher at sites with soil vapor extraction or air sparging compared with sites without these technologies. In contrast, there was little difference in attenuation rates at sites with or without soil excavation, dual phase extraction, or in situ enhanced biodegradation. The evaluation of remediation technologies, however, did not evaluate whether specific systems were well designed or implemented and did not control for potential differences in other site factors, such as soil type. PMID:24224563

  6. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  7. The use of representative cases in hazard analysis of the tank waste remediation system at Hanford. The information in this document is a combination of HNF-SA-3168-A {ampersand} HNF-SA-3169-A - The control identification process

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, B.J.

    1997-04-24

    During calendar year 1996, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford, Inc. conducted a safety analysis in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94 as part of the development of a Final Safety Analysis Report (TSAR) for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) at the DOE Hanford site. The scope of the safety analysis of TWRS primarily addressed 177 large underground liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment for transferring waste to and from tanks. The waste in the tanks was generated by the nuclear production and processing facilities at Hanford. The challenge facing the safety analysis team was to efficiently analyze the system within the time and budget allotted to provide the necessary and sufficient information for accident selection, control identification, and justification on the acceptability of the level of safety of TWRS. It was clear from the start that a hazard and accident analysis for each of the 177 similar tanks and supporting equipment was not practical nor necessary. For example, many of the tanks were similar enough that the results of the analysis of one tank would apply to many tanks. This required the development and use of a tool called the ''Hazard Topography''. The use of the Hazard Topography assured that all tank operations and configurations were adequately assessed in the hazard analysis and that the results (e.g., hazard identification and control decisions) were appropriately applied to all tanks and associated systems. The TWRS Hazard Topography was a data base of all the TWRS facilities (e.g., tanks, diversion boxes, transfer lines, and related facilities) along with data on their configuration, material at risk (MAR), hazards, and known safety related phenomenological issues. Facilities were then classified into groups based on similar combinations of configuration, MAR, hazards and phenomena. A hazard evaluation was performed for a tank or facility in each group. The results of these evaluations, also contained in a data base, were

  8. Space Debris Environment Remediation Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; Klinkrad, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    Long-term projections of the space debris environment indicate that even drastic measures, such as an immediate, complete halt of launch and release activities, will not result in a stable environment of man-made space objects. Collision events between already existing space hardware will within a few decades start to dominate the debris population, and result in a net increase of the space debris population, also in size regimes which may cause further catastrophic collisions. Such a collisional cascading will ultimately lead to a run-away situation ("Kessler syndrome"), with no further possibility of human intervention. The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) has been investigating the status and the stability of the space debris environment in several studies by first looking into space traffic management possibilities and then investigating means of mitigating the creation of space debris. In an ongoing activity, an IAA study group looks at ways of active space debris environment remediation. In contrast to the former mitigation study, the current activity concentrates on the active removal of small and large objects, such as defunct spacecraft, orbital stages, and mission-related objects, which serve as a latent mass reservoir that fuels initial catastrophic collisions and later collisional cascading. The paper will outline different mass removal concepts, e.g. based on directed energy, tethers (momentum exchange or electrodynamic), aerodynamic drag augmentation, solar sails, auxiliary propulsion units, retarding surfaces, or on-orbit capture. Apart from physical principles of the proposed concepts, their applicability to different orbital regimes, and their effectiveness concerning mass removal efficiency will be analyzed. The IAA activity on space debris environment remediation is a truly international project which involves more than 23 contributing authors from 9 different nations.

  9. Electrokinetic remediation of organochlorines in soil: enhancement techniques and integration with other remediation technologies.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helena I; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2012-06-01

    Electrokinetic remediation has been increasingly used in soils and other matrices for numerous contaminants such as inorganic, organic, radionuclides, explosives and their mixtures. Several strategies were tested to improve this technology effectiveness, namely techniques to solubilize contaminants, control soil pH and also couple electrokinetics with other remediation technologies. This review focus in the experimental work carried out in organochlorines soil electroremediation, aiming to systemize useful information to researchers in this field. It is not possible to clearly state what technique is the best, since experimental approaches and targeted contaminants are different. Further research is needed in the application of some of the reviewed techniques. Also a number of technical and environmental issues will require evaluation for full-scale application. Removal efficiencies reported in real contaminated soils are much lower than the ones obtained with spiked kaolinite, showing the influence of other factors like aging of the contamination and adsorption to soil particles, resulting in important challenges when transferring technologies into the field. PMID:22386462

  10. Twelve tips for developing and maintaining a remediation program in medical education.

    PubMed

    Kalet, Adina; Guerrasio, Jeannette; Chou, Calvin L

    2016-08-01

    Remediation in medical education, the process of facilitating corrections for physician trainees who are not on course to competence, predictably consumes significant institutional resources. Although remediation is a logical consequence of mandating, measuring, and reporting clinical competence, many program leaders continue to take an unstructured approach toward organizing effective, efficient plans for struggling trainees, almost all of who will become practicing physicians. The following 12 tips derive from a decade of remediation experience at each of the authors' three institutions. It is informed by the input of a group of 34 interdisciplinary North American experts assembled to contribute two books on the subject. We intend this summary to guide program leaders to build better remediation systems and emphasize that developing such systems is an important step toward enabling the transition from time-based to competency-based medical education. PMID:27049798

  11. [Research on the Screening Method of Soil Remediation Technology at Contaminated Sites and Its Application].

    PubMed

    Bai, Li-ping; Luo, Yun; Liu, Li; Zhou, You-ya; Yan, Zeng-guang; Li, Fa-sheng

    2015-11-01

    Soil remediation technology screening is an important procedure in the supervision of contaminated sites. The efficiency and costs of contaminated site remediation will be directly affected by the applicability of soil remediation technology. The influencing factors include characteristics of contaminants, site conditions, remediation time and costs should be considered to determine the most applicable remediation technology. The remediation technology screening was commonly evaluated by the experienced expert in China, which limited the promotion and application of the decision making method. Based on the supervision requirements of contaminated sites and the research status at home and abroad, the screening method includes preliminary screening and explicit evaluation was suggested in this paper. The screening index system was constructed, and the extension theory was used to divide the technology grade. The extension theory could solve the problem of human interference in the evaluation process and index value assignment. A chromium residue contaminated site in China was selected as the study area, and the applicable remediation technologies were suggested by the screening method. The research results could provide a scientific and technological support for the supervision and management of contaminated sites in China. PMID:26911012

  12. Development, Discouragement, or Diversion? New Evidence on the Effects of College Remediation. NBER Working Paper No. 18328

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Clayton, Judith; Rodriguez, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Half of all college students take at least one remedial course as part of their postsecondary experience, despite mixed evidence on the effectiveness of this intervention. Using a regression-discontinuity design with data from a large urban community college system, we extend the research on remediation in three ways. First, we articulate three…

  13. [What perspectives for cognitive remediation in schizophrenia?].

    PubMed

    Correard, N; Mazzola-Pomietto, P; Elissalde, S-N; Viglianese-Salmon, N; Fakra, E; Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Cognitive deficits are routinely evident in schizophrenia, and are of sufficient magnitude to influence functional outcomes in work, social functioning and illness management. Cognitive remediation is an evidenced-based non-pharmacological treatment for the neurocognitive deficits seen in schizophrenia. Narrowly defined, cognitive remediation is a set of cognitive drills or compensatory interventions designed to enhance cognitive functioning, but from the vantage of the psychiatric rehabilitation field, cognitive remediation is a therapy which engages the patient in learning activities that enhance the neurocognitive skills relevant to their chosen recovery goals. Cognitive remediation programs vary in the extent to which they reflect these narrow or broader perspectives but a metaanalytic study reports moderate range effect sizes on cognitive test performance, and daily functioning. Reciprocal interactions between baseline ability level, the type of instructional techniques used, and motivation provide some explanatory power for the heterogeneity in patient response to cognitive remediation. Recent studies indicate that intrinsic motivation mediates the relationship between neurocognition and functional outcomes. Results of these studies suggest that intrinsic motivation should be a viable treatment target in cognitive remediation intervention. In this perspective, NEAR (Neuropsychological Educational Approach to Remediation) program was created to enhance intrinsic motivation by employing more engaging and interesting software packages for cognitive practice, involving consumers in choosing the focus of training and having the NEAR leader serve as a coach to engage the consumers in active guidance of their own treatment program. PMID:22212847

  14. Synergistic application of four remedial techniques at an industrial site

    SciTech Connect

    Dasch, J.M.; Abdul, A.S.; Rai, D.N.; Gibson, T.L.; Grosvenor, N.

    1997-12-01

    The soil and ground water at a General Motors plant site were contaminated with petroleum products from leaking underground storage tanks. Based on the initial assessment, the site was complex from the standpoint of geology, hydrology, and contaminant. After a thorough study of remedial alternatives, a synergistic remedial approach was adopted including pump and treat, product removal, vapor extraction, and bioventing. The system was designed and implemented at the site through 22 dual-extraction wells. Over a 21-month period, 4400 gallons of gasoline and oil were removed from the system, including 59% by vapor extraction, 28% by bioventing, and 13% by pump and treat. Synergism between the various remedial methods was demonstrated clearly. Ground water pump and treat lowered the water table, allowing air to flow for vapor extraction. The vacuum applied for vapor extraction increased the ground water removal rate and the efficiency of pump and treat. The vapor extraction system also added oxygen to the soil to stimulate aerobic biodegradation.

  15. Remediation of abandoned mine discharges in the Loyalhanna Creek watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, C.L.; Fish, D.H.

    1999-07-01

    Abandoned deep mine discharges were responsible for high iron loadings into several streams in the Loyalhanna Creek watershed. A total of seven discharges with flow rates from 20 to 1240 gal/min were flowing into Four Mile Run near Latrobe, PA. The iron concentrations in these discharges averaged near 80 ppm. The pH, however, was near neutral due to contact with underground limestone deposits. The high iron concentrations had severely degraded the habitat of the streams including 22 miles of Loyalhanna Creek. Benthic macroinvertebrates are especially vulnerable to the deposition of iron in these streams. In 1993, the Loyalhanna Mine Drainage Coalition was formed to oversee the remediation of the AMD discharges affecting Loyalhanna Creek. During this time monthly monitoring of the discharges began. Then using the chemistry and flow data, passive wetland treatment systems were designed to remediate the mine drainage. The remediation process precipitates and collects the iron oxide in the wetlands, thus eliminating the iron precipitation from the stream. In 1997 and 1998 three wetland treatment systems were constructed. The three wetlands capture the flow from the seven discharges and during low flow periods remove 95--100% of the iron from these discharges. The affected streams have shown a significant decrease in the iron concentrations and a subsequent improvement in the habitat quality of the streams. Fish and macroinvertebrates have been found in the most polluted stream which was void of life before the treatment systems were in operation.

  16. Dredging as remediation for white phosphorus contamination at Eagle River Flats, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.R.; Collins, C.M.

    1998-08-01

    The Eagle River Flats impact area is a Ft. Richardson Superfund site. It is a salt marsh that is contaminated with white phosphorus (WP), and remediation of sediments in permanently ponded areas may require dredging. A remotely piloted dredging system was designed, constructed, and deployed at the Flats as part of the overall site remediation feasibility study. Experience gained over two years of engineering study and contract operation indicates that, although feasible and effective, this alternative is slow, difficult, and very expensive.

  17. Effective Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Surface Water Using Constructed Comprehensive Floating Remediation Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Bai, S.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus are the chief pollutants of our aquatic systems which may be resulted from different contamination sources and could cause serious environmental and ecological problems. For example, nitrate contamination of the water systems from agricultural practices may be contributing to the eutrophication of the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA, degrading water quality and aquatic habitats. Effective approaches for removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from our aquatic systems, particularly from surface water, is called for imminently. An in-situ remediation measure by constructed floating remediation islands has been developed and tested through the field experiments recently. Four pilot-scale settings with the different components and structures were constructed and operated in parallel in which a new type of the constructed floating remediation islands with multi-layers of substrate fillers, called the constructed multi-layer comprehensive floating remediation island, was included. The contaminated water taken directly from a river containing richly nitrogen and phosphorus was used for those experiments. The experiment results obtained from the four different experiment settings were examined. It was noticed that the degradation rates of both nitrogen and phosphorus in water in the setting with the constructed multi-layer comprehensive floating remediation island was greater than those in others. The mean removal rate of phosphorous in the experiment setting with the constructed multi-layer comprehensive floating remediation island was considerably higher than the removal rates of phosphorous in the other three experiment settings.

  18. Remediation by 2-PHASE {trademark} extraction-A 2-year success story

    SciTech Connect

    Koerner, C.; Dee, P.E.; Baxter, J.; Huber, S.

    1996-12-31

    Radian has used the Xerox 2-PHASE{trademark} Extraction technology at several facilities worldwide to remove VOCs and petroleum hydrocarbons from subsurface soils and groundwater. The use of high vacuum with 2-PHASE{trademark} causes greater forces to be applied to the subsurface than do other dual-phase methods. 2-PHASE{trademark} improves dewatering, increases vacuum and groundwater radii of influence, deepens vadose zone development, enhances vapor stripping of soil contamination, improves vaporflow, and expedites remediation timeframes. This paper describes the successful 2-year application of 2-PHASE{trademark} to, remediate soil and several groundwater contamination. Contamination occurred under a floor slab near a former solvent spray booth and several underground storage tanks. Contaminants were primarily chlorinated VOCs and mineral spirits ranging to 330 mg/kg in soil and 1,070 mg/L in groundwater. The 2-PHASE{trademark} system was installed in October 1993; business constraints necessitated the completion of remediation within two years. The system was modified and expanded to optimize the removal effectiveness and extend the area of influence. Subsurface soil data obtained 8 and 11 months into the remediation program were used with soil gas data to predict future soil concentrations. VOC concentrations in the soil and groundwater were reduced by over 95 percent, and remediation goals were met within 18 months following start of in situ 2-PHASE{trademark} remediation. The system has been decommissioned following agency and landowner approval.

  19. Remediation by 2-PHASE [trademark] extraction-A 2-year success story

    SciTech Connect

    Koerner, C.; Dee, P.E. ); Baxter, J. ); Huber, S. )

    1996-01-01

    Radian has used the Xerox 2-PHASE[trademark] Extraction technology at several facilities worldwide to remove VOCs and petroleum hydrocarbons from subsurface soils and groundwater. The use of high vacuum with 2-PHASE[trademark] causes greater forces to be applied to the subsurface than do other dual-phase methods. 2-PHASE[trademark] improves dewatering, increases vacuum and groundwater radii of influence, deepens vadose zone development, enhances vapor stripping of soil contamination, improves vaporflow, and expedites remediation timeframes. This paper describes the successful 2-year application of 2-PHASE[trademark] to, remediate soil and several groundwater contamination. Contamination occurred under a floor slab near a former solvent spray booth and several underground storage tanks. Contaminants were primarily chlorinated VOCs and mineral spirits ranging to 330 mg/kg in soil and 1,070 mg/L in groundwater. The 2-PHASE[trademark] system was installed in October 1993; business constraints necessitated the completion of remediation within two years. The system was modified and expanded to optimize the removal effectiveness and extend the area of influence. Subsurface soil data obtained 8 and 11 months into the remediation program were used with soil gas data to predict future soil concentrations. VOC concentrations in the soil and groundwater were reduced by over 95 percent, and remediation goals were met within 18 months following start of in situ 2-PHASE[trademark] remediation. The system has been decommissioned following agency and landowner approval.

  20. SULFATE REDUCTION IN GROUNDWATER: CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATIONS FOR REMEDIATION

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Z.; Brusseau, M. L.; Carroll, K. C.; Carreón-Diazconti, C.; Johnson, B.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfate is ubiquitous in groundwater, with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Sulfate reduction reactions play a significant role in mediating redox conditions and biogeochemical processes for subsurface systems. They also serve as the basis for innovative in-situ methods for groundwater remediation. An overview of sulfate reduction in subsurface environments is provided, along with a brief discussion of characterization methods and applications for addressing acid mine drainage. We then focus on two innovative, in-situ methods for remediating sulfate-contaminated groundwater, the use of zero-valent iron (ZVI) and the addition of electron-donor substrates. The advantages and limitations associated with the methods are discussed, with examples of prior applications. PMID:21947714

  1. Effective Remediation Strategies in Mathematics: Characteristics of an Effective Remedial Mathematics Teacher; Effective Remedial Math Teacher Checklist; Math Remediation Methods Questionnaire. Occasional Papers in Educational Policy Analysis No. 417.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Gypsy Anne; McEntire, Elizabeth

    This manual describes the process used in determining the objectives of a project to develop effective remediation strategies for use by teachers of mathematics. It presents two tools developed for use in assessing remedial mathematics teaching: (1) the "Effective Remedial Mathematics Checklist," for use in supervising teachers of remedial math,…

  2. CAVITATIONAL HYDROTHERMAL OXIDATION: A NEW REMEDIATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research will explore the emerging science of sonochemistry and its technological applications for organic waste remediation, particularly for water and soil purification. Ultrasound can induce unusual high-energy chemistry through the process of acoustic cavitation: the for...

  3. Porous graphene materials for water remediation.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Li; Chen, Xiaodong

    2014-09-10

    Water remediation has been a critical issue over the past decades due to the expansion of wastewater discharge to the environment. Currently, a variety of functional materials have been successfully prepared for water remediation applications. Among them, graphene is an attractive candidate due to its high specific surface area, tunable surface behavior, and high strength. This Concept paper summarizes the design strategy of porous graphene materials and their applications in water remediation, such as the cleanup of oil, removal of heavy metal ions, and elimination of water soluble organic contaminants. The progress made so far will guide further development in structure design strategy of porous materials based on graphene and exploration of such materials in environmental remediation. PMID:24619776

  4. 42 CFR 488.406 - Available remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.406 Available remedies. (a) General. In addition to... CMS, to a— (A) Skilled nursing facility, for Medicare; (B) State, for Medicaid; or (ii) Denial...

  5. REAL TIME DATA FOR REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES [11505

    SciTech Connect

    BROCK CT

    2011-01-13

    Health physicists from the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company collaborated with Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation to modify the SAM 940 isotope identifier instrument to be used for nuclear waste remediation. These modifications coupled with existing capabilities of the SAM 940 have proven to be invaluable during remediation activities, reducing disposal costs by allowing swift remediation of targeted areas that have been identified as having isotopes of concern (IOC), and eliminating multiple visits to sites by declaring an excavation site clear of IOCs before demobilizing from the site. These advantages are enabled by accumulating spectral data for specific isotopes that is nearly 100 percent free of false positives, which are filtered out in 'real time.'

  6. Remediation Evaluation Model for Chlorinated Solvents (REMChlor)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new analytical solution has been developed for simulating the transient effects of groundwater source and plume remediation. This development was performed as part of a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) research project, which was a joint effort ...

  7. List of Contractors to Support Anthrax Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document responds to a need identified by private sector businesses for information on contractors that may be qualified to support building remediation efforts following a wide-area anthrax release.

  8. A new approach to clinical remediation.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Megan Cecere; Twigg, Regina Donovan

    2011-03-01

    The clinical faculty at the University of Maryland School of Nursing recognized that many students in the adult health course were struggling in the clinical environment. The faculty had access to a remediation program that was self-directed and did not provide individualized instruction. The limitations of the remediation program prompted a redesign that focused on a student-centered approach. The new remediation program involves a four-step process using human patient simulators and individualized instruction based on students' learning needs. The revised remediation program has been in place for more than a year, and the clinical faculty have reported a noticeable improvement in students' clinical knowledge, skills, and judgment at the completion of the program. In addition, the program has helped to decrease the attrition rate of students from the clinical component of the adult health program by 4% to 6%. PMID:21210601

  9. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... dangerous. Before using an over-the-counter or herbal diet remedy, talk with your health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  10. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION: BASICS AND TECHNOLOGY STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrokinetic remediation, variably named as electrochemical soil processing, electromigration, electrokinetic decontamination or electroreclamation uses electric currents to extract radionuclides, heavy metals, certain organic compounds, or mixed inorganic species and some orga...

  11. FIELD ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPLE DNAPL REMEDIATION TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five DNAPL remediation technologies were evaluated in constructed test cells at the Dover National Test Site, Dover AFB, Delaware. The technologies were cosolvent solubilization, cosolvent mobilization, surfactant solubilization, complex sugar flushing and air sparging/soil vapor...

  12. 40 CFR 92.705 - Remedial plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.705 Remedial plan. (a) When any... intact. (3) The label shall contain: (i) The recall campaign number; and (ii) A code designating...

  13. 40 CFR 85.1803 - Remedial Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1803 Remedial Plan. (a) When any manufacturer is...: (i) The recall campaign number; and (ii) A code designating the campaign facility at which the...

  14. 40 CFR 92.705 - Remedial plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.705 Remedial plan. (a) When any... intact. (3) The label shall contain: (i) The recall campaign number; and (ii) A code designating...

  15. 40 CFR 92.705 - Remedial plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.705 Remedial plan. (a) When any... intact. (3) The label shall contain: (i) The recall campaign number; and (ii) A code designating...

  16. 40 CFR 85.1803 - Remedial Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1803 Remedial Plan. (a) When any manufacturer is...: (i) The recall campaign number; and (ii) A code designating the campaign facility at which the...

  17. 40 CFR 85.1803 - Remedial Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1803 Remedial Plan. (a) When any manufacturer is...: (i) The recall campaign number; and (ii) A code designating the campaign facility at which the...

  18. 40 CFR 85.1803 - Remedial Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1803 Remedial Plan. (a) When any manufacturer is...: (i) The recall campaign number; and (ii) A code designating the campaign facility at which the...

  19. 40 CFR 85.1803 - Remedial Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1803 Remedial Plan. (a) When any manufacturer is...: (i) The recall campaign number; and (ii) A code designating the campaign facility at which the...

  20. Luminescence study of homeopathic remedies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobyshev, Valentin I.; Tomkevitch, Marie

    2001-06-01

    It was shown in our recent papers that distilled water possesses intrinsic luminescence at wavelength of about 400 nm with excitation wavelength 300 nm, which is very sensitive to small amount of dissolved substances. This phenomena was chosen to study homeopathic remedies. Pronounced difference in the intensity of luminescence between several commercial preparations with the same potency and one preparation with various potencies was obtained. Long scale evolution of the spectra was registered and final result was dependent on preparation and its potency. Systematic study of homeopathic preparations of halit (natural sodium chloride) from 1 to 30 decimal dilution was done. A stepwise dilution with mechanical agitation between the dilution steps, the so-called potentisation, was produced specially by homeopathic company Weleda. Luminescence intensity against concentration (potency) of halit is non monotonous function with several maxima, the main maximum is located at 13-14-th dilution. Evolution of the spectra was registered during several months. The analogous potentisation treatment of water without additional substances results also in changes of the luminescence spectra, depending on the number of potentisation. The obtained differences of luminescence spectra at ultra high dilutions and potentisation show that the collective properties of water are really changed in homeopathic preparations.

  1. Research Plan: Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Hart, Andrea T.; Szecsody, James E.; Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Ankeny, Mark; Hull, Laurence; Oostrom, Martinus; Freshley, Mark D.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2009-01-16

    Research proposals were submitted to the Scientific and Technical Basis for In Situ Treatment of Metals and Radionuclides Technical Working Group under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office (specifically, EM-22). After a peer review and selection process, the proposal, “Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation,” submitted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was selected for support by the program. A research plan was requested for this EM funded project. The overall objective of this project is to develop foam delivery technology for the distribution of remedial amendments to deep vadose zone sediments for in situ immobilization of metal and radionuclide contaminants. The focus of this research in FY 2009 is on the physical aspects of the foam delivery approach. Specific objectives are to 1) study the foam quality (i.e. the gas volume fraction in foam) influence on injection pressure, 2) study the sediment air permeability influence on injection pressure, 3) investigate liquid uptake in sediment and determine whether a water front will be formed during foam delivery, 4) test amendment distance (and mass) delivery by foam from the injection point, 5) study the enhanced sweeping over heterogeneous systems (i.e., low K zones) by foam delivery relative to water-based delivery under vadose zone conditions, and 6) numerically simulate foam delivery processes in the vadose zone. Laboratory scale experiments will be conducted at PNNL to study a range of basic physical aspects of the foam propagation in sediments, including foam quality and sediment permeability influence on injection pressure, liquid uptake, and foam sweeping across heterogeneous systems. This study will be augmented with separate studies to be conducted at MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to evaluate foam transport and amendment delivery at the intermediate-scale. The results of intermediate

  2. Fundamentals of hazardous waste site remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, K.

    1999-11-01

    Environmental engineering professionals now have a resource for basic remediation skills. Hazardous materials chemistry, hydrogeology, reaction engineering, and clean-up level development are among the related issues examined in detail. End-of-chapter review problems are included to test comprehension of material. This book offers a cross-disciplinary approach to solving site remediation problems. It also contains proven material, developed in actual teaching situations. In addition this book provides convenient reference for professionals--and a fine introduction for trainees.

  3. Natural Remediation at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C. M.; Van Pelt, R.

    2002-02-25

    Natural remediation is a general term that includes any technology or strategy that takes advantage of natural processes to remediate a contaminated media to a condition that is protective of human health and the environment. Natural remediation techniques are often passive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They are generally implemented in conjunction with traditional remedial solutions for source control (i.e., capping, stabilization, removal, soil vapor extraction, etc.). Natural remediation techniques being employed at Savannah River Site (SRS) include enhanced bio-remediation, monitored natural attenuation, and phytoremediation. Enhanced bio-remediation involves making nutrients available and conditions favorable for microbial growth. With proper precautions and feeding, the naturally existing microbes flourish and consume the contaminants. Case studies of enhanced bio-remediation include surface soils contaminated with PCBs and pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) contamination in both the vadose zone and groundwater. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been selected as the preferred alternative for groundwater clean up at several SRS waste units. Successful implementation of MNA has been based on demonstration that sources have been controlled, groundwater modeling that indicates that plumes will not expand or reach surface water discharge points at levels that exceed regulatory limits, and continued monitoring. Phytoremediation is being successfully utilized at several SRS waste units. Phytoremediation involves using plants and vegetation to uptake, break down, or manage contaminants in groundwater or soils. Case studies at SRS include managing groundwater plumes of tritium and VOCs with pine trees that are native to the area. Significant decreases in tritium discharge to a site stream have been realized in one phytoremediation project. Studies of other vegetation types, methods of application, and other target contaminants are

  4. Water as a Reagent for Soil Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaweera, Indira S.; Marti-Perez, Montserrat; Diaz-Ferrero, Jordi; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2003-03-06

    SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, for remediating petroleum-contaminated soils. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise, and the implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and provide a standalone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.

  5. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shanklin

    2006-06-01

    This Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for defining the remedial design requirements, preparing the design documentation, and defining the remedial actions for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the design developed to support the remediation and disposal activities selected in the Final Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision.

  6. Evaluating remedial alternatives for an acid mine drainage stream: Application of a reactive transport model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    A reactive transport model based on one-dimensional transport and equilibrium chemistry is applied to synoptic data from an acid mine drainage stream. Model inputs include streamflow estimates based on tracer dilution, inflow chemistry based on synoptic sampling, and equilibrium constants describing acid/base, complexation, precipitation/dissolution, and sorption reactions. The dominant features of observed spatial profiles in pH and metal concentration are reproduced along the 3.5-km study reach by simulating the precipitation of Fe(III) and Al solid phases and the sorption of Cu, As, and Pb onto freshly precipitated iron-(III) oxides. Given this quantitative description of existing conditions, additional simulations are conducted to estimate the streamwater quality that could result from two hypothetical remediation plans. Both remediation plans involve the addition of CaCO3 to raise the pH of a small, acidic inflow from ???2.4 to ???7.0. This pH increase results in a reduced metal load that is routed downstream by the reactive transport model, thereby providing an estimate of post-remediation water quality. The first remediation plan assumes a closed system wherein inflow Fe(II) is not oxidized by the treatment system; under the second remediation plan, an open system is assumed, and Fe(II) is oxidized within the treatment system. Both plans increase instream pH and substantially reduce total and dissolved concentrations of Al, As, Cu, and Fe(II+III) at the terminus of the study reach. Dissolved Pb concentrations are reduced by ???18% under the first remediation plan due to sorption onto iron-(III) oxides within the treatment system and stream channel. In contrast, iron(III) oxides are limiting under the second remediation plan, and removal of dissolved Pb occurs primarily within the treatment system. This limitation results in an increase in dissolved Pb concentrations over existing conditions as additional downstream sources of Pb are not attenuated by

  7. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Organics and Radionuclides - An Innovative Approach Eases Traditional Hurdles

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.; Case, N.; Coltman, K.

    2003-02-25

    Traditional approaches to the remediation of contaminated groundwater, such as pump-and-treat, have been used for many years for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with various organics. However the treatment of groundwater contaminated with organics and radionuclides has been considerably more challenging. Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) was recently faced with these challenges while designing a remediation system for the remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater and soil at the RMI Extrusion Plant in Ashtabula, OH. Under contract with RMI Environmental Services (RMIES), SEC teamed with Regenesis, Inc. to design, implement, and execute a bioremediation system to remove TCE and associated organics from groundwater and soil that was also contaminated with uranium and technetium. The SEC-Regenesis system involved the injection of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC), a natural attenuation accelerant that has been patented, designed, and produced by Regenesis, to stimulate the reductive dechlorination and remediation of chlorinated organics in subsurface environments. The compound was injected using direct-push Geoprobe rods over a specially designed grid system through the zone of contaminated groundwater. The innovative approach eliminated the need to extract contaminated groundwater and bypassed the restrictive limitations listed above. The system has been in operation for roughly six months and has begun to show considerable success at dechlorinating and remediating the TCE plume and in reducing the radionuclides into insoluble precipitants. The paper will provide an overview of the design, installation, and initial operation phase of the project, focusing on how traditional design challenges of remediating radiologically contaminated groundwater were overcome. The following topics will be specifically covered: a description of the mechanics of the HRC technology; an assessment of the applicability of the HRC technology to contaminated groundwater plumes

  8. The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Song, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Qiu, Guang-Lei

    2009-01-30

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide problem through disturbing the normal functions of rivers and lakes. Sediment, as the largest storage and resources of heavy metal, plays a rather important role in metal transformations. This paper provides a review on the geochemical forms, affecting factors and remediation technologies of heavy metal in sediment. The in situ remediation of sediment aims at increasing the stabilization of some metals such as the mobile and the exchangeable fractions; whereas, the ex situ remediation mainly aims at removing those potentially mobile metals, such as the Mn-oxides and the organic matter (OM) fraction. The pH and OM can directly change metals distribution in sediment; however oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), mainly through changing the pH values, indirectly alters metals distribution. Mainly ascribed to their simple operation mode, low costs and fast remediation effects, in situ remediation technologies, especially being fit for slight pollution sediment, are applied widely. However, for avoiding metal secondary pollution from sediment release, ex situ remediation should be the hot point in future research. PMID:18547718

  9. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords.

  10. California seeks new technologies for site remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    Innovative new technologies for site remediation will be sought by the California Department of Health Services (Department), Toxic Substances Control Division, Alternative Technology Section, for assessment in the field as full-scale demonstration projects. The Remedial Technology Assessment Program (RTAP) fosters emerging technologies, which have been successfully tested in the laboratory, at bench scale, or at pilot scale and are ready for field or full-scale demonstration project testing. The Department will solicit interest from companies to conduct full-scale demonstrations of remedial treatment technologies for site remediation. The solicitation responses will be used to compile a list of treatment technologies which can be considered during the Remedial Action Plan (RAP) process for implementation at State-lead Bond Expenditure Plan sites and possibly responsible party sites. RTAP will attempt to match submitted remedial technologies to specific hazardous waste sites via the RAP process. A technical report, including an evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility, will be prepared after each demonstration project.

  11. Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity.

  12. WATER AS A REAGENT FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Indira S. Jayaweera; Montserrat Marti-Perez; Jordi Diaz-Ferrero; Angel Sanjurjo

    2001-03-29

    SRI International is conducting experiments to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology or hot water extraction (HWE) technology for remediating petroleum-contaminated soils. Most current remediation practices either fail to remove the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in petroleum-contaminated sites, are too costly, or require the use of organic solvents at the expense of additional contamination and with the added cost of recycling solvents. Hydrothermal extraction offers the promise of efficiently extracting PAHs and other kinds of organics from contaminated soils at moderate temperatures and pressures, using only water and inorganic salts such as carbonate. SRI has conducted experiments to measure the solubility and rate of solubilization of selected PAHs (fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, 9,10-dimethylanthracene) in water using SRI's hydrothermal optical cell with the addition of varying amounts of sodium carbonate to evaluate the efficiency of the technology for removing PAHs from the soil. SRI data shows a very rapid increase in solubility of PAHs with increase in temperature in the range 25-275 C. SRI also measured the rate of solubilization, which is a key factor in determining the reactor parameters. SRI results for fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, and 9,10-dimethylanthracene show a linear relationship between rate of solubilization and equilibrium solubility. Also, we have found the rate of solubilization of pyrene at 275 C to be 6.5 ppm/s, indicating that the equilibrium solubilization will be reached in less than 3 min at 275 C; equilibrium solubility of pyrene at 275 C is 1000 ppm. Also, pyrene and fluoranthene appear to have higher solubilities in the presence of sodium carbonate. In addition to this study, SRI studied the rate of removal of selected PAHs from spiked samples under varying conditions (temperature, pore sizes, and pH). We have found a higher removal of PAHs in the presence of sodium carbonate in both sand and

  13. Overview of Green and Sustainable Remediation for Soil and Groundwater Remediation - 12545

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkin, Thomas J.; Favara, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Making remediation efforts more 'sustainable' or 'green' is a topic of great interest in the remediation community. It has been spurred on by Executive Orders from the White House, as well as Department of Energy (DOE) sustainability plans. In private industry, it is motivated by corporate sustainability goals and corporate social responsibility. It has spawned new organizations, areas of discussion, tools and practices, and guidance documents around sustainable remediation or green remediation. Green remediation can be thought of as a subset of sustainable remediation and is mostly focused on reducing the environmental footprint of cleanup efforts. Sustainable remediation includes both social and economic considerations, in addition to environmental. Application of both green and sustainable remediation (GSR) may involve two primary activities. The first is to develop technologies and alternatives that are greener or more sustainable. This can also include making existing remediation approaches greener or more sustainable. The second is to include GSR criteria in the evaluation of remediation alternatives and strategies. In other words, to include these GSR criteria in the evaluation of alternatives in a feasibility study. In some cases, regulatory frameworks allow the flexibility to include GSR criteria into the evaluation process (e.g., state cleanup programs). In other cases, regulations allow less flexibility to include the evaluation of GSR criteria (e.g., Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)). New regulatory guidance and tools will be required to include these criteria in typical feasibility studies. GSR provides a number of challenges for remediation professionals performing soil and groundwater remediation projects. Probably the most significant is just trying to stay on top of the ever changing landscape of products, tools, and guidance documents coming out of various groups, the US EPA, and states. However, this

  14. Proposed remedies for some developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Khadiga S; El-Sayed, Eman M

    2013-05-01

    Developmental disorders (DDs) are important leading cause of disability in developed countries and also in the United States. DDs are a group of individual conditions that result from abnormal nervous system development and cause altered function. They can begin at any time from prenatal to 22 years of age and the disability usually presents itself throughout a person's life time. Down syndrome, autism, neural tube defects, schizophrenia, cretinism, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are among the most common DDs that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates. Their occurrence may be partially attributable to the lack of certain dietary nutrients. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and ω-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population of America and developed countries and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Typically, most of these disorders are treated with prescription drugs, but many of these drugs cause unwanted side effects. Therefore, psychiatrists recommend alternative or complementary nutritional remedies to overcome the adverse effects of those drugs. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients, such as that contain amino acids, often effectively reduce symptoms of the patients, because they are converted into neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. The aim of this article is to discuss the role of dietary imbalances in the incidence of DD and to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid in the treatment of the above-mentioned DD. PMID:22301819

  15. Toxic industrial deposit remediation by ant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilkova, Veronika; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Toxic industrial deposits are often contaminated by heavy metals and the substrates have low pH values. In such systems, soil development is thus slowed down by high toxicity and acidic conditions which are unfavourable to soil fauna. Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) are considered tolerant to heavy metal pollution and are known to increase organic matter content and microbial activity in their nests. Here, we focused on soil remediation caused by three ant species (Formica sanguinea, Lasius niger, and Tetramorium sp.) in an ore-washery sedimentation basin near Chvaletice (Czech Republic). Soil samples were taken from the centre of ant nests and from the nest surroundings (>3 m from nests). Samples were then analyzed for microbial activity and biomass and contents of organic matter and nutrients. As a result, ant species that most influenced soil properties was F. sanguinea as there were higher microbial activity and total nitrogen and ammonia contents in ant nests than in the surrounding soil. We expected such a result because F. sanguinea builds conspicuous large nests and is a carnivorous species that brings substantial amounts of nitrogen in insect prey to their nests. Effects of the other two ant species might be lower because of smaller nests and different feeding habits as they rely mainly on honeydew from aphids or on plant seeds that do not contain much nutrients.

  16. Remediating biofouling of reverse osmosis membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, J.L.

    1991-10-22

    Several potential additives and the use of influent pH adjustment were examined to remediated the biofouling problem of the ETF reverse osmosis (RO) system. Tests were conducted with simulated RO feed containing salt, metal hydroxides and bacteria. The addition of sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium bisulfite, and adjusting the influent pH to 3 were each successful in reducing the RO biofouling. Little or no benefit was found from the use of a biofilm remover (Filmtec Alkaline Cleaner) or the use of surfactants (Surfynol or sodium lauryl sulfate). In addition, Surfynol use resulted in irreversible fouling and necessitated membrane replacement. At the water recoveries used in the ETF (>90%), sodium bisulfite addition resulted in the recovery of 70--90% of the flux and almost complete restoration of the DF to prefouled conditions. Based on the bench-scale tests completed, IWT would recommend that sodium bisulfite addition be tested at the ETF. This testing would involve optimizing the amount of bisulfite required. In addition, it is recommended that the addition of SHMP or influent pH adjustment be evaluated since the relative differences in labscale tests were small and scale-up effects could be present. The ETF operating permit allows each to be added.

  17. Site remediation in a virtual environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, W.; Jacobsen, J.; Holland, P.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the process used in combining an existing computer simulation with both Virtual Reality (VR) input and output devices, and conventional visualization tools, so as to make the simulation easier to use and the results easier to understand. VR input technology facilitates direct user manipulation of three dimensional simulation parameters. Commercially available visualization tools provide a flexible environment for representing abstract scientific data. VR output technology provides a more flexible and convincing way to view the visualization results than is afforded in contemporary visualization software. The desired goal of this process is a prototype system that minimizes man-machine interface barriers, as well as enhanced control over the simulation itself, so as to maximize the use of scientific judgement and intuition. In environmental remediation, the goal is to clean up contaminants either by removing them or rendering them non-toxic. A computer model simulates water or chemical flooding to mobilize and extract hydrocarbon contaminants from a volume of saturated soil/rock. Several wells are drilled in the vicinity of the contaminant, water and/or chemicals are injected into some of the wells, and fluid containing the mobilized hydrocarbons is pumped out of the remaining wells. The user is tasked with finding well locations and pumping rates that maximize recovery of the contaminants while minimizing drilling and pumping costs to clean up the site of interest.

  18. Characterization of Uranium Contamination, Transport, and Remediation at Rocky Flats - Across Remediation into Post-Closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecky, D. R.; Boylan, J.; Murrell, M. T.

    2009-12-01

    The Rocky Flats Site is a former nuclear weapons production facility approximately 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado. Built in 1952 and operated by the Atomic Energy Commission and then Department of Energy, the Site was remediated and closed in 2005, and is currently undergoing long-term surveillance and monitoring by the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Areas of contamination resulted from roughly fifty years of operation. Of greatest interest, surface soils were contaminated with plutonium, americium, and uranium; groundwater was contaminated with chlorinated solvents, uranium, and nitrates; and surface waters, as recipients of runoff and shallow groundwater discharge, have been contaminated by transport from both regimes. A region of economic mineralization that has been referred to as the Colorado Mineral Belt is nearby, and the Schwartzwalder uranium mine is approximately five miles upgradient of the Site. Background uranium concentrations are therefore elevated in many areas. Weapons-related activities included work with enriched and depleted uranium, contributing anthropogenic content to the environment. Using high-resolution isotopic analyses, Site-related contamination can be distinguished from natural uranium in water samples. This has been instrumental in defining remedy components, and long-term monitoring and surveillance strategies. Rocky Flats hydrology interlinks surface waters and shallow groundwater (which is very limited in volume and vertical and horizontal extent). Surface water transport pathways include several streams, constructed ponds, and facility surfaces. Shallow groundwater has no demonstrated connection to deep aquifers, and includes natural preferential pathways resulting primarily from porosity in the Rocky Flats alluvium, weathered bedrock, and discontinuous sandstones. In addition, building footings, drains, trenches, and remedial systems provide pathways for transport at the site. Removal of impermeable surfaces (buildings

  19. Space Debris Environent Remediation Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkrad, H.; Johnson, N. L.

    2009-03-01

    Long-term projections of the space debris environment indicate that even drastic measures, such as an immediate, complete halt of launch and release activities, will not result in a stable environment of man-made space objects. Collision events between already existing space hardware will within a few decades start to dominate the debris population, and result in a net increase of the space debris population, also at sizes which may cause further catastrophic collisions. A collisional cascading may ultimately lead to a run-away situation ("Kessler syndrome"), with no further possibility of human intervention.The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) has been investigating the status and the stability of the space debris environment in several studies by first looking into space traffic management possibilities, and then investigating means of mitigating the creation of space debris. In an on-going activity, an IAA study group looks into methods of active space debris environment remediation. In contrast to the former mitigation study, the current activity concentrates on the active removal of large objects, such as defunct spacecraft, orbital stages, and mission-related objects, which serve as a latent mass reservoir that fuels initial castastrophic collisions and later collisional cascading. The paper will outline different mass removal concepts, e.g. based on directed energy, tethers (momentum exchange or electro-dynamic), aerodynamic drag augmentation, solar sails, auxiliary propulsion units, retarding surfaces, or on-orbit capture. Apart from physical principles of the proposed concepts, their applicability to different orbital regimes, and their effectiveness concerning mass removal efficiency will be discussed.

  20. Magnetic separation for environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Schake, A.R.; Avens, L.R.; Hill, D.D.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Romero, D.A.; Worl, L.A.; Tolt, T.L.

    1994-11-01

    High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a form of magnetic separation used to separate solids from other solids, liquids or gases. HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles from diamagnetic host materials. The technology relies only on physical properties, and therefore separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Actinide and fission product wastes within the DOE weapons complex pose challenging problems for environmental remediation. Because the majority of actinide complexes and many fission products are paramagnetic, while most host materials are diamagnetic, HGMS can be used to concentrate the contaminants into a low volume waste stream. The authors are currently developing HGMS for applications to soil decontamination, liquid waste treatment, underground storage tank waste treatment, and actinide chemical processing residue concentration. Application of HGMS usually involves passing a slurry of the contaminated mixture through a magnetized volume. Field gradients are produced in the magnetized volume by a ferromagnetic matrix material, such as steel wool, expanded metal, iron shot, or nickel foam. The matrix fibers become trapping sites for ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles in the host material. The particles with a positive susceptibility are attracted toward an increasing magnetic field gradient and can be extracted from diamagnetic particles, which react in the opposite direction, moving away from the areas of high field gradients. The extracted paramagnetic contaminants are flushed from the matrix fibers when the magnetic field is reduced to zero or when the matrix canister is removed from the magnetic field. Results are discussed for the removal of uranium trioxide from water, PuO{sub 2}, U, and Pu from various soils (Fernald, Nevada Test Site), and the waste water treatment of Pu and Am isotopes using HGMS.