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Sample records for ace detection kit

  1. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  2. ACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumia, R.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the progress made during the fourth year of the Center for Autonomous Control Engineering (ACE). We currently support 30 graduate students, 52 undergraduate students, 9 faculty members, and 4 staff members. Progress will be divided into two categories. The first category explores progress for ACE in general. The second describes the results of each specific project supported within ACE.

  3. ACE: Detecting Volatile Organic Compounds from Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.; Allen, Nicholas D. C.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution infrared absorption cross sections for ethane, propane (both in the 3 μm region) and acetone (in the 3 μm and 5-8 μm regions) have been determined from spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125/HR). Data are presented for mixtures with dry synthetic air at 0.015 cm-1 resolution (calculated as 0.9/MOPD using the Bruker definition of resolution), at a number of temperatures and pressures appropriate for atmospheric conditions. Intensities were calibrated using spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database. Methane measurements are currently being performed in the 3 μm region in order to retrieve line mixing parameters, which will be used in an improved ACE forward model to minimize CH4 residuals in the retrievals of organic species. Preliminary retrievals of acetone from ACE spectra using a microwindow from 1364.7 to 1367.1 cm-1 have been performed.

  4. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection

    SciTech Connect

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue.

  5. Hyperspectral Detection and Discrimination Using the ACE Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-08

    08-2011 Proceedings AUG 2011 - SEPT 2011 Hyperspectral Detection and Discrimination Using the ACE Algorithm FA8720-05-C-0002 M. L. Pieper , D...relative to the background. If an object spectrum has a close resemblance to its surroundings, it will Correspondence to M. L. Pieper E-mail: mpieper

  6. Adult Competency Education Kit. Basic Skills in Speaking, Math, and Reading for Employment. Part H. ACE Competency Based Job Descriptions: #25--Household Appliance Mechanic; #26--Lineworker; #27--Painter Helper, Spray; #28--Painter, Brush; #29--Carpenter Apprentice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. Career Preparation Centers.

    This fifth of fifteen sets of Adult Competency Education (ACE) Competency Based Job Descriptions in the ACE kit contains job descriptions for Household Appliance Mechanic; Lineworker; Painter Helper, Spray; Painter, Brush; and Carpenter Apprentice. Each begins with a fact sheet that includes this information: occupational title, D.O.T. code, ACE…

  7. Detection of hazelnuts and almonds using commercial ELISA test kits.

    PubMed

    Garber, Eric A E; Perry, Jesse

    2010-03-01

    Three commercial sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kits for the detection of hazelnuts and almonds were evaluated. Limits of detection and dynamic ranges were determined for hazelnuts and almonds spiked into cooked oatmeal, dipping chocolate, and muffins (baked). The limit of detection values varied from 1 to 38 μg/g, depending on the food matrix and ELISA test kit. Percent recoveries based on the standards supplied with the test kits varied from 10% to 170%. It is impossible to ascertain whether the percent recoveries reflect the performance of the ELISAs or differences between the protein content of the nuts used to spike the samples and the test kit standards. Unfortunately, reference materials do not exist that can be used to compare the results from different test kits and standardize the test kit standards. Also, insufficient knowledge regarding the epitope specificity of the antibodies used in the ELISAs further hinders interpretation of the results generated by the different test kits.

  8. Evaluation of antigen detection kits for diagnosis of equine influenza.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takashi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio

    2008-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated whether five rapid antigen detection kits for human influenza could be used for the diagnosis of equine influenza (EI). Limiting dilution analyses showed that Directigen Flu A+B and ESPLINE INFLUENZA A&B-N had the highest sensitivities to equine-2 influenza viruses (EIVs) among the kits investigated. From the results of virus detection in nasal swabs taken from horses infected with EIV, these two kits could produce positive results in reasonable agreement with those obtained by virus isolation or RT-PCR, suggesting that these kits could be useful for rapid diagnosis of EI in the field. However, from the viewpoint of specificity for EIV, Espline seems to be superior to Directigen.

  9. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    DOEpatents

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  10. Foodproof Salmonella Detection Kit. Performance Tested Method 120301.

    PubMed

    Lindhardt, Charlotte; Schönenbrücher, Holger; Slaghuis, Jörg; Bubert, Andreas; Ossmer, Rolf; Junge, Benjamin; Berghof-Jäger, Kornelia

    2009-01-01

    The foodproof Salmonella Detection Kit was previously validated in the Performance Tested Methods program for the detection of Salmonella species in a variety of foods, including milk powder, egg powder, coconut, cocoa powder, chicken breast, minced meat, sliced sausage, sausage, smoked fish, pasta, white pepper, cumin, dough, wet pet food, dry pet food, ice cream, watermelon, sliced cabbage, food dye, and milk chocolate. The method was shown to be equivalent to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service's Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference culture procedures. In the first Emergency Response Validation (ERV) extension study, peanut butter was inoculated with S. enterica. ser Typhimurium. For the low inoculation level (1.08 CFU/25 g), a Chi-square value of 2.25 indicated that there was no significant performance difference between the foodproof Salmonella Detection Kit and the FDA-BAM reference method. For high-level inoculation (11.5 CFU/25 g) and uninoculated control, there was 100% agreement between the methods. In the second ERV extension study, peanut butter was inoculated with S. enterica. ser Typhimurium. For both inoculation levels (0.1 and 0.5 CFU/25 g by most probable number), Chi-square values of 0 indicated that there was no significant performance difference between foodproof Salmonella Detection Kit and the FDA-BAM reference method.

  11. Evaluation of a new ELISA kit for the detection of benzodiazepines in meconium.

    PubMed

    Marin, Stephanie J; Keith, Lindsay; Merrell, Miles; McMillin, Gwendolyn A

    2009-04-01

    Two versions of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits designed for the detection of benzodiazepine drugs and metabolites (Immunalysis) were evaluated for use with meconium specimens. One was an older kit, and one was a new replacement kit developed for better detection of several commonly prescribed benzodiazepines and metabolites. The kits were evaluated by analyzing 68 patient specimens previously analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and eight quality control samples. In addition to the recommended calibrator (oxazepam), clonazepam was evaluated as an alternate calibrator for the new kit. Detection and sensitivity for some analytes was improved using the new ELISA kit, but was reduced for others. The new kit using clonazepam as the calibrator provided the most sensitive assay for detection of the 11 benzodiazepines and metabolites reported here.

  12. Kit for detecting nucleic acid sequences using competitive hybridization probes

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    2001-01-01

    A kit is provided for detecting a target nucleic acid sequence in a sample, the kit comprising: a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a first portion of the target sequence, the first hybridization probe including a first complexing agent for forming a binding pair with a second complexing agent; and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a second portion of the target sequence to which the first hybridization probe does not selectively hybridize, the second hybridization probe including a detectable marker; a third hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a first portion of the target sequence, the third hybridization probe including the same detectable marker as the second hybridization probe; and a fourth hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a second portion of the target sequence to which the third hybridization probe does not selectively hybridize, the fourth hybridization probe including the first complexing agent for forming a binding pair with the second complexing agent; wherein the first and second hybridization probes are capable of simultaneously hybridizing to the target sequence and the third and fourth hybridization probes are capable of simultaneously hybridizing to the target sequence, the detectable marker is not present on the first or fourth hybridization probes and the first, second, third, and fourth hybridization probes each include a competitive nucleic acid sequence which is sufficiently complementary to a third portion of the target sequence that the competitive sequences of the first, second, third, and fourth hybridization probes compete with each other to hybridize to the third portion of the

  13. BIOTECON diagnostics foodproof Listeria monocytogenes Detection Kit, 5' nuclease in combination with the foodproof ShortPrep II Kit.

    PubMed

    Junge, Benjamin; Grönewald, Cordt; Berghof-Jäger, Kornelia

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food. The method is based on real-time PCR using hydrolysis probes (5' Nuclease). This advanced PCR method was designed to reduce the time necessary to achieve results from PCR reactions and to enable the user to monitor the amplification of the PCR product simultaneously, in real-time. After DNA isolation using the BIOTECON foodproof ShortPrep II Kit designed for the rapid preparation of L. monocytogenes DNA for direct use in PCR, the real-time detection of L. monocytogenes DNA is carried out using the foodproof Listeria monocytogenes Detection Kit. The kit provides primers and hydrolysis probes for sequence-specific detection, convenient premixed reagents, and controls for reliable interpretation of results. For the internal comparison study, three different foods (soft cheese, coalfish, and smoked ham) were analyzed, chosen from the 15 food groups recommended by the AOAC Research Institute for detection of L. monocytogenes. From each food, 20 samples were inoculated with a low level (1-10 CFU/25 g) and 20 samples with a high level (10-50 CFU/25 g) of L. monocytogenes. Additionally, five nonspiked samples were prepared from each food. Depending on the matrix, the food samples were examined with the test kits and compared with the cultural methods according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual or the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook.

  14. Use of home test kits for detection of lead and cadmium in ceramic dinnerware.

    PubMed

    Sheets, R W

    1998-08-12

    Commercial home test kits are advertised as a convenient means for assessing heavy metal hazards in old ceramic dinnerware. This paper reports investigations carried out with four commercial kits for detection of lead (Pb) and one for detection of cadmium (Cd) on pre-1970s ceramic dishes subsequently subjected to 24-h leaching tests with 4% acetic acid to determine heavy metal release. With the lead kits, fewer than 10% of dishes leaching greater than 3.0 micrograms Pb/ml yielded negative results (i.e. false negatives). When the cadmium kit was used according to manufacturer's instructions, 29% of dishes leaching greater than 0.5 microgram Cd/ml yielded false negatives. Home lead test kits appear to be useful for screening of old dinnerware, but the cadmium kit may not be suitable for this purpose.

  15. Low-cost field test kits for arsenic detection in water.

    PubMed

    Das, Joyati; Sarkar, Priyabrata; Panda, Jigisha; Pal, Priyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic, a common contaminant of groundwater, affects human health adversely. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the maximum recommended contamination level of arsenic in drinking water is 10 μg/L. The purpose of this research was to develop user-friendly kits for detection of arsenic to measure at least up to 10 μg/L in drinking water, so that a preventive measure could be taken. Two different kits for detection of total arsenic in water are reported here. First, the arsenic in drinking water was converted to arsine gas by a strong reducing agent. The arsine produced was then detected by paper strips via generation of color due to reaction with either mercuric bromide (KIT-1) or silver nitrate (KIT-2). These were previously immobilized on the detector strip. The first one gave a yellow color and the second one grey. Both of these kits could detect arsenic contamination within a range of 10 μg/L-250 μg/L. The detection time for both the kits was only 7 min. The kits exhibited excellent performance compared to other kits available in the market with respect to detection time, ease of operation, cost and could be easily handled by a layman. The field trials with these kits gave very satisfactory results. A study on interference revealed that these kits could be used in the presence of 24 common ions present in the arsenic contaminated water. Though the kits were meant for qualitative assay, the results with unknown concentrations of real samples, when compared with atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) were in good agreement as revealed by the t-test.

  16. Performances of Four Helicobacter pylori Serological Detection Kits Using Stool Antigen Test as Gold Standard

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to determine the performances of four Helicobacter pylori serological detection kits in different target groups, using Amplified IDEIA™ Hp StAR™ as gold standard. Kits studied were Rapid Immunochromatoghraphic Hexagon, Helicoblot 2.1, an EIA IgG kit and EIA IgA kit. Methods: Stool and blood samples were collected from 162 apparently healthy participants (control) and 60 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Results: The performances of the four serological detection kits were found to be affected by gender, age, health status and ethnicity of the participants. In the control group, the Helicoblot 2.1 kit had the best performance (AUC = 0.85; p<0.05, accuracy = 86.4%), followed by EIA IgG (AUC = 0.75; p<0.05, accuracy = 75.2%). The Rapid Hexagon and EIA IgA kits had relatively poor performances. In the T2DM subgroup, the kits H2.1 and EIA IgG had best performances, with accuracies of 96.5% and 93.1% respectively. The performance of EIA IgG improved with adjustment of its cut-off value. Conclusion: The performances of the detection kits were affected by various factors which should be taken into consideration. PMID:27736910

  17. [Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA Kit for the detection of antidobies to Junin virus].

    PubMed

    Pirozhkov, A P; Timofeev, M A; Borisevich, I V; Syromiatnikova, S I; Shatokhina, I V; Pantyukhov, V B; Kovalchuk, A V; Borisevich, S V

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to describe methodological approaches to determination of sensitivity and specificity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (ELISA Kit) for detection of the specific anti-Junin virus (JV) antibody. Comparison of ELISA to plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) showed direct relationship between antibody titers in the samples of serum of immunized animals, determined by either PRNT or ELISA methods. The obtained results provided an opportunity to form the panels of positive and negative serum samples to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA Kit. Sensitivity of the ELISA Kit was at least 98% when studying the samples of serum of immunized guinea pigs and rabbits (determined as positive in PRNT). The sensitivity of the ELISA Kit was at least 68% when studying the samples determined by PNRT as uncertain positive. The specificity was 98%. The specificity of the ELISA Kit was 98%.

  18. Comparative evaluation of the WHO and DAKOPATTS enzyme-linked immunoassay kits for rotavirus detection.

    PubMed Central

    Flewett, T. H.; Arias, C. F.; Avendano, L. F.; Ghafoor, A.; Mathan, M. M.; Mendis, L.; Moe, K.; Bishop, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    Faeces obtained from 1,163 children (including 66 newborn babies) were analysed in parallel for the presence of rotavirus particles using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The kits had been formulated by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rotavirus (WHO-ELISA kit) and by DAKOPATTS (DAKO-ELISA kit) to be suitable for use in laboratories in developing countries. The kits were evaluated in laboratories in Burma, Chile, India, Mexico, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. Comparison of the results obtained with the two kits indicated that the DAKO-ELISA had an overall sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 97% relative to the WHO-ELISA. In individual laboratories the DAKO-ELISA (K349) kit had a sensitivity in the range 90-100%, and a specificity of 85-100%. The kit showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98% in assays on faeces obtained from newborn babies. We conclude that the DAKO-ELISA is as sensitive and specific as the WHO-ELISA for the detection of rotavirus antigen in faeces. PMID:2680139

  19. Comparison of Binax Legionella Urinary Antigen EIA kit with Binax RIA Urinary Antigen kit for detection of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Hackman, B A; Plouffe, J F; Benson, R F; Fields, B S; Breiman, R F

    1996-01-01

    The Legionella Urinary Antigen EIA kit (Binax, Portland, Maine) was compared with the EQUATE RIA Legionella Urinary Antigen kit (Binax) for its ability to detect the presence of urinary antigens to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Urine specimens from patients without Legionnaires' disease (n = 33) were negative by both methods (specificity, 100%). Twenty (77%) of 26 urine specimens from patients with Legionnaires' disease positive by the radioimmunoassay kit were also positive by the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. If the cutoff for a positive EIA result were lowered to a ration of > or = 2.5, 23 of 26 (88%) urine specimens would have been positive by EIA and the specificity would remain 100%. Use of the EIA kit is an acceptable method for detecting L. pneumophila serogroup 1 urinary antigens by laboratories that do not want to handle radioactive materials. PMID:8735125

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of a commercial BSE kit for the detection of ovine scrapie.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takuji; Ushiki-Kaku, Yuko; Yokoyama, Takashi; Hattori, Shunji

    2013-06-01

    To examine the sensitivity of a commercially available bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) kit (NippIBL) for the detection of ovine scrapie, 50 scrapie-positive ovine samples from the UK, and 54 scrapie-negative ovine samples from Japan were obtain and tested using this kit. The sensitivity and specificity of NippIBL for ovine samples were 96% and 100%, respectively. The detection limit of the abnormal isoform of prion protein (PrP(Sc) ) of NippIBL was examined using diluted scrapie-positive samples. The sensitivity of NippIBL to ovine scrapie was 3-10 times superior to that of another commercial BSE diagnosis kit. Thus, the NippIBL kit proved more effective for the detection of ovine scrapie.

  1. [Application of DNA extraction kit, 'GM quicker' for detection of genetically modified soybeans].

    PubMed

    Sato, Noriko; Sugiura, Yoshitsugu; Tanaka, Toshitsugu

    2012-01-01

    Several DNA extraction methods have been officially introduced to detect genetically modified soybeans, but the choice of DNA extraction kits depend on the nature of the samples, such as grains or processed foods. To overcome this disadvantage, we examined whether the GM quicker kit is available for both grains and processed foods. We compared GM quicker with four approved DNA extraction kits in respect of DNA purity, copy numbers of lectin gene, and working time. We found that the DNA quality of GM quicker was superior to that of the other kits for grains, and the procedure was faster. However, in the case of processed foods, GM quicker was not superior to the other kits. We therefore investigated an unapproved GM quicker 3 kit, which is available for DNA extraction from processed foods, such as tofu and boiled soybeans. The GM quicker 3 kit provided good DNA quality from both grains and processed foods, so we made a minor modification of the GM quicker-based protocol that was suitable for processed foods, using GM quicker and its reagents. The modified method enhanced the performance of GM quicker with processed foods. We believe that GM quicker with the modified protocol is an excellent tool to obtain high-quality DNA from grains and processed foods for detection of genetically modified soybeans.

  2. Comparison of DNA extraction kits for detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in spiked human whole blood using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Podnecky, Nicole L; Elrod, Mindy G; Newton, Bruce R; Dauphin, Leslie A; Shi, Jianrong; Chawalchitiporn, Sutthinan; Baggett, Henry C; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Gee, Jay E

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia and can cause severe septicemia that may lead to death in 20% to 50% of cases. Rapid detection of B. pseudomallei infection is crucial for timely treatment of septic patients. This study evaluated seven commercially available DNA extraction kits to determine the relative recovery of B. pseudomallei DNA from spiked EDTA-containing human whole blood. The evaluation included three manual kits: the QIAamp DNA Mini kit, the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit, and the High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit; and four automated systems: the MagNAPure LC using the DNA Isolation Kit I, the MagNAPure Compact using the Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I, and the QIAcube using the QIAamp DNA Mini kit and the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit. Detection of B. pseudomallei DNA extracted by each kit was performed using the B. pseudomallei specific type III secretion real-time PCR (TTS1) assay. Crossing threshold (C T ) values were used to compare the limit of detection and reproducibility of each kit. This study also compared the DNA concentrations and DNA purity yielded for each kit. The following kits consistently yielded DNA that produced a detectable signal from blood spiked with 5.5×10(4) colony forming units per mL: the High Pure PCR Template Preparation, QIAamp DNA Mini, MagNA Pure Compact, and the QIAcube running the QIAamp DNA Mini and QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kits. The High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit yielded the lowest limit of detection with spiked blood, but when this kit was used with blood from patients with confirmed cases of melioidosis, the bacteria was not reliably detected indicating blood may not be an optimal specimen.

  3. An ELISA kit with two detection modes for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Wongkamchai, S; Satimai, W; Loymek, S; Nochot, H; Boitano, J J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a low-cost antifilarial immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 detection kit for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis. The kit was designed to be used by minimally trained personnel without the constraints of expensive laboratory equipment. We provide a description of the development and validation of a single-serum-dilution based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit with ready-to-use reagents for measuring antifilarial IgG4 antibodies. The kit was tested on residents in Brugia malayi-endemic areas in southern Thailand. Detection was performed by naked-eye observation of the resultant colour of the immunological reactivity. The coefficient of variation (CV) was used to assess the reproducibility of the results. Long-term stability was measured over a 6-month period. Sensitivity of the test kit was 97% when compared with microfilariae detection in thick blood smears. Specificity was 98.7% based on the sera of 57 patients living outside the endemic areas who were infected with other parasites and 100 parasite-free subjects. All positive CVs were < 10%. The test kit was remarkably stable over 6 months. Field validation was performed by the detection of antifilarial IgG4 in 4365 serum samples collected from residents of brugian filariasis-endemic areas and compared with outcome colours of the test samples by the naked eye. Subsequent ELISA evaluation of these results using an ELISA reader indicated high agreement by the kappa statistic. These results demonstrate that the test kit is efficient and useful for public health laboratories as an alternative tool for the diagnosis of lymphatic filarial infection.

  4. Pregnancy diagnosis in cats using a rapid, bench-top kit to detect relaxin in urine.

    PubMed

    de Haas van Dorsser, F J; Lasano, S; Steinetz, B G

    2007-02-01

    Relaxin is a pregnancy-specific hormone in the queen and is produced by the placenta. Both serum and urinary relaxin levels can be used to diagnose and monitor pregnancy in the cat; however, only serum levels are commonly measured in practice. The present study aimed to assess whether urine could be used for the rapid diagnosis of pregnancy at an early stage in domestic cats using a bench-top kit to detect relaxin. Paired serum and urine samples were collected during the first month of gestation in six cats. The samples were tested by applying neat serum, urine or urine diluted in non-pregnant cat serum to the Witness Relaxin kit. Relaxin concentrations in the paired samples were also measured by radioimmunoassay. All undiluted urine samples from pregnant cats tested negative using the bench-top kit; however, the kit was able to detect relaxin in urine after dilution with non-pregnant cat serum. Using this as the test sample, the kit was accurate at diagnosing pregnancy from 28 days after mating and some samples tested positive at 21 days after mating. This preliminary work could lead to the development of a home pregnancy test for cats.

  5. Evaluation of RealStar Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction Kits for Filovirus Detection in the Laboratory and Field

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Toni; Kerber, Romy; El Halas, Hussein; Pallasch, Elisa; Duraffour, Sophie; Günther, Stephan; Ölschläger, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diagnosis of Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) requires laboratory testing. Methods. The RealStar Filovirus Screen reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit and the derived RealStar Zaire Ebolavirus RT-PCR kit were validated using in vitro transcripts, supernatant of infected cell cultures, and clinical specimens from patients with EVD. Results. The Filovirus Screen kit detected EBOV, Sudan virus, Taï Forest virus, Bundibugyo virus, Reston virus, and Marburg virus and differentiated between the genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus. The amount of filovirus RNA that could be detected with a probability of 95% ranged from 11 to 67 RNA copies/reaction on a LightCycler 480 II. The Zaire Ebolavirus kit is based on the Filovirus Screen kit but was optimized for detection of EBOV. It has an improved signal-to-noise ratio at low EBOV RNA concentrations and is somewhat more sensitive than the Filovirus kit. Both kits show significantly lower analytical sensitivity on a SmartCycler II. Clinical evaluation revealed that the SmartCycler II, compared with other real-time PCR platforms, decreases the clinical sensitivity of the Filovirus Screen kit to diagnose EVD at an early stage. Conclusions. The Filovirus Screen kit detects all human-pathogenic filoviruses with good analytical sensitivity if performed on an appropriate real-time PCR platform. High analytical sensitivity is important for early diagnosis of EVD. PMID:27549586

  6. Evaluation of different RNA-extraction kits for sensitive detection of hepatitis A virus in strawberry samples.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Silvia; Dal Vecchio, Anna; Vilariño, María Luz; Romalde, Jesús L

    2011-02-01

    The efficiency of different commercial RNA extraction kits for the detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) from seeded strawberry samples was assessed by standard RT-PCR and real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). The best results with standard RT-PCR were achieved with Aurum™ Total RNA extraction kit (BioRad), obtaining a detection limit of 5-6.25 pfu/mg of tissue. A slightly lower sensitivity was rendered by the RNeasy® Plant mini kit (Qiagen) (10-12.5 pfu/mg tissue), while the Total Quick RNA Cells and Tissues kit version mini (Talent) rendered a detection limit of 50-100 pfu/mg of tissue. The other tested commercial kits showed worse detection limits (>500 pfu/mg). With RT-qPCR and ten fold diluted RNA all the kits showed an increase of sensitivity, detecting the kits from Qiagen, Talent and BioRad down to 0.05 pfu/mg of strawberry homogenate. These findings indicate that the use of Aurum™ Total RNA extraction kit, with standard RT-PCR technique or RT-qPCR, can not only be labor and time saving but also helpful to improve the sensitivity for the HAV detection from fruits and to facilitate the standardization of detection methods among laboratories.

  7. [Real-time PCR kits for the detection of the African Swine Fever virus].

    PubMed

    Latyshev, O E; Eliseeva, O V; Grebennikova, T V; Verkhovskiĭ, O A; Tsibezov, V V; Chernykh, O Iu; Dzhailidi, G A; Aliper, T I

    2014-01-01

    The results obtained using the diagnostic kit based on real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the DNA of the African Swine Fever in the pathological material, as well as in the culture fluid, are presented. A high sensitivity and specificity for detection of the DNA in the organs and tissues of animals was shown to be useful for detection in the European Union referentiality reagent kits for DNA detection by real time PCR of ASFV. More rapid and effective method of DNA extraction using columns mini spin Quick gDNA(TM) MiniPrep was suggested and compared to the method of DNA isolation on the inorganic sorbent. High correlation of the results of the DNA detection of ASFV by real-time PCR and antigen detection results ASFV by competitive ELISA obtained with the ELISA SEROTEST/INGEZIM COMRAC PPA was demonstrated. The kit can be used in the veterinary services for effective monitoring of ASFV to contain, eliminate and prevent further spread of the disease.

  8. Detection of the KIT D816V mutation in peripheral blood of systemic mastocytosis: diagnostic implications.

    PubMed

    Jara-Acevedo, Maria; Teodosio, Cristina; Sanchez-Muñoz, Laura; Álvarez-Twose, Ivan; Mayado, Andrea; Caldas, Carolina; Matito, Almudena; Morgado, José M; Muñoz-González, Javier I; Escribano, Luis; Garcia-Montero, Andrés C; Orfao, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have found the KIT D816V mutation in peripheral blood of virtually all adult systemic mastocytosis patients once highly sensitive PCR techniques were used; thus, detection of the KIT D816V mutation in peripheral blood has been proposed to be included in the diagnostic work-up of systemic mastocytosis algorithms. However, the precise frequency of the mutation, the biological significance of peripheral blood-mutated cells and their potential association with involvement of bone marrow hematopoietic cells other than mast cells still remain to be investigated. Here, we determined the frequency of peripheral blood involvement by the KIT D816V mutation, as assessed by two highly sensitive PCR methods, and investigated its relationship with multilineage involvement of bone marrow hematopoiesis. Overall, our results confirmed the presence of the KIT D816V mutation in peripheral blood of most systemic mastocytosis cases (161/190; 85%)--with an increasing frequency from indolent systemic mastocytosis without skin lesions (29/44; 66%) to indolent systemic mastocytosis with skin involvement (124/135; 92%), and more aggressive disease subtypes (11/11; 100%)--as assessed by the allele-specific oligonucleotide-qPCR method, which was more sensitive (P<.0001) than the peptide nucleic acid-mediated PCR approach (84/190; 44%). Although the presence of the KIT mutation in peripheral blood, as assessed by the allele-specific oligonucleotide-qPCR technique, did not accurately predict for multilineage bone marrow involvement of hematopoiesis, the allele-specific oligonucleotide-qPCR allele burden and the peptide nucleic acid-mediated-PCR approach did. These results suggest that both methods provide clinically useful and complementary information through the identification and/or quantification of the KIT D816V mutation in peripheral blood of patients suspected of systemic mastocytosis.

  9. Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit. AOAC Performance Tested Method(SM) 021203.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Cheung, Win Den; Opdyke, Jason; Harvey, John; Chong, Songchun; Moon, Cheol Gon

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella, one of the most common causes of foodborne illness, is a significant public health concern worldwide. There is a need in the food industry for methods that are simple, rapid, and sensitive for the detection of foodborne pathogens. In this study, the Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit, a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Salmonella, was evaluated according to the current AOAC guidelines. The validation consisted of lot-to-lot consistency, stability, robustness, and inclusivity/exclusivity studies, as well as a method comparison of 10 different food matrixes. In the validation, the Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit was used in conjunction with the Applied Biosystems StepOnePlus PCR system and the Samsung Food Testing Software for the detection of Salmonella species. The performance of the assays was compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service-Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (USDA/FSIS-MLG) 4.05: Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, Pasteurized Egg, and Catfish and the and U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) Chapter 5 Salmonella reference methods. The validation was conducted using an unpaired study design for detection of Salmonella spp. in raw ground beef, raw pork, raw ground pork, raw chicken wings, raw salmon, alfalfa sprouts, pasteurized orange juice, peanut butter, pasteurized whole milk, and shell eggs. The Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit demonstrated lot-to-lot consistency among three independent lots as well as ruggedness with minor modifications to changes in enrichment incubation time, enrichment incubation temperature, and DNA sample volume for PCR reaction. Stability was observed for 13 months at -20 degrees C and 3 months at 5 degrees C. For the inclusivity/exclusivity study, the Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit correctly identified 147 Salmonella species isolates out of 147 isolates tested from each of three different enrichment

  10. SAS molecular tests Salmonella detection kit. Performance tested method 021202.

    PubMed

    Bapanpally, Chandra; Montier, Laura; Khan, Shah; Kasra, Akif; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The SAS Molecular tests Salmonella Detection method, a Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification method, performed as well as or better than the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference methods for ground beef, beef trim, ground turkey, chicken carcass rinses, bagged mixed lettuce, and fresh spinach. The ground beef (30% fat, 25 g test portion), poultry matrixes and leafy greens were validated in a 6-7 h enrichment, and ground beef (30% fat, 375 g composite test portion) and beef trim (375 g composite test portion) were validated in a 16-20 h enrichment. The method performance for meat and leafy green matrixes was shown to be acceptable under conditions of co-enrichment with Escherichia coli 0157. Thus, after a short 6-7 h co-enrichment step, ground beef, beef trim, lettuce, and spinach can be tested for both Salmonella and E. coli O157. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing revealed no false negatives and no false positives among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 30 non-Salmonella species examined. The method was shown to be robust when enrichment time, DNA extract hold time, and DNA volume were varied.

  11. Enterotoxin production by Bacillus cereus under gastrointestinal conditions and their immunological detection by commercially available kits.

    PubMed

    Ceuppens, Siele; Rajkovic, Andreja; Hamelink, Stefanie; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2012-12-01

    Currently, three commercial kits for Bacillus cereus enterotoxins Nhe and/or Hbl detection are available, namely, the Bacillus diarrheal enterotoxin visual immunoassay (BDE VIA™) kit (3M Tecra), B. cereus enterotoxin reversed passive latex agglutination (BCET-RPLA) kit (Oxoid), and the Duopath(®) Cereus Enterotoxins (Merck). The performance of the kits and their applicability to gastrointestinal simulation samples were evaluated. Then, the stability and production of enterotoxins Hbl and Nhe under gastrointestinal conditions were investigated. Enterotoxin production was absent or impaired at acidic pH, i.e., in gastric medium with pH 5.0 and lasagne verde with pH 5.5. B. cereus did produce enterotoxins Nhe and Hbl during anaerobic growth in intestinal medium at pH 7.0, but the toxins were instantly degraded by the enzymes in the host's digestive secretions. Preformed enterotoxins did not withstand gastrointestinal passage under the simulated conditions, which suggests that preformed enterotoxins in food do not contribute to the diarrheal food poisoning syndrome. In conclusion, diarrhea is probably caused by de novo enterotoxin production by B. cereus cells located closely to the host's intestinal epithelium.

  12. CHROMagar Salmonella Detection Test Kit. Performance Tested Method 020502.

    PubMed

    Webb, Katana; Ritter, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    BBL CHROMagar Salmonella was evaluated by an external food testing laboratory for the recovery of Salmonella in peanut butter using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) procedure. The peanut butter was found to be negative for the presence of Salmonella and, therefore, was seeded with heat-stressed Salmonella at target concentrations of 0.2 and 2 CFU/25 g. The Salmonella-seeded samples remained at room temperature for 14 days before analysis to stabilize the Salmonella in the food environment. Twenty 25 g test portions from each seeded level and five 25 g samples of uninoculated control samples were processed using enrichment broths as outlined in the FDA-BAM procedure. BBL CHROMagar Salmonella-prepared plates were evaluated with the FDA reference method media (bismuth sulfite, xylose lysine desoxycholate, and Hektoen enteric agars). Fractionally positive results were obtained from the lower inoculum level of peanut butter samples. Five positive cultures were recovered from both the BBL CHROMagar Salmonella and reference methods. The two methods gave identical results for all cultures resulting in a method agreement of 100%. McNemar's chi2 test, which assesses the evidence for difference in marginal proportions between two methods, could not be evaluated because it requires one or more discrepant cultures. However, because there were no discrepant cultures, the marginal proportions for the two methods were identical; therefore, there is no evidence of a difference between the methods. This study demonstrates that the results from BBL CHROMagar Salmonella are comparable to the three reference method media for the detection of Salmonella in peanut butter using the FDA-BAM procedures.

  13. False positive of an immunochromatography kit for detection of norovirus in neonatal feces.

    PubMed

    Niizuma, Takahiro; Obinata, Kaoru; Ikari, Hiromi; Kamata, Ayako; Lee, Tsubasa; Kinoshita, Keiji; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2013-02-01

    Norovirus was detected in the feces from five neonates in the growing care unit by a rapid immunochromatography (ICG) kit. However, confirmation using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), RT-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), and nested RT-PCR methods showed negative results from all the feces. In addition, the ICG test for the detection of norovirus was positive for four cases out of the 16 feces from other asymptomatic neonates/infants. Only one feces out of the four samples was positive by RT-LAMP. In this study, among the factors related to false positives with the norovirus ICG kit, there were no differences regarding the commencement of feeding, nutrition, and sample collection methods. Since the false positive rate of ICG in the diagnosis of norovirus infection in neonates and early infancy is high, ICG is not an appropriate method, and it is necessary to confirm the results using reliable methods like RT-PCR.

  14. Crystal Diagnostics Xpress S Kit for the Rapid Detection of Salmonella spp. in Selected Food Matrixes.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Brian; Stumpf, Curtis H; Zhao, Weidong; Kuzenko, Stephanie; Niehaus, Gary

    2017-03-07

    The Crystal Diagnostics (CDx) Xpress S Kit is a rapid- screening assay for Salmonella spp. in whole raw tomatoes, whole chicken c`arcasses, raw ground beef, raw beef trim, and whole liquid pasteurized eggs with citric acid when present at levels of 1 CFU/portion size. The Xpress S system comprises an automatic CDx Xpress Reader and a single-use CDx BioCassette that incorporates antibody-coupled microspheres and liquid crystal for the selective identification of the intended microbe. In internal evaluations, the CDx Xpress S Kit detected all 142 Salmonella strains tested, including non-enterica subspecies, and excluded all non-Salmonella species assayed. Method-developer studies, as well as a third-party evaluation, demonstrated that 15 h single-stage enrichment permits rapid detection equivalent to the U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Food and Drug Administration reference methods. The results demonstrate that the CDx Xpress S Kit is one of the fastest, most sensitive, and most accurate methods for detecting Salmonella in food matrixes.

  15. An association analysis of Alzheimer disease candidate genes detects an ancestral risk haplotype clade in ACE and putative multilocus association between ACE, A2M, and LRRTM3

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Todd L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Gilbert, Johnny; Haines, Jonathan L.; Martin, Eden; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of progressive dementia in the elderly. It is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the neuropathologic findings of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloid plaques that accumulate in vulnerable brain regions. AD etiology has been studied by many groups, but since the discovery of the APOE ε4 allele, no further genes have been mapped conclusively to the late-onset form of the disease. In this study, we examined genetic association with late-onset Alzheimer’s susceptibility in 738 Caucasian families with 4704 individuals and an independent case-control dataset with 296 unrelated cases and 566 unrelated controls exploring 11 candidate genes with 47 SNPs common to both samples. In addition to tests for main effects and haplotype analyses, the Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction Pedigree Disequilibrium Test (MDR-PDT) was used to search for single-locus effects as well as 2-locus and 3-locus gene-gene interactions associated with AD in the family data. We observed significant haplotype effects in ACE in both family and case-control samples using standard and cladistic haplotype models. ACE was also part of significant 2-locus and 3-locus MDR-PDT joint effects models with Alpha-2-Macroglobulin (A2M), which mediates the clearance of Aβ, and Leucine-Rich Repeat Transmembrane 3 (LRRTM3), a nested gene in Alpha-3 Catenin (CTNNA3) which binds Presenilin 1. This result did not replicate in the case-control sample, and may not be a true positive. These genes are related to amyloid beta clearance; thus this constellation of effects might constitute an axis of susceptibility for late-onset AD. The consistent ACE haplotype result between independent data sets of families and unrelated cases and controls is strong evidence in favor of ACE as a susceptibility locus for AD, and replicates results from several other studies in a very large sample. PMID:19105203

  16. The use and abuse of commercial kits used to detect autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Fritzler, Marvin J; Wiik, Allan; Fritzler, Mark L; Barr, Susan G

    2003-01-01

    The detection of autoantibodies in human sera is an important approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with autoimmune conditions. To meet market demands, manufacturers have developed a wide variety of easy to use and cost-effective diagnostic kits that are designed to detect a variety of human serum autoantibodies. A number of studies over the past two decades have suggested that there are limitations and concerns in the use and clinical application of test results derived from commercial kits. It is important to appreciate that there is a complex chain of users and circumstances that contributes to variations in the apparent reliability of commercial kits. The goal of this review is to identify the principal links in this chain, to identify the factors that weaken the chain and to propose a plan of resolution. It is suggested that a higher level of commitment and partnership between all of the participants is required to achieve the goal of improving the quality of patient care through the use of autoantibody testing and analysis. PMID:12823850

  17. Method modification of the Legipid® Legionella fast detection test kit.

    PubMed

    Albalat, Guillermo Rodríguez; Broch, Begoña Bedrina; Bono, Marisa Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    Legipid(®) Legionella Fast Detection is a test based on combined magnetic immunocapture and enzyme-immunoassay (CEIA) for the detection of Legionella in water. The test is based on the use of anti-Legionella antibodies immobilized on magnetic microspheres. Target microorganism is preconcentrated by filtration. Immunomagnetic analysis is applied on these preconcentrated water samples in a final test portion of 9 mL. The test kit was certified by the AOAC Research Institute as Performance Tested Method(SM) (PTM) No. 111101 in a PTM validation which certifies the performance claims of the test method in comparison to the ISO reference method 11731-1998 and the revision 11731-2004 "Water Quality: Detection and Enumeration of Legionella pneumophila" in potable water, industrial water, and waste water. The modification of this test kit has been approved. The modification includes increasing the target analyte from L. pneumophila to Legionella species and adding an optical reader to the test method. In this study, 71 strains of Legionella spp. other than L. pneumophila were tested to determine its reactivity with the kit based on CEIA. All the strains of Legionella spp. tested by the CEIA test were confirmed positive by reference standard method ISO 11731. This test (PTM 111101) has been modified to include a final optical reading. A methods comparison study was conducted to demonstrate the equivalence of this modification to the reference culture method. Two water matrixes were analyzed. Results show no statistically detectable difference between the test method and the reference culture method for the enumeration of Legionella spp. The relative level of detection was 93 CFU/volume examined (LOD50). For optical reading, the LOD was 40 CFU/volume examined and the LOQ was 60 CFU/volume examined. Results showed that the test Legipid Legionella Fast Detection is equivalent to the reference culture method for the enumeration of Legionella spp.

  18. BIOTECON diagnostics foodproof E. coli O157 detection kit, 5' nuclease for E. coli O157 in combination with foodproof ShortPrep II Kit.

    PubMed

    Junge, Benjamin; Grönewald, Cordt; Berghof-Jäger, Kornelia

    2011-01-01

    The method describes the detection of Escherichia coli O157 in food. The method is based on real-time PCR using hydrolysis probes (5' Nuclease). This advanced PCR method was designed to reduce the time necessary to achieve results from PCR reactions and enable the user to monitor the amplification of the PCR product simultaneously in real time. After DNA isolation using the BIOTECON foodproof ShortPrep II Kit designed for the rapid preparation of E. coli O157 DNA for direct use in PCR, the real-time detection of E. coli O157 DNA is carried out using the foodproof E. coli O157 Detection Kit. The kit provides primers and hydrolysis probes for sequence-specific detection, convenient premixed reagents, and controls for reliable interpretation of results. For repeatability studies three different foods (egg salad, large bockwurst/frankfurter, and apple juice) were analyzed, chosen from the 15 food groups recommended by the AOAC Research Institute for E. coli O157 detection. From each food, 20 samples were inoculated with a low level (1-10 CFU/25 g) and 20 samples with a high level (10-50 CFU/25 g) ofE. coli O157. Additionally, five nonspiked samples were prepared from each food. Depending on the matrix, the food samples were examined with the test kits and compared with the cultural methods according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual or the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook.

  19. Ease fabrication of PCR modular chip for portable DNA detection kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whulanza, Yudan; Aditya, Rifky; Arvialido, Reyhan; Utomo, Muhammad S.; Bachtiar, Boy M.

    2017-02-01

    Engineering a lab-on-a-chip (LoC) to perform the DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for malaria detection is the ultimate goal of this study. This paper investigates the ability to fabricate an LoC kit using conventional method to achieve the lowest production cost by using existing fabrication process. It has been known that majority of LoC was made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) which in this study was realized through a contact mold process. CNC milling process was utilized to create channel features in the range of 150-250 µm on the mold. Characterization on the milling process was done to understand the shrinkage/contraction between mold to product, roughness and also angle of contact of PDMS surface. Ultimately, this paper also includes analysis on flow measurement and heat distribution of an assembled LoC PCR kit. The results show that the achieved dimension of microchannel is 227 µm wide with a roughness of 0.01 µm. The flow measurement indicates a deviation with simulation in the range of 10%. A heat distribution through the kit is achieved following the three temperature zones as desired.

  20. [Comparison of three rapid diagnostic kits using immunochromatography for detection of influenza A virsuses].

    PubMed

    Hara, Michimaru; Takao, Shinichi; Fukuda, Shinji; Shimazu, Yukie; Miyazaki, Kazuo

    2004-11-01

    In 2004, 3 new rapid influenza diagnostic kits using immunochromatography that allow type differentiation became commercially available. They are the ESPLINE Influenza A & B-N (Fujirebio Corp., Japan: ESPLINE-N hereafter), QuickVue Rapid SP influ (Quidel Corp., USA: QuickVue), and POCTEM INFLUENZA A/B (INTERNATIONAL REAGENTS Corp., Japan: POCTEM). The authors performed a prospective study that compared the usefulness among the 3 kits in 151 children with suspected influenza, who were examined within 3 days after onset, between January and March, 2004. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected, and viruses were isolated. The residual samples were diluted and centrifuged, and the supernatant was used for the rapid diagnosis tests. Influenza virus AH3 was isolated in 95 children and influenza B virus in 3. In the 95 children with influenza virus AH3, the sensitivity and specificity of ESPLINE-N were 100% and 100%, respectively, those of QuickVue were 99% and 91%, and those of POCTEM were 91% and 100%. The sensitivity of POCTEM was significantly lower than that of the other 2 kits (p < 0.01), and the specificity of QuickVue was significantly lower than that of the other 2 kits (p < 0.05). Examination was performed within 1 day after onset in 55 of the 95 children, including 30 who underwent examination within 6 hours after the development of fever. The body temperature was less than 38.0 degrees C in 14 of the 95 children. In all children including these children, virus detection was possible by ESPLINE-N. ESPLINE-N allowed very accurate diagnosis of influenza A using samples prepared by diluting and centrifuging nasopharyngeal aspirates.

  1. Detection of doping with rhGH: excretion study with WADA-approved kits.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jing; Yang, Sheng; Zhou, Xinmiao; He, Chunji; Zhang, Lisi; Xu, Youxuan; Xie, Minhao; Yan, Yi; Su, Hao; Wu, Moutian

    2011-01-01

    The detection of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) doping using the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) approved kits is reported in this research. Twenty-five young male students were selected and divided randomly into two groups with six belonging to the placebo and nineteen to the administration group. Thirteen volunteers in one group were administered with a Chinese preparation of rhGH while six volunteers included in the other group were given rhGH made in Switzerland. Both preparations were administered at a dose of 0.1 IU/kg body weight, one injection per day for 14 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected using WADA guidelines and all blood samples were analyzed with WADA-approved Kits 1 and 2. The time window for detection of rhGH doping using WADA-approved kits and criteria are discussed. Based on the comparison of the data obtained from this excretion study and from our routine (Chinese population as reference), consideration of the recent WADA criteria for rhGH AAF (Analytical Adverse Findings) is reported statistically. A comparison of data obtained from the two sample groups administered with pharmaceutical preparations, one Chinese rhGH (GenHeal®, S19990019, 1.6 mg (4 IU), Shanghai, China) obtained from prokaryotic cells and the other (Saizen®, S20080036, 1.33 mg (4 IU), Laboratoires Serone S.A., Switzerland) from eukaryotic cells is reported and did not show any significant difference for the detection of doping with rhGH.

  2. Validation of the TaqMan Influenza A Detection Kit and a rapid automated total nucleic acid extraction method to detect influenza A virus in nasopharyngeal specimens.

    PubMed

    Bolotin, Shelly; De Lima, Cedric; Choi, Kam-Wing; Lombos, Ernesto; Burton, Laura; Mazzulli, Tony; Drews, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the validation of the TaqMan Influenza A Detection Kit v2.0 combined with an automated nucleic acid extraction method. The limit of detection of this assay was determined by probit regression (95% confidence interval) to be 2 influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus particles per microlitre. One hundred and eleven specimens previously tested using the Seeplex RV assay and viral culture methods were tested using the TaqMan Influenza A Detection Kit. Compared to the aggregate gold-standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the TaqMan Influenza A Detection Kit were 100% (35/35) and 97% (74/76), respectively. Because of its accuracy, quick turn-around-time and lyophilized bead form, the TaqMan Influenza A Detection Kit, combined with the NucliSense easyMAG automated extraction method, constitutes a reliable protocol for influenza A diagnosis.

  3. A novel kit for rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae O1.

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, J A; Huq, A; Tamplin, M L; Siebeling, R J; Colwell, R R

    1994-01-01

    We report on the development and testing of a novel, rapid, colorimetric immunodiagnostic kit, Cholera SMART, for direct detection of the presence of Vibrio cholerae O1 in clinical specimens. Unlike conventional culture methods requiring several days to complete, the Cholera SMART kit can be used directly in the field by untrained or minimally skilled personnel to detect V. cholerae O1 in less than 15 min, without cumbersome laboratory equipment. A total of 120 clinical and environmental bacterial strains, including both O1 and non-O1 serotypes of V. cholerae isolated from samples collected from a variety of geographical regions, were tested, and positive reactions were observed only with V. cholerae O1. Also, results of a field trial in Bangladesh, employing Cholera SMART, showed 100% specificity and 96% sensitivity compared with conventional culture methods. Another field trial, in Mexico, showed that Cholera SMART was 100% in agreement with a recently described coagglutination test when 108 stool specimens were tested. PMID:8126193

  4. MicroSEQ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit using the Pathatrix 10-Pooling Salmonella spp. Kit linked protocol method modification. Performance Tested Method 031001.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jason; Conrad, Rick; Latham, Kathy; Liu, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Real-time PCR methods for detecting foodborne pathogens offer the advantages of simplicity and quick time to results compared to traditional culture methods. The addition of a recirculating pooled immunomagnetic separation method prior to real-time PCR analysis increases processing output while reducing both cost and labor. This AOAC Research Institute method modification study validates the MicroSEQ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit [AOAC Performance Tested Method (PTM) 031001] linked with the Pathatrix 10-Pooling Salmonella spp. Kit (AOAC PTM 090203C) in diced tomatoes, chocolate, and deli ham. The Pathatrix 10-Pooling protocol represents a method modification of the enrichment portion of the MicroSEQ Salmonella spp. protocol. The results of the method modification were compared to standard cultural reference methods for diced tomatoes, chocolate, and deli ham. All three matrixes were analyzed in a paired study design. An additional set of chocolate test portions was analyzed using an alternative enrichment medium in an unpaired study design. For all matrixes tested, there were no statistically significant differences in the number of positive test portions detected by the modified candidate method compared to the appropriate reference method. The MicroSEQ Salmonella spp. protocol linked with the Pathatrix individual or 10-Pooling procedure demonstrated reliability as a rapid, simplified, method for the preparation of samples and subsequent detection of Salmonella in diced tomatoes, chocolate, and deli ham.

  5. Evaluation of the MicroSEQ™ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit with the PrepSEQ™ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for Detection of Salmonella spp. in Dry Pet Food.

    PubMed

    Cloke, Jonathan; Flannery, Jonathan; Bastin, Benjamin; Bird, Patrick; Crowley, Erin Sutphin; Benzinger, M Joseph; Agin, James R; Goins, David; Chen, Yi

    2016-01-01

    A method modification validation study was conducted to validate the Applied Biosystems MicroSEQ™ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit for the detection of Salmonella spp. in 375 g samples of dried pet food. The MicroSEQ assay protocol, using the Applied Biosystems PrepSEQ™ Rapid Spin DNA Sample Preparation Kit, was compared to the reference method detailed in the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM; Chapter 5, Salmonella) for detection of Salmonella spp. For each method, 20 replicates were analyzed at a low contamination level of 0.2-2 CFU/test portion, five replicates were analyzed at a high level of contamination of 2-5 CFU/test portion, and five control replicates were also analyzed at 0 CFU/test portion (uninoculated). Statistical analysis was conducted using the Probability of Detection statistical test to determine the ability of the MicroSEQ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit to detect Salmonella from 375 g samples of dried pet food in comparison to the FDA-BAM reference method. The results demonstrated that the MicroSEQ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit was able to accurately detect Salmonella spp. present in dry pet food after an enrichment time of 20 h.

  6. Evaluation of three commercial bovine ELISA kits for detection of antibodies against Alphaherpesviruses in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)

    PubMed Central

    Das Neves, Carlos G; Roger, Matthieu; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Rimstad, Espen; Tryland, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Background The genus Varicellovirus (family Herpesviridae subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae) includes a group of viruses genetically and antigenically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) among which cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV-2) can be of importance in reindeer. These viruses are known to be responsible for different diseases in both wild and domestic animals. Reindeer are a keystone in the indigenous Saami culture and previous studies have reported the presence of antibodies against alphaherpesviruses in semi-domesticated reindeer in northern Norway. Mortality rates, especially in calves, can be very high in some herds and the abortion potential of alphaherpesvirus in reindeer, unlike in bovines, remains unknown. ELISA kits are the most used screening method in domestic ruminants and given the close genetic relationship between viruses within this genus, it might be possible to use such kits to screen cervids for different alphaherpesviruses. We have compared three different commercial ELISA kits in order to validate its use for reindeer and CvHV-2. Methods Three commercial bovine ELISA kits (A, B and C), using either indirect (A) or blocking (B and C) ELISA techniques to detect antibodies against BoHV-1 were tested with sera from 154 reindeer in order to detect antibodies against CvHV-2. A Spearman's rank-based coefficient of correlation (ρ) was calculated. A dilution trial was performed for all kits. A virus neutralization test using both BoHV-1 and CvHV-2 was carried out. Results Seroprevalence was almost the same with all kits (40–41%). Despite a similar qualitative score, quantitatively kits classified samples differently and a strong correlation was only identified between Kits B and C. Blocking kits performed better in both repeatability and in the dilution trial. The virus neutralization results confirmed the ELISA results to a very high degree. Neutralizing titres ranged from 1:2 to 1:256 and from 0 to 1:16 against CvHV-2 and BoHV-1 respectively

  7. Use of a bio-wipe kit to detect fumonisin B₁ in faecal materials.

    PubMed

    Phoku, J Z; Dutton, M F; Barnard, T G; Potgieter, N

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium toxins with reference to fumonisin B1 (FB1) have long been regarded as contaminants of maize and maize-based related products. However, when consumed they can cause intoxication, especially in humans. Therefore, effective quantitative methods for assessing the dietary exposure of this toxic fungal metabolite are required. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect on the use of a bio-wipe kit, which is a faecal material collection kit, to detect the presence of FB1. Faecal materials were collected from a rural farming community in Gauteng Province, South Africa. In total, 200 samples of faecal material were analysed for Fusarium species using a serial dilution method, while FB1 was further analysed and quantified by reversed-phase TLC and HPLC. The study showed the presence of 11 different Fusarium species grown on potato dextrose agar culture medium of which F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, producers of FB1, and F. oxysporum were the dominant species. Fumonisin B1 was recorded at an incidence rate of 65% of the total using TLC. Results from HPLC showed that 84% were positive at different ranges of concentration for FB1. This study supports the use of a bio-wipe as a rapid method to determine human exposure to FB1.

  8. 78 FR 46593 - Prospective Grant of Start-up Exclusive License: Kits for the Detection of Human Interferon-Alpha...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...-2008/0), titled ``Compositions for Detecting Human Interferon- Alpha Subtypes and Methods of Use'', to... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Prospective Grant of Start-up Exclusive License: Kits for the Detection of Human Interferon-Alpha Subtypes and Allotypes AGENCY: National Institutes of...

  9. SAS molecular tests Escherichia coli O157 detection kit. Performance tested method 031203.

    PubMed

    Bapanpally, Chandra; Montier, Laura; Khan, Shah; Kasra, Akif; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The SAS Molecular tests Escherichia coli O157 Detection method, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method, performed as well as or better than the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference methods for ground beef, beef trim, bagged mixed lettuce, and fresh spinach. Ground beef (30% fat, 25 g test portion) was validated for 7-8 h enrichment, leafy greens were validated in a 6-7 h enrichment, and ground beef (30% fat, 375 g composite test portion) and beef trim (375 g composite test portion) were validated in a 16-20 h enrichment. The method performance for meat and leafy green matrixes was also shown to be acceptable under conditions of co-enrichment with Salmonella. Thus, after a short co-enrichment step, ground beef, beef trim, lettuce, and spinach can be tested for both Salmonella and E. coli O157. The SAS Molecular tests Salmonella Detection Kit was validated using the same test portions as for the SAS Molecular tests E. coli O157 Detection Kit and those results are presented in a separate report. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing revealed no false negatives and no false positives among the 50 E. coli 0157 strains, including H7 and non-motile strains, and 30 non-E. coli O157 strains examined. Finally, the method was shown to be robust when variations to DNA extract hold time and DNA volume were varied. The method comparison and robustness data suggest a full 7 h enrichment time should be used for 25 g ground beef test portions.

  10. Reliability of spot test kits for detecting lead in household dust.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Dixon, Sherry

    2007-06-01

    There has been a long-standing need for a technique that can provide fast, accurate and precise results regarding the presence of hazardous levels of lead in settled house dust. Several home testing kits are now available. One kit manufactured by Hybrivet (LeadCheck Swabs) is advertised as able to detect lead dust levels that exceed the US Environmental Protection Agency's dust lead standard for floors (40 microg/ft(2)). The purpose of the study was to determine the ability of LeadCheck Swabs to instantly detect lead in dust above EPA's hazard standard. A trained risk assessor collected 200 LeadCheck Swab samples side-by-side with standard dust wipe samples. The result of the LeadCheck Swab (positive (pink or red) or negative (yellow to brown)) was compared with the laboratory results for the corresponding dust wipe (over or under 40 microg/ft(2)). The LeadCheck Swabs produced a false negative rate of 64% (95% confidence interval: 55%, 72%). The likelihood of a swab producing a false negative depended on substrate (painted or non-painted) and surface type (floor or sill). Changing the interpretation rule by classifying all swab colors except yellow as positive yielded lower false negative rates under some test conditions, but still produced high error rates. LeadCheck Swabs do not reliably detect levels of lead in dust above 40 microg/ft(2) using published methods under field conditions. Further research into alternate methodologies and interpretation guidance is needed to determine whether the swabs can be appropriately used by consumers and others to test homes for lead dust hazards.

  11. Comparison of commercially available kits with standard methods for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods.

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswaran, K; Murakoshi, A; Satake, M

    1996-01-01

    Three commercially available kits that were supplemented with substrates for enzyme reactions were evaluated to determine their abilities to detect coliforms and fecal coliforms in foods. Japanese and U.S. Food and Drug Administration standard methods, as well as two agar plate methods, were compared with the three commercial kits. A total of 50 food samples from various retailers were examined. The levels of detection of coliforms were high with the commercial kits (78 to 98%) compared with the levels of detection with the standard methods (80 to 83%) and the agar plate methods (56 to 83%). Among the kits tested, the Colilert kit had highest level of recovery of coliforms (98%), and the level of recovery of Escherichia coli as determined by beta-glucuronidase activity with the Colilert kit (83%) was comparable to the level of recovery obtained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration method (87%). Isolation of E. coli on the basis of the beta-glucuronidase enzyme reaction was found to be good. Levine's eosine methylene blue agar, which has been widely used in various laboratories to isolate E. coli was compared with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG)-supplemented agar for isolation of E. coli. Only 47% of the E. coli was detected when eosine methylene blue agar was used; however, when violet red bile (VRB)-MUG agar was used, the E. coli detection rate was twice as high. Of the 200 E. coli strains isolated, only 2 were found to be MUG negative, and the gene responsible for beta-glucuronidase activity (uidA gene) was detected by the PCR method in these 2 strains. Of the 90 false-positive strains isolated that exhibited various E. coli characteristic features, only 2 non-E.coli strains hydrolyzed MUG and produced fluorescent substrate in VRB-MUG agar. However, the PCR did not amplify uidA gene products in these VRB-MUG fluorescence-positive strains. PMID:8779561

  12. Evaluation of the Rapidec Carba NP Test Kit for Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Garg, Atul; Garg, Jaya; Upadhyay, G C; Agarwal, Anurag; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha

    2015-12-01

    Recently, bioMérieux, France, introduced the Rapidec Carba NP test kit for rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria. This kit was evaluated in this study, and we report sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 92.6%, 96.2%, 95.83%, and 92.6%, respectively. The test was easy to perform and interpret and relatively inexpensive ($5/Rs 300 per test) and provides a practical solution for early detection of carbapenemase-producing, multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

  13. Roche/BIOTECON Diagnostics LightCycler foodproof L. monocytogenes detection kit in combination with ShortPrep foodproof II Kit. Performance-Tested Method 070401.

    PubMed

    Junge, Benjamin; Berghof-Jäger, Kornelia

    2006-01-01

    A method was developed for the detection of L. monocytogenes in food based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This advanced PCR method was designed to reduce the time needed to achieve results from PCR reactions and to enable the user to monitor the amplification of the PCR product simultaneously, in real-time. After DNA isolation using the Roche/BIOTECON Diagnostics ShortPrep foodproof II Kit (formerly called Listeria ShortPrep Kit) designed for the rapid preparation of L. monocytogenes DNA for direct use in PCR, the real-time detection of L. monocytogenes DNA is performed by using the Roche/BIOTECON Diagnostics LightCycler foodproof L. monocytogenes Detection Kit. This kit provides primers and hybridization probes for sequence-specific detection, convenient premixed reagents, and different controls for reliable interpretation of results. For repeatability studies, 20 different foods, covering the 15 food groups recommended from the AOAC Research Institute (AOAC RI) for L. monocytogenes detection were analyzed: raw meats, fresh produce/vegetables, processed meats, seafood, egg and egg products, dairy (cultured/noncultured), spices, dry foods, fruit/juices, uncooked pasta, nuts, confectionery, pet food, food dyes and colorings, and miscellaneous. From each food 20, samples were inoculated with a low level (1-10 colony-forming units (CFU)/25 g) and 20 samples with a high level (10-50 CFU/25 g) of L. monocytogenes. Additionally, 5 uninoculated samples were prepared from each food. The food samples were examined with the test kits and in correlation with the cultural methods according to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) or U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook. After 48 h of incubation, the PCR method in all cases showed equal or better results than the reference cultural FDA/BAM or USDA/FSIS methods. Fifteen out of 20 tested food types

  14. [Clinical evaluation of rapid diagnostic kit detecting separately influenza A and B viruses].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, M; Kimura, K; Mitamura, K; Watanabe, S; Komiyama, O; Yamamoto, K; Ichikawa, M; Hashimoto, Y; Hagiwara, N; Maezawa, T; Imai, M; Sugaya, N

    2000-12-01

    The Directigen Flu A + B kit, a rapid diagnostic device for influenza virus A and B was evaluated. The nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from 239 patients who visited our hospital, between January and March, 2000, presenting flu-like symptoms. Influenza virus AH1: 77 and AH3: 51 were isolated from 128 specimens and none from 111 specimens. Directigen Flu A + B showed 115 specimens positive and 106 specimens negative. The sensitivity and specificity of this kit were 89.8% (115/128) and 95.5% (106/111) compared with viral isolation. Agreement on positive and negative interpretations between Direction Flu A and this kit was 97.9% (234/239). In the evaluation of this kit for influenza B virus, 60 frozen nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from February to April, 1999 were used. The sensitivity and specificity of this kit were 88.9% (16/18) and 88.1% (37/42) compared with viral isolation. Agreement on positive and negative interpretations between FLU OIA and this kit was 91.7% (55/60). The Directigen A + B demonstrated sensitivity and specificity equivalent to the conventional kits in nasopharingeal aspirates. This kit can also differentiate influenza A and B viruses, a feature which is useful for treatment using anti-viral agents such as amantadine and neuraminidase inhibitor. To date, the kit is the most effective tool for the rapid diagnosis of influenza.

  15. Comparison of RNA extraction kits for the purification and detection of an enteric virus surrogate on green onions via RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruoyang; Shieh, Y Carol; Stewart, Diana S

    2017-01-01

    Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) offers a rapid and sensitive molecular method for detection of enteric viruses. Unfortunately, these assays are often hampered by the low virus titre found in foods and PCR inhibition due to matrix carryover during RNA extraction. Four commercial RNA extraction kits (Qiagen's QIAamp Viral RNA Mini and UltraSens Virus kits, MoBio UltraClean Tissue & Cells RNA Isolation kit, and Ambion MagMAX Viral RNA Isolation kit) were evaluated for their ability to extract and purify MS2 bacteriophage RNA, an enteric virus surrogate, from inoculated green onions, a food which has been associated with viral gastroenteritis outbreaks. Inoculated green onion wash concentrates and green onion pieces with and without Qiagen QIAshredder homogenization were assayed in the kit comparison. MS2 detection and PCR inhibition were evaluated using a duplex real-time RT-PCR for MS2 and an exogenous internal amplification control (IAC) assay. Without homogenization, MS2 inoculated at 40pfu/g was detected in at least 4 lots of green onion wash concentrates using the silica-membrane spin-column kits. Inhibition was a factor for the magnetic silica-based MagMAX kit, which resulted in detection of MS2 in 1 of 5. Addition of QIAshredder homogenization prior to extraction did not adversely affect the silica-membrane kit results but improved the MS2 detection by MagMAX to 5 of 5 lots. Use of a 1:10 dilution of primary RNA extracts also improved detection. The QIAamp Viral RNA Mini and MagMAX kits were further compared for detection of MS2 from green onion pieces inoculated at 20 and 5pfu/g. Using homogenization, the MagMAX kit detected 20pfu/g in only 1 of 2 green onion lots, whereas the QIAamp Viral RNA kit detected 2 of 2 lots at 5 pfu/g without homogenization.

  16. ACE--Some Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Annie, Ed.; Curtin, Penelope, Ed.

    This publication contains four papers that identify issues within the adult and community education (ACE) sector. "Overview" (Annie Campbell, Peter Thomson) considers what defines ACE; who offers ACE programs; who participates in ACE programs and who does not participate; what are the barriers to participation; who is responsible for…

  17. Development and validation of an ELISA kit for the detection of ricin toxins from biological specimens and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao Ying; Tran, Hung; Foo, Ling Yann; Sew, Tracey Wenhui; Loke, Weng Keong

    2014-08-01

    Ricin is a toxin that can be easily extracted from seeds of Ricinus communis plants. Ricin is considered to be a major bio-threat as it can be freely and easily acquired in large quantities. A deliberate release of such toxin in civilian populations would very likely overwhelm existing public health systems, resulting in public fear and social unrest. There is currently no commercially available or FDA-approved prophylaxis such as vaccines, or therapeutic antitoxins or antidotes, available for ricin intoxication. Patient treatment is typically supportive care based on symptoms, often designed to reinforce the body's natural response. This paper describes the development and validation of a robust ELISA test kit, which can be used to screen for ricin in biological specimens such as whole blood and faeces. Faecal specimens are shown in this study to have better diagnostic sensitivity and a wider diagnostic window compared to whole blood. From these results, it is concluded that faeces is the most suitable clinical specimen for diagnosis of ricin poisoning via the oral route. The ELISA test kit can also detect ricin in environmental samples. An advantage of this ELISA kit over other commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) detection kits currently on the market that are developed to screen environmental samples only is its ability to diagnose ricin poisoning from clinical specimens as well as detect ricin from environmental samples.

  18. Creatine kinase B subunit as measured with a radioimmunoassay kit in detection of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Witherspoon, L R; Shuler, S E; Genre, C F; Gilbert, S S; Moore, R J; Meihaus, V; Hurry, E K

    1983-02-01

    Results with a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) reagent kit for quantification of the creatine kinase B subunit (CK-B) (Nuclear-Medical Laboratories, Irving, TX 75061) were compared with results obtained by electrophoresis for patients consecutively admitted to our coronary care unit for suspected acute myocardial infarction. Analytical sensitivity, precision, and specificity of the RIA were satisfactory. Its clinical efficacy was assessed in 97 patients suspected of having had an acute myocardial infarction. Of 30 patients who had had an acute myocardial infarction, increased CK-B was detected by RIA in 30 and by electrophoresis in 27. The temporal relationship between CK-B by RIA and CK-MB by electrophoresis was similar. Of 66 admissions where infarction was not established, CK-B was negligibly increased in samples from four patients by RIA, and from one by electrophoresis. Although not abnormally increased (greater than 5 U/L), CK-MB was detected by electrophoresis in samples from another five of these 66 patients. We conclude that estimation of CK-B by this RIA is an excellent alternative to estimation of CK-MB by electrophoresis in patients suspected of having had an acute myocardial infarction.

  19. Characterization of ACE and ACE2 Expression within Different Organs of the NOD Mouse.

    PubMed

    Roca-Ho, Heleia; Riera, Marta; Palau, Vanesa; Pascual, Julio; Soler, Maria Jose

    2017-03-05

    Renin angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a key role in several diseases such as diabetes, and renal and cardiovascular pathologies. Its blockade has been demonstrated to delay chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular damage in diabetic patients. In this sense, since local RAS has been described, the aim of this study is to characterize angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 activities, as well as protein expression, in several tissues of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice model. After 21 or 40 days of diabetes onset, mouse serums and tissues were analyzed for ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities and protein expression. ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities were detected in different tissues. Their expressions vary depending on the studied tissue. Thus, whereas ACE activity was highly expressed in lungs, ACE2 activity was highly expressed in pancreas among the studied tissues. Interestingly, we also observed that diabetes up-regulates ACE mainly in serum, lung, heart, and liver, and ACE2 mainly in serum, liver, and pancreas. In conclusion, we found a marked serum and pulmonary alteration in ACE activity of diabetic mice, suggesting a common regulation. The increase of ACE2 activity within the circulation in diabetic mice may be ascribed to a compensatory mechanism of RAS.

  20. Characterization of ACE and ACE2 Expression within Different Organs of the NOD Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Roca-Ho, Heleia; Riera, Marta; Palau, Vanesa; Pascual, Julio; Soler, Maria Jose

    2017-01-01

    Renin angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a key role in several diseases such as diabetes, and renal and cardiovascular pathologies. Its blockade has been demonstrated to delay chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular damage in diabetic patients. In this sense, since local RAS has been described, the aim of this study is to characterize angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 activities, as well as protein expression, in several tissues of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice model. After 21 or 40 days of diabetes onset, mouse serums and tissues were analyzed for ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities and protein expression. ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities were detected in different tissues. Their expressions vary depending on the studied tissue. Thus, whereas ACE activity was highly expressed in lungs, ACE2 activity was highly expressed in pancreas among the studied tissues. Interestingly, we also observed that diabetes up-regulates ACE mainly in serum, lung, heart, and liver, and ACE2 mainly in serum, liver, and pancreas. In conclusion, we found a marked serum and pulmonary alteration in ACE activity of diabetic mice, suggesting a common regulation. The increase of ACE2 activity within the circulation in diabetic mice may be ascribed to a compensatory mechanism of RAS. PMID:28273875

  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) dimerization is the initial step in the ACE inhibitor-induced ACE signaling cascade in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kohlstedt, Karin; Gershome, Cynthia; Friedrich, Matthias; Müller-Esterl, Werner; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Busse, Rudi; Fleming, Ingrid

    2006-05-01

    The binding of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to ACE initiates a signaling cascade that involves the phosphorylation of the enzyme on Ser1270 as well as activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and leads to alterations in gene expression. To clarify how ACE inhibitors activate this pathway, we determined their effect on the ability of the enzyme to dimerize and the role of ACE dimerization in the initiation of the ACE signaling cascade. In endothelial cells, ACE was detected as a monomer as well as a dimer in native gel electrophoresis and dimerization/oligomerization was confirmed using the split-ubiquitin assay in yeast. ACE inhibitors elicited a rapid, concentration-dependent increase in the dimer/monomer ratio that correlated with that of the ACE inhibitorinduced phosphorylation of ACE. Cell treatment with galactose and glucose to prevent the putative lectin-mediated self-association of ACE or with specific antibodies shielding the N terminus of ACE failed to affect either the basal or the ACE inhibitor-induced dimerization of the enzyme. In ACE-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells, ACE inhibitors elicited ACE dimerization and phosphorylation as well as the activation of JNK with similar kinetics to those observed in endothelial cells. However, these effects were prevented by the mutation of the essential Zn2+-complexing histidines in the C-terminal active site of the enzyme. Mutation of the N-terminal active site of ACE was without effect. Together, our data suggest that ACE inhibitors can initiate the ACE signaling pathway by inducing ACE dimerization, most probably via the C-terminal active site of the enzyme.

  2. ACE and ACE2 in kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Mizuiri, Sonoo; Ohashi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Renin angiotensin system (RAS) activation has a significant influence on renal disease progression. The classical angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-angiotensin II (Ang II)-Ang II type 1 (AT1) axis is considered to control the effects of RAS activation on renal disease. However, since its discovery in 2000 ACE2 has also been demonstrated to have a significant impact on the RAS. The synthesis and catabolism of Ang II are regulated via a complex series of interactions, which involve ACE and ACE2. In the kidneys, ACE2 is expressed in the proximal tubules and less strongly in the glomeruli. The synthesis of inactive Ang 1-9 from Ang I and the catabolism of Ang II to produce Ang 1-7 are the main functions of ACE2. Ang 1-7 reduces vasoconstriction, water retention, salt intake, cell proliferation, and reactive oxygen stress, and also has a renoprotective effect. Thus, in the non-classical RAS the ACE2-Ang 1-7-Mas axis counteracts the ACE-Ang II-AT1 axis. This review examines recent human and animal studies about renal ACE and ACE2. PMID:25664248

  3. The impact of sensitive KIT D816V detection on recognition of indolent Systemic Mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    De Matteis, Giovanna; Zanotti, Roberta; Colarossi, Sabrina; De Benedittis, Caterina; Garcia-Montero, Andrès; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Sartori, Marta; Aprili, Fiorenza; Caruso, Beatrice; Paviati, Elisa; Carli, Giuseppe; Perbellini, Omar; Zamò, Alberto; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Pizzolo, Giovanni; Guidi, Giancesare; Martinelli, Giovanni; Soverini, Simona

    2015-03-01

    Patients with Systemic Mastocytosis (SM) need a highly sensitive diagnostic test for D816V detection of the KIT receptor gene. Along with histology/cytology and flow cytometry evaluation, bone marrow (BM) from 110 consecutive adult patients referred with a suspicion of SM to Multidisciplinary Outpatient Clinic for Mastocytosis in Verona were tested both by Amplification Refractory Mutation System Reverse Transcriptase quantitative real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-RT-qPCR) and RT-PCR+Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) followed by Denaturing-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (D-HPLC) and Sanger sequencing. ARMS-RT-qPCR identified D816V mutation in 77 patients, corresponding to 100% of cases showing CD25(+) mast cells (MCs) whereas RT-PCR+RFLP/D-HPLC+sequencing revealed D816V mutations in 47 patients. According to the 2008 WHO criteria 75 SM, 1 Cutaneous Mastocytosis (CM), 1 monoclonal MC activation syndrome (MMAS), and 1 SM Associated with Haematologic Non-Mast Cell Disorder (SM-AHNMD) were diagnosed. Seventeen out 75 SM patients (23%) would have not satisfied sufficient WHO criteria on the basis of the sole RT-PCR+RFLP: these patients had significantly lower serum tryptase levels and amount of CD25(+) MCs. Therefore, ARMS-RT-qPCR might result particularly useful, in patients that do not fulfil major BM histological criterion, for the recognition of indolent SM with a very low MC burden.

  4. "Test kit" for detection of biologically important anions: a salicylidene-hydrazine based Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Dalapati, Sasanka; Alam, Md Akhtarul; Jana, Sankar; Karmakar, Saswati; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2013-02-01

    Test paper coated with Schiff base [(N,N(/)-bis(5-nitro-salicylidene)hydrazine] receptor 1 (host) can selectively detect fluoride and acetate ions (guest) by developing yellow color which can be detected by naked-eye both in aqueous-acetonitrile solution and in solid supported test kit. UV-vis spectral analysis shows that the absorption peaks at 288 and 345 nm of receptor 1 gradually decrease its initial intensity and new red shifted absorption bands at 397 nm and 455 nm gradually appear upon addition of increasing amount of F(-) and AcO(-) ions over several tested anions such as H(2)PO(4)(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), HSO(4)(-), HSO(3)(-), and ClO(4)(-) in aqueous-acetonitrile solvent. The colorimetric test results and UV-vis spectral analysis are in well agreement with (1)H NMR titration results in d(6)-DMSO solvent. The receptor 1 forms 1:2 stable complexes with F(-) and AcO(-) ions. However, similar kind of observation obtained from UV-vis titrations in presence of AcOH corresponds to 1:1 complexation ratio indicating the formation of H-bonding interaction between the receptor and anions (F(-) and AcO(-) ions). So, the observed 1:2 complexation ratio can only be explained on the basis of deprotonation (∼1 eqv.) and H-bonding (∼1 eqv.) interactions [1]. The ratiometric analysis of host-guest complexes corroborates well with the proposed theoretical model optimization at Density Functional Theory (DFT) level.

  5. ``Test kit'' for detection of biologically important anions: A salicylidene-hydrazine based Schiff base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalapati, Sasanka; Alam, Md Akhtarul; Jana, Sankar; Karmakar, Saswati; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2013-02-01

    Test paper coated with Schiff base [(N,N/-bis(5-nitro-salicylidene)hydrazine] receptor 1 (host) can selectively detect fluoride and acetate ions (guest) by developing yellow color which can be detected by naked-eye both in aqueous-acetonitrile solution and in solid supported test kit. UV-vis spectral analysis shows that the absorption peaks at 288 and 345 nm of receptor 1 gradually decrease its initial intensity and new red shifted absorption bands at 397 nm and 455 nm gradually appear upon addition of increasing amount of F- and AcO- ions over several tested anions such as HPO4-, Cl, Br, I, NO3-, NO2-, HSO4-, HSO3-, and ClO4- in aqueous-acetonitrile solvent. The colorimetric test results and UV-vis spectral analysis are in well agreement with 1H NMR titration results in d6-DMSO solvent. The receptor 1 forms 1:2 stable complexes with F- and AcO- ions. However, similar kind of observation obtained from UV-vis titrations in presence of AcOH corresponds to 1:1 complexation ratio indicating the formation of H-bonding interaction between the receptor and anions (F- and AcO- ions). So, the observed 1:2 complexation ratio can only be explained on the basis of deprotonation (˜1 eqv.) and H-bonding (˜1 eqv.) interactions [1]. The ratiometric analysis of host-guest complexes corroborates well with the proposed theoretical model optimization at Density Functional Theory (DFT) level.

  6. Evaluation of a chemical spot-test kit for the detection of airborne particulate lead in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Ashley, K; Fischbach, T J; Song, R

    1996-02-01

    A commercial rhodizonate-based test kit was evaluated for its potential use in the detection of lead in airborne particulate samples at work sites. Over 350 air samples were collected at abrasive blasting lead paint abatement sites using cellulose ester membrane filters and personal sampling pumps. The filter samples were tested with the chemical spot test and then analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. No positive readings were recorded for lead masses below 1.3 micrograms Pb/filter, and no negative readings were observed for lead amounts above 8.1 micrograms Pb/filter. Experimental data were statistically molded in an effort to estimate the performance parameters of the spot test kit. The identification limit of the kit was found to be approximately 3.6 microgram/filter sample. For lead mass values above approximately 10 micrograms Pb/filter, 95% confidence of a positive reading was found, while 95% confidence of a negative reading was found for lead masses below approximately 0.6 micrograms Pb/filter. Based on the results of this study the rhodizonate-based test kit for lead demonstrates potential for use in field screening for lead in personal breathing zone and area air samples.

  7. Portable kit for identification and detection of drugs in human urine using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhenzhen; Liu, Honglin; Meng, Juan; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jing; Liu, Jinhuai

    2015-09-15

    A portable kit was demonstrated for rapid and reliable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of drugs in human urine. This kit contains two sealed reagent tubes, a packet of standardized SERS substrates, and a mini Raman device. A 3 min pretreatment for separating amphetamines from human urine was developed with an extraction rate of >80% examined by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Simultaneously, highly reproducible two-dimensional (2D) gold nanorod (GNR) arrays were assembled by the use of methoxymercaptopoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG-SH) capping. Thirty batches of GNR arrays produced the 1001 cm(-1) intensity of methamphetamine (MA) molecules with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 7.9%, and a 21 × 21 μm(2) area mapping on a 2D GNR array produced a statistical RSD of <10%, implying an excellent reproducibility and uniformity. The detection limit of amphetamines in human urine was at least 0.1 ppm. Moreover, the portable kit was successfully used for detecting MA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and methcathinone (MC) in 30 volunteers' urine samples with various clinical natures, and the dual-analyte detection of MA and MDMA implied a good capability of multiplex analysis. UPLC examination and the SERS recovery test clearly indicated that our pretreatment procedure was sufficient to lower the high background signals caused by complex components in urine and demonstrated the practicability and the resistance to false positives, which is a vital problem for law enforcement applications. The excellent performance of our portable kit promises a great prospective toward a rapid, reliable, and on-spot analyzer, especially for public safety and healthcare.

  8. Cross-platform evaluation of commercial real-time SYBR green RT-PCR kits for sensitive and rapid detection of European bat Lyssavirus type 1.

    PubMed

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Peytavin de Garam, Carine; Schereffer, Jean Luc; Marchal, Clotilde; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of five two-step SYBR Green RT-qPCR kits and five one-step SYBR Green qRT-PCR kits using real-time PCR assays. Two real-time thermocyclers showing different throughput capacities were used. The analysed performance evaluation criteria included the generation of standard curve, reaction efficiency, analytical sensitivity, intra- and interassay repeatability as well as the costs and the practicability of kits, and thermocycling times. We found that the optimised one-step PCR assays had a higher detection sensitivity than the optimised two-step assays regardless of the machine used, while no difference was detected in reaction efficiency, R (2) values, and intra- and interreproducibility between the two methods. The limit of detection at the 95% confidence level varied between 15 to 981 copies/µL and 41 to 171 for one-step kits and two-step kits, respectively. Of the ten kits tested, the most efficient kit was the Quantitect SYBR Green qRT-PCR with a limit of detection at 95% of confidence of 20 and 22 copies/µL on the thermocyclers Rotor gene Q MDx and MX3005P, respectively. The study demonstrated the pivotal influence of the thermocycler on PCR performance for the detection of rabies RNA, as well as that of the master mixes.

  9. Comprehensive Database Service : ACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroki, Morio; Abe, Tetsuya

    The Data base, ACE commercialized by Chunichi Shimbun in Feb. 1986, aims at covering not only newspaper articles but also the other information which composes different data bases. This paper introduces newspaper articles, new material information and character information which are included in ACE. The content of ACE, how to use the online service, and future subjects are described.

  10. Network Kits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Howard

    1999-01-01

    Describes interconnection methods, speed, and comparative equipment costs of networking starter kits. These kits supply network-connection devices that plug into or connect to each computer that is part of a network; they may also provide interconnection cables and installation software needed to set up a network. Reviews 20 kits that use a…

  11. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): MLT Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, Peter

    2010-05-01

    ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of numerous trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The primary instrument is a high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4400 cm-1). ACE was launched by NASA on 12 August 2003 for a nominal 2-year mission; after 6 years on orbit the ACE-FTS performance is still excellent. The first results of ACE have been presented in a special issue of Geophysics Research Letters (http://www.agu.org/journals/ss/ACECHEM1/) in 2005 and recently a special issue on ACE validation has been prepared for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/special_issue114.html) by K. Walker and K. Strong; more information can be found at http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca. The ACE mission goals were initially focussed mainly on polar ozone chemistry, and more recently have shifted more to the troposphere where organic pollutants such as methanol and formaldehyde have been detected. ACE makes limb observations from about 5 km (cloud free scenes) up to nearly 150 km in the lower thermosphere, where CO2 absorption is still weakly detectable. This talk will review ACE-FTS results in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Topics covered will include the mesospheric descent of NOx in the polar winter, spectra of polar mesospheric clouds, concentration profiles of CO2 (which do not match model predictions), and combined Odin-Osiris/ACE-FTS observations.

  12. Comparison of different commercial DNA extraction kits and PCR protocols for the detection of Echinococcus multilocularis eggs in faecal samples from foxes.

    PubMed

    Maksimov, Pavlo; Schares, Gereon; Press, Sebastian; Fröhlich, Andreas; Basso, Walter; Herzig, Mandy; Conraths, Franz J

    2017-04-15

    Effective and sensitive methods for the molecular detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in faecal samples of final hosts are crucial for the prevention and control of human alveolar echinococcosis and for studies on the epidemiology of the parasite. Little is known about the suitability of commercial test kits for isolating DNA of E. multilocularis from fox faeces and the performance of standard Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) protocols in relation to the quality of DNA extracted by these kits. We compared four different kits: ZR Faecal DNA MiniPrep™ (Zymo Research), FastDNA(®) SPIN Kit for Soil (MP Biomedicals), QIAamp(®) Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit (QIAGEN) and NucleoSpin(®) Soil Kit (Macherey-Nagel) for the extraction of DNA from E. multilocularis eggs present in faeces of foxes. Negative faecal samples were spiked with 600, 300, 150, 75, 37, 18, 9, 5 or 2 E. multilocularis eggs, and each egg concentration was tested 10 times with each of the DNA extraction kits. Each extracted DNA sample was amplified using three PCR protocols: i. conventional PCR (cPCR, Platinum(®)Taq, Invitrogen), ii. qPCR with the iQ™ Supermix (Bio-Rad) and iii. qPCR with the QuantiTect(®) Multiplex-Master Mix (QIAGEN). The highest analytical sensitivities for molecular detection of E. multilocularis eggs in spiked fox faeces were observed when combining either the QIAamp(®) Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit or the ZR Faecal DNA MiniPrep™ kit with the qPCR using the QuantiTect(®) Multiplex-Master Mix (Sensitivities 97% and 94%, respectively). Combinations including the remaining test kits (NucleoSpin(®) Soil Kit and FastDNA(®) SPIN Kit for Soil) showed a markedly lower analytical sensitivity for PCR examinations. The results of the present study indicate that it is of utmost importance to select suitable DNA extraction kits in combination with robust PCR methods or reagents to achieve acceptable analytical sensitivity in the molecular detection of E. multilocularis eggs in fox faecal

  13. [Comparison of four rapid diagnostic kits using immunochromatography to detect influenza B viruses].

    PubMed

    Hara, Michimaru; Takao, Shinichi; Fukuda, Shinji; Shimazu, Yukie; Kuwayama, Masaru; Miyazaki, Kazuo

    2005-10-01

    We compared the usefulness of 4 rapid influenza diagnostic 1-device kits using immunochromatography, which facilitate type differentiation, i.e. ESPLINE Influenza A&B-N (Fujirebio Corp., Japan: ESPLINE), POCTEM INFLUENZA A/B (Sysmex Corp., Japan: POCTEM), Quick Vue Rapid SP influ (Quidel Corp., U.S.A.: Quick Vue), and Capilia Flu A + B (TAUNS Corp., Japan: Capilia), in 278 children in whom influenza infection was suspected in 2004 and 2005. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were diluted for virus isolation and residual samples were centrifuged. Using the supernatant, we conducted rapid diagnosis testing. Influenza virus AH3 was isolated from 40 children, and influenza B virus from 163. Of the 40 children, the sensitivity and specificity of ESPLINE, POCTEM, Quick Vue, and Capilia were 100%/100%, 95%/100%, 98%/96%, and 98%/96%. In the 163 children, the sensitivity and specificity were 89%/100%, 87%/100%, 88%/97%, and 86%/98%. ESPLINE showed the highest sensitivity and specificity to influenza viruses AH3 and B. All kits were less sensitive to influenza B virus than to influenza A virus, however. The specificity of Quick Vue and Capilia was low; so these kits must be improved.

  14. [Relevance of anti-nucleosome antibodies detected by enzyme-based immunoassays in lupus diagnosis. Comparative analysis of four commercial kits].

    PubMed

    Lepers, S; Hachulla, E; Leleux, E; Hatron, P Y; Prin, L; Dubucquoi, S

    2002-12-01

    Among the biological assays used for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the detection of anti-double strand DNA antibodies (dsDNA Ab) is regarded as highly specific. However this biological parameter is negative among 20 to 40% of patients. Recent studies have revealed potential interest of the anti-nucleosome antibodies in the diagnosis of the lupus, in particular when any anti-dsDNA antibody activity could be detected. We selected 80 sera in order to evaluate four commercial anti-nucleosome enzyme-based immunoassays (EIA) kits. Their sensitivity and specificity values were compared with those obtained by the detection of anti-dsDNA Ab, carried out with both a Farr assay and two EIA kits. No anti-nucleosome EIA kits reached performances of the Farr assay for the diagnosis of lupus. On the other hand, our results show an higher diagnostic value for some anti-nucleosome EIA kits compared with 2 anti-dsDNA EIA kits. Apart from SLE, anti-nucleosome antibodies can be observed in others auto-immune diseases, in particular Sjögren's syndromes, the primary antiphospholipid syndrome, the systemic sclerosis and the mixed connective tissue disease. Compared results of the four anti-nucleosome EIA kits highlight many discordances. These variations, testifying to the absence of standardization for this new parameter, must encourage with a careful interpretation of results, according to the clinical context.

  15. Commercial test kits for detection of Lyme borreliosis: a meta-analysis of test accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael J; Puri, Basant K

    2016-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis can be supported by various test methodologies; test kits are available from many manufacturers. Literature searches were carried out to identify studies that reported characteristics of the test kits. Of 50 searched studies, 18 were included where the tests were commercially available and samples were proven to be positive using serology testing, evidence of an erythema migrans rash, and/or culture. Additional requirements were a test specificity of ≥85% and publication in the last 20 years. The weighted mean sensitivity for all tests and for all samples was 59.5%. Individual study means varied from 30.6% to 86.2%. Sensitivity for each test technology varied from 62.4% for Western blot kits, and 62.3% for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests, to 53.9% for synthetic C6 peptide ELISA tests and 53.7% when the two-tier methodology was used. Test sensitivity increased as dissemination of the pathogen affected different organs; however, the absence of data on the time from infection to serological testing and the lack of standard definitions for “early” and “late” disease prevented analysis of test sensitivity versus time of infection. The lack of standardization of the definitions of disease stage and the possibility of retrospective selection bias prevented clear evaluation of test sensitivity by “stage”. The sensitivity for samples classified as acute disease was 35.4%, with a corresponding sensitivity of 64.5% for samples from patients defined as convalescent. Regression analysis demonstrated an improvement of 4% in test sensitivity over the 20-year study period. The studies did not provide data to indicate the sensitivity of tests used in a clinical setting since the effect of recent use of antibiotics or steroids or other factors affecting antibody response was not factored in. The tests were developed for only specific Borrelia species; sensitivities for other species could not be calculated. PMID

  16. Time Detectives: A Visual Trip Through Life in Early Sioux Falls. Teacher's Manual for Time Detectives Loan Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gran, Stacy; Van Roessel, Nancy

    This manual was designed as part of a visual resource kit focusing on the history and culture of late 19th century Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Ten topics are addressed: (1) "Fort Dakota"; (2) "Streets of Sioux Falls"; (3) "Shops"; (4) "Businesses"; (5) "Public Schools"; (6) "Quarrying";…

  17. Comparison of fecal pooling methods and DNA extraction kits for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mita, Akiko; Mori, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Tetsuo; Tasaki, Tomoko; Utiyama, Katsuo; Mori, Hitomi

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a sensitive method using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with pooled fecal samples for the screening of Johne's disease (JD). Manufacturer-specified and our new pooling method in combination with five commercial kits for DNA extraction and purification were compared. Different volumes of pooled fecal suspensions were tested, and the results were compared for individual samples and three pool sizes (5, 10, and 50 samples); each of the fecal suspensions, which were prepared from healthy dairy and beef cattle was spiked with 0, 10, 100, or 1000 cultured Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) organisms or was mixed with fecal suspensions from experimentally infected cattle. The MAP DNA detection proportion with our pooling method in combination with Johne-Spin kit (Fasmac, Japan) was 100% for all models and all pool sizes, except for the low shedder model with a pool size of 50. There was no loss of sensitivity in pools of 10 subjects or less by using the new method. These results suggest that new method is a sensitive, practical, and cost-effective screening test for the detection of MAP-infected cattle and the monitoring of JD-free herds.

  18. Evaluation of immunoassay-based field test kits for the detection of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, L.C.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to identify, experimentally evaluate and implement the use of alternative field screening methods that are specific for environmental contaminants of interest and concern to the Department of Energy. Immunochemical techniques are rapidly becoming a significant component in the arsenal of field screening methods. Analytical results obtained by immunoassay have been shown to correlate well with those obtained by traditional laboratory methods. Also, the use of immunoassay-based field screening methods can significantly reduce the cost and time required for environmental assessment. The authors are currently evaluating the effectiveness of several immunoassay-based test kits for detecting petroleum fuel hydrocarbons in soil. Evaluations of two kits, one a semiquantitative assay and the other a quantitative assay, have been completed. The samples analyzed were either solvent or soil spiked with either a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the three isomers of xylene (BTEX), or gasoline. The kits performed well and according to the manufacturers` claims. Of the 50 assays made with the semiquantitative test, the concentrations of 44 samples were correctly determined. The other six samples were determined to be false positives. A soil matrix effect was observed that could account for some of the false positive results. Experimental results using the quantitative test with BTEX (68 assays) correlated well with those expected; R{sup 2} of 0.976 to 0.983 with slopes of 0.94 to 0.97. With gasoline (38 assays) R{sup 2} values of 0.957 to 0.987 and slopes of 0.76 to 0.78 were obtained. The lower slopes with gasoline are indicative of the lower immunoreactivity of that particular sample of gasoline relative to BTEX.

  19. Comparison of two commercial kits and an in-house ELISA for the detection of equine rotavirus in foal feces.

    PubMed

    Miño, S; Kern, A; Barrandeguy, M; Parreño, V

    2015-09-15

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are important infectious agents associated with diarrhea in the young of several animal species including foals. Currently, a variety of diagnosis methods are commercially available, like ELISA, latex agglutination and immunochromatographic assays. These commercial tests are mainly designed for the detection of human RVA; its applicability in veterinary diagnosis has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of two commercial diagnostic kits, Pathfinder™ Rotavirus and FASTest Rota® strip, with an in-house KERI ELISA, for the detection of equine RVA. A total of 172 stool samples from Thoroughbred foals with diarrhea were analyzed. The presence of equine RVA in samples in which only one of the three methods showed positive results was confirmed by RT-PCR. A sample was considered "true positive" when RVA was detected by at least two of the methods, and "true negative" when it tested negative by the three assays. Following these criteria, 50 samples were found positive and 122 were found negative, and were handled as reference population for the assay validation. Pathfinder™ Rotavirus assay showed 32% sensitivity and 97% specificity, FASTest Rota® strip, 92% sensitivity and 97% specificity, and KERI ELISA, 76% sensitivity and 93% specificity. Pathfinder™ Rotavirus showed 77%, FASTest Rota® strip 95%, and KERI ELISA 88% accuracy to correctly classify the samples as equine RVA positive or negative. Pathfinder failed specifically to detect equine RVA G3P12I6 genotype; such performance might be related to the specificity of the monoclonal antibody included in this kit. According to our results, differences among VP6 genotypes could influence the sensitivity to detect equine RVA in foal feces, and thus assay validation of diagnostic kits for each species is necessary. In conclusion, FASTest Rota® strip is more suitable than ELISA Pathfinder™ Rotavirus for the screening of rotavirus

  20. Marketing ACE in Victoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This publication presents options raised through various forums for marketing adult and community education (ACE) in Victoria, Australia, and suggested strategies. After an introduction (chapter 1), chapters 2 and 3 provide a broad view of the current situation for marketing ACE. Chapter 2 discusses general issues in the current position--ACE…

  1. Angiotensin(1-7) and ACE2, “The Hot Spots” of Renin-Angiotensin System, Detected in the Human Aqueous Humor

    PubMed Central

    Holappa, Mervi; Valjakka, Jarkko; Vaajanen, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of the study was to establish whether essential components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exist in the human aqueous humor. Methods: Forty-five patients ≥ 60 (74±7) years of age undergoing cataract surgery at Tampere University Hospital were randomly selected for the prospective study. The exclusion criterion was the use of oral antihypertensive medicine acting via renin-angiotensin system. Aqueous humor samples were taken at the beginning of normal cataract extraction. The samples were frozen and stored at -80 °C. The concentrations of intraocular endogenous RAS components Ang(1-7), ACE2, and ACE1 were measured using ELISA. Results: Concentration medians of Ang(1-7), ACE2, and ACE1 in the aqueous humor were: Ang(1-7) 4.08 ng/ml, ACE2 2.32 ng/ml and ACE1 0.35 ng/ml. The concentrations were significantly higher in glaucomatous than in non-glaucomatous eyes, ACE1 (p=0.014) and Ang(1-7) (p=0.026) vs non-glaucomatous eyes. Conclusions: Ang(1-7), ACE2 and ACE1 are found in the human aqueous humor. The observations are consistent with the conception that local tissue-RAS exists in the human eye and it might have a role in the control of intraocular pressure. PMID:25926900

  2. Comparative study of three screening tests, two microbiological tube tests, and a multi-sulphonamide ELISA kit for the detection of antimicrobial and sulphonamide residues in eggs.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, V; Hedou, C; Rault, A; Sanders, P; Verdon, E

    2009-04-01

    The screening of antimicrobial residues in eggs is an especially important subject. Three different commercial kits for the screening of sulphonamides and other antimicrobials in eggs were validated in accordance with Decision 2002/657/EC: one enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) kit multi-sulphonamides (from RAISIO Diagnostics) and two microbiological tests (a Premi test from DSM and an Explorer kit from Zeu-Inmunotec). The false-positive rates were lower than 2% for all kits. The detection capabilities (CCbeta) have to be as low as possible for banned substances and lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL) when MRLs have been set. The sensitivity of the Premi test was better than that of the Explorer test, probably because of the dilution of the eggs before the Explorer test was used. The CCbeta values towards most of the tested sulphonamides were satisfactory with the Premi test (< or = 100 microg kg(-1)). Performance in a proficiency test for the detection of sulphonamides in eggs with the Premi test confirmed these results. The detection capabilities of tetracycline and doxycycline were at the level of the MRL or twice the MRL maximum. The detection capabilities for chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline were higher (four to six times the MRL). The detection capabilities for amoxicillin, neomycin, tylosin and erythromycin were lower than their respective MRLs. Detection capabilities for sulphonamides were much lower for the ELISA kit than for microbiological tests. The ELISA kit could be recommended for the targeted screening of sulphonamides in eggs. On the other hand, the Explorer and Premi tests could be used as wide screening tests allowing the detection of most of the antimicrobial families.

  3. Immunochromatic kits Xpect Legionella and BinaxNOW Legionella for detection of Legionella pneumophila urinary antigen have low sensitivities for the diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed

    Svarrer, Christina Wiid; Lück, Christian; Elverdal, Pernille Landsbo; Uldum, Søren A

    2012-02-01

    Urinary antigen tests are the most widely used methods for diagnosing Legionnaires' disease (LD). However, all available urinary antigen tests have the disadvantage that they have low or no sensitivity for serogroups (sgs) other than Legionella pneumophila sg 1. Recently, Oxoid introduced the Xpect Legionella test for detection of L. pneumophila sg 1 and sg 6. In this study, we have evaluated the Xpect kit together with the BinaxNOW kit and compared them with the BinaxEIA kit. One hundred and fifteen urine samples from 91 patients with laboratory-confirmed LD were examined. Ninety-three samples were from 69 culture-proven cases of which 27 samples were from 23 non-sg 1 cases. At the patient level, the overall sensitivities for the three Legionella urinary antigen kits were 79 % for the BinaxEIA, 47 % for the BinaxNOW and 32 % for the Xpect kit. None of the urine samples from the 10 L. pneumophila sg 6 cases were positive by the Xpect kit whereas samples from four of the patients were positive by the BinaxEIA. Overall, the sensitivities for both immunochromatic assays were poor and they should not be used as the sole method for the diagnosis of LD.

  4. Comparison of commercial DNA extraction kits and quantitative PCR systems for better sensitivity in detecting the causative agent of paratuberculosis in dairy cow fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Fock-Chow-Tho, D; Topp, E; Ibeagha-Awemu, E A; Bissonnette, N

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes ruminant paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) worldwide. Oral-fecal contamination is the most important mode of transmission of paratuberculosis, so eradicating MAP-shedding animals could prevent disease propagation. Fecal culture, a well-known method for MAP diagnosis, requires costly specialized media and a long incubation time that sometimes ends in disappointing bacterial contamination. To facilitate the efforts of control programs, we evaluated the performance of direct fecal quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for their sensitivity and robustness for MAP detection. Commercial kits use different strategies for extracting DNA, combined with qPCR systems, to detect the presence of MAP in fecal samples. In this study, we compared the sensitivity of 3 commercially available DNA extraction kits (A, B, and C) combined with 2 qPCR systems (T and V) for the detection of MAP in infectious cows. A total of 49 dairy cows from 5 herds were sampled twice a year for 3 yr and diagnosed using fecal culture and ELISA. Eight replicates of their fecal samples from the first sampling were tested using each DNA extraction method and qPCR detection system. Although all 3 of the commercial DNA extraction kits have been previously described as very efficient for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis, kit B provided the highest sensitivity. Indeed, 89% of the cows declared positive for paratuberculosis by both fecal culture and ELISA were identified with kit B, whereas only 23 and 43% of the cows were identified with kits A and C, respectively. Interestingly, kit B was able to detect some low-MAP shedders. The qPCR detection system also played a critical role: system T yielded qPCR with the highest sensitivity. The results of this study suggest that DNA extraction kit B combined with detection system T provides the best amplification of MAP DNA from fecal samples with the highest sensitivity and specificity. Although 1 DNA extraction and q

  5. Evaluation of the Punch-it™ NA-Sample kit for detecting microbial DNA in blood culture bottles using PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungho; Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Seoyong; Park, Soon Deok; Yu, Kwangmin; Kim, Hyo Youl; Uh, Young; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2016-09-01

    DNA extraction efficiency affects the success of PCR-based method applications. The Punch-it™ NA-Sample kit for extracting DNA by using paper chromatography is technically easy to use and requires just two reagents and only 10min to complete. The Punch-it™ NA-Sample kit could be offered as a rapid, accurate, and convenient method for extracting bacterial and fungal DNA from blood culture bottles. We compared the efficiencies of the commercial kit (Punch-it™ NA-Sample kit) and an in-house conventional boiling method with Chelex-100 resin for DNA extraction from blood culture bottles. The efficiency of the two DNA extraction methods was assessed by PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (PCR-REBA, REBA Sepsis-ID) for detecting Gram positive (GP) bacteria, Gram negative (GN) bacteria, and Candida species with 196 positive and 200 negative blood culture bottles. The detection limits of the two DNA extraction methods were 10(3)CFU/mL for GP bacteria, 10(3)CFU/mL for GN bacteria, and 10(4)CFU/mL for Candida. The sensitivity and specificity of the Punch-it™ NA-Sample kit by REBA Sepsis-ID were 95.4% (187/196) and 100% (200/200), respectively. The overall agreement of the two DNA extraction methods was 98.9% (392/396). Three of four samples showing discrepant results between the two extraction methods were more accurately matched up with the Punch-it™ NA-Sample kit based on conventional culture methods. The results indicated that the Punch-it™ NA-Sample kit extracted bacterial and fungal DNA in blood culture bottles and allowed extracted DNA to be used in molecular assay.

  6. Assessment of three commercial DNA extraction kits and a laboratory-developed method for detecting Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora in raspberry wash, basil wash and pesto.

    PubMed

    Shields, Joan M; Joo, Jane; Kim, Richard; Murphy, Helen R

    2013-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods are often used to identify the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis in foods although little has been published regarding the efficacy of available DNA extraction methods. This study reviewed three commonly used commercial DNA extraction kits: FastDNA SPIN Kit for soil, QBiogene (FastDNA), UltraClean™ Soil DNA Isolation Kit, MO BIO Laboratories (MoBio), and QIAamp DNA Mini Stool Kit, Qiagen (QIAamp), as well as a 'homebrew' Universal Nucleic Acid Extraction (UNEX) method. Washes from raspberry and basil as well as commercial pesto samples were seeded with 5000, 500, or 50 C. parvum and C. cayetanensis oocysts. The protocols were assessed for: quantity and quality of the extracted DNA, time to completion, presence of PCR inhibitors and the percentage of samples correctly identified as positive for the two parasites. Real-time and conventional nested PCR assays were used to detect the seeded pathogens. Of the commercial kits, PCR results of samples extracted using FastDNA were statistically similar to QIAamp and both were superior to MoBio. Differences in PCR results among FastDNA, QIAamp and UNEX for detection of Cyclospora were not statistically significant although the UNEX method proved best with Cryptosporidium. Real-time PCR assays targeted the 18S rRNA and the hsp70 genes of C. cayetanensis; overall results were similar to those found using conventional nested PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene.

  7. Development and Validation of a Lateral Flow Immunoassay Test Kit for Dual Detection of Casein and β-Lactoglobulin Residues.

    PubMed

    Masiri, Jongkit; Barrios-Lopez, Brianda; Benoit, Lora; Tamayo, Joshua; Day, Jeffrey; Nadala, Cesar; Sung, Shao-Lei; Samadpour, Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Allergies to cow's milk are very common and can present as life-threatening anaphylaxis. Consequently, food labeling legislation mandates that foods containing milk residues, including casein and/or β-lactoglobulin, provide an indication of such on the product label. Because contamination with either component independent of the other can occur during food manufacturing, effective allergen management measures for containment of milk residues necessitates the use of dual screening methods. To assist the food industry in improving food safety practices, we have developed a rapid lateral flow immunoassay test kit that reliably reports both residues down to 0.01 μg per swab and 0.1 ppm of protein for foods. The assay utilizes both sandwich and competitive format test lines and is specific for bovine milk residues. Selectivity testing using a panel of matrices with potentially interfering substances, including commonly used sanitizing agents, indicated reduction in the limit of detection by one-to fourfold. With food, residues were easily detected in all cow's milk-based foods tested, but goat and sheep milk residues were not detected. Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with common commodities, with the exception of kidney beans when present at high concentrations (> 1%). The development of a highly sensitive and rapid test method capable of detecting trace amounts of casein and/or β-lactoglobulin should aid food manufacturers and regulatory agencies in monitoring for milk allergens in environmental and food samples.

  8. Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    distribution is unlimited. Key Data Requirements • Sea Ice – Location: Area, Onset, Growth, Drift, and Decay – Characterization: % Coverage, Thickness...Cloud ACE Developmental Server hosted at UAHuntsville ACE User Community Public Internet Tailored Ice Product Generation (NIC) Arctic Research...distribution is unlimited. Arctic Map 26 July 2012 13 Multi-sensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent; National Data Buoy Center DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A

  9. Sensitive detection of the c-KIT c.1430G>T mutation by mutant-specific polymerase chain reaction in feline mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Takanosu, M; Sato, M; Kagawa, Y

    2014-06-01

    Here, we describe the establishment of mutant-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of a c-KIT c.1430G>T mutation in feline mast cell tumours. Several mutations in feline c-KIT have been identified, with the c.1430G>T mutation accounting for a significant portion of feline mast cell tumour mutations. The c.1430G>T mutation in c-KIT exon 9 was detected in 15.7% (11 of 70) of samples by mutant-specific PCR but in only 7.1% (5 of 70) by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the genomic DNA isolated from 70 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections or cells collected by fine needle aspiration. Mutant-specific PCR showed remarkably higher detection rate than did PCR-RFLP. DNA sequence analysis did not always yield identical results to those of mutant-specific PCR, suggesting heterogeneity of tumour cells. Mutant-specific PCR is a valid and efficient screening tool for detection of the c-KIT c.1430G>T point mutation in feline mast cell tumours compared with PCR-RFLP and sequencing analysis.

  10. The Slidex-mĕningite-Kit (Bio-Mĕrieux) tested for exoantigen detection in spinal fluids from purulent meningitis cases.

    PubMed

    Kuzemenská, P; Komínková, B; Mackŭ, M; Duniewicz, M; Jezek, P; Stanková, M

    1982-01-01

    The Slidex-méningite-Kit allows the used of the rather highly sensitive and specific latex-agglutination method for the detection of N. meningitis group A and C and H. influenzae b exoantigens within a few minutes. In model experiments positive results persisted at unchanged intensity for prolonged periods of time regardless of storage temperature. However, in practical trials performed in a set of 60 spinal fluids from purulent meningitis patients etiological agent identification by the slidex-méningite-Kit failed at least as frequently as by cultivation; in the case of meningococci the kit even failed more often than cultivation. Hence the Slidex-méningite-Kit should be regarded as an auxiliary tool in the diagnosis of purulent meningitis and one that cannot replace the classical methods of cultivation and preparation staining. In the case of positive results, advantages of the Slides-méingite-Kit are rapidity in etiological agent identification and prolonged persistence of positivity in the spinal fluid samples.

  11. Molecular and recombinational mapping of mutations in the Ace locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Nagoshi, R.N.; Gelbart, W.M.

    1987-11-01

    The Ace locus in Drosophila melanogaster is known to be the structural gene for acetylcholinesterase. Ace is located in a region of chromosome arm 3R which has been subjected to intensive genetic and molecular analysis. Previous deletion mapping studies have identified a 40-kb region with which the Ace gene resides. This report focuses on the further localization of Ace within this 40-kb interval. Within this region, selective fine structure recombinational analysis was employed to localize three recessive Ace lethals relative to unselected restriction site variations. These three mutations fall into a segment of 7 kb within the Ace interval. Fine structure recombinational analysis was also used to confirm that the Ace/sup -/ phenotype of one deletion, Df(3R)Ace/sup HD1/, co-segregated with the molecular deletion. This deletion does not fully remove Ace activity, but it behaves as a recessive Ace lethal. Df(3R)Ace/sup HD1/ is the most distal Ace lesion identified and indicates that the Ace locus must extend at least 16 kb. Several poly(A)transcripts are detectable in the region defined by the Ace lesions. The position and extent of the Ace locus, as well as the types of transcripts found, is consistent with the recent findings which identified Torpedo-AChE homologous cDNA sequences in this region.

  12. Molecular and Recombinational Mapping of Mutations in the Ace Locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nagoshi, Rodney N.; Gelbart, William M.

    1987-01-01

    The Ace locus in Drosophila melanogaster is known to be the structural gene for acetylcholinesterase. Ace is located in a region of chromosome arm 3R which has been subjected to intensive genetic and molecular analysis. Previous deletion mapping studies have identified a 40-kb region within which the Ace gene resides. This report focuses on the further localization of Ace within this 40-kb interval. Within this region, selective fine structure recombinational analysis was employed to localize three recessive Ace lethals relative to unselected restriction site variations. These three mutations fall into a segment of 7 kb within the Ace interval. Fine structure recombinational analysis was also used to confirm that the Ace- phenotype of one deletion, Df(3R)AceHD1, co-segregated with the molecular deletion. This deletion does not fully remove Ace activity, but it behaves as a recessive Ace lethal. Df(3R)AceHD1 is the most distal Ace lesion identified and indicates that the Ace locus must extend at least 16 kb. Several poly(A)transcripts are detectable in the region defined by the Ace lesions. The position and extent of the Ace locus, as well as the types of transcripts found, is consistent with the recent findings which identified Torpedo-AChE homologous cDNA sequences in this region. PMID:2826288

  13. Evaluation of a QIAamp DNA stool purification kit for Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli detection in bovine fecal swabs by PCR.

    PubMed

    Gioffré, A; Meichtri, L; Zumárraga, M; Rodríguez, R; Cataldi, A

    2004-01-01

    A commercial kit intended for Taq polymerase inhibitor removal was tested to detect Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) by polymersase chain reaction (PCR) directly from cattle fecal samples. Forty-five samples were analysed for the presence of stx genes. Results were compared to those obtained by two other methods: amplification of DNA purified by a non-commercial procedure (heat lysis protocol), and amplification of DNA from samples cultured in solid media, commonly used in our lab. Identical numbers of positive samples (33/45, 73 %) were obtained with the QIAamp DNA stool purification kit and the culturing procedure, suggesting an adequate removal of inhibitors that interfere in PCR amplification from the feces. Besides, the number of positive samples detected using DNA purified by the non-commercial protocol was lower, 25/39 (64%) than that achieved by using the kit. In conclusion, the use of the QIAamp DNA stool purification kit provided a rapid stx gene detection by PCR in bovine fecal samples.

  14. DNA extraction method using a silica-base resin type kit for the detection of genetically modified papaya.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Kiyomi; Tsuchiya, Hisayo; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Yamada, Toshiharu; Hirayama, Kuni; Satoh, Shuji

    2008-04-01

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya has not yet been approved for importation into, or cultivation in the European Union (EU) and Japan. A DNA extraction method using the Qiagen DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (PM method) and a method using a buffer containing cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB method) have been adopted as the official Japanese methods for detecting GM foods. However, the amounts of DNA extracted from papaya by these methods are very low. Therefore, we investigated an extraction method to obtain a high yield of DNA from raw or freeze-dried fresh papaya using the Promega Wizard DNA Clean-Up Resin System (WCR). The incubation for the extraction was carried out at 58 degrees C without proteinase K for 15 min. The extract was applied to a mini-column, then the column was washed with 80% isopropyl alcohol, and genomic DNA adsorbed on the column was eluted with TE buffer. The WCR method gave a higher yield of genomic DNA, and was simpler and faster than the PM method or CTAB method. In addition, it could be used to extract genomic DNA from fresh papaya at various stages of ripeness. Based on these results, we propose that the present method using WCR is the most practical and useful way to extract genomic DNA for the purpose of detecting GM papaya.

  15. Evaluation of lateral-flow Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin detection kits for food analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shashi K; Eblen, Brian S; Bull, Robert L; Burr, Donald H; Whiting, Richard C

    2005-07-01

    The suitability and sensitivity of two in vitro lateral-flow assays for detecting Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) in an assortment of foods were evaluated. Toxin extraction and preparation methods for various liquid, solid, and high-fat-content foods were developed. The lateral-flow assays, one developed by the Naval Medical Research Center (Silver Spring, MD) and the other by Alexeter Technologies (Gaithersburg, MD), are based on the immunodetection of BoNT types A, B, and E. The assays were found to be rapid and easy to perform with minimum requirements for laboratory equipment or skills. They can readily detect 10 ng/ml of BoNT types A and B and 20 ng/ml of BoNT type E. Compared to other in vitro detection methods, these assays are less sensitive, and the assessment of a result is strictly qualitative. However, the assay was found to be simple to use and to require minimal training. The assays successfully detected BoNT types A, B, and E in a wide variety of foods, suggesting their potential usefulness as a preliminary screening system for triaging food samples with elevated BoNT levels in the event of a C. botulinum contamination event.

  16. Evaluation of Lateral-Flow Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin Detection Kits for Food Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shashi K.; Eblen, Brian S.; Bull, Robert L.; Burr, Donald H.; Whiting, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    The suitability and sensitivity of two in vitro lateral-flow assays for detecting Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) in an assortment of foods were evaluated. Toxin extraction and preparation methods for various liquid, solid, and high-fat-content foods were developed. The lateral-flow assays, one developed by the Naval Medical Research Center (Silver Spring, MD) and the other by Alexeter Technologies (Gaithersburg, MD), are based on the immunodetection of BoNT types A, B, and E. The assays were found to be rapid and easy to perform with minimum requirements for laboratory equipment or skills. They can readily detect 10 ng/ml of BoNT types A and B and 20 ng/ml of BoNT type E. Compared to other in vitro detection methods, these assays are less sensitive, and the assessment of a result is strictly qualitative. However, the assay was found to be simple to use and to require minimal training. The assays successfully detected BoNT types A, B, and E in a wide variety of foods, suggesting their potential usefulness as a preliminary screening system for triaging food samples with elevated BoNT levels in the event of a C. botulinum contamination event. PMID:16000807

  17. Comparison of fecal DNA extraction kits for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal culture is considered the gold standard for the diagnostics of paratuberculosis, however, PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in fecal material is widely used today, having demonstrated great sensitivity and specificity. To insure the most efficient and r...

  18. Comparison of fecal DNA extraction kits for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal culture is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis, however, PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in fecal material is widely used today, having demonstrated great sensitivity and specificity. To insure the most efficient and rep...

  19. ACES--Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Harold

    1991-01-01

    Presents text of Presidential Address delivered March 24, 1991, at the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) luncheon, part of the American Association for Counseling and Development Convention held in Reno, Nevada. Comments on past, present, and future of ACES, particularly on future challenges and role of ACES. (ABL)

  20. Multicentric comparative assessment of the bio-evolution Toxoplasma gondii detection kit with eight laboratory-developed PCR assays for molecular diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Filisetti, Denis; Sterkers, Yvon; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Cassaing, Sophie; Dalle, Frédéric; Delhaes, Laurence; Pelloux, Hervé; Touafek, Fériel; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Yera, Hélène; Candolfi, Ermano; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The detection of Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid is an essential tool for the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and is currently essentially based on the use of PCR. Although some consensus is emerging, this molecular diagnosis suffers from a lack of standardization and an extreme diversity of laboratory-developed methods. Commercial kits for the detection of T. gondii by PCR were recently developed and offer certain advantages; however, they must be assessed in comparison with optimized reference PCR assays. The present multicentric study aimed to compare the performances of the Bio-Evolution T. gondii detection kit and laboratory-developed PCR assays set up in eight proficient centers in France. The study compared 157 amniotic fluid samples and found concordances of 99% and 100% using 76 T. gondii-infected samples and 81 uninfected samples, respectively. Moreover, taking into account the classification of the European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis, the overall diagnostic sensitivity of all assays was identical and calculated to be 86% (54/63); specificity was 100% for all assays. Finally, the relative quantification results were in good agreement between the kit and the laboratory-developed assays. The good performances of this commercial kit are probably in part linked to the use of a number of good practices: detection in multiplicate, amplification of the repetitive DNA target rep529, and the use of an internal control for the detection of PCR inhibitors. The only drawbacks noted at the time of the study were the absence of uracil-N-glycosylase and small defects in the reliability of the production of different reagents.

  1. Multicentric Comparative Assessment of the Bio-Evolution Toxoplasma gondii Detection Kit with Eight Laboratory-Developed PCR Assays for Molecular Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Filisetti, Denis; Sterkers, Yvon; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Cassaing, Sophie; Dalle, Frédéric; Delhaes, Laurence; Pelloux, Hervé; Touafek, Fériel; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Yera, Hélène; Candolfi, Ermano

    2014-01-01

    The detection of Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid is an essential tool for the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and is currently essentially based on the use of PCR. Although some consensus is emerging, this molecular diagnosis suffers from a lack of standardization and an extreme diversity of laboratory-developed methods. Commercial kits for the detection of T. gondii by PCR were recently developed and offer certain advantages; however, they must be assessed in comparison with optimized reference PCR assays. The present multicentric study aimed to compare the performances of the Bio-Evolution T. gondii detection kit and laboratory-developed PCR assays set up in eight proficient centers in France. The study compared 157 amniotic fluid samples and found concordances of 99% and 100% using 76 T. gondii-infected samples and 81 uninfected samples, respectively. Moreover, taking into account the classification of the European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis, the overall diagnostic sensitivity of all assays was identical and calculated to be 86% (54/63); specificity was 100% for all assays. Finally, the relative quantification results were in good agreement between the kit and the laboratory-developed assays. The good performances of this commercial kit are probably in part linked to the use of a number of good practices: detection in multiplicate, amplification of the repetitive DNA target rep529, and the use of an internal control for the detection of PCR inhibitors. The only drawbacks noted at the time of the study were the absence of uracil-N-glycosylase and small defects in the reliability of the production of different reagents. PMID:25339393

  2. Detection of Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Using a Field Test Kit: A Screening Method.

    PubMed

    Bralatei, Edi; Lacan, Severine; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Jörg

    2015-11-17

    Rice is a staple food eaten by more than 50% of the world's population and is a daily dietary constituent in most South East Asian countries where 70% of the rice export comes from and where there is a high level of arsenic contamination in groundwater used for irrigation. Research shows that rice can take up and store inorganic arsenic during cultivation, and rice is considered to be one of the major routes of exposure to inorganic arsenic, a class I carcinogen for humans. Here, we report the use of a screening method based on the Gutzeit methodology to detect inorganic arsenic (iAs) in rice within 1 h. After optimization, 30 rice commodities from the United Kingdom market were tested with the field method and were compared to the reference method (high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, HPLC-ICP-MS). In all but three rice samples, iAs compound can be determined. The results show no bias for iAs using the field method. Results obtained show quantification limits of about 50 μg kg(-1), a good reproducibility for a field method of ±12%, and only a few false positives and negatives (<10%) could only be recorded at the 2015 European Commission (EC) guideline for baby rice of 100 μg kg(-1), while none were recorded at the maximum level suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and implemented by the EC for polished and white rice of 200 μg kg(-1). The method is reliable, fast, and inexpensive; hence, it is suggested to be used as a screening method in the field for preselection of rice which violates legislative guidelines.

  3. Regulation of urinary ACE2 in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Jan; Garcia-Halpin, Laura; Ye, Minghao; Maier, Christoph; Sowers, Kurt; Burns, Kevin D; Batlle, Daniel

    2013-08-15

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) enhances the degradation of ANG II and its expression is altered in diabetic kidneys, but the regulation of this enzyme in the urine is unknown. Urinary ACE2 was studied in the db/db model of type 2 diabetes and stretozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes during several physiological and pharmacological interventions. ACE2 activity in db/db mice was increased in the serum and to a much greater extent in the urine compared with db/m controls. Neither a specific ANG II blocker, telmisartan, nor an ACE inhibitor, captopril, altered the levels of urinary ACE2 in db/db or db/m control mice. High-salt diet (8%) increased whereas low-salt diet (0.1%) decreased urinary ACE2 activity in the urine of db/db mice. In STZ mice, urinary ACE2 was also increased, and insulin decreased it partly but significantly after several weeks of administration. The increase in urinary ACE2 activity in db/db mice reflected an increase in enzymatically active protein with two bands identified of molecular size at 110 and 75 kDa and was associated with an increase in kidney cortex ACE2 protein at 110 kDa but not at 75 kDa. ACE2 activity was increased in isolated tubular preparations but not in glomeruli from db/db mice. Administration of soluble recombinant ACE2 to db/m and db/db mice resulted in a marked increase in serum ACE2 activity, but no gain in ACE2 activity was detectable in the urine, further demonstrating that urinary ACE2 is of kidney origin. Increased urinary ACE2 was associated with more efficient degradation of exogenous ANG II (10(-9) M) in urine from db/db compared with that from db/m mice. Urinary ACE2 could be a potential biomarker of increased metabolism of ANG II in diabetic kidney disease.

  4. Validation and comparison of two commercial ELISA kits and three in-house developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of potentially allergenic mustard in food.

    PubMed

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Hochegger, Rupert; Štumr, Stepan; Korycanova, Kveta; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-05-01

    The study compares the applicability of two commercial mustard ELISA kits (Mustard ELISA Kit-specific and Mustard ELISA Kit-total) and three in-house developed real-time PCR assays (singleplex assay for white mustard, singleplex assay for black/brown mustard and duplex assay for the detection of white, black and brown mustard). Analyses of raw and brewed model sausages containing white and black/brown mustard in the range from 1 to 50 ppm indicate that both ELISAs and the three real-time PCR assays allow the detection of traces of mustard in raw and in brewed sausages. The ELISAs were found to be more sensitive than the real-time PCR assays. When the ELISAs and real-time PCR assays were applied to the analysis of 15 commercial foodstuffs differing in their labelling concerning mustard, in one sample mustard was detected with both ELISAs and the three real-time PCR assays although mustard was not indicated on the food ingredient list.

  5. Analytical and Clinical Validation of Six Commercial Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus RNA Detection Kits Based on Real-Time Reverse-Transcription PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Young Jin; Seong, Moon-Woo; Kim, Jae-Seok; Shin, Bo-Moon; Sung, Heungsup

    2016-01-01

    Background During the 2015 outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), six different commercial MERS-CoV RNA detection kits based on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) were available in Korea. We performed analytical and clinical validations of these kits. Methods PowerChek (Kogene Biotech, Korea), DiaPlexQ (SolGent, Korea), Anyplex (Seegene, Korea), AccuPower (Bioneer, Korea), LightMix (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Switzerland), and UltraFast kits (Nanobiosys, Korea) were evaluated. Limits of detection (LOD) with 95% probability values were estimated by testing 16 replicates of upstream of the envelope gene (upE) and open reading frame 1a (ORF1a) RNA transcripts. Specificity was estimated by using 28 nasopharyngeal swabs that were positive for other respiratory viruses. Clinical sensitivity was evaluated by using 18 lower respiratory specimens. The sensitivity test panel and the high inhibition panel were composed of nine specimens each, including eight and six specimens that were positive for MERS-CoV, respectively. Results The LODs for upE ranged from 21.88 to 263.03 copies/reaction, and those for ORF1a ranged from 6.92 to 128.82 copies/reaction. No cross-reactivity with other respiratory viruses was found. All six kits correctly identified 8 of 8 (100%) positive clinical specimens. Based on results from the high inhibition panel, PowerChek and AccuPower were the least sensitive to the presence of PCR inhibition. Conclusions The overall sensitivity and specificity of all six assay systems were sufficient for diagnosing MERS-CoV infection. However, the analytical sensitivity and detection ability in specimens with PCR inhibition could be improved with the use of appropriate internal controls. PMID:27374710

  6. Development and validation of an ELISA kit (YF MAC-HD) to detect IgM to yellow fever virus

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Alison Jane; Goodman, Christin; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Laven, Janeen; Panella, Amanda J; Kosoy, Olga; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Johnson, Barbara W.

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) is endemic in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, with around 180,000 human infections a year occurring in Africa. Serologic testing is the chief laboratory diagnostic means of identifying an outbreak and to inform the decision to commence a vaccination campaign. The World Health Organization disseminates the reagents for YFV testing to African reference laboratories, and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is charged with producing and providing these reagents. The CDC M-antibody capture ELISA is a 2-day test, requiring titration of reagents when new lots are received, which leads to inconsistency in testing and wastage of material. Here we describe the development of a kit-based assay (YF MAC-HD) based upon the CDC method, that is completed in approximately 3.5 h, with equivocal samples being reflexed to an overnight protocol. The kit exhibits >90% accuracy when compared to the 2-day test. The kits were designed for use with a minimum of equipment and are stored at 4 °C, removing the need for freezing capacity. This kit is capable of tolerating temporary sub-optimal storage conditions which will ease shipping or power outage concerns, and a shelf life of >6 months was demonstrated with no deterioration in accuracy. All reagents necessary to run the YF MAC-HD are included in the kit and are single-use, with 8 or 24 sample options per kit. Field trials are envisioned for the near future, which will enable refinement of the method. The use of the YF MAC-HD is anticipated to reduce materials wastage, and improve the quality and consistency of YFV serologic testing in endemic areas. PMID:26342907

  7. [The validation of kit of reagents for quantitative detection of DNA of human cytomegalovirus in biological material using polymerase chain reaction technique in real time operation mode].

    PubMed

    Sil'veĭstrova, O Iu; Domonova, É A; Shipulina, O Iu

    2014-04-01

    The validation of kit of reagents destined to detection and quantitative evaluation of DNA of human cytomegalovirus in biological material using polymerase chain reaction technique in real time operation mode was implemented. The comparison was made against international WHO standard--The first WHO international standard for human cytomegalovirus to implement measures the kit of reagents "AmpliSens CMV-screen/monitor-FL" and standard sample of enterprise DNA HCMV (The central research institute of epidemiology of Rospotrebnadzor) was applied. The fivefold dilution of international WHO standard and standard sample of enterprise were carried out in concentrations of DNA HCMV from 106 to 102. The arrangement of polymerase chain reaction and analysis of results were implemented using programed amplifier with system of detection of fluorescent signal in real-time mode "Rotor-Gene Q" ("Qiagen", Germany). In the total of three series of experiments, all stages of polymerase chain reaction study included, the coefficient of translation of quantitative evaluation of DNA HCMV from copy/ml to ME/ml equal to 0.6 was introduced for this kit of reagents.

  8. Validation of the Applied Biosystems 7500 Fast Instrument for the Detection of Salmonellae with SureTect Salmonella Species PCR Kit.

    PubMed

    Cloke, Jonathan; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen

    2016-07-01

    The Thermo Scientific SureTect™ Salmonella species real-time PCR assay is a rapid alternative method designed for the detection of salmonellae in a wide range of foods, animal feeds, and production-environment samples. The assay has previously been validated according to the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Methods(SM) program using Thermo Scientific PikoReal™ PCR cycler and Thermo Scientific SureTect Software Performance Tested Method 051303). This report details the method-modification study performed to validate an updated assay format, utilizing a reduced target probe concentration and an extension of the PCR cycler platform to enable the use of the kit with a Applied Biosystems 7500 Fast PCR cycler and Applied Biosystems RapidFinder™ Express 2.0 software. During this validation study, a matrix study was conducted on a subset of the method's claimed matrixes, comparing the performance of the modified SureTect Salmonella species kit (a reduced target probe concentration with a 7500 Fast platform) to the reference method detailed in ISO 6579:2002. No significant difference by probability of detection statistical analysis was found between SureTect or International Organization for Standardization methods for any of the matrixes analyzed during the study. Inclusivity and exclusivity studies using the modified method demonstrated accurate results for the 117 Salmonella and 36 non-Salmonella strains tested. Multiple production lots of the newly formatted kit were evaluated and found to be consistent with the current assay. Robustness studies confirmed that the change to the kit had no impact on the assay's performance when alterations were made to method parameters having the greatest potential impact on assay performance.

  9. Comparison of a Stool Antigen Detection Kit and PCR for Diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar Infections in Asymptomatic Cyst Passers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, Shahram; Rezaian, Mostafa; Babaei, Zahra; Rajabpour, Azam; Meamar, Ahmad R.; Pourbabai, Ahmad A.; Petri, William A.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare stool antigen detection with PCR for the diagnosis of Entamoeba sp. infection in asymptomatic cyst passers from Iran. Entamoeba dispar and, in one case, E. moshkovskii were the Entamoeba spp. found in the amebic cyst passers. There was a 100% correlation between the results from the TechLab E. histolytica II stool antigen kit and those from nested PCR. We concluded that E. dispar is much more common in asymptomatic cyst passers in Iran and that antigen detection and PCR are comparable diagnostic modalities. PMID:16757634

  10. Evaluation of the One-Step ELISA kit for the detection of buprenorphine in urine, blood, and hair specimens.

    PubMed

    Cirimele, V; Etienne, S; Villain, M; Ludes, B; Kintz, P

    2004-07-16

    A solid-phase enzyme immunoassay involving microtiter plates was recently proposed by International Diagnostic Systems corporation (IDS) to screen for buprenorphine in human serum. The performance of the kit led us to investigate its applicability in other biological matrices such as urine or blood, and also hair specimens. Low concentrations of buprenorphine were detected with the ELISA test and confirmed by HPLC/MS (buprenorphine concentrations measured by HPLC/MS: 0.3 ng/mL in urine, 0.2 ng/mL in blood, and 40 pg/mg in hair). The intra-assay precision values were 8.7% at 1 ng/mL of urine (n = 8), 11.5% at 2 ng/mL in serum (n = 8), and 11.5% at 250 pg/mg of hair (n = 8), respectively. The immunoassay had no cross-reactivity with dihydrocodeine, ethylmorphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, pholcodine, propoxyphene, dextromoramide, dextrometorphan at 1 and 10 mg/L, or codeine, morphine, methadone, and its metabolite EDDP. A 1% cross-reactivity was measured for a norbuprenorphine concentration of 50 ng/mL. Finally, the immunoassay was validated by comparing authentic specimens results with those of a validated HPLC/MS method. From the 136 urine samples tested, 93 were positive (68.4%) after the ELISA screening test (cutoff: 0.5 ng/mL) and confirmed by HPLC/MS (buprenorphine concentrations: 0.3-2036 ng/mL). From the 108 blood or serum samples screened, 27 were positive (25%) after the ELISA test with a cutoff value of 0.5 ng/mL (buprenorphine concentrations: 0.2-13.3 ng/mL). Eighteen hair specimens were positive (72%) after the screening (cutoff: 10 pg/mg) and confirmed by LC/MS (buprenorphine concentrations: 40-360 pg/mg). The ELISA method produced false positive results in less than 21% of the cases, but no false negative results were observed with the immunological test. Four potential adulterants (hypochloride 50 mL/L, sodium nitrite 50 g/L, liquid soap 50 mL/L, and sodium chloride 50 g/L) that were added to 10 positive urine specimens (buprenorphine concentrations in

  11. ACEE composite structures technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klotzsche, M. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Composite Primary Aircraft Structures Program has made significant progress in the development of technology for advanced composites in commercial aircraft. Commercial airframe manufacturers have demonstrated technology readiness and cost effectiveness of advanced composites for secondary and medium primary components and have initiated a concerted program to develop the data base required for efficient application to safety-of-flight wing and fuselage structures. Oral presentations were compiled into five papers. Topics addressed include: damage tolerance and failsafe testing of composite vertical stabilizer; optimization of composite multi-row bolted joints; large wing joint demonstation components; and joints and cutouts in fuselage structure.

  12. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for the detection of botulinum neurotoxins A, B, E, and F in selected food matrices.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Datta, Shomik; Sachdeva, Amita; Maslanka, Susan; Dykes, Janet; Skinner, Guy; Burr, Donald; Whiting, Richard C; Sharma, Shashi K

    2015-01-01

    The mouse bioassay (MBA) is the only accepted standard method for detection of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) in foods. The ELISA method has several advantages over the MBA and is therefore widely used for in vitro detection of BoNTs. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted a precollaborative study to evaluate the applicability of Botulinum Toxin ELISA kits for the detection of BoNT serotypes A, B, E, and F in a variety of food matrices. In this study, food samples (e.g., broccoli, salami, smoked salmon, green beans, orange juice, tomato juice, low-fat plain yogurt, whole milk, liquid infant formula milk, and liquid eggs) were spiked with high, medium, and low concentration BoNT serotypes A, B, E, and F. Samples (unspiked and spiked) were tested at both laboratories by the ELISA kits. All food samples were positive for BoNTs by ELISA in both laboratories at medium and high spiking levels; a positive ELISA result in low spiked samples was both serotype and laboratory dependent. Overall, the ELISA method appears to be an effective preliminary screening method for BoNT detection in food matrices.

  13. Epitope mapping of mAbs to denatured human testicular ACE (CD143).

    PubMed

    Balyasnikova, I V; Metzger, R; Franke, F E; Conrad, N; Towbin, H; Schwartz, D E; Sturrock, E D; Danilov, S M

    2008-10-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE; CD143) has two homologous enzymatically active domains (N and C) and plays a crucial role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. A wide spectrum of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to different epitopes on the N and C domains of human ACE have been used to study different aspects of ACE biology. In this study, we characterized a set of nine mAbs, developed against the C domain of human ACE, which recognize the denatured forms of ACE and thus are suitable for the detection and quantification of somatic ACE (sACE) and testicular ACE (tACE) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded human tissues. The epitopes for these mAbs were defined using species cross-reactivity, phage display library screening, Western blotting and ACE mutagenesis. Most of the mAbs recognized common/overlapping region(s) on both somatic and testicular forms of human ACE, whereas mAb 4E10 was relatively specific for the testicular isoform and mAb 5B9 mainly recognized the glycan attached to Asn 731. This set of mAbs is useful for identifying even subtle changes in human ACE conformation because of denaturation. These mAbs are also sensitive tools for the detection of human sACE and tACE in biological fluids and tissues using proteomic approaches. Their high reactivity in paraffin-embedded tissues provides opportunities to study changes in the pattern of ACE expression and glycosylation (particularly with mAb 5B9) in different tissues and cells.

  14. Comparative evaluation of practical functionality of rapid test format kits for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce and leafy greens.

    PubMed

    D'Lima, C B; Suslow, T V

    2009-12-01

    Multistate outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in 2005 and 2006 associated with fresh and especially minimally processed produce greatly escalated the application of rapid pathogen detection systems to safety management in this food category. Pathogen testing was rapidly integrated into preharvest qualification for field lots, incoming raw produce, or final product. The raw produce and final product were incorporated into test-and-hold programs, typically within a 10-h time frame. To enhance consumer safety and provide guidance for the industry, an assessment of selected kits in comparison to a culture-based method was undertaken. Four primary kits were compared: the Neogen Reveal, SDI RapidChek, BioControl GDS O157, and Qualicon BAX O157 MP. Nine different leafy greens were freshly harvested and inoculated with a five-isolate mixture of E. coli O157:H7 at 10 CFU/25 g of sample, and cultures were enriched following the specified protocol. The PCR method was most consistent for identifying the presence of the inoculated pathogen in the shortest period of time. For the red-pigmented leafy vegetables red butter lettuce, curly endive, red lettuce, and lollo rosa, 13, 38, 88, and 100% false-negative results, respectively, were obtained with the immunoassays, but PCR detection was minimally affected. Immunoassays were negatively affected by delays in achieving critical threshold populations during the allowed enrichment period. Leafy green type, temperature abuse, and preharvest environment were unlikely to affect the results of PCR-based kits. Findings strongly suggest that product testing systems using 8-h detection cutoffs may give false-negative results. These issues become very important in high-throughput testing and retest protocols for presumptive pathogen-positive lots of produce.

  15. [Detection of the rotavirus group antigen by a screening test using the ELISA-IC kit in subjects with acute gastroenteritis, at the pediatric services of Moldavia].

    PubMed

    Avram, G; Zavate, O; Combiescu, A A; Perşu, A; Ivan, A; Constantiniu, S; Pancu, V; Popovici, S; Boghean, T; Nicola, P

    1987-01-01

    The rotaviral antigen was detected by a screening test using the ELISA-IC kit in 17.6% out of 415 children with acute gastroenteritis. The highest frequency (28.9%) was found in children hospitalized in pediatric services with a diagnosis of diarrhoeic disease associated to acute respiratory infection. The rotavirus infection incidence was about three times higher during the cold season than during summer (30.4% versus 10.5%). The 6-11 month age group was the most severely affected.

  16. Evaluation of peptide nucleic acid-mediated multiplex real-time PCR kits for rapid detection of carbapenemase genes in gram-negative clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seri; Kim, Jung Ok; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Bae, Il Kwon; Song, Wonkeun

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of clinical isolates of carbapenemase-producing microbes confers multidrug-resistance to these bacteria and renders them difficult to treat. This study was performed to evaluate peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe-based multiplex real-time PCR kits used to detect carbapenemase genes. In total, 324 carbapenemase genes, collected from 318 gram-negative clinical isolates in 36 different hospital laboratories, were assayed to evaluate multiplex real-time PCR kits (PANAGENE; Daejeon, Korea). The nine most prevalent carbapenemase genes (KPC, OXA-48, GES, IMP, VIM, NDM, ISAba1-OXA-51, OXA-23, and OXA-58) were included in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex real-time PCR assay to all of the carbapenemase genes were above 99.0%, except for ISAba1-OXA-51. The detection limit of the assay was 100 target copies per 25 μL of reaction volume for all of the nine genetic types of carbapenemases, and the genes were all detected in a single three-hour PCR. The assay also showed considerable efficiency (above 80.0%), stable reproducibility (coefficient of variation, below 5.0%) and a long shelf-life (more than eight months) with no cross reactivity. The developed PNA-mediated multiplex real-time PCR assay was useful for the rapid, accurate and simultaneous identification of nine carbapenemase genes in gram-negative clinical isolates, suggesting its potential to help choose the appropriate antibiotics and aid the control of carbapenemase genes.

  17. ACES's Challenges: Past Presidents Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeley, Vernon Lee

    1990-01-01

    Recognizes the golden anniversary of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) and presents the statements of 15 past presidents of the association. Presidential leaders briefly review the association's past and suggest opportunities to help create a promising future for ACES. Outlines nine challenges which confront members of…

  18. FIRE_ACE_SHIP_SSFR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    FIRE_ACE_SHIP_SSFR Project Title:  FIRE III ACE Discipline:  ... Level:  L3 Platform:  SHEBA Ship Instrument:  Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer ... Info:  Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) Ship SCAR-B Block:  SCAR-B Products ...

  19. FIRE_ACE_UTRECHT_TOWER

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    FIRE_ACE_UTRECHT_TOWER Project Title:  FIRE II ACE Discipline:  ... L3 Platform:  SHEBA Ship Site; Meteorological tower Instrument:  Eppley precision pyrgeometers Meteorological tower Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding ...

  20. Performance of a TthPrimPol-based whole genome amplification kit for copy number alteration detection using massively parallel sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Deleye, Lieselot; De Coninck, Dieter; Dheedene, Annelies; De Sutter, Petra; Menten, Björn; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Starting from only a few cells, current whole genome amplification (WGA) methods provide enough DNA to perform massively parallel sequencing (MPS). Unfortunately, all current WGA methods introduce representation bias which limits detection of copy number aberrations (CNAs) smaller than 3 Mb. A recent WGA method, called TruePrime single cell WGA, uses a recently discovered DNA primase, TthPrimPol, instead of artificial primers to initiate DNA amplification. This method could lead to a lower representation bias, and consequently to a better detection of CNAs. The enzyme requires no complementarity and thus should generate random primers, equally distributed across the genome. The performance of TruePrime WGA was assessed for aneuploidy screening and CNA analysis after MPS, starting from 1, 3 or 5 cells. Although the method looks promising, the single cell TruePrime WGA kit v1 is not suited for high resolution CNA detection after MPS because too much representation bias is introduced. PMID:27546482

  1. Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations (ACES). Phase 1. Concept. Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    63 6-3 Schematic Layout of the York Fiber- Optic DTS System... optic thermal detection system. XS Federal Aviation Administration Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations (ACES) Final Report II N ’(0) 1 ( .i...fiber optic (York) 2.1 (OBECTIVES OF STUDY S;ivo n Imoli.0it ,moke, fire emergency: The oh1cctivc tf the ACES study was to develop two system concepts

  2. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum by Patho-TB kit in comparison with direct microscopy and culture.

    PubMed

    Ben-Selma, Walid; Ben-Kahla, Imen; Marzouk, Manel; Ferjeni, Asma; Ghezal, Samira; Ben-Said, Moncef; Boukadida, Jalel

    2009-11-01

    The usefulness of a new rapid diagnostic test (Patho-TB) using antibodies specific to mycobacterial antigens was evaluated for the rapid discrimination between pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and non-TB pulmonary diseases on sputa. One hundred sputa collected from 79 active TB patients and from 21 patients with non-TB pulmonary diseases (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) were enrolled into the study and tested for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Ziehl-Neelsen smear, Patho-TB kit, and Löwenstein-Jensen culture. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Patho-TB test were 95%, 100%, 100%, and 84%, respectively. Patho-TB test is simple, quick, and easy to perform. Its sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value are satisfactory. Therefore, it could be used as a screening test in poorly equipped laboratories of TB endemic areas.

  3. Molecular alterations of KIT oncogene in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ana L; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Lopes, José M; Martinho, Olga; Lambros, Maryou B K; Martins, Albino; Schmitt, Fernando; Pardal, Fernando; Reis, Rui M

    2007-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common and devastating primary brain tumours. Despite therapeutic advances, the majority of gliomas do not respond either to chemo or radiotherapy. KIT, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is frequently involved in tumourigenic processes. Currently, KIT constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. In the present study we assessed the frequency of KIT overexpression in gliomas and investigated the genetic mechanisms underlying KIT overexpression. KIT (CD117) immunohistochemistry was performed in a series of 179 gliomas of various grades. KIT activating gene mutations (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17) and gene amplification analysis, as defined by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were performed in CD117 positive cases. Tumour cell immunopositivity was detected in 15.6% (28/179) of cases, namely in 25% (1/4) of pilocytic astrocytomas, 25% (5/20) of diffuse astrocytomas, 20% (1/5) of anaplastic astrocytomas, 19.5% (15/77) of glioblastomas and one third (3/9) of anaplastic oligoastrocytomas. Only 5.7% (2/35) of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas showed CD117 immunoreactivity. No association was found between tumour CD117 overexpression and patient survival. In addition, we also observed CD117 overexpression in endothelial cells, which varied from 0-22.2% of cases, being more frequent in high-grade lesions. No KIT activating mutations were identified. Interestingly, CISH and/or qRT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of KIT gene amplification in 6 glioblastomas and 2 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, corresponding to 33% (8/24) of CD117 positive cases. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that KIT gene amplification rather than gene mutation is a common genetic mechanism underlying KIT expression in subset of malignant gliomas. Further studies are warranted to determine whether glioma patients exhibiting KIT overexpression and KIT gene amplification may benefit from therapy with anti-KIT RTK inhibitors.

  4. Comparison of Five Commercial Nucleic Acid Extraction Kits for the PCR-based Detection of Burkholderia Pseudomallei DNA in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    PubMed

    Obersteller, Sonja; Neubauer, Heinrich; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen

    2016-09-29

    The extraction and further processing of nucleic acids (NA) from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues for microbiological diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches is challenging. Here, we assessed the effects of five different commercially available nucleic acid extraction kits on the results of real-time PCR. FFPE samples from organs of Burkholderia pseudomallei-infected Swiss mice were subjected to processing with five different extraction kits from QIAGEN (FFPE DNA Tissue Kit, EZ1 DNA Tissue Kit, DNA Mini Kit, DNA Blood Mini Kit, and FlexiGene DNA Kit) in combination with three different real-time PCRs targeting B. pseudomallei-specific sequences of varying length after 16 years of storage. The EZ1 DNA Tissue Kit and the DNA Mini Kit scored best regarding the numbers of successful PCR reactions. In case of positive PCR, differences regarding the cycle-threshold (Ct) values were marginal. The impact of the applied extraction kits on the reliability of PCR from FFPE material seems to be low. Interfering factors like the quality of the dewaxing procedure or the sample age appear more important than the selection of specialized FFPE kits.

  5. [ACE inhibitors and the kidney].

    PubMed

    Hörl, W H

    1996-01-01

    Treatment with ACE inhibitors results in kidney protection due to reduction of systemic blood pressure, intraglomerular pressure, an antiproliferative effect, reduction of proteinuria and a lipid-lowering effect in proteinuric patients (secondary due to reduction of protein excretion). Elderly patients with diabetes melitus, coronary heart disease or peripheral vascular occlusion are at risk for deterioration of kidney function due to a high frequency of renal artery stenosis in these patients. In patients with renal insufficiency dose reduction of ACE inhibitors is necessary (exception: fosinopril) but more important is the risk for development of hyperkalemia. Patients at risk for renal artery stenosis and patients pretreated with diuretics should receive a low ACE inhibitor dosage initially ("start low - go slow"). For compliance reasons once daily ACE inhibitor dosage is recommended.

  6. Atmospheric Constituent Explorer System (ACES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrach, M. R.; Madzunkov, S.; Neidholdt, E.; Simcic, J.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the Atmospheric Constituent Explorer System (ACES), a mass spectrometer based instrument for atmospheric probe missions (e.g. Venus and ice giant) that can determine abundances and isotopic ratios of the noble-gases and trace species.

  7. ACE3 Draft Indicators: Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The page information was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 – April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.

  8. ACE3 Draft Indicators: Biomonitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The page information was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 – April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.

  9. LAT-1 Based Primary Breast Cancer Detection by [99m]Tc-Labeled DTPA-Bis-Methionine Scintimammography: First Results Using Indigenously Developed Single Vial Kit Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sarika; Mishra, Anil K.; Rathod, Deepti; Hazari, Puja Panwar; Chuttani, Krishna; Chopra, Shalini; Singh, Paramvir Mangat; Abrar, M.L.; Mittal, Bhagwant R.; Singh, Gurpreet

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic utility of a single vial ready to label with [99m]Tc kit preparation of DTPA-bis-methionine (DTPA-bis-MET) for the detection of primary breast cancer. Methods: The conjugate (DTPA-bis-MET) was synthesized by covalently conjugating two molecules of methionine to DTPA and formulated as a single vial ready to label with [99m]Tc lyophilized kit preparations. Thirty female patients (mean age=47.5±11.8 years; range=21–69 years) with radiological/clinical evidence of having primary breast carcinoma were subjected to [99m]Tc-methionine scintigraphy. The whole body (anterior and posterior) imaging was performed on all the patients at 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 4 hours following an intravenous administration of 555–740 MBq radioactivity of [99m]Tc-methionine. In addition, scintimammography (static images; 256×256 matrix) at 1, 2, and 4 hours was also performed on all the patients. Results: The resultant radiolabel, that is, [99m]Tc-DTPA-bis-MET, yielded high radiolabeling efficiency (>97.0%), radiochemical purity (166–296 MBq/μmol), and shelf life (>3 months). The radiotracer primarily gets excreted through the kidneys and localizes in the breast cancer lesions with high target-to-nontarget ratios. The mean±SD ratios on the scan-positive lesions acquired at 1, 2, and 4 hours postinjection were 3.6±0.48, 3.10±0.24, and 2.5±0.4, respectively. [99m]Tc-methionine scintimammography demonstrated an excellent sensitivity and positive predictive value of 96.0% each for the detection of primary breast cancer. Conclusion: Ready to label single vial kit formulations of DTPA-bis-MET can be easily synthesized as in-house production and conveniently used for the scintigraphic detection of breast cancer and other methionine-dependent tumors expressing the L-type amino acid transporter-1 receptor. The imaging technique thus could be a potential substitute for the conventional single-photon emission computed

  10. Kits in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Maureen

    1975-01-01

    Discusses three kits developed by museums in British Columbia for use in rural classrooms. The science kit on marine biology consists of modules which included specimens, books, audiovisual materials and student activities. (BR)

  11. Evaluation of the IDS One-Step ELISA kits for the detection of illicit drugs in hair.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Marie-Laure; Cirimele, Vincent; Tritsch, Pierre Julien; Villain, Marion; Kintz, Pascal

    2007-08-06

    This work presents the validation of a new immunological assay, the One-Step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests from International Diagnostic Systems Corp. for the screening of drugs of abuse (cannabis, amphetamines, opiates, and cocaine) in human hair, with subsequent GC-MS confirmation. After decontamination and segmentation into small pieces, 50 mg of hair sample were incubated in 1 ml of methanol during 16 h at 40 degrees C. A 100 microL aliquot was collected and evaporated to dryness in presence of 100 microL of methanol/hydrochloric acid (99:1, v/v) to avoid amphetamines loss. The dried extract was dissolved in 100 microL of the "sample and standard diluent" solution included in the kit. This solution was submitted to analysis according to the recommended instructions of the manufacturer. During the validation phase, GC-MS confirmations were conducted according to our fully validated and published methods for opiates, cocaine, cannabis, and amphetamines determinations in hair. In a last development step, these procedures were slightly modified to directly confirm ELISA results by GC-MS using the methanolic extract. Ninety-three specimens were simultaneously screened by the ELISA tests (103 for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) and confirmed by GC-MS. Twenty were found positive for cannabis (THC: 0.10-6.50 ng/mg), 21 for cocaine (0.50-55.20 ng/mg), 24 for opiates (6-acetylmorphine (6-AM): 0.20-11.60 ng/mg, MOR: 0.20-8.90 ng/mg, codeine (COD): 0.20-5.90 ng/mg), and 13 for amphetamines (AP: 0.20 and 0.27 ng/mg, methamphetamine (MAP): 0.30 and 1.10 ng/mg, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): 0.22-17.80 ng/mg). No false negative results were observed according to the Society of Hair Testing's (SoHT) cutoffs (0.5 ng/mg for cocaine, 0.2 ng/mg for opiates and amphetamines, and 0.1 ng/mg for THC). The One-Step ELISA kits appear suitable due to their sensitivity and specificity for drug of abuse screening in hair. This technology should find interest in

  12. Johnny Horizon Environmental Test Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Richard; Bentley, William

    Derived from tests presently used by state and federal agencies involved with pollution detection, this Environmental Test Kit contains materials and instructions for ten experiments. Each experiment is designed to test a different aspect of air and water, to find out whether or not the air and water in the tester's immediate area has been…

  13. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  14. GridKit

    SciTech Connect

    Peles, Slaven

    2016-11-06

    GridKit is a software development kit for interfacing power systems and power grid application software with high performance computing (HPC) libraries developed at National Labs and academia. It is also intended as interoperability layer between different numerical libraries. GridKit is not a standalone application, but comes with a suite of test examples illustrating possible usage.

  15. Field and Pretreatment-free Detection of Heavy Metal Ions in Organic Polluted Water through Alkyne-coded SERS Test Kit.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Ren, Jia-Qiang; Shen, Ai-Guo; Hu, Ji-Ming

    2016-10-03

    Field and pretreatment-free detection of heavy metal ions in organic polluted water is important but still challenging in current water pollution emergency response system. Here we report a Poly adenine-DNA-mediated approach for rationally designed alkyne-coded surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) test kit, enabling rapid and simultaneous detection of Hg2+ and Ag+ by portable spectrometer, impervious to organic interferences. Due to the formation of thymine (T)-Hg2+-T and cytosine (C)-Ag+-C, highly recognizable SERS signals are rapidly detected when two different alkynes labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are induced to undergo controllable bridging upon the additive of low volume targets. For multiplex detection through portable spectrometer, the limits of detection reach 0.77 nM and 0.86 nM for Hg2+ and Ag+, respectively. Of particular significance, the proposed C≡C contained Raman reporters provide an extremely effective solution for multiplex sensing in spectral silent region when the hyperspectral and fair intense optical noises originating from lower wave number region (<1800 cm-1) are inevitable under complex ambient conditions.

  16. Using a combination of MLPA kits to detect chromosomal imbalances in patients with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation is a valuable choice for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jehee, Fernanda Sarquis; Takamori, Jean Tetsuo; Medeiros, Paula F Vasconcelos; Pordeus, Ana Carolina B; Latini, Flavia Roche M; Bertola, Débora Romeo; Kim, Chong Ae; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2011-01-01

    Conventional karyotyping detects anomalies in 3-15% of patients with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (MCA/MR). Whole-genome array screening (WGAS) has been consistently suggested as the first choice diagnostic test for this group of patients, but it is very costly for large-scale use in developing countries. We evaluated the use of a combination of Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) kits to increase the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in MCA/MR patients. We screened 261 MCA/MR patients with two subtelomeric and one microdeletion kits. This would theoretically detect up to 70% of all submicroscopic abnormalities. Additionally we scored the de Vries score for 209 patients in an effort to find a suitable cut-off for MLPA screening. Our results reveal that chromosomal abnormalities were present in 87 (33.3%) patients, but only 57 (21.8%) were considered causative. Karyotyping detected 15 abnormalities (6.9%), while MLPA identified 54 (20.7%). Our combined MLPA screening raised the total detection number of pathogenic imbalances more than three times when compared to conventional karyotyping. We also show that using the de Vries score as a cut-off for this screening would only be suitable under financial restrictions. A decision analytic model was constructed with three possible strategies: karyotype, karyotype + MLPA and karyotype + WGAS. Karyotype + MLPA strategy detected anomalies in 19.8% of cases which account for 76.45% of the expected yield for karyotype + WGAS. Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) of MLPA is three times lower than that of WGAS, which means that, for the same costs, we have three additional diagnoses with MLPA but only one with WGAS. We list all causative alterations found, including rare findings, such as reciprocal duplications of regions deleted in Sotos and Williams-Beuren syndromes. We also describe imbalances that were considered polymorphisms or rare variants, such as the new SNP

  17. Evaluation of Commercially Available Cyanide Test Kits against Various Matrices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    EVALUATION OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE CYANIDE TEST KITS AGAINST VARIOUS MATRICES ECBC-TR-1382 Darren W. Hicklin...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Mar 2015 – Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Commercially Available Cyanide Test Kits against Various...available cyanide -detection test kits or strips were selected for evaluation based upon a premarket survey: Quantofix test strips, Cyantesmo test paper

  18. Development of an in-house fast real-time PCR method for detection of fish allergen in foods and comparison with a commercial kit.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Beatriz; Vieites, Juan M; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2014-05-15

    Food allergy is recognised as an important human health problem. Fish represent one of the most important causes of food hypersensitivity reaction. Small amounts of the allergen can cause severe reactions in sensitive individuals, so correct labelling is essential to ensure the protection of consumers. The objective of the present work was to develop a reliable, sensitive and specific real-time PCR method for the detection of fish and traces of fish in all kind of products included those that have undergone aggressive treatments such as high temperature or pressure. This methodology was validated simulating products likely to contain this allergen and spiking them with fish cooking water. In addition, a comparison between the performance of in-house methodology and a commercial kit, both of them based on real-time PCR, was carried out. This work is relevant because it is the first, rapid real-time PCR method developed to date for the detection of fish in processed food products. The results obtained confirm the present assay is a useful tool in detecting fish and, therefore, minimising exposure and reducing incidences of allergic reaction to fish in contaminated products.

  19. Evaluation of the performance of the IQ-check kits and the USDA microbiology laboratory guidebook methods for detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC) and STEC and Salmonella simultaneously in ground beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To evaluate the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top 7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in ground beef and both STEC and Salmonella in co-inoculated samples. M...

  20. Analysis of KIT expression and KIT exon 11 mutations in canine oral malignant melanomas.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A; Mori, T; Sakai, H; Murakami, M; Yanai, T; Hoshino, Y; Maruo, K

    2011-09-01

    KIT, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, is one of the specific targets for anti-cancer therapy. In humans, its expression and mutations have been identified in malignant melanomas and therapies using molecular-targeted agents have been promising in these tumours. As human malignant melanoma, canine malignant melanoma is a fatal disease with metastases and the poor response has been observed with all standard protocols. In our study, KIT expression and exon 11 mutations in dogs with histologically confirmed malignant oral melanomas were evaluated. Although 20 of 39 cases were positive for KIT protein, there was no significant difference between KIT expression and overall survival. Moreover, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of KIT exon 11 in 17 samples did not detect any mutations and proved disappointing. For several reasons, however, KIT expression and mutations of various exons including exon 11 should be investigated in more cases.

  1. Creation of learning kits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stow, D. A.; Estes, J. E.; Mertz, F. C.

    1981-01-01

    A learning kit is an essential part of any remote sensing workshop, course, or in-house training program to provide the "hands-on" experience of working with remotely sensed imagery. This is the objective of laboratory and field exercises as well as the reason behind the production of imagery/map kits. The way in which these learning kits (containing conventional remotely sensed and collateral data products) are put together is described and some concerns that influence the creation of learning kits are discussed. These include budgetary constraints, number of imagery types, and number of collateral data types.

  2. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.

    2017-01-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), also called SCISAT, is a Canadian-led small satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere. ACE was launched into a low Earth circular orbit by NASA on August 12, 2003 and it continues to function nominally. The ACE instruments are a high spectral resolution (0.02 cm-1) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2.2 to 13.3 μm (750-4400 cm-1), a spectrophotometer known as Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (MAESTRO) with wavelength coverage of 285-1020 nm and two filtered detector arrays to image the Sun at 0.525 and 1.02 μm. ACE operates in solar occultation mode to provide altitude profiles of temperature, pressure, atmospheric extinction and the volume mixing ratios (VMRs) for several dozen molecules and related isotopologues. This paper presents a mission overview and a summary of selected scientific results.

  3. Comparison of six commercial DNA extraction kits for detection of Brucella neotomae in Mexican and Central American-style cheese and other milk products.

    PubMed

    Lusk, Tina S; Strain, Errol; Kase, Julie A

    2013-05-01

    Raw or inadequately pasteurized milk from infected animals and cheese made with such milk are a frequent vehicle for human brucellosis infection. Also, biological terrorism is a concern with certain Brucella spp. Due to matrix-associated real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) inhibitors, robust sample preparations are crucial. We compared six commercial nucleic acid extraction kits using nine Mexican and Central American-style soft cheeses or creams and three liquid milk products inoculated with Brucella neotomae, a surrogate for pathogenic Brucella spp. Kits were evaluated by purity and quantity of DNA as determined by qPCR Ct values, reproducibility across cheese and milk types, and cost. At 10(7) CFU/g in four different cheeses, Qiagen statistically outperformed all other kits. When two cheese styles were inoculated at dual levels, Qiagen and High Pure kit extracted samples at 1.5 × 10(5) CFU/g produced average Ct values of 34-39, while PrepSEQ and MagMAX kit extracted samples exhibited higher or no Ct values. High Pure and Qiagen kits excelled also with liquid milk products. Considering matrices, inoculation levels, and kits evaluated, High Pure and Qiagen products produced Brucella DNA of high quality and quantity indicated by the lowest Ct values and were the least expensive.

  4. Performance of rapid-test kits for the detection of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Kuo, Yung-Bin; Huang, Chung-Guei; Chau, Shao-Wen; Chan, Err-Cheng

    2011-05-01

    The early detection of pandemic influenza strains is a key factor for clinicians in treatment decisions and infection control practices. The aims of this study were to determine the analytical sensitivity and clinical performance of the commercially available influenza rapid tests in Taiwan. Four rapid tests for influenza virus (BinaxNow test, QuickVue test, TRU test, and Formosa Rapid test) were evaluated for their detection limit against four influenza viruses (the 2009 pandemic influenza A virus H1N1, seasonal influenza virus H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B virus) circulating in Taiwan. The viral load of these isolates were quantified by rtRT-PCR and then diluted 2-fold serially for the comparison. The lowest detectable viral load of the pandemic influenza A virus H1N1 by the Formosa Rapid test, QuickVue test, TRU test, and Binax Now test was 5.3×10(4), 1.0×10(5), 1.0×10(5), and 4.2×10(5)copies/μL, respectively. Of these four tests, the two most sensitive tests (the QuickVue test and the Formosa Rapid test) were chosen to evaluate 62 nasopharyngeal specimens from patients who were suspected of infection with pandemic influenza A virus H1N1. The positive rate for the Formosa Rapid test and the QuickVue test were 53.2% (33/62) and 45.2% (28/62) (McNemar's test, P=0.125), respectively. In conclusion, the Formosa Rapid test was the most sensitive test in the present study for the detection of influenza antigens and its clinical performance was similar to that of the QuickVue test (Kappa=0.776). This suggests that the Formosa Rapid test could be used to aid clinical decision making in primary health care settings during outbreaks of influenza.

  5. Accuracy of a Stick-Type Kit and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in Detecting Helicobacter pylori Antibodies in Urine of People Living in the Japan Sea Region of Northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Tadashi; Sawada, Yoshihiko; Sawada, Naoya; Chinda, Daisuke; Fukuda, Shinsaku

    2017-03-24

    In Japan, both a stick-type kit and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit are available for the detection of antibodies to Helicobacter pylori in urine. However, the accuracy of these tests has not been fully examined in northern Japanese populations. Urine samples from 359 subjects were tested using a stick-type H. pylori-antibody detection kit (RAPIRUN), and urine samples from 201 subjects were tested using an ELISA-based test (URINELISA). The prevalence of H. pylori infection was determined by the (13)C-urea breath test (UBT) and a monoclonal antibody-based stool antigen test (TPAg). Subjects were considered to have the infection if either the UBT or rapid TPAg results were positive. The percentage of positive test results for RAPIRUN and URINELISA was 54.0% and 40.8%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% and 67.0%, respectively, for RAPIRUN and 86.5% and 85.8% for URINELISA. Nineteen subjects had cut-off index values of between 0.4 and 0.9 by URINELISA, and 4 of these subjects (21.1%) were found to be infected with H. pylori. The urine-based ELISA was more accurate than the rapid stick-type kit in these patients. If negative ELISA results are near the cut-off value, subjects should receive an additional test to determine whether they are infected with H. pylori.

  6. Performance Enhancement of the Automated Concrete Evaluation System (ACES)

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgart,C.W.; Cave,S.P.; Linder,K.E.

    2002-02-14

    The objective of this proposed research is to improve and expand the detection and analysis capabilities of the automated, concrete evaluation (ACE) system. MoDOT and Honeywell jointly developed this system. The focus of this proposed research will be on the following: Coordination of concrete imaging efforts with other states, Validation and testing of the ACE system on a broad range of concrete samples, and Identification and development of software and hardware enhancements. These enhancements will meet the needs of diverse users in the field of concrete materials, construction, and research.

  7. ACE TECH: The Fourth Year of CTE and Academic Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Eileen Quinn; Donahue, John; Knight, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    It only takes an hour or two of roaming the halls of Architecture, Construction and Engineering (ACE) Tech Charter High School to detect an enduring attitude of accomplishment from both the teachers and the students. This atmosphere is intentional. The school, located in Chicago, was created specifically to hone the skills of individuals choosing…

  8. Community Consultation Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulder Area Growth Study Commission, CO.

    This kit, designed for leaders and participants, provides a model for organizing and taking part in Community Consultation Groups. The kit was designed to be used in connection with community concerns about growth in Boulder, Colorado. These groups build upon a previous survey to assist the Commission in determining specific growth concerns in the…

  9. The utilization of a commercial soil nucleic acid extraction kit and PCR for the detection of Clostridium tetanus and Clostridium chauvoei on farms after flooding in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shr-Wei; Chan, Jacky Peng-Wen; Shia, Wei-Yau; Shyu, Chin-Lin; Tung, Kwon-Chung; Wang, Chi-Young

    2013-05-02

    Clostridial diseases are zoonoses and are classified as soil-borne diseases. Clostridium chauvoei and Clostridium tetani cause blackleg disease and tetanus, respectively. Since bacteria and spores are re-distributed by floods and then, subsequently, contaminate soils, pastures and water; the case numbers associated with clostridial diseases usually increase after floods. Because Taiwan is often affected by flood damage during the typhoon season, possible threats from these diseases are present. Thus, this study's aim is to apply a combination of a commercial nucleic acid extraction kit and PCR to assess the prevalence of Clostridia spp. in soil and to compare the positivity rates for farms before and after floods. The minimum amounts of Clostridium tetanus and Clostridium chauvoei that could be extracted from soils and detected by PCR were 10 and 50 colony forming units (cfu), respectively. In total, 76 samples were collected from the central and southern regions of Taiwan, which are the areas that are most frequently damaged by typhoons. Noteworthy, the positive rates for Clostridium tetanus and Clostridium chauvoei in Pingtung county after the severe floods caused by a typhoon increased significantly from 13.73 and 7.84% to 53.85 and 50.00%, respectively. This study for the first time provides the evidence from surveillance data that there are changes in the environmental distribution of Clostridium spp. after floods. This study indicates that screening for soil-related zoonotic pathogens is a potential strategy that may help to control these diseases.

  10. [Pilot study of the Deosan-RMTK (rapid mastitis test kit), a diagnostic test for the detection of cows with high cell count].

    PubMed

    Noordhuizen, J P; Stassen, E N; Klerx, I

    1993-05-15

    The Deosan-Rapid Mastitis Test Kit (RMTK) was evaluated in 226 lactating dairy cows on 6 farms. The Fossomatic method was used as reference standard for somatic cell counts in cows milk. The RMTK test-principle regards the reaction of the enzyme catalase released from cells in milk with the H2O2 in the RMTK-reagent. For the threshold cell count values of 250,000, 400,000 and 800,000/ml the following 95% confidence intervals were found: sensitivity 0.60-0.99 specificity 0.42-0.83, predictive value positive 0.22-0.46, predictive value negative 0.84-0.99 and kappa-value 0.14-0.52. Because this test will be most useful when the positive predictive value would be high, it is concluded that the RMTK in this study population was not an adequate tool for the detection of cows with somatic cell counts over 250,000/ml milk.

  11. Evaluation of the Pan Influenza detection kit utilizing the PLEX-ID and influenza samples from the 2011 respiratory season.

    PubMed

    A Murillo, Luis; Hardick, Justin; Jeng, Kevin; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2013-10-01

    A comparison study was performed between the PLEX-ID and the CDC RT-PCR method for the detection and identification of Influenza A viruses using nasopharyngeal samples (N=75) collected between January and May 2011. Overall agreement was 89.3% (67/75 kappa=0.57 95% CI 0.3-0.89). Positive percent agreement was 92.3% (60/65); negative percent agreement was 70% (7/10). H1N1 pdm09 identified: 42.6% (32/75) and 54.7% (41/75) by PLEX-ID and CDC RT-PCR, respectively. H3N2 identified: 29.3% (22/75) and 32% (24/75) of samples by PLEX-ID and CDC RT-PCR, respectively. Negatives identified: 16% (12/75) and 13.3% (10/75), by PLEX-ID and CDC RT-PCR respectively. For influenza viruses identified as H1N1 pdm09, Influenza A virus A/NEW YORK/15/2009(H1N1 pdm09) was the most prevalent genotype at 50% (16/32), followed by A/CALIFORNIA/05/2009(H1N1 pdm09) at 18.2% (6/32). Updated assay plates containing additional primers designed for H1N1 pdm09 HA and NA genes were utilized for this evaluation. Among H1N1 pdm09 samples, the HA gene was conserved in 96.9% (31/32) of samples. The NA gene was conserved in 96.9% (31/32).

  12. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  13. ACE2 Inhibits Angiotensin II-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, QingQing; Dong, XueFei; Chen, Xu; Yan, Feng; Wang, Xiaoyu; Shi, Haishui; Dong, Bo

    2017-01-31

    Recent study have demonstrated that ACE2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA). But, little study was reported about the direct effect of ACE2 overexpression on the aneurysm. In this study, we hypothesize that overexpression of ACE2 may prevent the pathogenesis of aneurysm by decreasing RAS activation. Thirty-nine Mice were assigned to 3 groups randomly (n=13 in each group), ACE2 group, Ad.EGFP group and Control group. After 8-week treatment, abdominal aortas with AAA were obtained for HE staining, VVG, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The incidence and severity of AAA, macrophage infiltration and MMP protein expression were all detected. The results showed that ACE2 gene transfer significantly decreased the occurrence of AAA and inhibited AAA formation in ApoE-/- mice by inhibiting inflammatory response and MMP activation, the mechanisms may involve decreased ERK and AngII-NF-kB signaling pathways.

  14. First aid kit

    MedlinePlus

    ... bandages (Band-Aid or similar brand); assorted sizes Aluminum finger splints Elastic (ACE) bandage for wrapping wrist, ... to reduce contamination risk Save-A-Tooth storage device in case a tooth is broken or knocked out; ... equipment, and medical supplies. In: Auerbach PS, ed. Auerbach: Wilderness Medicine . ...

  15. Burn Wise Awareness Kit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Health and safety outreach materials in the form of an awareness kit. Designed specifically for state, local, and tribal air agencies working to reduce wood smoke pollution, it includes best burn tips, social media m

  16. Rapid detection of group A streptococci: comparative performance by nurses and laboratory technologists in pediatric satellite laboratories using three test kits.

    PubMed Central

    Donatelli, J; Macone, A; Goldmann, D A; Poon, R; Hinberg, I; Nanji, A; Thorne, G M

    1992-01-01

    Rapid tests for detecting group A streptococci in throat swabs are often performed outside hospitals or commercial laboratories by individuals with little or no technical training. We compared the abilities of nurses and technologists to perform and interpret three commercial kits (Directigen 1-2-3, ICON Strep A, and Culturette Brand 10-Minute Strep A ID) in three hospital satellite locations (the emergency department, a walk-in emergency clinic, and a general pediatric clinic). When the three tests were compared with culture, the sensitivities of the tests as performed by nurses and technologists, respectively, were 39 versus 44% for Directigen, 55 versus 51% for Culturette, and 72 versus 39% for ICON. A significant difference in sensitivity was found only with ICON tests. This result was largely explained by the tendency of technologists to test moist swabs, while nurses generally processed dry swabs; ICON test sensitivity was significantly greater with dry swabs. The specificities of Directigen and ICON tests performed by nurses and technologists were high (97 to 100%). The difference in the specificities of the Culturette test as determined from results obtained by nurses and technologists (80 versus 98%) was due to the tendency of one nurse to overinterpret the latex agglutination reaction. Analysis of the accuracies of the tests during practice periods compared with the accuracies of the tests during the study periods revealed statistically significant improvement in test performance. We conclude that these tests are specific but not sensitive when performed by nurses and technologists in satellite laboratories. With one exception, nurses and technologists performed the tests with comparable accuracy after brief training periods. PMID:1734045

  17. ACE2 alterations in kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Soler, María José; Wysocki, Jan; Batlle, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a monocarboxypeptidase that degrades angiotensin (Ang) II to Ang-(1–7). ACE2 is highly expressed within the kidneys, it is largely localized in tubular epithelial cells and less prominently in glomerular epithelial cells and in the renal vasculature. ACE2 activity has been shown to be altered in diabetic kidney disease, hypertensive renal disease and in different models of kidney injury. There is often a dissociation between tubular and glomerular ACE2 expression, particularly in diabetic kidney disease where ACE2 expression is increased at the tubular level but decreased at the glomerular level. In this review, we will discuss alterations in circulating and renal ACE2 recently described in different renal pathologies and disease models as well as their possible significance. PMID:23956234

  18. Occurrence and fate of ACE-inhibitor peptides in cheeses and in their digestates following in vitro static gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Stuknytė, Milda; Cattaneo, Stefano; Masotti, Fabio; De Noni, Ivano

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of the casein-derived angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor (ACE-I) peptides VPP, IPP, RYLGY, RYLG, AYFYPEL, AYFYPE, LHLPLP and HLPLP were investigated in 12 different cheese samples by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. The total amount of ACE-I peptides was in the range 0.87-331mgkg(-1). VPP and IPP largely prevailed in almost all cheeses. Following in vitro static gastrointestinal digestion of Cheddar, Gorgonzola, Maasdam and Grana Padano cheeses, type and amount of ACE-I peptides changed, and only VPP, IPP, HLPLP and LHLPLP were detected in the intestinal digestates. The results evidenced that the degree of proteolysis itself cannot be regarded as a promoting or hindering factor for ACE-I peptide release during cheese digestion. Moreover, the data indicated that the ACE-I potential of cheeses cannot be inferred based on the type and amount of ACE-I peptides present in undigested samples.

  19. Alternative Roles of STAT3 and MAPK Signaling Pathways in the MMPs Activation and Progression of Lung Injury Induced by Cigarette Smoke Exposure in ACE2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yi-Han; Hsieh, Wen-Yeh; Hsieh, Jih-Sheng; Liu, Fon-Chang; Tsai, Chin-Hung; Lu, Li-Che; Huang, Chen-Yi; Wu, Chien-Liang; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation-mediated abnormalities in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of lung injury. Angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2), an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) homologue that displays antagonist effects on ACE/angiotensin II (Ang II) axis, could also play a protective role against lung diseases. However, the relationship between ACE2 and MMPs activation in lung injury is still largely unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether MMPs activity could be affected by ACE2 and which ACE2 derived signaling pathways could be also involved via using a mouse model with lung injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure for 1 to 3 weeks. Wild-type (WT; C57BL/6) and ACE2 KO mice (ACE2-/-) were utilized to study CS-induced lung injury. Increases in the resting respiratory rate (RRR), pulmonary immunokines, leukocyte infiltration and bronchial hyperplasia were observed in the CS-exposed mice. Compared to WT mice, more serious physiopathological changes were found in ACE2-/- mice in the first week of CS exposure. CS exposure increased pulmonary ACE and ACE2 activities in WT mice, and significantly increased ACE in ACE2-/- mice. Furthermore, the activity of pulmonary MMPs was decreased in CS-exposed WT mice, whereas this activity was increased in ACE2-/- mice. CS exposure increased the pulmonary p-p38, p-JNK and p-ERK1/2 level in all mice. In ACE2-/- mice, a significant increase p-STAT3 signaling was detected; however, no effect was observed on the p-STAT3 level in WT mice. Our results support the hypothesis that ACE2 deficiency influences MMPs activation and STAT3 phosphorylation signaling to promote more pulmonary inflammation in the development of lung injury. PMID:27019629

  20. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and ACE inhibitory peptides of salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysates obtained by human and porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Darewicz, Małgorzata; Borawska, Justyna; Vegarud, Gerd E; Minkiewicz, Piotr; Iwaniak, Anna

    2014-08-13

    The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes) and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes). Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50%) of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

  1. ACE program/UNIX user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Feng-Berman, S.K.

    1993-01-12

    This report the following: How to use the ace program?; Introduction to the ace program; Online command; Define a macro file; Macro commands; Counters and MCA; Counters usage; Counters database; Feedback Counter Database; MCA functions and macro command; X window Interclient Communication; and How to get around in UNIX?

  2. ACE program/UNIX user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Feng-Berman, S.K.

    1993-01-12

    This report the following: How to use the ace program ; Introduction to the ace program; Online command; Define a macro file; Macro commands; Counters and MCA; Counters usage; Counters database; Feedback Counter Database; MCA functions and macro command; X window Interclient Communication; and How to get around in UNIX

  3. Travel Medical Kit.

    PubMed

    Terry, Anne C; Haulman, N Jean

    2016-03-01

    "The traveler's medical kit is an essential tool for both the novice and expert traveler. It is designed to treat travel-related illness and injury and to ensure preexisting medical conditions are managed appropriately. Travelers are at increased risk for common gastrointestinal issues during travel. Respiratory illnesses make up approximately 8% of the ailments present in returned international travelers. Approximately 12% of travelers experience a travel-related skin condition. First aid treatment for minor injuries is essential to all travel medical kits. The complexity ranges from a small, simple case for the urban traveler to a larger, extensive case for wilderness travel."

  4. The Aerosol, Clouds and Ecosystem (ACE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M.; Remer, L.; Kahn, R.; Starr, D.; Hildebrand, P.; Colarco, P.; Diner, D.; Vane, D.; Im, E.; Behrenfeld, M.; Stephens, G.; Maring, H.; Bontempi, P.; Martins, J. V.

    2008-12-01

    The Aerosol, Clouds and Ecosystem (ACE) Mission is a second tier Decadal Survey mission designed to characterize the role of aerosols in climate forcing, especially their impact on precipitation and cloud formation. ACE also includes ocean biosphere measurements (chlorophyll and dissolved organic materials) which will be greatly improved by simultaneous measurements of aerosols. The nominal ACE payload includes lidar and multiangle spectropolarimetric polarimetric measurements of aerosols, radar measurements of clouds and multi-band spectrometer for the measurement of ocean ecosystems. An enhancement to ACE payload under consideration includes µ-wave radiometer measurements of cloud ice and water outside the nadir path of the radar/lidar beams. This talk will cover ACE instrument and science options, updates on the science team definition activity and science potential.

  5. ACE I/D Polymorphism in Hypertensive Patients of Kashmiri Population

    PubMed Central

    Sameer, A. Syed; Syeed, Nidda; Tak, Shahid A.; Bashir, Samina; Nissar, Saniya; Siddiqi, Mushtaq A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene in humans has an insertion-deletion (I/D) polymorphic state in intron 16 on chromosome 17q23. This polymorphism has been widely investigated in different diseases. In this study we aimed to investigate the ACE I/D genotype frequency in hypertensive cases in Kashmiri population. Materials and Methods We designed a case control study, where 52 hypertensive cases were studied for ACE I/D polymorphism against 150 age/sex matched controls taken from general population. The polymorphisms of ACE gene were investigated using polymerase chain reaction for detection of ACE I/D genotype. Fisher’s Chi square test was used for calculation of P value and OR. Results We found the frequency of ACE DD genotype to be 46.15% (24/52), II 23.07% (12/52) and DI 30.77% (16/52) in 52 hypertensive cases. Conclusions The ACE I/D genotype is positively associated with hypertension in our population.

  6. A new ELISA kit which uses a combination of Plasmodium falciparum extract and recombinant Plasmodium vivax antigens as an alternative to IFAT for detection of malaria antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Doderer, Cecile; Heschung, Aurelie; Guntz, Phillippe; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Hansmann, Yves; Senegas, Alexandre; Pfaff, Alexander W; Abdelrahman, Tamer; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2007-01-01

    Background The methods most commonly used to measure malarial antibody titres are the Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT), regarded as the gold standard, and the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). The objective here was to assess the diagnostic performance, i.e. the sensitivity and specificity, of a new malaria antibody ELISA kit in comparison to IFAT. This new ELISA kit, the ELISA malaria antibody test (DiaMed), uses a combination of crude soluble Plasmodium falciparum extract and recombinant Plasmodium vivax antigens. Methods Two groups were used: 95 samples from malaria patients to assess the clinical sensitivity and 2,152 samples from blood donors, who had not been exposed to malaria, to assess the clinical specificity. Results The DiaMed ELISA test kit had a clinical sensitivity of 84.2% and a clinical specificity of 99.6% as compared with 70.5% and 99.6% respectively, using the IFAT method. The ELISA method was more sensitive than the IFAT method for P. vivax infections (75% vs. 25%). However, in 923 malaria risk donors the analytical sensitivity of the ELISA test was 40% and its specificity 98.3%, performances impaired by large numbers of equivocal results non-concordant between ELISA and IFAT. When the overall analytical performances of ELISA was compared to IFAT, the ELISA efficiency J index was 0.84 versus 0.71 for IFAT. Overall analytical sensitivity was 93.1% and the analytical specificity 96.7%. Overall agreement between the two methods reached 0.97 with a reliability k index of 0.64. Conclusion The DiaMed ELISA test kit shows a good correlation with IFAT for analytical and clinical parameters. It may be an interesting method to replace the IFAT especially in blood banks, but further extensive investigations are needed to examine the analytical performance of the assay, especially in a blood bank setting. PMID:17313669

  7. Balloons and Science Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balloon Council, Washington, DC.

    This document provides background information on balloons including: (1) the history of balloons; (2) balloon manufacturing; (3) biodegradability; (4) the fate of latex balloons; and (5) the effect of balloons on the rainforest and sea mammals. Also included as part of this instructional kit are four fun experiments that allow students to…

  8. Leisure Counseling. A Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epperson, Arlin; And Others

    This set of materials intended for use in the development of programs in leisure services and a vocational counseling contains information about a Leisure Counseling Media Kit, with directions for ordering a slide-tape program. Order forms and additional information about leisure counseling supplies are also included. A brief pamphlet describes…

  9. Early Childhood Kits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials, the bibliography covers 80 kits for developing skills at the early childhood level. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and include the following information:…

  10. Projectable Basic Electronics Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    H'ng, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Outlines advantages derived from constructing and using a Projectable Basic Electronics Kit and provides: (1) list of components; (2) diagrams of 10 finished components (resistor; capacitor; diode; switch; bulb; transistor; meter; variable capacitor; coil; connecting terminal); and (3) diode and transistor activities. (JN)

  11. Ohio EPA Teachers Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Environmental Protection Agency, Columbus.

    In an effort to provide teachers in Ohio with assistance in environmental education, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has produced this teachers kit. It is designed to describe what the Ohio EPA is doing to protect Ohio's air, land, and water. The background information provides an historical account of some of the events that have…

  12. User Authentication. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plum, Terry, Comp.; Bleiler, Richard, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to examine the systems research libraries use to authenticate and authorize the users of their online networked information resources. A total of 52 of 121 ARL member libraries responded to…

  13. Theme Kits Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eslinger, Leslie Silk

    Recognizing the long-lasting impact of young childrens learning through themes as well as the amount of teacher time spent in preparing for this type of teaching, this kit is designed to help teachers avoid the shortcomings of theme-based teaching, while capitalizing on the benefits of this approach. The book is presented in two sections. The…

  14. The ESL Starter Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond. Virginia Adult Education and Literacy Resource Center.

    The kit is intended for teachers beginning to teach English as a Second Language (ESL). The first part offers some ideas for testing, registering, and placing students according to their needs and goals. A sample registration form, placement test, list of commercially-available tests, and sample needs assessments are included here. The second…

  15. World Disarmament Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woito, Robert, Ed.

    This kit presents a comprehensive introduction for students to arms control and disarmament issues. Included are copies of published and unpublished articles for each topic. Section I provides a self-survey to enable students to assess their own attitudes, values, and knowledge. The survey poses questions for which students select one of several…

  16. Voter Education Training Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multi-District Inst. for Political Education, Pitman, NJ.

    Guides and resources in this kit are prepared for a six week to two month secondary voter education course. The objectives are to prepare and motivate eligible students to register and vote in the presidential election, to participate in the presidential election campaigning, and to increase their overall knowledge concerning the presidential…

  17. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CLOR-N-SOIL PCB TEST KIT L2000 PCB/CHLORIDE ANALYZER - DEXSIL CORP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEXSIL CORP(Environmental Test Kits)The Dexsil Corporation (Dexsil) produces two test kits that detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in soil: the Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit, and the Dexsil L2000 PCB/Chloride Analyzer. The Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit extr...

  18. 49 CFR 173.161 - Chemical kits and first aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical kits and first aid kits. 173.161 Section... Class 7 § 173.161 Chemical kits and first aid kits. (a) Chemical kits and First aid kits must conform to... 10 kg. (b) Chemical kits and First aid kits are excepted from the specification...

  19. 49 CFR 173.161 - Chemical kits and first aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical kits and first aid kits. 173.161 Section... Class 7 § 173.161 Chemical kits and first aid kits. (a) Applicability. Chemical kits and first aid kits... assigned to the chemical kit and first aid kit as a whole must be the most stringent packing group...

  20. 49 CFR 173.161 - Chemical kits and first aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical kits and first aid kits. 173.161 Section... Class 7 § 173.161 Chemical kits and first aid kits. (a) Applicability. Chemical kits and first aid kits... assigned to the chemical kit and first aid kit as a whole must be the most stringent packing group...

  1. Interaction Between ACE I/D and ACTN3 R557X Polymorphisms in Polish Competitive Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Grenda, Agata; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Ficek, Krzysztof; Król, Paweł; Cięszczyk, Paweł; Zmijewski, Piotr

    2014-09-29

    We hypothesized that the ACE ID / ACTN3 R577X genotype combination was associated with sprint and endurance performance. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the interaction between both ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and sprint and endurance performance in swimmers. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells using GenElute Mammalian Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit (Sigma, Germany). All samples were genotyped using a real-time poly- merase chain reaction. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X genotype frequencies met Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both swimmers and controls. When the two swimmer groups, long distance swimmers (LDS) and short distance swimmers (SDS), were compared with control subjects in a single test, a significant association was found only for the ACE polymorphism, but not for ACTN3. Additionally, four ACE/ACTN3 combined genotypes (ID/RX, ID/XX, II/RX and II/XX) were statistically significant for the LDS versus Control comparison, but none for the SDS versus Control comparison. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms did not show any association with sprint swimming, taken individually or in combination. In spite of numerous previous reports of associations with athletic status or sprint performance in other sports, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism, in contrast to ACE I/D, was not significantly associated with elite swimming status when considered individually. However, the combined analysis of the two loci suggests that the co-occurrence of the ACE I and ACTN3 X alleles may be beneficial to swimmers who compete in long distance races.

  2. Advanced control evaluation for structures (ACES) programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Jerome; Waites, Henry

    1988-01-01

    The ACES programs are a series of past, present, and future activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Ground facility for Large Space Structure Control Verification (GF/LSSCV). The main objectives of the ACES programs are to implement control techniques on a series of complex dynamical systems, to determine the control/structure interaction for the control techniques, and to provide a national facility in which dynamics and control verification can be effected. The focus is on these objectives and how they are implemented under various engineering and economic constraints. Future plans that will be effected in upcoming ACES programs are considered.

  3. c-Kit signaling determines neointimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulae

    PubMed Central

    Skartsis, Nikolaos; Martinez, Laisel; Duque, Juan Camilo; Tabbara, Marwan; Velazquez, Omaida C.; Asif, Arif; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Salman, Loay H.

    2014-01-01

    Stenosis of arteriovenous (A-V) fistulae secondary to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) compromises dialysis delivery, which worsens patients' quality of life and increases medical costs associated with the maintenance of vascular accesses. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in A-V fistula neointima formation. Initially, c-Kit was found in the neointima and adventitia of human brachiobasilic fistulae, whereas it was barely detectable in control veins harvested at the time of access creation. Using the rat A-V fistula model to study venous vascular remodeling, we analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of c-Kit expression in the fistula wall. Interestingly, c-Kit immunoreactivity increased with time after anastomosis, which concurred with the accumulation of cells in the venous intima. In addition, c-Kit expression in A-V fistulae was positively altered by chronic kidney failure conditions. Both blockade of c-Kit with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and inhibition of stem cell factor production with a specific short hairpin RNA prevented NIH in the outflow vein of experimental fistulae. In agreement with these data, impaired c-Kit activity compromised the development of NIH in A-V fistulae created in c-KitW/Wv mutant mice. These results suggest that targeting of the c-Kit signaling pathway may be an effective approach to prevent postoperative NIH in A-V fistulae. PMID:25186298

  4. Expression of Phosphorylated KIT in Canine Mast Cell Tumor.

    PubMed

    Halsey, C H C; Thamm, D H; Weishaar, K M; Burton, J H; Charles, J B; Gustafson, D L; Avery, A C; Ehrhart, E J

    2017-01-01

    Canine cutaneous mast cell tumor (MCT) is the most common canine skin tumor and exhibits variable biologic behavior. Signaling through the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase promotes cellular proliferation and survival and has been shown to play a role in MCT progression. Despite investigations into numerous biomarkers and the proposal of several grading schemas, no single marker or grading system can accurately predict outcome in canine MCT. The first aim of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical assay to measure phosphorylated KIT (pKIT) to investigate its association with 2 commonly used grading systems and other established prognostic markers for canine MCT. Thirty-four archived MCTs were evaluated for expression of pKIT and Ki-67, KIT localization, mitotic count, mutations in exons 8 and 11 in c-kit, and grading by the Patnaik and 2-tier systems. Expression of pKIT was significantly ( P < .05) correlated with the 2-tier grading scheme and c-kit mutation. Correlation approached significance ( P = .06) with Mitotic Index (MI) and Ki-67. An additional aim was to determine whether pKIT labeling provides a pharmacodynamic marker for predicting response to the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor toceranib (TOC). MCTs from 4 of 7 patients demonstrated a partial response to TOC. pKIT expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in biopsies obtained before and 6 hours after the patients were treated with TOC. Reduced pKIT expression after TOC treatment was demonstrated in 3 of the 4 patients with a partial response compared to 1 of the 3 nonresponders. Collectively, these results demonstrate that immunohistochemical detection of pKIT may be a clinically relevant assay to evaluate the activation status of the major oncogenic pathway in canine MCT.

  5. Design and development of low cost, simple, rapid and safe, modified field kits for the visual detection and determination of arsenic in drinking water samples.

    PubMed

    Cherukurii, Jyotsna; Anjaneyulu, Y

    2005-08-01

    Arsenic is naturally found in surface and ground waters and the inorganic forms of arsenic are the most toxic forms. The adverse health effects of arsenic may involve the respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous, and haematopoietic systems. Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a global problem widely seen in Bangladesh and West Bengal of the Indian sub continent. As there is a great demand for field test kits due to the anticipated reduction of the US EPA arsenic standard from 50ppb to 10ppb a field kit which offers rapid, simple and safe method for precise estimation of arsenic at 10ppb in drinking water samples is developed. Field methods, based on the mercuric-bromide-stain, consist of three different major parts, which are carried out stepwise. The first part of the procedure is to remove serious interference caused by hydrogen sulphide. In commercially available kits either the sulphide is oxidized to sulphate and the excess oxidizing reagent removed prior to the hydride generation step or, the hydrogen sulphide is filtered out by passing the gas stream through a filter impregnated with lead acetate during the hydride generation step. The present method employs cupric chloride in combination with ferric chloride or Fentonis reagent for the removal of hydrogen sulphide, which is rapid, simple and more efficient. Other interferences at this step of the analyses are normally not expected for drinking water analysis. In the second step, the generation of the arsine gas involves the classical way of using zinc metal and hydrochloric acid, which produce the enascenti hydrogen, which is the actual reducing agent. Hydrochloric acid can be replaced by sulfamic acid, which is solid and avoids a major disadvantage of having to handle a corrosive liquid in the field. The arsine gas produces a yellowish spot on the reagent paper. Depending on the arsenic content, either, Yellow n H (HgBr)2 As (10-50ppb), Brown n (HgBr)3 As (50-100ppb) or Black n Hg3 As2

  6. Brief Communication: Use of field test kit for detection of lead in drinking water in Philippines post the disaster typhoon Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. Y.; Cong, L. M.; Lan, Z. J.; Ma, R. P.; Yu, L.; Song, Q.; Wang, Y. F.; Ren, S.; Lu, B. N.; Deng, R. S.; Li, G. R.; Li, W. P.

    2015-09-01

    On 8 November 2013, super typhoon Haiyan made landfall in Philippines. On 24 November, the Chinese hospital ship arrived in Philippines to help with disaster relief efforts. Drinking water was collected at a variety of locations, and the concentration levels of lead were determined with field test kit. The results showed that the levels of lead in 67% of total collected water samples exceeded WHO's standard. Afterwards, the local government had taken many measures to ensure a safe water supply in next few months. This is the first report about water quality in Philippines after the disaster.

  7. Automatic transmission adapter kit

    SciTech Connect

    Stich, R.L.; Neal, W.D.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes, in a four-wheel-drive vehicle apparatus having a power train including an automatic transmission and a transfer case, an automatic transmission adapter kit for installation of a replacement automatic transmission of shorter length than an original automatic transmission in the four-wheel-drive vehicle. The adapter kit comprises: an extension housing interposed between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case; an output shaft, having a first end which engages the replacement automatic transmission and a second end which engages the transfer case; first sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the replacement automatic transmission; second sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the transfer case; and fastening means for connecting the extension housing between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case.

  8. ACE3 Draft Indicators: Environments and Contaminants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The information on this page was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 – April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.

  9. FIRE_ACE_ER2_MAS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    ... First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Cloud Experiment (ACE) NASA ER-2 Moderate Resolution Imaging ... SSFR Location:  Northern Alaska Arctic Ocean Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding ...

  10. ACE3 Draft Indicators: Special Features

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The page information was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 – April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.

  11. Validation of iQ-Check E. coli O157:H7 real-time PCR test kit for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in selected foods.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Wendy F; Tymciu, Sylvie; Sidi, Caroline D; Sonigo, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    iQ-Check E. coli O157:H7 (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) is a real-time PCR kit for detection of E. coli O157:H7 from selected foods. Specific fluorescent oligonucleotide probes are used to detect target DNA during the amplification, by hybridizing to the amplicons. These fluorescent probes are linked to a fluorophore which fluoresces only when hybridized to the target sequence. Three foods (ground beef, apple cider, fresh spinach) were selected to compare the performance of iQ-Check E. coli O157:H7 to the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) reference method for ground beef and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference method for apple cider and fresh spinach. Three protocols were tested in this study: a shortened 8 h primary enrichment in buffered peptone water (BPW), a 24 h enrichment in BPW, and an enrichment in appropriate reference method enrichment broth. The iQ-Check E. coli O157:H7 method was able to identify more true/confirmed positive samples than the reference method. Inclusivity and exclusivity rates of the method were 100%. iQ-Check E. coli O157:H7 performed as expected when minor procedural variations were introduced, validating the ruggedness of the method. There was no significant difference observed in performance over the shelf life of the kit.

  12. ACE-FTS measurements of HCFC-22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolonjari, F.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Strahan, S.; McLinden, C. A.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Bernath, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    In the 1980s scientists discovered an annual springtime minimum in stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic. It was determined that the decline in ozone concentration was primarily caused by catalytic reactions of ozone and chlorine. The emissions of anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were determined to be major sources of the chlorine. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (with its subsequent amendments) restricts the emissions of ozone depleting substances. To fulfill the need for safe, stable replacements of CFCs, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) were developed. The use of HCFC-22 as a replacement has led to an increase in its atmospheric abundance. This is of concern due to its ozone depletion potential and its global warming potential. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a mission on-board the Canadian satellite SCISAT. The primary instrument on SCISAT is a high-resolution infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). With its wide spectral range, the ACE-FTS is capable of measuring an extensive range of gases including key CFC and HCFC species. The altitude distribution from the ACE-FTS profiles provides information that is complementary to the ground-based measurements that have been used to monitor these species. The global distribution of HCFC-22 has been computed from measurements by ACE-FTS. Both seasonal variations and an inter-hemispheric difference are observed. Additionally, a rapid increase in the global concentration of HCFC-22 has been observed since the start of the ACE mission in 2004. Comparisons to ground-based and air-borne measurements show good agreement with the ACE-FTS measurements. The global distributions of HCFC-22 have also been compared to a chemistry and transport model (CTM), the Global Modelling Initiative Combined Stratospheric-Tropospheric Model. There are distinct differences between the model results and ACE-FTS measurements. The causes and

  13. HNU-HANBY PCP IMMUNOASSAY TEST KIT - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HNU-Hanby pentachlorophenol (PCP) test kit rapidly analyzes for PCP in soil samples. The test kit can only detect those PCP carriers that contain aromatic compounds. The test kit estimates PCP concentrations in soil samples indirectly by measuring petroleum hydrocarbon carrie...

  14. The Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The goals and measurement strategy of the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE) are described. ACE will help to answer fundamental science questions associated with aerosols, clouds, air quality and global ocean ecosystems. Specifically, the goals of ACE are: 1) to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions and to assess the impact of aerosols on the hydrological cycle and 2) determine Ocean Carbon Cycling and other ocean biological processes. It is expected that ACE will: narrow the uncertainty in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction and quantify the role of aerosols in climate change; measure the ocean ecosystem changes and precisely quantify ocean carbon uptake; and, improve air quality forecasting by determining the height and type of aerosols being transported long distances. Overviews are provided of the aerosol-cloud community measurement strategy, aerosol and cloud observations over South Asia, and ocean biology research goals. Instruments used in the measurement strategy of the ACE mission are also highlighted, including: multi-beam lidar, multiwavelength high spectra resolution lidar, the ocean color instrument (ORCA)--a spectroradiometer for ocean remote sensing, dual frequency cloud radar and high- and low-frequency micron-wave radiometer. Future steps for the ACE mission include refining measurement requirements and carrying out additional instrument and payload studies.

  15. Effects of felodipine combined with puerarin on ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis in renovascular hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Bai, Song; Huang, Zheng-Gui; Chen, Li; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Ding, Bo-Ping

    2013-06-10

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of combination of felodipine+puerarin on ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis, and to explore the protective effect of the combination against kidney in renovascular hypertensive rats. Goldblatt rats were randomly divided into 5 groups as follows: 4 groups which were treated with felodipine (Felo), puerarin (Pue), Felo+Pue, and Felo+captopril (Cap), respectively, and a control group of animals that were administrated with distilled water. Contents of Ang II and Ang (1-7) in renal tissues were determined by ELISA kit. The mRNA expression of ACE2/Mas and ACE/AT1 in kidneys was analyzed by RT-PCR. After 8weeks of treatment, compared with Goldblatt group, Felo+Pue reduced SBP, DBP and HR (p<0.01 or p<0.05), ameliorated renal interstitial fibrosis, decreased the level of Ang II and increased that of Ang (1-7), upregulated mRNA expression of ACE2 and Mas, decreased that of ACE and AT1, and downregulated protein expression of TGF-β1 in kidneys (p<0.01). Compared with Felo group, Felo+Pue decreased DBP and HR more markedly, attenuated fibrosis, decreased Ang II levels and increased those of Ang (1-7), upregulated mRNA expression of ACE2 in bilateral kidneys and that of Mas in ischemic kidney, downregulated that of ACE in bilateral kidneys and that of AT1 in ischemic kidney, and decreased expression of TGF-β1 protein significantly. In a word, a combination of Felo+Pue has a more efficient therapeutic effect on DBP and HR, and contributes to a better protection against renal interstitial fibrosis.

  16. Molecular defects in mastocytosis: KIT and beyond KIT.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Siham; Langenfeld, Florent; Jeanningros, Sylvie; Brenet, Fabienne; Soucie, Erinn; Hermine, Olivier; Damaj, Gandhi; Dubreuil, Patrice; Arock, Michel

    2014-05-01

    In all variants of mastocytosis, activating KIT mutations are frequently found. In adults, neoplastic mast cells (MCs) cells show the KIT mutation D816V, whereas in children, MCs invading the skin are frequently positive for non-KIT D816V mutations. The clinical course and prognosis of the disease vary among patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM). Additional KIT-independent molecular defects might cause progression. Additional oncogenic lesions have recently been identified in advanced SM. In advanced SM the presence of additional genetic lesions or altered signaling worsening the prognosis might lead to the use of alternative therapies such as combined antisignaling targeted treatments or stem cell transplantation.

  17. Protein crystallography prescreen kit

    DOEpatents

    Segelke, Brent W.; Krupka, Heike I.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2005-07-12

    A kit for prescreening protein concentration for crystallization includes a multiplicity of vials, a multiplicity of pre-selected reagents, and a multiplicity of sample plates. The reagents and a corresponding multiplicity of samples of the protein in solutions of varying concentrations are placed on sample plates. The sample plates containing the reagents and samples are incubated. After incubation the sample plates are examined to determine which of the sample concentrations are too low and which the sample concentrations are too high. The sample concentrations that are optimal for protein crystallization are selected and used.

  18. Protein crystallography prescreen kit

    DOEpatents

    Segelke, Brent W.; Krupka, Heike I.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2007-10-02

    A kit for prescreening protein concentration for crystallization includes a multiplicity of vials, a multiplicity of pre-selected reagents, and a multiplicity of sample plates. The reagents and a corresponding multiplicity of samples of the protein in solutions of varying concentrations are placed on sample plates. The sample plates containing the reagents and samples are incubated. After incubation the sample plates are examined to determine which of the sample concentrations are too low and which the sample concentrations are too high. The sample concentrations that are optimal for protein crystallization are selected and used.

  19. Telescience Resource Kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Michelle; Lippincott, Jeff; Chubb, Steve; Whitaker, Jimmy; Rice, Jim; Gillis, Robert; Sims, Chris; Sellers, Donna; Bailey, Darrell (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Telescience Resource Kit (TReK) is a PC based ground control system. It can be used by a single individual or in a group environment to monitor and control spacecraft systems and payloads. Capabilities include data receipt, data processing, data storage, data management, and data transmission. Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) hardware and software have been employed to reduce development costs, operations and maintenance costs, and to effectively take advantage of new commercial products as they become available. The TReK system is currently being used to monitor and control payloads aboard the International Space Station. It is located at sites around the world.

  20. KIT — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    SCF-sR, also known as KIT, is the human homolog of the proto-oncogene c-kit. C-kit was first identified as the cellular homolog of the feline sarcoma viral oncogene v-kit. Human KIT is a tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for the cytokine KITLG/SCF and plays an essential role in the regulation of cell survival and proliferation, hematopoiesis, stem cell maintenance, gametogenesis, mast cell development, migration and function, and in melanogenesis. KIT is a type 3 transmembrane receptor for MGF (mast cell growth factor, also known as stem cell factor). Mutations in this gene are associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, mast cell disease, acute myelogenous lukemia, and piebaldism. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.

  1. Optics learning through affordable kit

    SciTech Connect

    P, Anusha N E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Shaji, Chitra E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Sharan, Alok E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  2. Education Payload Operation - Kit D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Kit D (EPO-Kit D) includes education items that will be used to support the live International Space Station (ISS) education downlinks and Education Payload Operation (EPO) demonstrations onboard the ISS. The main objective of EPO-Kit D supports the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goal of attracting students to study and seek careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  3. Validated ligand mapping of ACE active site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuster, Daniel J.; Marshall, Garland R.

    2005-08-01

    Crystal structures of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) complexed with three inhibitors (lisinopril, captopril, enalapril) provided experimental data for testing the validity of a prior active site model predicting the bound conformation of the inhibitors. The ACE active site model - predicted over 18 years ago using a series of potent ACE inhibitors of diverse chemical structure - was recreated using published data and commercial software. Comparison between the predicted structures of the three inhibitors bound to the active site of ACE and those determined experimentally yielded root mean square deviation (RMSD) values of 0.43-0.81 Å, among the distances defining the active site map. The bound conformations of the chemically relevant atoms were accurately deduced from the geometry of ligands, applying the assumption that the geometry of the active site groups responsible for binding and catalysis of amide hydrolysis was constrained. The mapping of bound inhibitors at the ACE active site was validated for known experimental compounds, so that the constrained conformational search methodology may be applied with confidence when no experimentally determined structure of the enzyme yet exists, but potent, diverse inhibitors are available.

  4. Comparative evaluation of a field-based dot-ELISA kit with three other serological tests for the detection of Brucella antibodies in goats.

    PubMed

    Singh, S V; Gupta, V K; Singh, N

    2000-06-01

    A dot-ELISA (d-ELISA) test was evaluated and compared with the serum agglutination test (SAT), micro-complement fixation test (CFT) and a plate-ELISA (p-ELISA) for field use in screening herds of goats against brucellosis. During the standardization of the dot-ELISA kit on 1732 caprine serum samples, 1571 samples out of 1666 were found to be negative in d-ELISA, SAT and micro-CFT, while 59 were positive in different combinations. Of a further 66 serum samples, 34 were negative and 31 were positive in different combinations in d-ELISA, SAT, micro-CFT and p-ELISA. A total of 1584 goats belonging to different herds were then screened for brucellosis. Of the 694 serum samples screened in the first batch using d-ELISA, a positive reaction was observed in 26 cases. Further screening of these cases revealed 13 and 21 goats as positive reactors in SAT and CFT, respectively. In a second batch of 890 goats there were 109 positive reactors in d-ELISA. Among these 109 goats, 34, 40 and 80 goats were positive reactors in SAT, CFT and p-ELISA, respectively. The results of d-ELISA correlated well with those of p-ELISA. Dot-ELISA was found to be a more suitable and rapid test for screening large numbers of goats in the field.

  5. Evaluation of a commercial real-time PCR kit for detection of dengue virus in samples collected during an outbreak in Goiania, Central Brazil, in 2005.

    PubMed

    Levi, José Eduardo; Tateno, Adriana Fumie; Machado, Adriana Freire; Ramalho, Débora Camillo; de Souza, Vanda Akico Ueda Fick; Guilarde, Adriana Oliveira; de Rezende Feres, Valéria Christina; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Turchi, Marília Dalva; Siqueira, João Bosco; Pannuti, Cláudio Sérgio

    2007-06-01

    In the past 2 decades, dengue has reemerged in Brazil as a significant public health problem. Clinicians demand a diagnostic test with high sensitivity that is applicable during the early symptomatic phase. We aimed to test two distinct molecular methods on samples from suspected dengue cases during an outbreak in Central Brazil. Acute-phase serum specimens from 254 patients suspected of having dengue were collected during 2005 in the city of Goiânia, Central Brazil. Samples were blindly evaluated by real-time and multiplex PCR in addition to routine immunoglobulin M serology and virus culture. Overall, acute dengue was confirmed by serology, multiplex PCR, or virus isolation for 80% of patients (203/254). Another four patients presented real-time PCR-positive results as the unique marker of dengue. Higher real-time PCR positivity levels and viral loads were observed in the early symptomatic phase of disease (< or =5 days) than after this period. Multiplex and real-time PCR assays presented a high kappa agreement (0.85). According to multiplex PCR, 60 samples harbored dengue virus type 3 (DEN-3), 4 samples harbored DEN-2, and 1 sample displayed a pattern compatible with a double infection with DEN-2 and -3. The dengue virus real-time kit was found to be practical and adjustable for high throughput, to display the best performance in the early symptomatic phase of dengue cases, and to be valuable for confirming dengue diagnosis in a timely manner.

  6. International Literacy Day Tool Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This tool kit suggests various International Literacy Day activities to raise awareness of the issues of adult literacy and language learning, to connect local literacy programs with national programs, and to help achieve the National Literacy Summit goal by 2010. The kit is intended for individuals, programs, and organizations that want to call…

  7. Planning Systems. SPEC Kit 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This kit on planning systems updates a 1974 Management Studies Office Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) kit in which developments in planning activities among Association of Research Libraries (ARL) were reviewed. At the time of the original study, in 1972, planning techniques and systems were a subject of much interest because rising…

  8. Improve Quality: Use Tool Kits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Sue

    2001-01-01

    Addresses issues of defining quality in both business and community service. Describes the use of a regulatory tool kit containing rules and regulations a child care center must follow to ensure children's health, safety, and well-being. Specific tool kit types described include regulatory, government funded, rating scale, and NAEYC. (SD)

  9. Workshop Training Kits. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Ted; And Others

    Presented in the second of a two volume series are six workshop training kits for development of teacher skills to be used with learning disabled (LD) children. The first section of each kit contains a leader's guide which gives activity, objectives, teacher prerequisites, time required, materials needed, step-by-step procedures, a discussion…

  10. First Follow Nature, Kit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    Developing pupils' awareness of their environment, learning to distinguish between what is pleasant and unpleasant, and examining acts of man to determine which are destructive and which are in harmony with nature are the purposes of Scholastic's Earth Corps Environmental Study Kits for Grades 1-6. This kit explores in depth the reasons some…

  11. Look Around You, Kit I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    Developing pupils' awareness of their environment, learning to distinguish between what is pleasant and unpleasant, and examining acts of man to determine which are destructive and which are in harmony with nature are the purposes of Scholastic's Earth Corps Environmental Study Kits for grades 1-6. This kit is designed to help the child develop…

  12. Stiffening of the ACES deployable space boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidwell, Vince

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this design project was to design an active planar stiffening device for the existing ACES (Acoustic Containerless Experiment System) structure. the ACES structure was modeled using simple beam theory. Various concepts were generated about how the stiffening device should be configured in order to perform at an optimum level. The optimum configuration was selected to be a single set of spreaders located approximately 63% of the distance down the beam. Actuation was to be provided by a DC electric motor. From the test results, the design group was able to draw conclusions and make recommendations about the utility of further research into this area.

  13. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits A... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. A Appendix A to Part 121—First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits Approved first-aid kits, at least one approved emergency medical kit,...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits A... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. A Appendix A to Part 121—First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits Approved first-aid kits, at least one approved emergency medical kit,...

  15. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C.; Walker, K.; McLeod, S.; Nassar, R.

    2003-12-01

    The ACE mission goals are: (1) to measure and to understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region; (2) to explore the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (3) to study the effects of biomass burning in the free troposphere; (4) to measure aerosol number density, size distribution and composition in order to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy balance. ACE will make a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols, and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The solar occultation advantages are high sensitivity and self-calibration. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4100 cm-1) will measure the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. The ACE concept is derived from the now-retired ATMOS FTS instrument, which flew on the Space Shuttle in 1985, 1992, 1993, 1994. Climate-chemistry coupling may lead to the formation of an Arctic ozone hole. ACE will provide high quality data to confront these model predictions and will monitor polar chemistry as chlorine levels decline. The ACE-FTS can measure water vapor and HDO in the tropical tropopause region to study dehydration and strat-trop exchange. The molecular signatures of massive forest fires will evident in the ACE infrared spectra. The CO2 in our spectra can be used to either retrieve atmospheric pressure or (if the instrument pointing knowledge proves to be satisfactory) for an independent retrieval of a CO2 profile for carbon cycle science. Aerosols and clouds will be monitored using the extinction of solar radiation at

  16. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P.

    2003-04-01

    The ACE mission goals are: (1) to measure and to understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region; (2) to explore the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (3) to study the effects of biomass burning in the free troposphere; (4) to measure aerosol number density, size distribution and composition in order to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy balance. ACE will make a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols, and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) will give ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The solar occultation advantages are high sensitivity and self-calibration. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4100 cm-1) will measure the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. The ACE concept is derived from the now-retired ATMOS FTS instrument, which flew on the Space Shuttle in 1985, 1992, 1993, 1994. Climate-chemistry coupling may lead to the formation of an Arctic ozone hole. ACE will provide high quality data to confront these model predictions and will monitor polar chemistry as chlorine levels decline. The ACE-FTS can measure water vapor and HDO in the tropical tropopause region to study dehydration and strat-trop exchange. The molecular signatures of massive forest fires will evident in the ACE infrared spectra. The CO_2 in our spectra can be used to either retrieve atmospheric pressure or (if the instrument pointing knowledge proves to be satisfactory) for an independent retrieval of a CO_2 profile for carbon cycle science. Aerosols and clouds will be monitored using the extinction of solar

  17. ACE Gene I/D Polymorphism and Obesity in 1,574 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Huang, Yan-Mei; Wang, Ying-Hui; Chen, Yin-Ling; Geng, Li-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and the risk of overweight/obesity remains controversial. We investigated the possible relationship between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and obesity in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. In this study, obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) value ≥ 25 kg/m2 and subjects were classified into 4 groups (lean, normal, overweight, and obese). PCR (polymerase chain reaction) was used to detect the ACE gene I/D polymorphism in T2DM patients. Metabolic measurements including blood glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure were obtained. Frequencies of the ACE genotypes (DD, ID, and II) were not significant among the 4 groups of BMI-defined patients (P = 0.679) while ACE II carriers showed higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) (all P < 0.050). Hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in these T2DM patients were found to be significantly associated with BMI. In conclusion, the relationship of ACE gene I/D polymorphism with obesity is insignificant in Chinese patients with T2DM. SBP and PP might be higher in the ACE II carriers than in the DD and ID carriers. PMID:28115791

  18. Targeting ACE and ECE with dual acting inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hanessian, Stephen; Guesné, Sébastien; Riber, Ludivine; Marin, Julien; Benoist, Alain; Mennecier, Philippe; Rupin, Alain; Verbeuren, Tony J; De Nanteuil, Guillaume

    2008-02-01

    A series of urea analogues related to SA6817 and a GSK phosphonic acid with reported ACE inhibitory activity were prepared and tested for dual ACE and ECE activities. Although excellent ACE and NEP inhibition was achieved, only modest ECE inhibition was observed with one analogue.

  19. Developing Communities: Serving ACE through Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofo, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the focus and practice of Adult and Community Education (ACE) as well as its conceptualization and delivery and to suggest parameters for an approach based on excellence, a balanced scorecard and performance to meet community needs. Design/methodology/approach: The review examines key aspects of the…

  20. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  1. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Chmiel, Alan J.; Eustace, John; LaBarbera, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Increment 43 - 44 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  2. Ace the Verbal on the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meierding, Loren

    2005-01-01

    Many students are not accepted in to certain colleges and universities because of low SAT scores. Loren Meierding has written Ace the Verbal on the SAT to help students with minimal preparation do well by improving their vocabulary and use better techniques for finding the answers to the questions. This book provides strategies needed to score…

  3. A Java commodity grid kit.

    SciTech Connect

    von Laszewski, G.; Foster, I.; Gawor, J.; Lane, P.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we report on the features of the Java Commodity Grid Kit. The Java CoG Kit provides middleware for accessing Grid functionality from the Java framework. Java CoG Kit middleware is general enough to design a variety of advanced Grid applications with quite different user requirements. Access to the Grid is established via Globus protocols, allowing the Java CoG Kit to communicate also with the C Globus reference implementation. Thus, the Java CoG Kit provides Grid developers with the ability to utilize the Grid, as well as numerous additional libraries and frameworks developed by the Java community to enable network, Internet, enterprise, and peer-to peer computing. A variety of projects have successfully used the client libraries of the Java CoG Kit to access Grids driven by the C Globus software. In this paper we also report on the efforts to develop server side Java CoG Kit components. As part of this research we have implemented a prototype pure Java resource management system that enables one to run Globus jobs on platforms on which a Java virtual machine is supported, including Windows NT machines.

  4. Optimizing Medical Kits for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, A. B,; Foy, Millennia; Myers, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulation outcomes describing the impact of medical events on the mission may be used to optimize the allocation of resources in medical kits. Efficient allocation of medical resources, subject to certain mass and volume constraints, is crucial to ensuring the best outcomes of in-flight medical events. We implement a new approach to this medical kit optimization problem. METHODS We frame medical kit optimization as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing a dynamic programming technique. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 different mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the probability of evacuation and maximizing the Crew Health Index (CHI) for each mission subject to mass and volume constraints. Simulation outcomes using these kits were also compared to outcomes using kits optimized..RESULTS The optimized medical kits generated by the algorithm described here resulted in predicted mission outcomes more closely approached the unlimited-resource scenario for Crew Health Index (CHI) than the implementation in under all optimization priorities. Furthermore, the approach described here improves upon in reducing evacuation when the optimization priority is minimizing the probability of evacuation. CONCLUSIONS This algorithm provides an efficient, effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions using the Integrated Medical Model.

  5. Ligand-Signaled Upregulation of Enterococcus faecalis ace Transcription, a Mechanism for Modulating Host-E. faecalis Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2006-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis, the third most frequent cause of bacterial endocarditis, appears to be equipped with diverse surface-associated proteins showing structural-fold similarity to the immunoglobulin-fold family of staphylococcal adhesins. Among the putative E. faecalis surface proteins, the previously characterized adhesin Ace, which shows specific binding to collagen and laminin, was detectable in surface protein preparations only after growth at 46°C, mirroring the finding that adherence was observed in 46°C, but not 37°C, grown E. faecalis cultures. To elucidate the influence of different growth and host parameters on ace expression, we investigated ace expression using E. faecalis OG1RF grown in routine laboratory media (brain heart infusion) and found that ace mRNA levels were low in all growth phases. However, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed 18-fold-higher ace mRNA amounts in cells grown in the presence of collagen type IV compared to the controls. Similarly, a marked increase was observed when cells were either grown in the presence of collagen type I or serum but not in the presence of fibrinogen or bovine serum albumin. The production of Ace after growth in the presence of collagen type IV was demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy, mirroring the increased ace mRNA levels. Furthermore, increased Ace expression correlated with increased collagen and laminin adhesion. Collagen-induced Ace expression was also seen in three of three other E. faecalis strains of diverse origins tested, and thus it appears to be a common phenomenon. The observation of host matrix signal-induced adherence of E. faecalis may have important implications on our understanding of this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:16926389

  6. Kidney scintigraphy after ACE inhibition in the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Ghione, S.; Fommei, E.; Palombo, C.; Giaconi, S.; Mantovanelli, A.; Ragazzini, A.; Palla, L.

    1986-01-01

    Suppression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition may induce renal failure in patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis. Recent scintigraphic studies with the glomerular tracer technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetate (99m-Tc DTPA) indicate that in patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may be markedly reduced in the affected kidney after inhibition of ACE. This finding reflects the important role of the RAS in maintaining GFR (by increasing postglomerular resistance) in states of low renal perfusion pressure. Preliminary observations suggest that this scintigraphic test might be useful in the detection of renovascular hypertension.

  7. Triple ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition in heart failure: a comparison with ACE and dual ECE-NEP inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mellin, Virginie; Jeng, Arco Y; Monteil, Christelle; Renet, Sylvanie; Henry, Jean Paul; Thuillez, Christian; Mulder, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Mortality remains high in chronic heart failure (CHF) because under ACE inhibitor treatment other neurohumoral systems remain/become (de)activated, such as the endothelin and atrial natriuretic peptide pathways. Dual endothelin-converting enzyme-neutral endopeptidase (ECE-NEP) inhibition exerts beneficial effects in experimental CHF, but whether "triple" ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition is superior to ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition is unknown. We compared, in rats with CHF, ACE-ECE-NEP to ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition in terms of left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics and remodeling. Benazepril (2 mg/kg/d) or the ECE-NEP inhibitor CGS26303 (10 mg/kg/d) were administered alone or in combination (subcutaneously for 28 days starting 7 days after coronary ligation). ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition reduced blood pressure more markedly than ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition. All treatments increased cardiac output to the same extent, but ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition reduced LV diameter and LV end-diastolic pressure more markedly than ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition. The reduction of LV weight and collagen accumulation in the "viable" myocardium was most pronounced after ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition. These results, obtained in experimental CHF, illustrate a further improvement of LV hemodynamics and structure after ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition compared with either ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition, but whether this is associated with a further improvement of exercise tolerance and/or survival remains to be determined.

  8. Role of Serratia marcescens ACE2 on diesel degradation and its influence on corrosion.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Babu, Thambidurai Ganesh; Pandian, Shunmugiah Thevar Karutha; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Palaniswamy, Narayanan; Rajendran, Annamalai

    2007-09-01

    A facultative anaerobic species Serratia marcescens ACE2 isolated from the corrosion products of diesel transporting pipeline in North West, India was identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The role of Serratia marcesens ACE2 on biodegradation of diesel and its influence on the corrosion of API 5LX steel has been elucidated. The degrading strain ACE2 is involved in the process of corrosion of steel API 5LX and also utilizes the diesel as an organic source. The quantitative biodegradation efficiency (BE) of diesel was 58%, calculated by gas-chromatography-mass spectrum analysis. On the basis of gas-chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD), the involvement of Serratia marcescens on degradation and corrosion has been investigated. This basic study will be useful for the development of new approaches for detection, monitoring and control of microbial corrosion.

  9. High-throughput interpretation of gene structure changes in human and nonhuman resequencing data, using ACE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe a suite of software tools for identifying possible functional changes in gene structure that may result from sequence variants. ACE (“Assessing Changes to Exons”) converts phased genotype calls to a collection of explicit haplotype sequences, maps transcript annotations onto them, detect...

  10. [The reagents kit to detect Metyorchis biis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis felineus--agents of opisthorchiasis using technique of polymerase chain reaction in real-time].

    PubMed

    Seredina, T A; Petrenko, V A; Tronin, A V; Sazonov, A Iu; Sapugol'tseva, O B; Katokhin, A V; Odintsova, E S

    2014-08-01

    The helminths Opisthorchis felineus, Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis, Metorchis bilis are the agents of opisthorchiasis. The actual diagnostic of parasitic diseases based on microscope analysis of samples of human feces to detect presence of ova of parasites suffers of many shortcomings, in particular low sensitivity especially at earlier stages. The purpose of this study was to compare results of detection of parasites using both classical technique and technique of specific differentiation based on extraction of nucleic acids from samples of human feces and implementation of reaction of amplification of the chosen fragment of DNA with detection of products of polymerase chain reaction in the real time. The study detected 150 out of 165 positive samples and also 6 out of 37 negative samples both validated by coproovoscopy.

  11. Quantitative validation and comparison of multiplex cytokine kits.

    PubMed

    Richens, Joanna L; Urbanowicz, Richard A; Metcalf, Rebecca; Corne, Jonathan; O'Shea, Paul; Fairclough, Lucy

    2010-06-01

    The focus of biomarker studies is shifting toward deciphering patterns of biomolecules as they provide a more comprehensive depiction of disease than individual biomarkers. Multiplexing technologies are crucial in deciphering such patterns, but it is essential that they are validated for reproducibility and precision to ensure accurate protein identification. Here the authors examine such properties in Cytokine Bead Array (CBA) and Luminex kits and compare concentration measurements to those obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Luminex kits were found to be highly reproducible and reliable; however, CBA kits were not due to aberrant standards. Absolute cytokine concentrations were dependent on the detection kit, but correlations with ELISA were good for all technologies.

  12. Advanced Course in Engineering (ACE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    response and recovery procedures. 3. Cryptography: mathematical basis for data encryption , substitution ciphers and the Data Encryption Standard...9. Steganography: data hiding in images , classifying steganography algorithms and tools, categorizing vessel capacity, detection and recovery of...with the correct keys to view a message and authenticate its origin. Encryption and decryption slow down the passage of information but the added

  13. Application Kit for Federal Assistance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Federal Grant & Cooperative Agreement Act of 1977 requires Federal agencies to use a contract to acquire property or services that directly benefit the Federal government.This letter to the applicant explains the Application Kit for Federal Assistance.

  14. Pharmacological inhibitors of c-KIT block mutant c-KIT mediated migration of melanocytes and melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Posch, Christian; Moslehi, Homayoun; Sanlorenzo, Martina; Green, Gary; Vujic, Igor; Panzer-Grümayer, Renate; Rappersberger, Klemens; Ortiz-Urda, Susana

    2016-07-19

    Mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase c-KIT (KIT) are frequent oncogenic alterations in melanoma and are predominantly detected in tumors of acral, mucosal, and chronically sun-damaged skin. Research indicates that melanocytes with aberrant KIT signaling can be found in the distant periphery of the primary tumor; However, it is hitherto unknown whether KIT might confer a migratory advantage, thereby enabling genetically abnormal cells to populate a distal area. In this study, we investigated the role of mutant KIT in melanocyte- and melanoma cell migration using KIT mutant lines as well as genetically manipulated murine and primary human melanocytes. Our results revealed that melanocytes, stably transduced with mutant KIT closed a gap inflicted on cell monolayers faster than wild-type controls. Similarly, KIT mutant human melanoma lines were able to populate a larger area in a 3D in vitro skin model compared to KIT wild type and BRAF mutant lines. Genomic profiling revealed that genes associated with increased cell-dispersal of KIT mutant variants were linked to a statistically significant up-regulation of 60 migratory genes (z-score 1.334; p=0.0001). In addition, in vivo experiments harnessing a mouse xenograft model of early melanoma development demonstrated rapid lateral migration of KIT mutant cells compared to respective controls. The specific kinase inhibitors imatinib and nilotinib, could abrogate this migratory advantage in vitro and in vivo. Our work suggests that KIT inhibition might help to target migratory active, KIT mutant melanoma cells, thus representing a potential strategy to reduce spread and local recurrence.

  15. Pharmacological inhibitors of c-KIT block mutant c-KIT mediated migration of melanocytes and melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Posch, Christian; Moslehi, Homayoun; Sanlorenzo, Martina; Green, Gary; Vujic, Igor; Panzer-Grümayer, Renate; Rappersberger, Klemens; Ortiz-Urda, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase c-KIT (KIT) are frequent oncogenic alterations in melanoma and are predominantly detected in tumors of acral, mucosal, and chronically sun-damaged skin. Research indicates that melanocytes with aberrant KIT signaling can be found in the distant periphery of the primary tumor; However, it is hitherto unknown whether KIT might confer a migratory advantage, thereby enabling genetically abnormal cells to populate a distal area. In this study, we investigated the role of mutant KIT in melanocyte- and melanoma cell migration using KIT mutant lines as well as genetically manipulated murine and primary human melanocytes. Our results revealed that melanocytes, stably transduced with mutant KIT closed a gap inflicted on cell monolayers faster than wild-type controls. Similarly, KIT mutant human melanoma lines were able to populate a larger area in a 3D in vitro skin model compared to KIT wild type and BRAF mutant lines. Genomic profiling revealed that genes associated with increased cell-dispersal of KIT mutant variants were linked to a statistically significant up-regulation of 60 migratory genes (z-score 1.334; p=0.0001). In addition, in vivo experiments harnessing a mouse xenograft model of early melanoma development demonstrated rapid lateral migration of KIT mutant cells compared to respective controls. The specific kinase inhibitors imatinib and nilotinib, could abrogate this migratory advantage in vitro and in vivo. Our work suggests that KIT inhibition might help to target migratory active, KIT mutant melanoma cells, thus representing a potential strategy to reduce spread and local recurrence. PMID:27322141

  16. Interaction of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with membrane-bound carboxypeptidase M (CPM) - a new function of ACE.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoou; Wiesner, Burkhard; Lorenz, Dorothea; Papsdorf, Gisela; Pankow, Kristin; Wang, Po; Dietrich, Nils; Siems, Wolf-Eberhard; Maul, Björn

    2008-12-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) demonstrates, besides its typical dipeptidyl-carboxypeptidase activity, several unusual functions. Here, we demonstrate with molecular, biochemical, and cellular techniques that the somatic wild-type murine ACE (mACE), stably transfected in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, interacts with endogenous membranal co-localized carboxypeptidase M (CPM). CPM belongs to the group of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. Here we report that ACE, completely independent of its known dipeptidase activities, has GPI-targeted properties. Our results indicate that the spatial proximity between mACE and the endogenous CPM enables an ACE-evoked release of CPM. These results are discussed with respect to the recently proposed GPI-ase activity and function of sperm-bound ACE.

  17. The sensitivity and specificity of the RSID-saliva kit for the detection of human salivary amylase in the Forensic Science Laboratory, Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Casey, David G; Price, Judy

    2010-01-30

    We demonstrate here that the RSID-saliva test can be used as a test for human salivary alpha-amylase on samples routinely examined in forensic casework. We show that the RSID-saliva test detects salivary alpha-amylase at lower concentrations than the Phadebas Quantitative test, that the RSID-saliva test does not cross-react with forensically important human fluids and that the RSID-saliva test can be successfully integrated into the whole swab semen extraction method.

  18. ACE-Asia: Ground Stations Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimoto, R.; Sugimoto, N.; Shimizu, A.; Kim, J.; Oh, S.; Kang, C.; Asia Science Team; Murayama, T.; Delta Group; Zhang, X.; Kim, Y.; VMAP Group

    2001-12-01

    Observations of aerosol properties made at a network of ground stations were an integral part of ACE-Asia. During an intensive observation period (IOP, March - May 2001), high dust loadings were observed at many stations. At Zhenbeitai, China mass loadings well above average (260 μ g m-3) were observed during eleven dust storms, and ˜82% of the total particle mass at the site could be attributed to Asian dust. Daily bulk dust concentrations at Kosan, Korea ranged from 130 to 350 μ g m-3 from April 10 - 13. Important sub-micron dust signatures were obtained during this storm, coincident with highly absorbing ultra-fine (< 0.24 μ m) soot and other anthropogenic materials. PM2.5 aerosol concentrations at Kosan varied from 15.7 to 92.6 μ g m-3 during the IOP. Comparisons with prior data show some evidence for a decrease in the relative amount of nitrate vs. sulfate. An Asian dust storm with peak PM10 concentrations of about 200 μ g m-3 was observed over Taiwan on April 12 - 13. While most of the PM10 was dust, significant levels (up to about 30%) of pollutants also were found. Analysis of this and previous events indicates that the concentrations of pollutants over Taiwan during Asian dust storms are controlled more by long-range transport than local sources. Measurements of aerosols and associated species on four Japanese islands showed clear intermittent transport of continental aerosols, especially at Rishiri. A Mie and Raman lidar system with auxiliary instruments, including a sun photometer, operated at Tokyo during the IOP; some of these data were used for C-130 flight planning. From combined Raman lidar observations of dust at Tokyo, a typical extinction-to-backscatter ratio was found to be ˜40 sr, ranging from 30 and 70 sr and tending to increase with Angstrom exponent. A lidar intercomparison with C-130 flight observations on April 23 showed widely distributed dust and non-dust aerosols up to 8 km. A multi-channel backscatter lidar system operating at

  19. Performance of commercial ELISA and agglutination test kits for the detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum and muscle fluid of swine infected with 100, 300, 500 or 1000 oocysts.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Lorry B; Parker, Sarah E; Gajadhar, Alvin A

    2012-12-21

    Serum and tissue fluid samples from experimentally infected swine were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using both an indirect ELISA and a modified agglutination test (MAT) available commercially in kit form. Ten 8-9 week-old swine were fed meatballs containing 100, 300, 500 or 1000 T. gondii oocysts and three control animals were fed meatballs with no oocysts. Post-inoculation blood samples were collected weekly until euthanasia at 35-63 days post inoculation (DPI). Tissue fluid was obtained from diaphragm, heart and sternomastoideus muscles post-mortem. By 16 DPI, nine of 10 inoculated pigs were detected serologically using ELISA at a pre-test serum dilution of 1:50 and all ten pigs were detected by the MAT at a serum dilution of 1:25. The last pig became positive on ELISA by 21 DPI and the 10 pigs maintained their serological status for the duration of the experiment. Heart muscle was the best overall source of tissue fluid for ELISA and all six pigs inoculated with either 500 or 1000 oocysts were positive using either diaphragm or heart tissue fluid samples. However, 10 of 18 fluid samples from pigs receiving ≤ 300 oocysts were not detected using ELISA, including 5 of 6 from sternomastoideus muscle. The MAT used at a 1:10 pre-test dilution of tissue fluid correctly identified all 10 inoculated pigs regardless of the source muscle. Based on these data, we conclude that either assay would be useful for herd evaluation or surveillance testing using sera, and the MAT would be a good candidate assay for testing tissue fluid for the same purposes.

  20. ACE and ACTN3 genes polymorphisms among female Hungarian athletes in the aspect of sport disciplines.

    PubMed

    Bosnyák, E; Trájer, E; Udvardy, A; Komka, Z; Protzner, A; Kováts, T; Györe, I; Tóth, M; Pucsok, J; Szmodis, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the importance of two sport-associated gene polymorphisms, alpha-actinin-3 R577X (ACTN3) and angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D (ACE), among Hungarian athletes in different sports. The examination was carried out only on women (n = 100). Sport-specific groups were formed in order to guarantee the most homogeneous clusters. Human genomic DNA was isolated from blood, and genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction. To measure the differences between the participating groups, Chi-squared test was performed using Statistica 9.0 for Windows® (significance level: p < 0.05). In comparing the ACE I/D allele frequencies, significant difference was detected between water polo (I = 61.11%; D = 38.89%) and combat sports (I = 35.71%, D = 64.29%) athletes (p < 0.03). There was no statistical difference when ACE I/D alleles in combat sports and kayaking/rowing (p > 0.05) were compared. A similarity was detectable in the I allele frequencies of the water polo (61.11%) and kayaking/rowing (56.67%) groups. The ACTN3 R/X polymorphism showed no differences in comparison with the sport groups. R allele frequencies were higher in every group compared to the X allele. The potential significance of the ACE I allele in sports of an aerobic nature was not clearly confirmed among Hungarian athletes.

  1. The Relevance of CD117-Immunocytochemistry Staining Patterns to Mutational Exon-11 in c-kit Detected by PCR from Fine-Needle Aspirated Canine Mast Cell Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sailasuta, A.; Ketpun, D.; Piyaviriyakul, P.; Theerawatanasirikul, S.; Theewasutrakul, P.; Rungsipipat, A.

    2014-01-01

    Canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCT) are the lethal skin tumors. The biological behavior of the MCT cells is quite varied and unpredictable. Almost MCT dogs usually require a rapid diagnosis and therapy. However, MCT diagnosis and prognosis are still dependent on histopathology which is rather inconvenient, time-consuming, painful, and harmful for some cases. Indeed, MCT can be easily accessible using fine-needle aspiration (FNA). In this study, our biopsy specimens were classified as low- and high-grade MCT based on the novel 2-tier histopathologic grading system. We have demonstrated the usage of fine-needle aspirated MCT cells (FNA-MCT cells) from these specimens as a primary cell source to study the distribution of CD117-immunocytochemistry (CD117-ICC) staining patterns and the frequency of internal tandem duplication- (ITD-) mutant exon-11 of c-kit. The result has substantially shown that there were three staining patterns identified in the cells. Only paranuclear pattern was significantly increased in the cells from high-grade MCT. Altogether, the ITD-mutant exon-11 was also detectable only in these cells. Therefore, the result has supported our hypothesis that there was an increased opportunity to observe a higher CD117-ICC staining pattern and exon-11 mutation in high-grade MCT; even these two parameters may not precisely indicate a histopathological grade. PMID:24701365

  2. /sup 125/I-labeled radioimmunoassay kits for progesterone evaluated for use in an in vitro fertilization program

    SciTech Connect

    Blight, L.F.; White, G.H.

    1983-06-01

    We have evaluated two commercially available /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay kits (Diagnostic Products Corp., DPC; and Radioassay Systems Laboratories, RSL) for measurement of serum or plasma progesterone, to determine their suitability for use in in vitro fertilization programs. Both kits were suitably rapid for program requirements. Results by both were linear with concentration up to 60 nmol/L, and both had acceptable lower detection limits of 0.3 nmol/L. Kit-determined progesterone concentrations (y) for 100 patients' samples correlated well with results by our existing 3H radioimmunoassay method (y . 1.11x + 0.2, r . 0.965 for the DPC kit; y . 1.01x + 1.4, r . 0.974 for the RSL kit). Mean analytical recovery for the RSL kit was 116%, that for the DPC kit, 202%. Within-batch precision, expressed as the mean CV for three concentrations of progesterone, was 6.5% for the RSL kit, and 16.4% for the DPC kit; between-day CV was 8.1% for the RSL kit, 17.7% for the DPC kit. We conclude that the RSL kit provides a rapid, precise, and accurate assay for serum progesterone, suitable for use in a fertilization program, but do not recommend the DPC kit for either this purpose or the more general purpose of tracking menstrual cycles.

  3. Human intestine luminal ACE2 and amino acid transporter expression increased by ACE-inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vuille-dit-Bille, Raphael N; Camargo, Simone M; Emmenegger, Luca; Sasse, Tom; Kummer, Eva; Jando, Julia; Hamie, Qeumars M; Meier, Chantal F; Hunziker, Schirin; Forras-Kaufmann, Zsofia; Kuyumcu, Sena; Fox, Mark; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Lindenmeyer, Maja; Götze, Oliver; Verrey, François

    2015-04-01

    Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) and imino acid (proline) transporter SIT1 (SLC6A20) are expressed at the luminal membrane of small intestine enterocytes and proximal tubule kidney cells where they exert key functions for amino acid (re)absorption as documented by their role in Hartnup disorder and iminoglycinuria, respectively. Expression of B(0)AT1 was shown in rodent intestine to depend on the presence of the carboxypeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This enzyme belongs to the renin-angiotensin system and its expression is induced by treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) in many rodent tissues. We show here in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system that human ACE2 also functionally interacts with SIT1. To investigate in human intestine the potential effect of ACEIs or ARBs on ACE2, we analysed intestinal biopsies taken during routine gastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy from 46 patients of which 9 were under ACEI and 13 ARB treatment. Analysis of transcript expression by real-time PCR and of proteins by immunofluorescence showed a co-localization of SIT1 and B(0)AT1 with ACE2 in the brush-border membrane of human small intestine enterocytes and a distinct axial expression pattern of the tested gene products along the intestine. Patients treated with ACEIs displayed in comparison with untreated controls increased intestinal mRNA levels of ACE2, peptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) and AA transporters B(0)AT1 and PAT1 (SLC36A1). This study unravels in human intestine the localization and distribution of intestinal transporters involved in amino acid absorption and suggests that ACEIs impact on their expression.

  4. The Canadian Arctic ACE/OSIRIS Validation Project at PEARL: Validating Satellite Observations Over the High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kaley A.; Strong, Kimberly; Fogal, Pierre F.; Drummond, James R.

    2016-04-01

    Ground-based measurements provide critical data for the validation of satellite retrievals of atmospheric trace gases and for the assessment of long-term stability of these measurements. As of February 2016, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite mission has been making measurements of the Earth's atmosphere for nearly twelve years and Canada's Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) instrument on the Odin satellite has been operating for fourteen years. As ACE and OSIRIS operations have extended beyond their planned two-year missions, there is an ongoing need to validate the trace gas data profiles from the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) and OSIRIS. In particular, validation comparisons are needed during Arctic springtime to understand better the measurements of species involved in stratospheric ozone chemistry. To this end, thirteen Canadian Arctic ACE/OSIRIS Validation Campaigns have been conducted during the spring period (February - April in 2004 - 2016) at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (80N, 86W). For the past decade, these campaigns have been undertaken in collaboration with the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). The spring period coincides with the most chemically active time of year in the Arctic, as well as a significant number of satellite overpasses. A suite of as many as 12 ground-based instruments, as well as frequent balloon-borne ozonesonde and radiosonde launches, have been used in each campaign. These instruments include: a ground-based version of the ACE-FTS (PARIS - Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer), a terrestrial version of the ACE-MAESTRO, a SunPhotoSpectrometer, two CANDAC zenith-viewing UV-visible grating spectrometers, a Bomem DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer

  5. Evaluation of a commercial ligase chain reaction kit (Abbott LCx) for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Tortoli, E; Lavinia, F; Simonetti, M T

    1997-01-01

    Direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by means of a commercial ligase chain reaction DNA amplification method (LCx M. tuberculosis; Abbott Diagnostics Division, Abbott Park, Ill.) was investigated with 511 (including 147 extrarespiratory) specimens collected from 358 patients. LCx results were compared with standard microbiological data, and conflicting cases were resolved according to the final clinical diagnosis. M. tuberculosis was detected in 45 of 358 subjects by means of the LCx test. The test was negative for all 30 specimens with mycobacteria other than M. tuberculosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the LCx test, compared with culture results, were 93.90, 92.31, 70.00, and 98.75%, respectively; these values rose in resolved cases to 95.53, 99.25, 97.27, and 98.75%, respectively. With respiratory specimens, for which the LCx system is licensed, the sensitivity reached 98.97%. In patients with a final clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis the sensitivity of the LCx system was 89.36% compared to 82.98% for cultures and 78.72% for microscopy. We conclude that the LCx test is user friendly, rapid, fairly sensitive, and highly specific. It can also be effectively used on extrapulmonary specimens provided possible false-negative results are taken into account. However, the use of LCx test appears to be less appropriate for the monitoring of antituberculosis therapy, as the majority of samples from treated tuberculosis patients gave consistently positive results, despite the sterilization of cultures. PMID:9276432

  6. Performance of multiplicom's BRCA MASTR Dx kit on the detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in fresh frozen ovarian and breast tumor samples

    PubMed Central

    Badoer, Cindy; Garrec, Céline; Goossens, Dirk; Ellison, Gillian; Mills, John; Dzial, Mélina; Housni, Hakim El; Berwouts, Sarah; Concolino, Paola; Guevellou, Virginie Guibert-Le; Delnatte, Capucine; Favero, Jurgen Del

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled new approaches for detection of mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes responsible for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). The search for germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes is of importance with respect to oncogenetic and surgical (bilateral mastectomy, ovariectomy) counselling. Testing tumor material for BRCA mutations is of increasing importance for therapeutic decision making as the poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, olaparib, is now available to treat patients with specific forms of ovarian cancer and BRCA mutations. Molecular genetics laboratories should develop reliable and sensitive techniques for the complete analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. This is a challenge due to the size of the coding sequence of the BRCA1/2 genes, the absence of hot spot mutations, and particularly by the lower DNA quality obtained from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissue. As a result, a number of analyses are uninterpretable and do not always provide a result to the clinician, limiting the optimal therapeutic management of patients. The availability of Fresh Frozen Tissue (FFT) for some laboratories and the excellent quality of the DNA extracted from it offers an alternative. For this reason, we evaluated Multiplicom's BRCA MASTR Dx assay on a set of 97 FFT derived DNA samples, in combination with the MID for Illumina MiSeq for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation detection. We obtained interpretable NGS results for all tested samples and showed > 99,7% sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. PMID:27793035

  7. Evaluation of Lionex TB kits and mycobacterial antigens for IgG and IgA detection in cerebrospinal fluid from tuberculosis meningitis patients.

    PubMed

    Sardella, Isabela Gama; Singh, Mahavir; Kumpfer, Susanne; Heringer, Rafael Ribeiro; Saad, Maria Helena Féres; Sohler, Marzia Puccioni

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate commercial Lionex TB together with four antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MPT-64, MT10.3, 16 kDa and 38 kDa) for IgG and IgA cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) detection in the diagnosis of tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) with CSF negative acid-fast bacilli staining, 19 cases of TBM, 64 cases of other infectious meningoencephalitis and 73 cases of other neurological disorders were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. IgA-MPT-64 and IgG Lionex showed the highest sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive value and negative predictive value (63.2%, 47.4%; 95%, 93.7%; 40%, 98% and 28.4%, 97.1%, respectively). However, while grey zone was 12.7% and 6%, respectively, lowering sensitivity but maintains high specificity (>or= 95%). High protein concentration in CSF was associated with antibody positivity CSF/HIV+ which did not influence the sensitivity of both tests. To our knowledge, this is the first description of IgA-MPT-64 and IgG Lionex antibodies in CSF-TBM and, although there is good specificity, adjustments are needed based on antigen composition to enhance sensitivity.

  8. Performance evaluation of Anyplex™II HPV28 detection kit in a routine diagnostic setting: comparison with the HPV Sign® Genotyping Test.

    PubMed

    Marcuccilli, Fabbio; Farchi, Francesca; Mirandola, Walter; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Paba, Pierpaolo; Bonanno, Elena; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ciotti, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Anyplex™II HPV28 is a new PCR assay designed for HPV genotyping. It can detect 28 HPV types including 19 high-risk and 9 low-risk types. This study evaluated the performance of Anyplex™II HPV28 on 123 fresh cervical samples screened in parallel with HPV Sign® Genotyping Test. Of the 123 samples screened, 93 were positive, 15 negative, and 15 discordant. The total number of HPV positive samples combined was 108: 38 single infections and 70 multiple infections. The agreement between the two tests was 87.8%, κ=0.592. Genotype specific agreement was strong for HPV 16 (k=0.761), HPV 18 (k=0.674), and HPV 35 (k=0.796). Sensitivity and specificity of Anyplex™II HPV28 assay using HPV Sign® Genotyping Test as reference was 84.8% and 94%; conversely, sensitivity and specificity of HPV Sign® Genotyping Test was 29% and 99.5%. Anyplex™II HPV28 assay is a sensitive and specific assay suitable for HPV genotyping but requires clinical validation.

  9. Solid phase microextraction field kit

    DOEpatents

    Nunes, Peter J.; Andresen, Brian D.

    2005-08-16

    A field kit for the collection, isolation and concentration of trace amounts of high explosives (HE), biological weapons (BW) and chemical weapons (CW) residues in air, soil, vegetation, swipe, and liquid samples. The field kit includes a number of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) fiber and syringe assemblies in a hermetically sealed transportation container or tubes which includes a sampling port, a number of extra SPME fiber and syringe assemblies, the fiber and syringe assemblies including a protective cap for the fiber, and an extractor for the protective cap, along with other items including spare parts, protective glove, and an instruction manual, all located in an airtight container.

  10. Tissue-Specific Expression of Transgenic Secreted ACE in Vasculature Can Restore Normal Kidney Functions, but Not Blood Pressure, of Ace-/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Kessler, Sean P.; Colucci, Juliana Almada; Yamashita, Michifumi; Senanayake, Preenie deS; Sen, Ganes C.

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) regulates normal blood pressure and fluid homeostasis through its action in the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS). Ace-/- mice are smaller in size, have low blood pressure and defective kidney structure and functions. All of these defects are cured by transgenic expression of somatic ACE (sACE) in vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice. sACE is expressed on the surface of vascular endothelial cells and undergoes a natural cleavage secretion process to generate a soluble form in the body fluids. Both the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE are enzymatically active, and generate the vasoactive octapeptide Angiotensin II (Ang II) with equal efficiency. To assess the relative physiological roles of the secreted and the cell-bound forms of ACE, we expressed, in the vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice, the ectodomain of sACE, which corresponded to only the secreted form of ACE. Our results demonstrated that the secreted form of ACE could normalize kidney functions and RAS integrity, growth and development of Ace-/- mice, but not their blood pressure. This study clearly demonstrates that the secreted form of ACE cannot replace the tissue-bound ACE for maintaining normal blood pressure; a suitable balance between the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE is essential for maintaining all physiological functions of ACE. PMID:24475296

  11. Prolonged expression of the c-kit receptor in germ cells of intersex fetal testes.

    PubMed

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1996-02-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor Kit encoded by the c-kit proto-oncogene are crucial for the development and migration of primordial germ cells in rodents. The expression of Kit has been examined immunohistochemically in gonads obtained from five specimens of fetal tissues with intersex conditions which included 45,X/46,XY mosaicism; androgen insensitivity syndrome; and 46,XY/iso(p)Y mosaicism. Individuals with such disorders of sexual differentiation and Y-chromosome material carry a very high risk of developing testicular neoplasms. Fetal testicular germ cells of the intersex subjects expressed Kit at a later developmental age than controls, in which no Kit protein was detectable beyond the 15th week of gestation. This finding may indicate a disturbance of the chronology of germ cell development, or it may suggest a change of the regulation of c-kit expression in subjects with disorders of gonadal development.

  12. Multiphysics Applications of ACE3P

    SciTech Connect

    K.H. Lee, C. Ko, Z. Li, C.-K. Ng, L. Xiao, G. Cheng, H. Wang

    2012-07-01

    The TEM3P module of ACE3P, a parallel finite-element electromagnetic code suite from SLAC, focuses on the multiphysics simulation capabilities, including thermal and mechanical analysis for accelerator applications. In this pa- per, thermal analysis of coupler feedthroughs to supercon- ducting rf (SRF) cavities will be presented. For the realistic simulation, internal boundary condition is implemented to capture RF heating effects on the surface shared by a di- electric and a conductor. The multiphysics simulation with TEM3P matched the measurement within 0.4%.

  13. Architectural Environment: A Resource Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    J.B. Speed Art Museum, Louisville, KY.

    There are many ways to approach the investigation of architecture. One can look at structural form, climate and topography, the aesthetics of style and decoration, building function, historical factors, cultural meanings, or technology and techniques associated with construction. This resource kit touches upon a few of these approaches, ranging…

  14. Skills Training. SPEC Kit 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    A 1977 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) survey investigated how libraries were training personnel for routine tasks. Of the 73 responding libraries, more than 75% (58) reported that manuals and procedural guides, along with on-the-job training, were the main methods of instruction for technical skills. Accordingly, this kit on skills…

  15. Developing the Advising "Tool Kit."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, James J.

    1988-01-01

    Developing an inventory consisting of each and every item that contributes to a total advising program is suggested. The point to be made by developing a campus "Advising Tool Kit" such as Penn State's is that advising and advisors are becoming increasingly integral to the entire educational mission of colleges and universities. (MLW)

  16. Sharing the Earth, Kit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    Introducing the pupil to the science of ecology is the purpose of Scholastic's Earth Corps Ecology/Conservation Study Kits for grades 3-6. Simple terms are used to show how all living things are inter-related to their environment, to demonstrate the intricate and delicate balance of nature, and to point out how man's interference with nature's…

  17. Collection Assessment. SPEC Kit 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This Association of Research Libraries (ARL) kit on collection assessment contains the following documents: (1) "Guidelines for the Evaluation of Library Collections--Draft Copy" (Collection Development Committee, Resource Section, Resources and Technical Services Division, American Library Association); (2) "Guidelines for Collection Assessment"…

  18. Work and Family Resource Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This kit is designed to help employers understand the range of family needs emerging in the workplace and the numerous options for a company response. An introduction discusses the need for child care services, dependent care problems, and how employers respond and benefit. Sections address the following: selecting the right option in relation to…

  19. Active Parenting Now: Program Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkin, Michael H.

    Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

  20. User Surveys. SPEC Kit 148.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Pamela Noyes

    Based on responses to a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) members in March 1988, this Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) flyer and kit are designed to assist administrators of large academic libraries in the selection of useful methods of conducting user surveys for particular library concerns. The flyer provides a brief…

  1. Cubic Unit Cell Construction Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Presents instructions for building a simple interactive unit-cell construction kit that allows for the construction of simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic lattices. The lit is built from inexpensive and readily available materials and can be built in any number of sizes. (WRM)

  2. Extended Library Hours. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Patricia Ann, Comp.; Walters, Carolyn, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to provide a description of how they are responding to demands for greater hours of access and service. Survey responses indicate what hours of access and service libraries are providing and…

  3. Instructional Support Services. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Carolyn A., Comp.; Logue, Susan, Comp.; Carter, Howard, Comp.; Soltys, Mickey, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries. The survey was designed to gather information about the changes that have taken place in the last five years in the services libraries offer to support instruction on campus and in the library, as…

  4. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  5. Care Bears Environmental Awareness Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Greetings Corp., Cleveland, OH.

    Studies show that the three most frequently cited sources of environmental information are family, school, and the media. This kit provides parents with an opportunity to increase a child's environmental awareness through activities which focus on the environment in a way children ages four to nine can understand. A workbook uses the popular Care…

  6. The ACES Mission: System Tests Results and Development Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciapuoti, Luigi

    Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) is a mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) testing fundamental laws of physics with high-performance atomic clocks1 . Operated on-board the International Space Station, the ACES payload will distribute a clock signal with fractional frequency instability and inaccuracy of 1·10-16 . This frequency reference is resulting from the medium-term stability of an active hydrogen maser (SHM) and the long-term stability and accuracy of a primary standard based on samples of laser cooled Cs atoms (PHARAO). The ACES clocks are combined by two servo-loops, the first stabilizing the PHARAO local oscillator on SHM, the second controlling the long-term instabilities of SHM using the error signal generated by the PHARAO Cesium resonator. A link in the microwave domain (MWL) and an optical link (ELT) will make the ACES clock signal available to ground laboratories equipped with atomic clocks, connecting them in a worldwide network. Space-to-ground and ground-to-ground comparisons of atomic frequency standards will be used to test Einstein's theory of general relativity including a precision measurement of the gravitational red-shift, a search for time variations of fundamental constants, and Lorentz Invariance tests. Applications in geodesy, optical time transfer, and ranging will also be supported. The ACES main instruments and subsystems have now reached an advanced status of devel-opment, demonstrated by the completion and the successful test of their engineering models. In particular, a dedicated test campaign has recently verified the performance of the ACES system, where PHARAO and SHM, locked together via the ACES servo loops, are operated as a unique oscillator to generate the ACES frequency reference. The test campaign conducted 1 Luigi Cacciapuoti and Christophe Salomon, Space Clocks and Fundamental Tests: The ACES Experiment, EPJ Special topics 172, 57 (2009). at CNES premises in Toulouse between July and November 2009 concluded

  7. Active Control Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J.; Yuen, W.

    1986-01-01

    The Air Force goal is to develop vibration control techniques for large flexible spacecraft by addressing sensor, actuator, and control hardware and dynamic testing. The Active Control Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES) program will address the Air Force goal by looking at two leading control techniques and implementing them on a structural model of a flexible spacecraft under laboratory testing. The first phase in the ACES program is to review and to assess the High Authority Control/Low Authority Control (HAC/LAC) and Filter accomodated Model Error Sensitivity Suppression (FAMESS) control techniques for testing on the modified VCOSS structure. Appropriate sensors and actuators will be available for use with both techniques; locations will be the same for both techniques. The control actuators will be positioned at the midpoint and free end of the structure. The laser source for the optical sensor is mounted on the feed mast. The beam will be reflected from a mirror on the offset antenna onto the detectors mounted above the shaker table bay. The next phase is to develop an analysis simulation with the control algorithms implemented for dynamics verification. The third phase is to convert the control laws into high level computer language and test them in the NASA-MSFC facility. The final phase is to compile all analytical and test results for performance comparisons.

  8. 21 CFR 864.1860 - Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Health, 1998). These IHC's are intended for the detection and/or measurement of certain target analytes... Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits. (a) Identification. Immunohistochemistry test systems (IHC's) are in vitro... use with flow cytometry devices are not considered IHC's. (b) Classification of...

  9. 21 CFR 864.1860 - Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Health, 1998). These IHC's are intended for the detection and/or measurement of certain target analytes... Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits. (a) Identification. Immunohistochemistry test systems (IHC's) are in vitro... use with flow cytometry devices are not considered IHC's. (b) Classification of...

  10. 21 CFR 864.1860 - Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Health, 1998). These IHC's are intended for the detection and/or measurement of certain target analytes... Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits. (a) Identification. Immunohistochemistry test systems (IHC's) are in vitro... use with flow cytometry devices are not considered IHC's. (b) Classification of...

  11. 21 CFR 864.1860 - Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Health, 1998). These IHC's are intended for the detection and/or measurement of certain target analytes... Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits. (a) Identification. Immunohistochemistry test systems (IHC's) are in vitro... use with flow cytometry devices are not considered IHC's. (b) Classification of...

  12. 21 CFR 864.1860 - Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Health, 1998). These IHC's are intended for the detection and/or measurement of certain target analytes... Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits. (a) Identification. Immunohistochemistry test systems (IHC's) are in vitro... use with flow cytometry devices are not considered IHC's. (b) Classification of...

  13. Basic Teaching Kit on Consumer Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH.

    This advertising kit was developed by Procter and Gamble in response to requests from teachers and consumer educators who asked for materials from business about business. The kit is not intended to cover the entire field of advertising. Rather, it centers on advertising as it is known and practiced by Procter and Gamble. The purpose of the kit is…

  14. Functional and molecular evidence for expression of the renin angiotensin system and ADAM17-mediated ACE2 shedding in COS7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Grobe, Nadja; Di Fulvio, Mauricio; Kashkari, Nada; Chodavarapu, Harshita; Somineni, Hari K.; Singh, Richa

    2015-01-01

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays a vital role in the regulation of the cardiovascular and renal functions. COS7 is a robust and easily transfectable cell line derived from the kidney of the African green monkey, Cercopithecus aethiops. The aims of this study were to 1) demonstrate the presence of an endogenous and functional RAS in COS7, and 2) investigate the role of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM17) in the ectodomain shedding of angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Reverse transcription coupled to gene-specific polymerase chain reaction demonstrated expression of ACE, ACE2, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), and renin at the transcript levels in total RNA cell extracts. Western blot and immunohistochemistry identified ACE (60 kDa), ACE2 (75 kDa), AT1R (43 kDa), renin (41 kDa), and ADAM17 (130 kDa) in COS7. At the functional level, a sensitive and selective mass spectrometric approach detected endogenous renin, ACE, and ACE2 activities. ANG-(1–7) formation (m/z 899) from the natural substrate ANG II (m/z 1,046) was detected in lysates and media. COS7 cells stably expressing shRNA constructs directed against endogenous ADAM17 showed reduced ACE2 shedding into the media. This is the first study demonstrating endogenous expression of the RAS and ADAM17 in the widely used COS7 cell line and its utility to study ectodomain shedding of ACE2 mediated by ADAM17 in vitro. The transfectable nature of this cell line makes it an attractive cell model for studying the molecular, functional, and pharmacological properties of the renal RAS. PMID:25740155

  15. ACE and AGTR1 polymorphisms in elite rhythmic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Alessandra; Sapere, Nadia; Piazza, Marina; Aquino, Giovanna; Iuliano, Enzo; Intrieri, Mariano; Calcagno, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    In the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, Alu deletion, in intron 16, is associated with higher concentrations of ACE serum activity and this may be associated with elite sprint and power performance. The Alu insertion is associated with lower ACE levels and this could lead to endurance performance. Moreover, recent studies have identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor gene AGTR1, which seems to be related to ACE activity. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the ACE and the AGTR1 gene polymorphisms in 28 Italian elite rhythmic gymnasts (age range 21 ± 7.6 years), and compare them to 23 middle level rhythmic gymnasts (age range 17 ± 10.9 years). The ACE D allele was significantly more frequent in elite athletes than in the control population (χ(2)=4.07, p=0.04). Comparisons between the middle level and elite athletes revealed significant differences (p<0.0001) for the ACE DD genotype (OR=6.48, 95% confidence interval=1.48-28.34), which was more frequent in elite athletes. There were no significant differences in the AGTR1 A/C genotype or allele distributions between the middle level and elite athletes. In conclusion, the ACE D allele genotype could be a contributing factor to high-performance rhythmic gymnastics that should be considered in athlete development and could help to identify which skills should be trained for talent promotion.

  16. Development of an immunochromatographic assay kit using fluorescent silica nanoparticles for rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Toriyama, Koji; Suzuki, Takashi; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Saichi; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Aizawa, Hideki; Miyoshi, Kazutomi; Ohkubo, Michio; Hiwatashi, Eiji; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We developed an immunochromatographic assay kit that uses fluorescent silica nanoparticles bound to anti-Acanthamoeba antibodies (fluorescent immunochromatographic assay [FICGA]) and evaluated its efficacy for the detection of Acanthamoeba and diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). The sensitivity of the FICGA kit was evaluated using samples of Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts diluted to various concentrations. A conventional immunochromatographic assay kit with latex labels (LICGA) was also evaluated to determine its sensitivity in detecting Acanthamoeba trophozoites. To check for cross-reactivity, the FICGA was performed by using samples of other common causative pathogens of infectious keratitis, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Candida albicans. Corneal scrapings from patients with suspected AK were tested with the FICGA kit to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba, and the results were compared with those of real-time PCR. The FICGA kit detected organisms at concentrations as low as 5 trophozoites or 40 cysts per sample. There were no cross-reactivities with other pathogens. The FICGA was approximately 20 times more sensitive than the LICGA for the detection of Acanthamoeba trophozoites. The FICGA kit yielded positive results for all 10 patients, which corresponded well with the real-time PCR results. The FICGA kit demonstrated high sensitivity for the detection of Acanthamoeba and may be useful for the diagnosis of AK.

  17. Desert Dust Layers Over Polluted Marine Boundary Layers: ACE-2 Measurements and ACE-Asia Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Aerosols in ACE-Asia are expected to have some commonalties with those in ACE-2, along with important differences. Among the commonalities are occurrences of desert dust layers over polluted marine boundary layers. Differences include the nature of the dust (yellowish in the East Asia desert outflow, vs. reddish-brown in the Sahara Outflow measured in ACE-2) and the composition of boundary-layer aerosols (e.g., more absorbing, soot and organic aerosol in-the Asian plume, caused by coal and biomass burning, with limited controls). In this paper we present ACE-2 measurements and analyses as a guide to our plans for ACE-2 Asia. The measurements include: (1) Vertical profiles of aerosol optical depth and extinction (380-1558 nm), and of water vapor column and concentration, from the surface through the elevated desert dust, measured by the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14); (2) Comparisons of airborne and shipborne sunphotometer optical depths to satellite-retrieved values, with and without desert dust; (3) Comparisons between airborne Sunphotometer optical depth and extinction spectra and those derived from coincident airborne in situ measurements of aerosol size distribution, scattering and absorption; (4) Comparisons between size distributions measured in situ and retrieved from sunphotometer optical depth spectra; (5) Comparisons between aerosol single scattering albedo values obtained by several techniques, using various combinations of measurements of backscatter, extinction, size distribution, scattering, absorption, and radiative flux. We show how analyses of these data can be used to address questions important to ACE-Asia, such as: (1) How do dust and other absorbing aerosols affect the accuracy of satellite optical depth retrievals? How important are asphericity effects? (2) How important are supermicron dust and seasalt aerosols to overall aerosol optical depth and radiative forcing? How well are these aerosols sampled by aircraft

  18. The solar array is installed on ACE in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Applied Physics Laboratory engineers and technicians from Johns Hopkins University install solar array panels on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II. The panel on which they are working is identical to the panel (one of four) seen in the foreground on the ACE spacecraft. Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low- energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles for a better understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system as well as the astrophysical processes involved. The ACE observatory will be placed into an orbit almost a million miles (1.5 million kilometers) away from the Earth, about 1/100 the distance from the Earth to the Sun. The collecting power of instrumentation aboard ACE is at least 100 times more sensitive than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  19. Lysozyme and bilirubin bind to ACE and regulate its conformation and shedding

    PubMed Central

    Danilov, Sergei M.; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Akinbi, Henry T.; Nesterovitch, Andrew B.; Epshtein, Yuliya; Letsiou, Eleftheria; Kryukova, Olga V.; Piegeler, Tobias; Golukhova, Elena Z.; Schwartz, David E.; Dull, Randal O.; Minshall, Richard D.; Kost, Olga A.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) hydrolyzes numerous peptides and is a critical participant in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated tissue ACE levels are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Blood ACE concentrations are determined by proteolytic cleavage of ACE from the endothelial cell surface, a process that remains incompletely understood. In this study, we identified a novel ACE gene mutation (Arg532Trp substitution in the N domain of somatic ACE) that increases blood ACE activity 7-fold and interrogated the mechanism by which this mutation significantly increases blood ACE levels. We hypothesized that this ACE mutation disrupts the binding site for blood components which may stabilize ACE conformation and diminish ACE shedding. We identified the ACE-binding protein in the blood as lysozyme and also a Low Molecular Weight (LMW) ACE effector, bilirubin, which act in concert to regulate ACE conformation and thereby influence ACE shedding. These results provide mechanistic insight into the elevated blood level of ACE observed in patients on ACE inhibitor therapy and elevated blood lysozyme and ACE levels in sarcoidosis patients. PMID:27734897

  20. Humoral immune response to oral rabies vaccination in raccoon kits: problems and implications.

    PubMed

    Fry, Tricia L; Vandalen, Kaci K; Shriner, Susan A; Moore, Susan M; Hanlon, Cathleen A; Vercauteren, Kurt C

    2013-06-10

    Little is known about the immunogenicity of RABORAL V-RG(®) (V-RG), an oral rabies vaccine, in raccoon kits (Procyon lotor). The objectives of this study were to characterize the immunogenicity of V-RG in young kits and investigate the potential impact of maternal antibodies on response to vaccination of nursing raccoon kits. Raccoon kits (n=30) were vaccinated at either 3 weeks of age, 7 weeks of age, or assigned as contact controls. Nineteen kits (73%) that were whelped by unvaccinated mothers responded to V-RG exposure (orally or indirect contact) by production of detectable rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) while 7 (27%) kits did not respond to V-RG exposure. Four kits were whelped by a mother with high levels of RVNA and all four kits acquired maternal rabies antibodies. At approximately 9 months of age, all kits were inoculated with a killed rabies vaccine, IMRAB3(®). The kits which initially responded to V-RG oral vaccination or contact with vaccinated littermates demonstrated a rapid anamnestic response. In contrast, the V-RG non-responders and those with acquired maternal antibodies exhibited a primary immune response to IMRAB3(®), where RVNA levels were substantially lower on days 5 and 7 than the levels in the animals with an anamnestic response. These findings suggest that the naïve contact kits and the nonresponsive kits most likely remained susceptible to rabies virus infection whereas the ones demonstrating response to V-RG would not have been susceptible to a rabies virus infection.

  1. ACE2 and Microbiota: Emerging Targets for Cardiopulmonary Disease Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Jeffrey, Colleen T; Liu, Meng; Katovich, Michael J; Raizada, Mohan K; Shenoy, Vinayak

    2015-01-01

    The health of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems is inextricably linked to the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Physiologically speaking, a balance between the vasodeleterious (ACE/Ang II/AT1R) and vasoprotective (ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/MasR) components of the RAS is critical for cardiopulmonary homeostasis. Upregulation of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis shifts the system toward vasoconstriction, proliferation, hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis, all factors that contribute to the development and progression of cardiopulmonary diseases. Conversely, stimulation of the vasoprotective ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/MasR axis produces a counter-regulatory response that promotes cardiovascular health. Current research is investigating novel strategies to augment actions of the vasoprotective RAS components, particularly ACE2, in order to treat various pathologies. While multiple approaches to increase the activity of ACE2 have displayed beneficial effects against experimental disease models, the mechanisms behind its protective actions remain incompletely understood. Recent work demonstrating a non-catalytic role for ACE2 in amino acid transport in the gut has led us to speculate that the therapeutic effects of ACE2 can be mediated, in part, by its actions on the gastrointestinal tract and/or gut microbiome. This is consistent with emerging data which suggests that dysbiosis of the gut and lung microbiomes is associated with cardiopulmonary disease. This review highlights new developments in the protective actions of ACE2 against cardiopulmonary disorders, discusses innovative approaches to targeting ACE2 for therapy, and explores an evolving role for gut and lung microbiota in cardiopulmonary health. PMID:26322922

  2. ACE2 and Microbiota: Emerging Targets for Cardiopulmonary Disease Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cole-Jeffrey, Colleen T; Liu, Meng; Katovich, Michael J; Raizada, Mohan K; Shenoy, Vinayak

    2015-12-01

    The health of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems is inextricably linked to the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Physiologically speaking, a balance between the vasodeleterious (Angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE]/Angiotensin II [Ang II]/Ang II type 1 receptor [AT1R]) and vasoprotective (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [ACE2]/Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]/Mas receptor [MasR]) components of the RAS is critical for cardiopulmonary homeostasis. Upregulation of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis shifts the system toward vasoconstriction, proliferation, hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis, all factors that contribute to the development and progression of cardiopulmonary diseases. Conversely, stimulation of the vasoprotective ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis produces a counter-regulatory response that promotes cardiovascular health. Current research is investigating novel strategies to augment actions of the vasoprotective RAS components, particularly ACE2, in order to treat various pathologies. Although multiple approaches to increase the activity of ACE2 have displayed beneficial effects against experimental disease models, the mechanisms behind its protective actions remain incompletely understood. Recent work demonstrating a non-catalytic role for ACE2 in amino acid transport in the gut has led us to speculate that the therapeutic effects of ACE2 can be mediated, in part, by its actions on the gastrointestinal tract and/or gut microbiome. This is consistent with emerging data which suggest that dysbiosis of the gut and lung microbiomes is associated with cardiopulmonary disease. This review highlights new developments in the protective actions of ACE2 against cardiopulmonary disorders, discusses innovative approaches to targeting ACE2 for therapy, and explores an evolving role for gut and lung microbiota in cardiopulmonary health.

  3. Differential Use of Elementary Science Kits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Gail; Robertson, Laura; Gardner, Grant E.; Dotger, Sharon; Blanchard, Margaret R.

    2012-10-01

    The use of kits in elementary science classes is a growing trend in some countries. Kits provide materials and inquiry lessons in a ready-to-teach format for teachers to use in their science instruction. This study examined elementary teachers' instructional strategies, classroom practices, and assessment types in relation to the frequency of science kit use. A total of 503 elementary teachers from an urban school district received professional development, implemented kits in their classrooms for a year, and then completed a survey about science kit use and teaching practices. Despite similarities in demographic characteristics (gender, ethnicity, certification/educational level), there were significant differences in teachers' use of inquiry-based teaching and assessment practices by kit use. Teachers who reported using kits the most often were significantly more likely to report that their students designed and implemented laboratory investigations as well recorded, represented, and analyzed data. In addition, the high kit users indicated that they were more likely to use student groups, require students to use evidence to support claims, and use alternative assessments of student work including portfolios, notebooks, and long-term projects than those teachers who used kits less frequently. Those teachers who reported using kits the least often were significantly more likely to report having students practice for standardized tests. The role of kits in promoting reform-based teaching practices is discussed.

  4. Active Control Technique Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-16

    Due to Test Results 3-9 3.5 Representative Data 3-11 3.6 Control Model 3-21 4.0 Simulation 4-1 5.0 HAC/LAC 5-1 5.1 Theory 5-1...5.1.1 HAC Theory 5-1 5.1.2 LAC Theory 5-4 5.1.3 HAC/LAC Combined Control 5-6 5.1.4 HAC/LAC Applied to ACES 5-7 5.2 Model Selection and...5-39 5-50 6.0 Positivity 6-1 6-1 6-9 6-9 6-17 6-31 5.4 Observation 5.5 Test Results 5.6 Conclusions 6.1 Theory 6.2 Model

  5. Canine and human gastrointestinal stromal tumors display similar mutations in c-KIT exon 11

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are common mesenchymal neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and dogs. Little is known about the pathogenesis of these tumors. This study evaluated the role of c-KIT in canine GISTs; specifically, we investigated activating mutations in exons 8, 9, 11, 13, and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide (PDGFRA), all of which have been implicated in human GISTs. Methods Seventeen canine GISTs all confirmed to be positive for KIT immunostaining were studied. Exons 8, 9, 11, 13 and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA, were amplified from DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Results Of these seventeen cases, six amplicons of exon 11 of c-KIT showed aberrant bands on gel electrophoresis. Sequencing of these amplicons revealed heterozygous in-frame deletions in six cases. The mutations include two different but overlapping six base pair deletions. Exons 8, 9, 13, and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA had no abnormalities detected by electrophoresis and sequencing did not reveal any mutations, other than synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in exon 11 of c-KIT and exons 12 and 14 of PDGFRA. Conclusions The deletion mutations detected in canine GISTs are similar to those previously found in the juxtamembrane domain of c-KIT in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors in our laboratory as well as to those reported in human GISTs. Interestingly, none of the other c-KIT or PDGFRA exons showed any abnormalities in our cases. This finding underlines the critical importance of c-KIT in the pathophysiology of canine GISTs. The expression of KIT and the identification of these activating mutations in c-KIT implicate KIT in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Our results indicate that mutations in c-KIT may be of prognostic significance and that targeting KIT may be a rational approach to treatment of these

  6. Human ACE gene polymorphism and distilled water induced cough

    PubMed Central

    Morice, A. H.; Turley, A. J.; Linton, T. K.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) cause a non-productive cough. The insertion/deletion polymorphism of ACE was used as a genetic marker to investigate the relationship between ACE genotype and cough sensitivity. METHODS: A double blind cough challenge was performed in 66 normotensive subjects (34 men) of mean age 34.8 years (range 18-80) using aerosols of distilled water. The number of coughs during the one minute exposure to water was recorded. DNA samples from venous blood were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and resolved on a 1% agarose gel. They were analysed for the presence of a polymorphism in intron 16 of the ACE gene consisting of an insertion (I) or deletion (D) of an Alu repetitive sequence 287 base pairs long. RESULTS: The distribution of genotypes was 20 II, 26 ID, and 20 DD. The cough response was significantly (p < 0.01) related to the ACE genotype, the mean number of coughs being 15.8, 11.3, and 9.6, respectively, in subjects with the II, ID, and DD genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The observation that cough challenge is dependent on ACE genotype in normal subjects is evidence of a link between ACE activity and the cough reflex. 


 PMID:9059468

  7. AceCloud: Molecular Dynamics Simulations in the Cloud.

    PubMed

    Harvey, M J; De Fabritiis, G

    2015-05-26

    We present AceCloud, an on-demand service for molecular dynamics simulations. AceCloud is designed to facilitate the secure execution of large ensembles of simulations on an external cloud computing service (currently Amazon Web Services). The AceCloud client, integrated into the ACEMD molecular dynamics package, provides an easy-to-use interface that abstracts all aspects of interaction with the cloud services. This gives the user the experience that all simulations are running on their local machine, minimizing the learning curve typically associated with the transition to using high performance computing services.

  8. ACE--Alliance for Clinical Enhancement: a collaborative model.

    PubMed

    Poirrier, G P; Granger, M; Todaro, M

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces an innovative collaborative model developed by nursing educators and practitioners, the Alliance for Clinical Enhancement Program (ACE), that combines components of traditional internship and extender programs. The goals of ACE are opportunities for role socialization, role transition, and role modeling for nursing students; enhancing clinical competence and provision of financial assistance to the students; increased recruitment of RN graduates by the involved hospital; and decreased RN time spent on non-nursing tasks by hospital RNs. The total development, implementation, and analysis of ACE Program is discussed.

  9. ACE-Asia Chemical Transport Modeling Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    UNO, I.; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Ginoux, P.; Rasch, P.; Carmichael, G. R.; Yienger, J. J.

    2001-12-01

    ACE-Asia (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) was designed to increase our understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth?s climate system. The intensive observation period was carried out during March to May, 2001, and more than 100 researchers from several countries (United States, Japan, Korea, China, and many other Asian countries) participated using aircraft, a research vessel, surface stations and numerical models. Aerosol transport forecast activities played an important role during the ACE-Asia intensive observation period. Three independent modeling groups operated chemical transport models in forecast mode and participated in flight planning activities at the operations center. These models were: MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry; Rasch and Collins); GOCART (Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model; Chin and Ginour) and CFORS (Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University + University of Iowa - Chemical weather FORecast System; Uno, Carmichael and Yienger). The MATCH model used in ACE-Asia was a transport model applied for the Asia region, driven by NCEP forecast meteorology. A unique feature of this model was that it assimilated satellite derived optical depths into its forecast algorithm. The GOCART model provided global aerosol forecast using forecast meteorological fields provided by the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The CFORS model provided regional forecasts using a limited area transport model coupled with Regional Meteorological Modeling System (RAMS), initialized by NCEP and JMA forecasts. All models produced 3-d aerosol forecast products consisting of aerosol mass distributions and optical depths for sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea salt, and dust. In the field these model products were made available to all participating scientists via the Web, and were also presented during the

  10. Selecting patients for KIT inhibition in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Richard D; Hamid, Omid; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2014-01-01

    For many years, melanoma has been regarded as a single disease in terms of therapeutic considerations. The more recent identification of multiple molecular mechanisms underlying the development, progression, and prognosis of melanoma has led to a new paradigm for the management of this disease, has created new therapeutic opportunities, and has led to improved clinical outcomes. Such advances, however, are dependent upon methods that can reproducibly identify key molecular alterations within an individual tumor, define clinically relevant genetic subgroups of disease, and permit improved patient selection for targeted therapies.Melanomas harboring genetic alterations of KIT have been demonstrated to constitute one such molecular subgroup of disease. In this chapter, we will discuss the biology of KIT in melanoma, review the rationale for and clinical data regarding KIT inhibition in melanomas harboring activating alterations of KIT, propose guidelines for the selection of patients for KIT inhibitor therapy, and, finally, present laboratory methods for KIT assessment in melanoma.

  11. The Canadian Arctic Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Validation Project: Overview and results from ten years of ACE operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kaley; Strong, Kimberly

    2014-05-01

    As of February 2014, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite mission has been making measurements of the Earth's atmosphere for ten years. As ACE operations have extended beyond the initial two-year mission, there is a continuing need to validate the trace gas data products from the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) instruments. Ground-based measurements provide critical data for the validation of satellite retrievals of trace gases and for the assessment of long-term stability of these measurements. In particular, validation comparisons are needed for ACE during Arctic springtime to understand better the measurements of species involved in stratospheric ozone chemistry. To this end, eleven Canadian Arctic Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Validation Campaigns have been conducted during the spring period (February - April in 2004 - 2014) at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (80°N, 86°W). This period coincides with the most chemically active time of year in the Arctic, as well as a significant number of satellite overpasses. A suite of as many as 12 ground-based instruments, as well as frequent balloon-borne ozonesonde and radiosonde launches, have been used in each campaign. These instruments include: a ground-based version of the ACE-FTS (PARIS - Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer), a terrestrial version of the ACE-MAESTRO, a SunPhotoSpectrometer, two zenith-viewing UV-visible grating spectrometers, a Bomem DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer, a Bruker 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer, a Systeme d'Analyse par Observations Zenithales (SAOZ) instrument, and several Brewer spectrophotometers. In the past several years, these results have been used to validate the measurements by the ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO instruments on SCISAT as well

  12. The solar array is installed on ACE in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Applied Physics Laboratory Engineer Cliff Willey (kneeling) and Engineering Assistant Jim Hutcheson from Johns Hopkins University install solar array panels on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II. Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles for a better understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system as well as the astrophysical processes involved. The ACE observatory will be placed into an orbit almost a million miles (1.5 million kilometers) away from the Earth, about 1/100 the distance from the Earth to the Sun. The collecting power of instrumentation aboard ACE is at least 100 times more sensitive than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  13. The solar array is installed on ACE in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Applied Physics Laboratory engineers and technicians from Johns Hopkins University assist in guiding the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) as it is hoisted over a platform for solar array installation in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II. Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles. The ACE observatory will contribute to the understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system as well as the astrophysical processes involved. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  14. The Louisiana ACES Student-built BalloonSat Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, B.; Giammanco, J.; Guzik, T. G.; Johnson, K.; Wefel, J. P.

    The Aerospace Catalyst Experiences for Students (ACES) pilot project was funded at Louisiana State University by NASA's National Space Grant College and Fellowship program during the 2002-2003 academic year with the primary goal of giving students a true hands-on experience with project management, life-cycle, experiment construction, data collection, analysis and interpretation. In this project students design, build, fly and analyze the data returned from small payloads (typical dimensions 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm, typical weight ˜ 500 grams) carried up to ˜ 100,000 feet by a helium-filled latex sounding balloon. During the pilot project the 13 students that participated in the program, grouped in 4 teams, built payloads that included studies in atmospheric science, cosmic rays and remote sensing. These payloads were then launched from the NASA National Scientific Balloon Facility in Palestine, Texas on May 21, 2003. Most recently, the LaACES (Louisiana ACES) program has been selected for funding by NASA. During LaACES we will expand the pilot program to institutions across the state including developing student training materials, holding a workshop for institution representatives, awarding payload development grants to student teams, monitoring the progress of these teams and supporting the balloon flight of the completed payloads. Here we describe the ACES pilot, the outcomes, and plans for La ACES.

  15. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... as provided in paragraph (3), each approved first-aid kit must contain at least the following... first-aid kit may be stowed in a readily accessible location that is as near as practicable to the kit... 1 protective nonpermeable gloves or equivalent 1 pair 2. As of April 12, 2004, at least one...

  16. New and Improved Infrared Spectroscopy of Halogen-Containing Species for ACE-FTS Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.

    2014-06-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), onboard the SCISAT-1 satellite, is a high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) instrument covering the 750-4400 cm-1 spectral region in solar occultation mode. Launched in August 2003, the ACE-FTS has been taking atmospheric measurements for over ten years. With long atmospheric pathlengths (˜300 km) and the sun as a radiation source, the ACE-FTS provides a low detection threshold for trace species in the atmosphere. In fact, it measures the vertical profiles of more molecules in the atmosphere than any other satellite instrument.

    Fluorine- and chlorine-containing molecules in the atmosphere are very strong greenhouse gases, meaning that even small amounts of these gases contribute significantly to the radiative forcing of climate. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are regulated by the 1987 Montreal Protocol because they deplete the ozone layer. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which do not deplete the ozone layer and are not regulated by the Montreal Protocol, have been introduced as replacements for CFCs and HCFCs. HFCs have global-warming potentials many times greater than carbon dioxide, and are increasing in the atmosphere at a very fast rate. The quantification of the atmospheric abundances of such molecules from measurements taken by the ACE-FTS and other satellite instruments crucially requires accurate quantitative infrared spectroscopy. HITRAN contains absorption cross section datasets for a number of these species, but many of them have minor deficiencies that introduce systematic errors into satellite retrievals. This talk will focus on new and improved laboratory measurements for a number of important halogenated species.

  17. Investigation of interaction studies of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors in various buffers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Arayne, Muhammad Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Abbas, Hira Fatima

    2015-02-01

    This work describes a RP-HPLC method for the determination and interaction studies of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors (captopril, enalapril and lisinopril) in various buffers. The separation and interaction of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors was achieved on a Purospher Star, C18 (5 μm, 250 × 4.6 mm) column. Mobile phase consisted of methanol: water (80:20, v/v, pH 3.3); however, for the separation of lisinopril, it was modified to methanol-water (40:60, v/v, pH 3.3) and pumped at a flow rate of 1 mL min-1. In all cases, UV detection was performed at 225 nm. Interactions were carried out in physiological pH i.e., pH 1 (simulated gastric juice), 4 (simulated full stomach), 7.4 (blood pH) and 9 (simulated GI), drug contents were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Method was found linear in the concentration range of 1.0-50.0 μg mL-1 with correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.999. Precision (RSD%) was less than 2.0%, indicating good precision of the method and accuracy was 98.0-100.0%. Furthermore, cefpirome-ACE-inhibitors' complexes were also synthesized and results were elucidated on the basis of FT-IR, and 1H NMR. The interaction results show that these interactions are pH dependent and for the co-administration of cefpirome and ACE-inhibitors, a proper interval should be given.

  18. The usefulness of c-Kit in the immunohistochemical assessment of melanocytic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pilloni, L.; Bianco, P.; Difelice, E.; Cabras, S.; Castellanos, M.E.; Atzori, L.; Ferreli, C.; Mulas, P.; Nemolato, S.; Faa, G.

    2011-01-01

    C-Kit (CD117), the receptor for the stem cell factor, a growth factor for melanocyte migration and proliferation, has shown differential immunostaining in various benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. The purpose of this study is to compare c-Kit immunostaining in benign nevi and in primary and metastatic malignant melanomas, to determine whether c-Kit can aid in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. c-Kit immunostaining was performed in 60 cases of pigmented lesions, including 39 benign nevi (5 blue nevi, 5 intra-dermal nevi, 3 junctional nevi, 15 cases of primary compound nevus, 11 cases of Spitz nevus), 18 cases of primary malignant melanoma and 3 cases of metastatic melanoma. The vast majority of nevi and melanomas examined in this study were positive for c-Kit, with minimal differences between benign and malignant lesions. C-Kit cytoplasmatic immunoreactivity in the intraepidermal proliferating nevus cells, was detected in benign pigmented lesions as well as in malignant melanoma, increasing with the age of patients (P=0.007) in both groups. The patient’s age at presentation appeared to be the variable able to cluster benign and malignant pigmented lesions. The percentage of c-Kit positive intraepidermal nevus cells was better associated with age despite other variables (P=0.014). The intensity and percentage of c-Kit positivity in the proliferating nevus cells in the dermis was significantly increased in malignant melanocytic lesions (P=0.015 and P=0.008) compared to benign lesions (compound melanocytic nevi, Spitz nevi, intradermal nevi, blue nevi). Immunostaning for c-Kit in metastatic melanomas was negative. Interestingly in two cases of melanoma occurring on a pre-existent nevus, the melanoma tumor cells showed strong cytoplasmatic and membranous positivity for c-kit, in contrast with the absence of any immunoreactivity in pre-existent intradermal nevus cells. C-Kit does not appear to be a strong immunohistochemical marker for distinguishing

  19. The Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R) in subcortical ischemic vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Catalina; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Richly, Pablo; Torralva, Teresa; Roca, María; Camino, Julieta; Manes, Facundo

    2012-11-15

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is one of the most prevalent causes of dementia, and it is frequently misdiagnosed and undertreated in clinical practice. Because neuropsychological outcome depends, among other factors, on the size and location of the vascular brain injury, characterizing the cognitive profile of VaD has been especially challenging. Yet, there has been sufficient evidence to show a marked impairment of attention and executive functions, in particular in relation to Alzheimer disease. Being able to detect these deficits at bedside is crucial for everyday clinical practice, and yet, brief cognitive screening toots such as the Mini-Mental Sate Examination (MMSE) may overlook at cognitive deficits typical of patients with VaD. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is also a brief cognitive screening tool designed to incorporate the items of the MMSE and further extend the test to assess orientation, attention, verbal fluency, memory, language, and visuospatial abilities. In this study, we investigated the ability of the Spanish version of the ACE-R to detect the cognitive impairment showed in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia, and we compared its usefulness to that of the MMSE in this population. Scores on these tests were compared to those of patients with Alzheimer disease and matched healthy controls. The 88-point cut-off proposed for the ACE-R was associated with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% for the detection of cognitive impairment, demonstrating a stronger capacity than the MMSE (sensitivity of 42% with its 23-point cut-off score). We also found that the verbal fluency subtest of the ACE-R may be potentially useful in discriminating patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia from patients with AD. We discuss the utility of these findings in the context of everyday clinical practice and we propose that future studies should evaluate the potential usefulness of combining the ACE-R with a

  20. Features of the Java commodity grid kit.

    SciTech Connect

    von Laszewski, G.; Gawor, J.; Lane, P.; Rehn, N.; Russell, M.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2002-11-01

    In this paper we report on the features of the Java Commodity Grid Kit (Java CoG Kit). The Java CoG Kit provides middleware for accessing Grid functionality from the Java framework. Java CoG Kit middleware is general enough to design a variety of advanced Grid applications with quite different user requirements. Access to the Grid is established via Globus Toolkit protocols, allowing the Java CoG Kit to also communicate with the services distributed as part of the C Globus Toolkit reference implementation. Thus, the Java CoG Kit provides Grid developers with the ability to utilize the Grid, as well as numerous additional libraries and frameworks developed by the Java community to enable network, Internet, enterprise and peer-to-peer computing. A variety of projects have successfully used the client libraries of the Java CoG Kit to access Grids driven by the C Globus Toolkit software. In this paper we also report on the efforts to develop serverside Java CoG Kit components. As part of this research we have implemented a prototype pure Java resource management system that enables one to run Grid jobs on platforms on which a Java virtual machine is supported, including Windows NT machines.

  1. Special tool kit aids heavily garmented workers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, A. E.

    1966-01-01

    Triangular aluminum tool kit, filled with polyurethane is constructed to receive various tools and hold them in a snug but quick-release fit as an aid to heavily gloved workers. The kit is designed to allow mounting within easily accessable reach and to provide protection of the tools during storage.

  2. Habitats NatureScope[R] Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eva

    This kit introduces the basic concepts of habitat through challenging and engaging interdisciplinary, hands-on activities. The material is designed for K-8 educators working in traditional and non- traditional classrooms with the goals of increasing awareness of the ways habitats work and why they are important. This kit consists of four…

  3. Culture Kits for the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, M. Gail

    1997-01-01

    Outlines an instructional unit where students construct culture kits illustrating a specific culture. Culture kits are constructed out of realia and other material including maps, travel brochures, photographs, newspapers, souvenirs, and other items. Discusses collecting these items and possible multicultural applications. (MJP)

  4. A Prototype Grammar Kit in Prolog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Kenneth M.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a prototype of a computerized grammar kit written in PROLOG and designed for children interested in exploring language. PROLOG's advantages for building parsers, generators, translators, and question-answering systems are discussed, and a scenario of a child working on a grammar project using the kit and implementation issues are…

  5. The Project Manager's Tool Kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Project managers are rarely described as being funny. Moreover, a good sense of humor rarely seems to be one of the deciding factors in choosing someone to be a project manager, or something that pops up as a major discussion point at an annual performance review. Perhaps this is because people think you aren't serious about your work if you laugh. I disagree with this assessment, but that's not really my point. As I talk to people either pursuing a career in project management, or broadening their assignment to include project management, I encourage them to consider what tools they need to be successful. I suggest that they consider any strength they have to be part of their Project Management (PM) Tool Kit, and being funny could be one of the tools they need.

  6. Evaluation of commercial kits for the extraction and purification of viral nucleic acids from environmental and fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Iker, Brandon C; Bright, Kelly R; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P; Kitajima, Masaaki

    2013-07-01

    The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is a critical step in the molecular detection of enteric viruses from environmental or fecal samples. In the present study, the performance of three commercially available kits was assessed: the MO BIO PowerViral Environmental DNA/RNA Isolation kit, the Qiagen QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit, and the Zymo ZR Virus DNA/RNA Extraction kit. Viral particles of adenovirus 2 (AdV), murine norovirus (MNV), and poliovirus type 1 (PV1) were spiked in molecular grade water and three different types of sample matrices (i.e., biosolids, feces, and surface water concentrates), extracted with the kits, and the yields of the nucleic acids were determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR). The MO BIO kit performed the best with the biosolids, which were considered to contain the highest level of inhibitors and provided the most consistent detection of spiked virus from all of the samples. A qPCR inhibition test using an internal control plasmid DNA and a nucleic acid purity test using an absorbance at 230 nm for the nucleic acid extracts demonstrated that the MO BIO kit was able to remove qPCR inhibitors more effectively than the Qiagen and Zymo kits. These results suggest that the MO BIO kit is appropriate for the extraction and purification of viral nucleic acids from environmental and clinical samples that contain high levels of inhibitors.

  7. Cromolyn sodium for ACE inhibitor-induced cough.

    PubMed

    Allen, T L; Gora-Harper, M L

    1997-06-01

    There are several theories on the cause of ACE inhibitor-induced cough, but the exact mechanism is not known. In many patients, if cough develops, the ACE inhibitor can be discontinued and a drug in another therapeutic class used in its place. However, in patients with CHF, diabetic nephropathy, and patients who have experienced a myocardial infarction, discontinuing the ACE inhibitor may not be in the best interest of the patient. In this patient population it would be reasonable to try cromolyn sodium to treat cough, while continuing the ACE inhibitor. Data are not available to support the efficacy of cromolyn sodium to treat cough in patients with diabetic nephropathy, but these patients clearly benefit from the use of an ACE inhibitor. Other factors not addressed in the case reports and the clinical trial such as patient adherence, cost, and quality of life should also play a role in the decision to use cromolyn sodium. Cromolyn sodium has been effective for the treatment of ACE inhibitor-induced cough in many case reports and has had mild success in one small clinical trial. Although none of the reports adequately assessed adverse effects, studies examining cromolyn for other indications have demonstrated a relatively benign adverse effect profile. It is difficult to recommend an exact dose to use because of the dosing variability in the case reports. The majority of the case reports and the one clinical trial used dosages similar to recommendations for bronchial asthma (i.e., 2 puffs [1.6 mg] 4 times daily via MDI or 20-mg capsules 4 times daily via breath-activated inhalation). At this time, the use of cromolyn sodium is a viable option, but more controlled studies are needed to fully elucidate its role in the treatment of ACE inhibitor-induced cough.

  8. Enteric colonization by staphylococcus delphini in four ferret kits with diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Gary, J M; Langohr, I M; Lim, A; Bolin, S; Bolin, C; Moore, I; Kiupel, M

    2014-11-01

    Four, 1-to 4-week-old ferret kits were submitted to the Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health at Michigan State University for post-mortem examination. Grossly, multiple bowel loops in all ferret kits were distended by mucoid faecal material. Microscopically, there was no evidence of inflammation or notable alteration to the normal mucosal morphology. Gram-positive coccoid bacteria colonized variable segments of the small intestine. These bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus delphini by phenotypic and molecular analyses. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Staphylococcus enterotoxins was positive and polymerase chain reaction detected the gene for Staphylococcus enterotoxin E in the isolates. The hypersecretory diarrhoea in these ferret kits may have been associated with colonization of the small intestine by S. delphini, cultures of which were shown in vitro to be potentially capable of producing enterotoxin E. The condition described in these ferrets is similar to 'sticky' kit syndrome in mink.

  9. Comparison of the Simplexa™ Flu A/B & RSV kit (nucleic acid extraction-dependent assay) and the Prodessa ProFlu+™ assay for detecting influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, Suresh B; Bambach, Adrienne V; Leber, Amy L; Patru, Maria-Magdalena; Patel, Anami; Menegus, Marilyn A

    2014-09-01

    The relative performance of 2 widely used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, the Focus diagnostics Simplexa™ Flu A/B & RSV kit (nucleic acid extraction-dependent assay) and the Prodessa Proflu+™ assay, was evaluated using 735 prospectively and retrospectively collected nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Overall, the assays showed positive and negative agreements of 100% and 99.7% for influenza A, 98.1% and 99.9% for influenza B, and 99.3% and 99.5% for respiratory syncytial virus. The relative analytical sensitivity of the 2 assays was also similar.

  10. Variation in MRSA identification results from different generations of Xpert MRSA real-time PCR testing kits from nasal swabs.

    PubMed

    Rabaan, Ali A; Bazzi, Ali M

    2017-02-06

    GeneXpert MRSA kits (Cepheid) are based on a multiplex, real-time PCR method for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) detection, with primers to detect each SCCmec type and the chromosomal orfX-SCCmec junction. Modifications in recent kit versions were proposed to help overcome false-positive issues in earlier kit versions. The main objective of this study was to determine whether use of any version of the GeneXpert MRSA multiplex, real-time PCR kits yielded higher than expected MRSA+ results. We also estimated the level of MRSA in our healthcare facility as a proportion of total S. aureus between 2010 and 2015. We examined results from five generations of the kits used between 2008 and 2015. Results were from nasal swab samples from 16,431 patients in the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare facility in Saudi Arabia. The percentage of isolates scored as MRSA+ for the original Xpert MRSA kit was 18.57%, compared to 6.93±1.12% (mean±SD) for the other four kits. The Xpert MRSA-SA Nasal kit yielded 6.48% Invalid results, compared to 0.73±0.28% for the other four kits. The succeeding Xpert MRSA-SA Nasal G3 and Xpert MRSA-SA Nasal Complete G3 kits yielded Invalid results rates of 0.29% and 1.04% respectively. Levels of MRSA-positive isolates as a percentage of total S. aureus-containing samples ranged between 19.81% and 26.74%. In conclusion, the original Xpert MRSA kit yielded higher than expected rates of MRSA+. Issues with over-estimation of MRSA+ and/or numerous Invalid results have been overcome in the most recent modified kits.

  11. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TESTING OF THREE IMMUNOASSAY TEST KITS FOR ANTHRAX, BOTULINUM TOXIN AND RICIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassay test kits are based on immunoassay methods, where specific antibodies are used to detect and measure the contaminants of interest. Immunoassay test kits rely on the reaction of a contaminant or antigen with a selective antibody to give a product that can be measures....

  12. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE INDUSTRIAL TEST SYSTEM, INC. CYANIDE REAGENTSTRIP™ TEST KIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanide can be present in various forms in water. The cyanide test kit evaluated in this verification study (Industrial Test System, Inc. Cyanide Regent Strip ™ Test Kit) was designed to detect free cyanide in water. This is done by converting cyanide in water to cyanogen...

  13. Intratumoral CD3+ T-Lymphocytes Immunoexpression and Its Association with c-Kit, Angiogenesis, and Overall Survival in Malignant Canine Mammary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Maria Isabel; Pires, Isabel; Dias, Marlene; Prada, Justina; Gregório, Hugo; Lobo, Luis; Queiroga, Felisbina

    2015-01-01

    In this study 80 malignant CMT were submitted to immunohistochemical detection of CD3, c-kit, VEGF, and CD31, together with clinicopathological parameters of tumor aggressiveness. CD3+ T-cells and c-kit overexpression revealed a positive correlation with VEGF (r = 0.503, P < 0.0001; r = 0.284, P = 0.023 for CD3 and c-kit, resp.) and CD31 (r = 0.654, P < 0.0001; r = 0.365, P = 0.003 for CD3 and c-kit, resp.). A significant association (P = 0.039) and a positive correlation (r = 0.263, P = 0.039) between CD3 and c-kit were also observed. High CD3/VEGF, c-kit/VEGF, and CD3/c-kit tumors were associated with elevated grade of malignancy (P < 0.0001 for all groups), presence of intravascular emboli (P < 0.0001 for CD3/VEGF and CD3/c-kit; P = 0.002 for c-kit/VEGF), and presence of lymph node metastasis (P < 0.0001 for all groups). Tumors with high CD3/VEGF (P = 0.006), c-kit/VEGF (P < 0.0001), and CD3/c-kit (P = 0.002) were associated with poor prognosis. Interestingly high c-kit/VEGF tumors retained their significance by multivariate analysis arising as independent prognostic factor. PMID:26346272

  14. Contemplating Synergistic Algorithms for the NASA ACE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Gerald G.; Starr, David O.; Marchand, Roger; Ackerman, Steven A.; Platnick, Steven E.; Fridlind, Ann; Cooper, Steven; Vane, Deborah G.; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2013-01-01

    ACE is a proposed Tier 2 NASA Decadal Survey mission that will focus on clouds, aerosols, and precipitation as well as ocean ecosystems. The primary objective of the clouds component of this mission is to advance our ability to predict changes to the Earth's hydrological cycle and energy balance in response to climate forcings by generating observational constraints on future science questions, especially those associated with the effects of aerosol on clouds and precipitation. ACE will continue and extend the measurement heritage that began with the A-Train and that will continue through Earthcare. ACE planning efforts have identified several data streams that can contribute significantly to characterizing the properties of clouds and precipitation and the physical processes that force these properties. These include dual frequency Doppler radar, high spectral resolution lidar, polarimetric visible imagers, passive microwave and submillimeter wave radiometry. While all these data streams are technologically feasible, their total cost is substantial and likely prohibitive. It is, therefore, necessary to critically evaluate their contributions to the ACE science goals. We have begun developing algorithms to explore this trade space. Specifically, we will describe our early exploratory algorithms that take as input the set of potential ACE-like data streams and evaluate critically to what extent each data stream influences the error in a specific cloud quantity retrieval.

  15. The absence of intrarenal ACE protects against hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Janjoulia, Tea; Fletcher, Nicholas K.; Giani, Jorge F.; Nguyen, Mien T.X.; Riquier-Brison, Anne D.; Seth, Dale M.; Fuchs, Sebastien; Eladari, Dominique; Picard, Nicolas; Bachmann, Sebastian; Delpire, Eric; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Navar, L. Gabriel; Bernstein, Kenneth E.; McDonough, Alicia A.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can elicit hypertension independently from the systemic RAS. However, the precise mechanisms by which intrarenal Ang II increases blood pressure have never been identified. To this end, we studied the responses of mice specifically lacking kidney angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) to experimental hypertension. Here, we show that the absence of kidney ACE substantially blunts the hypertension induced by Ang II infusion (a model of high serum Ang II) or by nitric oxide synthesis inhibition (a model of low serum Ang II). Moreover, the renal responses to high serum Ang II observed in wild-type mice, including intrarenal Ang II accumulation, sodium and water retention, and activation of ion transporters in the loop of Henle (NKCC2) and distal nephron (NCC, ENaC, and pendrin) as well as the transporter activating kinases SPAK and OSR1, were effectively prevented in mice that lack kidney ACE. These findings demonstrate that ACE metabolism plays a fundamental role in the responses of the kidney to hypertensive stimuli. In particular, renal ACE activity is required to increase local Ang II, to stimulate sodium transport in loop of Henle and the distal nephron, and to induce hypertension. PMID:23619363

  16. The absence of intrarenal ACE protects against hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A; Janjoulia, Tea; Fletcher, Nicholas K; Giani, Jorge F; Nguyen, Mien T X; Riquier-Brison, Anne D; Seth, Dale M; Fuchs, Sebastien; Eladari, Dominique; Picard, Nicolas; Bachmann, Sebastian; Delpire, Eric; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Navar, L Gabriel; Bernstein, Kenneth E; McDonough, Alicia A

    2013-05-01

    Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can elicit hypertension independently from the systemic RAS. However, the precise mechanisms by which intrarenal Ang II increases blood pressure have never been identified. To this end, we studied the responses of mice specifically lacking kidney angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) to experimental hypertension. Here, we show that the absence of kidney ACE substantially blunts the hypertension induced by Ang II infusion (a model of high serum Ang II) or by nitric oxide synthesis inhibition (a model of low serum Ang II). Moreover, the renal responses to high serum Ang II observed in wild-type mice, including intrarenal Ang II accumulation, sodium and water retention, and activation of ion transporters in the loop of Henle (NKCC2) and distal nephron (NCC, ENaC, and pendrin) as well as the transporter activating kinases SPAK and OSR1, were effectively prevented in mice that lack kidney ACE. These findings demonstrate that ACE metabolism plays a fundamental role in the responses of the kidney to hypertensive stimuli. In particular, renal ACE activity is required to increase local Ang II, to stimulate sodium transport in loop of Henle and the distal nephron, and to induce hypertension.

  17. Direct qPCR quantification using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jason Yingjie

    2014-11-01

    The effectiveness of a direct quantification assay is essential to the adoption of the combined direct quantification/direct STR workflow. In this paper, the feasibility of using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit for the direct quantification of forensic casework samples was investigated. Both low-level touch DNA samples and blood samples were collected on PE swabs and quantified directly. The increased sensitivity of the Quantifiler(®) Trio kit enabled the detection of less than 10pg of DNA in unprocessed touch samples and also minimizes the stochastic effect experienced by different targets in the same sample. The DNA quantity information obtained from a direct quantification assay using the Quantifiler(®) Trio kit can also be used to accurately estimate the optimal input DNA quantity for a direct STR amplification reaction. The correlation between the direct quantification results (Quantifiler(®) Trio kit) and the direct STR results (GlobalFiler™ PCR amplification kit(*)) for low-level touch DNA samples indicates that direct quantification using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit is more reliable than the Quantifiler(®) Duo DNA quantification kit for predicting the STR results of unprocessed touch DNA samples containing less than 10pg of DNA.

  18. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE) Science Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Luna, Unique J.; Chaiken, Paul M.; Hollingsworth, Andrew; Secanna, Stefano; Weitz, David; Lu, Peter; Yodh, Arjun; Yunker, Peter; Lohr, Matthew; Gratale, Matthew; Lynch, Matthew; Kodger, Thomas; Piazza, Roberto; Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Cipelletti, Luca; Schall, Peter; Veen, Sandra; Wegdam, Gerhard; Lee, Chand-Soo; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J.; Cohen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    accessible with the availability of the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) on ISS. To meet these goals, the ACE experiment is being built-up in stages, with the availability of confocal microscopy being the ultimate objective. Supported by NASAs Physical Sciences Research Program, ESAESTEC, and the authors respective governments.

  19. Comparative performance of AmpFLSTR® Identifiler® Plus PCR amplification kit and QIAGEN® Investigator® IDplex Plus kit.

    PubMed

    Mattayat, Dalad; Kitpipit, Thitika; Phetpeng, Sukanya; Asawutmangkul, Watee; Thanakiatkrai, Phuvadol

    2016-12-01

    Many forensic STR kits are currently available in the market. The AmpFLSTR® Identifiler® Plus kit, which targets 15 STRs, is commonly used worldwide. The Thai forensic DNA community is built around it in terms of instrument, databases, and interpretation. QIAGEN's IDplex Plus kit targets the same loci, but the PCR cycling time is shorter by about 90min. A direct comparison that assesses forensic parameters and applicability to casework between the two kits has never been carried out. In this study, we performed a direct comparison between the two kits using serial dilutions of two control DNA samples and 60 randomly selected casework samples, including samples taken from improvised explosive devices and terrorist raids. We statistically compared the performance of the two kits in terms of peak height, number of allele detected (allelic drop-out), intra-locus balance, inter-locus balance, inhibitor tolerance, stutter ratio, concordance, and allelic drop-in. The results demonstrate that both kits are statistically similar in performance. IDplex Plus gave higher peak heights in sensitivity test and tolerated inhibitors better, but had slightly worse inter-locus balances and stutter ratios. However, these differences were not practically significant, as seen by the resulting profiles of the casework samples (p=0.601). The performance on low-template samples also was not different. In conclusion, laboratories looking to replace the aging Identifiler® Plus might consider the IDplex Plus as a faster, more robust alternative that fits right into their existing structure without further investment in instrument and DNA database. Having more kits available worldwide by different companies could help bring the technology to different forensic laboratories and the justice system as a whole.

  20. 100G Deployment@(DE-KIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeft, Bruno; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) has been involved fairly early in 100GE network technology. Initiated by DFN1 (the German NREN), a first 100GE wide area network testbed over a distance of approx. 450 km was deployed between the national research organizations KIT and FZ-Jülich in 2010. Three years later in 2013. KIT joined the Caltech SuperComputing 2013 (SC132) 100GE "show floor" initiative using the transatlantic ANA-100GE link to transfer LHC data from a storage at DE-KIT (GridKa) in Europe to hard disks at the show floor of SC13 in Denver (USA). The network infrastructure of KIT as well as of the German Tier-1 installation DE-KIT (GridKa). however. is still based on 10Gbps. As highlighted in the contribution "Status and Trends in Networking at LHC Tier1 Facilities" to CHEP 2012. proactive investment is required at the Tier-1 sites. Bandwidth requirements will grow beyond current capacity and the required upgrades are expected in 2015. In close cooperation with DFN. KIT drives the upgrade from 10GE to 100GE. The process is divided into several phases. due to upgrade costs and differing requirements in different parts of the network infrastructure. The requirements of the different phases as well as the planned topology will be described. Some of the obstacles we discovered during the deployment will be discussed and solutions or workarounds presented.

  1. [Job satisfaction among the professionals of AceS Baixo Vouga II].

    PubMed

    Santana, Silvina; Cerdeira, José

    2011-12-01

    Job satisfaction is a measure of quality of life at work and is related to emotional states. The interest for this theme is increasing and, in the last years, many studies have attempted to demonstrate its relation with professional performance. Primary care professionals are in the first line of the Serviço Nacional de Saúde (SNS). Therefore, it is necessary that they feel satisfaction with their jobs, in order to perform the tasks with the quality required. Several factors seem to have impact in the satisfaction of these professionals, such as payment, promotion, recognition from supervisors and peers, physical conditions at work and available resources, opportunities for personal development, among others. Insatisfaction may lead to absentism and in the limit to job quit. The main objective of this work is to study job satisfaction among the professionals working at the health centers of ACeS Baixo Vouga II, namely, the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction and between job characteristics and considering job quit as a serious option. All the professionals working in the four health centers were inquired. Results show that job characteristics are defined by six dimensions: leadership and supervision, task characteristics and autonomy, payment, personal and professional development and promotion, peers and relations inside the organization and work environment. Globally, payment and opportunities for personal and professional development and promotion are perceived at low level by all the professional groups. Results also show that there are differences by gender and professional groups regarding job satisfaction and the will to quit job. Considering the specificity of the tasks performed by these professionals, measures should be taken in order to improve job satisfaction in the Portuguese health centers.

  2. Bioactive peptides: are there more antihypertensive mechanisms beyond ACE inhibition?

    PubMed

    Marques, Claudia; Amorim, Maria Manuela; Pereira, Joana Odila; Pintado, Manuela Estevez; Moura, Daniel; Calhau, Conceicao; Pinheiro, Helder

    2012-01-01

    Diet has a high relevance in health. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has an important impact on public health, and consequently on countries economy. Scientific research gathered strong evidence about the role of several dietary factors either in etiology or in treatment/prevention of these diseases. Peptides from different food matrices have been studied, and indicated as compounds with particular interest in the context of hypertension. The classical approach involves the identification of peptides with an in vitro ACE inhibitory activity and the assumption that the observed in vivo effects are due to this enzyme blockade. However, in some cases the potency of ACE blockade does not correlate with the antihypertensive activity in vivo. This paper reviews the current literature that identifies mechanisms of action, other than ACE inhibition, that might explain antihypertensive effects of biologically active peptides from different food sources.

  3. Heavy Ion Flux Comparison of MARIE and ACE/CRIS Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. T.; Andersen, V.; Atwell, W.; Cleghorn, T.; Cucinotta, F.; Pinsky, L.; Saganti, P.; Turner, R.; Zeitlin, C.

    2003-01-01

    The charged particle spectrum for nuclei from protons to neon, (charge Z=10) has been observed during the cruise phase and in orbit around Mars by the MARIE charge particle spectrometer aboard the Odyssey spacecraft. The cruise data was taken between April 23, 2001 and August 11, 2001. The Mars orbit data was taken from March 5, 2002 through December 2002. Both the cruise data set and the orbital data set are compared with the simultaneous observations made by the CRIS instrument aboard the ACE space-craft, located at L1. Any detectable differences between the two spacecraft data sets could lead to the understanding of the radial dependence of solar modulation.

  4. Final Overview of ACES Simulation for Evaluation SARP Well-Clear Definitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, Confesor; Johnson, Marcus A.; Isaacson, Doug; Hershey, David

    2014-01-01

    The UAS in the NAS project is studying the minimum operational performance standards for unmanned aerial systems (UAS's) detect-and-avoid (DAA) system in order to operate in the National Airspace System. The DoD's Science and research Panel (SARP) Well-Clear Workshop is investigating the time and spatial boundary at which an UAS violates well-clear. NASA is supporting this effort through use of its Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) simulation platform. This briefing presents the final results to the SARP, which will be used to judge the three candidate well-clear definitions, and for the selection of the most operationally suitable option.

  5. Insulin treatment attenuates renal ADAM17 and ACE2 shedding in diabetic Akita mice.

    PubMed

    Salem, Esam S B; Grobe, Nadja; Elased, Khalid M

    2014-03-15

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is located in several tissues and is highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it degrades the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (ANG II) to ANG-(1-7). Accumulating evidence supports protective roles of ACE2 in several disease states, including diabetic nephropathy. A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 17 is involved in the shedding of several transmembrane proteins, including ACE2. Our previous studies showed increased renal ACE2, ADAM17 expression, and urinary ACE2 in type 2 diabetic mice (Chodavarapu H, Grobe N, Somineni HK, Salem ES, Madhu M, Elased KM. PLoS One 8: e62833, 2013). The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of insulin on ACE2 shedding and ADAM17 in type 1 diabetic Akita mice. Results demonstrate increased renal ACE2 and ADAM17 expression and increased urinary ACE2 fragments (≈70 kDa) and albumin excretion in diabetic Akita mice. Immunostaining revealed colocalization of ACE2 with ADAM17 in renal tubules. Renal proximal tubular cells treated with ADAM17 inhibitor showed reduced ACE2 shedding into the media, confirming ADAM17-mediated shedding of ACE2. Treatment of Akita mice with insulin implants for 20 wk normalized hyperglycemia and decreased urinary ACE2 and albumin excretion. Insulin also normalized renal ACE2 and ADAM17 but had no effect on tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) protein expression. There was a positive linear correlation between urinary ACE2 and albuminuria, blood glucose, plasma creatinine, glucagon, and triglycerides. This is the first report showing an association between hyperglycemia, cardiovascular risk factors, and increased shedding of urinary ACE2 in diabetic Akita mice. Urinary ACE2 could be used as a biomarker for diabetic nephropathy and as an index of intrarenal ACE2 status.

  6. Vascular Wall ACE is not required for Atherogenesis in ApoE-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Daiana; Bernstein, Kenneth E.; Fuchs, Sebastian; Adams, Jonathan; Synetos, Andreas; Taylor, W. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that elements of the renin angiotensin system expressed in the arterial wall are critical for the development of atherosclerosis. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is highly expressed by the endothelium and is responsible for a critical enzymatic step in the generation of angiotensin II. However, the functional contribution of ACE expression in the vascular wall in atherogenesis is unknown. Therefore, we made use of unique genetic models in which mice without expression of ACE in the vascular wall were crossed with apoE-/- mice in order to determine the contribution of tissue ACE expression to atherosclerotic lesion formation. Methods and Results Mice expressing either a soluble form of ACE (ACE 2/2) or mice with somatic ACE expression restricted to the liver and kidney (ACE 3/3) on an ApoE-/- background were placed on a standard chow or Western diet for 6 months. Atherosclerotic lesion area in the ACE 2/2 mice was significantly lower than that seen in the ACE 3/3 mice. However, these animals also had significantly lower blood pressure and reduced plasma ACE activity which precluded establishing a specific causal relationship between absent tissue ACE activity and decreased atherosclerotic lesion extent. Therefore, we studied the ACE 3/3 mice which are normotensive and lack vascular ACE expression. In the ACE 3/3 animals, atherosclerotic lesion area was no different from wild type controls despite reduced plasma ACE activity. Conclusions We concluded that under these experimental conditions, expression of ACE in the arterial wall is not required for atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:19880118

  7. Improved ACE-FTS observations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy; Chipperfield, Martyn; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), on board the SCISAT satellite, has been recording solar occultation spectra through the Earth's atmosphere since 2004 and continues to take measurements with only minor loss in performance. ACE-FTS time series are available for a range of chlorine 'source' gases, including CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3Cl and CCl4. Recently there has been much community interest in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a substance regulated by the Montreal Protocol because it leads to the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. Estimated sources and sinks of CCl4 remain inconsistent with observations of its abundance. Satellite observations of CCl4 in the stratosphere are particularly useful in validating stratospheric loss (photolysis) rates; in fact the atmospheric loss of CCl4 is essentially all due to photolysis in the stratosphere. However, the latest ACE-FTS v3.5 CCl4 retrieval is biased high by ˜ 20-30%. A new ACE-FTS retrieval scheme utilising new laboratory spectroscopic measurements of CCl4 and improved microwindow selection has recently been developed. This improves upon the v3.5 retrieval and resolves the issue of the high bias; this new scheme will form the basis for the upcoming v4 processing version of ACE-FTS data. This presentation will outline the improvements made in the retrieval, and a subset of data will be compared with modelled CCl4 distributions from SLIMCAT, a state-of-the-art three-dimensional chemical transport model. The use of ACE-FTS data to evaluate the modelled stratospheric loss rate of CCl4 will also be discussed. The evaluated model, which also includes a treatment of surface soil and ocean sinks, will then be used to quantify current uncertainties in the global budget of CCl4.

  8. Telescience Resource Kit Software Lifecycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, Carolyn S.; Schneider, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    The challenge of a global operations capability led to the Telescience Resource Kit (TReK) project, an in-house software development project of the Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The TReK system is being developed as an inexpensive comprehensive personal computer- (PC-) based ground support system that can be used by payload users from their home sites to interact with their payloads on board the International Space Station (ISS). The TReK project is currently using a combination of the spiral lifecycle model and the incremental lifecycle model. As with any software development project, there are four activities that can be very time consuming: Software design and development, project documentation, testing, and umbrella activities, such as quality assurance and configuration management. In order to produce a quality product, it is critical that each of these activities receive the appropriate amount of attention. For TReK, the challenge was to lay out a lifecycle and project plan that provides full support for these activities, is flexible, provides a way to deal with changing risks, can accommodate unknowns, and can respond to changes in the environment quickly. This paper will provide an overview of the TReK lifecycle, a description of the project's environment, and a general overview of project activities.

  9. The SCRAM tool-kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamir, David; Flanigan, Lee A.; Weeks, Jack L.; Siewert, Thomas A.; Kimbrough, Andrew G.; Mcclure, Sidney R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a new series of on-orbit capabilities to support the near-term Hubble Space Telescope, Extended Duration Orbiter, Long Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, other orbital platforms, and even the future manned Lunar/Mars missions. These proposed capabilities form a toolkit termed Space Construction, Repair, and Maintenance (SCRAM). SCRAM addresses both intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) needs. SCRAM provides a variety of tools which enable welding, brazing, cutting, coating, heating, and cleaning, as well as corresponding nondestructive examination. Near-term IVA-SCRAM applications include repair and modification to fluid lines, structure, and laboratory equipment inside a shirt-sleeve environment (i.e. inside Spacelab or Space Station). Near-term EVA-SCRAM applications include construction of fluid lines and structural members, repair of punctures by orbital debris, refurbishment of surfaces eroded by contaminants. The SCRAM tool-kit also promises future EVA applications involving mass production tasks automated by robotics and artificial intelligence, for construction of large truss, aerobrake, and nuclear reactor shadow shields structures. The leading candidate tool processes for SCRAM, currently undergoing research and development, include Electron Beam, Gas Tungsten Arc, Plasma Arc, and Laser Beam. A series of strategic space flight experiments would make SCRAM available to help conquer the space frontier.

  10. Advanced Crew Escape Suits (ACES): Particle Impact Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosales, Keisa R.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested NASA JSC White Sands Test Facility to assist in determining the effects of impaired anodization on aluminum parts in advanced crew escape suits (ACES). Initial investigation indicated poor anodization could lead to an increased risk of particle impact ignition, and a lack of data was prevalent for particle impact of bare (unanodized) aluminum; therefore, particle impact tests were performed. A total of 179 subsonic and 60 supersonic tests were performed with no ignition of the aluminum targets. Based on the resulting test data, WSTF found no increased particle impact hazard was present in the ACES equipment.

  11. Defective intestinal amino acid absorption in Ace2 null mice.

    PubMed

    Singer, Dustin; Camargo, Simone M R; Ramadan, Tamara; Schäfer, Matthias; Mariotta, Luca; Herzog, Brigitte; Huggel, Katja; Wolfer, David; Werner, Sabine; Penninger, Josef M; Verrey, François

    2012-09-15

    Mutations in the main intestinal and kidney luminal neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (Slc6a19) lead to Hartnup disorder, a condition that is characterized by neutral aminoaciduria and in some cases pellagra-like symptoms. These latter symptoms caused by low-niacin are thought to result from defective intestinal absorption of its precursor L-tryptophan. Since Ace2 is necessary for intestinal B(0)AT1 expression, we tested the impact of intestinal B(0)AT1 absence in ace2 null mice. Their weight gain following weaning was decreased, and Na(+)-dependent uptake of B(0)AT1 substrates measured in everted intestinal rings was defective. Additionally, high-affinity Na(+)-dependent transport of L-proline, presumably via SIT1 (Slc6a20), was absent, whereas glucose uptake via SGLT1 (Slc5a1) was not affected. Measurements of small intestine luminal amino acid content following gavage showed that more L-tryptophan than other B(0)AT1 substrates reach the ileum in wild-type mice, which is in line with its known lower apparent affinity. In ace2 null mice, the absorption defect was confirmed by a severalfold increase of L-tryptophan and of other neutral amino acids reaching the ileum lumen. Furthermore, plasma and muscle levels of glycine and L-tryptophan were significantly decreased in ace2 null mice, with other neutral amino acids displaying a similar trend. A low-protein/low-niacin diet challenge led to differential changes in plasma amino acid levels in both wild-type and ace2 null mice, but only in ace2 null mice to a stop in weight gain. Despite the combination of low-niacin with a low-protein diet, plasma niacin concentrations remained normal in ace2 null mice and no pellagra symptoms, such as photosensitive skin rash or ataxia, were observed. In summary, mice lacking Ace2-dependent intestinal amino acid transport display no total niacin deficiency nor clear pellagra symptoms, even under a low-protein and low-niacin diet, despite gross amino acid homeostasis alterations.

  12. Shipboard Measurements During ACE-Asia: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Uematsu, M.; Miura, K.

    2001-12-01

    Shipboard measurements of aerosol properties and related parameters were conducted from the US NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown and the Japanese R/V Mirai (MR01-K02) during the ACE-Asia Intensive Field Program (http://saga.pmel.noaa.gov/aceasia/). The R/V Brown cruise (14 March - 20 April 2001), with scientists from 22 research institutions, included measurements across the Pacific Ocean from Hawaii to Japan, in the East China Sea and in the Sea of Japan. Measurements were coordinated with the US NSF/NCAR C-130, US CIRPAS Twin Otter, and the Australian ARA King Air Aircraft, Terra and SeaWiFS satellite overpasses, and the ground station at Hachijo, Japan. Distinct aerosol and trace gas signatures were observed from the Miyakejima volcano, the deserts of China and Mongolia, the Chang Jiang Basin, the Korean Peninsula and the islands of Japan. The R/V Mirai cruise (14 - 28 May 2001), with scientists from 10 research institutions, focused on the region east of Japan along 146.5 E from 30 N to 38 N. Enhanced concentrations of radon and super-micron aerosol were measured in a post-frontal air mass along the 146.5 E transect. Observations from a Kytoon and the NIES two-wavelength (1064 nm and 532 nm) dual-polarization lidar detected dust and sulfate aerosol plumes from the Asian continent. The vertical distribution patterns of the dust and sulfate aerosols qualitatively agreed with the model prediction by the Chemical Weather Forecasting System (CFORS).

  13. Epitope expression in nine commercial kits for the determination of anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies.

    PubMed

    Whitham, K; Patel, D; Ward, A M

    1999-01-01

    Anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, from patients with autoimmune disease, bind predominantly to two neighbouring, non-identical, conformational domains referred to as domains A and B. In recent years a number of ELISA assays have been developed for the detection of anti-TPO antibodies, however, considerable variation between the different commercial assay kits has been documented in inter-laboratory surveys (UK NEQAS). This investigation assessed the differences between nine commercial ELISA assays currently available in the UK. The anti-TPO kits varied in terms of their imprecision and accuracy and in the density of coated antigen. Recombinant antigen containing kits demonstrated partial destruction of the B epitope, possibly due to the close proximity of both epitope regions in the recombinant molecule. None of the kits expressed only one epitope although there were differences in the degrees of expression of each epitope. Clinicians should be aware of the variability of the numbers generated, when interpreting test results.

  14. Development of a forensic evidence protection kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, Brian; Kelly, Roy

    1999-02-01

    A kit has been developed for the preservation of vital forensic evidence on a suspect following a serious assault, murder or other offense where contamination may occur. This also includes the handling of firearms, explosives and/or drugs.

  15. Kits for Less Than Fifty Cents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abruscato, Joseph; Varney, Douglas

    1975-01-01

    Describes the use of teacher-made discovery kits for use in science activities. Suggestions are provided to help teachers scrounge surplus materials from stores, small manufacturers, doctors and other potential suppliers of free materials. (PEB)

  16. Village Green Project and Air Sensor Kits

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation for the OAQPS Teachers Workshop. Will provide a background overview on the Village Green Project and our air sensor kit for outreach, then have the teachers try putting it together.

  17. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE and ACE2) imbalance correlates with the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruixia; Qi, Haiyu; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yan; Cui, Lijian; Wen, Yan; Yin, Chenghong

    2014-04-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and its effector peptide angiotensin II (Ang II) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) degrades Ang II to angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] and has recently been described to have an antagonistic effect on ACE signalling. However, the specific underlying role of ACE2 in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is unclear. In the present study, the local imbalance of ACE and ACE2, as well as Ang II and Ang-(1-7) expression, was compared in wild-type (WT) and ACE2 knock-out (KO) or ACE2 transgenic (TG) mice subjected to cerulein-induced SAP. Serum amylase, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 levels and histological morphometry were used to determine the severity of pancreatitis. In WT mice, pancreatic ACE and Ang II and serum Ang II expression increased (P < 0.05), while pancreatic ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) and serum Ang-(1-7) levels were also significantly elevated (P < 0.05) from 2 to 72 h after the onset of SAP. However, the ratio of pancreatic ACE2 to ACE expression was significantly reduced (from 1.46 ± 0.09 to 0.27 ± 0.05, P < 0.001) and paralleled the severity of pancreatitis. The Ace2 KO mice exhibited increased levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, multifocal coagulative necrosis and inflammatory infiltrate, and lower levels of serum IL-10 and pancreatic Ang-(1-7) (4.70 ± 2.13 versus 10.87 ± 2.51, P < 0.001) compared with cerulein-treated WT mice at the same time point. Conversely, Ace2 TG mice with normal ACE expression were more resistant to SAP challenge as evidenced by a decreased inflammatory response, attenuated pathological changes and increased survival rates. These data suggest that the ACE2-ACE imbalance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of SAP and that pancreatic ACE2 is an important factor in determining the severity of SAP.

  18. 77 FR 48527 - National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) Simplified Entry: Modification of Participant Selection Criteria and... (NCAP) test concerning the simplified entry functionality in the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...) National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning Automated Commercial Environment...

  19. LEM-CF Premixed Tool Kit

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-19

    The purpose of LEM-CF Premixed Tool Kit is to process premixed flame simulation data from the LEM-CF solver (https://fileshare.craft-tech.com/clusters/view/lem-cf) into a large-eddy simulation (LES) subgrid model database. These databases may be used with a user-defined-function (UDF) that is included in the Tool Kit. The subgrid model UDF may be used with the ANSYS FLUENT flow solver or other commercial flow solvers.

  20. BRAF, KIT and NRAS mutations and expression of c-KIT, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphorylated AKT in Japanese melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Satomi; Funasaka, Yoko; Watanabe, Atsushi; Takizawa, Toshihiro; Kawana, Seiji; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2015-05-01

    To clarify the status of gene mutation and activation of growth signal in melanoma of Japanese patients in vivo, we analyzed the mutation of BRAF exon 15, NRAS exon 2, and KIT exons 9, 11, 13, 17 and 18 in melanoma cells obtained by laser capture microdissection, and performed direct sequencing in 20 cases of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) and 17 cases of superficial spreading melanoma (SSM). In the study of the mutation of BRAF, pyrosequencing was also done. To examine the cell proliferation signaling, immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK), phosphorylated AKT (phosphorylated AKT) and c-KIT was done. The mutation of BRAF p.V600E was detected in 13 cases of ALM (65.0%) and 12 cases of SSM (70.6%). No NRAS mutation was found in all cases. The mutation in exons 9, 11, and 18 of KIT was detected in nine cases. The mutation of BRAF and KIT showed no correlation with clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, tumor thickness, ulceration and histology. pERK and pAKT was observed in small population of melanoma cells and there was no correlation with gene mutation. Our results indicate that the mutations of BRAF and KIT exist in Japanese melanoma patients, however, the cell growth signaling may be regulated by not only these mutated genes, but by other unknown regulatory factors, which may affect the prognosis of melanoma.

  1. Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) remote servicing kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1988-01-01

    With the design and development of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) progressing toward an early 1990 initial operating capability (IOC), a new era in remote space operations will evolve. The logical progression to OMV front end kits would make available in situ satellite servicing, repair, and consummables resupply to the satellite community. Several conceptual design study efforts are defining representative kits (propellant tanks, debris recovery, module servicers); additional focus must also be placed on an efficient combination module servicer and consummables resupply kit. A remote servicer kit of this type would be designed to perform many of the early maintenance/resupply tasks in both nominal and high inclination orbits. The kit would have the capability to exchange Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs), exchange propellant tanks, and/or connect fluid transfer umbilicals. Necessary transportation system functions/support could be provided by interfaces with the OMV, Shuttle (STS), or Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV). Specific remote servicer kit designs, as well as ground and flight demonstrations of servicer technology are necessary to prepare for the potential overwhelming need. Ground test plans should adhere to the component/system/breadboard test philosophy to assure maximum capability of one-g testing. The flight demonstration(s) would most likely be a short duration, Shuttle-bay experiment to validate servicer components requiring a micro-g environment.

  2. Kit K641E oncogene up-regulates Sprouty homolog 4 and Trophoblast glycoprotein in interstitial cells of Cajal in a murine model of gastrointestinal stromal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Gromova, Petra; Ralea, Sebastian; Lefort, Anne; Libert, Frédérick; Rubin, Brian P; Erneux, Christophe; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are thought to derive from the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) or an ICC precursor. Oncogenic mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT are present in most GIST. KIT K642E was originally identified in sporadic GIST and later found in the germ line of a familial GIST cohort. A mouse model harbouring a germline Kit K641E mutant was created to model familial GIST. The expression profile was investigated in the gastric antrum of the KitK641E murine GIST model by microarray, quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. Gja1/Cx43, Gpc6, Gpr133, Pacrg, Pde3a, Prkar2b, Prkcq/Pkce, Rasd2, Spry4 and Tpbg/5T4 were found to be up-regulated. The proteins encoded by Gja1/Cx43, Pde3a, Prkcq/Pkce were localized in Kit-ir ICC in wild-type and KitK641E animals while Spry4 and Tpbg/5T4 were detected in Kit-ir cells only in KitK641E, but not in KitWT/WT animals. Most up-regulated genes in this mouse model belong to the gene expression profile of human GIST but also to the profile of normal Kit+ ICC in the mouse small intestine. Spry4 and Tpbg/5T4 may represent candidates for targeted therapeutic approaches in GIST with oncogenic KIT mutations. PMID:19453770

  3. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  7. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  8. 46 CFR 184.710 - First-aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false First-aid kits. 184.710 Section 184.710 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit approved under approval series 160.041 or a kit with equivalent...

  9. 46 CFR 184.710 - First-aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false First-aid kits. 184.710 Section 184.710 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit approved under approval series 160.041 or a kit with equivalent...

  10. 46 CFR 184.710 - First-aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false First-aid kits. 184.710 Section 184.710 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit approved under approval series 160.041 or a kit with equivalent...

  11. 46 CFR 184.710 - First-aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First-aid kits. 184.710 Section 184.710 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit approved under approval series 160.041 or a kit with equivalent...

  12. 46 CFR 184.710 - First-aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false First-aid kits. 184.710 Section 184.710 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit approved under approval series 160.041 or a kit with equivalent...

  13. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  14. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  15. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  16. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  17. 76 FR 69755 - National Customs Automation Program Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Commercial Environment (ACE) Simplified Entry AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Commercial Environment (ACE) entry capability. This new capability will include functionality specific to the... was on trade compliance and the development of the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE), the...

  18. Linkages between ACE Vocational Provision and Mainstream VET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, John

    A study investigated linkages between adult community education (ACE) and mainstream vocational education and training (VET) in Australia, which enable people to move between the two sectors in their pursuit of vocational learning, and the ways in which linkages might be improved or new ones developed. The data from the study were derived from 69…

  19. Applying computationally efficient schemes for biogeochemical cycles (ACES4BGC)

    SciTech Connect

    Vertenstein, Mariana

    2016-01-11

    NCAR contributed to the ACES4BGC project through software engineering work on aerosol model implementation, build system and script changes, coupler enhancements for biogeochemical tracers, improvements to the Community Land Model (CLM) code and testing infrastructure, and coordinating and integrating code changes from the various project participants.

  20. AceDRG: a stereochemical description generator for ligands

    PubMed Central

    Emsley, Paul; Gražulis, Saulius; Merkys, Andrius; Vaitkus, Antanas

    2017-01-01

    The program AceDRG is designed for the derivation of stereochemical information about small molecules. It uses local chemical and topological environment-based atom typing to derive and organize bond lengths and angles from a small-molecule database: the Crystallography Open Database (COD). Information about the hybridization states of atoms, whether they belong to small rings (up to seven-membered rings), ring aromaticity and nearest-neighbour information is encoded in the atom types. All atoms from the COD have been classified according to the generated atom types. All bonds and angles have also been classified according to the atom types and, in a certain sense, bond types. Derived data are tabulated in a machine-readable form that is freely available from CCP4. AceDRG can also generate stereochemical information, provided that the basic bonding pattern of a ligand is known. The basic bonding pattern is perceived from one of the computational chemistry file formats, including SMILES, mmCIF, SDF MOL and SYBYL MOL2 files. Using the bonding chemistry, atom types, and bond and angle tables generated from the COD, AceDRG derives the ‘ideal’ bond lengths, angles, plane groups, aromatic rings and chirality information, and writes them to an mmCIF file that can be used by the refinement program REFMAC5 and the model-building program Coot. Other refinement and model-building programs such as PHENIX and BUSTER can also use these files. AceDRG also generates one or more coordinate sets corresponding to the most favourable conformation(s) of a given ligand. AceDRG employs RDKit for chemistry perception and for initial conformation generation, as well as for the interpretation of SMILES strings, SDF MOL and SYBYL MOL2 files. PMID:28177307

  1. AceDRG: a stereochemical description generator for ligands.

    PubMed

    Long, Fei; Nicholls, Robert A; Emsley, Paul; Graǽulis, Saulius; Merkys, Andrius; Vaitkus, Antanas; Murshudov, Garib N

    2017-02-01

    The program AceDRG is designed for the derivation of stereochemical information about small molecules. It uses local chemical and topological environment-based atom typing to derive and organize bond lengths and angles from a small-molecule database: the Crystallography Open Database (COD). Information about the hybridization states of atoms, whether they belong to small rings (up to seven-membered rings), ring aromaticity and nearest-neighbour information is encoded in the atom types. All atoms from the COD have been classified according to the generated atom types. All bonds and angles have also been classified according to the atom types and, in a certain sense, bond types. Derived data are tabulated in a machine-readable form that is freely available from CCP4. AceDRG can also generate stereochemical information, provided that the basic bonding pattern of a ligand is known. The basic bonding pattern is perceived from one of the computational chemistry file formats, including SMILES, mmCIF, SDF MOL and SYBYL MOL2 files. Using the bonding chemistry, atom types, and bond and angle tables generated from the COD, AceDRG derives the `ideal' bond lengths, angles, plane groups, aromatic rings and chirality information, and writes them to an mmCIF file that can be used by the refinement program REFMAC5 and the model-building program Coot. Other refinement and model-building programs such as PHENIX and BUSTER can also use these files. AceDRG also generates one or more coordinate sets corresponding to the most favourable conformation(s) of a given ligand. AceDRG employs RDKit for chemistry perception and for initial conformation generation, as well as for the interpretation of SMILES strings, SDF MOL and SYBYL MOL2 files.

  2. Association between ACE D allele and elite short distance swimming.

    PubMed

    Costa, Aldo Matos; Silva, António José; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; Louro, Hugo; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Breitenfeld, Luiza

    2009-08-01

    The influence of ACE gene on athletic performance has been widely explored, and most of the published data refers to an I/D polymorphism leading to the presence (I allele) or absence (D allele) of a 287-bp sequence in intron 16, determining ACE activity in serum and tissues. A higher I allele frequency has been reported among elite endurance athletes, while the D allele was more frequent among those engaged in more power-orientated sports. However, on competitive swimming, the reproducibility of such associations is controversial. We thus compared the ACE genotype of elite swimmers with that of non-elite swimming cohort and of healthy control subjects. We thus sought an association of the ACE genotype of elite swimmers with their competitive distance. 39 Portuguese Olympic swimming candidates were classified as: short (<200 m) and middle (400-1,500 m) distance swimmers, respectively. A group of 32 non-elite swimmers were studied and classified as well, and a control group (n = 100) was selected from the Portuguese population. Chelex 100 was used for DNA extraction and genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP methods. We found that ACE genotype distribution and allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance only among elite swimmers (P < or = 0.05). Moreover, the allelic frequency of the elite short distance swimmers differed significantly from that of the controls (P = 0.021). No associations were found between middle distance swimmers and controls. Our results seem to support an association between the D allele and elite short distance swimming.

  3. 49 CFR 173.161 - Chemical kits and first aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL... aircraft or vessel, chemical kits and first aid kits must be packaged in combination packagings conforming to the packaging requirements of subpart B of this part. For transportation by aircraft or...

  4. MAIIA EPO SeLect-a rapid screening kit for the detection of recombinant EPO analogues in doping control: inter-laboratory prevalidation and normative study of athlete urine and plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Dehnes, Yvette; Myrvold, Linda; Ström, Helene; Ericsson, Magnus; Hemmersbach, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant analogues of erythropoietin (EPO), epoetins, have been misused by athletes due to their performance enhancing effect since the first pharmaceutical epoetin was launched in 1987. The current methods for screening urine and plasma samples for the presence of epoetins, IEF and SAR-PAGE, have high sensitivity but are time-consuming to carry out. In an effort to ease and speed up the screening procedure for EPO, MAIIA Diagnostics has developed a combined affinity chromatography and lateral flow immunoassay, MAIIA EPO SeLect, which determines the percentage of migrated isoforms (PMI) of EPO in a sample. The reproducibility of the kit was tested by analyzing a set of negative and positive urine and plasma samples in three different laboratories. All data were analyzed with both curve fit parameters from the individual assay runs, and with lot-specific predefined curve calibration. To get a measure of endogenous variation, a normative study with athlete urine and plasma samples was conducted. The average intra-laboratory variation was 6.7% while the inter-laboratory variation for all samples was calculated to 8.8%. The athlete samples yielded an average PMI and standard deviation of 71.4 ± 7.7 for urine and 83.1 ± 10.2 for plasma, respectively. There were no signs of deviating results from tested effort urines. The results also support the use of predefined curve parameters.

  5. Clonal analysis of NRAS activating mutations in KIT-D816V systemic mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Todd M.; Maric, Irina; Simakova, Olga; Bai, Yun; Ching Chan, Eunice; Olivares, Nicolas; Carter, Melody; Maric, Dragan; Robyn, Jamie; Metcalfe, Dean D.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperating genetic events are likely to contribute to the phenotypic diversity of KIT-D816V systemic mastocytosis. In this study, 44 patients with KIT-D816V systemic mastocytosis were evaluated for coexisting NRAS, KRAS, HRAS or MRAS mutations. Activating NRAS mutations were identified in 2 of 8 patients with advanced disease. NRAS mutations were not found in patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis. To better understand the clonal evolution of mastocytosis, we evaluated the cell compartments impacted by the NRAS and KIT mutations. Clonal mast cells harbored both mutations. KIT-D816V was not detected in bone marrow CD34+ progenitors, whereas the NRAS mutation was present. These findings suggest that NRAS mutations may have the potential to precede KIT-D816V in clonal development. Unlike other mature lineages, mast cell survival is dependent on KIT and the presence of these two activating mutations may have a greater impact on the expansion of this cell compartment and in resultant disease severity. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00044122, NCT00001756) PMID:21134978

  6. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2): comparative modeling of the active site, specificity requirements, and chloride dependence.

    PubMed

    Guy, Jodie L; Jackson, Richard M; Acharya, K Ravi; Sturrock, Edward D; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J

    2003-11-18

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a homologue of ACE, represents a new and potentially important target in cardio-renal disease. A model of the active site of ACE2, based on the crystal structure of testicular ACE, has been developed and indicates that the catalytic mechanism of ACE2 resembles that of ACE. Structural differences exist between the active site of ACE (dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase) and ACE2 (carboxypeptidase) that are responsible for the differences in specificity. The main differences occur in the ligand-binding pockets, particularly at the S2' subsite and in the binding of the peptide carboxy-terminus. The model explains why the classical ACE inhibitor lisinopril is unable to bind to ACE2. On the basis of the ability of ACE2 to cleave a variety of biologically active peptides, a consensus sequence of Pro-X-Pro-hydrophobic/basic for the protease specificity of ACE2 has been defined that is supported by the ACE2 model. The dipeptide, Pro-Phe, completely inhibits ACE2 activity at 180 microM with angiotensin II as the substrate. As with ACE, the chloride dependence of ACE2 is substrate-specific such that the hydrolysis of angiotensin I and the synthetic peptide substrate, Mca-APK(Dnp), are activated in the presence of chloride ions, whereas the cleavage of angiotensin II is inhibited. The ACE2 model is also suggestive of a possible mechanism for chloride activation. The structural insights provided by these analyses for the differences in inhibition pattern and substrate specificity among ACE and its homologue ACE2 and for the chloride dependence of ACE/ACE2 activity are valuable in understanding the function and regulation of ACE2.

  7. Total 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Determination by an Entry Level Triple Quadrupole Instrument: Comparison between Two Commercial Kits

    PubMed Central

    Cocci, Andrea; Zuppi, Cecilia; Persichilli, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Objective. 25-hydroxyvitamin D2/D3 (25-OHD2/D3) determination is a reliable biomarker for vitamin D status. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was recently proposed as a reference method for vitamin D status evaluation. The aim of this work is to compare two commercial kits (Chromsystems and PerkinElmer) for 25-OHD2/D3 determination by our entry level LC-MS/MS. Design and Methods. Chromsystems kit adds an online trap column to an HPLC column and provides atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, isotopically labeled internal standard, and 4 calibrator points. PerkinElmer kit uses a solvent extraction and protein precipitation method. This kit can be used with or without derivatization with, respectively, electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. For each analyte, there are isotopically labeled internal standards and 7 deuterated calibrator points. Results. Performance characteristics are acceptable for both methods. Mean bias between methods calculated on 70 samples was 1.9 ng/mL. Linear regression analysis gave an R2 of 0.94. 25-OHD2 is detectable only with PerkinElmer kit in derivatized assay option. Conclusion. Both methods are suitable for routine. Chromsystems kit minimizes manual sample preparation, requiring only protein precipitation, but, with our system, 25-OHD2 is not detectable. PerkinElmer kit without derivatization does not guarantee acceptable performance with our LC-MS/MS system, as sample is not purified online. Derivatization provides sufficient sensitivity for 25-OHD2 detection. PMID:23555079

  8. Commercial Milk Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Kit Reactivities to Purified Milk Proteins and Milk-Derived Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ivens, Katherine O; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2016-07-01

    Numerous commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits exist to quantitatively detect bovine milk residues in foods. Milk contains many proteins that can serve as ELISA targets including caseins (α-, β-, or κ-casein) and whey proteins (α-lactalbumin or β-lactoglobulin). Nine commercially-available milk ELISA kits were selected to compare the specificity and sensitivity with 5 purified milk proteins and 3 milk-derived ingredients. All of the milk kits were capable of quantifying nonfat dry milk (NFDM), but did not necessarily detect all individual protein fractions. While milk-derived ingredients were detected by the kits, their quantitation may be inaccurate due to the use of different calibrators, reference materials, and antibodies in kit development. The establishment of a standard reference material for the calibration of milk ELISA kits is increasingly important. The appropriate selection and understanding of milk ELISA kits for food analysis is critical to accurate quantification of milk residues and informed risk management decisions.

  9. An evaluation of chemical screening test kits for lead in paint

    SciTech Connect

    Oglesby, L.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act (Title X) requires abatement and management of lead-based paint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three chemical screening test kits using materials and methods from one study and subjecting the results to the statistical analysis of another. The three kits were used to predict the presence of lead in paint at ten weight concentrations from 0.04 to 3.97%. Paint was applied to four wood boards yielding a sample size of 40. Four boards were painted with lead-free paint and used as blanks. All of the boards were tested with the three test kits by an untrained individual having no knowledge of the actual lead content. Sensitivity, specificity, and false positive and negative rates were calculated for the test kit results. The manufactures` detection limits, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.80, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.42, false positive ranged from 0 to 58%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. At the 0.5% Federal threshold level, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.94, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.5, false positives ranged from 0 to 11.1%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. The observed false positive and false negative rates for all three kits were found to be significantly lower than those reported in a previous study. These results indicate that the kits perform very well at the Federal threshold, with two of the kits having false negative rates below 12.5% and false positive rates of 3.13%. These results indicate that these two kits would probably be acceptable screening tests for lead in paint.

  10. A Frameshift Mutation in KIT is Associated with White Spotting in the Arabian Camel

    PubMed Central

    Holl, Heather; Isaza, Ramiro; Mohamoud, Yasmin; Ahmed, Ayeda; Almathen, Faisal; Youcef, Cherifi; Gaouar, Semir; Antczak, Douglas F.; Brooks, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    While the typical Arabian camel is characterized by a single colored coat, there are rare populations with white spotting patterns. White spotting coat patterns are found in virtually all domesticated species, but are rare in wild species. Theories suggest that white spotting is linked to the domestication process, and is occasionally associated with health disorders. Though mutations have been found in a diverse array of species, fewer than 30 genes have been associated with spotting patterns, thus providing a key set of candidate genes for the Arabian camel. We obtained 26 spotted camels and 24 solid controls for candidate gene analysis. One spotted and eight solid camels were whole genome sequenced as part of a separate project. The spotted camel was heterozygous for a frameshift deletion in KIT (c.1842delG, named KITW1 for White spotting 1), whereas all other camels were wild-type (KIT+/KIT+). No additional mutations unique to the spotted camel were detected in the EDNRB, EDN3, SOX10, KITLG, PDGFRA, MITF, and PAX3 candidate white spotting genes. Sanger sequencing of the study population identified an additional five KITW1/KIT+ spotted camels. The frameshift results in a premature stop codon five amino acids downstream, thus terminating KIT at the tyrosine kinase domain. An additional 13 spotted camels tested KIT+/KIT+, but due to phenotypic differences when compared to the KITW1/KIT+ camels, they likely represent an independent mutation. Our study suggests that there are at least two causes of white spotting in the Arabian camel, the newly described KITW1 allele and an uncharacterized mutation. PMID:28282952

  11. Modulation of the renal response to ACE inhibition by ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism during hyperglycemia in normotensive, normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Weekers, Laurent; Bouhanick, Béatrice; Hadjadj, Samy; Gallois, Yves; Roussel, Ronen; Pean, Franck; Ankotche, Amos; Chatellier, Gilles; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Lefebvre, Pierre J; Marre, Michel

    2005-10-01

    ACE inhibition protects kidney function, but ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism affects renal prognosis in type 1 diabetic patients. ACE genotype may influence the renal benefits of ACE inhibition. We studied the impact of ACE I/D polymorphism on the renal hemodynamic changes induced by ACE inhibition in type 1 diabetes. We studied renal hemodynamics (glomerular filtration rate [GFR], effective renal plasma flow [ERPF], filtration fraction [GFR/ERPF], mean arterial pressure [MAP], and total renal resistances [MAP/ERPF]) repeatedly during normoglycemia and then hyperglycemia in 12 normotensive, normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetes and the II genotype (associated with nephroprotection) versus 22 age- and sex-matched subjects with the ACE D allele after three randomly allocated 2- to 6-week periods on placebo, 1.25 mg/day ramipril, and 5 mg/day ramipril in a double-blind, cross-over study. During normoglycemia, the hemodynamic changes induced by ramipril were similar in both genotypes. During hyperglycemia, the changes induced by ramipril were accentuated in the II genotype group and attenuated dose dependently in the D allele group (treatment-genotype interaction P values for ERPF, 0.018; MAP, 0.018; and total renal resistances, 0.055). These results provide a basis to different renal responses to ACE inhibition according to ACE genotype in type 1 diabetes.

  12. A Discussion of Aerodynamic Control Effectors (ACEs) for Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A Reynolds number based, unmanned air vehicle classification structure has been developed which identifies four classes of unmanned air vehicle concepts. The four unmanned air vehicle (UAV) classes are; Micro UAV, Meso UAV, Macro UAV, and Mega UAV. In a similar fashion a labeling scheme for aerodynamic control effectors (ACE) was developed and eleven types of ACE concepts were identified. These eleven types of ACEs were laid out in a five (5) layer scheme. The final section of the paper correlated the various ACE concepts to the four UAV classes and ACE recommendations are offered for future design activities.

  13. ACE gene titration in mice uncovers a new mechanism for ACE on the control of body weight.

    PubMed

    Heimann, A S; Favarato, M H; Gozzo, F C; Rioli, V; Carreño, F R; Eberlin, M N; Ferro, E S; Krege, J H; Krieger, J E

    2005-01-20

    Mice harboring 1, 2, or 3 copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene were used to evaluate the quantitative role of the ACE locus on obesity. Three-copy mice fed with a high-fat diet had lower body weight and peri-epididymal adipose tissue than did 1- and 2-copy mice (P < 0.05). On regular diet, 3-copy mice had to eat more to maintain the same body weight; on a high-fat diet, they ate the same but weighed less than 1- and 2-copy mice (P < 0.05), indicating a higher metabolic rate in 3-copy mice that was not affected by ANG II AT(1) blocker treatment. A catalytically inactive form of thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15; EP24.15) was used to isolate ACE substrates from adipose tissue. Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) identified 162 peptide peaks; 16 peptides were present in both groups (1- and 3-copy mice fed with a high-fat diet), whereas 58 of the 72 unique peptides were found only in the 3-copy mice. Peptide size distribution was shifted to lower molecular weight in 3-copy mice. Two of the identified peptides, LVVYPWTQRY and VVYPWTQRY, which are ACE substrates, inhibited in vitro protein kinase C phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16; EP24.16) activity was lower in fat tissue from 3- vs. 1-copy mice (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results provide evidence that ACE is associated with body weight and peri-epididymal fat accumulation. This response may involve the generation of oligopeptides that inhibit the activity of EP24.16 and other oligopeptidases within the adipose tissue.

  14. Contemporary evolution of resistance at the major insecticide target site gene Ace-1 by mutation and copy number variation in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Weetman, David; Mitchell, Sara N; Wilding, Craig S; Birks, Daniel P; Yawson, Alexander E; Essandoh, John; Mawejje, Henry D; Djogbenou, Luc S; Steen, Keith; Rippon, Emily J; Clarkson, Christopher S; Field, Stuart G; Rigden, Daniel J; Donnelly, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Functionally constrained genes are ideal insecticide targets because disruption is often fatal, and resistance mutations are typically costly. Synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential neurotransmission enzyme targeted by insecticides used increasingly in malaria control. In Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, a glycine–serine substitution at codon 119 of the Ace-1 gene confers both resistance and fitness costs, especially for 119S/S homozygotes. G119S in Anopheles gambiae from Accra (Ghana) is strongly associated with resistance, and, despite expectations of cost, resistant 119S alleles are increasing significantly in frequency. Sequencing of Accra females detected only a single Ace-1 119S haplotype, whereas 119G diversity was high overall but very low at non-synonymous sites, evidence of strong purifying selection driven by functional constraint. Flanking microsatellites showed reduced diversity, elevated linkage disequilibrium and high differentiation of 119S, relative to 119G homozygotes across up to two megabases of the genome. Yet these signals of selection were inconsistent and sometimes weak tens of kilobases from Ace-1. This unexpected finding is attributable to apparently ubiquitous amplification of 119S alleles as part of a large copy number variant (CNV) far exceeding the size of the Ace-1 gene, whereas 119G alleles were unduplicated. Ace-1 CNV was detectable in archived samples collected when the 119S allele was rare in Ghana. Multicopy amplification of resistant alleles has not been observed previously and is likely to underpin the recent increase in 119S frequency. The large CNV compromised localization of the strong selective sweep around Ace-1, emphasizing the need to integrate CNV analysis into genome scans for selection. PMID:25865270

  15. Control of Oocyte Reawakening by Kit

    PubMed Central

    Castrillon, Diego H.

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, females are born with finite numbers of oocytes stockpiled as primordial follicles. Oocytes are “reawakened” via an ovarian-intrinsic process that initiates their growth. The forkhead transcription factor Foxo3 controls reawakening downstream of PI3K-AKT signaling. However, the identity of the presumptive upstream cell surface receptor controlling the PI3K-AKT-Foxo3 axis has been questioned. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase Kit controls reawakening. Oocyte-specific expression of a novel constitutively-active KitD818V allele resulted in female sterility and ovarian failure due to global oocyte reawakening. To confirm this result, we engineered a novel loss-of-function allele, KitL. Kit inactivation within oocytes also led to premature ovarian failure, albeit via a contrasting phenotype. Despite normal initial complements of primordial follicles, oocytes remained dormant with arrested oocyte maturation. Foxo3 protein localization in the nucleus versus cytoplasm explained both mutant phenotypes. These genetic studies provide formal genetic proof that Kit controls oocyte reawakening, focusing future investigations into the causes of primary ovarian insufficiency and ovarian aging. PMID:27500836

  16. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI): implications for parent child relationships.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Anne; Steele, Miriam; Dube, Shanta Rishi; Bate, Jordan; Bonuck, Karen; Meissner, Paul; Goldman, Hannah; Steele, Howard

    2014-02-01

    Although Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are linked to increased health problems and risk behaviors in adulthood, there are no studies on the association between ACEs and adults' states of mind regarding their early childhood attachments, loss, and trauma experiences. To validate the ACEs questions, we analyzed the association between ACEs and emotional support indicators and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications in terms of unresolved mourning regarding past loss or trauma and discordant states of mind in cannot classify (U/CC) interviews. Seventy-five urban women (41 clinical and 34 community) completed a questionnaire on ACEs, which included 10 categories of abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, in addition to emotional support. Internal psychological processes or states of mind concerning attachment were assessed using the AAI. ACE responses were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=.88). In the clinical sample, 84% reported≥4 ACEs compared to 27% among the community sample. AAIs judged U/CC occurred in 76% of the clinical sample compared to 9% in the community sample. When ACEs were≥4, 65% of AAIs were classified U/CC. Absence of emotional support in the ACEs questionnaire was associated with 72% of AAIs being classified U/CC. As the number of ACEs and the lack of emotional support increases so too does the probability of AAIs being classified as U/CC. Findings provide rationale for including ACEs questions in pediatric screening protocols to identify and offer treatment reducing the intergenerational transmission of risk associated with problematic parenting.

  17. Coordinated Observations of Energetic Particles from 3He-rich Events by STEREO and ACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Mason, G. M.; Cohen, C. M.; Nitta, N. V.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Haggerty, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    The two STEREOs, together with ACE and other near-Earth spacecraft, have produced data sets that are well suited for investigating how 3He-rich energetic particles that are accelerated in reconnection events on the Sun get distributed in heliographic longitude. Our earlier study[1] of one such 3He-rich event (7 February 2010), which was detected at ACE and both STEREOs when they spanned 136o, showed that accelerated particles can be distributed over a wide range of longitudes even when they originate from a localized solar source. In addition, the particle fluences were found to decrease strongly with increasing distance from the longitude having the best magnetic connection to the source region. Based on data from the first four years of the STEREO mission, when solar activity was very low, we have used additional 3He-rich events detected by one or both of the STEREO/LET instruments and, in some cases also by ACE/ULEIS and/or SIS, to investigate the conditions under which the accelerated particles can gain access to a wide range of heliographic longitudes and to determine the longitudinal dependences of particle fluences in such events. During 2011 and 2012, when the level of solar activity has been significantly greater than in the preceding four years, unambiguous association of events detected at different spacecraft has been hampered by the possibility of chance coincidences between detections of particles from separate solar events as well as by the increased energetic particle background levels. We have investigated the possibility that event characteristics such as composition can be use to confirm that some events detected at widely spaced locations are associated with the same injection at the Sun. Such associations have the potential to extend the longitude range over which 3He-rich events can be studied and also to investigate the solar-cycle dependence of longitudinal spreading. We will report results from the statistical study of events that occurred

  18. Shuttle Kit Freezer Refrigeration Unit Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The refrigerated food/medical sample storage compartment as a kit to the space shuttle orbiter is examined. To maintain the -10 F in the freezer kit, an active refrigeration unit is required, and an air cooled Stirling Cycle refrigerator was selected. The freezer kit contains two subsystems, the refrigeration unit, and the storage volume. The freezer must provide two basic capabilities in one unit. One requirement is to store 215 lbs of food which is consumed in a 30-day period by 7 people. The other requirement is to store 128.3 lbs of medical samples consisting of both urine and feces. The unit can be mounted on the lower deck of the shuttle cabin, and will occupy four standard payload module compartments on the forward bulkhead. The freezer contains four storage compartments.

  19. [Effect of Astragali Radix in improving early renal damage in metabolic syndrome rats through ACE2/Mas pathway].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong-ying; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Ning-yin; Xu, Han; Yang, Mi-na; Lin, Xin; Yu, Heng; Chang, Peng; Yu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To study the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 specific receptor Mas protain in renal blood vessels of metabolic syndrome ( MS) rats and its anti-oxidative effect. A total of 80 male SD rats were divided into four groups: the normal control group (NC, the same volume of normal saline), the MS group (high fat diet), the MS + Astragali Radix group (MS + HQ, 6 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage) and the MS + Valsartan group (MS + XST, 30 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage). After four weeks of intervention, their general indexes, biochemical indexes and blood pressure were measured; plasma and renal tissue Ang II, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide demutase (SOD) levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. The protein expressions of Mas receptor, AT1R, ACE and ACE2 were detected by western blot analysis. According to the result, compared with the NC group, the MS group and the MS + HQ group showed significant increases in systolic and diastolic pressures, body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acid and Ang II level of MS rats (P < 0.05). The MS + XST group showed notable decreases in systolic and diastolic pressures than that of the MS group. The MS group showed significant increases in the SOD activity and NO level and decrease in the MDA level after being intervened with Astragali Radix. ACE and AT1R protein expressions in renal tissues of the MS group were higher than that in the NC group, but with lower ACE2 and -Mas receptor expressions (all P < 0.05). Compared with the MS group, the MS + HQ group showed significant increase in Mas receptor expression in renal tissues, whereas the MS + XST group showed notable decrease in AT1R (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, Astragali Radix can increase the Mas receptor expressions in renal tissues, decrease ACE expression and change local Ang II, MDA, NO and SOD in kidneys, so as to protect early damages in renal tissues.

  20. Low Cost, Advanced, Integrated Microcontroller Training Kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somantri, Y.; Fushshilat, I.

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the design of an AVR microcontroller training kit with a low cost and the additional feature of an integrated downloader. The main components of this device include: Microcontroller, terminal, I/O keypad, push button, LED, seven segment display, LCD, motor stepper, and sensors. The device configuration results in low cost and ease of use; this device is suitable for laboratories with limited funding. The device can also be used as a training kit for the teaching and learning of microcontrollers.

  1. FES kinase participates in KIT-ligand induced chemotaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Voisset, Edwige; Lopez, Sophie; Chaix, Amandine; Vita, Marina; George, Coralie; Dubreuil, Patrice; De Sepulveda, Paulo

    2010-02-26

    FES is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase activated by several membrane receptors, originally identified as a viral oncogene product. We have recently identified FES as a crucial effector of oncogenic KIT mutant receptor. However, FES implication in wild-type KIT receptor function was not addressed. We report here that FES interacts with KIT and is phosphorylated following activation by its ligand SCF. Unlike in the context of oncogenic KIT mutant, FES is not involved in wild-type KIT proliferation signal, or in cell adhesion. Instead, FES is required for SCF-induced chemotaxis. In conclusion, FES kinase is a mediator of wild-type KIT signalling implicated in cell migration.

  2. Parallel Signal Processing and System Simulation using aCe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.; Aburdene, Maurice F.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, networked and cluster computation have become very popular for both signal processing and system simulation. A new language is ideally suited for parallel signal processing applications and system simulation since it allows the programmer to explicitly express the computations that can be performed concurrently. In addition, the new C based parallel language (ace C) for architecture-adaptive programming allows programmers to implement algorithms and system simulation applications on parallel architectures by providing them with the assurance that future parallel architectures will be able to run their applications with a minimum of modification. In this paper, we will focus on some fundamental features of ace C and present a signal processing application (FFT).

  3. ACE infrared spectral atlases of the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Ryan; Bernath, Peter; Boone, Chris

    2014-11-01

    Five infrared atmospheric atlases are presented using solar occultation spectra from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) in low earth orbit. The spectral atlases were created for Arctic summer, Arctic winter, mid-latitude summer, mid-latitude winter and the tropics. Each covers the spectral range from 700 to 4400 cm-1 and consists of 31 spectra that span an altitude range of 6-126 km in 4-km altitude intervals. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, each spectrum in the atlas is an average of at least several hundred individual ACE-FTS limb transmission spectra. Representative plots in pdf format at 10 km (troposphere), 30 km (stratosphere), 70 km (mesosphere), and 110 km (lower thermosphere) are also available.

  4. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-05-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is commercializing Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kits for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated ASTM Method D-5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In FY 99, twenty-five preproduction kits were successfully constructed in cooperation with CF Electronics, Inc., of Laramie, Wyoming. The kit components work well and the kits are fully operational. In the calendar year 2000, kits were provided to the following entities who agreed to participate as FY 99 and FY 00 JSR (Jointly Sponsored Research) cosponsors and use the kits as opportunities arose for field site work: Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) (3 units), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Gradient Corporation, The Johnson Company (2 units), IT Corporation (2 units), TRC Environmental Corporation, Stone Environmental, ENSR, Action Environmental, Laco Associates, Barenco, Brown and Caldwell, Dames and Moore Lebron LLP, Phillips Petroleum, GeoSyntek, and the State of New Mexico. By early 2001, ten kits had been returned to WRI following the six-month evaluation period. On return, the components of all ten kits were fully functional. The kits were upgraded with circuit modifications, new polyethylene foam inserts, and updated instruction manuals.

  5. Space clocks to test relativiy: ACES and SAGAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Peter; Salomon, Christophe; Reynaud, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Atomic clocks are an outstanding tool for the experimental verification of general relativity and more generally for fundamental astronomy (VLBI, pulsar timing, navigation, etc). Recent years have seen a rapid improvement in the performance of such clocks, promising new improved tests of relativity, in particular onboard terrestrial and interplanetary space missions. We present the scientific motivations of such tests taking the ACES Salomon et al. and SAGAS Wolf et al. (2009) projects as particular examples.

  6. [ACE inhibitors from the viewpoint of the clinical pharmacologist].

    PubMed

    Hitzenberger, G

    1996-01-01

    For treatment of hypertension drugs are desirable which exert a 24 hours lasting blood pressure control. Among the ACE-inhibitors some drugs exist which have this action. The elimination pathway plays a minor role in this respect. Not only the inhibition of Angiotensin II generation but also the decreased inhibition of bradykinin-degeneration plays a crucial role with regard to several endothelial functions controlling the so called remodeling of the cardiovascular system.

  7. ACES: An Enabling Technology for Next Generation Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Wuerl, Adam M.; Andrews, Jason E.; Andrews, Dana G.

    2004-02-01

    Andrews Space has developed the ``Alchemist'' Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES), a dual-mode propulsion system that enables safe, economical launch systems that take off and land horizontally. Alchemist generates liquid oxygen through separation of atmospheric air using the refrigeration capacity of liquid hydrogen. The key benefit of Alchemist is that it minimizes vehicle takeoff weight. All internal and NASA-funded activities have shown that ACES, previously proposed for hypersonic combined cycle RLVs, is a higher payoff, lower-risk technology if LOX generation is performed while the vehicle cruises subsonically. Andrews Space has developed the Alchemist concept from a small system study to viable Next Generation launch system technology, conducting not only feasibility studies but also related hardware tests, and it has planned a detailed risk reduction program which employs an experienced, proven contractor team. Andrews also has participated in preliminary studies of an evolvable Next Generation vehicle architecture-enabled by Alchemist ACES-which could meet civil, military, and commercial space requirements within two decades.

  8. The Louisiana ACES student-built BalloonSat program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Brad; Giammanco, James; Guzik, T. Gregory; Johnson, Karen; Wefel, John P.

    2006-01-01

    A major concern of many aerospace industries and space agencies worldwide is the continuing decrease in undergraduate student enrollment and graduation from aerospace and closely related degree programs. With a decreasing number of new aerospace workforce candidates, expanding or sustaining our exploration of the universe over the coming decades could be at risk. In Louisiana, we have developed the Aerospace Catalyst Experiences for Students (ACES) program to address this issue by attracting new students to aerospace-related programs and providing interdisciplinary training on how to design, build, and manage aerospace payloads. Based upon the National Space Grant Student Satellite Program "Crawl, Walk, Run, Fly!" methodology, ACES closely ties cross-discipline content knowledge with extensive hands-on experiences to instill skills that are then applied by the students to design, document, build, test, and operate a small balloon-borne scientific payload. The ACES concept was initially piloted during 2002-2003 and now includes a semi-formal "Student Ballooning Course", five Louisiana institutions and serves ˜45 students.

  9. MoCA, ACE-R and MMSE versus the NINDS-CSN VCI Harmonisation Standards Neuropsychological Battery after TIA and stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pendlebury, Sarah T; Mariz, Jose; Bull, Linda; Mehta, Ziyah; Rothwell, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Background The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Addenbrooke’s cognitive examination-revised (ACE-R) are proposed as short cognitive tests for use after stroke but there are few published validations against neuropsychological battery. We studied MoCA, ACE-R and mini-mental-state-examination(MMSE) in patients with cerebrovascular disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Methods 100 consecutive patients had the MMSE, MoCA, ACE-R and NINDS-CSN VCI Harmonisation Standards Neuropsychological Battery ≥1 year after TIA or stroke in a population-based study. MCI was diagnosed using modified Petersen criteria in which subjective cognitive complaint is not required (equivalent to cognitive- impairment-no-dementia (CIND)) and sub-typed by number and type of cognitive domains affected. Results Among 91 non-demented subjects completing neuropsychological testing (mean/sd age 73.4/11.6 years, 44% female, 56% stroke), 39 (42%) had MCI (amnestic multiple domain=10, non-amnestic multiple domain=9, non-amnestic single domain=19, amnestic single domain=1). Sensitivity and specificity for MCI were optimal with MoCA<25 (sensitivity=77%, specificity=83%) and ACE-R<94 (sensitivity=83%, specificity=73%). Both tests detected amnestic MCI better than non-amnestic single domain impairment. MMSE only achieved sensitivity>70% at a cut-off of<29, mainly due to relative insensitivity to single domain impairment. Conclusion The MoCA and ACE-R had good sensitivity and specificity for MCI defined using the NINDS-CSN VCI Battery ≥1 year after TIA and stroke whereas the MMSE showed a ceiling effect. However, optimal cut-offs will depend on use for screening (high sensitivity) or diagnosis (high specificity). Lack of timed measures of processing speed may explain the relative insensitivity of the MoCA and ACE-R to single non-memory domain impairment. PMID:22156700

  10. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  11. VO2 max is associated with ACE genotype in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, J M; Ferrell, R E; McCole, S D; Wilund, K R; Moore, G E

    1998-11-01

    Relationships have frequently been found between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotype and various pathological and physiological cardiovascular outcomes and functions. Thus we sought to determine whether ACE genotype affected maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max) and maximal exercise hemodynamics in postmenopausal women with different habitual physical activity levels. Age, body composition, and habitual physical activity levels did not differ among ACE genotype groups. However, ACE insertion/insertion (II) genotype carriers had a 6.3 ml . kg-1 . min-1 higher VO2 max (P < 0.05) than the ACE deletion/deletion (DD) genotype group after accounting for the effect of physical activity levels. The ACE II genotype group also had a 3.3 ml . kg-1 . min-1 higher VO2 max (P < 0.05) than the ACE insertion/deletion (ID) genotype group. The ACE ID group tended to have a higher VO2 max than the DD genotype group, but the difference was not significant. ACE genotype accounted for 12% of the variation in VO2 max among women after accounting for the effect of habitual physical activity levels. The entire difference in VO2 max among ACE genotype groups was the result of differences in maximal arteriovenous O2 difference (a-vDO2). ACE genotype accounted for 17% of the variation in maximal a-vDO2 in these women. Maximal cardiac output index did not differ whatsoever among ACE genotype groups. Thus it appears that ACE genotype accounts for a significant portion of the interindividual differences in VO2 max among these women. However, this difference is the result of genotype-dependent differences in maximal a-vDO2 and not of maximal stroke volume and maximal cardiac output.

  12. Haitian Component Bibliography. Migrant Heritage Studies Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roark-Calnek, Sue, Comp.

    This 587-item annotated bibliography, designed as a supplement to the Haitian Component of the Migrant Heritage Studies Kit, provides access to additional information, including audiovisual materials, on resources on Haiti and Haitian immigrants, published between 1877 and 1984. Part I is a "General Bibliography" which includes 313…

  13. Learning Disabilities In-Service Training Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Bickley

    Included in the training kit for teachers in the area of learning disabilities are materials developed by Project Lighthouse for experimental field usage to test the materials. The problem of educating children with learning disabilities is summarized, as is Piaget's model of logical activity. The major divisions of the text then deal with the…

  14. SunWise[R] Meteorologist Tool Kit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The SunWise Program is designed to help meteorologists raise sun safety awareness by addressing the science of the sun, the risk of overexposure to its ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and what students and their families can do to protect themselves from overexposure. This Tool Kit has been designed for use all over the United States and its…

  15. Career and Occupational Development Kit. Instruction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    This manual is part of a kit consisting of four documents which bring together different types of items that measure a number of career and occupational development (COD) objectives developed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (NAEP--which completed a national survey measuring the achievement of knowledge, skills,…

  16. 47 CFR 15.25 - Kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.25 Kits. A TV interface... measurement data required for a TV interface device subject to certification shall be obtained for each of the... chapter. (2) The measurement data required for a TV interface device subject to Declaration of...

  17. 47 CFR 15.25 - Kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.25 Kits. A TV interface... measurement data required for a TV interface device subject to certification shall be obtained for each of the... chapter. (2) The measurement data required for a TV interface device subject to Declaration of...

  18. 47 CFR 15.25 - Kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.25 Kits. A TV interface... measurement data required for a TV interface device subject to certification shall be obtained for each of the... chapter. (2) The measurement data required for a TV interface device subject to Declaration of...

  19. Earth Is My Home, Kit I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    Introducing the pupil to the science of ecology is the purpose of Scholastic's Earth Corps Ecology/Conservation Study Kits for grades 3-6. Simple terms are used to show how all living things are inter-related to their environment, to demonstrate the intricate and delicate balance of nature, and to point out how man's interference with nature's…

  20. Post-Tenure Review. SPEC Kit 261.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Sara Anne, Comp.; Lees, N. Doug, Comp.; Powers, Gerald, Comp.

    2000-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit reports results of a survey of ARL (Association of Research Libraries) that examined post-tenure review of librarians throughout higher education in North America. The purpose of the survey was to identify which institutions apply post-tenure or post-continuing appointment review to library…

  1. Electronic Reference Service. SPEC Kit 251.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetsch, Lori, Comp.

    1999-01-01

    The goals of this SPEC Kit were to report on the extent to which ARL (Association of Research Libraries) libraries provide electronic reference services and to offer a snapshot of the types of users reached, questions received, policies established, data-gathering techniques utilized, and innovations implemented. The first section of the kit…

  2. Library Systems Office Organization. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Scott P., Comp.; Lim, Adriene, Comp.

    2002-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to investigate the changes in research library systems operations since 1994 and to identify future trends. A total of 70 of 124 ARL member libraries responded to the survey. A copy of the…

  3. Defense Acquisition University Program Managers Tool Kit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    International Standards Organization ( ISO ) registration of a supplier’s quality system since there have been instances where ISO 9001 -registered supplier...58 Quality Management Systems (Defense Acquisition Guidebook...facilities and equipment. DAU PROGRAM MANAGERS TOOL KIT 59 Quality Management Systems (see Defense Acquisition Guidebook) • The PM should allow

  4. Managerial and Technical Specialists. SPEC Kit 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This kit is compiled from documentation received as a result of a 1975 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) survey on the use of specialists in member libraries; updated materials gathered in 1978 are included. Survey data from 64 ARL members indicate wide utilization of various managerial and technical specialists. Of these, personnel…

  5. Beyond the Science Kit: Inquiry in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saul, Wendy, Ed.; Reardon, Jeanne, Ed.

    The essays in this book are about values that are being used to drive science instruction in remarkable ways. The essays are divided into three sections. The first section contains two essays about science kits and determines the problem that the rest of the book addresses. The essays in the second section offer a glimpse of what five teachers see…

  6. Press kit kicks off new branding.

    PubMed

    Rees, Tom

    2004-01-01

    A smartly produced press kit resulted in unprecedented news coverage when Denver's Porter Adventist Hospital recently unveiled plans for an extensive 80 million dollars redevelopment. A news conference was held to announce this plan, along with the opening of the hospital's new emergency department. The overall effort is part of the new branding strategy of the 75-year-old hospital.

  7. Networked Information Resources. SPEC Kit 253.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleiler, Richard, Comp.; Plum, Terry, Comp.

    1999-01-01

    This SPEC Kit, published six times per year, examines how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries have structured themselves to identify networked information resources in the market, to evaluate them for purchase, to make purchasing decisions, to publicize them, and to assess their continued utility. In the summer of 1999, the survey…

  8. Reclassification Survey Results. SPEC Kit 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This kit presents the results of a survey conducted by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) in 1974 to investigate and document various experiences of academic and research libraries in reclassifying portions of collections or entire collections and the relationship between libraries' particular classification schemes on effective…

  9. You Be the Chemist [Multimedia Kit].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Chemical Distributors, Arlington, VA. Educational Foundation.

    This multimedia kit includes a teacher's manual, video, and activity packet. The unique interactive course uses safe, controlled dynamic experiments to teach kids about chemistry, the proper handling of chemicals, and responsible product stewardship. Students are asked to hypothesize about chemical substances, collect and analyze data, and share…

  10. Lead Paint Test Kits Workshop: Summary Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) designed and conducted the Lead Paint Test Kits Workshop on October 19 and 20, 2006, at the Environmental Protection Agency's Research Triangle Park, NC campus. The workshop was conducted as...

  11. Teen PACK: Population Awareness Campaign Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This packet of instructional materials is designed to teach teenagers about the effects of overpopulation on the world and on the individual. Information is presented in three related booklets. The first of the three parts of the "Teen Population Awareness Campaign Kit," illustrates overpopulation through profiles of teens living in…

  12. Computerized Online Bibliographic Searching. SPEC Kit #154.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocker, Susan

    For this kit, 106 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) academic libraries were surveyed concerning: (1) current administration/organization; (2) evaluation; (3) patron relations; (4) services; and (5) the impact of online searching on collections. Responses were received from 83 libraries, many of which contributed sample materials. Analyses of…

  13. Thermal protection system flight repair kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal protection system (TPS) flight repair kit required for use on a flight of the Space Transportation System is defined. A means of making TPS repairs in orbit by the crew via extravehicular activity is discussed. A cure in place ablator, a precured ablator (large area application), and packaging design (containers for mixing and dispensing) for the TPS are investigated.

  14. Teacher to Teacher: Take-Home Kits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Joyce; Krebill, Joyce

    1993-01-01

    Describes a kit containing mathematical enrichment activities and activity evaluation sheets that kindergarten students can complete at home. Thirteen sample activities involving weather, pattern recognition, counting, money, estimation, observation skills, weight, temperature, measurement, and time are included. Suggestions for utilization, care,…

  15. Preservation of Library Materials. SPEC Kit 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This Association of Research Libraries (ARL) kit on preservation of library materials contains: (1) descriptions of preservation programs and objectives from Boston University, the University of Michigan, University of Wisconsin, and University of California at Los Angeles; (2) a description of the Library of Congress' National Preservation…

  16. Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

  17. Staffing the Library Website. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragsdale, Kate, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to gather information about who has responsibility for the development, management, and maintenance of library World Wide Web sites and to determine which combination of human resources works…

  18. Managing Corporate Annual Reports. SPEC Kit 258.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Lisa, Comp.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the survey for this SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit was to assess the current print corporate annual report collection practices of ARL (Association of Research Libraries) libraries, describe the effects of these collections, and recommend best practices for preserving these significant historical documents. The…

  19. The Interview Process. SPEC Kit 260.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Heidi, Comp.; Nicholson, Shawn, Comp.; Dickson, Laura, Comp.; Miller, Terri Tickle, Comp.

    2000-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit reports results of a survey of ARL (Association of Research Libraries) that examined the nature and structure of the interview process at large research and academic libraries in the United States and Canada. By determining the nature and structure of the interview, it is hoped that candidates…

  20. Aberrant expressions of c-KIT and DOG-1 in mucinous and nonmucinous colorectal carcinomas and relation to clinicopathologic features and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; Mohamed, Mie Ali

    2015-10-01

    c-KIT and DOG-1 are 2 highly expressed proteins in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Few studies had investigated c-KIT, but not DOG-1, expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). This study aims to investigate expressions of c-KIT and DOG-1 in colorectal mucinous carcinoma and nonmucinous carcinoma using manual tissue microarray technique. In this work, we studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with colorectal mucinous (MA) and nonmucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA). High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using modified mechanical pencil tip technique, and immunohistochemistry for c-KIT and DOG-1 was done. We found that aberrant c-KIT expression was detected in 12 cases (8%); 6 cases (4%) showed strong expression. Aberrant DOG-1 expression was detected in 15 cases (10%); among them, only 4 cases (2.7%) showed strong expression. Nonmucinous adenocarcinoma showed a significantly high expression of c-KIT, but not DOG-1, than MA. Aberrant c-KIT and DOG-1 expressions were significantly unrelated but were associated with excessive microscopic abscess formation. Neither c-KIT nor DOG-1 expression showed a significant impact on disease-free survival or overall survival. In conclusion, aberrant c-KIT and DOG-1 expressions in CRC are rare events, either in NMA or MA. Nonmucinous adenocarcinoma showed a significantly higher expression of c-KIT, but not DOG-1, than MA. The expressions of both in CRC are significantly unrelated but are associated with microscopic abscess formation. Neither c-KIT nor DOG-1 expression showed a significant impact on disease-free survival or overall survival. So, c-KIT and DOG-1 immunostaining is not a cost-effective method of identifying patients with CRC who may benefit from treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  1. Role of ACE and AGT gene polymorphisms in genetic susceptibility to diabetes mellitus type 2 in a Brazilian sample.

    PubMed

    Wollinger, L M; Dal Bosco, S M; Rempe, C; Almeida, S E M; Berlese, D B; Castoldi, R P; Arndt, M E; Contini, V; Genro, J P

    2015-12-29

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between the InDel polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene (ACE) and the rs699 polymorphism in the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) in a sample population from Southern Brazil. A case-control study was conducted with 228 patients with DM2 and 183 controls without DM2. The ACE InDel polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers, followed by electrophoresis on 1.5% agarose gel. The AGT rs699 polymorphism was genotyped using a real-time PCR assay. No significant association between the ACE InDel polymorphism and DM2 was detected (P = 0.97). However, regarding the AGT rs699 polymorphism, DM2 patients had a significantly higher frequency of the AG genotype and lower frequency of the GG genotype when compared to the controls (P = 0.03). Our results suggest that there is an association between the AGT rs699 polymorphism and DM2 in a Brazilian sample.

  2. [ACE inhibitors and its usefulness in the prevention of aspiration pneumonia in chronic cerebrovascular disease patients with asymptomatic swallowing dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Seiji; Murahashi, Makoto; Inoue, Masahiko; Jimi, Takahiro; Wakayama, Yoshihiro

    2002-03-01

    The double contrast pharyngogram by use of computed radiography (DCP-CR) has been found to be useful in detection of asymptomatic swallowing dysfunction. Following the DCP-CR examination, we investigated the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in 143 patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) for 3 years and the effects of ACE inhibitors on the prevention of pneumonia. Aspiration pneumonia occurred in 29 out of 143 patients, and more frequently in the elderly chronic CVD patients with multiple brain lesions. Aspiration pneumonia was confirmed in 26 out of 85 patients (30.6%) with abnormal barium adhesion to the pharyngeal wall on the double contrast pharyngogram image by DCP-CR; whereas pneumonia occurred in 3 out of 58 patients (5.2%) with normal findings of DCP-CR pharyngogram. Among chronic CVD patients with abnormal findings of DCP-CR pharyngogram, the incidence of aspiration pneumonia was significantly lower in the patients treated with ACE inhibitors than in those treated with other antihypertensive agents or without antihypertensive agents (chi 2 value = 7.163, p < 0.05). Accordingly, ACE inhibitors may prevent the aspiration pneumonia and reduce the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in the chronic CVD patients with abnormal DCP-CR pharyngogram images.

  3. The EZ:Faast family of amino acid analysis kits: application of the GC-FID kit for rapid determination of plasma tryptophan and other amino acids.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Abdulla A-B

    2012-01-01

    Plasma tryptophan (Trp) and other amino acids (AA) can be determined rapidly by gas (GC) or liquid (LC) chromatography using the Phenomenex EZ:Faast(™) family of kits. Three kits are available: (1) GC-FID or -NPD, (2) GC-MS, (3) LC-MS. The two GC kits can determine 32 AA, whereas the LC-MS can determine five additional AA. All three kits, however, share the same experimental procedure up to and including the preparation of derivatised AA. The method is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE), thus saving time on prior removal of plasma or other proteins and interfering substances, and can be applied to other body fluids and experimental media and to supernatants of extracts of solid material. Briefly, SPE is performed using a proprietary cation-exchange mechanism. The acid solution of the internal standard ensures that the free amino acids are in an anionic form suitable for cationic binding. The alkaline nature of the elution medium ensures that the AA cations are released prior to derivatisation. The latter involves production of chloroformate derivatives of both the amino and carboxylic acid groups. With experience, six plasma samples can be so processed within 12 min. The shortest analytical run is <7 min per sample using the GC-FID/NPD kit. Despite its many steps, the procedure becomes second nature and an enjoyable task. I have now used the GC-FID kit with manual injection to process >1,600 plasma and other samples. Limit of detection of AA is 1 μM or less. The procedure has been validated and optimised for Trp and its main five brain uptake competitors.

  4. 21 CFR 872.3570 - OTC denture repair kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3570 OTC denture repair kit. (a) Identification. An OTC denture repair kit is a device consisting of a material, such as a resin monomer system...

  5. Test/QA Plan for Verification of Microcystin Test Kits

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microcystin test kits are used to quantitatively measure total microcystin in recreational waters. These test kits are based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) with antibodies that bind specifically to microcystins or phosphate activity inhibition where the phosphatas...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... appropriately maintained contents in the specified quantities: Contents Quantity Adhesive bandage compresses, 1... contain at least the following appropriately maintained contents in the specified quantities: Contents... emergency medical kit that must contain at least the following appropriately maintained contents in...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... appropriately maintained contents in the specified quantities: Contents Quantity Adhesive bandage compresses, 1... contain at least the following appropriately maintained contents in the specified quantities: Contents... emergency medical kit that must contain at least the following appropriately maintained contents in...

  8. C-kit overexpression correlates with KIT gene copy numbers increases in phyllodes tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junjun; Liu, Xiaozhen; Feng, Xiaolong; Liu, Jian; Lv, Shuhua; Zhang, Wei; Niu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    We determined c-kit expression in the stroma and epithelia of benign, borderline, and malignant phyllodes tumors (PTs), respectively, as well as the relationship between c-kit expression in stromal elements and KIT gene copy number variations (CNVs). To assess c-kit expression and KIT CNVs, 348 PT cases were studied: 120 (34.4 %) benign cases, 115 (33.1 %) borderline cases, and 113 (32.5 %) malignant cases. All of these cases were evaluated for c-kit (CD117) expression using immunohistochemistry. Forty-two cases (29 c-kit-positive in the stromal cells cases and 13 negative cases) were investigated for KIT gene CNVs via genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall rate of c-kit positivity in the stroma was 46.8 %, as well as 24.2, 53.1, and 64.6 %, respectively, in PTs of three different grades. However, in the majority of cases, the epithelia were c-kit positive (98.2 %), and the positivity was 100, 99.1, and 95 % in PTs of three different grades, respectively. There was a significant change in the expression of c-kit in the stroma and epithelia according to grade (P < 0.001, P = 0.014). From the genomic PCR results, we can confirm that c-kit positivity in the stroma is directly correlated with KIT gene copy numbers increases (P = 0.003, P = 0.041). We demonstrated that c-kit expression in the stroma of PTs is positively associated with malignancy. c-Kit epithelial positivity was inversely correlated with PTs malignancy. c-Kit overexpression in the stroma was related to KIT gene copy numbers increases.

  9. L576P KIT mutation in anal melanomas correlates with KIT protein expression and is sensitive to specific kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Antonescu, Cristina R; Busam, Klaus J; Francone, Todd D; Wong, Grace C; Guo, Tianhua; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Besmer, Peter; Jungbluth, Achim; Gimbel, Mark; Chen, Chin-Tung; Veach, Darren; Clarkson, Bayard D; Paty, Philip B; Weiser, Martin R

    2007-07-15

    Activating mutations in either BRAF or NRAS are seen in a significant number of malignant melanomas, but their incidence appears to be dependent to ultraviolet light exposure. Thus, BRAF mutations have the highest incidence in non-chronic sun damaged (CSD), and are uncommon in acral, mucosal and CSD melanomas. More recently, activating KIT mutations have been described in rare cases of metastatic melanoma, without further reference to their clinical phenotypes. This finding is intriguing since KIT expression is downregulated in most melanomas progressing to more aggressive lesions. In this study, we investigated a group of anal melanomas for the presence of BRAF, NRAS, KIT and PDGFRA mutations. A heterozygous KIT exon 11 L576P substitution was identified in 3 of 20 cases tested. The 3 KIT mutation-carrying tumors were strongly immunopositive for KIT protein. No KIT mutations were identified in tumors with less than 4+ KIT immunostaining. NRAS mutation was identified in one tumor. No BRAF or PDGFRA mutations were identified in either KIT positive or negative anal melanomas. In vitro drug testing of stable transformant Ba/F3 KIT(L576P) mutant cells showed sensitivity for dasatinib (previously known as BMS-354825), a dual SRC/ABL kinase inhibitor, and imatinib. However, compared to an imatinib-sensitive KIT mutant, dasatinib was potent at lower doses than imatinib in the KIT(L576P) mutant. These results suggest that a subset of anal melanomas show activating KIT mutations, which are susceptible for therapy with specific kinase inhibitors.

  10. 46 CFR 121.710 - First-aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false First-aid kits. 121.710 Section 121.710 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit... kits, the contents must be stowed in a suitable, watertight container that is marked “First-Aid Kit”....

  11. 46 CFR 121.710 - First-aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false First-aid kits. 121.710 Section 121.710 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit... kits, the contents must be stowed in a suitable, watertight container that is marked “First-Aid Kit”....

  12. 46 CFR 121.710 - First-aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false First-aid kits. 121.710 Section 121.710 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit... kits, the contents must be stowed in a suitable, watertight container that is marked “First-Aid Kit”....

  13. 46 CFR 121.710 - First-aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First-aid kits. 121.710 Section 121.710 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit... kits, the contents must be stowed in a suitable, watertight container that is marked “First-Aid Kit”....

  14. 46 CFR 121.710 - First-aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false First-aid kits. 121.710 Section 121.710 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit... kits, the contents must be stowed in a suitable, watertight container that is marked “First-Aid Kit”....

  15. KIT mutation analysis in mast cell neoplasms: recommendations of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Arock, M; Sotlar, K; Akin, C; Broesby-Olsen, S; Hoermann, G; Escribano, L; Kristensen, T K; Kluin-Nelemans, H C; Hermine, O; Dubreuil, P; Sperr, W R; Hartmann, K; Gotlib, J; Cross, N C P; Haferlach, T; Garcia-Montero, A; Orfao, A; Schwaab, J; Triggiani, M; Horny, H-P; Metcalfe, D D; Reiter, A; Valent, P

    2015-06-01

    Although acquired mutations in KIT are commonly detected in various categories of mastocytosis, the methodologies applied to detect and quantify the mutant type and allele burden in various cells and tissues are poorly defined. We here propose a consensus on methodologies used to detect KIT mutations in patients with mastocytosis at diagnosis and during follow-up with sufficient precision and sensitivity in daily practice. In addition, we provide recommendations for sampling and storage of diagnostic material as well as a robust diagnostic algorithm. Using highly sensitive assays, KIT D816V can be detected in peripheral blood leukocytes from most patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) that is a major step forward in screening and SM diagnosis. In addition, the KIT D816V allele burden can be followed quantitatively during the natural course or during therapy. Our recommendations should greatly facilitate diagnostic and follow-up investigations in SM in daily practice as well as in clinical trials. In addition, the new tools and algorithms proposed should lead to a more effective screen, early diagnosis of SM and help to avoid unnecessary referrals.

  16. Development of two quantitative real-time PCR diagnostic kits for HPV isolates from Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeeva, Subbiah; Kim, Nam-Il; Jang, In-Kwon; Choi, Tae-Jin

    2012-10-01

    Viral pathogens, alongside other pathogens, have major effects on crustacean aquaculture. Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) is an emerging virus in the shrimp industry and has been detected in shrimp farms worldwide. The HPV genome has greater diversity than other shrimp viruses owing to its wide host range and geographical distribution. Therefore, developing diagnostic tools is essential to detect even small copy numbers from the target region of native HPV isolates. We have developed two easy to use quantitative real-time PCR kits, called Green Star and Dual Star, which contain all of the necessary components for real-time PCR, including HPV primers, using the primers obtained from the sequences of HPV isolates from Korea, and analyzed their specificity, efficiency, and reproducibility. These two kits could detect from 1 to 1 × 10(9) copies of cloned HPV DNA. The minimum detection limits obtained from HPV-infected shrimp were 7.74 × 10(1) and 9.06 × 10(1) copies in the Green Star and Dual Star assay kits, respectively. These kits can be used for rapid, sensitive, and efficient screening for HPV isolates from Korea before the introduction of postlarval stages into culture ponds, thereby decreasing the incidence of early development of the disease.

  17. Evaluation of two assay kits for thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) as an indicator of TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Yoh, M; Kawakami, N; Funakoshi, Y; Okada, K; Honda, T

    1995-01-01

    Reversed passive latex agglutination (RPLA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits with beads (Bead-ELISA) are commercially available in Japan to detect the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates. We evaluated whether these kits can be used to assay the pathogenic toxin, TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), produced by some so-called Kanagawa phenomenon-negative V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from patients with diarrhea. Our results showed that the two kits, RPLA and Bead-ELISA, can detect TRH, although they were originally developed for detection of TDH. This may be due to the use of polyclonal anti-TDH antisera that cross react with TRH. Although the sensitivity for TDH detection by RPLA and Bead-ELISA differed tenfold, that for TRH detection was essentially equal. The minimum concentration of TRH required for detection by the two assay kits was about 10 ng/ml.

  18. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device consisting of a chemical cold pack and tourniquet used for first-aid treatment...

  19. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device consisting of a chemical cold pack and tourniquet used for first-aid treatment...

  20. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device consisting of a chemical cold pack and tourniquet used for first-aid treatment...

  1. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device consisting of a chemical cold pack and tourniquet used for first-aid treatment...

  2. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  3. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  4. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  5. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  6. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  7. Home Pregnancy Test Kits: How Readable Are the Instructions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Carol Ann

    At the conclusion of their study on home pregnancy test kits, Valinas and Perlman (1982) suggested that the instructions accompanying the kits be revised to make them easier to read. A study was undertaken to determine the readability of the printed instructions accompanying five home pregnancy test kits (Daisy II, Answer, Acu-Test, Predictor, and…

  8. 21 CFR 880.5960 - Lice removal kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lice removal kit. 880.5960 Section 880.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... § 880.5960 Lice removal kit. (a) Identification. The lice removal kit is a comb or comb-like...

  9. 21 CFR 880.5960 - Lice removal kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lice removal kit. 880.5960 Section 880.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... § 880.5960 Lice removal kit. (a) Identification. The lice removal kit is a comb or comb-like...

  10. 21 CFR 880.5960 - Lice removal kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lice removal kit. 880.5960 Section 880.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... § 880.5960 Lice removal kit. (a) Identification. The lice removal kit is a comb or comb-like...

  11. YourSELF. Middle School Nutrition Education Kit [Multimedia].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This multimedia kit provides information and materials for teaching nutrition to middle school students (grades 7 and 8). The kit supports schools' efforts to make school meals healthier and more appealing to students. The materials provide information about the relationships between food, nutrition, growth, and health. The kit speaks directly to…

  12. 33 CFR 144.01-30 - First-aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First-aid kit. 144.01-30 Section...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-30 First-aid kit. On each manned platform a first-aid kit approved by the Commandant or the U.S. Bureau of Mines shall...

  13. 46 CFR 169.725 - First aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false First aid kit. 169.725 Section 169.725 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.725 First aid kit. Each vessel must carry an approved first aid kit, constructed and fitted in accordance with subpart 160.041 of this chapter....

  14. 46 CFR 169.725 - First aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid kit. 169.725 Section 169.725 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.725 First aid kit. Each vessel must carry an approved first aid kit, constructed and fitted in accordance with subpart 160.041 of this chapter....

  15. 46 CFR 108.707 - First aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false First aid kit. 108.707 Section 108.707 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.707 First aid kit. Each unit must have a first-aid kit approved by the Mine...

  16. 33 CFR 144.01-30 - First-aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First-aid kit. 144.01-30 Section...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-30 First-aid kit. On each manned platform a first-aid kit approved by the Commandant or the U.S. Bureau of Mines shall...

  17. 33 CFR 144.01-30 - First-aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First-aid kit. 144.01-30 Section...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-30 First-aid kit. On each manned platform a first-aid kit approved by the Commandant or the U.S. Bureau of Mines shall...

  18. 46 CFR 108.707 - First aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false First aid kit. 108.707 Section 108.707 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.707 First aid kit. Each unit must have a first-aid kit approved by the Mine...

  19. 46 CFR 169.725 - First aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false First aid kit. 169.725 Section 169.725 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.725 First aid kit. Each vessel must carry an approved first aid kit, constructed and fitted in accordance with subpart 160.041 of this chapter....

  20. 46 CFR 108.707 - First aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false First aid kit. 108.707 Section 108.707 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.707 First aid kit. Each unit must have a first-aid kit approved by the Mine...

  1. 46 CFR 169.725 - First aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false First aid kit. 169.725 Section 169.725 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.725 First aid kit. Each vessel must carry an approved first aid kit, constructed and fitted in accordance with subpart 160.041 of this chapter....

  2. 46 CFR 169.725 - First aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false First aid kit. 169.725 Section 169.725 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.725 First aid kit. Each vessel must carry an approved first aid kit, constructed and fitted in accordance with subpart 160.041 of this chapter....

  3. 33 CFR 144.01-30 - First-aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First-aid kit. 144.01-30 Section...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-30 First-aid kit. On each manned platform a first-aid kit approved by the Commandant or the U.S. Bureau of Mines shall...

  4. 21 CFR 864.2260 - Chromosome culture kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromosome culture kit. 864.2260 Section 864.2260...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2260 Chromosome culture kit. (a) Identification. A chromosome culture kit is a device containing the necessary...

  5. 21 CFR 864.2260 - Chromosome culture kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromosome culture kit. 864.2260 Section 864.2260...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2260 Chromosome culture kit. (a) Identification. A chromosome culture kit is a device containing the necessary...

  6. 21 CFR 864.2260 - Chromosome culture kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromosome culture kit. 864.2260 Section 864.2260...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2260 Chromosome culture kit. (a) Identification. A chromosome culture kit is a device containing the necessary...

  7. 21 CFR 864.2260 - Chromosome culture kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromosome culture kit. 864.2260 Section 864.2260...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2260 Chromosome culture kit. (a) Identification. A chromosome culture kit is a device containing the necessary...

  8. 21 CFR 864.2260 - Chromosome culture kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromosome culture kit. 864.2260 Section 864.2260...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2260 Chromosome culture kit. (a) Identification. A chromosome culture kit is a device containing the necessary...

  9. 21 CFR 870.1350 - Catheter balloon repair kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Catheter balloon repair kit. 870.1350 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1350 Catheter balloon repair kit. (a) Identification. A catheter balloon repair kit is a device used to repair or replace...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1350 - Catheter balloon repair kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Catheter balloon repair kit. 870.1350 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1350 Catheter balloon repair kit. (a) Identification. A catheter balloon repair kit is a device used to repair or replace...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1350 - Catheter balloon repair kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter balloon repair kit. 870.1350 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1350 Catheter balloon repair kit. (a) Identification. A catheter balloon repair kit is a device used to repair or replace...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5140 - Anesthesia conduction kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction kit. 868.5140 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5140 Anesthesia conduction kit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction kit is a device used to administer to a patient conduction, regional,...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5140 - Anesthesia conduction kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction kit. 868.5140 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5140 Anesthesia conduction kit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction kit is a device used to administer to a patient conduction, regional,...

  14. 46 CFR 108.707 - First aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false First aid kit. 108.707 Section 108.707 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.707 First aid kit. Each unit must have a first-aid kit approved by the Mine...

  15. 46 CFR 108.707 - First aid kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid kit. 108.707 Section 108.707 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.707 First aid kit. Each unit must have a first-aid kit approved by the Mine...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5140 - Anesthesia conduction kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction kit. 868.5140 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5140 Anesthesia conduction kit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction kit is a device used to administer to a patient conduction, regional,...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5140 - Anesthesia conduction kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction kit. 868.5140 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5140 Anesthesia conduction kit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction kit is a device used to administer to a patient conduction, regional,...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5140 - Anesthesia conduction kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction kit. 868.5140 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5140 Anesthesia conduction kit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction kit is a device used to administer to a patient conduction, regional,...

  19. Comparison of four commercial DNA extraction kits for the recovery of Bacillus spp. spore DNA from spiked powder samples.

    PubMed

    Mölsä, Markos; Kalin-Mänttäri, Laura; Tonteri, Elina; Hemmilä, Heidi; Nikkari, Simo

    2016-09-01

    Bacillus spp. include human pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax and a biothreat agent. Bacillus spp. form spores that are physically highly resistant and may remain active over sample handling. We tested four commercial DNA extraction kits (QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, RTP Pathogen Kit, ZR Fungal/Bacterial DNA MiniPrep, and genesig Easy DNA/RNA Extraction kit) for sample inactivation and DNA recovery from two powders (icing sugar and potato flour) spiked with Bacillus thuringiensis spores. The DNA was analysed using a B. thuringiensis-specific real-time PCR assay. The detection limit was 3×10(1)CFU of spiked B. thuringiensis spores with the QIAamp DNA Mini, RTP Pathogen, and genesig Easy DNA/RNA Extraction kits, and 3×10(3)CFU with the ZR Fungal/Bacterial DNA MiniPrep kit. The results showed that manual extraction kits are effective and safe for fast and easy DNA extraction from powder samples even in field conditions. Adding a DNA filtration step to the extraction protocol ensures the removal of Bacillus spp. spores from DNA samples without affecting sensitivity.

  20. A chromosome inversion near the KIT gene and the Tobiano spotting pattern in horses.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S A; Lear, T L; Adelson, D L; Bailey, E

    2007-01-01

    Tobiano is a white spotting pattern in horses caused by a dominant gene, Tobiano(TO). Here, we report TO associated with a large paracentric chromosome inversion on horse chromosome 3. DNA sequences flanking the inversion were identified and a PCR test was developed to detect the inversion. The inversion was only found in horses with the tobiano pattern, including horses with diverse genetic backgrounds, which indicated a common genetic origin thousands of years ago. The inversion does not interrupt any annotated genes, but begins approximately 100 kb downstream of the KIT gene. This inversion may disrupt regulatory sequences for the KIT gene and cause the white spotting pattern.

  1. Advanced systemic mastocytosis: the impact of KIT mutations in diagnosis, treatment, and progression

    PubMed Central

    Verstovsek, Srdan

    2013-01-01

    Apart from indolent systemic mastocytosis (SM), which is associated with a favorable prognosis, other subtypes of SM (SM with associated clonal hematologic non–mast cell lineage disease, aggressive SM, and mast cell leukemia – collectively referred to in this review as advanced SM) can be debilitating. The complexity of SM makes both the diagnosis and design of response criteria challenging for clinical studies. The tyrosine kinase KIT has been shown to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SM and has been a focal point in the development of targeted therapy. Mutations within various domains of the KIT receptor that lead to constitutive activation have been identified in patients, and those involving the activation loop of the KIT receptor are the mutations most frequently detected in patients with mastocytosis. Aberrant activation of the KIT receptor results in increased production of mast cells in extracutaneous organs that may lead to organ failure or early death. This review discusses the diagnosis and management of patients with advanced SM, including the relevance of KIT in this disease, potential therapies targeting this kinase, and criteria for measuring responses to these therapies. PMID:23181448

  2. Advanced systemic mastocytosis: the impact of KIT mutations in diagnosis, treatment, and progression.

    PubMed

    Verstovsek, Srdan

    2013-02-01

    Apart from indolent systemic mastocytosis (SM), which is associated with a favorable prognosis, other subtypes of SM (SM with associated clonal hematologic non-mast cell lineage disease, aggressive SM, and mast cell leukemia - collectively referred to in this review as advanced SM) can be debilitating. The complexity of SM makes both the diagnosis and design of response criteria challenging for clinical studies. The tyrosine kinase KIT has been shown to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SM and has been a focal point in the development of targeted therapy. Mutations within various domains of the KIT receptor that lead to constitutive activation have been identified in patients, and those involving the activation loop of the KIT receptor are the mutations most frequently detected in patients with mastocytosis. Aberrant activation of the KIT receptor results in increased production of mast cells in extracutaneous organs that may lead to organ failure or early death. This review discusses the diagnosis and management of patients with advanced SM, including the relevance of KIT in this disease, potential therapies targeting this kinase, and criteria for measuring responses to these therapies.

  3. Structure of human ACE gives new insights into inhibitor binding and design.

    PubMed

    Brew, Keith

    2003-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a primary target of drugs used for controlling hypertension. A new X-ray crystallographic structure of the key catalytic domain of ACE provides detailed information about the structure of its active site, located in a deep channel, and its interactions with an inhibitor. Such information might facilitate the rational design of ACE inhibitors that are more potent and more selective and therefore of clinical use.

  4. Accessory cholera enterotoxin, Ace, from Vibrio cholerae: structure, unfolding, and virstatin binding.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Mukherjee, Debadrita; Dey, Sucharita; Pal, Aritrika; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2011-04-12

    Vibrio cholerae accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) is the third toxin, along with cholera toxin (CT) and zonula occludens toxin (Zot), that causes the endemic disease cholera. Structural characterization of Ace has been restricted because of the limited production of this toxic protein by V. cholerae. We have cloned, overexpressed, and purified Ace from V. cholerae strain O395 in Escherichia coli to homogeneity and determined its biological activity. The unfolding of the purified protein was investigated using circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Because Ace is predominantly a hydrophobic protein, the degree of exposure of hydrophobic regions was identified from the spectral changes of the environment-sensitive fluorescent probe 4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid (bis-ANS) that quenches the fluorescence of tryptophan residues of Ace in a concentration-dependent manner. Results showed that bis-ANS binds one monomeric unit of Ace with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a K' of 0.72 μM. Ace exists as a dimer, with higher oligomeric forms appearing upon glutaraldehyde cross-linking. This study also reports the binding of virstatin, a small molecule that inhibits virulence regulation in V. cholerae, to Ace. The binding constant (K=9×10(4) M(-1)) and the standard free energy change (ΔG°=-12 kcal mol(-1)) of Ace-virstatin interaction have been evaluated by the fluorescence quenching method. The binding does not affect the oligomeric status of Ace. A cell viability assay of the antibacterial activity of Ace has been performed using various microbial strains. A homology model of Ace, consistent with the experimental results, has been constructed.

  5. Brain ACE2 shedding contributes to the development of neurogenic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Kavaljit H.; Lazartigues, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Over-activity of the brain Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) is a major contributor to neurogenic hypertension. While over-expression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme type 2 (ACE2) has been shown to be beneficial in reducing hypertension by transforming Angiotensin (Ang)-II into Ang-(1-7), several groups have reported decreased brain ACE2 expression and activity during the development of hypertension. Objective We hypothesized that ADAM17-mediated ACE2 shedding results in decreased membrane-bound ACE2 in the brain, thus promoting the development of neurogenic hypertension. Methods and Results To test this hypothesis, we used the DOCA-salt model of neurogenic hypertension in non-transgenic (NT) and syn-hACE2 mice over-expressing ACE2 in neurons. DOCA-salt treatment in NT mice led to significant increases in blood pressure, hypothalamic Ang-II levels, inflammation, impaired baroreflex sensitivity, autonomic dysfunction, as well as decreased hypothalamic ACE2 activity and expression, while these changes were blunted or prevented in syn-hACE2 mice. In addition, reduction of ACE2 expression and activity in the brain paralleled a rise in ACE2 activity in the cerebrospinal fluid of NT mice following DOCA-salt treatment and was accompanied by enhanced ADAM17 expression and activity in the hypothalamus. Chronic knockdown of ADAM17 in the brain blunted the development of hypertension and restored ACE2 activity and baroreflex function. Conclusions Our data provide the first evidence that ADAM17-mediated shedding impairs brain ACE2 compensatory activity, thus contributing to the development of neurogenic hypertension. PMID:24014829

  6. Extension of the ACE solar panels is tested in SAEF-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Extension of the solar panels is tested on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II (SAEF-II). Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  7. Enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) for routine immunoblotting: An inexpensive alternative to commercially available kits.

    PubMed

    Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

    2011-04-01

    Immunoblotting is an analytical technique used by many laboratories to study protein expression. It involves electrophoretic separation of proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), immobilization of these proteins onto a membrane of either nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene difluoride, incubation of the membrane in a monoclonal or polyclonal antibody and detection by a standard method such as enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL). To achieve this, most laboratories opt to use commercially-available chemiluminescence kits which are acceptable but relatively expensive. In this technical report, we show that a self-prepared chemiluminescence reagent is superior to a commercially obtained kit in terms of sensitivity, duration of signal, ease-of-use and shelf-life but at a fraction of the cost of a kit.

  8. ACE2 orthologues in non-mammalian vertebrates (Danio, Gallus, Fugu, Tetraodon and Xenopus).

    PubMed

    Chou, Chih-Fong; Loh, Chay Boon; Foo, Yik Khoon; Shen, Shuo; Fielding, Burtram C; Tan, Timothy H P; Khan, Sehaam; Wang, Yue; Lim, Seng Gee; Hong, Wanjin; Tan, Yee-Joo; Fu, Jianlin

    2006-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a newly identified member in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), acts as a negative regulator of ACE. It is mainly expressed in cardiac blood vessels and the tubular epithelia of kidneys and abnormal expression has been implicated in diabetes, hypertension and heart failure. The mechanism and physiological function of this zinc metallopeptidase in mammals are not yet fully understood. Non-mammalian vertebrate models offer attractive and simple alternatives that could facilitate the exploration of ACE2 function. In this paper we report the in silico analysis of Ace2 genes from the Gallus (chicken), Xenopus (frog), Fugu and Tetraodon (pufferfish) genome assembly databases, and from the Danio (zebrafish) cDNA library. Exon ambiguities of Danio and Xenopus Ace2s were resolved by RT-PCR and 3'RACE. Analyses of the exon-intron structures, alignment, phylogeny and hydrophilicity plots, together with the conserved synteny among these vertebrates, support the orthologous relationship between mammalian and non-mammalian ACE2s. The putative promoters of Ace2 from human, Tetraodon and Xenopus tropicalis drove the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) specifically in the heart tissue of transgenic Xenopus thus making it a suitable model for future functional genomic studies. Additionally, the search for conserved cis-elements resulted in the discovery of WGATAR motifs in all the putative Ace2 promoters from 7 different animals, suggesting a possible role of GATA family transcriptional factors in regulating the expression of Ace2.

  9. CD36/Sirtuin 1 Axis Impairment Contributes to Hepatic Steatosis in ACE2-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Penninger, Josef M.; Santos, Robson Augusto S.; Bader, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an important component of the renin-angiotensin system. Since angiotensin peptides have been shown to be involved in hepatic steatosis, we aimed to evaluate the hepatic lipid profile in ACE2-deficient (ACE2−/y) mice. Methods. Male C57BL/6 and ACE2−/y mice were analyzed at the age of 3 and 6 months for alterations in the lipid profiles of plasma, faeces, and liver and for hepatic steatosis. Results. ACE2−/y mice showed lower body weight and white adipose tissue at all ages investigated. Moreover, these mice had lower levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and nonesterified fatty acids in plasma. Strikingly, ACE2−/y mice showed high deposition of lipids in the liver. Expression of CD36, a protein involved in the uptake of triglycerides in liver, was increased in ACE2−/y mice. Concurrently, these mice exhibited an increase in hepatic oxidative stress, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and expression of uncoupling protein 2, and downregulation of sirtuin 1. ACE2−/y mice also showed impairments in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in the liver. Conclusions. Deletion of ACE2 causes CD36/sirtuin 1 axis impairment and thereby interferes with lipid homeostasis, leading to lipodystrophy and steatosis. PMID:28101297

  10. Calmodulin interacts with angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and inhibits shedding of its ectodomain.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Daniel W; Clarke, Nicola E; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J

    2008-01-23

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is a regulatory protein of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and a receptor for the causative agent of severe-acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the SARS-coronavirus. We have previously shown that ACE2 can be shed from the cell surface in response to phorbol esters by a process involving TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE; ADAM17). In this study, we demonstrate that inhibitors of calmodulin also stimulate shedding of the ACE2 ectodomain, a process at least partially mediated by a metalloproteinase. We also show that calmodulin associates with ACE2 and that this interaction is decreased by calmodulin inhibitors.

  11. The Aspergillus fumigatus Transcription Factor Ace2 Governs Pigment Production, Conidiation and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Ejzykowicz, Daniele E.; Cunha, Marcel M.; Rozental, Sonia; Solis, Norma V.; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Sheppard, Donald C.; Filler, Scott G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Aspergillus fumigatus causes serious and frequently fatal infections in immunocompromised patients. To investigate the regulation of virulence of this fungus, we constructed and analyzed an A. fumigatus mutant that lacked the transcription factor Ace2, which influences virulence in other fungi. The Δace2 mutant had dysmorphic conidiophores, reduced conidia production, and abnormal conidial cell wall architecture. This mutant produced an orange pigment when grown on solid media, although its conidia had normal pigmentation. Conidia of the Δace2 mutant were larger and had accelerated germination. The resulting germlings were resistant to hydrogen peroxide, but not other stressors. Non-neutropenic mice that were immunosuppressed with cortisone acetate and infected with the Δace2 mutant had accelerated mortality, greater pulmonary fungal burden, and increased pulmonary inflammatory responses compared to mice infected with the wild-type or Δace2∷ace2 complemented strains. The Δace2 mutant had reduced ppoC, ecm33, and ags3 mRNA expression. It is known that A. fumigatus mutants with absent or reduced expression of these genes have increased virulence in mice, as well as other phenotypic similarities to the Δace2 mutant. Therefore, reduced expression of these genes likely contributes to the increased virulence of the Δace2 mutant. PMID:19220748

  12. CD36/Sirtuin 1 Axis Impairment Contributes to Hepatic Steatosis in ACE2-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Souza, Valéria; Alenina, Natalia; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Penninger, Josef M; Santos, Robson Augusto S; Bader, Michael; Rabelo, Luiza A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an important component of the renin-angiotensin system. Since angiotensin peptides have been shown to be involved in hepatic steatosis, we aimed to evaluate the hepatic lipid profile in ACE2-deficient (ACE2(-/y)) mice. Methods. Male C57BL/6 and ACE2(-/y) mice were analyzed at the age of 3 and 6 months for alterations in the lipid profiles of plasma, faeces, and liver and for hepatic steatosis. Results. ACE2(-/y) mice showed lower body weight and white adipose tissue at all ages investigated. Moreover, these mice had lower levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and nonesterified fatty acids in plasma. Strikingly, ACE2(-/y) mice showed high deposition of lipids in the liver. Expression of CD36, a protein involved in the uptake of triglycerides in liver, was increased in ACE2(-/y) mice. Concurrently, these mice exhibited an increase in hepatic oxidative stress, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and expression of uncoupling protein 2, and downregulation of sirtuin 1. ACE2(-/y) mice also showed impairments in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in the liver. Conclusions. Deletion of ACE2 causes CD36/sirtuin 1 axis impairment and thereby interferes with lipid homeostasis, leading to lipodystrophy and steatosis.

  13. Rediscovering ACE: Novel insights into the many roles of the angiotensin-converting enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Shen, Xiao Z.; Bernstein, Ellen A.; Janjulia, Tea; Taylor, Brian; Giani, Jorge F.; Blackwell, Wendell-Lamar B.; Shah, Kandarp H.; Shi, Peng D.; Fuchs, Sebastien; Bernstein, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is best known for the catalytic conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. However, the use of gene-targeting techniques has led to mouse models highlighting many other biochemical properties and actions of this enzyme. This review discusses recent studies examining the functional significance of ACE tissue-specific expression and the presence in ACE of two independent catalytic sites with distinct substrates and biological effects. It is these features which explain why ACE makes important contributions to many different physiological processes including renal development, blood pressure control, inflammation and immunity. PMID:23686164

  14. RNAi of ace1 and ace2 in Blattella germanica reveals their differential contribution to acetylcholinesterase activity and sensitivity to insecticides.

    PubMed

    Revuelta, L; Piulachs, M D; Bellés, X; Castañera, P; Ortego, F; Díaz-Ruíz, J R; Hernández-Crespo, P; Tenllado, F

    2009-12-01

    Cyclorrhapha insect genomes contain a single acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene while other insects contain at least two ace genes (ace1 and ace2). In this study we tested the hypothesis that the two ace paralogous from Blattella germanica have different contributions to AChE activity, using RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown each one individually. Paralogous-specific depletion of Bgace transcripts was evident in ganglia of injected cockroaches, although the effects at the protein level were less pronounced. Using spectrophotometric and zymogram measurements, we obtained evidence that BgAChE1 represents 65-75% of the total AChE activity in nerve tissue demonstrating that ace1 encodes a predominant AChE. A significant increase in sensitivity of Bgace1-interfered cockroaches was observed after 48 h of exposure to chlorpyrifos. In contrast, Bgace2 knockdown had a negligible effect on mortality to this organophosphate. These results point out a key role, qualitative and/or quantitative, of AChE1 as target of organophosphate insecticides in this species. Silencing the expression of Bgace1 but not Bgace2 also produced an increased mortality in insects when synergized with lambda-cyhalothrin, a situation which resembles the synergistic effects observed between organophosphates and pyrethroids. Gene silencing of ace genes by RNAi offers an exciting approach for examining a possible functional differentiation in ace paralogous.

  15. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors modulate cellular retinol-binding protein 1 and adiponectin expression in adipocytes via the ACE-dependent signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Kohlstedt, Karin; Gershome, Cynthia; Trouvain, Caroline; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Fichtlscherer, Stephan; Fleming, Ingrid

    2009-03-01

    Inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) decrease angiotensin II production and activate an intracellular signaling cascade that affects gene expression in endothelial cells. Because ACE inhibitors have been reported to delay the onset of type 2 diabetes, we determined ACE signaling-modulated gene expression in endothelial cells and adipocytes. Using differential gene expression analysis, several genes were identified that were 3-fold up- or down-regulated by ramiprilat in cells expressing wild-type ACE versus cells expressing a signaling-dead ACE mutant. One up-regulated gene was the cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP1). In adipocytes, the overexpression of CRBP1 enhanced (4- to 5-fold) the activity of promoters containing response elements for retinol-dependent nuclear receptors [retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR)] or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). CRBP1 overexpression also enhanced the promoter activity (by 470 +/- 40%) and expression/release of the anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic adipokine adiponectin (cellular adiponectin by 196 +/- 24%, soluble adiponectin by 228 +/- 74%). Significantly increased adiponectin secretion was also observed after ACE inhibitor treatment of human preadipocytes, an effect prevented by small interfering RNA against CRBP1. Furthermore, in ob/ob mice, ramipril markedly potentiated both the basal (approximately 2-fold) and rosiglitazonestimulated circulating levels of adiponectin. In patients with coronary artery disease or type 2 diabetes, ACE inhibition also significantly increased plasma adiponectin levels (1.6- or 2.1-fold, respectively). In summary, ACE inhibitors affect adipocyte homeostasis via CRBP1 through the activation of RAR/RXR-PPAR signaling and up-regulation of adiponectin. The latter may contribute to the beneficial effects of ACE inhibitors on the development of type 2 diabetes in patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system.

  16. Helium at Interplanetary Discontinuities: ACE STEREO Observations and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Allegrini, F.; Desai, M.; Klecker, B.; Popecki, M.; Farrugia, C.; Galvin, A.; Bochsler, P.; Karrer, R.; Opitz, A.; Simunac, K.

    2007-12-01

    ACE/SEPICA observations showed that, on average, energetic He+ is after H+ and He2+ the third most abundant energetic particle species in the heliosphere. Depending on the type of the energetic population the He+/He2+ ratio can reach unusually high values in the energy range 250 - 800keV/n ratios up to unity. As a major source of energetic He+ interplanetary pickup ions have been identified that are preferentially accelerated at co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs), transient interaction regions (TIRs), and interplanetary traveling shocks. Most recent data from STEREO/PLASTIC in the energy range of 0.2-80keV/Q show clear evidence of abundant He+ at interplanetary discontinuities. Thus PLASTIC extends the energy range into injection region of the source. Furthermore, ACE/ULEIS and ACE/SEPICA measurements showed that very often 3He2+ and He+ are also accelerated simultaneously at CME-driven IP shocks. This is surprising because, these to species originate from different sources. However, this may indicate that the injection, or the acceleration efficiency of the accelerator for different source population may be similar. From observations, however, this cannot be differentiated easily. In numerical simulations this can be done because there is control over species and distribution functions. In a numerical study we applied test particle simulations and multi-dimensional hybrid simulations to address the contribution of source, injection and acceleration efficiency at shocks to the variability of the helium ratio. These, simulations with and without superimposed turbulence in the shock region will be compared with observations.

  17. Determination of designer drug cross-reactivity on five commercial immunoassay screening kits.

    PubMed

    Regester, Laura E; Chmiel, Jeffrey D; Holler, Justin M; Vorce, Shawn P; Levine, Barry; Bosy, Thomas Z

    2015-03-01

    The detection of new designer drugs is often a difficult issue in forensic urine drug testing as immunoassays are the primary screening methodology for drugs of abuse in many of these laboratories. Cross-reactivity of compounds with immunoassay kits can either aid or complicate the detection of a variety of drug and drug metabolites. For instance, emerging designer drugs that share structural similarities to amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP) have the potential to cross-react with assays designed to detect these compounds. This study evaluates the cross-reactivity of five commercially available immunoassay reagent kits for 94 designer drugs on a Roche/Hitachi Modular P automated screening instrument. The compounds used in this study are grouped by structural class as follows: 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamines, 2C (2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamines), β-keto amphetamines, substituted amphetamines, piperazines, α-pyrrolidinopropiophenones, tryptamines and PCP analogs. A drug concentration of 100 µg/mL was used to determine cross-reactivity for each assay and resulted in the following positive rates: Microgenics DRI(®) Ecstasy enzyme assay (19%), Microgenics DRI(®) Phencyclidine enzyme assay (20%), Lin-Zhi Methamphetamine enzyme immunoassay (39%), Siemens/Syva(®) EMIT(®)II Plus Amphetamines assay (43%) and CEDIA(®) DAU Amphetamine/Ecstasy assay (57%). Of the 94 designer drugs tested, 14% produced a negative response for all five kits. No designer drug used in this study generated a positive result for all five immunoassay kits.

  18. Optimizing Medical Kits for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minard, Charles G.; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary H.; Iyengar, M. Sriram

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) uses Monte Carlo methodologies to predict the occurrence of medical events, their mitigation, and the resources required during space flight. The model includes two modules that utilize output from a single model simulation to identify an optimized medical kit for a specified mission scenario. This poster describes two flexible optimization routines built into SAS 9.1. The first routine utilizes a systematic process of elimination to maximize (or minimize) outcomes subject to attribute constraints. The second routine uses a search and mutate approach to minimize medical kit attributes given a set of outcome constraints. There are currently 273 unique resources identified that are used to treat at least one of 83 medical conditions currently in the model.

  19. Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Eckels, Joel Del; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2008-03-04

    An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

  20. Screening of inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) employing high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QqQ-MS).

    PubMed

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Bhatti, Muhammad Salman; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Rahman, Atta-Ur

    2017-04-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a key role in regulating blood pressure in the body by converting the angiotensin I (AI) into angiotensin II (AII). Angiotensin II is a potent vaso-active peptide that causes arterioles to constrict, resulting in increased blood pressure. A rapid and sensitive method for the identification of inhibitors of ACE was developed, and optimized employing HPLC-ESI-QqQ-MS. In this assay, angiotensin I substrate was converted into the product angiotensin II with the catalytic action of ACE. A calibration curve for depleting concentration of angiotensin I was developed and linearity of R(2)=0.999 with a remarkably low concentration of substrate range 20-200nM. The limit of detection and quantification of angiotensin I was found to be 1.93 and 5.84nM, respectively. The enzymatic reaction was optimized for incubation time, concentration, and volume of enzyme and substrate. All reactions were performed at 37°C at pH7.5 with standard incubation time of 20min. Two standard inhibitors, Captopril and Lisinopril, were checked through the newly developed method for their inhibitory potential, and their IC50 values were found to be 3.969 and 0.852μM, respectively. Reproducibility and precision analysis of different experiments showed <9.9% RSD. The developed method can be used for the identification of new ACE inhibitors.