Science.gov

Sample records for ace diversity interchange

  1. Possible Improvements of the ACE Diversity Interchange Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Zhou, Ning; Makarov, Yuri V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; McManus, Bart; Loutan, Clyde

    2010-07-26

    North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) grid is operated by about 131 balancing authorities (BA). Within each BA, operators are responsible for managing the unbalance (caused by both load and wind). As wind penetration levels increase, the challenges of managing power variation increases. Working independently, balancing area with limited regulating/load following generation and high wind power penetration faces significant challenges. The benefits of BA cooperation and consolidation increase when there is a significant wind energy penetration. To explore the benefits of BA cooperation, this paper investigates ACE sharing approach. A technology called ACE diversity interchange (ADI) is already in use in the western interconnection. A new methodology extending ADI is proposed in the paper. The proposed advanced ADI overcoming some limitations existing in conventional ADI. Simulations using real statistical data of CAISO and BPA have shown high performance of the proposed advanced ADI methodology.

  2. Signatures of interchange reconnection: STEREO, ACE and Hinode observations combined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.; Rouillard, A. P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Démoulin, P.; Harra, L. K.; Lavraud, B.; Davies, J. A.; Opitz, A.; Luhmann, J. G.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Galvin, A. B.

    2009-10-01

    Combining STEREO, ACE and Hinode observations has presented an opportunity to follow a filament eruption and coronal mass ejection (CME) on 17 October 2007 from an active region (AR) inside a coronal hole (CH) into the heliosphere. This particular combination of "open" and closed magnetic topologies provides an ideal scenario for interchange reconnection to take place. With Hinode and STEREO data we were able to identify the emergence time and type of structure seen in the in-situ data four days later. On the 21st, ACE observed in-situ the passage of an ICME with "open" magnetic topology. The magnetic field configuration of the source, a mature AR located inside an equatorial CH, has important implications for the solar and interplanetary signatures of the eruption. We interpret the formation of an "anemone" structure of the erupting AR and the passage in-situ of the ICME being disconnected at one leg, as manifested by uni-directional suprathermal electron flux in the ICME, to be a direct result of interchange reconnection between closed loops of the CME originating from the AR and "open" field lines of the surrounding CH.

  3. Improving Area Control Error Diversity Interchange (ADI) Program by Incorporating Congestion Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Etingov, Pavel V.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guttromson, Ross T.; McManus, Bart

    2010-04-30

    The area control error (ACE) determines how much a balancing authority (BA) needs to move its regulating units to meet mandatory control performance standard requirements. Regulation is an expensive resource that could cost several hundred million dollars a year for a BA. The amount of regulation needed in a system is increasing with more intermittent generation resources added to the system. The ACE diversity interchange (ADI) program provides a tool for reducing the regulation requirement by combining ACEs from several participating BAs followed by sharing the total ACE among all participating balancing areas. The effect is achieved as a result of the low statistical correlation between the original ACEs of participating BAs. A rule-based ADI approach has already been put into practice in the US Western Interconnection. The degree of actual ACE sharing is artificially limited because of the unknown redistribution of power flows and possible system congestion (these factors are not monitored in the existing ADI). This paper proposes a two-step linear programming (LP) ADI approach that incorporates congestion constraints. In the first step of the proposed LP ADI, the line transmission limits are enforced by setting up corresponding constraints. In the second step, the business fairness is pursued. Simulation is performed to compare the properties of the proposed LP ADI and the existing rule-based ADI. Favorable features, such as avoiding line limit violations and increasing the degree of possible ACE sharing, are observed for the proposed LP ADI.

  4. ACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumia, R.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the progress made during the fourth year of the Center for Autonomous Control Engineering (ACE). We currently support 30 graduate students, 52 undergraduate students, 9 faculty members, and 4 staff members. Progress will be divided into two categories. The first category explores progress for ACE in general. The second describes the results of each specific project supported within ACE.

  5. Neotropical mammal diversity and the Great American Biotic Interchange: spatial and temporal variation in South America's fossil record

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Juan D.; Forasiepi, Analía; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2015-01-01

    The vast mammal diversity of the Neotropics is the result of a long evolutionary history. During most of the Cenozoic, South America was an island continent with an endemic mammalian fauna. This isolation ceased during the late Neogene after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, resulting in an event known as the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). In this study, we investigate biogeographic patterns in South America, just before or when the first immigrants are recorded and we review the temporal and geographical distribution of fossil mammals during the GABI. We performed a dissimilarity analysis which grouped the faunal assemblages according to their age and their geographic distribution. Our data support the differentiation between tropical and temperate assemblages in South America during the middle and late Miocene. The GABI begins during the late Miocene (~10–7 Ma) and the putative oldest migrations are recorded in the temperate region, where the number of GABI participants rapidly increases after ~5 Ma and this trend continues during the Pleistocene. A sampling bias toward higher latitudes and younger records challenges the study of the temporal and geographic patterns of the GABI. PMID:25601879

  6. Tether Technology Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, James K. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This is a compilation of 25 papers presented at a tether technical interchange meeting in Huntsville, AL, on September 9-10, 1997. After each presentation, a technical discussion was held to clarify and expand the salient points. A wide range of subjects was covered including tether dynamics, electrodynamics, space power generation, plasma physics, ionospheric physics, towing tethers, tethered reentry schemes, and future tether missions.

  7. Marketing ACE in Victoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This publication presents options raised through various forums for marketing adult and community education (ACE) in Victoria, Australia, and suggested strategies. After an introduction (chapter 1), chapters 2 and 3 provide a broad view of the current situation for marketing ACE. Chapter 2 discusses general issues in the current position--ACE…

  8. Mammalian evolution and the great american interchange.

    PubMed

    Marshall, L G; Webb, S D; Sepkoski, J J; Raup, D M

    1982-03-12

    A reciprocal and apparently symmetrical interchange of land mammals between North and South America began about 3 million years ago, after the appearance of the Panamanian land bridge. The number of families of land mammals in South America rose from 32 before the interchange to 39 after it began, and then back to 35 at present. An equivalent number of families experienced a comparable rise and decline in North America during the same interval. These changes in diversity are predicted by the MacArthur-Wilson species equilibrium theory. The greater number of North American genera (24) initially entering South America than the reverse (12) is predicted by the proportions of reservoir genera on the two continents. However, a later imbalance caused by secondary immigrants (those which evolved from initial immigrants) is not expected from equilibrium theory.

  9. ACES: Final performance report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, V. D.

    1981-04-01

    The performance of the ACES in a single family residence near Knoxville, Tennessee was compared with that of two different air to air heat pumps in an identical house. Results show that energy was saved for the testing years. In addition to reducing consumption, the ACES significantly reduced integrated peak utility demands. Reinsulation of the ice storage bin reduced heat leakage rates by about 40 percent and resulted in increasing ground temperatures by an average of 5.60 C over first year levels. The demonstration project and the ACES concept are described. Data acquisition procedures, system modifications, steady state performance, annual cycle performance, and effects of modifications are discussed.

  10. Interchangeable spline reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    Dolin, R.M.

    1994-05-01

    The WX-Division Integrated Software Tools (WIST) Team evolved from two previous committees, First was the W78 Solid Modeling Pilot Project`s Spline Subcommittee, which later evolved into the Vv`X-Division Spline Committee. The mission of the WIST team is to investigate current CAE engineering processes relating to complex geometry and to develop methods for improving those processes. Specifically, the WIST team is developing technology that allows the Division to use multiple spline representations. We are also updating the contour system (CONSYS) data base to take full advantage of the Division`s expanding electronic engineering process. Both of these efforts involve developing interfaces to commercial CAE systems and writing new software. The WIST team is comprised of members from V;X-11, -12 and 13. This {open_quotes}cross-functional{close_quotes} approach to software development is somewhat new in the Division so an effort is being made to formalize our processes and assure quality at each phase of development. Chapter one represents a theory manual and is one phase of the formal process. The theory manual is followed by a software requirements document, specification document, software verification and validation documents. The purpose of this guide is to present the theory underlying the interchangeable spline technology and application. Verification and validation test results are also presented for proof of principal.

  11. ACE blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme; SACE ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) - blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:138-139.

  12. Interstate Highway Interchanges Reshape Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Henry E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Highway interchanges offer rural counties practically ready-made sites for development, but some interchanges offer better development opportunities than others. A study of a Kentucky interchange identified seven factors that make a difference in development, including traffic volume, distance to an urban area, ruggedness of terrain, and sale of…

  13. Third SEI Technical Interchange: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Given here are the proceedings of the 3rd Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Technical Interchange. Topics covered include the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), the Lunar Resource Mapper, lunar rovers, lunar habitat concepts, lunar shelter construction analysis, thermoelectric nuclear power systems for SEI, cryogenic storage, a space network for lunar communications, the moon as a solar power satellite, and off-the-shelf avionics for future SEI missions.

  14. Interchange of entire communities: microbial community coalescence.

    PubMed

    Rillig, Matthias C; Antonovics, Janis; Caruso, Tancredi; Lehmann, Anika; Powell, Jeff R; Veresoglou, Stavros D; Verbruggen, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Microbial communities are enigmatically diverse. We propose a novel view of processes likely affecting microbial assemblages, which could be viewed as the Great American Interchange en miniature: the wholesale exchange among microbial communities resulting from moving pieces of the environment containing entire assemblages. Incidental evidence for such 'community coalescence' is accumulating, but such processes are rarely studied, likely because of the absence of suitable terminology or a conceptual framework. We provide the nucleus for such a conceptual foundation for the study of community coalescence, examining factors shaping these events, links to bodies of ecological theory, and we suggest modeling approaches for understanding coalescent communities. We argue for the systematic study of community coalescence because of important functional and applied consequences.

  15. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Five contributors discuss the following topics: bringing comics to life through readers theatre, peer tutoring to improve word attack and comprehension skills, using storytelling to increase reading comprehension skills on Okinawa, beginning reading in Italy, and using remedial reading students as tutors for younger students. (FL)

  16. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Offers suggestions from eight contributors, including (1) activities for speedy readers, (2) conducting a "reading roundup," (3) improving children's math vocabulary, (4) teaching syllabication, (5) displaying student work, and (6) ideas for parents of beginning readers. (FL)

  17. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Offers suggestions from six contributors regarding a variety of classroom activities, including the use of high interest-low vocabulary books with gifted and average readers, an exercise in sequencing, a Halloween project to improve students' grammar, a technique to improve students' dictionary skills, and methods for helping students write books.…

  18. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Contains suggestions from six contributors, including the use of parents as an audience for beginning readers; outdoor activities to motivate readers; word order recognition exercise; a books-by-mail library service for rural students; using remedial students to read to younger children; and a language arts/social studies project. (FL)

  19. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Six contributors suggest ways to (1) improve handwriting, (2) help children choose reading materials, (3) develop sight vocabulary, (4) use phonics with ESL learners, (5) use Uninterrupted Sustained Silent Reading, and (6) teach reading comprehension. (FL)

  20. ACEE composite structures technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klotzsche, M. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Composite Primary Aircraft Structures Program has made significant progress in the development of technology for advanced composites in commercial aircraft. Commercial airframe manufacturers have demonstrated technology readiness and cost effectiveness of advanced composites for secondary and medium primary components and have initiated a concerted program to develop the data base required for efficient application to safety-of-flight wing and fuselage structures. Oral presentations were compiled into five papers. Topics addressed include: damage tolerance and failsafe testing of composite vertical stabilizer; optimization of composite multi-row bolted joints; large wing joint demonstation components; and joints and cutouts in fuselage structure.

  1. Geoscience terminology for data interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Workgroups formed by the Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a Commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) have been developing vocabulary resources to promote geoscience information exchange. The Multilingual Thesaurus Working Group (MLT) was formed in 2003 to continue work of the Multhes working group of the 1990s. The Concept Definition Task Group was formed by the CGI Interoperability Working Group in 2007 to develop concept vocabularies for populating GeoSciML interchange documents. The CGI council has determined that it will be more efficient and effective to merge the efforts of these groups and has formed a new Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG, http://www.cgi-iugs.org/tech_collaboration/geoscience_terminology_working_group.html). Each GTWG member will be expected to shepherd one or more vocabularies. There are currently 31 vocabularies in the CGI portfolio, developed for GeoSciML interchange documents (e.g. see http://resource.geosciml.org/ 201202/). Vocabulary development in both groups has been conducted first by gathering candidate terms in Excel spreadsheets because these are easy for text editing and review. When the vocabulary is mature, it is migrated into SKOS, an RDF application for encoding concepts with identifiers, definitions, source information, standard thesaurus type relationships, and language-localized labels. Currently there are 30 vocabularies still required for GeoSciML v3, and 38 proposed vocabularies for use with EarthResourceML (https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/CGIModel/EarthResourceML). In addition, a project to develop a lithogenetic map unit vocabulary to use for regional geologic map integration using OGC web map services is underway. Considerable work remains to be done to integrate multilingual geoscience terms developed by the MLT Working Group with existing CGI vocabularies to provide multilingual support, and to make the thesaurus compiled by the

  2. VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan; Kettenis, Mark; Phillips, Chris; Sekido, Mamoru

    2010-01-01

    One important outcome of the 7th International e-VLBI Workshop in Shanghai in June 2008 was the creation of a task force to study and recommend a universal VLBI data format that is suitable for both on-the-wire e-VLBI data transfer, as well as direct disk storage. This task force, called the VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) Task Force, is the first part of a two-part effort, the second of which will address standardization of e-VLBI data-transmission-protocols. The formation of the VDIF Task Force was prompted particularly by increased e-VLBI activity and the difficulties encountered when data arrive at a correlator in different formats from various instruments in various parts of the world. The task force created a streaming packetized data format that may be used for real-time and non-realtime e-VLBI, as well as direct disk storage. The data may contain multiple channels of time-sampled data with an arbitrary number of channels, arbitrary #bits/sample up to 32, and real or complex data; data rates in excess of 100 Gbps are supported. Each data packet is completely self-identifying via a short header, and data may be decoded without reference to any external information. The VDIF task force has completed its work, and the VDIF standard was ratified at the 2009 e-VLBI workshop in Madrid.

  3. Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara; Jonsson, Ari; Pasareanu, Corina; Simmons, Reid; Tso, Kam; Verma, Vandi

    2006-01-01

    Plan execution is a cornerstone of spacecraft operations, irrespective of whether the plans to be executed are generated on board the spacecraft or on the ground. Plan execution frameworks vary greatly, due to both different capabilities of the execution systems, and relations to associated decision-making frameworks. The latter dependency has made the reuse of execution and planning frameworks more difficult, and has all but precluded information sharing between different execution and decision-making systems. As a step in the direction of addressing some of these issues, a general plan execution language, called the Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL), is being developed. PLEXIL is capable of expressing concepts used by many high-level automated planners and hence provides an interface to multiple planners. PLEXIL includes a domain description that specifies command types, expansions, constraints, etc., as well as feedback to the higher-level decision-making capabilities. This document describes the grammar and semantics of PLEXIL. It includes a graphical depiction of this grammar and illustrative rover scenarios. It also outlines ongoing work on implementing a universal execution system, based on PLEXIL, using state-of-the-art rover functional interfaces and planners as test cases.

  4. Performance Enhancement of the Automated Concrete Evaluation System (ACES)

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgart,C.W.; Cave,S.P.; Linder,K.E.

    2002-02-14

    The objective of this proposed research is to improve and expand the detection and analysis capabilities of the automated, concrete evaluation (ACE) system. MoDOT and Honeywell jointly developed this system. The focus of this proposed research will be on the following: Coordination of concrete imaging efforts with other states, Validation and testing of the ACE system on a broad range of concrete samples, and Identification and development of software and hardware enhancements. These enhancements will meet the needs of diverse users in the field of concrete materials, construction, and research.

  5. Magnetic curvature effects on plasma interchange turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Liao, X.; Sun, C. K.; Ou, W.; Liu, D.; Gui, G.; Wang, X. G.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic curvature effects on plasma interchange turbulence and transport in the Z-pinch and dipole-like systems are explored with two-fluid global simulations. By comparing the transport levels in the systems with a different magnetic curvature, we show that the interchange-mode driven transport strongly depends on the magnetic geometry. For the system with large magnetic curvature, the pressure and density profiles are strongly peaked in a marginally stable state and the nonlinear evolution of interchange modes produces the global convective cells in the azimuthal direction, which lead to the low level of turbulent convective transport.

  6. Resistive interchange modes and plasma flow structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paccagnella, Roberto

    2011-10-01

    Interchange modes are ubiquitous in magnetic confinement systems and are likely to determine or influence their transport properties. For example a good agreement between theory predictions for linear interchange modes and experimental results has been found recently in a Reverse Field Pinch device. In this work a set of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) equations that describe the dynamical evolution for the pressure driven interchange modes in a magnetic confinement system are studied. Global and local solutions relevant for tokamaks and Reversed Field Pinches (RFPs) configurations are considered. The emphasis is especially in the characterization of the plasma flow structures associated with the dominant modes.

  7. Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2015-07-15

    The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.

  8. Limit Interchange and L'Hopital's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecker, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional application of these two calculus staples is stretched here, somewhat recreationally, but also to raise solid questions about the role of limit interchange in analysis--without, however, delving any deeper than first-year Calculus.

  9. Laboratory arc furnace features interchangeable hearths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. L.; Kruger, O. L.

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory arc furnace using rapidly interchangeable hearths gains considerable versatility in casting so that buttons or special shaped castings can be produced. It features a sight glass for observation.

  10. ACE to Ulysses Coherences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, D. J.; Maclennan, C. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2006-12-01

    The EPAM charged particle instrument on ACE is the backup for the HISCALE instrument on Ulysses making the two ideally suited for spatial coherence studies over large heliosphere distances. Fluxes of low-energy ( ~50 - 200 keV) electrons are detected in eight spatial sectors on both spacecraft. A spherical harmonic description of the particle flux as a function of time using only the l=0 and l=1 degree coefficients describes most of the observed flux. Here we concentrate on the three l=1 coefficients for the 60--100 kev electrons.Between the two spacecraft these result in nine coherence estimates that are all typically moderately coherent, but the fact that the different coefficients at each spacecraft are also coherent with each other makes interpretation difficult. To avoid this difficulty we estimated the canonical coherences between the two groups of three series. This, in effect, chooses an optimum coordinate system at each spacecraft and for each frequency and estimates the coherence in this frame. Using one--minute data, we find that the canonical coherences are generally larger at high frequencies (3 mHz and above) than they are at low frequencies. This appears to be generally true and does not depend particularly on time, range, etc. However, if the data segment is chosen too long, say > 30 days with 1--minute sampling, the coherence at high frequencies drops. This may be because the spatial and temporal features of the mode are confounded, or possibly because the solar modes p--modes are known to change frequency with solar activity, so do not appear coherent on long blocks.The coherences are not smooth functions of frequency, but have a bimodal distribution particularly in the 100 μHz to 5 mHz range. Classifying the data at frequencies where the canonical coherences are high in terms of apparent polarization and orientation, we note two major families of modes that appear to be organized by the Parker spiral. The magnetic field data on the two

  11. ALTUS Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Tony; Blakeslee, Richard; Russell, Larry W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ALTUS Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) is an uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV)-based project that will investigate thunderstorms in the vicinity of the Florida Everglades in August 2002. ACES is being conducted to both investigate storm electrical activity and its relationship to storm morphology, and validate Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite measurements. In addition, as part of NASA's UAV-based science demonstration program, this project will provide a scientifically useful demonstration of the utility and promise of UAV platforms for Earth science and applications observations. Part of the demonstration involves getting approvals from the Federal Aviation Administration and the NASA airworthiness flight safety review board. ACES will employ the ALTUS II aircraft, built by General Atomics - Aeronautical Systems, Inc. Key science objectives simultaneously addressed by ACES are to: (1) investigate lightning-storm relationships, (2) study storm electrical budgets, and (3) provide Lightning Imaging Sensor validation. The ACES payload, already developed and flown on ALTUS, includes electrical, magnetic, and optical sensors to remotely characterize the lightning activity and the electrical environment within and around thunderstorms. ACES will contribute important electrical and optical measurements not available from other sources. Also, the high altitude vantage point of the UAV observing platform (up to 55,000 feet) offers a useful 'cloud-top' perspective. By taking advantage of its slow flight speed (70 to 100 knots), long endurance, and high altitude flight, the ALTUS will be flown near, and when possible, above (but never into) thunderstorms for long periods of time, allowing investigations to be conducted over entire storm life cycles. In addition, concurrent ground-based observations will enable the UAV measurements to be more completely interpreted and evaluated in the context of the thunderstorm structure, evolution, and

  12. ACEE program rationale and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, W.S. Jr.; Petersen, R.H.

    1982-08-01

    The impact of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency program (ACEE) on commercial aviation is examined. In addition to the emphasis on air transport fuel efficiency, topics such as airline operating costs, air transport effects on U.S. trade, and fuel price forecasts are addressed. An overview of the program and its contribution to aviation technology is included.

  13. ISO/IEC's image interchange facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Christof; Hofmann, Georg R.

    1992-04-01

    This paper gives a technical description of the Image Interchange Facility (IIF), which comprises both a formate definition and a functional gateway specification. IIF is a part of the first International Image Processing and Interchange Standard (IPI), which is under elaboration by ISO/IEC JTC1/SC24. This paper reflects the related committee work performed up until January 1992. Considering the deficiencies and drawbacks of existing formats and current practices in exchanging digital images, the need for a new and more general approach to image interchange can be seen. This paper describes the requirements and design principles of the IIF data format and the IIF gateway. Furthermore, it explains the relation to the reference model for open communication (OSI) as well as the relation to the other parts of the IPI standard.

  14. Bioboxes: standardised containers for interchangeable bioinformatics software.

    PubMed

    Belmann, Peter; Dröge, Johannes; Bremges, Andreas; McHardy, Alice C; Sczyrba, Alexander; Barton, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Software is now both central and essential to modern biology, yet lack of availability, difficult installations, and complex user interfaces make software hard to obtain and use. Containerisation, as exemplified by the Docker platform, has the potential to solve the problems associated with sharing software. We propose bioboxes: containers with standardised interfaces to make bioinformatics software interchangeable.

  15. Bioboxes: standardised containers for interchangeable bioinformatics software.

    PubMed

    Belmann, Peter; Dröge, Johannes; Bremges, Andreas; McHardy, Alice C; Sczyrba, Alexander; Barton, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Software is now both central and essential to modern biology, yet lack of availability, difficult installations, and complex user interfaces make software hard to obtain and use. Containerisation, as exemplified by the Docker platform, has the potential to solve the problems associated with sharing software. We propose bioboxes: containers with standardised interfaces to make bioinformatics software interchangeable. PMID:26473029

  16. Focus on Nutrition. MCH Program Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This issue of the "MCH Program Interchange" describes selected materials and publications in maternal and child health (MCH) nutrition services and programs. The materials were developed by or are available from federal agencies, state and local public health agencies, and voluntary and professional organizations. The information is intended to…

  17. Online Social Interchange, Discord, and Knowledge Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanuka, Heather; Anderson, Terry

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of an exploratory multi-method evaluation study and transcript analysis of an online forum. Highlights include use of a constructivist interaction analysis model to help understand and assess online learning; social interchange; and social discord and knowledge construction. (Author/LRW)

  18. Interchange of Data Bases. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Rita G.; And Others

    This report describes the methods, developed by the American Institute of Physics in cooperation with Engineering Index, Inc., by which both organizations could reduce costs by eliminating duplication of keyboarding and indexing. The three sets of problems that confronted the interchange of their data bases (classification and indexing, formats,…

  19. ERIC Users' Interchange, February 1988-March 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC User's Interchange, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The Interchange newsletter is prepared semiannually by the staff of Access ERIC in order to communicate matters of interest to users of the ERIC database and of other ERIC products and services. The newsletter disseminates a broad spectrum of information pertaining to ERIC, including: price changes, microfiche products, ERIC Clearinghouse news,…

  20. Electronic Data Interchange: Selected Issues and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigand, Rolf T.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes electronic data interchange (EDI) as the application-to-application exchange of business documents in a computer-readable format. Topics discussed include EDI in various industries, EDI in finance and banking, organizational impacts of EDI, future EDI markets and organizations, and implications for information resources management.…

  1. Multifluid MHD Simulation of Saturn's Interchange Fingers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, N.; Rajendar, A.; Paty, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Saturn's magnetosphere exhibits rich dynamics that have only become apparent through recent missions such as the Cassini mission currently in progress. Examining local time variations in the magnetosphere has shown some interesting phenomena. One of the primary expressions of the dynamics we observe in Saturn's magnetosphere are plasma interchange fingers. These fingers carry hot plasma from the outer magnetosphere to the inner magnetosphere to balance magnetic flux lost due to outward radial transport of cold dense plasma sourced from the neutral cloud. This process leads to a mixing of hot and cold plasma throughout the magnetosphere. Understanding how mass interchange fingers form and quantifying how the plasma they contain is heated and transported will be important for understanding other dynamic processes occurring in the magnetosphere. In this study, we will be using our existing multifluid simulation of Saturn's magnetosphere in combination with data from the Cassini mission in order to investigate the formation of plasma interchange fingers and their dynamics. Our results will be compared with observations as well as previous modeling studies of Saturn's interchange fingers.

  2. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  3. 77 FR 46258 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... CFR Part 235 RIN 7100-AD 63 Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing AGENCY: Board of Governors of the... (Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing) that govern adjustments to debit card interchange transaction... methods. An issuer must notify its payment card networks annually that it complies with the Board's...

  4. Membrane-associated zinc peptidase families: comparing ACE and ACE2.

    PubMed

    Guy, J L; Lambert, D W; Warner, F J; Hooper, N M; Turner, A J

    2005-08-01

    In contrast to the relatively ubiquitous angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), expression of the mammalian ACE homologue, ACE2, was initially described in the heart, kidney and testis. ACE2 is a type I integral membrane protein with its active site domain exposed to the extracellular surface of endothelial cells and the renal tubular epithelium. Here ACE2 is poised to metabolise circulating peptides which may include angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor and the product of angiotensin I cleavage by ACE. To this end, ACE2 may counterbalance the effects of ACE within the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Indeed, ACE2 has been implicated in the regulation of heart and renal function where it is proposed to control the levels of angiotensin II relative to its hypotensive metabolite, angiotensin-(1-7). The recent solution of the structure of ACE2, and ACE, has provided new insight into the substrate and inhibitor profiles of these two key regulators of the RAS. As the complexity of this crucial pathway is unravelled, there is a growing interest in the therapeutic potential of agents that modulate the activity of ACE2.

  5. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchanges in low density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yimin; Goel, Deepak; Hassam, A.B.

    2005-03-01

    The ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations are usually derived under the assumption V{sub A}<interchange instabilities in 'line-tied' slab geometry as well as to centrifugally confined plasmas. It is found that interchange growth rates are reduced by a factor of 1+V{sub A}{sup 2}/c{sup 2}, corresponding to a larger effective mass resulting from the extra electromagnetic momentum. Line tying is unaffected.

  6. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  7. Peripheral Equipment Interchanges Bytes Of Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Robert B.

    1990-01-01

    Method for conversion of data formats between incompatible computers reduces conversion time by 80 percent. Transposes high and low bytes of word so data from computer A match storage format of computer B. Two interface circuit boards convert data. Such boards ordinarily used for communication between computers. In format-conversion application, cable connecting boards modified so high-8-bit and low-8-bit data lines interchanged with result data words in proper format for computer B.

  8. A reference model for scientific information interchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reich, Lou; Sawyer, Don; Davis, Randy

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an Information Interchange Reference Model (IIRM) currently being developed by individuals participating in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Panel 2, the Planetary Data Systems (PDS), and the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS). This is an ongoing research activity and is not an official position by these bodies. This reference model provides a framework for describing and assessing current and proposed methodologies for information interchange within and among the space agencies. It is hoped that this model will improve interoperability between the various methodologies. As such, this model attempts to address key information interchange issues as seen by the producers and users of space-related data and to put them into a coherent framework. Information is understood as the knowledge (e.g., the scientific content) represented by data. Therefore, concern is not primarily on mechanisms for transferring data from user to user (e.g., compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM), wide-area networks, optical tape, and so forth) but on how information is encoded as data and how the information content is maintained with minimal loss or distortion during transmittal. The model assumes open systems, which means that the protocols or methods used should be fully described and the descriptions publicly available. Ideally these protocols are promoted by recognized standards organizations using processes that permit involvement by those most likely to be affected, thereby enhancing the protocol's stability and the likelihood of wide support.

  9. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): MLT Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, Peter

    2010-05-01

    ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of numerous trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The primary instrument is a high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4400 cm-1). ACE was launched by NASA on 12 August 2003 for a nominal 2-year mission; after 6 years on orbit the ACE-FTS performance is still excellent. The first results of ACE have been presented in a special issue of Geophysics Research Letters (http://www.agu.org/journals/ss/ACECHEM1/) in 2005 and recently a special issue on ACE validation has been prepared for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/special_issue114.html) by K. Walker and K. Strong; more information can be found at http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca. The ACE mission goals were initially focussed mainly on polar ozone chemistry, and more recently have shifted more to the troposphere where organic pollutants such as methanol and formaldehyde have been detected. ACE makes limb observations from about 5 km (cloud free scenes) up to nearly 150 km in the lower thermosphere, where CO2 absorption is still weakly detectable. This talk will review ACE-FTS results in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Topics covered will include the mesospheric descent of NOx in the polar winter, spectra of polar mesospheric clouds, concentration profiles of CO2 (which do not match model predictions), and combined Odin-Osiris/ACE-FTS observations.

  10. Interchange of electronic design through VHDL and EIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Richard M.

    1987-10-01

    The need for both robust and unambiguous electronic designs is a direct requirement of the astonishing growth in design and manufacturing capability during recent years. In order to manage the plethora of designs, and have the design data both interchangeable and interoperable, the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program is developing two major standards for the electronic design community. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is designed to be the lingua franca for transmission of design data between designers and their environments. The Engineering Information System (EIS) is designed to ease the integration of data betweeen diverse design automation systems. This paper describes the rationale for the necessity for these two standards and how they provide a synergistic expressive capability across the macrocosm of design environments.

  11. Interchange of electronic design through VHDL and EIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    The need for both robust and unambiguous electronic designs is a direct requirement of the astonishing growth in design and manufacturing capability during recent years. In order to manage the plethora of designs, and have the design data both interchangeable and interoperable, the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program is developing two major standards for the electronic design community. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is designed to be the lingua franca for transmission of design data between designers and their environments. The Engineering Information System (EIS) is designed to ease the integration of data betweeen diverse design automation systems. This paper describes the rationale for the necessity for these two standards and how they provide a synergistic expressive capability across the macrocosm of design environments.

  12. Interchange Reconnection in a Turbulent Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection at the interface between coronal holes and loops, so-called interchange reconnection, can release the hotter, denser plasma from magnetically confined regions into the heliosphere, contributing to the formation of the highly variable slow solar wind. In the prevailing ``standard'' view the interchange process is thought to develop in null points (with B=0) preferably at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers, near Y and X-points, from where slow solar wind flows would originate. This standard model does not meet recent observations of slow wind streams from the edges of active regions, that suggest that slow streams are not limited to apex-regions near neutral points (B=0). Furthermore in order to account for the slow wind diffusion (~ 30 degrees) observed in situ around the Heliospheric Current Sheet, within the standard model framework one has to posit that the slow wind would originate from a small fraction, with a complex topology, of the whole coronal hole-loop boundary, namely narrow channels (supposedly at observationally sub-resolution scales) linking coronal holes. However, coronal heating models, with magnetic field lines shuffled by convective motions, show that reconnection can occur continuously in unipolar magnetic field regions with no neutral points. We propose that a similar alternate interchange mechanism operating near boundaries between open and closed regions induces a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivity everywhere along the open-closed boundary. We examine a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of a simplified unipolar interface region between open and closed corona. This boundary is not stationary, becomes fractal, and field lines change connectivity continuously, becoming alternatively open and closed. This model suggests that slow wind may originate everywhere along coronal loop-hole boundaries, a possibility that has major implications for coronal heating and models of the slow solar wind, and accounts

  13. Interchange Reconnection and Coronal Hole Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Lynch, B. J.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of magnetic reconnection between open and closed field, (often referred to as "interchange" reconnection), on the dynamics and topology of coronal hole boundaries. The most important and most prevalent 3D topology of the interchange process is that of a small-scale bipolar magnetic field interacting with a large-scale background field. We determine the evolution of such a magnetic topology by numerical solution of the fully 3D MHD equations in spherical coordinates. First, we calculate the evolution of a small-scale bipole that initially is completely inside an open field region and then is driven across a coronal hole boundary by photospheric motions. Next the reverse situation is calculated in which the bipole is initially inside the closed region and driven toward the coronal hole boundary. In both cases we find that the stress imparted by the photospheric motions results in deformation of the separatrix surface between the closed field of the bipole and the background field, leading to rapid current sheet formation and to efficient reconnection. When the bipole is inside the open field region, the reconnection is of the interchange type in that it exchanges open and closed field. We examine, in detail, the topology of the field as the bipole moves across the coronal hole boundary, and find that the field remains well-connected throughout this process. Our results imply that open flux cannot penetrate deeply into the closed field region below a helmet streamer and, hence, support the quasi-steady models in which open and closed flux remain topologically distinct. Our results also support the uniqueness hypothesis for open field regions as postulated by Antiochos et al. We discuss the implications of this work for coronal observations. Subject Headings: Sun: corona Sun: magnetic fields Sun: reconnection Sun: coronal hole

  14. Nuclear Propulsion Technical Interchange Meeting, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Propulsion Technical Interchange Meeting (NP-TIM-92) was sponsored and hosted by the Nuclear Propulsion Office at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The purpose of the meeting was to review the work performed in fiscal year 1992 in the areas of nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion technology development. These proceedings are a compilation of the presentations given at the meeting (many of the papers are presented in outline or viewgraph form). Volume 1 covers the introductory presentations and the system concepts and technology developments related to nuclear thermal propulsion.

  15. Interchangeable breech lock for glove boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonds, David Preston

    2015-11-24

    A breech lock for a glove box is provided that may be used to transfer one or more items into the glove box. The breech lock can be interchangeably installed in place of a plug, glove, or other device in a port or opening of a glove box. Features are provided to aid the removal of items from the breech lock by a gloved operator. The breech lock can be reused or, if needed, can be replaced with a plug, glove, or other device at the port or opening of the glove box.

  16. A drift model of interchange instability

    SciTech Connect

    Benilov, E. S.; Power, O. A.

    2007-08-15

    A set of asymptotic equations is derived, describing the dynamics of the flute mode in a magnetized plasma with cold ions, under a 'local' approximation (i.e., near a particular point). The asymptotic set is then used to calculate the growth rate of interchange instability in the slab model. It is shown that, unlike the magnetohydrodynamic ordering, the drift one allows instability to occur for either sign of the pressure gradient (i.e., for both 'bad' and 'good' curvature of the magnetic field). It is also demonstrated that finite beta gives rise to an extra instability that does not exist in the small-beta limit.

  17. Targeting the ACE2 and Apelin Pathways Are Novel Therapies for Heart Failure: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi-Bajestani, Seyyed M. R.; Patel, Vaibhav B.; Wang, Wang; Oudit, Gavin Y.

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/Ang II/Ang 1–7 and the apelin/APJ are two important peptide systems which exert diverse effects on the cardiovascular system. ACE2 is a key negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) where it metabolizes angiotensin (Ang) II into Ang 1–7, an endogenous antagonist of Ang II. Both the prolonged activation of RAS and the loss of ACE2 can be detrimental as they lead to functional deterioration of the heart and progression of cardiac, renal, and vascular diseases. Recombinant human ACE2 in an animal model of ACE2 knockout mice lowers Ang II. These interactions neutralize the pressor and subpressor pathologic effects of Ang II by producing Ang 1–7 levels in vivo, that might be cardiovascular protective. ACE2 hydrolyzes apelin to Ang II and, therefore, is responsible for the degradation of both peptides. Apelin has emerged as a promising peptide biomarker of heart failure. The serum level of apelin in cardiovascular diseases tends to be decreased. Apelin is recognized as an imperative controller of systemic blood pressure and myocardium contractility. Dysregulation of the apelin/APJ system may be involved in the predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, and enhancing apelin action may have important therapeutic effects. PMID:22655211

  18. Interchange instability of the Earth's plasmapause

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, T.S. ); Wolf, R.A.; Hill, T.W. )

    1990-10-01

    The authors reexamine the stability of low-frequency electrostatic waves with k {center dot} B = O at the plasmapause, using an extension of the procedure of Richmond (1973), an approach that is based on computing individual particle motions and includes the line-tying effect of the ionosphere. They derive expressions for the complex frequency as a function of wave number. The effect of the polarization (inertial) current accompanying the wave is included in an approximate way. The instabilities caused by the sharp change in plasma pressure at the plasmapause, but its growth rate is limited by ionospheric conductivity and, for very short wavelengths, by the inertia of the magnetospheric particles. The growth rate generally increases with decreasing ripple wavelength, until that wavelength becomes small compared to the thickness of the plasmapause. The ring current (hot and warm plasma) particles suppress wave growth significantly only for long wavelengths. According to the linear analysis, an interchange ripple with wavelength {approx lt} 2,000 km that forms on a sharp plasmapause ({approx lt} 0.1 R{sub E}) should grow by {approx gt} 10 e folds as it traverses the nightside of the Earth. This result is consistent with Richmond's (1973) conclusion that the interchange instability limits the thickness of the plasmapause on the nightside of the Earth.

  19. Advanced control evaluation for structures (ACES) programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Jerome; Waites, Henry

    1988-01-01

    The ACES programs are a series of past, present, and future activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Ground facility for Large Space Structure Control Verification (GF/LSSCV). The main objectives of the ACES programs are to implement control techniques on a series of complex dynamical systems, to determine the control/structure interaction for the control techniques, and to provide a national facility in which dynamics and control verification can be effected. The focus is on these objectives and how they are implemented under various engineering and economic constraints. Future plans that will be effected in upcoming ACES programs are considered.

  20. Analysis of genome rearrangement by block-interchanges.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chin Lung; Lin, Ying Chih; Huang, Yen Lin; Tang, Chuan Yi

    2007-01-01

    Block-interchanges are a new kind of genome rearrangements that affect the gene order in a chromosome by swapping two nonintersecting blocks of genes of any length. More recently, the study of such rearrangements is becoming increasingly important because of its applications in molecular evolution. Usually, this kind of study requires to solve a combinatorial problem, called the block-interchange distance problem, which is to find a minimum number of block-interchanges between two given gene orders of linear/circular chromosomes to transform one gene order into another. In this chapter, we shall introduce the basics of block-interchange rearrangements and permutation groups in algebra that are useful in analyses of genome rearrangements. In addition, we shall present a simple algorithm on the basis of permutation groups to efficiently solve the block-interchange distance problem, as well as ROBIN, a web server for the online analyses of block-interchange rearrangements.

  1. FIRE_ACE_ER2_MAS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    ... First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Cloud Experiment (ACE) NASA ER-2 Moderate Resolution Imaging ... SSFR Location:  Northern Alaska Arctic Ocean Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding ...

  2. ACE-FTS measurements of HCFC-22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolonjari, F.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Strahan, S.; McLinden, C. A.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Bernath, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    In the 1980s scientists discovered an annual springtime minimum in stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic. It was determined that the decline in ozone concentration was primarily caused by catalytic reactions of ozone and chlorine. The emissions of anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were determined to be major sources of the chlorine. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (with its subsequent amendments) restricts the emissions of ozone depleting substances. To fulfill the need for safe, stable replacements of CFCs, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) were developed. The use of HCFC-22 as a replacement has led to an increase in its atmospheric abundance. This is of concern due to its ozone depletion potential and its global warming potential. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a mission on-board the Canadian satellite SCISAT. The primary instrument on SCISAT is a high-resolution infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). With its wide spectral range, the ACE-FTS is capable of measuring an extensive range of gases including key CFC and HCFC species. The altitude distribution from the ACE-FTS profiles provides information that is complementary to the ground-based measurements that have been used to monitor these species. The global distribution of HCFC-22 has been computed from measurements by ACE-FTS. Both seasonal variations and an inter-hemispheric difference are observed. Additionally, a rapid increase in the global concentration of HCFC-22 has been observed since the start of the ACE mission in 2004. Comparisons to ground-based and air-borne measurements show good agreement with the ACE-FTS measurements. The global distributions of HCFC-22 have also been compared to a chemistry and transport model (CTM), the Global Modelling Initiative Combined Stratospheric-Tropospheric Model. There are distinct differences between the model results and ACE-FTS measurements. The causes and

  3. The Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The goals and measurement strategy of the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE) are described. ACE will help to answer fundamental science questions associated with aerosols, clouds, air quality and global ocean ecosystems. Specifically, the goals of ACE are: 1) to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions and to assess the impact of aerosols on the hydrological cycle and 2) determine Ocean Carbon Cycling and other ocean biological processes. It is expected that ACE will: narrow the uncertainty in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction and quantify the role of aerosols in climate change; measure the ocean ecosystem changes and precisely quantify ocean carbon uptake; and, improve air quality forecasting by determining the height and type of aerosols being transported long distances. Overviews are provided of the aerosol-cloud community measurement strategy, aerosol and cloud observations over South Asia, and ocean biology research goals. Instruments used in the measurement strategy of the ACE mission are also highlighted, including: multi-beam lidar, multiwavelength high spectra resolution lidar, the ocean color instrument (ORCA)--a spectroradiometer for ocean remote sensing, dual frequency cloud radar and high- and low-frequency micron-wave radiometer. Future steps for the ACE mission include refining measurement requirements and carrying out additional instrument and payload studies.

  4. Internet-based data interchange with XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, a complete concept for Internet Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) - a well-known buzzword in the area of logistics and supply chain management to enable the automation of the interactions between companies and their partners - using XML (eXtensible Markup Language) will be proposed. This approach is based on Internet and XML, because the implementation of traditional EDI (e.g. EDIFACT, ANSI X.12) is mostly too costly for small and medium sized enterprises, which want to integrate their suppliers and customers in a supply chain. The paper will also present the results of the implementation of a prototype for such a system, which has been developed for an industrial partner to improve the current situation of parts delivery. The main functions of this system are an early warning system to detect problems during the parts delivery process as early as possible, and a transport following system to pursue the transportation.

  5. Technical Report Interchange Through Synchronized OAI Caches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xiaming; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Tang, Rong; Padshah, Mohammad Imran; Roncaglia, George; Rocker, JoAnne; Nelson, Michael; vonOfenheim, William; Luce, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Report Interchange project is a cooperative experimental effort between NASA Langley Research Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Air Force Research Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory and Old Dominion University to allow for the integration of technical reports. This is accomplished using the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) and having each site cache the metadata from the other participating sites. Each site also implements additional software to ingest the OAI-PMH harvested metadata into their native digital library (DL). This allows the users at each site to see an increased technical report collection through the familiar DL interfaces and tale advantage of whatever valued added are provided by the native DL.

  6. INTERCHANGE RECONNECTION IN A TURBULENT CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M.

    2012-10-10

    Magnetic reconnection at the interface between coronal holes and loops, the so-called interchange reconnection, can release the hotter, denser plasma from magnetically confined regions into the heliosphere, contributing to the formation of the highly variable slow solar wind. The interchange process is often thought to develop at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers, near Y- and X-type neutral points, but slow streams with loop composition have been recently observed along fanlike open field lines adjacent to closed regions, far from the apex. However, coronal heating models, with magnetic field lines shuffled by convective motions, show that reconnection can occur continuously in unipolar magnetic field regions with no neutral points: photospheric motions induce a magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade in the coronal field that creates the necessary small scales, where a sheared magnetic field component orthogonal to the strong axial field is created locally and can reconnect. We propose that a similar mechanism operates near and around boundaries between open and closed regions inducing a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivity. We examine a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of a simplified interface region between open and closed corona threaded by a strong unipolar magnetic field. This boundary is not stationary, becomes fractal, and field lines change connectivity continuously, becoming alternatively open and closed. This model suggests that slow wind may originate everywhere along loop-coronal-hole boundary regions and can account naturally and simply for outflows at and adjacent to such boundaries and for the observed diffusion of slow wind around the heliospheric current sheet.

  7. Interchange Reconnection in a Turbulent Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection at the interface between coronal holes and loops, the so-called interchange reconnection, can release the hotter, denser plasma from magnetically confined regions into the heliosphere, contributing to the formation of the highly variable slow solar wind. The interchange process is often thought to develop at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers, near Y- and X-type neutral points, but slow streams with loop composition have been recently observed along fanlike open field lines adjacent to closed regions, far from the apex. However, coronal heating models, with magnetic field lines shuffled by convective motions, show that reconnection can occur continuously in unipolar magnetic field regions with no neutral points: photospheric motions induce a magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade in the coronal field that creates the necessary small scales, where a sheared magnetic field component orthogonal to the strong axial field is created locally and can reconnect. We propose that a similar mechanism operates near and around boundaries between open and closed regions inducing a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivity. We examine a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of a simplified interface region between open and closed corona threaded by a strong unipolar magnetic field. This boundary is not stationary, becomes fractal, and field lines change connectivity continuously, becoming alternatively open and closed. This model suggests that slow wind may originate everywhere along loop-coronal-hole boundary regions and can account naturally and simply for outflows at and adjacent to such boundaries and for the observed diffusion of slow wind around the heliospheric current sheet.

  8. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  9. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  10. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  11. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  12. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  13. Novel Theory of Energetic-Ion-Induced Interchange Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2015-06-01

    On the basis of a kinetic energy principle, it is shown that the interchange mode in helical systems is excited by trapped energetic ions, where the ideal interchange mode is stable. The mode has a rotation frequency comparable to precession drift frequencies of trapped energetic ions. The theory explains how to apply the fishbone mode theory originally developed in tokamaks to helical systems.

  14. High resolution critical habitat mapping and classification of tidal freshwater wetlands in the ACE Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Melissa Anne

    In collaboration with the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources ACE Basin National Estuarine Research Reserve (ACE Basin NERR), the tidal freshwater ecosystems along the South Edisto River in the ACE Basin are being accurately mapped and classified using a LIDAR-Remote Sensing Fusion technique that integrates LAS LIDAR data into texture images and then merges the elevation textures and multispectral imagery for very high resolution mapping. This project discusses the development and refinement of an ArcGIS Toolbox capable of automating protocols and procedures for marsh delineation and microhabitat identification. The result is a high resolution habitat and land use map used for the identification of threatened habitat. Tidal freshwater wetlands are also a critical habitat for colonial wading birds and an accurate assessment of community diversity and acreage of this habitat type in the ACE Basin will support SCDNR's conservation and protection efforts. The maps developed by this study will be used to better monitor the freshwater/saltwater interface and establish a baseline for an ACE NERR monitoring program to track the rates and extent of alterations due to projected environmental stressors. Preliminary ground-truthing in the field will provide information about the accuracy of the mapping tool.

  15. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Maslow, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.

  16. The GuideLine Interchange Format

    PubMed Central

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Gennari, John H.; Murphy, Shawn N.; Jain, Nilesh L.; Tu, Samson W.; Oliver, Diane E.; Pattison-Gordon, Edward; Greenes, Robert A.; Shortliffe, Edward H.; Barnett, G. Octo

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To allow exchange of clinical practice guidelines among institutions and computer-based applications. Design: The GuideLine Interchange Format (GLIF) specification consists of the GLIF model and the GLIF syntax. The GLIF model is an object-oriented representation that consists of a set of classes for guideline entities, attributes for those classes, and data types for the attribute values. The GLIF syntax specifies the format of the test file that contains the encoding. Methods: Researchers from the InterMed Collaboratory at Columbia University, Harvard University (Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital), and Stanford University analyzed four existing guideline systems to derive a set of requirements for guideline representation. The GLIF specification is a consensus representation developed through a brainstorming process. Four clinical guidelines were encoded in GLIF to assess its expressivity and to study the variability that occurs when two people from different sites encode the same guideline. Results: The encoders reported that GLIF was adequately expressive. A comparison of the encodings revealed substantial variability. Conclusion: GLIF was sufficient to model the guidelines for the four conditions that were examined. GLIF needs improvement in standard representation of medical concepts, criterion logic, temporal information, and uncertainty. PMID:9670133

  17. The role of ACE2 in cardiovascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Oudit, Gavin Y; Crackower, Michael A; Backx, Peter H; Penninger, Josef M

    2003-04-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is critically involved in cardiovascular and renal function and in disease conditions, and has been shown to be a far more complex system than initially thought. A recently discovered homologue of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)--ACE2--appears to negatively regulate the RAS. ACE2 cleaves Ang I and Ang II into the inactive Ang 1-9 and Ang 1-7, respectively. ACE2 is highly expressed in kidney and heart and is especially confined to the endothelium. With quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, ACE2 was defined as a QTL on the X chromosome in rat models of hypertension. In these animal models, kidney ACE2 messenger RNA and protein expression were markedly reduced, making ACE2 a candidate gene for this QTL. Targeted disruption of ACE2 in mice failed to elicit hypertension, but resulted in severe impairment in myocardial contractility with increased angiotensin II levels. Genetic ablation of ACE in the ACE2 null mice rescued the cardiac phenotype. These genetic data show that ACE2 is an essential regulator of heart function in vivo. Basal renal morphology and function were not altered by the inactivation of ACE2. The novel role of ACE2 in hydrolyzing several other peptides-such as the apelin peptides, opioids, and kinin metabolites-raises the possibility that peptide systems other than angiotensin and its derivatives also may have an important role in regulating cardiovascular and renal function.

  18. Flute-interchange stability in a hot electron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Several topics in the kinetic stability theory of flute-interchange modes in a hot electron plasma are discussed. The stability analysis of the hot-electron, curvature-driven flute-interchange mode, previously performed in a slab geometry, is extended to a cylindrical plasma. The cold electron concentration necessary for stability differs substantially from previous criteria. The inclusion of a finite temperature background plasma in the stability analysis results in an ion curvature-driven flute-interchange mode which may be stabilized by either hot-electron diamagnetic effects, hot-electron plasma density, or finite (ion) Larmor radius effects.

  19. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P.

    2003-04-01

    The ACE mission goals are: (1) to measure and to understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region; (2) to explore the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (3) to study the effects of biomass burning in the free troposphere; (4) to measure aerosol number density, size distribution and composition in order to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy balance. ACE will make a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols, and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) will give ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The solar occultation advantages are high sensitivity and self-calibration. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4100 cm-1) will measure the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. The ACE concept is derived from the now-retired ATMOS FTS instrument, which flew on the Space Shuttle in 1985, 1992, 1993, 1994. Climate-chemistry coupling may lead to the formation of an Arctic ozone hole. ACE will provide high quality data to confront these model predictions and will monitor polar chemistry as chlorine levels decline. The ACE-FTS can measure water vapor and HDO in the tropical tropopause region to study dehydration and strat-trop exchange. The molecular signatures of massive forest fires will evident in the ACE infrared spectra. The CO_2 in our spectra can be used to either retrieve atmospheric pressure or (if the instrument pointing knowledge proves to be satisfactory) for an independent retrieval of a CO_2 profile for carbon cycle science. Aerosols and clouds will be monitored using the extinction of solar

  20. Interchangeability of vortex-breakdown types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosaka, M.; Kikuchi, M.; Hirano, K.; Yuge, T.; Inoue, H.

    In order to investigate the connection between the bubble and the spiral form of vortex breakdown, experiments were conducted: an external disturbance in the form of an azimuthally spinning waveform was imposed in a pipe. The azimuthal wave number was varied by adjusting the phase difference among four oscillating pistons mounted circumferentially on the pipe. By imposing a disturbance of zero azimuthal wave number, a spiral was transformed into a bubble, and this occurred only for selective piston frequencies; the vortex breakdown which altered from the spiral to the bubble moved upstream, where it remained as a bubble as long as the external disturbance remained. Once the disturbance was removed, the bubble returned to a spiral. By imposing a disturbance of azimuthal wave number +1 (the first circumferential mode rotating in the same direction as the mean swirl), a bubble was transformed into a spiral for selective piston frequencies, and the spiral moved downstream. These preferred frequencies were found to be the same as the unexcited frequencies observed in the spiral in its natural state. As long as the external disturbance was imposed, the breakdown altered from the bubble to the spiral remained as a spiral; once the disturbance was removed, the spiral reverted to a bubble. By imposing a disturbance with azimuthal wave number -1 (the first circumferential mode rotating in the opposite direction to the mean swirl), no change was detected in either a bubble or a spiral. By imposing a disturbance with azimuthal wave number 2 (the second circumferential mode), for selective piston frequencies a bubble was transformed into what appears to be the so-called two-tailed type. Thus, it appears that hydrodynamic instability plays a role in interchanging vortex breakdown types, and a comparison with available stability theories is discussed.

  1. Advanced logic gates for ultrafast network interchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammed N.

    1995-08-01

    By overcoming speed bottlenecks from electronic switching as well as optical/electronic conversions, all-optical logic gates can permit further exploitation of the nearly 40 THz of bandwidth available from optical fibers. We focus on the use of optical solitons and all-optical logic gates to implement ultrafast ``interchanges'' or switching nodes on packet networks with speeds of 100 Gbit/s or greater. For example, all-optical logic gates have been demonstrated with speeds up to 200 Gbit/s, and they may be used to decide whether to add or drop a data packet. The overall goal of our effort is to demonstrate the key enabling technologies and their combination for header processing in 100 Gbit/s, time-division-multiplexed, packed switched networks. Soliton-based fiber logic gates are studied with the goal of combining attractive features of soliton-dragging logic gates, nonlinear loop mirrors, and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers to design logic gates with optimum switching energy, contrast ratio, and timing sensitivity. First, the experimental and numerical work studies low-latency soliton logic gates based on frequency shifts associated with cross-phase modulation. In preliminary experiments, switching in 15 m long low-birefringent fibers has been demonstrated with a contrast ratio of 2.73:1. Using dispersion-shifted fiber in the gate should lower the switching energy and improve the contrast ratio. Next, the low-birefringent fiber can be cross-spliced and wrapped into a nonlinear optical loop mirror to take advantage of mechanisms from both soliton dragging and loop mirrors. The resulting device can have low switching energy and a timing window that results from a combination of soliton dragging and the loop mirror mechanisms.

  2. Developing Communities: Serving ACE through Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofo, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the focus and practice of Adult and Community Education (ACE) as well as its conceptualization and delivery and to suggest parameters for an approach based on excellence, a balanced scorecard and performance to meet community needs. Design/methodology/approach: The review examines key aspects of the…

  3. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Chmiel, Alan J.; Eustace, John; LaBarbera, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Increment 43 - 44 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  4. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  5. Ace the Verbal on the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meierding, Loren

    2005-01-01

    Many students are not accepted in to certain colleges and universities because of low SAT scores. Loren Meierding has written Ace the Verbal on the SAT to help students with minimal preparation do well by improving their vocabulary and use better techniques for finding the answers to the questions. This book provides strategies needed to score…

  6. The Great American Biotic Interchange: Dispersals, Tectonics, Climate, Sea Level and Holding Pens

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The biotic and geologic dynamics of the Great American Biotic Interchange are reviewed and revised. Information on the Marine Isotope Stage chronology, sea level changes as well as Pliocene and Pleistocene vegetation changes in Central and northern South America add to a discussion of the role of climate in facilitating trans-isthmian exchanges. Trans-isthmian land mammal exchanges during the Pleistocene glacial intervals appear to have been promoted by the development of diverse non-tropical ecologies. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10914-010-9144-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21125025

  7. Cardiac and renal distribution of ACE and ACE-2 in rats with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Segev, Ravit; Francis, Bahaa; Abu-Saleh, Niroz; Awad, Hoda; Lazarovich, Aviva; Kabala, Aviva; Aronson, Doron; Abassi, Zaid

    2014-10-01

    Congestive heart failure is often associated with impaired kidney function. Over-activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) contributes to avid salt and water retention in heart failure. While the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), a key enzyme in the synthesis of angiotensin II (Ang II), is well established, the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2), an enzyme responsible for angiotensin 1-7 generation, is largely unknown. This issue is of a special interest since angiotensin 1-7 counteracts many of the proliferative and hypertensive effects of angiotensin II. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the expression of both enzymes in the kidney and heart of rats with heart failure. Heart failure (CHF) was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats (n=9) by the creation of a surgical aorto-caval fistula. Sham-operated rats served as controls (n=8). Two weeks after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and their hearts and kidneys were harvested for assessment of cardiac remodeling and ACE and ACE-2 immunoreactivity by immunohistochemical staining. ACE immunostaining was significantly increased in the kidneys (4.34 ± 0.39% vs. 2.96 ± 0.40%, P<0.05) and hearts (4.57 ± 0.54% vs. 2.19 ± 0.37%, P<0.01) of CHF rats as compared with their sham controls. In a similar manner, ACE-2 immunoreactivity was also elevated in the kidneys (4.65 ± 1.17% vs. 1.75 ± 0.29%, P<0.05) and hearts (5.48 ± 1.11% vs. 1.13 ± 0.26%, P<0.01) of CHF rats as compared with their healthy controls. This study showed that both ACE and ACE-2 are overexpressed in the cardiac and renal tissues of animals with heart failure as compared with their sham controls. The increased expression of the beneficial ACE-2 in heart failure may serve as a compensatory response to the over-activity of the deleterious isoform, namely, angiotensin converting enzyme 1(ACE-1).

  8. Validation of ozone measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, E.; Walker, K. A.; Kar, J.; Boone, C. D.; McElroy, C. T.; Bernath, P. F.; Drummond, J. R.; Skelton, R.; McLeod, S. D.; Hughes, R. C.; Nowlan, C. R.; Dufour, D. G.; Zou, J.; Nichitiu, F.; Strong, K.; Baron, P.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Blumenstock, T.; Bodeker, G. E.; Borsdorff, T.; Bourassa, A. E.; Bovensmann, H.; Boyd, I. S.; Bracher, A.; Brogniez, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Catoire, V.; Ceccherini, S.; Chabrillat, S.; Christensen, T.; Coffey, M. T.; Cortesi, U.; Davies, J.; de Clercq, C.; Degenstein, D. A.; de Mazière, M.; Demoulin, P.; Dodion, J.; Firanski, B.; Fischer, H.; Forbes, G.; Froidevaux, L.; Fussen, D.; Gerard, P.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Goutail, F.; Granville, J.; Griffith, D.; Haley, C. S.; Hannigan, J. W.; Höpfner, M.; Jin, J. J.; Jones, A.; Jones, N. B.; Jucks, K.; Kagawa, A.; Kasai, Y.; Kerzenmacher, T. E.; Kleinböhl, A.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Kramer, I.; Küllmann, H.; Kuttippurath, J.; Kyrölä, E.; Lambert, J.-C.; Livesey, N. J.; Llewellyn, E. J.; Lloyd, N. D.; Mahieu, E.; Manney, G. L.; Marshall, B. T.; McConnell, J. C.; McCormick, M. P.; McDermid, I. S.; McHugh, M.; McLinden, C. A.; Mellqvist, J.; Mizutani, K.; Murayama, Y.; Murtagh, D. P.; Oelhaf, H.; Parrish, A.; Petelina, S. V.; Piccolo, C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Randall, C. E.; Robert, C.; Roth, C.; Schneider, M.; Senten, C.; Steck, T.; Strandberg, A.; Strawbridge, K. B.; Sussmann, R.; Swart, D. P. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Taylor, J. R.; Tétard, C.; Thomason, L. W.; Thompson, A. M.; Tully, M. B.; Urban, J.; Vanhellemont, F.; Vigouroux, C.; von Clarmann, T.; von der Gathen, P.; von Savigny, C.; Waters, J. W.; Witte, J. C.; Wolff, M.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents extensive {bias determination} analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) instrument. Here we compare the latest ozone data products from ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO with coincident observations from nearly 20 satellite-borne, airborne, balloon-borne and ground-based instruments, by analysing volume mixing ratio profiles and partial column densities. The ACE-FTS version 2.2 Ozone Update product reports more ozone than most correlative measurements from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. At altitude levels from 16 to 44 km, the average values of the mean relative differences are nearly all within +1 to +8%. At higher altitudes (45-60 km), the ACE-FTS ozone amounts are significantly larger than those of the comparison instruments, with mean relative differences of up to +40% (about +20% on average). For the ACE-MAESTRO version 1.2 ozone data product, mean relative differences are within ±10% (average values within ±6%) between 18 and 40 km for both the sunrise and sunset measurements. At higher altitudes ( 35-55 km), systematic biases of opposite sign are found between the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise and sunset observations. While ozone amounts derived from the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise occultation data are often smaller than the coincident observations (with mean relative differences down to -10%), the sunset occultation profiles for ACE-MAESTRO show results that are qualitatively similar to ACE-FTS, indicating a large positive bias (mean relative differences within +10 to +30%) in the 45-55 km altitude range. In contrast, there is no significant systematic difference in bias found for the ACE-FTS sunrise and sunset measurements.

  9. Validation of ozone measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, E.; Walker, K. A.; Kar, J.; Boone, C. D.; McElroy, C. T.; Bernath, P. F.; Drummond, J. R.; Skelton, R.; McLeod, S. D.; Hughes, R. C.; Nowlan, C. R.; Dufour, D. G.; Zou, J.; Nichitiu, F.; Strong, K.; Baron, P.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Blumenstock, T.; Bodeker, G. E.; Borsdorff, T.; Bourassa, A. E.; Bovensmann, H.; Boyd, I. S.; Bracher, A.; Brogniez, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Catoire, V.; Ceccherini, S.; Chabrillat, S.; Christensen, T.; Coffey, M. T.; Cortesi, U.; Davies, J.; de Clercq, C.; Degenstein, D. A.; de Mazière, M.; Demoulin, P.; Dodion, J.; Firanski, B.; Fischer, H.; Forbes, G.; Froidevaux, L.; Fussen, D.; Gerard, P.; Godin-Beekman, S.; Goutail, F.; Granville, J.; Griffith, D.; Haley, C. S.; Hannigan, J. W.; Höpfner, M.; Jin, J. J.; Jones, A.; Jones, N. B.; Jucks, K.; Kagawa, A.; Kasai, Y.; Kerzenmacher, T. E.; Kleinböhl, A.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Kramer, I.; Küllmann, H.; Kuttippurath, J.; Kyrölä, E.; Lambert, J.-C.; Livesey, N. J.; Llewellyn, E. J.; Lloyd, N. D.; Mahieu, E.; Manney, G. L.; Marshall, B. T.; McConnell, J. C.; McCormick, M. P.; McDermid, I. S.; McHugh, M.; McLinden, C. A.; Mellqvist, J.; Mizutani, K.; Murayama, Y.; Murtagh, D. P.; Oelhaf, H.; Parrish, A.; Petelina, S. V.; Piccolo, C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Randall, C. E.; Robert, C.; Roth, C.; Schneider, M.; Senten, C.; Steck, T.; Strandberg, A.; Strawbridge, K. B.; Sussmann, R.; Swart, D. P. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Taylor, J. R.; Tétard, C.; Thomason, L. W.; Thompson, A. M.; Tully, M. B.; Urban, J.; Vanhellemont, F.; von Clarmann, T.; von der Gathen, P.; von Savigny, C.; Waters, J. W.; Witte, J. C.; Wolff, M.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents extensive validation analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) instrument. The ACE satellite instruments operate in the mid-infrared and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectral regions using the solar occultation technique. In order to continue the long-standing record of solar occultation measurements from space, a detailed quality assessment is required to evaluate the ACE data and validate their use for scientific purposes. Here we compare the latest ozone data products from ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO with coincident observations from satellite-borne, airborne, balloon-borne and ground-based instruments, by analysing volume mixing ratio profiles and partial column densities. The ACE-FTS version 2.2 Ozone Update product reports more ozone than most correlative measurements from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. At altitude levels from 16 to 44 km, the mean differences range generally between 0 and +10% with a slight but systematic positive bias (typically +5%). At higher altitudes (45-60 km), the ACE-FTS ozone amounts are significantly larger than those of the comparison instruments by up to ~40% (typically +20%). For the ACE-MAESTRO version 1.2 ozone data product, agreement within ±10% (generally better than ±5%) is found between 18 and 40 km for the sunrise and sunset measurements. At higher altitudes (45-55 km), systematic biases of opposite sign are found between the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise and sunset observations. While ozone amounts derived from the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise occultation data are often smaller than the coincident observations (by as much as -10%), the sunset occultation profiles for ACE-MAESTRO show results that are qualitatively similar to ACE-FTS and indicate a large positive bias (+10 to +30

  10. An Assessment for Learning System Called ACED: Designing for Learning Effectiveness and Accessibility. Research Report. ETS RR-07-26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Valerie J.; Hansen, Eric G.; Almond, Russell G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a 3-year, NSF-funded research and development project called ACED: Adaptive Content with Evidence-based Diagnosis. The purpose of the project was to design, develop, and evaluate an assessment for learning (AfL) system for diverse students, using Algebra I content related to geometric sequences (i.e., successive numbers…

  11. Evaluation of a Web-Based Professional Development Program (Project ACE) for Teachers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakap, Salih; Jones, Hazel A.; Emery, Alice Kaye

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, and second-year evaluation of Project Autism Competencies for Endorsement (ACE), a web-based professional development (PD) program that is designed to train teachers currently working in the field to meet the unique and diverse needs of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A…

  12. Renewable Generation Effect on Net Regional Energy Interchange: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, Victor; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas; Margolis, Robert

    2015-07-30

    Using production-cost model (PLEXOS), we simulate the Western Interchange (WECC) at several levels of the yearly renewable energy (RE) generation, between 13% and 40% of the total load for the year. We look at the overall energy exchange between a region and the rest of the system (net interchange, NI), and find it useful to examine separately (i) (time-)variable and (ii) year-average components of the NI. Both contribute to inter-regional energy exchange, and are affected by wind and PV generation in the system. We find that net load variability (in relatively large portions of WECC) is the leading factor affecting the variable component of inter-regional energy exchange, and the effect is quantifiable: higher regional net load correlation with the rest of the WECC lowers net interchange variability. Further, as the power mix significantly varies between WECC regions, effects of ‘flexibility import’ (regions ‘borrow’ ramping capability) are also observed.

  13. AFL and FRL: abstraction and representation for field interchange.

    PubMed

    Tsafnat, Guy; Cloherty, Shaun L; Lambert, Tim D

    2004-01-01

    The holy grail of biomedical modelling is an integrated model of the entire human body. To this end, research groups around the world need to interchange experimental data, models and model results. A good interchange will have an efficient representation for storage and sharing and will have tools for modelling, data verification, authoring, data conversions and so on. A field is a spatially varying properly. In this paper we present the abstract field layer (AFL) and the field representation language (FRL). The AFL provides the field abstraction together with a set of common field operations. The FRL provides an efficient means for field representation and storage. We show how fields can be used to interchange information between modelling systems and between modelling and visualisation systems. We are currently developing a software system that composes multiple single cell solvers to create a tissue solver. PMID:17271571

  14. The formation of blobs from a pure interchange process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, P.; Sovinec, C. R.; Hegna, C. C.

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we focus on examining a pure interchange process in a shear-less slab configuration as a prototype mechanism for blob formation. We employ full magnetohydrodynamic simulations to demonstrate that the blob-like structures can emerge through the nonlinear development of a pure interchange instability originating from a pedestal-like transition region. In the early nonlinear stage, filamentary structures develop and extend in the direction of the effective gravity. The blob-like structures appear when the radially extending filaments break off and disconnect from the core plasma. The morphology and the dynamics of these filaments and blobs vary dramatically with a sensitive dependence on the dissipation mechanisms in the system and the initial perturbation. Despite the complexity in morphology and dynamics, the nature of the entire blob formation process in the shear-less slab configuration remains strictly interchange without involving any change in magnetic topology.

  15. Weakening of magnetohydrodynamic interchange instabilities by Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Benilov, E. S.; Hassam, A. B.

    2008-02-15

    Alfven waves, made to propagate along an ambient magnetic field and polarized transverse to a gravitational field g, with wave amplitude stratified along g, are shown to reduce the growth rate of interchange instability by increasing the effective inertia by a factor of 1+(B{sub y}{sup '}/B{sub z}k{sub z}){sup 2}, where B{sub z} is the ambient magnetic field, k{sub z} is the wavenumber, and B{sub y}{sup '} is the wave amplitude shear. Appropriately placed Alfven wave power could thus be used to enhance the stability of interchange and ballooning modes in tokamaks and other interchange-limited magnetically confined plasmas.

  16. Regulation of the centrifugal interchange cycle in Saturn's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidder, A.; Winglee, R. M.; Harnett, E. M.

    2009-02-01

    Multifluid modeling of Saturn's magnetosphere produces the first numerical simulation showing the development of hot, tenuous plasma from the plasma sheet interchanging with cold, denser plasma from the inner magnetosphere. Individual injection events are seen regularly by Cassini, but with a single observation it is impossible to determine the global distribution. Multifluid simulations enable us to characterize the growth and development of not merely one injection event but show that it is a global process dependent on both the plasma distribution of ions from Enceladus and forcing by solar wind conditions. Development of the interchange arises in a fashion similar to a Rayleigh-Taylor instability, except that the heavy ions are being driven outward not by gravity but by centrifugal forces. Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) parallel to the planetary magnetic field reduces centrifugal forcing, whereas antiparallel IMF increases the forcing, by altering the bowl-like shape of the plasma sheet. However, the interchange instability also develops under normally quiet parallel IMF conditions when the mass loading of the Enceladus torus is increased. The total number of interchange events is 1-2 higher for the antiparallel case versus the increased mass case. Interchange develops in the vicinity of 7 RS, and once the fingers of cold plasma reach ~12-14 RS (close to the inner edge of the plasma sheet) they spread in the azimuthal direction, because of the fact that the magnetic field is too weak to keep the fingers solidly locked in rotation. The derived energy characteristics of the interchanging plasma are shown to be consistent with Cassini data.

  17. Volume interchange factors for hypersonic vehicle wake radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. K.; Babikian, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    Volume interchange factors are shown to be convenient in modeling the radiative processes in the wake of a hypersonic vehicle. Use of the factors facilitates calculating not just the radiative heating rates on afterbody surfaces but also the radiative de-excitation rates from stimulated emission and re-excitation rates from absorption in rarefied nonequilibrium flows. Sample calculations of volume interchange factors are presented for volume configurations modeling wake elements, and the numerical results are compared to limiting approximations to clarify the operation of the emission, transmission, and absorption processes.

  18. Human intestine luminal ACE2 and amino acid transporter expression increased by ACE-inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vuille-dit-Bille, Raphael N; Camargo, Simone M; Emmenegger, Luca; Sasse, Tom; Kummer, Eva; Jando, Julia; Hamie, Qeumars M; Meier, Chantal F; Hunziker, Schirin; Forras-Kaufmann, Zsofia; Kuyumcu, Sena; Fox, Mark; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Lindenmeyer, Maja; Götze, Oliver; Verrey, François

    2015-04-01

    Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) and imino acid (proline) transporter SIT1 (SLC6A20) are expressed at the luminal membrane of small intestine enterocytes and proximal tubule kidney cells where they exert key functions for amino acid (re)absorption as documented by their role in Hartnup disorder and iminoglycinuria, respectively. Expression of B(0)AT1 was shown in rodent intestine to depend on the presence of the carboxypeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This enzyme belongs to the renin-angiotensin system and its expression is induced by treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) in many rodent tissues. We show here in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system that human ACE2 also functionally interacts with SIT1. To investigate in human intestine the potential effect of ACEIs or ARBs on ACE2, we analysed intestinal biopsies taken during routine gastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy from 46 patients of which 9 were under ACEI and 13 ARB treatment. Analysis of transcript expression by real-time PCR and of proteins by immunofluorescence showed a co-localization of SIT1 and B(0)AT1 with ACE2 in the brush-border membrane of human small intestine enterocytes and a distinct axial expression pattern of the tested gene products along the intestine. Patients treated with ACEIs displayed in comparison with untreated controls increased intestinal mRNA levels of ACE2, peptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) and AA transporters B(0)AT1 and PAT1 (SLC36A1). This study unravels in human intestine the localization and distribution of intestinal transporters involved in amino acid absorption and suggests that ACEIs impact on their expression.

  19. The role of IL-4 gene 70 bp VNTR and ACE gene I/D variants in Familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Serbülent; Tural, Sengul; Tekcan, Akın; Tasliyurt, Turker; Inanir, Ahmet; Uzunkaya, Süheyla; Kismali, Gorkem

    2014-05-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and inflammation in the peritoneum, synovium, or pleura, accompanied by pain. It is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the MEFV (MEditerranean FeVer) gene. Patients with similar genotypes exhibit phenotypic diversity. As a result, the variations in different genes could be responsible for the clinical findings of this disease. In previous studies genes encoding Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) and IL-4 (Interleukin-4) were found to be associated with rheumatologic and autoimmune diseases. In the present study we hypothesized whether ACE I/D or IL-4 70 bp variable tandem repeats (VNTR) genes are associated with FMF and its clinical findings in Turkish patients. Genomic DNA obtained from 670 persons (339 patients with FMF and 331 healthy controls) was used in the study. Genotypes for an ACE gene I/D polymorphism and IL-4 gene 70 bp VNTR were determined by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining ACE gene I/D polymorphism and IL-4 gene 70 bp VNTR polymorphism in FMF patients. As a result, there was a statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to genotype distribution (p<0.001). According to our results, ACE gene DD genotype was associated with an increased risk in FMF [p<0.001; OR (95%): 7.715 (4.503-13.22)]. When we examined ACE genotype frequencies according to the clinical characteristics, we found a statistically significant association between DD+ID genotype and fever (p=0.04). In addition IL-4 gene P1P1 genotype was associated with FMF (p<0.001). We propose that D allele or DD genotype of ACE gene and P1 allele or P1P1 genotype of IL-4 gene may be important molecular markers for susceptibility of FMF.

  20. Unraveling the Pivotal Role of Bradykinin in ACE Inhibitor Activity.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Stefano; Bortolotto, L

    2016-10-01

    Historically, the first described effect of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor was an increased activity of bradykinin, one of the substrates of ACE. However, in the subsequent years, molecular models describing the mechanism of action of ACE inhibitors in decreasing blood pressure and cardiovascular risk have focused mostly on the renin-angiotensin system. Nonetheless, over the last 20 years, the importance of bradykinin in regulating vasodilation, natriuresis, oxidative stress, fibrinolysis, inflammation, and apoptosis has become clearer. The affinity of ACE appears to be higher for bradykinin than for angiotensin I, thereby suggesting that ACE inhibitors may be more effective inhibitors of bradykinin degradation than of angiotensin II production. Data describing the effect of ACE inhibition on bradykinin signaling support the hypothesis that the most cardioprotective benefits attributed to ACE inhibition may be due to increased bradykinin signaling rather than to decreased angiotensin II signaling, especially when high dosages of ACE inhibitors are considered. In particular, modulation of bradykinin in the endothelium appears to be a major target of ACE inhibition. These new mechanistic concepts may lead to further development of strategies enhancing the bradykinin signaling. PMID:27260014

  1. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU 3) Technical Interchange Meeting: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU III) Technical Interchange Meeting, February 11-12, 1999, hosted by the Lockheed Martin Astronautics Waterton Facility, Denver, Colorado. Administration and publication support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  2. 46 CFR 535.305 - Equipment interchange agreements-exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment interchange agreements-exemption. 535.305 Section 535.305 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  3. Mosholu Parkway overpass at the Mosholu Parkway interchange, looking northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Mosholu Parkway overpass at the Mosholu Parkway interchange, looking northeast. This is the last bridge on the Henry Hudson Parkway and 0.5 mile from its terminus at the Westchester County line. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  4. Knowledge Representation Standards and Interchange Formats for Causal Graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throop, David R.; Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land

    2005-01-01

    In many domains, automated reasoning tools must represent graphs of causally linked events. These include fault-tree analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), planning, procedures, medical reasoning about disease progression, and functional architectures. Each of these fields has its own requirements for the representation of causation, events, actors and conditions. The representations include ontologies of function and cause, data dictionaries for causal dependency, failure and hazard, and interchange formats between some existing tools. In none of the domains has a generally accepted interchange format emerged. The paper makes progress towards interoperability across the wide range of causal analysis methodologies. We survey existing practice and emerging interchange formats in each of these fields. Setting forth a set of terms and concepts that are broadly shared across the domains, we examine the several ways in which current practice represents them. Some phenomena are difficult to represent or to analyze in several domains. These include mode transitions, reachability analysis, positive and negative feedback loops, conditions correlated but not causally linked and bimodal probability distributions. We work through examples and contrast the differing methods for addressing them. We detail recent work in knowledge interchange formats for causal trees in aerospace analysis applications in early design, safety and reliability. Several examples are discussed, with a particular focus on reachability analysis and mode transitions. We generalize the aerospace analysis work across the several other domains. We also recommend features and capabilities for the next generation of causal knowledge representation standards.

  5. Sample interchange of MST radar data from the Urbana radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A.; Rennier, A.

    1984-01-01

    As a first step in interchange of data from the Urbana mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar, a sample tape has been prepared in 9-track 1600-bpi IBM format. It includes all Urbana data for April 1978 (the first month of operation of the radar). The 300-ft tape contains 260 h of typical mesospheric power and line-of-sight velocity data.

  6. 75 FR 81721 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... programs and reloadable, general-use prepaid cards not marketed or labeled as a gift card or certificate...., supermarkets and card-not-present transactions) \\13\\ to gain increased acceptance in those markets. Until 2003... System 12 CFR Part 235 Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...

  7. NASA/DOD Flight Experiments Technical Interchange Meeting Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Flight Experiments Technical Interchange Meeting held in Monterey California, October 5-9, 1992. Technical sessions 4 through 8 addressing space structures, propulsion, space power systems, space environments and effects, and space operations are covered. Many of the papers are presented in outline and viewgraph form.

  8. Arctic warming will promote Atlantic-Pacific fish interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisz, M. S.; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, P.; Møller, P. R.; Olsen, S. M.; Swingedouw, D.; Hedeholm, R. B.; Nielsen, E. E.; Guisan, A.; Pellissier, L.

    2015-03-01

    Throughout much of the Quaternary Period, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North Atlantic from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating the interchange of marine biota between the two seas. Here, we forecast the potential northward progression of 515 fish species following climate change, and report the rate of potential species interchange between the Atlantic and the Pacific via the Northwest Passage and the Northeast Passage. For this, we projected niche-based models under climate change scenarios and simulated the spread of species through the passages when climatic conditions became suitable. Results reveal a complex range of responses during this century, and accelerated interchange after 2050. By 2100 up to 41 species could enter the Pacific and 44 species could enter the Atlantic, via one or both passages. Consistent with historical and recent biodiversity interchanges, this exchange of fish species may trigger changes for biodiversity and food webs in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, with ecological and economic consequences to ecosystems that at present contribute 39% to global marine fish landings.

  9. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for Libraries and Publishers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santosuosso, Joe

    1992-01-01

    Defines electronic data interchange (EDI) as the exchange of data between computer systems without human intervention or interpretation. Standards are discussed; and the implementation of EDI in libraries and the serials publishing community in the areas of orders and acquisitions, claims, and invoice processing is described. (LRW)

  10. The Implications of a Mixed Media Network for Information Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, John W.

    A mixed media network for information interchange is what we are always likely to have. Amid the current permutations of the storage and distribution media we see the emergence of two trends -- toward the common denominators of electronic display on the TV system and of digital processing and control. The economic implications of a mixed network…

  11. Electronic Data Interchange: Using Technology to Exchange Transcripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John T.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Florida Automated System for Transferring Educational Records (FASTER) project, which permits the electronic exchange of student transcripts; uses of similar electronic data interchange (EDI) programs in other states; and the national SPEEDE/ExPRESS project, which uses a standard format for transferring electronic transcripts.…

  12. On Ideal Stability of Cylindrical Localized Interchange Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Umansky, M V

    2007-05-15

    Stability of cylindrical localized ideal pressure-driven interchange plasma modes is revisited. Converting the underlying eigenvalue problem into the form of the Schroedinger equation gives a new simple way of deriving the Suydam stability criterion and calculating the growth rates of unstable modes. Near the marginal stability limit the growth rate is exponentially small and the mode has a double-peak structure.

  13. Multiphysics Applications of ACE3P

    SciTech Connect

    K.H. Lee, C. Ko, Z. Li, C.-K. Ng, L. Xiao, G. Cheng, H. Wang

    2012-07-01

    The TEM3P module of ACE3P, a parallel finite-element electromagnetic code suite from SLAC, focuses on the multiphysics simulation capabilities, including thermal and mechanical analysis for accelerator applications. In this pa- per, thermal analysis of coupler feedthroughs to supercon- ducting rf (SRF) cavities will be presented. For the realistic simulation, internal boundary condition is implemented to capture RF heating effects on the surface shared by a di- electric and a conductor. The multiphysics simulation with TEM3P matched the measurement within 0.4%.

  14. Extended MHD Study of Interchange Modes in Spheromaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Eric C.

    Extended MHD effects on pressure driven interchange modes are studied in decaying spheromak equilibria. Equilibria at conditions relevant to high temperature SSPX [Hooper et al., Nucl. Fus. 1999] discharges are ideal interchange unstable. Extended MHD introduces drifts which have a stabilizing effect, reducing the linear growth rate, on the high-n modes. However, extended MHD has a mixed effect on the low-n modes. The low- n modes have the greatest impact on confinement. In some cases extended MHD is destabilizing, increasing the growth rate, while in other cases extended MHD is stabilizing. A cylindrical screw-pinch model that approximates decaying spheromaks, is studied to better understand the lack of stabilization on the low- n modes. The extended MHD effects reduce the growth rate at small Hall parameter, but a second instability exists at finite Hall parameter. The second mode grows at a rate comparable to the MHD interchange mode. The diamagnetic heat flux has an important stabilizing effect, delaying the onset of the second mode. In calculations that neglect the diamagnetic heat flux, the second mode is dominant at experimentally relevant Hall parameters, and its growth rate exceeds the MHD growth rate. However, including the diamagnetic heat flux delays the onset of the second mode. Here significant stabilization is observed at experiential conditions for Suydam parameters D s<1. This is four times the marginal ideal stable condition. An extended MHD dispersion relation for the gravitational interchange mode [Zhu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008] is analyzed to understand the nature of the second instability. The inclusion of the two-fluid Ohm's law introduces an ion drift wave. The ion drift wave can interact with the gravitational interchange mode producing a second instability.

  15. Sex Hormones Promote Opposite Effects on ACE and ACE2 Activity, Hypertrophy and Cardiac Contractility in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dalpiaz, P. L. M.; Lamas, A. Z.; Caliman, I. F.; Ribeiro, R. F.; Abreu, G. R.; Moyses, M. R.; Andrade, T. U.; Gouvea, S. A.; Alves, M. F.; Carmona, A. K.; Bissoli, N. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in sex differences and RAS components. However, whether gender influences cardiac angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity is still unknown. In the present work, we determined the relationship between ACE and ACE2 activity, left ventricular function and gender in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Methodology / Principal Findings Twelve-week-old female (F) and male (M) SHRs were divided into 2 experimental groups (n = 7 in each group): sham (S) and gonadectomized (G). Fifty days after gonadectomy, we measured positive and negative first derivatives (dP/dt maximum left ventricle (LV) and dP/dt minimum LV, respectively), hypertrophy (morphometric analysis) and ACE and ACE2 catalytic activity (fluorimetrically). Expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot. Male rats exhibited higher cardiac ACE and ACE2 activity as well as hypertrophy compared to female rats. Orchiectomy decreased the activity of these enzymes and hypertrophy, while ovariectomy increased hypertrophy and ACE2, but did not change ACE activity. For cardiac function, the male sham group had a lower +dP/dt than the female sham group. After gonadectomy, the +dP/dt increased in males and reduced in females. The male sham group had a lower -dP/dt than the female group. After gonadectomy, the -dP/dt increased in the male and decreased in the female groups when compared to the sham group. No difference was observed among the groups in SERCA2a protein expression. Gonadectomy increased protein expression of PLB (phospholamban) and the PLB to SERCA2a ratio in female rats, but did not change in male rats. Conclusion Ovariectomy leads to increased cardiac hypertrophy, ACE2 activity, PLB expression and PLB to SERCA2a ratio, and worsening of hemodynamic variables, whereas in males the removal of testosterone has the opposite effects on RAS components. PMID:26010093

  16. ACE: A Collaborative School Consultation Program for Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Caroline; Massé, Line

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a description of ACE (Accompagnement collaboratif des enseignants (Collaborative teacher accompaniment)), a new program designed to guide secondary school teachers in integrating students with behavioral problems in their classrooms. ACE proposes collaborative accompaniment inspired by behavioral and mental health…

  17. ACE and AGTR1 polymorphisms in elite rhythmic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Alessandra; Sapere, Nadia; Piazza, Marina; Aquino, Giovanna; Iuliano, Enzo; Intrieri, Mariano; Calcagno, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    In the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, Alu deletion, in intron 16, is associated with higher concentrations of ACE serum activity and this may be associated with elite sprint and power performance. The Alu insertion is associated with lower ACE levels and this could lead to endurance performance. Moreover, recent studies have identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor gene AGTR1, which seems to be related to ACE activity. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the ACE and the AGTR1 gene polymorphisms in 28 Italian elite rhythmic gymnasts (age range 21 ± 7.6 years), and compare them to 23 middle level rhythmic gymnasts (age range 17 ± 10.9 years). The ACE D allele was significantly more frequent in elite athletes than in the control population (χ(2)=4.07, p=0.04). Comparisons between the middle level and elite athletes revealed significant differences (p<0.0001) for the ACE DD genotype (OR=6.48, 95% confidence interval=1.48-28.34), which was more frequent in elite athletes. There were no significant differences in the AGTR1 A/C genotype or allele distributions between the middle level and elite athletes. In conclusion, the ACE D allele genotype could be a contributing factor to high-performance rhythmic gymnastics that should be considered in athlete development and could help to identify which skills should be trained for talent promotion. PMID:23145508

  18. Desert Dust Layers Over Polluted Marine Boundary Layers: ACE-2 Measurements and ACE-Asia Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Aerosols in ACE-Asia are expected to have some commonalties with those in ACE-2, along with important differences. Among the commonalities are occurrences of desert dust layers over polluted marine boundary layers. Differences include the nature of the dust (yellowish in the East Asia desert outflow, vs. reddish-brown in the Sahara Outflow measured in ACE-2) and the composition of boundary-layer aerosols (e.g., more absorbing, soot and organic aerosol in-the Asian plume, caused by coal and biomass burning, with limited controls). In this paper we present ACE-2 measurements and analyses as a guide to our plans for ACE-2 Asia. The measurements include: (1) Vertical profiles of aerosol optical depth and extinction (380-1558 nm), and of water vapor column and concentration, from the surface through the elevated desert dust, measured by the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14); (2) Comparisons of airborne and shipborne sunphotometer optical depths to satellite-retrieved values, with and without desert dust; (3) Comparisons between airborne Sunphotometer optical depth and extinction spectra and those derived from coincident airborne in situ measurements of aerosol size distribution, scattering and absorption; (4) Comparisons between size distributions measured in situ and retrieved from sunphotometer optical depth spectra; (5) Comparisons between aerosol single scattering albedo values obtained by several techniques, using various combinations of measurements of backscatter, extinction, size distribution, scattering, absorption, and radiative flux. We show how analyses of these data can be used to address questions important to ACE-Asia, such as: (1) How do dust and other absorbing aerosols affect the accuracy of satellite optical depth retrievals? How important are asphericity effects? (2) How important are supermicron dust and seasalt aerosols to overall aerosol optical depth and radiative forcing? How well are these aerosols sampled by aircraft

  19. Rules and Norms: Requirements for Rule Interchange Languages in the Legal Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Thomas F.; Governatori, Guido; Rotolo, Antonino

    In this survey paper we summarize the requirements for rule interchange languages for applications in the legal domain and use these requirements to evaluate RuleML, SBVR, SWRL and RIF. We also present the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format (LKIF), a new rule interchange format developed specifically for applications in the legal domain.

  20. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  1. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  2. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  3. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  4. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  5. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  6. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  7. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  8. Lysozyme and bilirubin bind to ACE and regulate its conformation and shedding

    PubMed Central

    Danilov, Sergei M.; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Akinbi, Henry T.; Nesterovitch, Andrew B.; Epshtein, Yuliya; Letsiou, Eleftheria; Kryukova, Olga V.; Piegeler, Tobias; Golukhova, Elena Z.; Schwartz, David E.; Dull, Randal O.; Minshall, Richard D.; Kost, Olga A.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) hydrolyzes numerous peptides and is a critical participant in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated tissue ACE levels are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Blood ACE concentrations are determined by proteolytic cleavage of ACE from the endothelial cell surface, a process that remains incompletely understood. In this study, we identified a novel ACE gene mutation (Arg532Trp substitution in the N domain of somatic ACE) that increases blood ACE activity 7-fold and interrogated the mechanism by which this mutation significantly increases blood ACE levels. We hypothesized that this ACE mutation disrupts the binding site for blood components which may stabilize ACE conformation and diminish ACE shedding. We identified the ACE-binding protein in the blood as lysozyme and also a Low Molecular Weight (LMW) ACE effector, bilirubin, which act in concert to regulate ACE conformation and thereby influence ACE shedding. These results provide mechanistic insight into the elevated blood level of ACE observed in patients on ACE inhibitor therapy and elevated blood lysozyme and ACE levels in sarcoidosis patients. PMID:27734897

  9. XAFS Data Interchange: A single spectrum XAFS data file format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravel, B.; Newville, M.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a standard data format for the interchange of XAFS data. The XAFS Data Interchange (XDI) standard is meant to encapsulate a single spectrum of XAFS along with relevant metadata. XDI is a text-based format with a simple syntax which clearly delineates metadata from the data table in a way that is easily interpreted both by a computer and by a human. The metadata header is inspired by the format of an electronic mail header, representing metadata names and values as an associative array. The data table is represented as columns of numbers. This format can be imported as is into most existing XAFS data analysis, spreadsheet, or data visualization programs. Along with a specification and a dictionary of metadata types, we provide an application-programming interface written in C and bindings for programming dynamic languages.

  10. An interchangeable-cathode vacuum arc plasma source.

    PubMed

    Olson, David K; Peterson, Bryan G; Hart, Grant W

    2010-01-01

    A simplified vacuum arc design [based on metal vapor vacuum arc (MeVVA) concepts] is employed as a plasma source for a study of a (7)Be non-neutral plasma. The design includes a mechanism for interchanging the cathode source. Testing of the plasma source showed that it is capable of producing on the order of 10(12) charges at confinable energies using a boron-carbide disk as the cathode target. The design is simplified from typical designs for lower energy and lower density applications by using only the trigger spark rather than the full vacuum arc in high current ion beam designs. The interchangeability of the cathode design gives the source the ability to replace only the source sample, simplifying use of radioactive materials in the plasma source. The sample can also be replaced with a completely different conductive material. The design can be easily modified for use in other plasma confinement or full MeVVA applications.

  11. XAFS Data Interchange: A single spectrum XAFS data file format

    PubMed Central

    Ravel, B.; Newville, M.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a standard data format for the interchange of XAFS data. The XAFS Data Interchange (XDI) standard is meant to encapsulate a single spectrum of XAFS along with relevant metadata. XDI is a text-based format with a simple syntax which clearly delineates metadata from the data table in a way that is easily interpreted both by a computer and by a human. The metadata header is inspired by the format of an electronic mail header, representing metadata names and values as an associative array. The data table is represented as columns of numbers. This format can be imported as is into most existing XAFS data analysis, spreadsheet, or data visualization programs. Along with a specification and a dictionary of metadata types, we provide an application-programming interface written in C and bindings for programming dynamic languages. PMID:27499797

  12. Vorticity scaling and intermittency in drift-interchange plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Dura, P. D.; Hnat, B.; Robinson, J.; Dendy, R. O.

    2012-09-15

    The effects of spatially varying magnetic field strength on the scaling properties of plasma turbulence, modelled by an extended form of Hasegawa-Wakatani model, are investigated. We study changes in the intermittency of the velocity, density, and vorticity fields, as functions of the magnetic field inhomogeneity C=-{partial_derivative} ln B/{partial_derivative}x. While the velocity fluctuations are always self-similar and their scaling is unaffected by the value of C, the intermittency levels in density and vorticity change with parameter C, reflecting morphological changes in the coherent structures due to the interchange mechanism. Given the centrality of vorticity in conditioning plasma transport, this result is of interest in scaling the results of transport measurements and simulations in tokamak edge plasmas, where drift-interchange turbulence in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is likely to occur.

  13. Theory of semicollisional drift-interchange modes in cylindrical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T.S.; Chen, L.

    1985-01-01

    Resistive interchange instabilities in cylindrical plasmas are studied, including the effects of electron diamagnetic drift, perpendicular resistivity, and plasma compression. The analyses are pertinent to the semicollisional regime where the effective ion gyro-radius is larger than the resistive layer width. Both analytical and numerical results show that the modes can be completely stabilized by the perpendicular plasma transport. Ion sound effects, meanwhile, are found to be negligible in the semicollisional regime.

  14. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  15. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU II) Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, David (Compiler); Saunders, Stephen R. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains extended abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU II) Technical Interchange Meeting, November 18-19, 1997, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas. Included are topics which include: Extraterrestrial resources, in situ propellant production, sampling of planetary surfaces, oxygen production, water vapor extraction from the Martian atmosphere, gas generation, cryogenic refrigeration, and propellant transport and storage.

  16. XML-Based SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi

    2008-01-01

    The SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language software has been designed to more efficiently send new knowledge bases to spacecraft that have been embedded with the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) tool. The intention of the behavioral model is to capture most of the information generally associated with a spacecraft functional model, while specifically addressing the needs of execution within SHINE and Livingstone. As such, it has some constructs that are based on one or the other.

  17. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Technical Interchange Meeting, February 4-5, 1997, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas. Abstracts are arranged in order of presentation at the meetings, with corresponding page numbers shown in the enclosed agenda. Logistics, administration, and publication support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  18. Residual turbulence from velocity shear stabilized interchange instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, C. P.; Hassam, A. B.

    2013-01-15

    The stabilizing effect of velocity shear on the macroscopic, broad bandwidth, ideal interchange instability is studied in linear and nonlinear regimes. A 2D dissipative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code is employed to simulate the system. For a given flow shear, V Prime , linear growth rates are shown to be suppressed to below the shear-free level at both the small and large wavelengths. With increasing V Prime , the unstable band in wavenumber-space shrinks so that the peak growth results for modes that correspond to relatively high wavenumbers, on the scale of the density gradient. In the nonlinear turbulent steady state, a similar turbulent spectrum obtains, and the convection cells are roughly circular. In addition, the density fluctuation level and the degree of flattening of the initial inverted density profile are found to decrease as V Prime increases; in fact, unstable modes are almost completely stabilized and the density profile reverts to laminar when V Prime is a few times the classic interchange growth rate. Moreover, the turbulent particle flux diminishes with increasing velocity shear such that all the flux is carried by the classical diffusive flux in the asymptotic limit. The simulations are compared with measurements of magnetic fluctuations from the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment, MCX, which investigated interchange modes in the presence of velocity shear. The experimental spectral data, taken in the plasma edge, are in general agreement with the numerical data obtained in higher viscosity simulations for which the level of viscosity is chosen consistent with MCX Reynolds numbers at the edge. In particular, the residual turbulence in both cases is dominated by elongated convection cells. Finally, concomitant Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the system are also examined. Complete stability to interchanges is obtained only in the parameter space wherein the generalized Rayleigh inflexion theorem is satisfied.

  19. Therapeutic Interchange of Clevidipine For Sodium Nitroprusside in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Joseph E.; Thomas, Zachariah; Lee, David; Moskowitz, David M.; Nemeth, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Background: Generic price inflation has resulted in rising acquisition costs for sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an agent historically described as the drug of choice for the treatment of perioperative hypertension in cardiac surgery. Purpose: To describe the implementation and cost avoidance achieved by utilizing clevidipine as an alternative to SNP in cardiac surgery patients at a 520-bed community teaching hospital that performs more than 300 cardiac surgeries each year. Methods: A multidisciplinary team inclusive of anesthesiologists, intensivists, pharmacists, and surgeons collaborated to develop a therapeutic interchange for SNP in cardiac surgery patients. Consistent with current guidelines for therapeutic interchange, the goal was to encourage a less expensive alternative that was demonstrated to be at least therapeutically equivalent to SNP based on data derived from clinical trials published in peer-reviewed literature. A comprehensive literature review identified clevidipine as an alternative to SNP for perioperative hypertension in cardiac surgery. Nicardipine was considered as well, but was not chosen as a substitute due to lack of strong evidence and comparative data with SNP. Results: Clevidipine was implemented successfully in our cardiac surgery patients and will result in a net cost avoidance of approximately $300,000 in 2016. This is thought to be driven largely by the difference in acquisition cost between clevidipine and SNP. The operating room in our institution no longer keeps SNP stocked in anesthesia trays as a result of the success of our interchange. No requests have been made to return to the SNP standard. Conclusion: Through effective communication and multidisciplinary collaboration, our institution was able to develop an evidence-based and effective therapeutic interchange program for SNP. PMID:27757002

  20. Evaluation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), its homologue ACE2 and neprilysin in angiotensin peptide metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    In the RAS (renin–angiotensin system), Ang I (angiotensin I) is cleaved by ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) to form Ang II (angiotensin II), which has effects on blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte homoeostasis. We have examined the kinetics of angiotensin peptide cleavage by full-length human ACE, the separate N- and C-domains of ACE, the homologue of ACE, ACE2, and NEP (neprilysin). The activity of the enzyme preparations was determined by active-site titrations using competitive tight-binding inhibitors and fluorogenic substrates. Ang I was effectively cleaved by NEP to Ang (1–7) (kcat/Km of 6.2×105 M−1·s−1), but was a poor substrate for ACE2 (kcat/Km of 3.3×104 M−1·s−1). Ang (1–9) was a better substrate for NEP than ACE (kcat/Km of 3.7×105 M−1·s−1 compared with kcat/Km of 6.8×104 M−1·s−1). Ang II was cleaved efficiently by ACE2 to Ang (1–7) (kcat/Km of 2.2×106 M−1·s−1) and was cleaved by NEP (kcat/Km of 2.2×105 M−1·s−1) to several degradation products. In contrast with a previous report, Ang (1–7), like Ang I and Ang (1–9), was cleaved with a similar efficiency by both the N- and C-domains of ACE (kcat/Km of 3.6×105 M−1·s−1 compared with kcat/Km of 3.3×105 M−1·s−1). The two active sites of ACE exhibited negative co-operativity when either Ang I or Ang (1–7) was the substrate. In addition, a range of ACE inhibitors failed to inhibit ACE2. These kinetic data highlight that the flux of peptides through the RAS is complex, with the levels of ACE, ACE2 and NEP dictating whether vasoconstriction or vasodilation will predominate. PMID:15283675

  1. Pathological Ace2-to-Ace enzyme switch in the stressed heart is transcriptionally controlled by the endothelial Brg1-FoxM1 complex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Feng, Xuhui; Zhou, Qiong; Cheng, Wei; Shang, Ching; Han, Pei; Lin, Chiou-Hong; Chen, Huei-Sheng Vincent; Quertermous, Thomas; Chang, Ching-Pin

    2016-09-20

    Genes encoding angiotensin-converting enzymes (Ace and Ace2) are essential for heart function regulation. Cardiac stress enhances Ace, but suppresses Ace2, expression in the heart, leading to a net production of angiotensin II that promotes cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. The regulatory mechanism that underlies the Ace2-to-Ace pathological switch, however, is unknown. Here we report that the Brahma-related gene-1 (Brg1) chromatin remodeler and forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) transcription factor cooperate within cardiac (coronary) endothelial cells of pathologically stressed hearts to trigger the Ace2-to-Ace enzyme switch, angiotensin I-to-II conversion, and cardiac hypertrophy. In mice, cardiac stress activates the expression of Brg1 and FoxM1 in endothelial cells. Once activated, Brg1 and FoxM1 form a protein complex on Ace and Ace2 promoters to concurrently activate Ace and repress Ace2, tipping the balance to Ace2 expression with enhanced angiotensin II production, leading to cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Disruption of endothelial Brg1 or FoxM1 or chemical inhibition of FoxM1 abolishes the stress-induced Ace2-to-Ace switch and protects the heart from pathological hypertrophy. In human hypertrophic hearts, BRG1 and FOXM1 expression is also activated in endothelial cells; their expression levels correlate strongly with the ACE/ACE2 ratio, suggesting a conserved mechanism. Our studies demonstrate a molecular interaction of Brg1 and FoxM1 and an endothelial mechanism of modulating Ace/Ace2 ratio for heart failure therapy.

  2. Pathological Ace2-to-Ace enzyme switch in the stressed heart is transcriptionally controlled by the endothelial Brg1-FoxM1 complex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Feng, Xuhui; Zhou, Qiong; Cheng, Wei; Shang, Ching; Han, Pei; Lin, Chiou-Hong; Chen, Huei-Sheng Vincent; Quertermous, Thomas; Chang, Ching-Pin

    2016-09-20

    Genes encoding angiotensin-converting enzymes (Ace and Ace2) are essential for heart function regulation. Cardiac stress enhances Ace, but suppresses Ace2, expression in the heart, leading to a net production of angiotensin II that promotes cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. The regulatory mechanism that underlies the Ace2-to-Ace pathological switch, however, is unknown. Here we report that the Brahma-related gene-1 (Brg1) chromatin remodeler and forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) transcription factor cooperate within cardiac (coronary) endothelial cells of pathologically stressed hearts to trigger the Ace2-to-Ace enzyme switch, angiotensin I-to-II conversion, and cardiac hypertrophy. In mice, cardiac stress activates the expression of Brg1 and FoxM1 in endothelial cells. Once activated, Brg1 and FoxM1 form a protein complex on Ace and Ace2 promoters to concurrently activate Ace and repress Ace2, tipping the balance to Ace2 expression with enhanced angiotensin II production, leading to cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Disruption of endothelial Brg1 or FoxM1 or chemical inhibition of FoxM1 abolishes the stress-induced Ace2-to-Ace switch and protects the heart from pathological hypertrophy. In human hypertrophic hearts, BRG1 and FOXM1 expression is also activated in endothelial cells; their expression levels correlate strongly with the ACE/ACE2 ratio, suggesting a conserved mechanism. Our studies demonstrate a molecular interaction of Brg1 and FoxM1 and an endothelial mechanism of modulating Ace/Ace2 ratio for heart failure therapy. PMID:27601681

  3. ACE Inhibitor in the treatment of cutaneous and lymphatic sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kaura, Vinod; Kaura, Samantha H; Kaura, Claire S

    2007-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme is used as a marker for sarcoid activity. We describe a case of remission of cutaneous and lymphatic sarcoidosis in a patient treated with an ACE inhibitor for congestive heart failure and hypertension; the remission has continued over 4 years of follow-up. Because this is a report of only one case, there is a possibility of sampling error. Whether the patient's remission in this case was a serendipitous spontaneous remission that happened to occur during ACE inhibitor therapy or whether ACE inhibitor therapy can play a role in the treatment of sarcoidosis needs to be determined in a large clinical trial.

  4. AceCloud: Molecular Dynamics Simulations in the Cloud.

    PubMed

    Harvey, M J; De Fabritiis, G

    2015-05-26

    We present AceCloud, an on-demand service for molecular dynamics simulations. AceCloud is designed to facilitate the secure execution of large ensembles of simulations on an external cloud computing service (currently Amazon Web Services). The AceCloud client, integrated into the ACEMD molecular dynamics package, provides an easy-to-use interface that abstracts all aspects of interaction with the cloud services. This gives the user the experience that all simulations are running on their local machine, minimizing the learning curve typically associated with the transition to using high performance computing services.

  5. 78 FR 39436 - Temporary Closure of I-65 (I-70/I-65 South Split Interchange to I-70/I-65 North Split Interchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Temporary Closure of I-65 (I-70/I-65 South Split Interchange to I-70/I-65 North Split Interchange) in the City of Indianapolis AGENCIES: Federal Highway Administration... (INDOT) has requested FHWA approval of INDOT's proposed plan to close a 2-mile portion of I- 65...

  6. ACE/SWICS Observations of Heavy Ion Dropouts within the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weberg, Micah J.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Lepri, Susan T.

    2012-11-01

    We present the first in situ observations of heavy ion dropouts within the slow solar wind, observed for select elements ranging from helium to iron. For iron, these dropouts manifest themselves as depletions of the Fe/H ratio by factors up to ~25. The events often exhibit mass-dependent fractionation and are contained in slow, unsteady wind found within a few days from known stream interfaces. We propose that such dropouts are evidence of gravitational settling within large coronal loops, which later undergo interchange reconnection and become source regions of slow, unsteady wind. Previously, spectroscopic studies by Raymond et al. in 1997 (and later Feldman et al. in 1999) have yielded strong evidence for gravitational settling within these loops. However, their expected in situ signature plasma with heavy elements fractionated by mass was not observed prior to this study. Using data from the SWICS instrument on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), we investigate the composition of the solar wind within these dropouts and explore long term trends over most of a solar cycle.

  7. ACE/SWICS OBSERVATIONS OF HEAVY ION DROPOUTS WITHIN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Weberg, Micah J.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Lepri, Susan T. E-mail: thomasz@umich.edu

    2012-11-20

    We present the first in situ observations of heavy ion dropouts within the slow solar wind, observed for select elements ranging from helium to iron. For iron, these dropouts manifest themselves as depletions of the Fe/H ratio by factors up to {approx}25. The events often exhibit mass-dependent fractionation and are contained in slow, unsteady wind found within a few days from known stream interfaces. We propose that such dropouts are evidence of gravitational settling within large coronal loops, which later undergo interchange reconnection and become source regions of slow, unsteady wind. Previously, spectroscopic studies by Raymond et al. in 1997 (and later Feldman et al. in 1999) have yielded strong evidence for gravitational settling within these loops. However, their expected in situ signature plasma with heavy elements fractionated by mass was not observed prior to this study. Using data from the SWICS instrument on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), we investigate the composition of the solar wind within these dropouts and explore long term trends over most of a solar cycle.

  8. The Canadian Arctic Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Validation Project: Overview and results from ten years of ACE operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kaley; Strong, Kimberly

    2014-05-01

    As of February 2014, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite mission has been making measurements of the Earth's atmosphere for ten years. As ACE operations have extended beyond the initial two-year mission, there is a continuing need to validate the trace gas data products from the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) instruments. Ground-based measurements provide critical data for the validation of satellite retrievals of trace gases and for the assessment of long-term stability of these measurements. In particular, validation comparisons are needed for ACE during Arctic springtime to understand better the measurements of species involved in stratospheric ozone chemistry. To this end, eleven Canadian Arctic Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Validation Campaigns have been conducted during the spring period (February - April in 2004 - 2014) at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (80°N, 86°W). This period coincides with the most chemically active time of year in the Arctic, as well as a significant number of satellite overpasses. A suite of as many as 12 ground-based instruments, as well as frequent balloon-borne ozonesonde and radiosonde launches, have been used in each campaign. These instruments include: a ground-based version of the ACE-FTS (PARIS - Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer), a terrestrial version of the ACE-MAESTRO, a SunPhotoSpectrometer, two zenith-viewing UV-visible grating spectrometers, a Bomem DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer, a Bruker 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer, a Systeme d'Analyse par Observations Zenithales (SAOZ) instrument, and several Brewer spectrophotometers. In the past several years, these results have been used to validate the measurements by the ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO instruments on SCISAT as well

  9. Reconnection and interchange instability in the near magnetotail

    DOE PAGES

    Birn, Joachim; Liu, Yi -Hsin; Daughton, William; Hesse, Michael; Schindler, Karl

    2015-07-16

    This paper provides insights into the possible coupling between reconnection and interchange/ballooning in the magnetotail related to substorms and flow bursts. The results presented are largely based on recent simulations of magnetotail dynamics, exploring onset and progression of reconnection. 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with different tail deformation demonstrate a clear boundary between stable and unstable cases depending on the amount of deformation, explored up to the real proton/electron mass ratio. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are governed by the conservation of integral flux tube entropy S as imposed in ideal MHD, maintainingmore » a monotonic increase with distance downtail. This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. 3-D MHD simulations confirm this conclusion, showing no indication of ballooning prior to reconnection, if the initial state is ballooning stable. The simulation also shows that, after imposing resistivity necessary to initiate reconnection, the reconnection rate and energy release initially remain slow. However, when S becomes reduced from plasmoid ejection and lobe reconnection, forming a negative slope in S as a function of distance from Earth, the reconnection rate and energy release increase drastically. The latter condition has been shown to be necessary for ballooning/interchange instability, and the cross-tail structures that develop subsequently in the MHD simulation are consistent with such modes. The simulations support a concept in which tail activity is initiated by tearing instability but significantly enhanced by the interaction with ballooning/interchange enabled by plasmoid loss and lobe reconnection.« less

  10. Reconnection and interchange instability in the near magnetotail

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, Joachim; Liu, Yi -Hsin; Hesse, Michael

    2015-07-16

    This paper provides insights into the possible coupling between reconnection and interchange/ballooning in the magnetotail related to substorms and flow bursts. The results presented are largely based on recent simulations of magnetotail dynamics, exploring onset and progression of reconnection. 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with different tail deformation demonstrate a clear boundary between stable and unstable cases depending on the amount of deformation, explored up to the real proton/electron mass ratio. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are governed by the conservation of integral flux tube entropy S as imposed in ideal MHD, maintaining a monotonic increase with distance downtail. This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. 3-D MHD simulations confirm this conclusion, showing no indication of ballooning prior to reconnection, if the initial state is ballooning stable. The simulation also shows that, after imposing resistivity necessary to initiate reconnection, the reconnection rate and energy release initially remain slow. However, when S becomes reduced from plasmoid ejection and lobe reconnection, forming a negative slope in S as a function of distance from Earth, the reconnection rate and energy release increase drastically. The latter condition has been shown to be necessary for ballooning/interchange instability, and the cross-tail structures that develop subsequently in the MHD simulation are consistent with such modes. The simulations support a concept in which tail activity is initiated by tearing instability but significantly enhanced by the interaction with ballooning/interchange enabled by plasmoid loss and lobe reconnection.

  11. Effects of radial motion on interchange injections at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranicas, C.; Thomsen, M. F.; Achilleos, N.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Hospodarsky, G.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kennelly, T.; Khurana, K.; Kollmann, P.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.

    2016-01-01

    Charged particle injections are regularly observed in Saturn's inner magnetosphere by Cassini. They are attributed to an ongoing process of flux-tube interchange driven by the strong centrifugal force associated with Saturn's rapid rotation. Numerical simulations suggest that these interchange injections can be associated with inward flow channels, in which plasma confined to a narrow range of longitudes moves radially toward the planet, gaining energy, while ambient plasma in the adjacent regions moves more slowly outward. Most previous analyses of these events have neglected this radial motion and inferred properties of the events under the assumption that they appear instantaneously at the spacecraft's L-shell and thereafter drift azimuthally. This paper describes features of injections that can be related to their radial motion prior to observation. We use a combination of phase space density profiles and an updated version of a test-particle model to quantify properties of the injection. We are able to infer the longitudinal width of the injection, the radial travel time from its point of origin, and the starting L shell of the injection. We can also predict which energies can remain inside the channel during the radial transport. To highlight the effects of radial propagation at a finite speed, we focus on those interchange injections without extensive features of azimuthal dispersion. Injections that have traveled radially for one or more hours prior to observation would have been initiated at a different local time than that of the observation. Finally, we describe an injection where particles have drifted azimuthally into a flow channel prior to observation by Cassini.

  12. Reconnection and interchange instability in the near magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birn, Joachim; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Daughton, William; Hesse, Michael; Schindler, Karl

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides insights into the possible coupling between reconnection and interchange/ballooning in the magnetotail related to substorms and flow bursts. The results presented are largely based on recent simulations of magnetotail dynamics, exploring onset and progression of reconnection. 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with different tail deformation demonstrate a clear boundary between stable and unstable cases depending on the amount of deformation, explored up to the real proton/electron mass ratio. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are governed by the conservation of integral flux tube entropy S as imposed in ideal MHD, maintaining a monotonic increase with distance downtail. This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. 3-D MHD simulations confirm this conclusion, showing no indication of ballooning prior to reconnection, if the initial state is ballooning stable. The simulation also shows that, after imposing resistivity necessary to initiate reconnection, the reconnection rate and energy release initially remain slow. However, when S becomes reduced from plasmoid ejection and lobe reconnection, forming a negative slope in S as a function of distance from Earth, the reconnection rate and energy release increase drastically. The latter condition has been shown to be necessary for ballooning/interchange instability, and the cross-tail structures that develop subsequently in the MHD simulation are consistent with such modes. The simulations support a concept in which tail activity is initiated by tearing instability but significantly enhanced by the interaction with ballooning/interchange enabled by plasmoid loss and lobe reconnection.

  13. The solar array is installed on ACE in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Applied Physics Laboratory engineers and technicians from Johns Hopkins University assist in guiding the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) as it is hoisted over a platform for solar array installation in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II. Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles. The ACE observatory will contribute to the understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system as well as the astrophysical processes involved. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  14. The solar array is installed on ACE in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Applied Physics Laboratory Engineer Cliff Willey (kneeling) and Engineering Assistant Jim Hutcheson from Johns Hopkins University install solar array panels on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II. Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles for a better understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system as well as the astrophysical processes involved. The ACE observatory will be placed into an orbit almost a million miles (1.5 million kilometers) away from the Earth, about 1/100 the distance from the Earth to the Sun. The collecting power of instrumentation aboard ACE is at least 100 times more sensitive than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  15. System comprising interchangeable electronic controllers and corresponding methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Glen F. (Inventor); Salazar, George A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system comprising an interchangeable electronic controller is provided with programming that allows the controller to adapt a behavior that is dependent upon the particular type of function performed by a system or subsystem component. The system reconfigures the controller when the controller is moved from one group of subsystem components to another. A plurality of application programs are provided by a server from which the application program for a particular electronic controller is selected. The selection is based on criteria such as a subsystem component group identifier that identifies the particular type of function associated with the system or subsystem group of components.

  16. Directory interchange format manual, version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Directory Interchange Format (DIF) is a data structure used to exchange directory level information about data sets among information systems. The format consists of a number of fields that describe the attributes of a directory entry and text blocks that contain a descriptive summary of and references for the directory entry. All fields and the summary are preceded by labels identifying their contents. All values are ASCII character strings. The structure is intended to be flexible, allowing for future changes in the contents of directory entries.

  17. Boundary induced amplification and nonlinear instability of interchange modes

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaipo, Jupiter; Hassam, A. B.

    2013-02-15

    It is shown that small distortions on the boundaries are amplified in the core of a magnetized plasma if the system is close to marginal stability for the ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchange mode. It is also shown that such marginal systems can be nonlinearly unstable. The combination of boundary amplification and nonlinearity is shown to result in a nonlinear instability. The induced instability is highly sensitive to the boundary in that, if the fractional deviation from marginality is a small parameter b, the system can go unstable from fractional boundary distortions of O(b{sup 3/2}).

  18. Interchange instability in finite conductivity accelerated plasma arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourouis, M.; Huerta, M. A.; Rodriguez-Trelles, F.

    1993-01-01

    A first order perturbation expansion of the MHD equations is used to study the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor or interchange instability in accelerated plasma arcs. The mode equation is fourth-order, due to the inclusion of finite conductivity. It is solved numerically to yield results that are an improvement over previous work. The growth rates are less than in the infinite conductivity model. As in previous work the growth rates in typical rail launcher situations are large enough to permit full development of the instability.

  19. ACE inhibition can improve orthostatic proteinuria associated with nutcracker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tae-Sun; Lee, Eun-Ju

    2006-11-01

    Left renal vein entrapment syndrome (nutcracker syndrome) was documented by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) as a cause of orthostatic proteinuria in a 14-year-old girl female adolescent. Because of continuous proteinuria we performed a left renal biopsy which showed moderate mesangial hypercellularity. Her overt orthostatic proteinuria disappeared after a treatment of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Nutcracker syndrome remains a rare but important cause of elevated protein excretion, which can induce mesangial changes and be improved by ACE inhibitor treatment.

  20. Molecular and recombinational mapping of mutations in the Ace locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Nagoshi, R.N.; Gelbart, W.M.

    1987-11-01

    The Ace locus in Drosophila melanogaster is known to be the structural gene for acetylcholinesterase. Ace is located in a region of chromosome arm 3R which has been subjected to intensive genetic and molecular analysis. Previous deletion mapping studies have identified a 40-kb region with which the Ace gene resides. This report focuses on the further localization of Ace within this 40-kb interval. Within this region, selective fine structure recombinational analysis was employed to localize three recessive Ace lethals relative to unselected restriction site variations. These three mutations fall into a segment of 7 kb within the Ace interval. Fine structure recombinational analysis was also used to confirm that the Ace/sup -/ phenotype of one deletion, Df(3R)Ace/sup HD1/, co-segregated with the molecular deletion. This deletion does not fully remove Ace activity, but it behaves as a recessive Ace lethal. Df(3R)Ace/sup HD1/ is the most distal Ace lesion identified and indicates that the Ace locus must extend at least 16 kb. Several poly(A)transcripts are detectable in the region defined by the Ace lesions. The position and extent of the Ace locus, as well as the types of transcripts found, is consistent with the recent findings which identified Torpedo-AChE homologous cDNA sequences in this region.

  1. Optical Aerosol Properties Over the Asian Pacific Ocean during ACE-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rood, M. J.; Carrico, C. M.; Kus, P.

    2001-12-01

    The effect of aerosol particles on the atmospheric radiative-energy balance at critical locations around the globe is an area or research that to be better characterized. This research has allowed shipboard measurements of climatically relevant ambient-aerosol optical properties between Hawaii and the coast of China to characterize "clean marine conditions" and then along the coast of China to characterize "polluted conditions" and "mineral dust conditions." Aerosol light scattering properties and in particular the increase in light scattering coefficient with increasing controlled relative humidity (f(RH)) during ACE-Asia showed a wider diversity of profiles than during ACE-1, ACE-2 or at a U.S. continental site. During the Pacific crossing, the signature was clearly marine-seasalt dominated (very hygroscopic with large magnitude growth with a clear deliquescent/crystallization hysteresis loop) and quite similar to the background marine conditions of Cape Grim during ACE-1. Other times when flow was off the Asian continent, the dependence of scattering on controlled RH was quite similar to results obtained in Sagres Portugal during outflow of European air masses (ACE-2, hygroscopic with smoother changes in scattering with increasing RH conditions though some deliquescent/crystallization features). When the aerosol consisted of a large part mineral dust species, the hygroscopic growth in light scattering was quite suppressed. Mineral dust dominated aerosols showed very little growth in light scattering as a function of RH and at times was nearly hygrophobic. However, along with the suppressed hygroscopic growth, deliquescent (step-change) features were often more pronounced than the cases of the more hygroscopic urban-industrial influenced aerosols. These results will also be integrated with laboratory light scattering measurements and field absorption measurements for comparison of light scattering and albedo measurements made by other independent techniques

  2. Directory interchange format manual, version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Directory Interchange Format (DIF) is a data structure used to exchange directory-level information about data sets among information systems. In general the format consists of a number of fields that describe the attributes of a directory entry and text blocks that contain a descriptive summary of and references for the directory entry. All fields and the summary are preceded by labels identifying their contents. All values are ASCII character strings. The structure is intended to be flexible, allowing for future changes in the contents of directory entries. The manual is structured as follows: section 1 is a general description of what constitutes a directory entry; section 2 describes the content of the individual fields within the data structure, together with some examples. Also included in the six appendices is a description of the syntax used within the examples; samples of the directory interchange format applied to different data sets; the allowable discipline keywords; a current list of valid location keywords; a list of allowable parameter keywords; a list of acronyns and a glossary of terms used; and a description of the Standard Formatted Data Unit header, which may be added to the front of a DIF file to identify the file as a registered standard format.

  3. FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

    2008-06-13

    In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for today’s engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.

  4. Ion composition in interchange injection events in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Wilson, R. J.; Andriopoulou, M.; Crary, F. J.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Khurana, K. K.; Paranicas, C.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.; Tokar, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Interchange injection events are commonly observed by the Cassini spacecraft in the region between about 6 and 12 Rs (1 Rs = 60,268 km) and even frequently beyond. In this study, 13 examples of interchange injection events are identified in Cassini/Cassini Plasma Spectrometer data under special conditions such that time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectra could be obtained from entirely within the events. Using the TOF data to separate the main ion species H+, H2+, and W+, approximate densities of each species are calculated under the assumption that all distributions were isotropic. The light-ion density ratios, H2+/H+, in the injection events are not discernibly different from those ratios in control intervals from the ambient plasma. However, the water-group ratio, W+/H+, is significantly lower than ambient. The comparison of the measured density ratios with the range of values observed throughout Saturn's magnetosphere indicates that the values of W+/H+ that are as low as those observed within the injection events are found primarily beyond L~14 (where L is the equatorial crossing distance, in Saturn radius, of a dipole field line), indicating that the injection events are delivering plasma from the outer magnetosphere at times traveling at least 6 Rs.

  5. Deep water X-mas tree standardization -- Interchangeability approach

    SciTech Connect

    Paula, M.T.R.; Paulo, C.A.S.; Moreira, C.C.

    1995-12-31

    Aiming the rationalization of subsea operations to turn the production of oil and gas more economical and reliable, standardization of subsea equipment interfaces is a tool that can play a very important role. Continuing the program initiated some years ago, Petrobras is now harvesting the results from the first efforts. Diverless guidelineless subsea Christmas trees from four different suppliers have already been manufactured in accordance to the standardized specification. Tests performed this year in Macae (Campos Basin onshore base), in Brazil, confirmed the interchangeability among subsea Christmas trees, tubing hangers, adapter bases and flowline hubs of different manufacturers. This interchangeability, associated with the use of proven techniques, results in operational flexibility, savings in rig time and reduction in production losses during workovers. By now, 33 complete sets of subsea Christmas trees have already been delivered and successfully tested. Other 28 sets are still being manufactured by the four local suppliers. For the next five years, more than a hundred of these trees will be required for the exploration of the new discoveries. This paper describes the standardized equipment, the role of the operator in an integrated way of working with the manufacturers on the standardization activities, the importance of a frank information flow through the involved companies and how a simple manufacturing philosophy, with the use of construction jigs, has proved to work satisfactorily.

  6. Diversification, biotic interchange, and the universal trade-off hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Tilman, David

    2011-09-01

    Competition theory predicts that multispecies coexistence requires that species have traits that fall on the same interspecific trade-off surface. Fossil records for mollusks, mammals, trees, and other taxa show that with rare exception, ecologically similar species have coexisted for a million years or more after interchange between formerly isolated realms. This coexistence suggests the possibility, termed the universal trade-off hypothesis, that ecologically similar species of different realms have been bound to the same interspecific trade-off surface despite millions of years of independent evolution. Such persistence fails to support the biogeographic superiority hypothesis, which posits that genetic drift, recombination, mutation, and selection would cause taxa of one realm to gain superiority over those of another realm during long periods of isolation. Analysis of the lengths of time that species have persisted once in contact suggests that the trade-off surfaces of realms differed by <0.1% at the time of interchange. This implies that macroevolutionary patterns of differentiation and speciation within and between realms were more likely the movement of traits on a common trade-off surface rather than directional selection achieved without compensatory trade-offs and costs. The existence of transrealm trade-offs, should further work support this possibility, has deep implications for ecology and evolution.

  7. Climate-active Trace Gases from ACE Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.; Brown, A.; Harrison, J.; Chipperfield, M.; Boone, C.; Wilson, C.; Walker, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of more than 30 trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4400 cm-1) is measuring the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. Launched by NASA in August 2003 for a nominal two-year mission, ACE performance remains excellent after 8 years in orbit. Volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles of sixteen halogenated trace gases are routinely retrieved from ACE-FTS atmospheric spectra: CCl4, CF4, CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), C2Cl3F3 (CFC-113), CH3Cl, ClONO2, COF2, COCl2, COClF, CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CCl2F (HCFC-141b), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b), HCl, HF and SF6. ACE also provides VMR profiles for CH4, N2O and OCS; HCFC-23 (CHF3) is a recent research product. ACE-FTS measurements were compared to surface measurements made by the AGAGE network and output from the SLIMCAT three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model, which is constrained by similar surface data. ACE-FTS measurements of CFCs (and HCl) show declining trends which agree with both AGAGE and SLIMCAT values. The concentrations of HCFCs are increasing with ACE-FTS, SLIMCAT and AGAGE all showing positive trends. These results illustrate the success of the Montreal Protocol in reducing ozone depleting substances. The replacement of CFCs with HCFCs has led to an increase in the VMR of HF in the stratosphere. As chlorine containing compounds continue to be phased out and replaced by fluorine-containing molecules, it is likely that total atmospheric fluorine will continue increasing in the near future. These species are all powerful greenhouse gases. ACE provides near global VMR

  8. Uncertainty-based Estimation of the Secure Range for ISO New England Dynamic Interchange Adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Wu, Di; Hou, Zhangshuan; Sun, Yannan; Maslennikov, S.; Luo, Xiaochuan; Zheng, T.; George, S.; Knowland, T.; Litvinov, E.; Weaver, S.; Sanchez, E.

    2014-04-14

    The paper proposes an approach to estimate the secure range for dynamic interchange adjustment, which assists system operators in scheduling the interchange with neighboring control areas. Uncertainties associated with various sources are incorporated. The proposed method is implemented in the dynamic interchange adjustment (DINA) tool developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for ISO New England. Simulation results are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. HST Super Lightweight Interchangeable Carrier (SLIC) Static Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, William V.

    2008-01-01

    The HST Super Light Weight Interchangeable Carrier Static Test program calls for a total of 15 load cases with an average of 9 simultaneous push/pull locations per load case. This testing program represents the most complex static test ever attempted at Goddard Space Flight Center. Many unique multi-pull fixtures were designed to apply the simultaneous loading. Additionally, a total of 600 channels of data required processing for each loadcase. A total of 1100 separate strain gages were installed on SLIC. A team of 15 trained technicians were needed to apply test loads via mechanical hand pumps for several load cases. All 15 load cases were successfully conducted within 15 weeks. The ManTech team successfully tested all SLIC 1200 interface clips to the required testing loads. Several unique designs were needed to address testing challenges as loadline interference, Payload Safety, payload flexibility and opposing load applications.

  10. Interchangeable end effector tools utilized on the protoflight manipulator arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A subset of teleoperator and effector tools was designed, fabricated, delivered and successfully demonstrated on the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) protoflight manipulator arm (PFMA). The tools delivered included a rotary power tool with interchangeable collets and two fluid coupling mate/demate tools; one for a Fairchild coupling and the other for a Purolator coupling. An electrical interface connector was also provided for the rotary power tool. A tool set, from which the subset was selected, for performing on-orbit satellite maintenance was identified and conceptionally designed. Maintenance requirements were synthesized, evaluated and prioritized to develop design requirements for a set of end effector tools representative of those needed to provide on-orbit maintenance of satellites to be flown in the 1986 to 2000 timeframe.

  11. Guidelines for Provision and Interchange of Geothermal Data Assets

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-07-03

    The US Department of Energy Office of Geothermal Technologies (OGT) is funding and overseeing the development of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS), a distributed information system providing access to integrated data in support of, and generated in, all phases of geothermal development. NGDS is being built in an open paradigm and will employ state-of-the-art informatics approaches and capabilities to advance the state of geothermal knowledge in the US. This document presents guidelines related to provision and interchange of data assets in the context of the National Geothermal Data System. It identifies general specifications for NGDS catalog metadata and data content, and provides specific instructions for preparation and submission of data assets by OGT-funded projects.

  12. An Ensemble Approach for Forecasting Net Interchange Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Gosink, Luke J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Zhou, Ning; Tong, Jianzhong

    2013-09-01

    The net interchange schedule (NIS) is the sum of the transactions (MW) between an ISO/RTO and its neighbors. Effective forecasting of the submitted NIS can improve grid operation efficiency. This paper applies a Bayesian model averaging (BMA) technique to forecast submitted NIS. As an ensemble approach, the BMA method aggregates different forecasting models in order to improve forecasting accuracy and consistency. In this study, the BMA method is compared to two alternative approaches: a stepwise regression method and an artificial neural network (ANN) trained for NIS forecasting. In our comparative analysis, we use field measurement data from the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland (PJM) Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) to train and test each method. Our preliminary results indicate that ensemble-based methods can provide more accurate and consistent NIS forecasts in comparison to non-ensemble alternate methods.

  13. SCHIP: Statistics for Chromosome Interphase Positioning Based on Interchange Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vives, Sergi; Loucas, Bradford; Vazquez, Mariel; Brenner, David J.; Sachs, Rainer K.; Hlatky, Lynn; Cornforth, Michael; Arsuaga, Javier

    2005-01-01

    he position of chromosomes in the interphase nucleus is believed to be associated with a number of biological processes. Here, we present a web-based application that helps analyze the relative position of chromosomes during interphase in human cells, based on observed radiogenic chromosome aberrations. The inputs of the program are a table of yields of pairwise chromosome interchanges and a proposed chromosome geometric cluster. Each can either be uploaded or selected from provided datasets. The main outputs are P-values for the proposed chromosome clusters. SCHIP is designed to be used by a number of scientific communities interested in nuclear architecture, including cancer and cell biologists, radiation biologists and mathematical/computational biologists.

  14. Transport scaling in interchange-driven toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, Paolo; Rogers, B. N.

    2009-06-15

    Two-dimensional fluid simulations of a simple magnetized torus are presented, in which the vertical and toroidal components of the magnetic field create helicoidal field lines that terminate on the upper and lower walls of the plasma chamber. The simulations self-consistently evolve the full radial profiles of the electric potential, density, and electron temperature in the presence of three competing effects: the cross-field turbulent transport driven by the interchange instability, parallel losses to the upper and lower walls, and the input of particles and heat by external plasma sources. Considering parameter regimes in which equilibrium ExB shear flow effects are weak, we study the dependence of the plasma profiles--in particular the pressure profile scale length--on the parameters of the system. Analytical scalings are obtained that show remarkable agreement with the simulations.

  15. Contemplating Synergistic Algorithms for the NASA ACE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Gerald G.; Starr, David O.; Marchand, Roger; Ackerman, Steven A.; Platnick, Steven E.; Fridlind, Ann; Cooper, Steven; Vane, Deborah G.; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2013-01-01

    ACE is a proposed Tier 2 NASA Decadal Survey mission that will focus on clouds, aerosols, and precipitation as well as ocean ecosystems. The primary objective of the clouds component of this mission is to advance our ability to predict changes to the Earth's hydrological cycle and energy balance in response to climate forcings by generating observational constraints on future science questions, especially those associated with the effects of aerosol on clouds and precipitation. ACE will continue and extend the measurement heritage that began with the A-Train and that will continue through Earthcare. ACE planning efforts have identified several data streams that can contribute significantly to characterizing the properties of clouds and precipitation and the physical processes that force these properties. These include dual frequency Doppler radar, high spectral resolution lidar, polarimetric visible imagers, passive microwave and submillimeter wave radiometry. While all these data streams are technologically feasible, their total cost is substantial and likely prohibitive. It is, therefore, necessary to critically evaluate their contributions to the ACE science goals. We have begun developing algorithms to explore this trade space. Specifically, we will describe our early exploratory algorithms that take as input the set of potential ACE-like data streams and evaluate critically to what extent each data stream influences the error in a specific cloud quantity retrieval.

  16. The Harang reversal and the interchange stability of the magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Shinichi; Gkioulidou, Matina; Wang, Chih-Ping; Wolf, Richard A.

    2016-04-01

    The present study addresses steady convection in the plasma sheet in terms of the interchange stability with special attention to the Harang reversal. The closure of the tail current with a field-aligned current (FAC) results from the divergence/convergence of the pressure gradient current. If the magnetotail is in a steady state, the associated change of local plasma pressure p has to balance with its advective change. Accordingly, for adiabatic transport, the flux tube entropy parameter pVγ increases and decreases along the convection path in regions corresponding to downward and upward FACs, respectively. This requirement, along with the condition for the interchange stability imposes an important constraint on the direction of convection especially in the regions of downward FACs. It is deduced that for the dusk cell, the convection in the downward R2 current has to be directed azimuthally duskward, which follows the sunward, possibly dawnward deflected, convection in the region of the premidnight upward R1 current. This duskward turn of convection takes place in the vicinity of the R1-R2 demarcation, and it presumably corresponds to the Harang reversal. For the dawn cell the convection in the postmidnight downward R1 current has to deflect dawnward, and then it proceeds sunward in the upward R2 current. The continuity of the associated ionospheric currents consistently reproduces the assumed FAC distribution. The proposed interrelationships between the convection and FACs are also verified with a quasi-steady plasma sheet configuration and convection reproduced by a modified Rice Convection Model with force balance.

  17. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE) Science Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Luna, Unique J.; Chaiken, Paul M.; Hollingsworth, Andrew; Secanna, Stefano; Weitz, David; Lu, Peter; Yodh, Arjun; Yunker, Peter; Lohr, Matthew; Gratale, Matthew; Lynch, Matthew; Kodger, Thomas; Piazza, Roberto; Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Cipelletti, Luca; Schall, Peter; Veen, Sandra; Wegdam, Gerhard; Lee, Chand-Soo; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J.; Cohen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    accessible with the availability of the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) on ISS. To meet these goals, the ACE experiment is being built-up in stages, with the availability of confocal microscopy being the ultimate objective. Supported by NASAs Physical Sciences Research Program, ESAESTEC, and the authors respective governments.

  18. [Job satisfaction among the professionals of AceS Baixo Vouga II].

    PubMed

    Santana, Silvina; Cerdeira, José

    2011-12-01

    Job satisfaction is a measure of quality of life at work and is related to emotional states. The interest for this theme is increasing and, in the last years, many studies have attempted to demonstrate its relation with professional performance. Primary care professionals are in the first line of the Serviço Nacional de Saúde (SNS). Therefore, it is necessary that they feel satisfaction with their jobs, in order to perform the tasks with the quality required. Several factors seem to have impact in the satisfaction of these professionals, such as payment, promotion, recognition from supervisors and peers, physical conditions at work and available resources, opportunities for personal development, among others. Insatisfaction may lead to absentism and in the limit to job quit. The main objective of this work is to study job satisfaction among the professionals working at the health centers of ACeS Baixo Vouga II, namely, the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction and between job characteristics and considering job quit as a serious option. All the professionals working in the four health centers were inquired. Results show that job characteristics are defined by six dimensions: leadership and supervision, task characteristics and autonomy, payment, personal and professional development and promotion, peers and relations inside the organization and work environment. Globally, payment and opportunities for personal and professional development and promotion are perceived at low level by all the professional groups. Results also show that there are differences by gender and professional groups regarding job satisfaction and the will to quit job. Considering the specificity of the tasks performed by these professionals, measures should be taken in order to improve job satisfaction in the Portuguese health centers. PMID:22849951

  19. [Job satisfaction among the professionals of AceS Baixo Vouga II].

    PubMed

    Santana, Silvina; Cerdeira, José

    2011-12-01

    Job satisfaction is a measure of quality of life at work and is related to emotional states. The interest for this theme is increasing and, in the last years, many studies have attempted to demonstrate its relation with professional performance. Primary care professionals are in the first line of the Serviço Nacional de Saúde (SNS). Therefore, it is necessary that they feel satisfaction with their jobs, in order to perform the tasks with the quality required. Several factors seem to have impact in the satisfaction of these professionals, such as payment, promotion, recognition from supervisors and peers, physical conditions at work and available resources, opportunities for personal development, among others. Insatisfaction may lead to absentism and in the limit to job quit. The main objective of this work is to study job satisfaction among the professionals working at the health centers of ACeS Baixo Vouga II, namely, the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction and between job characteristics and considering job quit as a serious option. All the professionals working in the four health centers were inquired. Results show that job characteristics are defined by six dimensions: leadership and supervision, task characteristics and autonomy, payment, personal and professional development and promotion, peers and relations inside the organization and work environment. Globally, payment and opportunities for personal and professional development and promotion are perceived at low level by all the professional groups. Results also show that there are differences by gender and professional groups regarding job satisfaction and the will to quit job. Considering the specificity of the tasks performed by these professionals, measures should be taken in order to improve job satisfaction in the Portuguese health centers.

  20. ACE inhibition, ACE2 and angiotensin-(1-7) axis in kidney and cardiac inflammation and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Simões E Silva, Ana Cristina; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2016-05-01

    The Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) is a pivotal physiological regulator of heart and kidney homeostasis, but also plays an important role in the pathophysiology of heart and kidney diseases. Recently, new components of the RAS have been discovered, including angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), Angiotensin(Ang)-(1-7), Mas receptor, Ang-(1-9) and Alamandine. These new components of RAS are formed by the hydrolysis of Ang I and Ang II and, in general, counteract the effects of Ang II. In experimental models of heart and renal diseases, Ang-(1-7), Ang-(1-9) and Alamandine produced vasodilation, inhibition of cell growth, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. Recent pharmacological strategies have been proposed to potentiate the effects or to enhance the formation of Ang-(1-7) and Ang-(1-9), including ACE2 activators, Ang-(1-7) in hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin, cyclized form of Ang-(1-7) and nonpeptide synthetic Mas receptor agonists. Here, we review the role and effects of ACE2, ACE2 activators, Ang-(1-7) and synthetic Mas receptor agonists in the control of inflammation and fibrosis in cardiovascular and renal diseases and as counter-regulators of the ACE-Ang II-AT1 axis. We briefly comment on the therapeutic potential of the novel members of RAS, Ang-(1-9) and alamandine, and the interactions between classical RAS inhibitors and new players in heart and kidney diseases. PMID:26995300

  1. Deletion of the aceE gene (encoding a component of pyruvate dehydrogenase) attenuates Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ervinna; Tien-Lin, Chang; Selvaraj, Madhan; Chang, Jason; Kwang, Jimmy

    2011-10-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major food-borne pathogen. From a transposon insertion mutant library created previously using S. Enteritidis 10/02, one of the mutants was identified to have a 50% lethal dose (LD(50) ) at least 100 times that of the parental strain in young chicks, with an attenuation in a poorly studied gene encoding a component of pyruvate dehydrogenase, namely the aceE gene. Evaluation of the in vitro virulence characteristics of the ΔaceE∷kan mutant revealed that it was less able to invade epithelial cells, less resistant to reactive oxygen intermediate, less able to survive within a chicken macrophage cell line and had a retarded growth rate compared with the parental strain. Young chicks vaccinated with 2 × 10(9) CFU of the ΔaceE∷kan mutant were protected from the subsequent challenge of the parental strain, with the mutant colonized in the liver and spleen in a shorter time than the group infected with the parental strain. In addition, compared with the parental strain, the ΔaceE∷kan mutant did not cause persistent eggshell contamination of vaccinated hens.

  2. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  3. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  4. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  5. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  6. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  7. The Place of Community-Based Learning in Higher Education: A Case Study of Interchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Louise

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on one strand of community engagement: community-based learning for students. It considers in particular Interchange as a case study. Interchange is a registered charity based in, but independent of, a department in a Higher Education Institution. It brokers between undergraduate research/work projects and Voluntary Community…

  8. Finite Larmor radius assisted velocity shear stabilization of the interchange instability in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ng Sheungwah; Hassam, A.B.

    2005-06-15

    Finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects, originally shown to stabilize magnetized plasma interchange modes at short wavelength, are shown to assist velocity shear stabilization of long wavelength interchanges. It is shown that the FLR effects result in stabilization with roughly the same efficacy as the stabilization from dissipative (resistive and viscous) effects found earlier.

  9. Compressibility effect on magnetic-shear-localized ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchange instability

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sangeeta; Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.

    2005-08-15

    Eigenmode analysis of a magnetic-shear-localized ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchange instability in the presence of plasma compressibility indicates the marginal stability criterion (D{sub I}=1/4) is not affected by the compressibility effects. Above the marginal stability criterion, plasma compressibility causes a significant reduction in the growth rate of an ideal interchange instability.

  10. What Kind of International Interchange Is Beneficial? Experiences of Taiwanese Indigenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shan-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Because of globalization, international interchanges among indigenes in every country have become more frequent. Influenced by international multicultural trends, Taiwan's government not only supports indigenous populations to revive their traditional cultures, but also encourages the promotion of the international interchange activities among…

  11. Structural Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Language: A Comparative Analysis of InterChange Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kwang-Kyu

    1996-01-01

    Compares one form of synchronous computer-mediated communication, Daedalus InterChange, with analogous spoken and written corpora. Finds that the InterChange discourse mode is not merely intermediate between speaking and writing; rather the electronic medium uniquely fosters some behaviors and inhibits others, in support of the view that physical…

  12. Improved ACE-FTS observations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy; Chipperfield, Martyn; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), on board the SCISAT satellite, has been recording solar occultation spectra through the Earth's atmosphere since 2004 and continues to take measurements with only minor loss in performance. ACE-FTS time series are available for a range of chlorine 'source' gases, including CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3Cl and CCl4. Recently there has been much community interest in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a substance regulated by the Montreal Protocol because it leads to the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. Estimated sources and sinks of CCl4 remain inconsistent with observations of its abundance. Satellite observations of CCl4 in the stratosphere are particularly useful in validating stratospheric loss (photolysis) rates; in fact the atmospheric loss of CCl4 is essentially all due to photolysis in the stratosphere. However, the latest ACE-FTS v3.5 CCl4 retrieval is biased high by ˜ 20-30%. A new ACE-FTS retrieval scheme utilising new laboratory spectroscopic measurements of CCl4 and improved microwindow selection has recently been developed. This improves upon the v3.5 retrieval and resolves the issue of the high bias; this new scheme will form the basis for the upcoming v4 processing version of ACE-FTS data. This presentation will outline the improvements made in the retrieval, and a subset of data will be compared with modelled CCl4 distributions from SLIMCAT, a state-of-the-art three-dimensional chemical transport model. The use of ACE-FTS data to evaluate the modelled stratospheric loss rate of CCl4 will also be discussed. The evaluated model, which also includes a treatment of surface soil and ocean sinks, will then be used to quantify current uncertainties in the global budget of CCl4.

  13. 75 FR 38606 - Temporary Closure of I-70 (I-70/I-465 West Leg Interchange to the I-70/I-65 South Split...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Federal Highway Administration Temporary Closure of I-70 (I-70/I-465 West Leg Interchange to the I-70/I-65...-70 (from the I-70/I-465 west leg interchange to the I-70/I-65 south split interchange) on October 7... leg interchange to the I-70/I-65 south split interchange) on October 7, 2010, for a 12-hour...

  14. Intermittent versus Continuous Incremental Field Tests: Are Maximal Variables Interchangeable?

    PubMed

    Carminatti, Lorival J; Possamai, Carlos A P; de Moraes, Marcelo; da Silva, Juliano F; de Lucas, Ricardo D; Dittrich, Naiandra; Guglielmo, Luiz G A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR) and the Vameval test (T-VAM)), characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat), volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE) at peak test velocities (PV). No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h(-1)) and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm). During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm). However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04) (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s) with a low correlation (r = 0.41). The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l(-1)). Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs. Key pointsT-CAR is an intermittent shuttle run test that predicts the maximal aerobic speed with accuracy, hence, test results could be interchangeable with continuous straight-line tests.T-CAR provides valid field data for evaluating aerobic fitness.In comparison with T-VAM, T-CAR may be a more favourable way to prescribe intermittent training using a shuttle-running protocol.

  15. Use of data description languages in the interchange of data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pignede, M.; Real-Planells, B.; Smith, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is developing Standards for the interchange of information between systems, including those operating under different environments. The objective is to perform the interchange automatically, i.e. in a computer interpretable manner. One aspect of the concept developed by CCSDS is the use of a separate data description to specify the data being transferred. Using the description, data can then be automatically parsed by the receiving computer. With a suitably expressive Data Description Language (DDL), data formats of arbitrary complexity can be handled. The advantages of this approach are: (1) that the description need only be written and distributed once to all users, and (2) new software does not need to be written for each new format, provided generic tools are available to support writing and interpretation of descriptions and the associated data instances. Consequently, the effort of 'hard coding' each new format is avoided and problems of integrating multiple implementations of a given format by different users are avoided. The approach is applicable in any context where computer parsable description of data could enhance efficiency (e.g. within a spacecraft control system, a data delivery system or an archive). The CCSDS have identified several candidate DDL's: EAST (Extended Ada Subset), TSDN (Transfer Syntax Data Notation) and MADEL (Modified ASN.1 as a Data Description Language -- a DDL based on the Abstract Syntax Notation One - ASN.1 - specified in the ISO/IEC 8824). This paper concentrates on ESA's development of MADEL. ESA have also developed a 'proof of concept' prototype of the required support tools, implemented on a PC under MS-DOS, which has successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the approach, including the capability within an application of retrieving and displaying particular data elements, given its MADEL description (i.e. a data description written in MADEL). This paper outlines

  16. DOD Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in contracting report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    Use of Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) to support Department of Defense (DoD) procurement processes has been under consideration for some time. A 1988 Deputy Secretary of Defense memo calls for maximum use of EDI, based on 10 years of DoD EDI investigation and experiments. In 1990, Defense Management Review Decision 941 stated, 'The strategic goal of DoD's current efforts is to provide the department with the capability to initiate, conduct, and maintain its external business related transactions and internal logistics, contracting, and financial activities without requiring the use of hard copy media.' The EC in Contracting PAT membership reflected a broad cross section of Military Services and Defense Agencies working on a full-time basis for 60 days. The diversity of the EC in Contracting PAT ensured that the needs and concerns of all DoD components were addressed during the creation of the report. The resultant plan, therefore, represents a comprehensive approach for implementing EC throughout the DoD.

  17. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system... Test Systems § 862.1090 Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. (a) Identification. An angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system... Test Systems § 862.1090 Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. (a) Identification. An angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system... Test Systems § 862.1090 Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. (a) Identification. An angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system... Test Systems § 862.1090 Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. (a) Identification. An angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system... Test Systems § 862.1090 Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. (a) Identification. An angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of...

  2. Young & ACE: Young Unemployed People and Adult and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult, Community, and Further Education Board, Melbourne (Australia).

    Pilot projects designed to increase the access of young unemployed Australians to adult and community education (ACE) were undertaken in one rural and one metropolitan adult, community and further education region with significant rates of unemployment among individuals aged 15-24 years. Two consortia were selected to conduct the pilot programs,…

  3. Linkages between ACE Vocational Provision and Mainstream VET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, John

    A study investigated linkages between adult community education (ACE) and mainstream vocational education and training (VET) in Australia, which enable people to move between the two sectors in their pursuit of vocational learning, and the ways in which linkages might be improved or new ones developed. The data from the study were derived from 69…

  4. The Economics of ACE Delivery. A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, John; Brown, Tony; Ferrier, Fran

    The financial operations of providers of adult and community education (ACE) in New South Wales, Australia, were examined in a conceptual and empirical study. Enrollment data were analyzed and case studies of three community colleges and two community adult education centers in metropolitan, coastal, and rural communities were conducted. Four…

  5. POMB/ACE chemotherapy for mediastinal germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Bower, M; Brock, C; Holden, L; Nelstrop, A; Makey, A R; Rustin, G J; Newlands, E S

    1997-05-01

    Mediastinal germ cell tumours (MGCT) are rare and most published series reflect the experiences of individual institutions over many years. Since 1979, we have treated 16 men (12 non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and 4 seminomas) with newly diagnosed primary MGCT with POMB/ACE chemotherapy and elective surgical resection of residual masses. This approach yielded complete remissions in 15/16 (94%) patients. The median follow-up was 6.0 years and no relapses occurred more than 2 years after treatment. The 5 year overall survival in the non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) is 73% (95% confidence interval 43-90%). One patient with NSGCT developed drug-resistant disease and died without achieving remission and 2 patients died of relapsed disease. In addition, 4 patients with bulky and/or metastatic seminoma were treated with POMB/ACE. One died of treatment-related neutropenic sepsis in complete remission and one died of relapsed disease. Finally, 4 patients (2 NSGCT and 2 seminomas) referred at relapse were treated with POMB/ACE and one was successfully salvaged. The combination of POMB/ACE chemotherapy and surgery is effective management for MGCT producing high long-term survival rates.

  6. RCM simulation of interchange transport in Saturn's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T. W.; Liu, X.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Wolf, R.

    2013-12-01

    Numerical simulations with the Rice Convection Model have been used to study the radial transport of plasma in Saturn's inner magnetosphere (L < 12) where the magnetic field is dominated by the planetary dipole. This transport occurs through a time-variable pattern of wider outflow channels containing cool, dense plasma from interior sources, alternating with narrower inflow channels containing hot, tenuous plasma from the outer magnetosphere. The 'smoking gun' of this interchange transport process is the pervasive presence of V-shaped injection/dispersion signatures in linear energy-time spectrograms that are observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) on every pass through the inner magnetosphere. Using observed hot plasma distributions at L~12 as input, we have now successfully simulated these V-shaped signatures. We will show these simulation results and compare them with observed signatures. We will also describe future improvements to the model including relaxing the dipole-field assumption, thus enabling us to simulate local-time asymmetries imposed by the outer magnetosphere and tail.

  7. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  8. The interchange instability in high-latitude plasma blobs

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, P.K.; Huba, J.D. )

    1987-04-01

    The stability of high-latitude plasma density enhancements (blobs) is analyzed with regard to the interchange mode (driven by neutral wind or equilibrium transverse electric field acting on the density gradient at the walls of the blobs). The effects arising from the finite parallel length of the blobs along the magnetic field lines are included in the analysis. Plasma regions of differing collisionalities, to which the blobs extend in altitude, are considered. The authors find that the finite parallel blob size results in a modest reduction in the growth rates of the small ({approx lt}1 km) and intermediate (1-10 km) scale sizes but severely reduces the growth rates for the large scale sizes (> 10 km) for the observed parallel blob lengths ({approximately}300-600 km). Further, it is found that the instability growth rates show a moderate reduction at higher altitudes (where ion-inertial effects may be dominant over the ion-neutral collisional effects). Thus the E{times} B instability is considered a plausible candidate for the scintillation-causing irregularities (1-10 km) associated with the high-latitude blobs.

  9. Interchange instability in high-latitude plasma blobs. Memorandum report

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, P.K.; Huba, J.D.

    1986-12-30

    The stability of high-latitude plasma-density enhancements (blobs) is analyzed with regard to the interchange model (driven by a neutral wind or transverse electric field acting on the density gradient at the walls of the blobs). The effects arising from the finite parallel length of the blobs along the magnetic field lines are included in the analysis. Plasma regions of differing collisionalities, to which the blobs extend in altitude, are considered. It was found that the finite-parallel blob size results in a modest reduction in the growth rates of the small somewhat < 1 km) and intermediate (1-10 km) scale sizes, but severely reduces the growth rates, for the large scale sizes (> 10 kms) for the observed parallel blob lengths (approx. 300-600 kms). Further, it is found that the instability growth rates show a moderate reduction at higher altitudes (where ion-inertial effects may be dominant over the ion-neutral collisional effects). Thus, the E x B instability is considered a plausible candidate for the scintillation causing irregularities (1-10 kms) associated with the high-latitude blobs.

  10. Stabilization of numerical interchange in spectral-element magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovinec, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    Auxiliary numerical projections of the divergence of flow velocity and vorticity parallel to magnetic field are developed and tested for the purpose of suppressing unphysical interchange instability in magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The numerical instability arises with equal-order C0 finite- and spectral-element expansions of the flow velocity, magnetic field, and pressure and is sensitive to behavior at the limit of resolution. The auxiliary projections are motivated by physical field-line bending, and coercive responses to the projections are added to the flow-velocity equation. Their incomplete expansions are limited to the highest-order orthogonal polynomial in at least one coordinate of the spectral elements. Cylindrical eigenmode computations show that the projections induce convergence from the stable side with first-order ideal-MHD equations during h-refinement and p-refinement. Hyperbolic and parabolic projections and responses are compared, together with different methods for avoiding magnetic divergence error. The projections are also shown to be effective in linear and nonlinear time-dependent computations with the NIMROD code Sovinec et al. [17], provided that the projections introduce numerical dissipation.

  11. Relation between Turbulence Suppression and Flow Shear for Interchange Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentle, Kenneth; Rowan, William; Williams, Chad; Li, Bo

    2013-10-01

    The Helimak is an approximation to the infinite cylindrical slab with a size large compared with turbulence transverse scale lengths, but with open field lines of finite length. Interchange modes are the dominant instability. Radially-segmented isolated end plates allow application of radial electric fields. Above a threshold in applied voltage, the fractional turbulent amplitude is greatly reduced. Reductions are observed for both bias polarities over a broad range of collisionality and parallel connection length. Simultaneous measurements of the ion flow velocity profile are made by Doppler spectroscopy of the argon plasma ion. Turbulence reductions are weakly correlated with reductions in radial correlation length, but neither turbulence levels nor turbulence reductions are correlated with velocity flow shear. No evidence of zonal flows has been found. The turbulence - density and potential fluctuations, is compared with simulations from a two-fluid model for this geometry, which also show turbulence stabilization with bias without increased shear. Work supported by the Department of Energy OFES DE-FG02-04ER54766.

  12. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M J; Ling, D C; Chi, C C; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-01

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10(-7) T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO3 thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K. PMID:25173276

  13. Tetrasulfur, S4: rotational spectrum, interchange tunneling, and geometrical structure.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M C; Thorwirth, S; Gottlieb, C A; Thaddeus, P

    2004-07-01

    The rotational spectrum of S4 has been observed for the first time in an electrical discharge through sulfur vapor. Two techniques have been used: Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and long-path millimeter-wave absorption spectroscopy. Small, but systematic shifts of the measured transition frequencies of the normal isotopic species indicate that S4 has C2v symmetry but with a low-lying transition state of D2h symmetry, yielding interchange tunneling at 14.1(2) kHz in its ground vibrational state. From the rotational constants of the normal and the single 34S isotopic species, an experimental (r0) structure has been derived: S4 is a singlet planar trapezoid with a terminal bond length of 1.899(7) A, a central bond of 2.173(32) A, and an S-S-S angle of 103.9(8) degrees. Like thiozone (S3), S4 is a candidate for detection in the atmosphere of the Jovian moon Io and in other astronomical sources. PMID:15260588

  14. The Nonlinear Stationary State of Simple Interchange Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentle, Kenneth; Rowan, W. L.; Williams, C. B.; Brookman, M. W.

    2014-10-01

    The Helimak is an approximation to the infinite cylindrical slab with a size large compared with turbulence transverse scale lengths, but with open field lines of finite length. Interchange modes are the dominant instability. Radially-segmented isolated end plates allow application of radial electric fields to modify the plasma flow transverse to B and the radial equilibrium gradient. Measurements of the ion flow velocity profile are made by Doppler spectroscopy of the argon plasma ion. The level of non-linearly saturated turbulence has been measured over a wide range of collisionality, parallel connection length, and flow pattern, but none of the processes found effective for setting the level of saturated turbulence for the weaker turbulence in the plasma interior are found applicable. Quasi-linear theory is inconsistent with the observations, zonal flows are not observed, and local flow shear does not correlate with local turbulence level. Weak correlations are found between turbulence level and radial correlation length for some restricted data subsets, but no broad correlation or predictive power exists. Work supported by the Department of Energy OFES DE-FG02-04ER54766.

  15. Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.; Squillace, P.

    1994-01-01

    Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer and quantification of herbicide bank storage during high streamflow were investigated at a research site on the Cedar River flood plain, 10 km southeast of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. During high streamflow in March 1990, alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background in water from wells as distant as 20, 50, and 10 m from the river's edge, respectively. During high streamflow in May 1990, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background as distant as 20, 50, 10, and 20 m from the river's edge, respectively. Herbicide bank storage took place during high streamflow when hydraulic gradients were from the river to the alluvial aquifer and the laterally infiltrating river water contained herbicide concentrations larger than background concentrations in the aquifer. The herbicide bank storage can be quantified by multiplying herbicide concentration by the "effective area" that a well represented and an assumed porosity of 0.25. During March 1990, herbicide bank storage values were calculated to be 1.7,79, and 4.0 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor, respectively. During May 1990, values were 7.1, 54, 11, and 19 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor, respectively. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  16. An harmonised vocabulary for communicating and interchanging biofilms experimental results.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Maria Olívia; Azevedo, Nuno F; Lourenço, Anália

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm studies are at the crossroads of Biology, Chemistry, Medicine, Material Science and Engineering, among other fields. Data harmonisation in Biofilms is therefore crucial to allow for researchers to collaborate, interchange, understand, and replicate studies at an inter-laboratory and inter-domain scale. The international Minimum Information About a Biofilms Experiment initiative has prepared a set of guidelines for documenting biofilms experiments and data, namely the minimum information checklist. This paper goes a step forward and describes a new ontology for the broad description of biofilm experiments and data. In such an interdisciplinary context we chose to rely on a common integration framework provided by a foundational ontology that facilitates the addition and extension of various sub-domain modules, and the consistent integration of terminology extracted from several existing ontologies, e.g. EXPO and ChEBI. The community is participating actively in the production of this resource, and it is already used by public biofilms-centred databases, such as BiofOmics, and bioinformatics tools, such as the Biofilms Experiment Workbench. This practical validation serves the purpose of disseminating the controlled vocabulary among researchers and identifying current limitations, glitches, and inconsistencies. Information branches will be added, extended or refactored according to user feedback and group discussions. PMID:25339083

  17. Format for Interchange and Display of 3D Terrain Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul; Powell, Mark; Vona, Marsette; Norris, Jeffrey; Morrison, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Visible Scalable Terrain (ViSTa) is a software format for production, interchange, and display of three-dimensional (3D) terrain data acquired by stereoscopic cameras of robotic vision systems. ViSTa is designed to support scalability of data, accuracy of displayed terrain images, and optimal utilization of computational resources. In a ViSTa file, an area of terrain is represented, at one or more levels of detail, by coordinates of isolated points and/or vertices of triangles derived from a texture map that, in turn, is derived from original terrain images. Unlike prior terrain-image software formats, ViSTa includes provisions to ensure accuracy of texture coordinates. Whereas many such formats are based on 2.5-dimensional terrain models and impose additional regularity constraints on data, ViSTa is based on a 3D model without regularity constraints. Whereas many prior formats require external data for specifying image-data coordinate systems, ViSTa provides for the inclusion of coordinate-system data within data files. ViSTa admits highspeed loading and display within a Java program. ViSTa is designed to minimize file sizes and maximize compressibility and to support straightforward reduction of resolution to reduce file size for Internet-based distribution.

  18. Planetary Interchange of Bioactive Material: Probability Factors and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    2001-02-01

    It is now well-accepted that both lunar and martian materials are represented in the meteorite collections. Early suggestions that viable organisms might survive natural transport between planets have not yet been thoroughly examined. The concept of Planetary Interchange of Bioactive Material (PIBM) is potentially relevant to the conditions under which life originated. PIBM has been also invoked to infer that the potential danger to Earth from martian materials is non-existent, an inference with, however, many pitfalls. Numerous impediments to efficient transfer of viable organisms exist. In this work, the lethality of space radiation during long transients and the biasing of launched objects toward materials unlikely to host abundant organisms are examined and shown to reduce the likelihood of successful transfer by orders of magnitude. It is also shown that martian meteorites studied to date assuredly have been subjected to sterilizing levels of ionizing radiation in space. PIBM considerations apply to both the solar system locale(s) of the origin of life and to the applicability of planetary protection protocols to preserve the biospheres of planetary bodies, including our own.

  19. Using electronic data interchange to report product quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Donald F.; Frank, Donald T.

    1993-03-01

    The Product Quality Deficiency Report (PQDR) is a Department of Defense form that identifies deficiencies in the manufacture, repair, or procurement of materiel. It may be used by DoD employees or contractors to identify defects at any point in the item's life. DoD generates nearly 75,000 such deficiency reports each year. In most cases, when a defect is identified, Standard Form (SF) 368 is completed and sent to the activity managing the contract under which the materiel was procured. That activity, usually in conjunction with the contractor, investigates the complaint, attempts to determine a cause and a corrective action, and must make some disposition of the defective materiel. The process is labor- and paper-intensive and time-consuming. Technology can reduce the costs of the process and at the same time improve timeliness by electronically exchanging discrepancy data between activities. Electronic data interchange (EDI) is one technology for electronically passing PQDR data. It is widely used in industry and increasingly within DoD. DMRD 941 defines DoD's commitment to use EDI and cites the PQDR and other discrepancy reports as early candidates for EDI. In this report, we describe how EDI can be linked to changes in PQDR processing practices to provide further improvements.

  20. Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

  1. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M J; Ling, D C; Chi, C C; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-01

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10(-7) T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO3 thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  2. Accelerated Cartesian expansion (ACE) based framework for the rapid evaluation of diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein-Gordon potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Baczewski, Andrew David; Vikram, Melapudi; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; Kempel, Leo

    2010-08-27

    Diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein–Gordon equations find numerous applications in practical problems across a range of diverse disciplines. The temporal dependence of all three Green’s functions are characterized by an infinite tail. This implies that the cost complexity of the spatio-temporal convolutions, associated with evaluating the potentials, scales as O(Ns2Nt2), where Ns and Nt are the number of spatial and temporal degrees of freedom, respectively. In this paper, we discuss two new methods to rapidly evaluate these spatio-temporal convolutions by exploiting their block-Toeplitz nature within the framework of accelerated Cartesian expansions (ACE). The first scheme identifies a convolution relation in time amongst ACE harmonics and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used for efficient evaluation of these convolutions. The second method exploits the rank deficiency of the ACE translation operators with respect to time and develops a recursive numerical compression scheme for the efficient representation and evaluation of temporal convolutions. It is shown that the cost of both methods scales as O(NsNtlog2Nt). Furthermore, several numerical results are presented for the diffusion equation to validate the accuracy and efficacy of the fast algorithms developed here.

  3. Accelerated Cartesian expansion (ACE) based framework for the rapid evaluation of diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein-Gordon potentials

    DOE PAGES

    Baczewski, Andrew David; Vikram, Melapudi; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; Kempel, Leo

    2010-08-27

    Diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein–Gordon equations find numerous applications in practical problems across a range of diverse disciplines. The temporal dependence of all three Green’s functions are characterized by an infinite tail. This implies that the cost complexity of the spatio-temporal convolutions, associated with evaluating the potentials, scales as O(Ns2Nt2), where Ns and Nt are the number of spatial and temporal degrees of freedom, respectively. In this paper, we discuss two new methods to rapidly evaluate these spatio-temporal convolutions by exploiting their block-Toeplitz nature within the framework of accelerated Cartesian expansions (ACE). The first scheme identifies a convolution relation inmore » time amongst ACE harmonics and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used for efficient evaluation of these convolutions. The second method exploits the rank deficiency of the ACE translation operators with respect to time and develops a recursive numerical compression scheme for the efficient representation and evaluation of temporal convolutions. It is shown that the cost of both methods scales as O(NsNtlog2Nt). Furthermore, several numerical results are presented for the diffusion equation to validate the accuracy and efficacy of the fast algorithms developed here.« less

  4. Individuality of Item Interpretation in Interchangeable ACL Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Donald W.; Barack, Leonard I.

    1976-01-01

    The diversity among interpretations of single items in personality questionnaires has been noted previously. Using adjectives from the Adjective Check List (ACL), the study sought evidence bearing on these questions: Does such diversity make the responses to an item not comparable across subjects? If so, what are the implications for scores based…

  5. 75 FR 62919 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Route 250 Bypass Interchange... the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road project in the City of Charlottesville, Virginia... approvals for the following project in the State of Virginia: Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire...

  6. Household and community-level Adverse Childhood Experiences and adult health outcomes in a diverse urban population.

    PubMed

    Wade, Roy; Cronholm, Peter F; Fein, Joel A; Forke, Christine M; Davis, Martha B; Harkins-Schwarz, Mary; Pachter, Lee M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), which include family dysfunction and community-level stressors, negatively impact the health and well being of children throughout the life course. While several studies have examined the impact of these childhood exposures amongst racially and socially diverse populations, the contribution of ACEs in the persistence of socioeconomic disparities in health is poorly understood. To determine the association between ACEs and health outcomes amongst a sample of adults living in Philadelphia and examine the moderating effect of Socioeconomic Status (SES) on this association, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,784 Philadelphia adults, ages 18 and older, using random digit dialing methodology to assess Conventional ACEs (experiences related to family dysfunction), Expanded ACEs (community-level stressors), and health outcomes. Using weighted, multivariable logistic regression analyses along with SES stratified models, we examined the relationship between ACEs and health outcomes as well as the modifying effect of current SES. High Conventional ACE scores were significantly associated with health risk behaviors, physical and mental illness, while elevated Expanded ACE scores were associated only with substance abuse history and sexually transmitted infections. ACEs did have some differential impacts on health outcomes based on SES. Given the robust impact of Conventional ACEs on health, our results support prior research highlighting the primacy of family relationships on a child's life course trajectory and the importance of interventions designed to support families. Our findings related to the modifying effect of SES may provide additional insight into the complex relationship between poverty and childhood adversity.

  7. Evaluation of cardiac output by 5 arterial pulse contour techniques using trend interchangeability method

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Marc-Olivier; Diouf, Momar; de Wilde, Robert B.P.; Dupont, Hervé; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Lorne, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac output measurement with pulse contour analysis is a continuous, mini-invasive, operator-independent, widely used, and cost-effective technique, which could be helpful to assess changes in cardiac output. The 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot have been described to compare the changes between 2 measurements performed under different conditions, and the direction of change by using different methods of measurements. However, the 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot present a number of limitations, with a risk of misinterpretation in routine clinical practice. We describe a new trend interchangeability method designed to objectively define the interchangeability of each change of a variable. Using the repeatability of the reference method, we classified each change as either uninterpretable or interpretable and then as either noninterchangeable, in the gray zone or interchangeable. An interchangeability rate can then be calculated by the number of interchangeable changes divided by the total number of interpretable changes. In this observational study, we used this objective method to assess cardiac output changes with 5 arterial pulse contour techniques (Wesseling's method, LiDCO, PiCCO, Hemac method, and Modelflow) in comparison with bolus thermodilution technique as reference method in 24 cardiac surgery patients. A total of 172 cardiac output variations were available from the 199 data points: 88 (51%) were uninterpretable, according to the first step of the method. The second step of the method, based on the 84 (49%) interpretable variations, showed that only 18 (21%) to 30 (36%) variations were interchangeable regardless of the technique used. None of pulse contour cardiac output technique could be interchangeable with bolus thermodilution to assess changes in cardiac output using the trend interchangeability method in cardiac surgery patients. Future studies may consider using this method to assess interchangeability of changes between different

  8. Evaluation of cardiac output by 5 arterial pulse contour techniques using trend interchangeability method.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marc-Olivier; Diouf, Momar; Wilde, Robert B P de; Dupont, Hervé; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Lorne, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac output measurement with pulse contour analysis is a continuous, mini-invasive, operator-independent, widely used, and cost-effective technique, which could be helpful to assess changes in cardiac output. The 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot have been described to compare the changes between 2 measurements performed under different conditions, and the direction of change by using different methods of measurements. However, the 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot present a number of limitations, with a risk of misinterpretation in routine clinical practice. We describe a new trend interchangeability method designed to objectively define the interchangeability of each change of a variable. Using the repeatability of the reference method, we classified each change as either uninterpretable or interpretable and then as either noninterchangeable, in the gray zone or interchangeable. An interchangeability rate can then be calculated by the number of interchangeable changes divided by the total number of interpretable changes. In this observational study, we used this objective method to assess cardiac output changes with 5 arterial pulse contour techniques (Wesseling's method, LiDCO, PiCCO, Hemac method, and Modelflow) in comparison with bolus thermodilution technique as reference method in 24 cardiac surgery patients. A total of 172 cardiac output variations were available from the 199 data points: 88 (51%) were uninterpretable, according to the first step of the method. The second step of the method, based on the 84 (49%) interpretable variations, showed that only 18 (21%) to 30 (36%) variations were interchangeable regardless of the technique used. None of pulse contour cardiac output technique could be interchangeable with bolus thermodilution to assess changes in cardiac output using the trend interchangeability method in cardiac surgery patients. Future studies may consider using this method to assess interchangeability of changes between different methods

  9. Kinetic and resistive effects on interchange instabilities for a cylindrical model spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Hammett, G.W.; Tang, W.M.

    1983-04-01

    The stabilizing influence of diamagnetic drift effects on ideal and resistive interchange modes is investigated. A resistive-ballooning-mode equation is derived using a kinetic theory approach and is applied to a cylindrical model spheromak equilibrium. It is found that these kinetic effects can significantly improve the ..beta.. limits for collisionless interchange stability. For the resistive modes, the diamagnetic drift terms lead to growth rates which scale linearly with resistivity and are considerably reduced in magnitude. However, the resistive interchange growth rates estimated for near-term spheromak parameters remain significant.

  10. Interchange Slip-Running Reconnection and Sweeping SEP-Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, S.; Aulanier, G.; Pariat, E.; Klein, K.-L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model to explain how particles, accelerated at a reconnection site that is not magnetically connected to the Earth, could eventually propagate along the well-connected open flux tube. Our model is based on the results of a low-beta resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulation of a three-dimensional line-tied and initially current-free bipole, that is embedded in a non-uniform open potential field. The topology of this configuration is that of an asymmetric coronal null-point, with a closed fan surface and an open outer spine. When driven by slow photospheric shearing motions, field lines, initially fully anchored below the fan dome, reconnect at the null point, and jump to the open magnetic domain. This is the standard interchange mode as sketched and calculated in 2D. The key result in 3D is that, reconnected open field lines located in the vicinity of the outer spine, keep reconnecting continuously, across an open quasi-separatrix layer, as previously identified for non-open-null-point reconnection. The apparent slipping motion of these field lines leads to form an extended narrow magnetic flux tube at high altitude. Because of the slip-running reconnection, we conjecture that if energetic particles would be travelling through, or be accelerated inside, the diffusion region, they would be successively injected along continuously reconnecting field lines that are connected farther and farther from the spine. At the scale of the full Sun, owing to the super-radial expansion of field lines below 3 solar radius, such energetic particles could easily be injected in field lines slipping over significant distances, and could eventually reach the distant flux tube that is well-connected to the Earth.

  11. Cassini evidence for rapid interchange transport at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rymer, A. M.; Mauk, B. H.; Hill, T. W.; André, N.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C.; Young, D. T.; Smith, H. T.; Persoon, A. M.; Menietti, J. D.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Coates, A. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    During its tour Cassini has observed numerous plasma injection events in Saturn's inner magnetosphere. Here, we present a case study of one "young" plasma bubble observed when Cassini was in the equatorial plane. The bubble was observed in the equatorial plane at ˜7 Saturn radii from Saturn and had a maximum azimuthal extent of ˜0.25 Rs (Rs=Saturn radius ˜60330 km). We show that the electron density inside the event is lower by a factor ˜3 and the electron temperature higher by over an order of magnitude compared to its surroundings. The injection contains slightly increased magnetic field magnitude of 49 nT compared with a background field of 46 nT. Modelling of pitch angle distributions inside the plasma bubble and measurements of plasma drift provide a novel way to estimate that the bubble originated between 9< L<11 and had an average radial propagation speed of ˜260+60/-70 km s -1. An independent estimate of the speed of the injection following theoretical work of Pontius et al. [1986. Steady State Plasma transport in a Corotation-Dominated Magnetosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 13(11), 1097-1100] based on the mass per unit flux gives a maximum radial propagation speeds of 140 km s -1. These results are similar to those found by Thorne et al. [1997. Galileo evidence for rapid interchange transport in the Io torus. Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2131] for one event observed in Jupiter's magnetosphere near Io. We therefore suggest this is evidence of the same process operating at both planets.

  12. Morphology of Interchange-Driven Injections in Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranicas, C.; Achilleos, N.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Jia, X.; Jackman, C. M.; Khurana, K. K.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    As Cassini passes close to Saturn during its regular orbits, evidence of particle injections can often be found in many different data sets (including MAG, CAPS, MIMI, and RPWS). One reason injections are easily visible in Saturn's inner magnetosphere is that the circumplanetary neutral gas distribution can reduce the intensities of some charged particles. For example, energetic ions can be lost from the system following charge exchange with neutrals and energetic electrons can lose energy in collisions with gas and dust. Injections in the inner magnetosphere are believed to be flux tube interchange events that are part of a larger circulation system in which cold dense plasma flows outward carrying magnetic flux with it. The closed magnetic flux is ultimately returned to the inner magnetosphere in the form of injections of rapidly moving hotter but lighter flux tubes from the middle magnetosphere. In this presentation, we will look at injections from the perspective of multiple Cassini data sets. Some features of these structures have already been identified in the literature from one or more data sets. For example, the tendency for injections to appear as enhancements (depressions) in magnetic field strength at low (high) magnetic latitude has been documented (Andre et al. 2007). Furthermore, that flux tube bundles seem to narrow in spatial extent in the equatorial plane in the higher magnetic field region has also been described. Here, we will look at selected structures distributed in radial distance and latitude as a step toward generalizing their characteristics at various locations. We will consider issues such as the magnetic signature in the field components, the typical wave signatures, the energy range of the injection, and the presence of isolated features versus multiple features occurring simultaneously. We will also discuss observational issues, such as when each instrument is optimally suited to detect injections, and how this relates to their

  13. Affinity purification of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides using immobilized ACE.

    PubMed

    Megías, Cristina; Pedroche, Justo; Yust, María del Mar; Alaiz, Manuel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Millan, Francisco; Vioque, Javier

    2006-09-20

    A lung extract rich in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and pure ACE were immobilized by reaction with the activated support 4 BCL glyoxyl-agarose. These immobilized ACE derivatives were used for purification of ACE inhibitory peptides by affinity chromatography. The immobilized lung extract was used to purify inhibitory peptides from sunflower and rapeseed protein hydrolysates that had been obtained by treatment of protein isolates with alcalase. The ACE binding peptides that were retained by the derivatives were specifically released by treatment with the ACE inhibitor captopril and further purified by reverse-phase C18 HPLC chromatography. Inhibitory peptides with IC50 50 and 150 times lower than those of the original sunflower and rapeseed hydrolysates, respectively, were obtained. The derivative prepared using pure ACE was used for purification of ACE inhibitory peptides from the same type of sunflower protein hydrolysate. ACE binding peptides were released from the ACE-agarose derivatives by treatment with 1 M NaCl and had an IC50 a little higher than those obtained using immobilized extract and elution with captopril. Affinity chromatography facilitated the purification of ACE inhibitory peptides and potentially other bioactive peptides present in food proteins.

  14. Geothermal Energy and the Eastern US: Fifth technical information interchange meeting, Minutes

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    The technical interchange meeting documented here is the fifth meeting where people interested in geothermal energy in the Eastern US have met to interchange technical information. These meetings are intended to assist all in the difficult task of balancing time and effort in doing their assigned jobs and keeping track of what others are doing in similar or related tasks. All of the aforementioned meetings have served their intended purpose and further regional and national meetings are sure to follow.

  15. The electromagnetic interchange mode in a partially ionized collisional plasma. [spread F region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, M. K.; Kennel, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    A collisional electromagnetic dispersion relation is derived from two-fluid theory for the interchange mode coupled to the Alfven, acoustic, drift and entropy modes in a partially ionized plasma. The fundamental electromagnetic nature of the interchange model is noted; coupling to the intermediate Alfven mode is strongly stabilizing for finite k sub z. Both ion viscous and ion-neutral stabilization are included, and it was found that collisions destroy the ion finite Larmor radius cutoff at short perpendicular wavelengths.

  16. Regional aerosol properties: Comparisons of boundary layer measurements from ACE 1, ACE 2, Aerosols99, INDOEX, ACE Asia, TARFOX, and NEAQS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.

    2005-07-01

    Means and variability of aerosol chemical composition and optical properties are compared for the first and second Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE 1 and ACE 2), a cruise across the Atlantic (Aerosols99), the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), the Asian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE Asia), the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX), and the New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS). These experiments were focused either on the remote marine atmosphere (ACE 1) or areas downwind of continental aerosol source regions including western Europe, North America, Africa, India, and Asia. Presented here are size-segregated concentrations of aerosol mass, sea salt, non-sea-salt (nss) SO4=, NH4+, NO3-, dust, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and nss K+, as well as mass ratios that are commonly used to identify aerosol sources and to assess aerosol processing (Cl- to Na+, OC to nss SO4=, EC to total carbon (TC), EC to nss SO4=, nss K+ to EC, Fe to Al, and Si to Al). Optical properties that are compared include size-segregated scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients, and single-scattering albedo at 550 nm. Size-segregated mass scattering and mass absorption efficiencies for the total aerosol and mass extinction efficiencies for the dominant chemical components also are compared. In addition, we present the contribution to light extinction by the dominant chemical components for each region. All data are based on shipboard measurements performed at a relative humidity of 55 ± 5%. Scattering coefficients and single-scattering albedos also are reported at ambient relative humidity (RH) using published values of f(RH). Finally, aerosol optical depths from each region are compared. Identical sampling protocols were used in all experiments in order to eliminate sampling biases and to make the data directly comparable. Major findings include (1) nss SO4= makes up only 16 to 46% of the submicron aerosol mass

  17. Parallel Signal Processing and System Simulation using aCe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.; Aburdene, Maurice F.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, networked and cluster computation have become very popular for both signal processing and system simulation. A new language is ideally suited for parallel signal processing applications and system simulation since it allows the programmer to explicitly express the computations that can be performed concurrently. In addition, the new C based parallel language (ace C) for architecture-adaptive programming allows programmers to implement algorithms and system simulation applications on parallel architectures by providing them with the assurance that future parallel architectures will be able to run their applications with a minimum of modification. In this paper, we will focus on some fundamental features of ace C and present a signal processing application (FFT).

  18. Curriculum innovation in an accelerated BSN program: the ACE Model.

    PubMed

    Suplee, Patricia D; Glasgow, Mary Ellen

    2008-01-01

    As the demand for registered nurses continues to rise, so too has the creation of accelerated baccalaureate nursing programs for second-degree students. This article describes an 11-month Accelerated Career Entry (ACE) Nursing Program's innovative curriculum design, which has a heavy emphasis on technology, professional socialization, and the use of a standardized patient experience as a form of summative evaluation. In addition, challenges of this program are presented. Since 2002, the ACE Program has graduated over 500 students with an average first-time NCLEX pass rate of 95-100%. Although the number of graduates from accelerated programs does not solve the severe nursing shortage, the contributions of these intelligent, assertive, pioneering graduates are important for health care.

  19. Overview of ACE-Asia Spring 2001 Investigations on Aerosol Radiative Effects and Related Aerosol Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Valero, F. P. J.; Flatau, P. J.; Bergin, M.; Holben, B.; Nakajima, T.; Pilewskie, P.; Bergstrom, R.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A primary, ACE-Asia objective was to quantify the interactions between aerosols and radiation in the Asia-Pacific region. Toward this end, radiometric and related aerosol measurements were made from ocean, land, air and space platforms. Models that predict aerosol fields guided the measurements and are helping integrate and interpret results. Companion overview's survey these measurement and modeling components. Here we illustrate how these components were combined to determine aerosol radiative. impacts and their relation to aerosol properties. Because clouds can obscure or change aerosol direct radiative effects, aircraft and ship sorties to measure these effects depended on predicting and finding cloud-free areas and times with interesting aerosols present. Pre-experiment satellite cloud climatologies, pre-flight aerosol and cloud forecasts, and in-flight guidance from satellite imagery all helped achieve this. Assessments of aerosol regional radiative impacts benefit from the spatiotemporal coverage of satellites, provided satellite-retrieved aerosol properties are accurate. Therefore, ACE-Asia included satellite retrieval tests, as part of many comparisons to judge the consistency (closure) among, diverse measurements. Early results include: (1) Solar spectrally resolved and broadband irradiances and optical depth measurements from the C-130 aircraft and at Kosan, Korea yielded aerosol radiative forcing efficiencies, permitting comparisons between efficiencies of ACE-Asia and INDOEX aerosols, and between dust and "pollution" aerosols. Detailed results will be presented in separate papers. (2) Based on measurements of wavelength dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo the estimated 24-h a average aerosol radiative forcing efficiency at the surface for photosynthetically active radiation (400 - 700 nm) in Yulin, China is approx. 30 W sq m per AOD(500 nm). (3) The R/V Brown cruise from Honolulu to Sea of Japan sampled an aerosol optical

  20. ACE-FTS instrument: activities in preparation for launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucy, Marc-Andre; Walker, Kaley A.; Fortin, Serge; Deutsch, Christophe

    2003-11-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is the mission selected by the Canadian Space Agency for its next science satellite, SCISAT-1. ACE consists of a suite of instruments in which the primary element is an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) coupled with an auxiliary 2-channel visible (525 nm) and near infrared imager (1020 nm). A secondary instrument, MAESTRO, provides spectrographic data from the near ultra-violet to the near infrared, including the visible spectral range. In combination the instrument payload covers the spectral range from 0.25 to 13.3 micron. A comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature will be made by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. The ACE mission will measure and analyse the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. A high inclination (74 degrees), low earth orbit (650 km) allows coverage of tropical, mid-latitude and polar regions. This paper presents the instrument-related activities in preparation for launch. In particular, activities related to the integration of instrument to spacecraft are presented as well as tests of the instrument on-board the SciSat-1 bus. Environmental qualification activities at spacecraft-level are described. An overview of the characterization and calibration campaign is presented. Activities for integration and verification at launch site are also covered. The latest status of the spacecraft is also presented.

  1. ACES: An Enabling Technology for Next Generation Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Wuerl, Adam M.; Andrews, Jason E.; Andrews, Dana G.

    2004-02-01

    Andrews Space has developed the ``Alchemist'' Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES), a dual-mode propulsion system that enables safe, economical launch systems that take off and land horizontally. Alchemist generates liquid oxygen through separation of atmospheric air using the refrigeration capacity of liquid hydrogen. The key benefit of Alchemist is that it minimizes vehicle takeoff weight. All internal and NASA-funded activities have shown that ACES, previously proposed for hypersonic combined cycle RLVs, is a higher payoff, lower-risk technology if LOX generation is performed while the vehicle cruises subsonically. Andrews Space has developed the Alchemist concept from a small system study to viable Next Generation launch system technology, conducting not only feasibility studies but also related hardware tests, and it has planned a detailed risk reduction program which employs an experienced, proven contractor team. Andrews also has participated in preliminary studies of an evolvable Next Generation vehicle architecture-enabled by Alchemist ACES-which could meet civil, military, and commercial space requirements within two decades.

  2. Effect of ace inhibitors and TMOF on growth, development, and trypsin activity of larval Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Lemeire, Els; Borovsky, Dov; Van Camp, John; Smagghe, Guy

    2008-12-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc metallopeptidase capable of cleaving dipeptide or dipeptideamide moieties at the C-terminal end of peptides. ACE is present in the hemolymph and reproductive tissues of insects. The presence of ACE in the hemolymph and its broad substrate specificity suggests an important role in processing of bioactive peptides. This study reports the effects of ACE inhibitors on larval growth in the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. Feeding ACE inhibitors ad lib decreased the growth rate, inhibited ACE activity in the larval hemolymph, and down-regulated trypsin activity in the larval gut. These results indicate that S. littoralis ACE may influence trypsin biosynthesis in the larval gut by interacting with a trypsin-modulating oostatic factor (TMOF). Injecting third instar larvae with a combination of Aea-TMOF and the ACE inhibitor captopril, down-regulated trypsin biosynthesis in the larval gut indicating that an Aea-TMOF gut receptor analogue could be present. Injecting captopril and enalapril into newly molted fifth instar larvae stopped larval feeding and decreased weight gain. Together, these results indicate that ACE inhibitors are efficacious in stunting larval growth and ACE plays an important role in larval growth and development. PMID:18949805

  3. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Jonathan I.; Woodruff, Emily D.; Wood, Aaron R.; Rincon, Aldo F.; Harrington, Arianna R.; Morgan, Gary S.; Foster, David A.; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Jud, Nathan A.; Jones, Douglas S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.

  4. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Jonathan I.; Woodruff, Emily D.; Wood, Aaron R.; Rincon, Aldo F.; Harrington, Arianna R.; Morgan, Gary S.; Foster, David A.; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Jud, Nathan A.; Jones, Douglas S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3–4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.

  5. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Jonathan I; Woodruff, Emily D; Wood, Aaron R; Rincon, Aldo F; Harrington, Arianna R; Morgan, Gary S; Foster, David A; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Jud, Nathan A; Jones, Douglas S; MacFadden, Bruce J

    2016-05-12

    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America. PMID:27096364

  6. Transcriptional activity of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta Holobiont: molecular evidence for metabolic interchange

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Cara L.; Labrie, Micheline; Jarett, Jessica K.; Lesser, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Compared to our understanding of the taxonomic composition of the symbiotic microbes in marine sponges, the functional diversity of these symbionts is largely unknown. Furthermore, the application of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic techniques to functional questions on sponge host-symbiont interactions is in its infancy. In this study, we generated a transcriptome for the host and a metatranscriptome of its microbial symbionts for the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, from the Caribbean. In combination with a gene-specific approach, our goals were to (1) characterize genetic evidence for nitrogen cycling in X. muta, an important limiting nutrient on coral reefs (2) identify which prokaryotic symbiont lineages are metabolically active and, (3) characterize the metabolic potential of the prokaryotic community. Xestospongia muta expresses genes from multiple nitrogen transformation pathways that when combined with the abundance of this sponge, and previous data on dissolved inorganic nitrogen fluxes, shows that this sponge is an important contributor to nitrogen cycling biogeochemistry on coral reefs. Additionally, we observed significant differences in gene expression of the archaeal amoA gene, which is involved in ammonia oxidation, between coral reef locations consistent with differences in the fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen previously reported. In regards to symbiont metabolic potential, the genes in the biosynthetic pathways of several amino acids were present in the prokaryotic metatranscriptome dataset but in the host-derived transcripts only the catabolic reactions for these amino acids were present. A similar pattern was observed for the B vitamins (riboflavin, biotin, thiamin, cobalamin). These results expand our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in sponges, and the metabolic interchange highlighted here advances the field of symbiont physiology by elucidating specific metabolic pathways where there is high potential for host

  7. The SNOMED DICOM microglossary: controlled terminology resource for data interchange in biomedical imaging.

    PubMed

    Bidgood, W D

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes an authoritative, non-proprietary information resource that provides an efficient mechanism for embedding specialized clinical knowledge into the design of healthcare telecommunications systems. The resource marries two types of data interchange standards, a message/electronic-document standard and a terminology standard. In technical terms, it is part protocol and part database. Industry, academia, professional specialty societies, and the federal government participated in its development. The development of multi-specialty content has broadly engaged biomedical domain experts to an unprecedented degree in voluntary, non-proprietary message/document-standards development. The resource is the SNOMED DICOM Microglossary (SDM), a message-terminology (or document-content) mapping resource. The message/electronic-document standard is DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine). The terminology standard is SNOMED, (Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine). The SDM specifies the mapping of multi-specialty imaging terminology from SNOMED to DICOM data elements. DICOM provides semantic constraints and a framework for discourse that are lacking in SNOMED. Thus the message standard and the computer-based terminology both depend upon and complete each other. The combination is synergistic. By substitution of different templates of specialty terminology from the SDM, a generic message template, such as the DICOM Visible Light (Color Diagnostic) Image or the DICOM Structured Reporting specification can be reconfigured for diverse applications. Professional societies, with technical assistance from the College of American Pathologists, contribute and maintain their portions of the terminology, and can use SDM templates and term lists in clinical practice guidelines for the structure and content of computer-based patient records.

  8. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Jonathan I; Woodruff, Emily D; Wood, Aaron R; Rincon, Aldo F; Harrington, Arianna R; Morgan, Gary S; Foster, David A; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Jud, Nathan A; Jones, Douglas S; MacFadden, Bruce J

    2016-05-12

    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.

  9. User`s guide for the Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) software

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, P.R.; Horak, K.E.; Hagan, D.; Evanko, D.; Nelson, J.; Ryder, C.; Hedlund, D.

    1997-09-01

    The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspection Teams (inspectors) and Inspected Parties (host). Current training techniques include table-top inspections and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. ACE-IT has been designed to provide training for challenge inspections under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC); however, this training tool can be modified for other inspection regimes. Although ACE-IT provides training from notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities, the primary emphasis of ACE-IT is in the inspection itself--particularly with the concept of managed access. ACE-IT also demonstrates how inspection provisions impact compliance determination and the protection of sensitive information. This User`s Guide describes the use of the ACE-IT training software.

  10. Extension of the ACE solar panels is tested in SAEF-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Extension of the solar panels is tested on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II (SAEF-II). Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  11. The Pharmacogenetic Footprint of ACE Inhibition: A Population-Based Metabolomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Altmaier, Elisabeth; Menni, Cristina; Heier, Margit; Meisinger, Christa; Thorand, Barbara; Quell, Jan; Kobl, Michael; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Valdes, Ana M.; Mangino, Massimo; Waldenberger, Melanie; Strauch, Konstantin; Illig, Thomas; Adamski, Jerzy; Spector, Tim; Gieger, Christian; Suhre, Karsten; Kastenmüller, Gabi

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are an important class of antihypertensives whose action on the human organism is still not fully understood. Although it is known that ACE especially cleaves COOH-terminal dipeptides from active polypeptides, the whole range of substrates and products is still unknown. When analyzing the action of ACE inhibitors, effects of genetic variation on metabolism need to be considered since genetic variance in the ACE gene locus was found to be associated with ACE-concentration in blood as well as with changes in the metabolic profiles of a general population. To investigate the interactions between genetic variance at the ACE-locus and the influence of ACE-therapy on the metabolic status we analyzed 517 metabolites in 1,361 participants from the KORA F4 study. We replicated our results in 1,964 individuals from TwinsUK. We observed differences in the concentration of five dipeptides and three ratios of di- and oligopeptides between ACE inhibitor users and non-users that were genotype dependent. Such changes in the concentration affected major homozygotes, and to a lesser extent heterozygotes, while minor homozygotes showed no or only small changes in the metabolite status. Two of these resulting dipeptides, namely aspartylphenylalanine and phenylalanylserine, showed significant associations with blood pressure which qualifies them—and perhaps also the other dipeptides—as readouts of ACE-activity. Since so far ACE activity measurement is substrate specific due to the usage of only one oligopeptide, taking several dipeptides as potential products of ACE into account may provide a broader picture of the ACE activity. PMID:27120469

  12. The Pharmacogenetic Footprint of ACE Inhibition: A Population-Based Metabolomics Study.

    PubMed

    Altmaier, Elisabeth; Menni, Cristina; Heier, Margit; Meisinger, Christa; Thorand, Barbara; Quell, Jan; Kobl, Michael; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Valdes, Ana M; Mangino, Massimo; Waldenberger, Melanie; Strauch, Konstantin; Illig, Thomas; Adamski, Jerzy; Spector, Tim; Gieger, Christian; Suhre, Karsten; Kastenmüller, Gabi

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are an important class of antihypertensives whose action on the human organism is still not fully understood. Although it is known that ACE especially cleaves COOH-terminal dipeptides from active polypeptides, the whole range of substrates and products is still unknown. When analyzing the action of ACE inhibitors, effects of genetic variation on metabolism need to be considered since genetic variance in the ACE gene locus was found to be associated with ACE-concentration in blood as well as with changes in the metabolic profiles of a general population. To investigate the interactions between genetic variance at the ACE-locus and the influence of ACE-therapy on the metabolic status we analyzed 517 metabolites in 1,361 participants from the KORA F4 study. We replicated our results in 1,964 individuals from TwinsUK. We observed differences in the concentration of five dipeptides and three ratios of di- and oligopeptides between ACE inhibitor users and non-users that were genotype dependent. Such changes in the concentration affected major homozygotes, and to a lesser extent heterozygotes, while minor homozygotes showed no or only small changes in the metabolite status. Two of these resulting dipeptides, namely aspartylphenylalanine and phenylalanylserine, showed significant associations with blood pressure which qualifies them-and perhaps also the other dipeptides-as readouts of ACE-activity. Since so far ACE activity measurement is substrate specific due to the usage of only one oligopeptide, taking several dipeptides as potential products of ACE into account may provide a broader picture of the ACE activity. PMID:27120469

  13. Rediscovering ACE: Novel insights into the many roles of the angiotensin-converting enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Shen, Xiao Z.; Bernstein, Ellen A.; Janjulia, Tea; Taylor, Brian; Giani, Jorge F.; Blackwell, Wendell-Lamar B.; Shah, Kandarp H.; Shi, Peng D.; Fuchs, Sebastien; Bernstein, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is best known for the catalytic conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. However, the use of gene-targeting techniques has led to mouse models highlighting many other biochemical properties and actions of this enzyme. This review discusses recent studies examining the functional significance of ACE tissue-specific expression and the presence in ACE of two independent catalytic sites with distinct substrates and biological effects. It is these features which explain why ACE makes important contributions to many different physiological processes including renal development, blood pressure control, inflammation and immunity. PMID:23686164

  14. Biotic interchange between the Indian subcontinent and mainland Asia through time.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Sebastian; Morley, Robert J; Plath, Martin; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Li, Jia-Tang

    2016-07-04

    Biotic interchange after the connection of previously independently evolving floras and faunas is thought to be one of the key factors that shaped global biodiversity as we see it today. However, it was not known how biotic interchange develops over longer time periods of several million years following the secondary contact of different biotas. Here we present a novel method to investigate the temporal dynamics of biotic interchange based on a phylogeographical meta-analysis by calculating the maximal number of observed dispersal events per million years given the temporal uncertainty of the underlying time-calibrated phylogenies. We show that biotic influx from mainland Asia onto the Indian subcontinent after Eocene continental collision was not a uniform process, but was subject to periods of acceleration, stagnancy and decrease. We discuss potential palaeoenvironmental causes for this fluctuation.

  15. Biotic interchange between the Indian subcontinent and mainland Asia through time

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Sebastian; Morley, Robert J.; Plath, Martin; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Li, Jia-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Biotic interchange after the connection of previously independently evolving floras and faunas is thought to be one of the key factors that shaped global biodiversity as we see it today. However, it was not known how biotic interchange develops over longer time periods of several million years following the secondary contact of different biotas. Here we present a novel method to investigate the temporal dynamics of biotic interchange based on a phylogeographical meta-analysis by calculating the maximal number of observed dispersal events per million years given the temporal uncertainty of the underlying time-calibrated phylogenies. We show that biotic influx from mainland Asia onto the Indian subcontinent after Eocene continental collision was not a uniform process, but was subject to periods of acceleration, stagnancy and decrease. We discuss potential palaeoenvironmental causes for this fluctuation. PMID:27373955

  16. Characteristics of magnetic island formation due to resistive interchange instability in helical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, R.; Matsumoto, Y.; Itagaki, M.; Oikawa, S.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Sato, M.

    2014-05-15

    Focusing attention on the magnetic island formation, we investigate the characteristics of the resistive interchange magnetohydrodynamics instabilities, which would limit a high beta operational regime in helical type fusion reactors. An introduction of a new index, i.e., the ratio of the magnetic fluctuation level to the radial displacement, enables us to make a systematic analysis on the magnetic island formation in the large helical device-like plasmas during the linear growth phase; (i) the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate makes the magnetic island larger than that with the largest growth rate when the amplitude of the radial displacement in both cases is almost the same as each other; (ii) applied to a typical tearing instability, the index is smaller than that for the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate.

  17. Biotic interchange between the Indian subcontinent and mainland Asia through time.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Sebastian; Morley, Robert J; Plath, Martin; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Li, Jia-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Biotic interchange after the connection of previously independently evolving floras and faunas is thought to be one of the key factors that shaped global biodiversity as we see it today. However, it was not known how biotic interchange develops over longer time periods of several million years following the secondary contact of different biotas. Here we present a novel method to investigate the temporal dynamics of biotic interchange based on a phylogeographical meta-analysis by calculating the maximal number of observed dispersal events per million years given the temporal uncertainty of the underlying time-calibrated phylogenies. We show that biotic influx from mainland Asia onto the Indian subcontinent after Eocene continental collision was not a uniform process, but was subject to periods of acceleration, stagnancy and decrease. We discuss potential palaeoenvironmental causes for this fluctuation. PMID:27373955

  18. Interaction between static magnetic islands and interchange modes in a straight heliotron plasma with high resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Kinya; Ichiguchi, Katsuji; Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi

    2010-06-15

    Fundamental mechanism of the nonlinear interaction between static magnetic islands generated by an external field and a resistive interchange mode is investigated in a straight heliotron plasma with high resistivity by using a numerical method based on the reduced magnetohydrodynamics equations. The behavior of the magnetic islands is examined at the steady state after the nonlinear saturation of the interchange mode. The width and the phase of the magnetic islands are changed by the mode evolution. These changes are almost determined by the linear combination of the two perturbed poloidal magnetic fluxes, the flux imposed externally and the flux attributed to the interchange mode, in spite of the fact that the changes result from the nonlinear process. It is also obtained that the amount of the local change of the pressure at the resonant surface in the saturation state depends on the phase of the static magnetic islands.

  19. A Cross-Classified CFA-MTMM Model for Structurally Different and Nonindependent Interchangeable Methods.

    PubMed

    Koch, Tobias; Schultze, Martin; Jeon, Minjeong; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Praetorius, Anna-Katharina; Eid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Multirater (multimethod, multisource) studies are increasingly applied in psychology. Eid and colleagues (2008) proposed a multilevel confirmatory factor model for multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) data combining structurally different and multiple independent interchangeable methods (raters). In many studies, however, different interchangeable raters (e.g., peers, subordinates) are asked to rate different targets (students, supervisors), leading to violations of the independence assumption and to cross-classified data structures. In the present work, we extend the ML-CFA-MTMM model by Eid and colleagues (2008) to cross-classified multirater designs. The new C4 model (Cross-Classified CTC[M-1] Combination of Methods) accounts for nonindependent interchangeable raters and enables researchers to explicitly model the interaction between targets and raters as a latent variable. Using a real data application, it is shown how credibility intervals of model parameters and different variance components can be obtained using Bayesian estimation techniques. PMID:26881958

  20. Automatic 3D high-fidelity traffic interchange modeling using 2D road GIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-03-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations. However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially for those existing in the real world. Real road network contains various elements such as road segments, road intersections and traffic interchanges. Among them, traffic interchanges present the most challenges to model due to their complexity and the lack of height information (vertical position) of traffic interchanges in existing road GIS data. This paper proposes a novel approach that can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models, including traffic interchange models, from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road centerline information. The proposed method consists of several steps. The raw road GIS data are first preprocessed to extract road network topology, merge redundant links, and classify road types. Then overlapped points in the interchanges are detected and their elevations are determined based on a set of level estimation rules. Parametric representations of the road centerlines are then generated through link segmentation and fitting, and they have the advantages of arbitrary levels of detail with reduced memory usage. Finally a set of civil engineering rules for road design (e.g., cross slope, superelevation) are selected and used to generate realistic road surfaces. In addition to traffic interchange modeling, the proposed method also applies to other more general road elements. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is highly effective and useful in many applications.

  1. Positional interchanges influence the physical and technical match performance variables of elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Schuth, G; Carr, G; Barnes, C; Carling, C; Bradley, P S

    2016-01-01

    Positional variation in match performance is well established in elite soccer but no information exists on players switching positions. This study investigated the influence of elite players interchanging from one position to another on physical and technical match performance. Data were collected from multiple English Premier League (EPL) seasons using a computerised tracking system. After adhering to stringent inclusion criteria, players were examined across several interchanges: central-defender to fullback (CD-FB, n = 11, 312 observations), central-midfielder to wide-midfielder (CM-WM, n = 7, 171 observations), wide-midfielder to central-midfielder (WM-CM, n = 7, 197 observations) and attacker to wide-midfielder (AT-WM, n = 4, 81 observations). Players interchanging from CD-FB covered markedly more high-intensity running and sprinting distance (effect size [ES]: -1.56 and -1.26), lost more possessions but made more final third entries (ES: -1.23 and -1.55). Interchanging from CM-WM and WM-CM resulted in trivial to moderate differences in both physical (ES: -0.14-0.59 and -0.21-0.39) and technical performances (ES: -0.48-0.64 and -0.36-0.54). Players interchanging from AT-WM demonstrated a moderate difference in high-intensity running without possession (ES: -0.98) and moderate-to-large differences in the number of clearances, tackles and possessions won (ES: -0.77, -1.16 and -1.41). The data demonstrate that the physical and technical demands vary greatly from one interchange to another but utility players seem able to adapt to these positional switches. PMID:26700131

  2. Electromagnetic interchange-like mode and zonal flow in electron-magnetohydrodynamic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Horiuchi, Ritoku

    2006-10-15

    A numerical simulation of the nonlinear state of interchange instability associated with electron inertia in an unmagnetized plasma is studied. It is shown that a self-consistent sheared transverse electron current flow is generated due to nonlinear mechanisms. This zonal flow can reduce the growth rate of the magnetic interchange-like instability and reach a steady state. The zonal flow generation mechanisms are discussed by truncated Fourier mode representation. In the truncated model, three mode equations are considered that have an exact analytic solution that matches well with the numerical solution. The effect of different boundary conditions in such investigations is also discussed.

  3. The electromagnetic interchange mode in a partly-ionized collisional plasma. [in F region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, M. K.; Kennel, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A collisional electromagnetic dispersion relation is derived from two-fluid theory for the interchange mode coupled to the Alfven, acoustic, drift, and entropy modes in a partially ionized plasma. The fundamental electromagnetic nature of the interchange mode is noted: coupling to the intermediate Alfven mode is strongly stabilizing for finite perturbations of the magnetic field. Both ion-viscous and ion-neutral stabilization are included; and it is found that collisions destroy the FLR (finite Larmor radius) cutoff at short perpendicular wavelengths.

  4. Validation of NO2 and NO from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerzenmacher, T.; Wolff, M. A.; Strong, K.; Dupuy, E.; Walker, K. A.; Amekudzi, L. K.; Batchelor, R. L.; Bernath, P. F.; Berthet, G.; Blumenstock, T.; Boone, C. D.; Bramstedt, K.; Brogniez, C.; Brohede, S.; Burrows, J. P.; Catoire, V.; Dodion, J.; Drummond, J. R.; Dufour, D. G.; Funke, B.; Fussen, D.; Goutail, F.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Haley, C. S.; Hendrick, F.; Höpfner, M.; Huret, N.; Jones, N.; Kar, J.; Kramer, I.; Llewellyn, E. J.; López-Puertas, M.; Manney, G.; McElroy, C. T.; McLinden, C. A.; Melo, S.; Mikuteit, S.; Murtagh, D.; Nichitiu, F.; Notholt, J.; Nowlan, C.; Piccolo, C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Randall, C.; Raspollini, P.; Ridolfi, M.; Richter, A.; Schneider, M.; Schrems, O.; Silicani, M.; Stiller, G. P.; Taylor, J.; Tétard, C.; Toohey, M.; Vanhellemont, F.; Warneke, T.; Zawodny, J. M.; Zou, J.

    2008-10-01

    Vertical profiles of NO2 and NO have been obtained from solar occultation measurements by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), using an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and (for NO2) an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrometer, MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation). In this paper, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO version 1.2 NO2 data are assessed using other solar occultation measurements (HALOE, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, SCIAMACHY), stellar occultation measurements (GOMOS), limb measurements (MIPAS, OSIRIS), nadir measurements (SCIAMACHY), balloon-borne measurements (SPIRALE, SAOZ) and ground-based measurements (UV-VIS, FTIR). Time differences between the comparison measurements were reduced using either a tight coincidence criterion, or where possible, chemical box models. ACE-FTS NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO NO2 are generally consistent with the correlative data. The ACE-FTS and MAESTRO NO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles agree with the profiles from other satellite data sets to within about 20% between 25 and 40 km, with the exception of MIPAS ESA (for ACE-FTS) and SAGE II (for ACE-FTS (sunrise) and MAESTRO) and suggest a negative bias between 23 and 40 km of about 10%. MAESTRO reports larger VMR values than the ACE-FTS. In comparisons with HALOE, ACE-FTS NO VMRs typically (on average) agree to ±8% from 22 to 64 km and to +10% from 93 to 105 km, with maxima of 21% and 36%, respectively. Partial column comparisons for NO2 show that there is quite good agreement between the ACE instruments and the FTIRs, with a mean difference of +7.3% for ACE-FTS and +12.8% for MAESTRO.

  5. ACE2 overexpression inhibits acquired platinum resistance-induced tumor angiogenesis in NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qijian; Zhou, Ling; Zhou, Jianping; Wan, Huanying; Li, Qingyun; Feng, Yun

    2016-09-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is a multifunctional bioactive peptide in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a newly identified component of RAS. We previously reported that ACE2 overexpression may inhibit cell growth and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ACE2 on tumor-associated angiogen-esis after the development of acquired platinum resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Four NSCLC cell lines, A549, LLC, A549-DDP and LLC-DDP, were used in vitro, while A549 and A549-DDP cells were used in vivo. A549-DDP and LLC-DDP cells were newly established at our institution as acquired platinum-resistant sublines by culturing the former parent cells in cisplatin (CDDP)-containing conditioned medium for 6 months. These platinum-resistant cells showed significantly higher angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), ACE and VEGF production and lower ACE2 expression than their corresponding parent cells. We showed that ACE2 overexpression inhibited the production of VEGF in vitro and in vivo compared to their corresponding parent cells. We also found that ACE2 overexpression reduced the expression of AT1R and ACE. Additionally, we confirmed that ACE2 overexpres-sion inhibited cell growth and VEGF production while simultaneously suppressing ACE and AT1R expression in human lung cancer xenografts. Our findings indicate that ACE2 overexpression may potentially suppress angiogenesis in NSCLC after the development of acquired platinum resistance. PMID:27460845

  6. ACE: A distributed system to manage large data archives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daily, Mike I.; Allen, Frank W.

    1993-01-01

    Competitive pressures in the oil and gas industry are requiring a much tighter integration of technical data into E and P business processes. The development of new systems to accommodate this business need must comprehend the significant numbers of large, complex data objects which the industry generates. The life cycle of the data objects is a four phase progression from data acquisition, to data processing, through data interpretation, and ending finally with data archival. In order to implement a cost effect system which provides an efficient conversion from data to information and allows effective use of this information, an organization must consider the technical data management requirements in all four phases. A set of technical issues which may differ in each phase must be addressed to insure an overall successful development strategy. The technical issues include standardized data formats and media for data acquisition, data management during processing, plus networks, applications software, and GUI's for interpretation of the processed data. Mass storage hardware and software is required to provide cost effective storage and retrieval during the latter three stages as well as long term archival. Mobil Oil Corporation's Exploration and Producing Technical Center (MEPTEC) has addressed the technical and cost issues of designing, building, and implementing an Advanced Computing Environment (ACE) to support the petroleum E and P function, which is critical to the corporation's continued success. Mobile views ACE as a cost effective solution which can give Mobile a competitive edge as well as a viable technical solution.

  7. Uncertainty quantification for accident management using ACE surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Varuttamaseni, A.; Lee, J. C.; Youngblood, R. W.

    2012-07-01

    The alternating conditional expectation (ACE) regression method is used to generate RELAP5 surrogates which are then used to determine the distribution of the peak clad temperature (PCT) during the loss of feedwater accident coupled with a subsequent initiation of the feed and bleed (F and B) operation in the Zion-1 nuclear power plant. The construction of the surrogates assumes conditional independence relations among key reactor parameters. The choice of parameters to model is based on the macroscopic balance statements governing the behavior of the reactor. The peak clad temperature is calculated based on the independent variables that are known to be important in determining the success of the F and B operation. The relationship between these independent variables and the plant parameters such as coolant pressure and temperature is represented by surrogates that are constructed based on 45 RELAP5 cases. The time-dependent PCT for different values of F and B parameters is calculated by sampling the independent variables from their probability distributions and propagating the information through two layers of surrogates. The results of our analysis show that the ACE surrogates are able to satisfactorily reproduce the behavior of the plant parameters even though a quasi-static assumption is primarily used in their construction. The PCT is found to be lower in cases where the F and B operation is initiated, compared to the case without F and B, regardless of the F and B parameters used. (authors)

  8. Formative Evaluation of ACES Program: Findings from Surveys and Interviews Year One, Grades 11 and 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanin, Natalie; Modarresi, Shahpar

    2015-01-01

    The Office of Shared Accountability (OSA) in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) is conducting a multiyear evaluation of the Achieving Collegiate Excellence and Success (ACES) program. The ACES program is a collaboration between MCPS, Montgomery College (MC), and the Universities at Shady Grove (USG) to create a seamless pathway…

  9. Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), Concept Simulations using Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubat, Greg; Vandrei, Don

    2006-01-01

    Project Objectives include: a) CNS Model Development; b Design/Integration of baseline set of CNS Models into ACES; c) Implement Enhanced Simulation Capabilities in ACES; d) Design and Integration of Enhanced (2nd set) CNS Models; and e) Continue with CNS Model Integration/Concept evaluations.

  10. Validation of NO2 and NO from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerzenmacher, T.; Wolff, M. A.; Stong, K.; Dupuy, E.; Walker, K. A.; Amekudzi, L. K.; Batchelor, R. L.; Bernath, P. F.; Berthet, G.; Blumenstock, T.; Boone, C. D.; Bramstedt, K.; Brogniez, C.; Brohede, S.; Burrows, J. P.; Catoire, V.; Dodion, J.; Drummond, J. R.; Dufour, D. G.; Funke, B.; Fussen, D.; Goutail, F.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Haley, C. S.; Hendrick, F.; Höpfner, M.; Huret, N.; Jones, N.; Kar, J.; Kramer, I.; Llewellyn, E. J.; López-Puertas, M.; Manney, G.; McElroy, C. T.; McLinden, C. A.; Melo, S.; Mikuteit, S.; Murthag, D.; Nichitiu, F.; Notholt, J.; Nowlan, C.; Piccolo, C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Randall, C.; Raspollini, P.; Ridolfi, M.; Richter, A.; Schneider, M.; Schrems, O.; Silicani, M.; Stiller, G. P.; Taylor, J.; Tétard, C.; Toohey, M.; Vanhellemont, F.; Warneke, T.; Zawodny, J. M.; Zou, J.

    2008-02-01

    Vertical profiles of NO2 and NO have been obtained from solar occultation measurements by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), using an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer, ACE-FTS, and an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrometer, MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation). In this paper, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO version 1.2 NO2 data are assessed using other solar occultation measurements (HALOE, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, SCIAMACHY), stellar occultation measurements (GOMOS), limb measurements (MIPAS, OSIRIS), nadir measurements (SCIAMACHY), balloon measurements (SPIRALE, SAOZ) and ground-based measurements (UV-VIS, FTIR). Time differences between the comparison measurements were reduced using either a tight coincidence criterion, or where possible, chemical box models. ACE-FTS NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO NO2 are generally consistent with the correlative data. The ACE-FTS NO2 VMRs agree with the satellite data sets to within about 20% between 25 and 40 km, and suggest a negative bias between 23 and 40 km of about textminus10%. In comparisons with HALOE, ACE-FTS NO VMRs typically agree to ±8% from 22 to 64 km and to +10% from 93 to 105 km. Partial column comparisons for NO2 show that there is fair agreement between the ACE instruments and the FTIRs, with a mean difference of +7.3% for ACE-FTS and +12.8% for MAESTRO.

  11. Cutaneous allergy to insulin: could statins and ACE inhibitors play a role? A case report.

    PubMed

    Pitrola, D; MacIver, C; Mallipedhi, A; Udiawar, M; Price, D E; Stephens, J W

    2014-04-01

    Insulin allergy is rare. Both statins and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may cause local urticarial skin reactions and have been implicated to precipitate local reactions to insulin. We describe a case of a localised urticarial allergic reaction related to insulin use in a patient co-prescribed an ACE inhibitor and statin. PMID:24534533

  12. Preparing GMAT for Operational Maneuver Planning of the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qureshi, Rizwan Hamid; Hughes, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is an open-source space mission design, analysis and trajectory optimization tool. GMAT is developed by a team of NASA, private industry, public and private contributors. GMAT is designed to model, optimize and estimate spacecraft trajectories in flight regimes ranging from low Earth orbit to lunar applications, interplanetary trajectories and other deep space missions. GMAT has also been flight qualified to support operational maneuver planning for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission. ACE was launched in August, 1997 and is orbiting the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. The primary science objective of ACE is to study the composition of both the solar wind and the galactic cosmic rays. Operational orbit determination, maneuver operations and product generation for ACE are conducted by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF). This paper discusses the entire engineering lifecycle and major operational certification milestones that GMAT successfully completed to obtain operational certification for the ACE mission. Operational certification milestones such as gathering of the requirements for ACE operational maneuver planning, gap analysis, test plans and procedures development, system design, pre-shadow operations, training to FDF ACE maneuver planners, shadow operations, Test Readiness Review (TRR) and finally Operational Readiness Review (ORR) are discussed. These efforts have demonstrated that GMAT is flight quality software ready to support ACE mission operations in the FDF.

  13. 75 FR 64737 - Automated Commercial Environment (ACE): Announcement of a National Customs Automation Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Automated Commercial Environment (ACE): Announcement of a... required advance ocean and rail data through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). This notice... application period for participation, outlines the development and evaluation methodology to be used,...

  14. 77 FR 20835 - National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... Portal Accounts and Subsequent Revision Notices: 67 FR 21800 (May 1, 2002); 70 FR 5199 (February 1, 2005); 69 FR 5360 and 69 FR 5362 (February 4, 2004); 69 FR 54302 (September 8, 2004). ACE System of Records Notice: 71 FR 3109 (January 19, 2006). Terms/Conditions for Access to the ACE Portal and...

  15. 76 FR 34246 - Automated Commercial Environment (ACE); Announcement of National Customs Automation Program Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ..., 2003, CBP published a final rule in the Federal Register (68 FR 68140) to effectuate the provisions of... 27, 2006 (71 FR 62922), CBP designated the ACE Truck Manifest System as the approved system for... in which CBP had planned to require the use of ACE. See, 72 FR 53789, September 20, 2007....

  16. Absence of cell surface expression of human ACE leads to perinatal death.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Annie; Acharya, K Ravi; Masuyer, Geoffrey; Quenech'du, Nicole; Gribouval, Olivier; Morinière, Vincent; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Corvol, Pierre

    2014-03-15

    Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) is a recessive autosomal disease characterized most often by perinatal death. It is due to the inactivation of any of the major genes of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), one of which is the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE is present as a tissue-bound enzyme and circulates in plasma after its solubilization. In this report, we present the effect of different ACE mutations associated with RTD on ACE intracellular trafficking, secretion and enzymatic activity. One truncated mutant, R762X, responsible for neonatal death was found to be an enzymatically active, secreted form, not inserted in the plasma membrane. In contrast, another mutant, R1180P, was compatible with life after transient neonatal renal insufficiency. This mutant was located at the plasma membrane and rapidly secreted. These results highlight the importance of tissue-bound ACE versus circulating ACE and show that the total absence of cell surface expression of ACE is incompatible with life. In addition, two missense mutants (W594R and R828H) and two truncated mutants (Q1136X and G1145AX) were also studied. These mutants were neither inserted in the plasma membrane nor secreted. Finally, the structural implications of these ACE mutations were examined by molecular modelling, which suggested some important structural alterations such as disruption of intra-molecular non-covalent interactions (e.g. salt bridges).

  17. SCORE/ACE Counselor Handbook. Service Corps of Retired Executives. Active Corps of Executives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsverk, Arvel; And Others

    This counselor handbook is intended to help Service Corps of Retired Executives/Active Corps of Executives (SCORE/ACE) counselors to plan and conduct counseling services more effectively. Included in the introductory section are an overview of the SCORE/ACE counseling program, a discussion of what the counselor does, directions for completing…

  18. Education for 2001 and Beyond: Imperatives and Possibilities. Outcomes from the ACE "Education 2000" International Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unicorn: Journal of the Australian College of Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "Unicorn," the journal of the Australian College of Education (ACE), contains extracts and summaries of 13 presentations given at the international ACE conference, "Education 2000: Priorities for the New Millennium." The papers not only address the five themes of the conference (priorities for learning, priorities for supporting…

  19. Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance Models in ACES: Design Implementation and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubat, Greg; Vandrei, Don; Satapathy, Goutam; Kumar, Anil; Khanna, Manu

    2006-01-01

    Presentation objectives include: a) Overview of the ACES/CNS System Models Design and Integration; b) Configuration Capabilities available for Models and Simulations using ACES with CNS Modeling; c) Descriptions of recently added, Enhanced CNS Simulation Capabilities; and d) General Concepts Ideas that Utilize CNS Modeling to Enhance Concept Evaluations.

  20. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity and ACE Inhibitory Peptides of Salmon (Salmo salar) Protein Hydrolysates Obtained by Human and Porcine Gastrointestinal Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Darewicz, Małgorzata; Borawska, Justyna; Vegarud, Gerd E.; Minkiewicz, Piotr; Iwaniak, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes) and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes). Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50%) of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes. PMID:25123137

  1. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and ACE inhibitory peptides of salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysates obtained by human and porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Darewicz, Małgorzata; Borawska, Justyna; Vegarud, Gerd E; Minkiewicz, Piotr; Iwaniak, Anna

    2014-08-13

    The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes) and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes). Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50%) of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

  2. An ace-1 gene duplication resorbs the fitness cost associated with resistance in Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Assogba, Benoît S.; Djogbénou, Luc S.; Milesi, Pascal; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Perez, Julie; Ayala, Diego; Chandre, Fabrice; Makoutodé, Michel; Labbé, Pierrick; Weill, Mylène

    2015-01-01

    Widespread resistance to pyrethroids threatens malaria control in Africa. Consequently, several countries switched to carbamates and organophophates insecticides for indoor residual spraying. However, a mutation in the ace-1 gene conferring resistance to these compounds (ace-1R allele), is already present. Furthermore, a duplicated allele (ace-1D) recently appeared; characterizing its selective advantage is mandatory to evaluate the threat. Our data revealed that a unique duplication event, pairing a susceptible and a resistant copy of the ace-1 gene spread through West Africa. Further investigations revealed that, while ace-1D confers less resistance than ace-1R, the high fitness cost associated with ace-1R is almost completely suppressed by the duplication for all traits studied. ace-1 duplication thus represents a permanent heterozygote phenotype, selected, and thus spreading, due to the mosaic nature of mosquito control. It provides malaria mosquito with a new evolutionary path that could hamper resistance management. PMID:26434951

  3. The effect of saturation of ACE binding sites on the pharmacokinetics of enalaprilat in man.

    PubMed Central

    Wade, J R; Meredith, P A; Hughes, D M; Elliott, H L

    1992-01-01

    1. Eight healthy male volunteers received oral enalapril, 10 mg, in the presence and absence of pretreatment with captopril, 50 mg, twice daily for 5 days. 2. Enalaprilat pharmacokinetics were characterised after both doses of enalapril to investigate the effect of saturating ACE binding sites by pretreatment with captopril. 3. The pharmacokinetics of enalaprilat were best described by a one compartment model with zero order input incorporating saturable binding to plasma and tissue ACE. 4. Values of AUC (0.72 h) for enalaprilat were 419 +/- 97 and 450 +/- 87 ng ml-1 h in the presence and absence of captopril, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant nor were there any other differences in model parameters. 5. Induction of ACE by captopril resulting in an increase in the number of ACE binding sites, may have obscured any effect of captopril on the occupancy of ACE binding sites by enalapril. PMID:1312853

  4. Tissue and plasma angiotensin converting enzyme and the response to ACE inhibitor drugs.

    PubMed Central

    MacFadyen, R J; Lees, K R; Reid, J L

    1991-01-01

    1. There is a body of circumstantial and direct evidence supporting the existence and functional importance of a tissue based RAS at a variety of sites. 2. The relation between circulatory and tissue based systems is complex. The relative importance of the two in determining haemodynamic effects is unknown. 3. Despite the wide range of ACE inhibitors already available, it remains unclear whether there are genuine differences related to tissue specificity. 4. Pathological states such as chronic cardiac failure need to be explored with regard to the contribution of tissue based ACE activities in generating acute and chronic haemodynamic responses to ACE inhibitors. 5. The role of tissue vs plasma ACE activity may be clarified by study of the relation between drug concentration and haemodynamic effect, provided that the temporal dissociation is examined and linked to circulating and tissue based changes in ACE activity, angiotensin peptides and sympathetic hormones. PMID:1849731

  5. Adolescent parents and their children: a multifaceted approach to prevention of adverse childhood experiences (ACE).

    PubMed

    Mayer, Lynn Milgram; Thursby, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Childhood experiences can have long-term effects. Research shows that children who undergo adverse childhood experiences (ACE) often have negative health and mental health outcomes later in life. Children of adolescent parents with high ACE Scores are at greater risk of ACE. As such, an intergenerational approach to preventing ACE is proposed in this article, addressing the needs of both the adolescent parent and their children. A review of the literature indicates that a public health perspective can guide the development of a prevention model aimed at reducing the effects of ACE. The current article proposes a universal, multifaceted, and interdisciplinary prevention science model that has two targets: adolescent parents and their children. Schools and early childhood programs can be mobilized to offer community prevention strategies across realms to include the individual, community, provider, coalitions/networks, organizational practices, and policy/legislation. PMID:22970783

  6. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84.80 Section 84.80 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  7. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84.80 Section 84.80 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  8. 78 FR 18666 - Agency Information Collection Activities; New Information Collection: Lease and Interchange of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Docket Management System published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; New Information Collection: Lease and Interchange of Vehicles AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  9. N-231 High Reynolds Number Channel I is a blowdown Facility that utilizes interchangeable test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    N-231 High Reynolds Number Channel I is a blowdown Facility that utilizes interchangeable test sections and nozzles. The facility provides experimental support for the fluid mechanics research, including experimental verification of aerodynamic computer codes and boundary-layer and airfoil studies that require high Reynolds number simulation. (Tunnel 1)

  10. 22 CFR 501.3 - Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Executive Order 11219 (3 CFR 1964-65 Comp. p. 303) provides for the noncompetitive appointment of present or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service. 501.3 Section 501.3 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS...

  11. 22 CFR 501.3 - Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Executive Order 11219 (3 CFR 1964-65 Comp. p. 303) provides for the noncompetitive appointment of present or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service. 501.3 Section 501.3 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS...

  12. 22 CFR 501.3 - Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Executive Order 11219 (3 CFR 1964-65 Comp. p. 303) provides for the noncompetitive appointment of present or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service. 501.3 Section 501.3 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS...

  13. 22 CFR 501.3 - Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Executive Order 11219 (3 CFR 1964-65 Comp. p. 303) provides for the noncompetitive appointment of present or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service. 501.3 Section 501.3 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF...

  14. 22 CFR 501.3 - Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Executive Order 11219 (3 CFR 1964-65 Comp. p. 303) provides for the noncompetitive appointment of present or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service. 501.3 Section 501.3 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS...

  15. A numerical study of the 3D random interchange and random loop models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barp, Alessandro; Barp, Edoardo Gabriele; Briol, François-Xavier; Ueltschi, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    We have studied numerically the random interchange model and related loop models on the three-dimensional cubic lattice. We have determined the transition time for the occurrence of long loops. The joint distribution of the lengths of long loops is Poisson-Dirichlet with parameter 1 or \\frac{1}{2}.

  16. The Use of Electronic Data Interchange under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhinehart, Paul T.

    1996-01-01

    When used in managing college student records, electronic data interchange allows electronic student records to be fed directly into a receiving institution's database instead of being sent by mail. Although the process offers many clear advantages, one important question that must be addressed is how students' privacy will be protected under a…

  17. Living and Learning for International Interchange: A Sourcebook for Housing Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiff, Richard F., Ed.

    This sourcebook is designed to enable college residence hall staff to address more effectively the unique problems, needs, and concerns of foreign students. It provides numerous ideas for promoting international interchange, including examples of international living centers, curricula, programs, and resources for staff training and development.…

  18. Fluency Effects in Recognition Memory: Are Perceptual Fluency and Conceptual Fluency Interchangeable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M.; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2014-01-01

    On a recognition memory test, both perceptual and conceptual fluency can engender a sense of familiarity and elicit recognition memory illusions. To date, perceptual and conceptual fluency have been studied separately but are they interchangeable in terms of their influence on recognition judgments? Five experiments compared the effect of…

  19. Isolation, Purification and Molecular Mechanism of a Peanut Protein-Derived ACE-Inhibitory Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aimin; Liu, Hongzhi; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Wang, Qiang; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of bioactive peptides are capable of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effects, little is known regarding the mechanism of peanut peptides using molecular simulation. The aim of this study was to obtain ACE inhibiting peptide from peanut protein and provide insight on the molecular mechanism of its ACE inhibiting action. Peanut peptides having ACE inhibitory activity were isolated through enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration. Further chromatographic fractionation was conducted to isolate a more potent peanut peptide and its antihypertensive activity was analyzed through in vitro ACE inhibitory tests and in vivo animal experiments. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was used to identify its amino acid sequence. Mechanism of ACE inhibition of P8 was analyzed using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. A peanut peptide (P8) having Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence was obtained which had the highest ACE inhibiting activity of 85.77% (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 0.0052 mg/ml). This peanut peptide is a competitive inhibitor and show significant short term (12 h) and long term (28 days) antihypertensive activity. Dynamic tests illustrated that P8 can be successfully docked into the active pocket of ACE and can be combined with several amino acid residues. Hydrogen bond, electrostatic bond and Pi-bond were found to be the three main interaction contributing to the structural stability of ACE-peptide complex. In addition, zinc atom could form metal-carboxylic coordination bond with Tyr, Met residues of P8, resulting into its high ACE inhibiting activity. Our finding indicated that the peanut peptide (P8) having a Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence can be a promising candidate for functional foods and prescription drug aimed at control of hypertension. PMID:25347076

  20. Polar Vortex Structure with ACE and OSIRIS Ozone Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, W. F.

    2005-12-01

    The polar vortex is the dominant feature of stratospheric wind field. The ACE instrument on SCISAT-1 can map ozone fields from 8 to 50 km in 16 days. The OSIRIS instrument on ODIN can map the ozone fields at 2 km intervals from 10 km to over 65 km on a daily basis. They can also provide aerosol maps at the lower levels. These can be used for dynamical studies such as vortex breakdown. Four years of ozone data from the OSIRIS instrument on ODIN have been processed using the Kerr three wavelength algorithm. The OSIRIS ozone data is on the web as orbital slices. TOMS like maps have been formed at 2 km intervals from 10 km to 42 km by mapping the OSIRIS ozone product onto polar map projections. This mapset allows investigations of the vertical structure and evolution of the vortex. The downward motion in the vortex is clearly demonstrated by aerosol maps which show a clean vortex due to the descent within the vortex. The Antarctic vortex and the Arctic vortex were investigated using the ACE profiles and the OSIRIS ozone product. OSIRIS data is available from Oct 1, 2001 to April 30, 2005 as maps at 2km intervals from 10 km to 42 km. An example is demonstrated using the split vortex event of September 25, 2002; the split extends from 14 km up to 42 km. However, the 10 km and 12 km levels showed no vortex during the split. There is a close relationship of vortex ozone with PV and hence to the vortex wind. These maps are used to study the vortex in the Arctic and the Antarctic. In particular, the vortex breakdown in the two hemispheres is compared. The ozone vortex extends up to 55 km at the wind null region. There are significant differences in the hemispheres in the vortex below 24 km. A comparison of the features of the Arctic and Antarctic vorticies was conducted. The Antarctic vortex usually extends from 10 km up to over 42 km whereas in the Arctic, the vortex is only obvious from 16 km to 42km. The main hemispheric differences seem to be in the lower stratosphere

  1. Cosmic Ray Helium Intensities over the Solar Cycle from ACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeNolfo, G. A.; Yanasak, N. E.; Binns, W. R.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; George, J. S.; Hink. P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Lave, K.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Ogliore, R.; Stone, E. C.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenback, M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Observations of cosmic-ray helium energy spectra provide important constraints on cosmic ray origin and propagation. However, helium intensities measured at Earth are affected by solar modulation, especially below several GeV/nucleon. Observations of helium intensities over a solar cycle are important for understanding how solar modulation affects galactic cosmic ray intensities and for separating the contributions of anomalous and galactic cosmic rays. The Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) on ACE has been measuring cosmic ray isotopes, including helium, since 1997 with high statistical precision. We present helium elemental intensities between approx. 10 to approx. 100 MeV/nucleon from the Solar Isotope Spectrometer (SIS) and CRIS observations over a solar cycle and compare these results with the observations from other satellite and balloon-borne instruments, and with GCR transport and solar modulation models.

  2. Statins, ACE inhibitors and ARBs in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Montecucco, Fabrizio; Mach, François

    2009-06-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in developed and developing countries. It is well accepted that several diseases - including hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus - increase CVD. More recently also chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, have been shown to accelerate CVD. This association further supports a responsible role for inflammatory processes in all stages of CVD pathophysiology. Clinically, CVD ranges through different acute and chronic syndromes with ischemic symptoms in distal tissues, including heart, cerebral region or peripheral arteries. Several treatments for reducing CVD are under investigation. In this review we focus on statins, angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs), updating therapeutic evidence from the last clinical trials with particular relevance to diabetic patients. PMID:19520311

  3. Risk-benefit ratio of angiotensin antagonists versus ACE inhibitors in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Sica, D A; Gehr, T W; Fernandez, A

    2000-05-01

    The effective treatment of hypertension is an extremely important consideration in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Virtually any drug class--with the possible exception of diuretics--can be used to treat hypertension in the patient with ESRD. Despite there being such a wide range of treatment options, drugs which interrupt the renin-angiotensin axis are generally suggested as agents of choice in this population, even though the evidence in support of their preferential use is quite scanty. ACE inhibitors, and more recently angiotensin antagonists, are the 2 drug classes most commonly employed to alter renin-angiotensin axis activity and therefore produce blood pressure control. ACE inhibitor use in patients with ESRD can sometimes prove an exacting proposition. ACE inhibitors are variably dialysed, with compounds such as catopril, enalapril, lisinopril and perindopril undergoing substantial cross-dialyser clearance during a standard dialysis session. This phenomenon makes the selection of a dose and the timing of administration for an ACE inhibitor a complex issue in patients with ESRD. Furthermore, ACE inhibitors are recognised as having a range of nonpressor effects that are pertinent to patients with ESRD. Such effects include their ability to decrease thirst drive and to decrease erythropoiesis. In addition, ACE inhibitors have a unique adverse effect profile. As is the case with their use in patients without renal failure, use of ACE inhibitors in patients with ESRD can be accompanied by cough and less frequently by angioneurotic oedema. In the ESRD population, ACE inhibitor use is also accompanied by so-called anaphylactoid dialyser reactions. Angiotensin antagonists are similar to ACE inhibitors in their mechanism of blood pressure lowering. Angiotensin antagonists are not dialysable and therefore can be distinguished from a number of the ACE inhibitors. In addition, the adverse effect profile for angiotensin antagonists is remarkably bland

  4. Aqueous Cinnamon Extract (ACE-c) from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia causes apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line (SiHa) through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemoprevention, which includes the use of synthetic or natural agents (alone or in combination) to block the development of cancer in human beings, is an extremely promising strategy for cancer prevention. Cinnamon is one of the most widely used herbal medicines with diverse biological activities including anti-tumor activity. In the present study, we have reported the anti-neoplastic activity of cinnamon in cervical cancer cell line, SiHa. Methods The aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE-c) was analyzed for its cinnamaldehyde content by HPTLC analysis. The polyphenol content of ACE-c was measured by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Cytotoxicity analysis was performed by MTT assay. We studied the effect of cinnamon on growth kinetics by performing growth curve, colony formation and soft agar assays. The cells treated with ACE-c were analyzed for wound healing assay as well as for matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression at mRNA and protein level by RT-PCR and zymography, respectively. Her-2 protein expression was analyzed in the control and ACE-c treated samples by immunoblotting as well as confocal microscopy. Apoptosis studies and calcium signaling assays were analyzed by FACS. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in cinnamon treated cells was studied by JC-1 staining and analyzed by confocal microscopy as well as FACS. Results Cinnamon alters the growth kinetics of SiHa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cells treated with ACE-c exhibited reduced number of colonies compared to the control cells. The treated cells exhibited reduced migration potential that could be explained due to downregulation of MMP-2 expression. Interestingly, the expression of Her-2 oncoprotein was significantly reduced in the presence of ACE-c. Cinnamon extract induced apoptosis in the cervical cancer cells through increase in intracellular calcium signaling as well as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusion Cinnamon could be used as a potent chemopreventive drug

  5. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Extends Caenorhabditis elegans Life Span.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dietrich, Nicholas; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2016-02-01

    Animal aging is characterized by progressive, degenerative changes in many organ systems. Because age-related degeneration is a major contributor to disability and death in humans, treatments that delay age-related degeneration are desirable. However, no drugs that delay normal human aging are currently available. To identify drugs that delay age-related degeneration, we used the powerful Caenorhabditis elegans model system to screen for FDA-approved drugs that can extend the adult lifespan of worms. Here we show that captopril extended mean lifespan. Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure in humans. To explore the mechanism of captopril, we analyzed the acn-1 gene that encodes the C. elegans homolog of ACE. Reducing the activity of acn-1 extended the mean life span. Furthermore, reducing the activity of acn-1 delayed age-related degenerative changes and increased stress resistance, indicating that acn-1 influences aging. Captopril could not further extend the lifespan of animals with reduced acn-1, suggesting they function in the same pathway; we propose that captopril inhibits acn-1 to extend lifespan. To define the relationship with previously characterized longevity pathways, we analyzed mutant animals. The lifespan extension caused by reducing the activity of acn-1 was additive with caloric restriction and mitochondrial insufficiency, and did not require sir-2.1, hsf-1 or rict-1, suggesting that acn-1 functions by a distinct mechanism. The interactions with the insulin/IGF-1 pathway were complex, since the lifespan extensions caused by captopril and reducing acn-1 activity were additive with daf-2 and age-1 but required daf-16. Captopril treatment and reducing acn-1 activity caused similar effects in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, consistent with the model that they act by the same mechanism. These results identify a new drug and a new gene that can extend the lifespan of worms and suggest new

  6. Economic evaluation of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES). Volume II. Detailed results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The energy effectiveness and the economic viability of the ACES concept are examined. ACES is studied in a variety of different applications and compared to a number of conventional systems. The different applications are studied in two groups: the class of building into which the ACES is incorporated and the climatic region in which the ACES is located. Buildings investigated include single-family and multi-family residences and a commercial office building. The application of ACES to each of these building types is studied in Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia. The economic evaluation of the ACES is based on a comparison of the present worth of the ACES to the present worth of conventional systems; namely, electric resistance heating, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; air-to-air heat pump and electric domestic water heating; oil-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; and gas-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and gas domestic water heating.

  7. Analysis of circular genome rearrangement by fusions, fissions and block-interchanges

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chin Lung; Huang, Yen Lin; Wang, Tsui Ching; Chiu, Hsien-Tai

    2006-01-01

    Background Analysis of genomes evolving via block-interchange events leads to a combinatorial problem of sorting by block-interchanges, which has been studied recently to evaluate the evolutionary relationship in distance between two biological species since block-interchange can be considered as a generalization of transposition. However, for genomes consisting of multiple chromosomes, their evolutionary history should also include events of chromosome fusions and fissions, where fusion merges two chromosomes into one and fission splits a chromosome into two. Results In this paper, we study the problem of genome rearrangement between two genomes of circular and multiple chromosomes by considering fusion, fission and block-interchange events altogether. By use of permutation groups in algebra, we propose an O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBamrtHrhAL1wy0L2yHvtyaeHbnfgDOvwBHrxAJfwnaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaWaaeGaeaaakeaaimaacqWFoe=taaa@383D@(n2) time algorithm to efficiently compute and obtain a minimum series of fusions, fissions and block-interchanges required to transform one circular multi-chromosomal genome into another, where n is the number of genes shared by the two studied genomes. In addition, we have implemented this algorithm as a web server, called FFBI, and have also applied it to analyzing by gene orders the whole genomes of three human Vibrio pathogens, each with multiple and circular chromosomes, to infer their evolutionary relationships. Consequently, our experimental results coincide well with our previous results obtained using the chromosome-by-chromosome comparisons by landmark orders between any two Vibrio chromosomal sequences as well as using the traditional comparative analysis of 16S rRNA sequences. Conclusion FFBI is a useful tool for the bioinformatics analysis of circular

  8. The Ace locus of Drosophila melanogaster: structural gene for acetylcholinesterase with an unusual 5' leader.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, L M; Spierer, P

    1986-01-01

    The Ace locus of Drosophila melanogaster has been mapped at the molecular level. cDNA clones from the locus have been isolated and their sequence determined, confirming that Ace forms the structural gene for acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The cDNAs have a 1950 nucleotide open reading frame from which the complete amino acid sequence of AChE has been deduced. The Drosophila enzyme is found to have extensive homology to the known sequence of Torpedo AChE. Ace cDNAs have an unusual structure with a long 5' leader and several short upstream open reading frames. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3024971

  9. Progress on the Multiphysics Capabilities of the Parallel Electromagnetic ACE3P Simulation Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Kononenko, Oleksiy

    2015-03-26

    ACE3P is a 3D parallel simulation suite that is being developed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Effectively utilizing supercomputer resources, ACE3P has become a key tool for the coupled electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical research and design of particle accelerators. Based on the existing finite-element infrastructure, a massively parallel eigensolver is developed for modal analysis of mechanical structures. It complements a set of the multiphysics tools in ACE3P and, in particular, can be used for the comprehensive study of microphonics in accelerating cavities ensuring the operational reliability of a particle accelerator.

  10. Differential regulation of the cellulase transcription factors XYR1, ACE2, and ACE1 in Trichoderma reesei strains producing high and low levels of cellulase.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Thomas; Margeot, Antoine; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Le Crom, Stéphane; Ben Chaabane, Fadhel; Linke, Rita; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P

    2011-02-01

    Due to its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases, Trichoderma reesei is increasingly being investigated for second-generation biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. The induction mechanisms of T. reesei cellulases have been described recently, but the regulation of the genes involved in their transcription has not been studied thoroughly. Here we report the regulation of expression of the two activator genes xyr1 and ace2, and the corepressor gene ace1, during the induction of cellulase biosynthesis by the inducer lactose in T. reesei QM 9414, a strain producing low levels of cellulase (low producer). We show that all three genes are induced by lactose. xyr1 was also induced by d-galactose, but this induction was independent of d-galactose metabolism. Moreover, ace1 was carbon catabolite repressed, whereas full induction of xyr1 and ace2 in fact required CRE1. Significant differences in these regulatory patterns were observed in the high-producer strain RUT C30 and the hyperproducer strain T. reesei CL847. These observations suggest that a strongly elevated basal transcription level of xyr1 and reduced upregulation of ace1 by lactose may have been important for generating the hyperproducer strain and that thus, these genes are major control elements of cellulase production.

  11. Several benthic species can be used interchangeably in integrated sediment quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romero, A; Khosrovyan, A; Del Valls, T A; Obispo, R; Serrano, F; Conradi, M; Riba, I

    2013-06-01

    The selection of the best management option for contaminated sediments requires the biological assessment of sediment quality using bioindicator organisms. There have been comparisons of the performance of different test species when exposed to naturally occurring sediments. However, more research is needed to determine their suitability to be used interchangeably. The sensitivity of two amphipod species (Ampelisca brevicornis and Corophium volutator) to sediments collected from four different commercial ports in Spain was tested. For comparison the lugworm, Arenicola marina, which is typically used for bioaccumulation testing, was also tested. Chemical analyses of the sediments were also conducted. All species responded consistently to the chemical exposure tests, although the amphipods, as expected, were more sensitive than the lugworm. It was found that C. volutator showed higher vulnerability than A.brevicornis. It was concluded that the three species can be used interchangeably in the battery of tests for integrated sediment quality assessment. PMID:23531332

  12. Modulation of thermal conductivity in kinked silicon nanowires: phonon interchanging and pinching effects.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Wu; Yang, Nuo; Wang, Bing-Shen; Rabczuk, Timon

    2013-04-10

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the reduction of the thermal conductivity by kinks in silicon nanowires. The reduction percentage can be as high as 70% at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the reduction is also calculated. By calculating phonon polarization vectors, two mechanisms are found to be responsible for the reduced thermal conductivity: (1) the interchanging effect between the longitudinal and transverse phonon modes and (2) the pinching effect, that is, a new type of localization, for the twisting and transverse phonon modes in the kinked silicon nanowires. Our work demonstrates that the phonon interchanging and pinching effects, induced by kinking, are brand-new and effective ways in modulating heat transfer in nanowires, which enables the kinked silicon nanowires to be a promising candidate for thermoelectric materials.

  13. Fluctuation-induced shear flow and energy transfer in plasma interchange turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Sun, C. K.; Wang, X. Y.; Zhou, A.; Wang, X. G.; Ernst, D. R.

    2015-11-15

    Fluctuation-induced E × B shear flow and energy transfer for plasma interchange turbulence are examined in a flux-driven system with both closed and open magnetic field lines. The nonlinear evolution of interchange turbulence shows the presence of two confinement regimes characterized by low and high E × B flow shear. In the first regime, the large-scale turbulent convection is dominant and the mean E × B shear flow is at a relatively low level. By increasing the heat flux above a certain threshold, the increased turbulent intensity gives rise to the transfer of energy from fluctuations to mean E × B flows. As a result, a transition to the second regime occurs, in which a strong mean E × B shear flow is generated.

  14. Ion finite Larmor radius effects on the interchange instability in an open system

    SciTech Connect

    Katanuma, I.; Sato, S.; Okuyama, Y.; Kato, S.; Kubota, R.

    2013-11-15

    A particle simulation of an interchange instability was performed by taking into account the ion finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects. It is found that the interchange instability with large FLR grows in two phases, that is, linearly growing phase and the nonlinear phase subsequent to the linear phase, where the instability grows exponentially in both phases. The linear growth rates observed in the simulation agree well with the theoretical calculation. The effects of FLR are usually taken in the fluid simulation through the gyroviscosity, the effects of which are verified in the particle simulation with large FLR regime. The gyroviscous cancellation phenomenon observed in the particle simulation causes the drifts in the direction of ion diamagnetic drifts.

  15. Transition from drift to interchange instabilities in an open magnetic field line configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Poli, F. M.; Ricci, P.; Fasoli, A.; Podesta, M.

    2008-03-15

    The transition from a regime dominated by drift instabilities to a regime dominated by pure interchange instabilities is investigated and characterized in the simple magnetized toroidal device TORPEX [TORoidal Plasma EXperiment, A. Fasoli et al., Phys. of Plasmas 13, 055906 (2006)]. The magnetic field lines are helical, with a dominant toroidal component and a smaller vertical component. Instabilities with a drift character are observed in the favorable curvature region, on the high field side with respect to the maximum of the background density profile. For a limited range of values of the vertical field they coexist with interchange instabilities in the unfavorable curvature region, on the plasma low field side. With increasing vertical magnetic field magnitude, a gradual transition between the two regimes is observed on the low field side, controlled by the value of the field line connection length. The observed transition follows the predictions of a two-fluid linear model.

  16. Interchange and Flow Velocity Shear Instabilities in the Presence of Finite Larmor Radius Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Mishin, E.; Genoni, T.; Rose, D.; Mehlhorn, T.

    2014-09-01

    Ionospheric irregularities cause scintillations of electromagnetic signals that can severely affect navigation and transionospheric communication, in particular during Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs) events. However, the existing ionospheric models do not describe density irregularities with typical scales of several ion Larmor radii that affect UHF and L bands. These irregularities can be produced in the process of nonlinear evolution of interchange or flow velocity shear instabilities. The model of nonlinear development of these instabilities based on two-fluid hydrodynamic description with inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects will be presented. The derived nonlinear equations will be numerically solved by using the code Flute, which was originally developed for High Energy Density applications and modified to describe interchange and flow velocity shear instabilities in the ionosphere. The high-resolution simulations will be driven by the ambient conditions corresponding to the AFRL C/NOFS satellite low-resolution data during EPBs.

  17. Device interchangeability on anterior chamber depth and white-to-white measurements: a thorough literature review

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Vicent, Alberto; Pérez-Vives, Cari; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; García-Lázaro, Santiago; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We have reviewed a set of recently published studies that compared the anterior chamber depth (ACD) and/or white-to-white (WTW) distance obtained by means of different measuring devices. Since some of those studies reached contradictory conclusions regarding device interchangeability, this review was carried out in attempting to clarify which clinical devices can or cannot be considered as interchangeable in clinical practice to measure ACD and/or WTW distance, among these devices: A-scan, ultrasound biomicroscopy, Orbscan and Orbscan II (Bausch&Lomb Surgical Inc., San Dimas, California, USA), Pentacam and Pentacam HR (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany), Galilei (Ziemer, Switzerland), Visante optical coherence tomography (Visante OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, California, USA), IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany), and Lenstar LS 900/Biograph (Haag-Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland/Alcon Laboratories Inc., Ft Worth, Texas, USA). PMID:27500117

  18. Computational study of ion cyclotron frequency stabilization of the m = 1 interchange mode in mirror geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Francis, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    A cylindrical plasma model is used to study the stabilizing effect of electromagnetic ion cyclotron frequency range (ICRF) waves on the m = 1 magnetohydrodynamic interchange mode. The fast wave eigenmodes of the column and the near-field antenna pattern are calculated numerically for a diffuse plasma profile when ..omega..>..cap omega../sub i/. The resulting ponderomotive force and sideband contributions to global interchange stability are then determined using a rigid shift trial function. For far-field stabilization it is verified that the direct ponderomotive and sideband contributions cancel exactly as the conducting wall supporting the fast wave eigenmode moves out to infinity. The near-field stabilization effect is related numerically to the driven k/sub parallel/ spectrum of the waves and their radial profiles. The numerical model is employed to calculate threshold ICRF wave amplitudes for the stabilization experiments in the Phaedrus tandem mirror (Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1955 (1983)).

  19. SPRING: a tool for the analysis of genome rearrangement using reversals and block-interchanges.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying Chih; Lu, Chin Lung; Liu, Ying-Chuan; Tang, Chuan Yi

    2006-07-01

    SPRING (http://algorithm.cs.nthu.edu.tw/tools/SPRING/) is a tool for the analysis of genome rearrangement between two chromosomal genomes using reversals and/or block-interchanges. SPRING takes two or more chromosomes as its input and then computes a minimum series of reversals and/or block-interchanges between any two input chromosomes for transforming one chromosome into another. The input of SPRING can be either bacterial-size sequences or gene/landmark orders. If the input is a set of chromosomal sequences then the SPRING will automatically search for identical landmarks, which are homologous/conserved regions shared by all input sequences. In particular, SPRING also computes the breakpoint distance between any pair of two chromosomes, which can be used to compare with the rearrangement distance to confirm whether they are correlated or not. In addition, SPRING shows phylogenetic trees that are reconstructed based on the rearrangement and breakpoint distance matrixes.

  20. THEMIS observation of Kinetic Ballooning/Interchange Waves in the High Bz Plasma Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, Evgeny V.; Nakamura, Rumi; Kubyshkina, Marina V.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; A, Sergeev, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Using THEMIS observations of plasma sheet oscillations with kinetic ballooning/interchange instability (BICI) signatures, we investigate the properties of the waves when a high background plasma sheet Bz is seen. We find that such waves are in a better agreement with the existing kinetic simulations. Using adapted Tsyganenko models, we also show conjugate all-sky camera observations in the course of the development of the waves.

  1. Observation of Centrifugally Driven Interchange Instabilities in a Plasma Confined by a Magnetic Dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, B.; Maslovsky, D.; Mauel, M.E.

    2005-05-06

    Centrifugally driven interchange instabilities are observed in a laboratory plasma confined by a dipole magnetic field. The instabilities appear when an equatorial mesh is biased to drive a radial current that causes rapid axisymmetric plasma rotation. The observed instabilities are quasicoherent in the laboratory frame of reference; they have global radial mode structures and low azimuthal mode numbers, and they are modified by the presence of energetic, magnetically confined electrons. Results from a self-consistent nonlinear simulation reproduce the measured mode structures.

  2. ACES: The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obland, M. D.; Prasad, N. S.; Harrison, F. W.; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Dobler, J. T.; Moore, B.; Zaccheo, T.; Campbell, J.; Chen, S.; Cleckner, C. S.; DiJoseph, M.; Little, A.; Notari, A.; Refaat, T. F.; Rosenbaum, D.; Vanek, M. D.; Bender, J.; Braun, M.; Chavez-Pirson, A.; Neal, M.; Rayner, P. J.; Rosiewicz, A.; Shure, M.; Welch, W.

    2012-12-01

    The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) is a NASA Langley Research Center project funded by NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) that seeks to advance technologies critical to measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The technologies being advanced are: (1) a high bandwidth detector, (2) a multi-aperture telescope assembly, (3) advanced algorithms for cloud and aerosol discrimination, and (4) high-efficiency, multiple-amplifier CO2 and O2 laser transmitters. The instrument architecture will be developed to operate on a high-altitude aircraft and will be directly scalable to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. These technologies are viewed as critical towards developing an airborne simulator and eventual spaceborne instrument with lower size, mass, and power consumption, and improved performance. The detector effort will improve the existing detector subsystem by increasing its bandwidth to a goal of 5 MHz, reducing its overall mass from 18 lbs to <10 lbs, and stretching the duration of autonomous, service-free operation periods from 4 hrs to >24 hrs. The development goals are to permit higher laser modulation rates, which provides greater flexibility for implementing thin-cloud discrimination algorithms as well as improving range resolution and error reduction, and to enable long flights on a high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The telescope development consists of a three-telescope design built for the constraints of the Global Hawk aircraft. This task addresses the ability of multiple smaller telescopes to provide equal or greater collection efficiency compared with a single larger telescope with a reduced impact on launch mass and cost. The telescope assembly also integrates fiber-coupled transmit collimators for all of the laser transmitters and fiber-coupled optical

  3. Household and community-level Adverse Childhood Experiences and adult health outcomes in a diverse urban population.

    PubMed

    Wade, Roy; Cronholm, Peter F; Fein, Joel A; Forke, Christine M; Davis, Martha B; Harkins-Schwarz, Mary; Pachter, Lee M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), which include family dysfunction and community-level stressors, negatively impact the health and well being of children throughout the life course. While several studies have examined the impact of these childhood exposures amongst racially and socially diverse populations, the contribution of ACEs in the persistence of socioeconomic disparities in health is poorly understood. To determine the association between ACEs and health outcomes amongst a sample of adults living in Philadelphia and examine the moderating effect of Socioeconomic Status (SES) on this association, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,784 Philadelphia adults, ages 18 and older, using random digit dialing methodology to assess Conventional ACEs (experiences related to family dysfunction), Expanded ACEs (community-level stressors), and health outcomes. Using weighted, multivariable logistic regression analyses along with SES stratified models, we examined the relationship between ACEs and health outcomes as well as the modifying effect of current SES. High Conventional ACE scores were significantly associated with health risk behaviors, physical and mental illness, while elevated Expanded ACE scores were associated only with substance abuse history and sexually transmitted infections. ACEs did have some differential impacts on health outcomes based on SES. Given the robust impact of Conventional ACEs on health, our results support prior research highlighting the primacy of family relationships on a child's life course trajectory and the importance of interventions designed to support families. Our findings related to the modifying effect of SES may provide additional insight into the complex relationship between poverty and childhood adversity. PMID:26726759

  4. A Video Analysis of Use of the New 'Concussion Interchange Rule' in the National Rugby League.

    PubMed

    Gardner, A J; Iverson, G L; Stanwell, P; Moore, T; Ellis, J; Levi, C R

    2016-04-01

    The National Rugby League (NRL) in Australia introduced a new 'concussion interchange rule' (CIR) in 2014, whereby a player suspected of having sustained a concussion can be removed from play, and assessed, without an interchange being tallied against the player's team. We conducted a video analysis, describing player and injury characteristics, situational factors, concussion signs, and return to play for each "CIR" event for the 2014 season. There were 167 reported uses of the CIR. Apparent loss of consciousness/unresponsiveness was observed in 32% of cases, loss of muscle tone in 54%, clutching the head in 70%, unsteadiness of gait in 66%, and a vacant stare in 66%. More than half of the players who were removed under the CIR returned to play later in the same match (57%). Most incidences occurred from a hit up (62%) and occurred during a tackle where the initial contact was with the upper body (80%). The new concussion interchange rule has been used frequently during the first season of its implementation. In many cases, there appeared to be video evidence of injury but the athlete was cleared to return to play. More research is needed on the usefulness of video review for identifying signs of concussive injury.

  5. A Multi-Fluid Study of the Centrifugal Interchange Cycle in Saturn's Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidder, A. R.; Winglee, R. M.

    2007-12-01

    Centrifugal interchange is a process widely observed by the Cassini spacecraft in Saturn's inner magnetosphere. A 3D multi-fluid global model of the Kronian magnetosphere shows that Saturn's gravity, magnetic field, and convection electric field modulate the growth of this interchange process. The model is used to quantify both components: the inward injections and the outward-moving outwelling of the interchange cycle. The model shows finger-like injections of hot tenuous plasma alternating between cooler spiral arm regions of denser plasma. These features are ubiquitous in the equatorial plane between 5-12 RS and persist for several hours, though their generation is dependent on the prevailing conditions in both the inner magnetosphere and the solar wind forcing. Using a distributed Enceladus source of water group ions, and altering its concentration relative to the ionospheric ions, we see that a relative concentration of heavier ions affects the extent and definition of the finger- like cool, dense outwelling plasma. Additionally, the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) can modulate the size of the fingers. Results address the radial velocity, ion and electron densities, magnetic and electric fields in these injection regions, as well as the time and spatial scales on which they persist. Model spectrograms are compared to the bulk parameters observed by Cassini.

  6. Generation of periodic signatures at Saturn through Titan's interaction with the centrifugal interchange instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kidder, A.; Harnett, E.; Ifland, N.; Paty, C.; Snowden, D.

    2013-07-01

    The origin of the periodicities in the radio, plasma, and magnetic fields of Saturn has long been debated. Given the high degree of alignment of Saturn's dipole with its rotation axis, no strong rotational periodicities are expected. However, Cassini data demonstrated the existence of such periodicities not only in Saturn's kilometric radio emissions (SKR) but in the plasma and magnetic field signatures. It is shown that the development of the centrifugal interchange instability that originates from mass loading from the Enceladus torus contains information about the planetary rotation period. However, the planetary period is masked by high-frequency components of the instability. The presence of Titan is shown to damp the high-frequency components and enables the fundamental frequency near the planetary rotation frequency to grow at the expense of the high-frequency components. As a result, the interchange instability is seen to change from one where five to seven large interchange fingers dominate to one where there are about three which cause the modulation of magnetospheric parameters near the planetary period. This modulation includes the movement of the magnetopause, the injection of energetic particles into the inner magnetosphere and the plasma density at high latitudes, both of which control SKR. Controlling factors on the frequency include Titan's drag on the plasma sheet which produces asymmetries between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, solar wind conditions, and the density of the Enceladus plasma torus. The resultant magnetic perturbations are shown to have similar size and frequency as that seen in Cassini data.

  7. A standardized SOA for clinical data interchange in a cardiac telemonitoring environment.

    PubMed

    Gazzarata, Roberta; Vergari, Fabio; Cinotti, Tullio Salmon; Giacomini, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Care of chronic cardiac patients requires information interchange between patients' homes, clinical environments, and the electronic health record. Standards are emerging to support clinical information collection, exchange and management and to overcome information fragmentation and actors delocalization. Heterogeneity of information sources at patients' homes calls for open solutions to collect and accommodate multidomain information, including environmental data. Based on the experience gained in a European Research Program, this paper presents an integrated and open approach for clinical data interchange in cardiac telemonitoring applications. This interchange is supported by the use of standards following the indications provided by the national authorities of the countries involved. Taking into account the requirements provided by the medical staff involved in the project, the authors designed and implemented a prototypal middleware, based on a service-oriented architecture approach, to give a structured and robust tool to congestive heart failure patients for their personalized telemonitoring. The middleware is represented by a health record management service, whose interface is compliant to the healthcare services specification project Retrieve, Locate and Update Service standard (Level 0), which allows communication between the agents involved through the exchange of Clinical Document Architecture Release 2 documents. Three performance tests were carried out and showed that the prototype completely fulfilled all requirements indicated by the medical staff; however, certain aspects, such as authentication, security and scalability, should be deeply analyzed within a future engineering phase. PMID:25014978

  8. Excitation of the centrifugally driven interchange instability in a plasma confined by a magnetic dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, B.; Maslovsky, D.; Mauel, M.E.; Waksman, J.

    2005-05-15

    The centrifugally driven electrostatic interchange instability is excited for the first time in a laboratory magnetoplasma. The plasma is confined by a dipole magnetic field, and the instability is excited when an equatorial mesh is biased to induce a radial current that creates rapid axisymmetric plasma rotation. The observed instabilities appear quasicoherent in the lab frame of reference; they have global radial mode structures and low azimuthal mode numbers, and they are modified by the presence of energetic, magnetically confined electrons. The mode structure is measured using a multiprobe correlation technique as well as a novel 96-point polar imaging diagnostic which measures particle flux along field lines that map to the pole. Interchange instabilities caused by hot electron pressure are simultaneously observed at the hot electron drift frequency. Adjusting the hot electron fraction {alpha} modifies the stability as well as the structures of the centrifugally driven modes. In the presence of larger fractions of energetic electrons, m=1 is observed to be the dominant mode. For faster rotating plasmas containing fewer energetic electrons, m=2 dominates. Results from a self-consistent nonlinear simulation reproduce the measured mode structures in both regimes. The low azimuthal mode numbers seen in the experiment and simulation can also be interpreted with a local, linear dispersion relation of the electrostatic interchange instability. Drift resonant hot electrons give the instability a real frequency, inducing stabilizing ion polarization currents that preferentially suppress high-m modes.

  9. Computational study of ICRF stabilization of the m = 1 interchange mode in mirror geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Francis, G.L.

    1986-05-01

    A cylindrical plasma model is used to study the stabilizing effect of electromagnetic ICRF waves on the m = 1 magnetohydrodynamic interchange mode. The fast wave eigenmodes of the column and the near field antenna pattern are calculated numerically for a diffuse plasma profile when w > ..cap omega../sub i/. The resulting ponderomotive force and sideband contributions to global interchange stability are then determined using a rigid shift trial function. For far field stabilization it is verified that the direct ponderomotive and sideband contributions to global interchange stability are then determined using a rigid shift trial function. For far field stabilization it is verified that the direct ponderomotive and sideband contributions cancel exactly as the conducting wall supporting the fast wave eigenmode moves out to infinity. The near field stabilization effect is related numerically to the driven k/sub parallel/ spectrum of the waves and their radial profiles. The numerical model is employed to calculate threshold ICRF wave amplitudes for the stabilization experiments in the Phaedrus tandem mirror.

  10. Diode Temperature Sensor Curve Estimation and Interchangeability for Non-Standard Excitation Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, S. S.; Yeager, C. J.; Krause, J. K.

    2006-04-01

    Diode temperature sensors' wide temperature range and interchangeability to a standard curve has led to their widespread use in the cryogenic industry. The standard curve for a given model is generated from the calibration of hundreds of diodes from that specific model lot. This is an expensive process and is usually carried out for only one excitation current, typically 10 μA, chosen as a trade off between self-heating at lower temperature and signal-to-noise ratio. There are many applications, however, where either the temperature range is limited or a higher signal-to-noise ratio is desired. It's useful in these cases to use a larger excitation current. Given the non-linear diode I-V characteristics, the results for the diode response and interchangeability at the standard curve cannot be arbitrarily generalized to other excitation currents. This research examined eleven diode Lake Shore Cryotronics model DT-670-SD temperature sensors. Calibration data for these devices were taken at twenty temperatures ranging from 2 K to 325 K and at seven excitation currents ranging from 1 μA to 1 mA. These data were analyzed to determine the effect of excitation current on the interchangeability as a function of temperature. A method for estimating the standard curve at nonstandard excitation currents is presented.

  11. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Extends Caenorhabditis elegans Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dietrich, Nicholas; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Animal aging is characterized by progressive, degenerative changes in many organ systems. Because age-related degeneration is a major contributor to disability and death in humans, treatments that delay age-related degeneration are desirable. However, no drugs that delay normal human aging are currently available. To identify drugs that delay age-related degeneration, we used the powerful Caenorhabdtitis elegans model system to screen for FDA-approved drugs that can extend the adult lifespan of worms. Here we show that captopril extended mean lifespan. Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure in humans. To explore the mechanism of captopril, we analyzed the acn-1 gene that encodes the C. elegans homolog of ACE. Reducing the activity of acn-1 extended the mean life span. Furthermore, reducing the activity of acn-1 delayed age-related degenerative changes and increased stress resistance, indicating that acn-1 influences aging. Captopril could not further extend the lifespan of animals with reduced acn-1, suggesting they function in the same pathway; we propose that captopril inhibits acn-1 to extend lifespan. To define the relationship with previously characterized longevity pathways, we analyzed mutant animals. The lifespan extension caused by reducing the activity of acn-1 was additive with caloric restriction and mitochondrial insufficiency, and did not require sir-2.1, hsf-1 or rict-1, suggesting that acn-1 functions by a distinct mechanism. The interactions with the insulin/IGF-1 pathway were complex, since the lifespan extensions caused by captopril and reducing acn-1 activity were additive with daf-2 and age-1 but required daf-16. Captopril treatment and reducing acn-1 activity caused similar effects in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, consistent with the model that they act by the same mechanism. These results identify a new drug and a new gene that can extend the lifespan of worms and suggest new

  12. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Extends Caenorhabditis elegans Life Span.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dietrich, Nicholas; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2016-02-01

    Animal aging is characterized by progressive, degenerative changes in many organ systems. Because age-related degeneration is a major contributor to disability and death in humans, treatments that delay age-related degeneration are desirable. However, no drugs that delay normal human aging are currently available. To identify drugs that delay age-related degeneration, we used the powerful Caenorhabditis elegans model system to screen for FDA-approved drugs that can extend the adult lifespan of worms. Here we show that captopril extended mean lifespan. Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure in humans. To explore the mechanism of captopril, we analyzed the acn-1 gene that encodes the C. elegans homolog of ACE. Reducing the activity of acn-1 extended the mean life span. Furthermore, reducing the activity of acn-1 delayed age-related degenerative changes and increased stress resistance, indicating that acn-1 influences aging. Captopril could not further extend the lifespan of animals with reduced acn-1, suggesting they function in the same pathway; we propose that captopril inhibits acn-1 to extend lifespan. To define the relationship with previously characterized longevity pathways, we analyzed mutant animals. The lifespan extension caused by reducing the activity of acn-1 was additive with caloric restriction and mitochondrial insufficiency, and did not require sir-2.1, hsf-1 or rict-1, suggesting that acn-1 functions by a distinct mechanism. The interactions with the insulin/IGF-1 pathway were complex, since the lifespan extensions caused by captopril and reducing acn-1 activity were additive with daf-2 and age-1 but required daf-16. Captopril treatment and reducing acn-1 activity caused similar effects in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, consistent with the model that they act by the same mechanism. These results identify a new drug and a new gene that can extend the lifespan of worms and suggest new

  13. Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Measurements of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Chemistry and Long-Term Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Bernath, Peter; Boone, Chris; Nassar, Ray

    2007-01-01

    We highlight chemistry and trend measurement results from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) which is providing precise middle troposphere to the lower thermosphere measurements with a 0.02/cm resolution Fourier transform spectrometer covering 750-4400/cm

  14. ACE2 and vasoactive peptides: novel players in cardiovascular/renal remodeling and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Torres, Evelyn; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Mondaca-Ruff, David; Azocar, Andrés; Castro, Pablo F; Jalil, Jorge E; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio; Ocaranza, María Paz

    2015-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key component of cardiovascular physiology and homeostasis due to its influence on the regulation of electrolyte balance, blood pressure, vascular tone and cardiovascular remodeling. Deregulation of this system contributes significantly to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and renal diseases. Numerous studies have generated new perspectives about a noncanonical and protective RAS pathway that counteracts the proliferative and hypertensive effects of the classical angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin (Ang) II/angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis. The key components of this pathway are ACE2 and its products, Ang-(1-7) and Ang-(1-9). These two vasoactive peptides act through the Mas receptor (MasR) and AT2R, respectively. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR and ACE2/Ang-(1-9)/AT2R axes have opposite effects to those of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis, such as decreased proliferation and cardiovascular remodeling, increased production of nitric oxide and vasodilation. A novel peptide from the noncanonical pathway, alamandine, was recently identified in rats, mice and humans. This heptapeptide is generated by catalytic action of ACE2 on Ang A or through a decarboxylation reaction on Ang-(1-7). Alamandine produces the same effects as Ang-(1-7), such as vasodilation and prevention of fibrosis, by interacting with Mas-related GPCR, member D (MrgD). In this article, we review the key roles of ACE2 and the vasoactive peptides Ang-(1-7), Ang-(1-9) and alamandine as counter-regulators of the ACE-Ang II axis as well as the biological properties that allow them to regulate blood pressure and cardiovascular and renal remodeling.

  15. Crosstalk between ACE2 and PLGF regulates vascular permeability during acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lantao; Li, Yong; Qin, Hao; Xing, Dong; Su, Jie; Hu, Zhenjie

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) treatment suppresses the severity of acute lung injury (ALI), through antagonizing hydrolyzing angiotensin II (AngII) and the ALI-induced apoptosis of pulmonary endothelial cells. Nevertheless, the effects of ACE2 on vessel permeability and its relationship with placental growth factor (PLGF) remain ill-defined. In the current study, we examined the relationship between ACE2 and PLGF in ALI model in mice. We used a previously published bleomycin method to induce ALI in mice, and treated the mice with ACE2. We analyzed the levels of PLGF in these mice. The mouse lung vessel permeability was determined by a fluorescence pharmacokinetic assay following i.v. injection of 62.5 µg/kg Visudyne. PLGF pump or soluble Flt-1 (sFlt-1) pump was given to augment or suppress PLGF effects, respectively. The long-term effects on lung function were determined by measurement of lung resistance using methacholine. We found that ACE2 treatment did not alter PLGF levels in lung, but antagonized the effects of PLGF on increases of lung vessel permeability. Ectogenic PLGF abolished the antagonizing effects of ACE2 on the vessel permeability against PLGF. On the other hand, suppression of PLGF signaling mimicked the effects of ACE2 on the vessel permeability against PLGF. The suppression of vessel permeability resulted in improvement of lung function after ALI. Thus, ACE2 may antagonize the PLGF-mediated increases in lung vessel permeability during ALI, resulting in improvement of lung function after ALI. PMID:27158411

  16. A prospective study of frequency and characteristics of cough during ACE inhibitor treatment.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuhisa; Fukuda, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are reportedly effective, and positively indicated in patients with chronic heart failure with decreased contractility, after myocardial infarction, after cerebrovascular disorders, and in those with chronic kidney disease. However, the biggest challenge to continuous use of ACE inhibitors is the adverse reaction of cough. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated the present state and characteristics of ACE inhibitor-induced cough in patients with essential hypertension currently being treated with an ACE inhibitor for an average of 18 months, who could be regularly checked for cough. Subjects in this study were 176 patients overall (mean age 67 ± 11 years old), 90 men and 86 women. The adverse reaction of cough was observed in 20% of patients, and more frequently in women than in men. However, in 26 of the patients with cough, the cough either resolved naturally or completely disappeared while the treatment continued, after which patients could continue taking the medication. Specifically, ACE inhibitor treatment was eventually discontinued due to cough in 5.1% of patients. Cough occurred less frequently with concomitant calcium antagonists or diuretics than with ACE inhibitor monotherapy. Cough as an adverse reaction occurred at a low frequency when medication was taken at bedtime. We considered a number of measures to counteract cough, then in addition to starting the ACE inhibitor treatment as early as possible, it is important to devise ways for the ACE inhibitor treatment to be continued for as long as possible, through the adept use of these measures.

  17. ACE2 and vasoactive peptides: novel players in cardiovascular/renal remodeling and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Torres, Evelyn; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Mondaca-Ruff, David; Azocar, Andrés; Castro, Pablo F; Jalil, Jorge E; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio; Ocaranza, María Paz

    2015-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key component of cardiovascular physiology and homeostasis due to its influence on the regulation of electrolyte balance, blood pressure, vascular tone and cardiovascular remodeling. Deregulation of this system contributes significantly to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and renal diseases. Numerous studies have generated new perspectives about a noncanonical and protective RAS pathway that counteracts the proliferative and hypertensive effects of the classical angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin (Ang) II/angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis. The key components of this pathway are ACE2 and its products, Ang-(1-7) and Ang-(1-9). These two vasoactive peptides act through the Mas receptor (MasR) and AT2R, respectively. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR and ACE2/Ang-(1-9)/AT2R axes have opposite effects to those of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis, such as decreased proliferation and cardiovascular remodeling, increased production of nitric oxide and vasodilation. A novel peptide from the noncanonical pathway, alamandine, was recently identified in rats, mice and humans. This heptapeptide is generated by catalytic action of ACE2 on Ang A or through a decarboxylation reaction on Ang-(1-7). Alamandine produces the same effects as Ang-(1-7), such as vasodilation and prevention of fibrosis, by interacting with Mas-related GPCR, member D (MrgD). In this article, we review the key roles of ACE2 and the vasoactive peptides Ang-(1-7), Ang-(1-9) and alamandine as counter-regulators of the ACE-Ang II axis as well as the biological properties that allow them to regulate blood pressure and cardiovascular and renal remodeling. PMID:26275770

  18. Helping Students Process a Simulated Death Experience: Integration of an NLN ACE.S Evolving Case Study and the ELNEC Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Kopka, Judith A; Aschenbrenner, Ann P; Reynolds, Mary B

    2016-01-01

    The nursing literature supports the need for end-of-life (EOL) education, but the ability to provide quality clinical experience in this area is limited by the availability of patients and nursing instructors' and preceptors' comfort and expertise in teaching EOL care. Clinical simulation allows faculty to provide the same quality EOL experience to all students. This article discusses an effective teaching strategy integrating End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium core content with National League for Nursing ACE.S unfolding case studies, clinical simulation, and social media. PMID:27405204

  19. GPS Antenna Characterization Experiment (ACE): Receiver Design and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martzen, Phillip; Highsmith, Dolan E.; Valdez, Jennifer E.; Parker, Joel J. K.; Moreau, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The GPS Antenna Characterization Experiment (ACE) is a research collaboration between Aerospace and NASA Goddard to characterize the gain patterns of the GPS L1 transmit antennas. High altitude GPS observations are collected at a ground station through a transponder-based or "bent-pipe" architecture where the GPS L1 RF spectrum is received at a platform in geosynchronous orbit and relayed to the ground for processing. The focus of this paper is the unique receiver algorithm design and implementation. The high-sensitivity GPS C/A-code receiver uses high fidelity code and carrier estimates and externally supplied GPS message bit data in a batch algorithm with settings for a 0 dB-Hz threshold. The resulting carrier-to-noise measurements are used in a GPS L1 transmit antenna pattern reconstruction. This paper shows initial transmit gain patterns averaged over each block of GPS satellites, including comparisons to available pre-flight gain measurements from the GPS vehicle contractors. These results provide never-before-seen assessments of the full, in-flight transmit gain patterns.

  20. Operation Heli-STAR - Atlanta Communications Experiment (ACE). Volume 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Operation Heli-STAR (Helicopter Short-Haul Transportation and Aviation Research) was established and operated in Atlanta, Georgia, during the period of the 1996 Centennial Olympic Games. Heli-STAR had three major thrusts: (1) the establishment and operation of a helicopter-based cargo transportation system, (2) the management of low-altitude air traffic in the airspace of an urban area, and (3) the collection and analysis of research and development data associated with items 1 and 2. Heli-STAR was a cooperative industry/government program that included parcel package shippers and couriers in the Atlanta area, the helicopter industry, aviation electronics manufacturers, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and support contractors. Several detailed reports have been produced as a result of Operation Heli-STAR. These include four reports on acoustic measurements and associated analyses, and reports on the Heli-STAR tracking data including the data processing and retrieval system, the Heli-STAR cargo simulation, and the community response system. In addition, NASA's Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) program has produced a report describing the Atlanta Communications Experiment (ACE) which produced the avionics and ground equipment using automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) technology. This latter report is restricted to organizations belonging to NASA's AGATE industry consortium. A complete list of these reports is shown on the following page.

  1. ACE inhibitors could be therapeutic for antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Hobgood, Donna K

    2013-11-01

    Antisocial personality traits are an important topic for research. The societal cost of these behaviors encourages efforts at a better understanding of central nervous system causes. Catecholamine genes are being studied to facilitate this understanding, and some tentative findings are being reached about several of these genes. It seems that many genes play a role to produce antisocial behaviors so complexity of elucidating each gene is obvious. One conclusion that could be drawn from the current research findings is that DA2 like receptors (DRD2, DRD3, DRD4) with alleles that decrease neurotransmission are facilitatory of antisocial behaviors. DA2 like receptors cause neuronal firing to inhibit many peripheral functions through adenylyl cyclase inhibition. When these receptors are less active by genetically decreased density, lower affinity, or by low dopamine levels as final common pathways then inhibition is released and a state of disinhibition can be said to describe this state. Peripheral metabolism is increased and behavioral activation is noted. Renin is disinhibited in this setting thus allowing sympathetic nervous system activation. The fight or flight behaviors thus produced, in the extreme, would be the setting of antisocial behavior. Research validates this hypothesis. Understanding this final common pathway toward antisocial behavior should lead to better treatment for individuals with this pattern of behavior before they have caused harm to themselves and others. ACE inhibitors are well tolerated drugs used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure and would also treat antisocial behavior disorders.

  2. First science observations with the ACES echelle spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Robert O.; Lloyd-Hart, Michael

    2004-09-01

    The use of spectrographs with telescopes having high order adaptive optics (AO) systems offers the possibility of achieving near diffraction-limited spectral resolution with ground-based telescopes, as well as important advantages for instrument design. The use of an optical fiber to couple the instrument to the telescope affords additional advantages such as flexibility in the placement of the instrument and improved homogeneity of the input illumination function. In the case of Steward Observatory's Adaptively Coupled Echelle Spectrograph (ACES), the instrument is normally coupled to the telescope with an 8 micron diameter near single-mode optical fiber, although the instrument can be used at fixed focus locations without the fiber for telescopes so equipped. The use of a fiber coupler results in the phenomenon known as 'modal noise', where the transmission of multiple modes in the fiber leads to a wavelength-dependent variation in illumination that limits flat fielding precision. We have largely eliminated this effect through the use of an automated fiber stretcher device. We report here on improvements to the fiber feed optics and on interim observations made with the instrument at a conventional telescope not equipped with adaptive optics.

  3. ACE Observatory Control System - 16 years of remote intercontinental observing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Peter

    2011-03-01

    The ACE Observatory Control System has been used for remote control since 1995. The system was designed for use at isolated observatories with no-one present on the mountain-top. The software provides complete diagnostic feedback to the astronomer and is supplemented by live audio-visual. Accessories include environmental sensors (weather station, all-sky camera, constellation cameras), automated mirror covers and remote power control. This gives the astronomer the same experience as being present at the observatory. The system is installed on 30 telescopes and many of them are used for routine nightly intercontinental observations, such as Taejeon (S. Korea) to Mt. Lemmon (Arizona) and southeast USA to KPNO and CTIO. The system has fully integrated autoguider acquisition and science camera control. We describe the building blocks of the system and the accessories including automated mirror covers, weather station, all sky camera, remote power control and dome control. Future plans are presented for a fully autonomous platform-independent scheduler and robot for use on multiple telescopes.

  4. Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

  5. Technical manual for the Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) software

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, P.R.; Horak, K.E.; Hagan, D.; Evanko, D.; Nelson, J.; Ryder, C.; Hedlund, D.

    1997-09-01

    The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspection Teams (inspectors) and Inspected Parties (host). Current training techniques include table-top inspections and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. ACE-IT has been designed to provide training for challenge inspections under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC); however, this training tool can be modified for other inspection regimes. Although ACE-IT provides training from notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities, the primary emphasis of ACE-IT is in the inspection itself--particularly with the concept of managed access. ACE-IT also demonstrates how inspection provisions impact compliance determination and the protection of sensitive information. This Technical Manual describes many of the technical aspects of the ACE-IT training software.

  6. Hamsters vaccinated with Ace-mep-7 DNA vaccine produced protective immunity against Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewski, Marcin; Jaros, Sławomir; Bąska, Piotr; Cappello, Michael; Długosz, Ewa; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2016-04-01

    Hookworms are intestinal nematodes that infect up to 740 million people, mostly in tropical and subtropical regions. Adult worms suck blood from damaged vessels in the gut mucosa, digesting hemoglobin using aspartic-, cysteine- and metalloproteases. Targeting aspartic hemoglobinases using drugs or vaccines is therefore a promising approach to ancylostomiasis control. Based on homology to metalloproteases from other hookworm species, we cloned the Ancylostoma ceylanicum metalloprotease 7 cDNA (Ace-mep-7). The corresponding Ace-MEP-7 protein has a predicted molecular mass of 98.8 kDa. The homology to metallopeptidases from other hookworm species and its predicted transmembrane region support the hypothesis that Ace-MEP-7 may be involved in hemoglobin digestion in the hookworm gastrointestinal tract, especially that our analyses show expression of Ace-mep-7 in the adult stage of the parasite. Immunization of Syrian golden hamsters with Ace-mep-7 cDNA resulted in 50% (p < 0.01) intestinal worm burden reduction. Additionally 78% (p < 0.05) egg count reduction in both sexes was observed. These results suggest that immunization with Ace-mep-7 may contribute to reduction in egg count released into the environment during the A. ceylanicum infection. PMID:26795262

  7. Exercise manual for the Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) software

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, P.R.; Widney, T.W.; Goolsby, P.T.; Nelson, J.D.; Evanko, D.A.

    1997-09-01

    The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspected Party and the Inspection Team. Current training techniques include table-top inspections and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. ACE-IT has been designed to provide training for a hypothetical challenge inspection under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC); however, this training tool can be modified for other inspection regimes. Although ACE-IT provides training from notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities, the primary emphasis of ACE-IT is in the inspection itself--particularly with the concept of managed access. ACE-IT also demonstrates how inspection provisions impact compliance determination and the protection of sensitive information. The Exercise Manual supplements the ACE-IT software by providing general information on on-site inspections and detailed information for the CWC challenge inspection exercise. The detailed information includes the pre-inspection briefing, maps, list of sensitive items, medical records, and shipping records.

  8. Evaluation of renal function in elderly heart failure patients on ACE inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Jolobe, O

    1999-01-01

    A total of 187 heart failure patients aged 65-92 years, with pretreatment serum creatinine levels below 200 µmol/l, were monitored for more than 12 months on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy. Optimal ACE inhibitor dosage was found in 27% of patients, while a significant deterioration in renal function, characterised by >20% increase in serum creatinine to >200 µmol/l, occurred in 25 patients. This was most closely attributable to ACE inhibitor treatment per se (implying co-existence of bilateral renal artery stenosis) in only four cases, including one in whom renal deterioration was reproducible on inadvertent rechallenge. In the other 21, renal deterioration was attributable to diuretic-related blood volume depletion (two cases), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (two cases), obstructive uropathy (two cases), preterminal renal shutdown (two cases), and the interaction between diuretic and ACE inhibitor dosage (including long-acting vs short-acting drugs) (13 cases). This study could serve as the basis for future comparisons of ACE-inhibitor-related renal deterioration when the entry requirement is optimal ACE inhibitor dosage.


Keywords: heart failure; elderly patients; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; renal deterioration PMID:10533630

  9. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ace): CO, CH_4 and N_2O Isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, Peter F.; Buzan, Eric M.; Beale, Christopher A.; Yousefi, Mahdi; Boone, Chris

    2016-06-01

    ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of numerous trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination orbit gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The primary instrument is a high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating in the 750--4400 cm-1 region, which provides the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. Aerosols and clouds are being monitored through the extinction of solar radiation using two filtered imagers as well as by their infrared spectra. Although now in its thirteenth year, the ACE-FTS is still operating nominally. A short introduction and overview of the ACE mission will be presented (see http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca for more information). This talk will focus on ACE observations of the CO, CH_4 and N_2O isotopologues, and comparisons with chemical transport models.

  10. New Perspectives in the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) II: Albumin Suppresses Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Activity in Human

    PubMed Central

    Fagyas, Miklós; Úri, Katalin; Siket, Ivetta M.; Fülöp, Gábor Á.; Csató, Viktória; Daragó, Andrea; Boczán, Judit; Bányai, Emese; Szentkirályi, István Elek; Maros, Tamás Miklós; Szerafin, Tamás; Édes, István; Papp, Zoltán; Tóth, Attila

    2014-01-01

    About 8% of the adult population is taking angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to treat cardiovascular disease including hypertension, myocardial infarction and heart failure. These drugs decrease mortality by up to one-fifth in these patients. We and others have reported previously that endogenous inhibitory substances suppress serum ACE activity, in vivo, similarly to the ACE inhibitor drugs. Here we have made an effort to identify this endogenous ACE inhibitor substance. ACE was crosslinked with interacting proteins in human sera. The crosslinked products were immunoprecipitated and subjected to Western blot. One of the crosslinked products was recognized by both anti-ACE and anti-HSA (human serum albumin) antibodies. Direct ACE-HSA interaction was confirmed by binding assays using purified ACE and HSA. HSA inhibited human purified (circulating) and human recombinant ACE with potencies (IC50) of 5.7±0.7 and 9.5±1.1 mg/mL, respectively. Effects of HSA on the tissue bound native ACE were tested on human saphenous vein samples. Angiotensin I evoked vasoconstriction was inhibited by HSA in this vascular tissue (maximal force with HSA: 6.14±1.34 mN, without HSA: 13.54±2.63 mN), while HSA was without effects on angiotensin II mediated constrictions (maximal force with HSA: 18.73±2.17 mN, without HSA: 19.22±3.50 mN). The main finding of this study is that HSA was identified as a potent physiological inhibitor of the ACE. The enzymatic activity of ACE appears to be almost completely suppressed by HSA when it is present in its physiological concentration. These data suggest that angiotensin I conversion is limited by low physiological ACE activities, in vivo. PMID:24691203

  11. Identification of new polymorphisms of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, and study of their relationship to plasma ACE levels by two-QTL segregation-linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Villard, E.; Soubrier, F.; Tiret, L.; Rakotovao, R. Cambien, F.; Visvikis, S.

    1996-06-01

    Plasma angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) levels are highly genetically determined. A previous segregation-linkage analysis suggested the existence of a functional mutation located within or close to the ACE locus, in almost complete linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and accounting for half the ACE variance. In order to identify the functional variant at the molecular level, we compared ACE gene sequences between four subjects selected for having contrasted ACE levels and I/D genotypes. We identified 10 new polymorphisms, among which 8 were genotyped in 95 healthy nuclear families, in addition to the I/D polymorphism. These polymorphisms could be divided into two groups: five polymorphisms in the 5{prime} region and three in the coding sequence and the 3{prime} UTR. Within each group, polymorphisms were in nearly complete association, whereas polymorphisms from the two groups were in strong negative LD. After adjustment for the I/D polymorphism, all polymorphisms of the 5{prime} group remained significantly associated with ACE levels, which suggests the existence of two quantitative trait loci (QTL) acting additively on ACE levels. Segregation-linkage analyses including one or two ACE-linked QTLs in LD with two ACE markers were performed to test this hypothesis. The two QTLs and the two markers were assumed to be in complete LD. Results supported the existence of two ACE-linked QTLs, which would explain 38% and 49% of the ACE variance in parents and offspring, respectively. One of these QTLs might be the I/D polymorphism itself or the newly characterized 4656(CT){sub 2/3} polymorphism. The second QTL would have a frequency of {approximately}.20, which is incompatible with any of the yet-identified polymorphisms. More extensive sequencing and extended analyses in larger samples and in other populations will be necessary to characterize definitely the functional variants. 30 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  12. Diverse Thinking about Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the concept of diversity in educational decision making. It is noted that the differences that distinguish the needs, interests and abilities are identified by educators. It lists misconceptions resulting from not attending to within-group diversity, and states that a "loss of self" for individual members of…

  13. Occurrence and fate of ACE-inhibitor peptides in cheeses and in their digestates following in vitro static gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Stuknytė, Milda; Cattaneo, Stefano; Masotti, Fabio; De Noni, Ivano

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of the casein-derived angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor (ACE-I) peptides VPP, IPP, RYLGY, RYLG, AYFYPEL, AYFYPE, LHLPLP and HLPLP were investigated in 12 different cheese samples by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. The total amount of ACE-I peptides was in the range 0.87-331mgkg(-1). VPP and IPP largely prevailed in almost all cheeses. Following in vitro static gastrointestinal digestion of Cheddar, Gorgonzola, Maasdam and Grana Padano cheeses, type and amount of ACE-I peptides changed, and only VPP, IPP, HLPLP and LHLPLP were detected in the intestinal digestates. The results evidenced that the degree of proteolysis itself cannot be regarded as a promoting or hindering factor for ACE-I peptide release during cheese digestion. Moreover, the data indicated that the ACE-I potential of cheeses cannot be inferred based on the type and amount of ACE-I peptides present in undigested samples.

  14. The onboard imagers for the Canadian ACE SCISAT-1 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, K. L.; Turnbull, D. N.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; McLeod, S. D.; Butler, M.; Skelton, R.; Bernath, P. F.; Chateauneuf, F.; Soucy, M.-A.

    2007-06-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) onboard the Canadian Space Agency's SCISAT-1 satellite has been in orbit since August of 2003. Its broad objective is to study the problem of stratospheric ozone depletion, particularly in the Arctic. The main instruments are two spectrometers, one an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer and the other a dual optical spectrophotometer sensitive in the UV and visible. Also included are two filtered imagers used to measure altitude profiles of atmospheric extinction and detect thin clouds. The nominal center wavelengths of the filters are 525 nm for the visible (VIS) imager and 1020 nm for the near-infrared (NIR) imager. With the decommissioning of other satellite instruments used to monitor global aerosols [i.e., Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II), SAGE III, Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III, Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE)], the imagers provide much needed continuity in this data record. The data product from the imagers is still, however, in a preliminary state. Funding restrictions in the prelaunch period were responsible for an incomplete characterization of the imagers' optics and electronics and prevented corrections being made for the problems found during testing. Postlaunch data analysis to correct for image artifacts is ongoing. A comparison with coincidental measurements from SAGE II shows that systematic errors from the preliminary analysis are within 5 and 20% for the VIS and NIR imagers, respectively, for uninverted profiles of optical depth. Despite the preliminary nature of the imager results, a paper describing the imagers and the initial operational data processing code is timely because the data are already being used.

  15. The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES): A UAV-based Investigation of Thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) is a NASA-sponsored and -led science investigation that utilizes an uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) to investigate thunderstorms in the vicinity of the NASA Kennedy Space Center, Florida. As part of NASA's UAV-based science demonstration program, ACES will provide a scientifically useful demonstration of the utility and promise of UAV platforms for Earth science and applications observations. ACES will employ the Altus 11 aircraft, built by General Atomics-Aeronautical Systems, Inc. By taking advantage of its slow flight speed (70 to 100 knots), long endurance, and high-altitude flight (up to 55,000 feet), the Altus will be flown near, and when possible, above (but never into) thunderstorms for long periods of time, allowing investigations to be conducted over entire storm life cycles. Key science objectives simultaneously addressed by ACES are to: (1) investigate lightning-storm relationships, (2) study storm electrical budgets, and (3) provide Lightning Imaging Sensor validation. The ACES payload, already developed and flown on Altus, includes electrical, magnetic, and optical sensors to remotely characterize the lightning activity and the electrical environment within and around thunderstorms. The ACES field campaign will be conducted during July 2002 with a goal of performing 8 to 10 UAV flights. Each flight will require about 4 to 5 hours on station at altitudes from 40,000 ft to 55,000 ft. The ACES team is comprised of scientists from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and NASA Goddard Space Flight Centers partnered with General Atomics and IDEA, LLC.

  16. Hypertension and ace gene insertion/deletion polymorphism in pediatric renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Serdaroglu, Erkin; Mir, Sevgi; Berdeli, Afig

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to define the risk factors for hypertension and to analyze the influence of insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) on hypertension in pediatric renal transplant recipients. Twenty-six pediatric renal transplant recipients with stable renal function and treated with the same immunosuppression protocol were included in the study. Their mean age was 12.5 +/- 3.3 yr and mean time after transplantation was 38.5 +/- 39.8 month. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed by SpaceLabs (90207) device. The I/D polymorphism of the ACE was determined by PCR and ACE serum level was analyzed by colorimetric method. Hypertension was present in 15 patients (57.7%) by causal blood pressure measurements and 19 patients (73.1%) by ABPM. Twenty-two patients (84.6%) were found to be non-dipper and eight of them had reverse dipping. Only time after transplantation (38 +/- 31 vs. 79 +/-49 month, p = 0.016) and cyclosporin A trough plasma levels (206 +/-78 vs. 119 +/- 83 ng/mL, p = 0.020) influenced the presence of hypertension by multiple logistic regression analysis. The distribution of genotypes were II = 2 (7.7%), ID = 8 (30.8%), DD = 16 (61.5%). There was no effect of ACE gene I/D polymorphism or serum ACE levels on hypertension prevalence and circadian variability of blood pressures. Hypertension was related to the time after transplantation and cyclosporin A levels. The ACE gene I/D polymorphism and serum ACE levels did not influence the blood pressure values or circadian variability of blood pressure among pediatric renal transplant patients. PMID:16176418

  17. Chemical and nuclear emergencies: Interchanging lessons learned from planning and accident experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, V.; Sorensen, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.

    1989-01-01

    Because the goal of emergency preparedness for both chemical and nuclear hazards is to reduce human exposure to hazardous materials, this paper examines the interchange of lessons learned from emergency planning and accident experience in both industries. While the concerns are slightly different, sufficient similarity is found for each to draw implications from the others experience. Principally the chemical industry can learn from the dominant planning experience associated with nuclear power plants, while the nuclear industry can chiefly learn from the chemical industry's accident experience. 23 refs.

  18. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory for localized interchange modes in toroidal anisotropic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tonghui; Zheng, L. J.; Wan, B. N.; Sun, Y.; Shen, B.; Qian, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    Ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory for localized interchange modes is developed for toroidal plasmas with anisotropic pressure. The work extends the existing theories of Johnson and Hastie [Phys. Fluids 31, 1609 (1988)], etc., to the low n mode case, where n is the toroidal mode number. Also, the plasma compressibility is included, so that the coupling of the parallel motion to perpendicular one, i.e., the so-called apparent mass effect, is investigated in the anisotropic pressure case. The singular layer equation is obtained, and the generalized Mercier's criterion is derived.

  19. Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) Project First Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, Robert; Kille, Robert; Kirsten, Richard; Rigterink, Paul; Sielski, Henry; Gratteau, Melinda F. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    A three-day NASA Virtual Airspace and Modeling Project (VAMS) Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) was held at the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. on May 21 through May 23,2002. The purpose of this meeting was to share initial concept information sponsored by the VAMS Project. An overall goal of the VAMS Project is to develop validated, blended, robust and transition-able air transportation system concepts over the next five years that will achieve NASA's long-term Enterprise Aviation Capacity goals. This document describes the presentations at the TIM, their related questions and answers, and presents the TIM recommendations.

  20. Pressure driven tearing and interchange modes in the reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paccagnella, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the magneto-hydro-dynamic stability of pressure driven modes in the reversed field pinch has been analyzed. It is shown that at low and intermediate β's, i.e., typically for values below 20-25%, the tearing parity is dominant, while only at very high β, well above the achieved experimental values, at least part of the modes are converted to ideal interchange instabilities. Before their transition to ideal instabilities, according to their Lundquist number scaling, they can be classified as resistive-g modes.

  1. Second NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, D. A.; Mankins, J. C.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS), a spreadsheet analysis tool suite, applies parametric equations for sizing and lifecycle cost estimation. Performance, operation, and programmatic data used by the equations come from a Technology Tool Box (TTB) database. In this second TTB Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM), technologists, system model developers, and architecture analysts discussed methods for modeling technology decisions in spreadsheet models, identified specific technology parameters, and defined detailed development requirements. This Conference Publication captures the consensus of the discussions and provides narrative explanations of the tool suite, the database, and applications of ATLAS within NASA s changing environment.

  2. Resistive Interchange Modes Destabilized by Helically Trapped Energetic Ions in a Helical Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X. D.; Toi, K.; Osakabe, M.; Ohdachi, S.; Ido, T.; Tanaka, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ogawa, K.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Isobe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Ozaki, T.; Sakakibara, S.; Seki, R.; Shimizu, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Tsuchiya, H.

    2015-04-01

    A new bursting m =1 /n =1 instability (m ,n : poloidal and toroidal mode numbers) with rapid frequency chirping down has been observed for the first time in a helical plasma with intense perpendicular neutral beam injection. This is destabilized in the plasma peripheral region by resonant interaction between helically trapped energetic ions and the resistive interchange mode. A large radial electric field is induced near the edge due to enhanced radial transport of the trapped energetic ions by the mode, and leads to clear change in toroidal plasma flow, suppression of microturbulence, and triggering an improvement of bulk plasma confinement.

  3. NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, D. A.; Craig, D. A.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this Technical Interchange Meeting was to increase the quantity and quality of technical, cost, and programmatic data used to model the impact of investing in different technologies. The focus of this meeting was the Technology Tool Box (TTB), a database of performance, operations, and programmatic parameters provided by technologists and used by systems engineers. The TTB is the data repository used by a system of models known as the Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This report describes the result of the November meeting, and also provides background information on ATLAS and the TTB.

  4. Assessing the value of laboratory electronic data interchange in the department of veterans affairs.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Colene M; Rudin, Robert S; Johnston, Douglas S; Pan, Eric C

    2010-01-01

    We modeled the adoption, costs and monetezied benefits of the Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA's) internally developed Laboratory Electronic Data Interchange (LEDI) application from 2001-2007. LEDI provides standards-based electronic exchange of laboratory data and secure transmission of laboratory test orders and results. Once the initial development and installation costs were accounted for, LEDI likely produced value for the VA in savings of laboratory staff time for test ordering and results processing. We estimate that the VA needed to realize 20 percent of projected labor saving to recover its investment in LEDI. PMID:21346944

  5. Pressure driven tearing and interchange modes in the reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Paccagnella, R.

    2013-01-15

    In this work, the magneto-hydro-dynamic stability of pressure driven modes in the reversed field pinch has been analyzed. It is shown that at low and intermediate {beta}'s, i.e., typically for values below 20-25%, the tearing parity is dominant, while only at very high {beta}, well above the achieved experimental values, at least part of the modes are converted to ideal interchange instabilities. Before their transition to ideal instabilities, according to their Lundquist number scaling, they can be classified as resistive-g modes.

  6. Perineurial differentiation in interchange grafts of rat peripheral nerve and spinal root.

    PubMed Central

    Radek, A; Thomas, P K; King, R H

    1986-01-01

    The differentiation of the perineurium has been examined in replacement nerve grafts in which segments of the third lumbar dorsal root and the peroneal division of the sciatic nerve of rats were excised and resutured into the gaps. This was compared with perineurial differentiation in interchange grafts in which segments of peroneal nerve were grafted into the third lumbar dorsal root and vice versa. It was concluded that not only the origin of the graft but also the local tissue environment is important in determining the morphological outcome, the latter having the predominant influence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3693073

  7. The free energy in a class of quantum spin systems and interchange processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björnberg, J. E.

    2016-07-01

    We study a class of quantum spin systems in the mean-field setting of the complete graph. For spin S = 1/2, the model is the Heisenberg ferromagnet, and for general spin S ∈ 1/2 N, it has a probabilistic representation as a cycle-weighted interchange process. We determine the free energy and the critical temperature (recovering results by Tóth and by Penrose when S = 1/2). The critical temperature is shown to coincide (as a function of S) with that of the q = 2S + 1 state classical Potts model, and the phase transition is discontinuous when S ≥ 1.

  8. ACE2 Deficiency Worsens Epicardial Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Cardiac Dysfunction in Response to Diet-Induced Obesity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vaibhav B; Mori, Jun; McLean, Brent A; Basu, Ratnadeep; Das, Subhash K; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Parajuli, Nirmal; Penninger, Josef M; Grant, Maria B; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is increasing in prevalence and is strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has emerged as a key pathogenic mechanism for these disorders; angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) negatively regulates RAS by metabolizing Ang II into Ang 1-7. We studied the role of ACE2 in obesity-mediated cardiac dysfunction. ACE2 null (ACE2KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a control diet and studied at 6 months of age. Loss of ACE2 resulted in decreased weight gain but increased glucose intolerance, epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) inflammation, and polarization of macrophages into a proinflammatory phenotype in response to HFD. Similarly, human EAT in patients with obesity and heart failure displayed a proinflammatory macrophage phenotype. Exacerbated EAT inflammation in ACE2KO-HFD mice was associated with decreased myocardial adiponectin, decreased phosphorylation of AMPK, increased cardiac steatosis and lipotoxicity, and myocardial insulin resistance, which worsened heart function. Ang 1-7 (24 µg/kg/h) administered to ACE2KO-HFD mice resulted in ameliorated EAT inflammation and reduced cardiac steatosis and lipotoxicity, resulting in normalization of heart failure. In conclusion, ACE2 plays a novel role in heart disease associated with obesity wherein ACE2 negatively regulates obesity-induced EAT inflammation and cardiac insulin resistance.

  9. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotypes and disability in hospitalized older patients.

    PubMed

    Seripa, Davide; Paroni, Giulia; Matera, Maria G; Gravina, Carolina; Scarcelli, Carlo; Corritore, Michele; D'Ambrosio, Luigi P; Urbano, Maria; D'Onofrio, Grazia; Copetti, Massimiliano; Kehoe, Patrick G; Panza, Francesco; Pilotto, Alberto

    2011-09-01

    The association between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotypes and functional decline in older adults remains controversial. To assess if ACE gene variations influences functional abilities at older age, the present study explored the association between the common ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and disability measured with activities of daily living (ADL) in hospitalized older patients. We analyzed the frequency of the ACE genotypes (I/I, I/D, and D/D) in a population of 2,128 hospitalized older patients divided according to presence or absence of ADL disability. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for possible confounding factors, identified an association between the I/I genotype with ADL disability (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.04-2.29). This association was significant in men (OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.07-3.78), but not in women (OR=1.36, 95% CI 0.82-2.25). These results suggested a possible role of the ACE polymorphism as a genetic marker for ADL disability in hospitalized older patients.

  10. Tissue ACE inhibition improves microcirculation in remote myocardium after coronary stenosis: MR imaging study in rats.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Karl-Heinz; Ruile, Philipp; Kraus, Günter; Bauer, Wolfgang R; Waller, Christiane

    2010-12-01

    ACE inhibition has been shown to improve left ventricular (LV) and myocardial blood flow. Previous data regarding changes in capillary density and angiogenesis during ACE inhibition are controversial. The aim of the following study was to determine myocardial microcirculation and heart function in the rat after coronary stenosis using non invasive MR imaging techniques. MR spin labeling and cine techniques have been performed in female Wistar rats 2weeks after coronary artery stenosis. In one group, animals were treated with quinapril in a dose of 6mg/kg/day. Perfusion, relative blood volume (RBV), LV mass and function were determined non-invasively 2weeks after treatment. Finally, fibrosis and capillary density were analyzed histologically. Additionally, hemodynamic measurements were realized in a further group in order to calculate systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Quinapril resulted in a significant increase in perfusion at rest in the remote and the poststenotic myocardium with improved systolic function and a decrease in SVR compared to the non treated control group. Additionally, maximum perfusion and RBV were slightly elevated whereas capillary density was unchanged among the groups. MRI allows for non-invasive quantification of functional microcirculation and heart function. In addition to the well known effect of ACE inhibition on systolic function, treatment with the tissue specific ACE inhibitor quinapril revealed an important microvascular improvement, especially at arteriolar level. These findings may support the use of tissue ACE inhibitors to improve cardiac microcirculation after ischemia.

  11. Tailored therapy of ACE inhibitors in stable coronary artery disease: pharmacogenetic profiling of treatment benefit.

    PubMed

    Brugts, Jasper J; Boersma, Eric; Simoons, Maarten L

    2010-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are among the most commonly used drugs in stable coronary artery disease as these agents have been proven to be effective for reducing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As with other drugs, individual variation in treatment benefit is likely. Such heterogeneity could be used to target ACE-inhibitor therapy to those patients most likely to benefit from treatment. However, prior attempts to target ACE-inhibitor therapy to those patients who are most likely to benefit of such prophylactic treatment in secondary prevention using clinical characteristics or the level of baseline risk appeared not to be useful. A new approach of 'tailored therapy' could be to integrate more patient-specific characteristics, such as the genetic information of patients. Pharmacogenetic research of ACE inhibitors in coronary artery disease patients is at a formative stage, and studies are limited. The Perindopril Genetic association (PERGENE) study is a large pharmacogenetic substudy of the randomized placebo-controlled European trial On Reduction of Cardiac Events with Perindopril in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery disease (EUROPA) trial, aimed to assess the feasibility of pharmacogenetic profiling of ACE-inhibitor therapy by perindopril. This article summarizes the recent findings of the PERGENE study and pharmacogenetic research of the treatment benefit of perindopril in stable coronary artery disease. PMID:20712529

  12. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Jong; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Son, Chang-Gue; Im, Hwi-Jin; Jo, Hyun-Kyung; Yoo, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Yoon-Sik; Seol, In-Chan

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi) and Curcuma longa (C. longa) radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM). In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE) on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group) were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group) were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg) or curcumin (50 mg/kg). Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides), glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα). The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model. PMID:26508977

  13. The association between ace gene variation and aerobic capacity in winter endurance disciplines.

    PubMed

    Orysiak, J; Zmijewski, P; Klusiewicz, A; Kaliszewski, P; Malczewska-Lenczowska, J; Gajewski, J; Pokrywka, A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the possible relationship between I/D polymorphism of ACE gene and selected indices of aerobic capacity among male and female athletes practising winter endurance sports. Sixty-six well-trained athletes (female n = 26, male n = 40), aged 18.4 ± 2.8 years, representing winter endurance sports (cross-country skiing, n = 48; biathlon, n = 8; Nordic combined, n = 10) participated in the study. Genotyping for ACE I/D polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), maximal running velocity (Vmax) and running velocity at anaerobic threshold (VAT4) were determined in an incremental test to volitional exhaustion on a motorized treadmill. The ACE genotype had no significant effect on absolute VO2max, relative VO2max (divided by body mass or fat free body mass), VAT4 or Vmax. No interaction effect of gender x ACE genotype was found for each of the examined aerobic capacity indices. ACE gene variation was not found to be a determinant of aerobic capacity in either female or male Polish, well-trained endurance athletes participating in winter sports.

  14. A longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for interchangeable and structurally different methods

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Tobias; Schultze, Martin; Eid, Michael; Geiser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    One of the key interests in the social sciences is the investigation of change and stability of a given attribute. Although numerous models have been proposed in the past for analyzing longitudinal data including multilevel and/or latent variable modeling approaches, only few modeling approaches have been developed for studying the construct validity in longitudinal multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) measurement designs. The aim of the present study was to extend the spectrum of current longitudinal modeling approaches for MTMM analysis. Specifically, a new longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for measurement designs with structurally different and interchangeable methods (called Latent-State-Combination-Of-Methods model, LS-COM) is presented. Interchangeable methods are methods that are randomly sampled from a set of equivalent methods (e.g., multiple student ratings for teaching quality), whereas structurally different methods are methods that cannot be easily replaced by one another (e.g., teacher, self-ratings, principle ratings). Results of a simulation study indicate that the parameters and standard errors in the LS-COM model are well recovered even in conditions with only five observations per estimated model parameter. The advantages and limitations of the LS-COM model relative to other longitudinal MTMM modeling approaches are discussed. PMID:24860515

  15. Arctic weather during the FIRE/ACE flights in 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, Donald P.

    2001-07-01

    The weather systems, cyclones and anticyclones, along with air trajectories and cloud forms, are compared to past studies of the Arctic to assess compatibility of the 4-month study of FIRE/ACE with past climatologies. The frequency and movement of cyclones (lows) and anticyclones (highs) followed the general eastward and northeastward directions indicated by past studies. Most cyclones (lows) came from eastern Siberia and the Bering Sea to the south and moved north across the Bering Straight or Alaska into the Arctic Ocean. They generally weakened in central pressure as they moved poleward. Anticyclones (highs) were most common in the eastern Beaufort Sea near Canada in June and July, as predicted from previous studies. However, many cyclones and anticyclones moved in westward directions, which is rare in other latitudes. Erratic changes in shape and intensity on a daily basis also were observed. The NOAA National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) analysis generally reflected the SHEBA Ship WMO observations which it used. However, NCEP temperatures were biased warm by 1.0° to 1.5°C in April and early May. In July, when the surface temperatures were at the freezing/thawing point, the NCEP analysis changed to a cold bias of -1.0°C. Dew points had smaller biases except for July where they were biased cold by -1.4°C. Wind speeds had a -2 m/s low bias for the six windiest days. Surface barometric pressures had consistently low biases from -1.2 to -2.8 hPa in all four months. Air parcel historical trajectories were mainly from the south or from local anticyclonic gyres in the Beaufort Sea. Most air came to the SHEBA ship from the North Pacific Ocean or from Alaska and Canada and occasionally from eastern Siberia. Very few trajectories traced back across the pole to Europe and central Asia. Cloud cover was high, as expected, from 69 to 86% of the time. Satellite data also indicate frequent stratus, altostratus, and cirrus clouds (occurring 61% of the time

  16. Low endemism, continued deep-shallow interchanges, and evidence for cosmopolitan distributions in free-living marine nematodes (order Enoplida)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nematodes represent the most abundant benthic metazoa in one of the largest habitats on earth, the deep sea. Characterizing major patterns of biodiversity within this dominant group is a critical step towards understanding evolutionary patterns across this vast ecosystem. The present study has aimed to place deep-sea nematode species into a phylogenetic framework, investigate relationships between shallow water and deep-sea taxa, and elucidate phylogeographic patterns amongst the deep-sea fauna. Results Molecular data (18 S and 28 S rRNA) confirms a high diversity amongst deep-sea Enoplids. There is no evidence for endemic deep-sea lineages in Maximum Likelihood or Bayesian phylogenies, and Enoplids do not cluster according to depth or geographic location. Tree topologies suggest frequent interchanges between deep-sea and shallow water habitats, as well as a mixture of early radiations and more recently derived lineages amongst deep-sea taxa. This study also provides convincing evidence of cosmopolitan marine species, recovering a subset of Oncholaimid nematodes with identical gene sequences (18 S, 28 S and cox1) at trans-Atlantic sample sites. Conclusions The complex clade structures recovered within the Enoplida support a high global species richness for marine nematodes, with phylogeographic patterns suggesting the existence of closely related, globally distributed species complexes in the deep sea. True cosmopolitan species may additionally exist within this group, potentially driven by specific life history traits of Enoplids. Although this investigation aimed to intensively sample nematodes from the order Enoplida, specimens were only identified down to genus (at best) and our sampling regime focused on an infinitesimal small fraction of the deep-sea floor. Future nematode studies should incorporate an extended sample set covering a wide depth range (shelf, bathyal, and abyssal sites), utilize additional genetic loci (e.g. mtDNA) that are

  17. Role of the ACE2/Angiotensin 1-7 Axis of the Renin-Angiotensin System in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vaibhav B; Zhong, Jiu-Chang; Grant, Maria B; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2016-04-15

    Heart failure (HF) remains the most common cause of death and disability, and a major economic burden, in industrialized nations. Physiological, pharmacological, and clinical studies have demonstrated that activation of the renin-angiotensin system is a key mediator of HF progression. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a homolog of ACE, is a monocarboxypeptidase that converts angiotensin II into angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) which, by virtue of its actions on the Mas receptor, opposes the molecular and cellular effects of angiotensin II. ACE2 is widely expressed in cardiomyocytes, cardiofibroblasts, and coronary endothelial cells. Recent preclinical translational studies confirmed a critical counter-regulatory role of ACE2/Ang 1-7 axis on the activated renin-angiotensin system that results in HF with preserved ejection fraction. Although loss of ACE2 enhances susceptibility to HF, increasing ACE2 level prevents and reverses the HF phenotype. ACE2 and Ang 1-7 have emerged as a key protective pathway against HF with reduced and preserved ejection fraction. Recombinant human ACE2 has been tested in phase I and II clinical trials without adverse effects while lowering and increasing plasma angiotensin II and Ang 1-7 levels, respectively. This review discusses the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of ACE2 and the role of the ACE2/Ang 1-7 axis in cardiac physiology and in the pathophysiology of HF. The pharmacological and therapeutic potential of enhancing ACE2/Ang 1-7 action as a novel therapy for HF is highlighted.

  18. Tissue specific up regulation of ACE2 in rabbit model of atherosclerosis by atorvastatin: role of epigenetic histone modifications.

    PubMed

    Tikoo, Kulbhushan; Patel, Gaurang; Kumar, Sandeep; Karpe, Pinakin Arun; Sanghavi, Maitri; Malek, Vajir; Srinivasan, K

    2015-02-01

    Growing body of evidence points out the crucial role of ACE2 in preventing atherosclerosis. However, data on how atherosclerosis affects ACE2 expression in heart and kidney remains unknown. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding New Zealand White rabbits with high cholesterol diet (HCD - 2%) for 12 weeks and atorvastatin was administered (5mg/kg/day p.o) in last 3 weeks. ACE2 mRNA and protein expression was assessed by Western blotting and real time PCR. HCD fed rabbits developed atherosclerosis as confirmed by increase in plasma total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides as well as formation atherosclerotic plaques in arch of aorta. The ACE2 protein but not mRNA expression was reduced in heart and kidney of HCD rabbits. Interestingly, atorvastatin increased the ACE2 protein expression in heart and kidney of HCD rabbits. However, atorvastatin increased ACE2 mRNA in heart but not in kidney of HCD rabbits. Atorvastatin increased the occupancy of histone H3 acetylation (H3-Ac) mark on ACE2 promoter region in heart of HCD rabbits indicating direct or indirect epigenetic up-regulation of ACE2 by atorvastatin. Further, atorvastatin suppressed Ang II-induced contractile responses and enhanced AT2 receptor mediated relaxant responses in atherosclerotic aorta. We propose that atherosclerosis is associated with reduced ACE2 expression in heart and kidney. We also show an unexplored potential of atorvastatin to up-regulate ACE2 via epigenetic histone modifications. Our data suggest a novel way of replenishing ACE2 expression for preventing not only atherosclerosis but also other cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25482567

  19. Rapid screening and identification of active ingredients in licorice extract interacting with V3 loop region of HIV-1 gp120 using ACE and CE-MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongjie; Zhao, Yiran; Lin, Weiwei; Ye, Min; Ling, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    The binding of envelope protein gp120 to glycosphingolipids is very important during the human immunodeficiency virus entering into the host cell. This step occurs in the V3 loop region in particularly. The conserved core sequence of V3 loop in gp120 was named R15K. Anti-HIV drug targeting to R15K would avoid the drug-resistance caused by HIV-1 genetic diversity. Here, for the first time, affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) were used for establishing a simple, rapid and effective method of screening the licorice extract for biological activity (anti-HIV), which avoided the complicated isolation and purification process. R15K, 3'-sialyllactose (the positive control), and d-galactose (the negative control) were used for the development and validation of ACE method. After the interaction between licorice extract and R15K was confirmed by ACE, the relative active ingredients were isolated by SPE and their structures were determined by CE-ESI-MS online. In this research, two mixtures from licorice extract were found to be active. Furthermore, glycyrrhizin and licorice saponin G2 were verified as the main ingredients that significantly interacted with R15K via CE-MS and LC-MS. The results of quantitative assays showed that the active mixture contained glycyrrhizin of 74.23% and licorice saponin G2 of 9.52%. Calculated by Scatchard analysis method, glycyrrhizin/R15K complex had the highest binding constant (1.69 ± 0.08) × 10(7)L/mol among 27 compounds isolated from licorice extract. The anti-HIV activity of glycyrrhizin was further confirmed by bioactive experiment of cellular level. This strategy might provide a high throughput screening and identifying platform for seeking HIV-1 inhibitors in natural products.

  20. The Delta II with ACE aboard is prepared for liftoff from Pad 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle carrying the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) undergoes final preparations for liftoff in the predawn hours of Aug. 25, 1997, at Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. This is the second Delta launch under the Boeing name and the first from Cape Canaveral. The first launch attempt on Aug. 24 was scrubbed by Air Force range safety personnel because two commercial fishing vessels were within the Delta's launch danger area. ACE with its combination of nine sensors and instruments will investigate the origin and evolution of solar phenomenon, the formation of solar corona, solar flares and acceleration of the solar wind. ACE was built for NASA by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and is managed by the Explorer Project Office at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The lead scientific institution is the California Institute of Technology.

  1. Role of Serratia marcescens ACE2 on diesel degradation and its influence on corrosion.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Babu, Thambidurai Ganesh; Pandian, Shunmugiah Thevar Karutha; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Palaniswamy, Narayanan; Rajendran, Annamalai

    2007-09-01

    A facultative anaerobic species Serratia marcescens ACE2 isolated from the corrosion products of diesel transporting pipeline in North West, India was identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The role of Serratia marcesens ACE2 on biodegradation of diesel and its influence on the corrosion of API 5LX steel has been elucidated. The degrading strain ACE2 is involved in the process of corrosion of steel API 5LX and also utilizes the diesel as an organic source. The quantitative biodegradation efficiency (BE) of diesel was 58%, calculated by gas-chromatography-mass spectrum analysis. On the basis of gas-chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD), the involvement of Serratia marcescens on degradation and corrosion has been investigated. This basic study will be useful for the development of new approaches for detection, monitoring and control of microbial corrosion.

  2. Serum ACE Level in Sarcoidosis Patients with Typical and Atypical HRCT Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Kahkouee, Shahram; Samadi, Katayoon; Alai, Ali; Abedini, Atefeh; Rezaiian, Lida

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease that affects multiple organs. Before widespread use of computed tomography (CT), the severity of sarcoidosis was assessed based on chest X-ray abnormalities. HRCT can distinguish between active inflammatory changes and irreversible fibrosis. In this study, we analyzed different ACE levels in 148 patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis. Material/Methods We categorized these patients based on their HRCT results into four groups: 1) patients diagnosed with chronic disease; 2) patients diagnosed with non-chronic disease; 3) patients who exhibited typical HRCT changes; and 4) patients who exhibited atypical HRCT changes. Afterward the mean ACE level of each group was calculated and compared. Result The HRCT scans of chronic sarcoidosis patients tended to show more atypical sarcoidosis patterns. Moreover, there was a reverse correlation between chronicity and ACE level (P-value <0.05). Conclusions HRCT is another modality which would be useful when the diagnosis of sarcoidosis is not definite. PMID:27733890

  3. SIGACE Code for Generating High-Temperature ACE Files; Validation and Benchmarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amit R.; Ganesan, S.; Trkov, A.

    2005-05-01

    A code named SIGACE has been developed as a tool for MCNP users within the scope of a research contract awarded by the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (Ref: 302-F4-IND-11566 B5-IND-29641). A new recipe has been evolved for generating high-temperature ACE files for use with the MCNP code. Under this scheme the low-temperature ACE file is first converted to an ENDF formatted file using the ACELST code and then Doppler broadened, essentially limited to the data in the resolved resonance region, to any desired higher temperature using SIGMA1. The SIGACE code then generates a high-temperature ACE file for use with the MCNP code. A thinning routine has also been introduced in the SIGACE code for reducing the size of the ACE files. The SIGACE code and the recipe for generating ACE files at higher temperatures has been applied to the SEFOR fast reactor benchmark problem (sodium-cooled fast reactor benchmark described in ENDF-202/BNL-19302, 1974 document). The calculated Doppler coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental value. A similar calculation using ACE files generated directly with the NJOY system also agrees with our SIGACE computed results. The SIGACE code and the recipe is further applied to study the numerical benchmark configuration of selected idealized PWR pin cell configurations with five different fuel enrichments as reported by Mosteller and Eisenhart. The SIGACE code that has been tested with several FENDL/MC files will be available, free of cost, upon request, from the Nuclear Data Section of the IAEA.

  4. PAPR reduction in FBMC using an ACE-based linear programming optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Neut, Nuan; Maharaj, Bodhaswar TJ; de Lange, Frederick; González, Gustavo J.; Gregorio, Fernando; Cousseau, Juan

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents four novel techniques for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) modulation systems. The approach extends on current PAPR reduction active constellation extension (ACE) methods, as used in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), to an FBMC implementation as the main contribution. The four techniques introduced can be split up into two: linear programming optimization ACE-based techniques and smart gradient-project (SGP) ACE techniques. The linear programming (LP)-based techniques compensate for the symbol overlaps by utilizing a frame-based approach and provide a theoretical upper bound on achievable performance for the overlapping ACE techniques. The overlapping ACE techniques on the other hand can handle symbol by symbol processing. Furthermore, as a result of FBMC properties, the proposed techniques do not require side information transmission. The PAPR performance of the techniques is shown to match, or in some cases improve, on current PAPR techniques for FBMC. Initial analysis of the computational complexity of the SGP techniques indicates that the complexity issues with PAPR reduction in FBMC implementations can be addressed. The out-of-band interference introduced by the techniques is investigated. As a result, it is shown that the interference can be compensated for, whilst still maintaining decent PAPR performance. Additional results are also provided by means of a study of the PAPR reduction of the proposed techniques at a fixed clipping probability. The bit error rate (BER) degradation is investigated to ensure that the trade-off in terms of BER degradation is not too severe. As illustrated by exhaustive simulations, the SGP ACE-based technique proposed are ideal candidates for practical implementation in systems employing the low-complexity polyphase implementation of FBMC modulators. The methods are shown to offer significant PAPR reduction and increase the feasibility of FBMC as

  5. Modelling of the production of ACE inhibitory hydrolysates of horse mackerel using proteases mixtures.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gálvez, R; Morales-Medina, R; Espejo-Carpio, F; Guadix, A; Guadix, E M

    2016-09-14

    Fish protein hydrolysates from Mediterranean horse mackerel were produced by using a mixture of two commercial endoproteases (i.e. subtilisin and trypsin) at different levels of substrate concentration (2.5 g L(-1), 5 g L(-1), and 7.5 g L(-1) of protein), temperature (40 °C, 47.5 °C, and 55 °C) and percentage of subtilisin in the enzyme mixture (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). A crossed mixture process model was employed to predict the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the ACE inhibitory activity of the final hydrolysates as a function of the experimental factors. Both models were optimized for a maximum DH and ACE inhibition. A maximum DH (17.1%) was predicted at 2.54 g L(-1) of substrate concentration, 40 °C and an enzyme mixture comprising 38.3% of subtilisin and 61.7% of trypsin. Although its proteolytic activity is limited, the presence of trypsin in the enzyme mixture allowed obtaining higher degrees of hydrolysis at low temperatures, which is desirable to minimize thermal deactivation of the proteins. Similarly, a percentage of ACE inhibition above 48% was attained at 2.5 g L(-1) of protein, 40 °C and a 1 : 1 mixture of both proteases. Higher values of ACE inhibition could be attained by increasing both the temperature and the amount of trypsin in the enzyme mixture (e.g. 50% ACE inhibition at 55 °C and 81.5% of trypsin). Finally, those hydrolysates exhibiting the highest levels of ACE inhibition were subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion. These assays confirmed the resistance of active fractions against their degradation by digestive enzymes. PMID:27526864

  6. Does the use of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers affect bone loss in older men?

    PubMed Central

    Leung, J.; Zhang, Y. F.; Bauer, D.; Ensrud, K. E.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Leung, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary In a prospective cohort study of 5,995 older American men (MrOS), users of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors had a small but significant increase in bone loss at the hip over 4 years after adjustment for confounders. Use of angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARB) was not significantly associated with bone loss. Introduction Experimental evidence suggests that angiotensin II promotes bone loss by its effects on osteoblasts. It is therefore plausible that ACE inhibitor and ARB may reduce rates of bone loss. The objective of this study is to examine the independent effects of ACE inhibitor and ARB on bone loss in older men. Methods Out of 5,995 American men (87.2%) aged ≥65 years, 5,229 were followed up for an average of 4.6 years in a prospective six-center cohort study—The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS). Bone mineral densities (BMD) at total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter were measured by Hologic densitometer (QDR 4500) at baseline and year 4. Results Out of 3,494 eligible subjects with complete data, 1,166 and 433 subjects reported use of ACE inhibitors and ARBs, respectively. When compared with nonusers, continuous use of ACE inhibitors was associated with a small (0.004 g/cm2) but significant increase in the average rate of BMD loss at total hip and trochanter over 4 years after adjustment for confounders. Use of ARB was not significantly associated with bone loss. Conclusion Use of ACE inhibitors but not ARB may marginally increase bone loss in older men. PMID:22080379

  7. Antihypertensive treatment in renal transplant patients--is there a role for ACE inhibitors?

    PubMed

    Hausberg, M; Kosch, M; Hohage, H; Suwelack, B; Barenbrock, M; Kisters, K; Rahn, K H

    2001-01-01

    During the past two decades great progress was achieved with regards to short-term kidney graft survival. However, long-term graft survival did not improve similarly. Many factors contribute to chronic graft nephropathy eventually resulting in late graft loss, among these arterial hypertension is of major importance. In patients with chronic renal disease of diabetic and non-diabetic origin, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been convincingly shown to slow the progression of renal failure. The achieved nephroprotection correlates with the reduction of proteinuria by ACE inhibitor treatment. Also in renal transplant patients, ACE inhibitors have been shown unequivocally to reduce urinary protein excretion. The prevention of hyperfiltration, particular in the context of a reduced number of functional nephrons in patients with chronic graft nephropathy, could be important to prolong graft survival after renal transplantation. Moreover, ACE inhibitors may exert beneficial effects on immunologic processes contributing to chronic graft nephropathy. Many studies published in the last decade show convincingly that ACE inhibitors are safe and effective for the treatment of hypertension in renal allograft recipients. However, no data exist so far showing that ACE inhibitors are superior to other antihypertensive drugs in renal transplant patients and that they prolong graft survival. Studies investigating this issue are warranted. Apart from effects on the graft, ACE inhibitors may improve alterations of the cardiovascular system generally observed in renal transplant patients, such as structural alterations of large arteries, left ventricular hypertrophy, disturbed mechanical vessel wall properties and endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors could reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant patients.

  8. The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES): A UAV-Based Science Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Croskey, C. L.; Desch, M. D.; Farrell, W. M.; Goldberg, R. A.; Houser, J. G.; Kim, H. S.; Mach, D. M.; Mitchell, J. D.; Stoneburner, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)- based project that investigated thunderstorms in the vicinity of the Florida Everglades in August 2002. ACES was conducted to investigate storm electrical activity and its relationship to storm morphology, and to validate satellite-based lightning measurements. In addition, as part of the NASA sponsored UAV-based science demonstration program, this project provided a scientifically useful demonstration of the utility and promise of UAV platforms for Earth science and applications observations. ACES employed the Altus II aircraft, built by General Atomics - Aeronautical Systems, Inc. Key science objectives simultaneously addressed by ACES are to: (1) investigate lightning-storm relationships, (2) study storm electrical budgets, and provide Lightning Imaging Sensor validation. The ACES payload included electrical, magnetic, and optical sensors to remotely characterize the lightning activity and the electrical environment within and around thunderstorms. ACES contributed important electrical and optical measurements not available from other sources. Also, the high altitude vantage point of the UAV observing platform (up to 55,000 feet) provided cloud-top perspective. By taking advantage of its slow flight speed (70 to 100 knots), long endurance, and high altitude flight, the Altus was flown near, and when possible, over (but never into) thunderstorms for long periods of time that allowed investigations to be conducted over entire storm life cycles. An innovative real time weather system was used to identify and vector the aircraft to selected thunderstorms and safely fly around these storms, while, at the same time monitor the weather near our base of operations. In addition, concurrent ground-based observations that included radar (Miami and Key West WSRBD, NASA NPOL), satellite imagery, and lightning (NALDN and Los Alamos EDOT) enable the UAV measurements to be more completely

  9. A cladistic model of ACE sequence variation with implications for myocardial infarction, Alzheimer disease and obesity.

    PubMed

    Katzov, Hagit; Bennet, Anna M; Kehoe, Patrick; Wiman, Björn; Gatz, Margaret; Blennow, Kaj; Lenhard, Boris; Pedersen, Nancy L; de Faire, Ulf; Prince, Jonathan A

    2004-11-01

    Sequence variation in ACE, which encodes angiotensin I converting enzyme, contributes to a large proportion of variability in plasma ACE levels, but the extent to which this impacts upon human disease is unresolved. Most efforts to associate ACE with other heritable traits have involved a single Alu insertion/deletion polymorphism, despite the probable existence of other functional sequence variants with effects that may not be consistently detectable by solely typing the Alu indel. Here, utilizing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that differentiate major ACE clades in European populations, we demonstrate a number of significant phenotype associations across more than 4000 Swedish individuals. In a systematic analysis of metabolic phenotypes, effects were detected upon several traits, including fasting plasma glucose levels, insulin levels and measures of obesity (P-values ranging from 0.046 to 8.4 x 10(-6)). Extending cladistic models to the study of myocardial infarction and Alzheimer disease, significant associations were observed with greater effect sizes than those typically obtained in large-scale meta-analyses based on the Alu indel. Population frequencies of ACE genotypes were also found to change with age, congruent with previous data suggesting effects upon longevity. Clade models consistently outperformed those based upon single markers, reinforcing the importance of taking into consideration the possible confounding effects of allelic heterogeneity in this genomic region. Utilizing computational tools, potential functional variants are highlighted that may underlie phenotypic variability, which is discussed along with the broader implications these results may have for studies attempting to link variation in ACE to human disease.

  10. SIGACE Code for Generating High-Temperature ACE Files; Validation and Benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Amit R.; Ganesan, S.; Trkov, A.

    2005-05-24

    A code named SIGACE has been developed as a tool for MCNP users within the scope of a research contract awarded by the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (Ref: 302-F4-IND-11566 B5-IND-29641). A new recipe has been evolved for generating high-temperature ACE files for use with the MCNP code. Under this scheme the low-temperature ACE file is first converted to an ENDF formatted file using the ACELST code and then Doppler broadened, essentially limited to the data in the resolved resonance region, to any desired higher temperature using SIGMA1. The SIGACE code then generates a high-temperature ACE file for use with the MCNP code. A thinning routine has also been introduced in the SIGACE code for reducing the size of the ACE files. The SIGACE code and the recipe for generating ACE files at higher temperatures has been applied to the SEFOR fast reactor benchmark problem (sodium-cooled fast reactor benchmark described in ENDF-202/BNL-19302, 1974 document). The calculated Doppler coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental value. A similar calculation using ACE files generated directly with the NJOY system also agrees with our SIGACE computed results. The SIGACE code and the recipe is further applied to study the numerical benchmark configuration of selected idealized PWR pin cell configurations with five different fuel enrichments as reported by Mosteller and Eisenhart. The SIGACE code that has been tested with several FENDL/MC files will be available, free of cost, upon request, from the Nuclear Data Section of the IAEA.

  11. Adaptive coherence estimator (ACE) for explosive hazard detection using wideband electromagnetic induction (WEMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvey, Brendan; Zare, Alina; Cook, Matthew; Ho, Dominic K. C.

    2016-05-01

    The adaptive coherence estimator (ACE) estimates the squared cosine of the angle between a known target vector and a sample vector in a transformed coordinate space. The space is transformed according to an estimation of the background statistics, which directly effects the performance of the statistic as a target detector. In this paper, the ACE detection statistic is used to detect buried explosive hazards with data from a Wideband Electromagnetic Induction (WEMI) sensor. Target signatures are based on a dictionary defined using a Discrete Spectrum of Relaxation Frequencies (DSRF) model. Results are summarized as a receiver operator curve (ROC) and compared to other leading methods.

  12. Experimental demonstration of a classical approach for flexible structure control - The ACES testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an active structural control experiment performed for the Advanced Control Evaluation for Structures (ACES) testbed at NASA-Marshall as part of the NASA Control-Structure Interaction Guest Investigator Program. The experimental results successfully demonstrate the effectiveness of a 'dipole' concept for line-of-sight control of a pointing system mounted on a flexible structure. The simplicity and effectiveness of a classical 'single-loop-at-a-time' approach for the active structural control design for a complex structure, such as the ACES testbed, are demonstrated.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SP_Ace derived data from stellar spectra (Boeche+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K.

    2015-11-01

    SP_Ace is a software designed to derive stellar parameters and elemental abundances from stellar spectra. In this tables we report the stellar parameters Teff, logg, [M/H], and chemical abundances [El/H] for ten elements derived with the software SP_Ace from spectra of the ELODIE spectral library (Prugniel et al., 2007, Cat. III/251), the benchmark stars (Jofre et al., 2014, Cat. J/A+A/564/A133), and the S4N library (Allende Prieto et al., 2004, Cat. J/A+A/420/183) degraded to spectral resolution R=12,000 and S/N=100. (3 data files).

  14. Comparison of ARAC calculations with surface and airborne measurements for the ACE field trials

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.T.; Pobanz, B.

    1996-11-01

    These Atmospheric Collection Equipment (ACE) trials were sponsored by the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC) for the purpose of investigating specific tracer monitoring methods and equipment. Three different tracers (sulfur hexafluoride and two particulate tracers) were released simultaneously for each experiment. This document provides a brief summary of the sulfur hexafluoride modeling results for three of the remaining four ACE trials (the tracer plume from the fifth trial was not located by the monitoring teams and provided no tracer measurements for model comparison). This summary is followed by a discussion of model results for the two particulate tracers which were co-released with sulfur hexafluoride.

  15. Kidney scintigraphy after ACE inhibition in the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Ghione, S.; Fommei, E.; Palombo, C.; Giaconi, S.; Mantovanelli, A.; Ragazzini, A.; Palla, L.

    1986-01-01

    Suppression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition may induce renal failure in patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis. Recent scintigraphic studies with the glomerular tracer technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetate (99m-Tc DTPA) indicate that in patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may be markedly reduced in the affected kidney after inhibition of ACE. This finding reflects the important role of the RAS in maintaining GFR (by increasing postglomerular resistance) in states of low renal perfusion pressure. Preliminary observations suggest that this scintigraphic test might be useful in the detection of renovascular hypertension.

  16. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I/D) polymorphism frequency in Brazilian soccer players.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Daniel Barbosa; Pimenta, Eduardo; Rosse, Izinara Cruz; Veneroso, Christiano; Pussieldi, Guilherme; Becker, Lenice Kapes; Carvalho, Maria-Raquel; Silami-Garcia, Emerson

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I/D) allelic and genotypic frequencies in Brazilian soccer players of different ages. The study group comprised 353 players from first-division clubs in the under (U)-14, U-15, U-17, U-20, and professional categories. The allelic and genotypic frequencies did not differ significantly in any of the categories between the group of players and the control group. This was the first study of ACE-I/D polymorphism in Brazilian soccer players. PMID:27232187

  17. Dipeptidase-inactivated tACE action in vivo: selective inhibition of sperm-zona pellucida binding in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Eishi; Tani, Taeko; Watanabe, Hitomi; Yamada, Shuichi; Kondoh, Gen

    2007-11-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a crucial role in male fertilization and is a key regulator of blood pressure. Testicular ACE (tACE), the germinal specific isozyme expressed on different promoters, exclusively carries out the role of ACE in fertility, although the site and mode of action are not well known. To investigate the contribution of tACE in fertilization, we produced transgenic mouse lines carrying a dipeptidase-inactivated mutant. Although the transgenic mice showed normal blood pressure, kidney morphology, and fertility, reduced fertilization was observed after in vitro fertilization (IVF). The sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding was exclusively impaired in these lines in a manner similar to that observed in an Ace knockout mouse. The dipeptidase activity was reduced in epididymal ingredients but not in the testis. Furthermore, direct application of mutant protein did not suppress sperm-ZP binding of intact sperm during IVF, implying that the dipeptidase-inactivated mutant affects sperm modification in the epididymis for ZP binding. Our results indicate that the dipeptidase-inactivated tACE acts in vivo, suggesting that tACE contributes to fertilization as a dipeptidase at least in the epididymis.

  18. Does Education Plus Action Lead to Leadership on Climate? Preliminary Results from the ACE Leadership Development Longitudinal Survey Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. K.; Qusba, L.; Lappe, M.; Flora, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Through education and leadership development, Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) is building a generation of confident and capable youth driving climate solutions now throughout their lives. In 2011-12, a random sample of 2,800 high school students across the country was surveyed before and after seeing the ACE Assembly on climate science and solutions. The survey showed that the ACE Assembly resulted in a 27% increase in climate science knowledge scores, with 59% of students increasing their intentions to take action on climate and a doubling of the number of students talking to parents and peers about climate change. Students were also compared to the Global Warming's Six Americas classification of Americans' views on climate. Following the ACE Assembly, 60% of students were alarmed or concerned about climate change. Building off these results, in 2014 ACE began to assess the results of its leadership development program that follows the ACE Assembly. The goal of this survey project is to measure ACE's long-term impact on students' college and career pathways, civic engagement and climate action. Preliminary results show that a majority of students in ACE's leadership development program are alarmed about global warming and are having conversations about global warming. A majority of these students also feel confident in their ability to lead a climate-related campaign in their school and community. These students will continue to be surveyed through 2015.

  19. Validating the ACE Model for Evaluating Student Performance Using a Teaching-Learning Process Based on Computational Modeling Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louzada, Alexandre Neves; Elia, Marcos da Fonseca; Sampaio, Fábio Ferrentini; Vidal, Andre Luiz Pestana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to adapt and test, in a Brazilian public school, the ACE model proposed by Borkulo for evaluating student performance as a teaching-learning process based on computational modeling systems. The ACE model is based on different types of reasoning involving three dimensions. In addition to adapting the model and introducing…

  20. What is the impact of the ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism on the clinical effectiveness and adverse events of ACE inhibitors? – Protocol of a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Scharplatz, M; Puhan, MA; Steurer, J; Bachmann, LM

    2004-01-01

    Background The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism has received much attention in pharmacogenetic research because observed variations in response to ACE inhibitors might be associated with this polymorphism. Pharmacogenetic testing raises the hope to individualise ACE inhibitor therapy in order to optimise its effectiveness and to reduce adverse effects for genetically different subgroups. However, the extent of its effect modification in patients treated with ACE inhibitors remains inconclusive. Therefore our objective is to quantify the effect modification of the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene on any surrogate and clinically relevant parameters in patients with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, renal transplantation and/or renal failure. Methods Systematic Review. We will perform literature searches in six electronic databases to identify randomised controlled trials comparing the effectiveness and occurrence of adverse events of ACE inhibitor therapy against placebo or any active treatment stratified by the I/D gene polymorphism. In addition, authors of trials, experts in pharmacogenetics and pharmaceutical companies will be contacted for further published or unpublished data. Hand searching will be accomplished by reviewing the reference lists of all included studies. The methodological quality of included papers will be assessed. Data analyses will be performed in clinically and methodologically cogent subgroups. The results of the quantitative assessment will be pooled statistically where appropriate to produce an estimate of the differences in the effect of ACE inhibitors observed between the three ACE genotypes. Discussion This protocol describes a strategy to quantify the effect modification of the ACE polymorphism on ACE inhibitors in relevant clinical domains using meta-epidemiological research methods. The results may provide evidence for the usefulness of pharmacogenetic

  1. Egg ovotransferrin‐derived ACE inhibitory peptide IRW increases ACE2 but decreases proinflammatory genes expression in mesenteric artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Kaustav; Liang, Guanxiang; Chen, Yanhong; Guan, LeLuo; Davidge, Sandra T.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Egg ovotransferrin‐derived angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide IRW was previously shown to reduce blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats through reduced vascular inflammation and increased nitric oxide‐mediated vasorelaxation. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of this peptide through transcriptome analysis by RNAseq technique. Methods and results Total RNA was extracted from kidney and mesenteric arteries; the RNAseq libraries (from untreated and IRW‐treated groups) were constructed and subjected to sequence using HiSeq 2000 system (Illumina) system. A total of 12 764 and 13 352 genes were detected in kidney and mesenteric arteries, respectively. The differentially expressed (DE) genes between untreated and IRW‐treated groups were identified and the functional analysis through ingenuity pathway analysis revealed a greater role of DE genes identified from mesenteric arteries than that of kidney in modulating various cardiovascular functions. Subsequent qPCR analysis further confirmed that IRW significantly increased the expression of ACE‐2, ABCB‐1, IRF‐8, and CDH‐1 while significantly decreased the expression ICAM‐1 and VCAM‐1 in mesenteric arteries. Conclusion Our research showed for the first time that ACE inhibitory peptide IRW could contribute to its antihypertensive activity through increased ACE2 and decreased proinflammatory genes expression. PMID:26016560

  2. Local regulation of interchange turbulence in a dipole-confined plasma torus using current-collection feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, T. M. Mauel, M. E. Worstell, M. W.

    2015-05-15

    Turbulence in plasma confined by a magnetic dipole is dominated by interchange fluctuations with complex dynamics and short spatial coherence. We report the first use of local current-collection feedback to modify, amplify, and suppress these fluctuations. The spatial extent of turbulence regulation is limited to a correlation length near the collector. Changing the gain and phase of collection results in power either extracted from or injected into the turbulence. The measured plasma response shows some agreement with calculations of the linear response of global interchange-like MHD and entropy modes to current-collection feedback.

  3. Long Term Missions at the Sun-Earth Libration Point L1: ACE, SOHO, and WIND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Craig E.

    2011-01-01

    Three heliophysics missions -- the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Global Geoscience WIND -- have been orbiting the Sun-Earth interior libration point L1 continuously since 1997, 1996, and 2004, respectively. ACE and WIND (both NASA missions) and SOHO (an ESA-NASA joint mission) are all operated from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). While ACE and SOHO have been dedicated libration point orbiters since their launches, WIND has had also a remarkable 10-year career flying a deep-space, multiple lunar-flyby trajectory prior to 2004. That era featured 36 targeted lunar flybys with excursions to both L1 and L2 before its final insertion in L1 orbit. A figure depicts the orbits of the three spacecraft, showing projections of the orbits onto the orthographic planes of a solar rotating ecliptic frame of reference. The SOHO orbit is a quasi-periodic halo orbit, where the frequencies of the in-plane and out-of-plane motions are practically equal. Such an orbit is seen to repeat itself with a period of approximately 178 days. For ACE and WIND, the frequencies of the in-plane and out-of-plane motions are unequal, giving rise to the characteristic Lissajous motion. ACE's orbit is of moderately small amplitude, whereas WIND's orbit is a large-amplitude Lissajous of dimensions close to those of the SOHO halo orbit. As motion about the collinear points is inherently unstable, stationkeeping maneuvers are necessary to prevent orbital decay and eventual escape from the L1 region. Though the three spacecraft are dissimilar (SOHO is a 3-axis stabilized Sun pointer, WIND is a spin-stabilized ecliptic pole pointer, and ACE is also spin-stabilized with its spin axis maintained between 4 and 20 degrees of the Sun), the stationkeeping technique for the three is fundamentally the same. The technique consists of correcting the energy of the orbit via a delta-V directed parallel or anti-parallel to the Spacecraft-to-Sun line. SOHO

  4. Targeted in-vivo computed tomography (CT) imaging of tissue ACE using concentrated lisinopril-capped gold nanoparticle solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Marie-Christine; Aras, Omer; Smith, Mark F.; Nan, Anjan; Fleiter, Thorsten

    2010-04-01

    The development of cardiac and pulmonary fibrosis have been associated with overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Moreover, ACE inhibitors, such as lisinopril, have shown a benificial effect for patients diagnosed with heart failure or systemic hypertension. Thus targeted imaging of the ACE is of crucial importance for monitoring of the tissue ACE activity as well as the treatment efficacy in heart failure. In this respect, lisinopril-capped gold nanoparticles were prepared to provide a new type of probe for targeted molecular imaging of ACE by tuned K-edge computed tomography (CT) imaging. Concentrated solutions of these modified gold nanoparticles, with a diameter around 16 nm, showed high contrast in CT imaging. These new targeted imaging agents were thus used for in vivo imaging on rat models.

  5. Carnivorans at the Great American Biotic Interchange: new discoveries from the northern neotropics.

    PubMed

    Forasiepi, Analia M; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H; Gomez, Catalina Suarez; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Quiroz, Luis I; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2014-11-01

    We report two fossil procyonids, Cyonasua sp. and Chapalmalania sp., from the late Pliocene of Venezuela (Vergel Member, San Gregorio Formation) and Colombia (Ware Formation), respectively. The occurrence of these pre-Holocene procyonids outside Argentina and in the north of South America provides further information about the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). The new specimens are recognized in the same monophyletic group as procyonids found in the southern part of the continent, the "Cyonasua group," formed by species of Cyonasua and Chapalmalania. The phylogenetic analysis that includes the two new findings support the view that procyonids dispersed from North America in two separate events (initially, previous to the first major migration wave-GABI 1-and then within the last major migration wave-GABI 4-). This involved reciprocal lineage migrations from North to South America, and included the evolution of South American endemic forms.

  6. Pd/Cu site interchange in UCu{sub 5-x}Pd{sub x}

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, C.H.; Bauer, E.D.; Maple, M.B.; Chau, R.; Kwei, G.H.

    2001-07-11

    Although Pd/Cu site interchange in the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) material UCu{sub 4}Pd has been observed, the relationship between this disorder and the NFL behavior remains unclear. In order to better compare to the UCu{sub 5-x}Pd{sub x} phase diagram, they report results from Pd K edge x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) experiments on this series (x = 0.3-1.5) that determine the fraction of Pd atoms on the nominally Cu (16e) sites, s. They find that for these unannealed samples, s is at least 17% for all the samples measured, even for x < 1.0, although it does climb monotonically beyond its minimum at x = 0.7. These data are compared to changes in the lattice parameter as a function of x.

  7. Interchange instability in the inner magnetosphere associated with geosynchronous particle flux decreases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazykin, S.; Wolf, R. A.; Spiro, R. W.; Gombosi, T. I.; De Zeeuw, D. L.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2002-05-01

    We simulate the inner magnetosphere during the magnetic storm of September 25, 1998 using the Rice Convection Model with boundary fluxes estimated from geosynchronous data. Model results indicate development of an interchange-like instability in the dusk-to-midnight sector, producing ripple structures in the plasma density, swirls in the subauroral ionospheric electric field pattern, and undulations near the equatorward edge of the diffuse aurora. We suggest that these disturbances might be observable whenever a strong main-phase ring-current injection is followed by a major, sustained decrease in the plasma energy density at geosynchronous orbit, a circumstance that will also produce rapid decay of the storm-time ring current.

  8. Neuronal Prediction of Opponent’s Behavior during Cooperative Social Interchange in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Haroush, Keren; Williams, Ziv M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY A cornerstone of successful social interchange is the ability to anticipate each other’s intentions or actions. While generating these internal predictions is essential for constructive social behavior, their single neuronal basis and causal underpinnings are unknown. Here, we discover specific neurons in the primate dorsal anterior cingulate that selectively predict an opponent’s yet unknown decision to invest in their common good or defect and distinct neurons that encode the monkey’s own current decision based on prior outcomes. Mixed population predictions of the other was remarkably near optimal compared to behavioral decoders. Moreover, disrupting cingulate activity selectively biased mutually beneficial interactions between the monkeys but, surprisingly, had no influence on their decisions when no net-positive outcome was possible. These findings identify a group of other-predictive neurons in the primate anterior cingulate essential for enacting cooperative interactions and may pave a way toward the targeted treatment of social behavioral disorders. PMID:25728667

  9. Nonlinear evolution of the resistive interchange mode in the cylindrical spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    DeLucia, J.; Jardin, S.C.

    1984-02-01

    Results are presented of a study of various aspects of the single helicity nonlinear development of the resistive interchange mode in the cylindrical spheromak. A formulation of the helically symmetric resistive MHD equations that partially separates the ideal MHD characteristics is developed. Mode saturation can occur due to the quasilinear flattening of the pressure profile in the vicinity of the mode rational surface. However, this saturation process is defeated when the plasma overheats and in regions of the plasma where the shear is low. Finite fluid compression has significant, and optimistic, consequences on the long-term nonlinear behavior of this mode. For a tearing mode stable cylindrical spheromak equilibrium configuration with an axial beta value of 6%, complete overlap of the m = 1 islands occurs in about 3% of the resistive skin time for a magnetic Reynold's number of S = 10/sup 5/. For typical parameters of the S-1 device at Princeton, this time corresponds to nearly one-millisecond.

  10. Net Interchange Schedule Forecasting of Electric Power Exchange for RTO/ISOs

    SciTech Connect

    Ferryman, Thomas A.; Haglin, David J.; Vlachopoulou, Maria; Yin, Jian; Shen, Chao; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lin, Guang; Zhou, Ning; Tong, Jianzhong

    2012-07-26

    Neighboring independent system operators (ISOs) exchange electric power to enable efficient and reliable operation of the grid. Net interchange (NI) schedule is the sum of the transactions (in MW) between an ISO and its neighbors. Effective forecasting of the amount of actual NI can improve grid operation efficiency. This paper presents results of a preliminary investigation into various methods of prediction that may result in improved prediction accuracy. The methods studied are linear regression, forward regression, stepwise regression, and support vector machine (SVM) regression. The work to date is not yet conclusive. The hope is to explore the effectiveness of other prediction methods and apply all methods to at least one new data set. This should enable more confidence in the conclusions.

  11. NASA's Single-Pilot Operations Technical Interchange Meeting: Proceedings and Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comerford, Doreen; Brandt, Summer L.; Lachter, Joel B.; Wu, Shu-Chieh; Mogford, Richard H.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center and Langley Research Center are jointly investigating issues associated with potential concepts, or configurations, in which a single pilot might operate under conditions that are currently reserved for a minimum of two pilots. As part of early efforts, NASA Ames Research Center hosted a technical interchange meeting in order to gain insight from members of the aviation community regarding single-pilot operations (SPO). The meeting was held on April 10-12, 2012 at NASA Ames Research Center. Professionals in the aviation domain were invited because their areas of expertise were deemed to be directly related to an exploration of SPO. NASA, in selecting prospective participants, attempted to represent various relevant sectors within the aviation domain. Approximately 70 people representing government, academia, and industry attended. A primary focus of this gathering was to consider how tasks and responsibilities might be re-allocated to allow for SPO.

  12. Asymmetric coupled interchange-ballooning dynamics during magnetic reconnection in the solar wind driven magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ehab; Horton, W.; Hatch, D. R.; Agullo, O.; Muraglia, M.; Benkadda, S.; InstituteFusion Studies Collaboration; PIIM/CNRS, AMU, Marseille, France Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Fast reconnection in the magnetosphere and the geomagnetic tail involves electron scale dynamics that includes the electron inertial scale length on the inner scale and the ion gyroradius on the outer scale. New forms of the partial differential equations for the electric and magnetic field during the fast interchange dynamics. Typical data is that of the fast reconnection with dominant electron heating reported in the Nakamura et al. from CLUSTER data. New formulas extend to smaller scales the previous simulations of Horton et al. [2007] for this event by including more electron dynamics and heating. 3D-simulations and movies of the dynamics are presented. Supported by US-DoE grant to UT and CNRS grant to AMU.

  13. Interchange and Infernal Fishbone Modes in Plasmas with Tangentially Injected Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnichenko; Ya.I.; Marchenko; V.S.; White; R.B.

    2006-01-01

    New energetic particle mode instabilities of fishbone type are predicted. The considered instabilities are driven by the circulating energetic ions. They can arise in plasmas of tokamaks and spherical tori with weak magnetic shear in the wide core region and strong shear at the periphery, provided that the central safety factor is close to the ratio m/n, where m and n are the poloidal mode number and toroidal mode number, respectively. The instability with m = n = 1 has interchange-like spatial structure, whereas the structure of instabilities with m/n > 1 is similar to that of the infernal MHD mode (except for the region in vicinity of the local Alfvén resonance).

  14. Anderson Localization from the Berry-Curvature Interchange in Quantum Anomalous Hall Systems.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhenhua; Han, Yulei; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Deng, Xinzhou; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Shengyuan A; Wang, Jian; Niu, Qian

    2016-07-29

    We theoretically investigate the localization mechanism of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the presence of spin-flip disorders. We show that the QAHE stays quantized at weak disorders, then enters a Berry-curvature mediated metallic phase at moderate disorders, and finally goes into the Anderson insulating phase at strong disorders. From the phase diagram, we find that at the charge neutrality point although the QAHE is most robust against disorders, the corresponding metallic phase is much easier to be localized into the Anderson insulating phase due to the interchange of Berry curvatures carried, respectively, by the conduction and valence bands. In the end, we provide a phenomenological picture related to the topological charges to better understand the underlying physical origin of the QAHE Anderson localization. PMID:27517785

  15. Assessing Interchangeability at Cluster-Levels with Multiple-Informant Data

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhehui; Breslau, Joshua; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Chen, Qiaoling; Breslau, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between neighborhood social disorder and health often rely on multiple informants. Such studies assume interchangeability of the latent constructs derived from multiple-informant data. Existing methods examining this assumption do not clearly delineate the uncertainty at individual levels from that at neighborhood levels. We propose a multi-level variance component factor model that allows this delineation. Data come from a survey of a representative sample of children born between 1983 and 1985 in the inner city of Detroit and nearby middle-class suburbs. Results indicate that the informant-level models tend to exaggerate the effect of places due to differences between persons. Our evaluations of different methodologies lead to the recommendation of the multi-level variance component factor model whenever multiple-informant reports can be aggregated at a neighborhood level. PMID:24038232

  16. Anderson Localization from the Berry-Curvature Interchange in Quantum Anomalous Hall Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Zhenhua; Han, Yulei; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Deng, Xinzhou; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Wang, Jian; Niu, Qian

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the localization mechanism of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the presence of spin-flip disorders. We show that the QAHE stays quantized at weak disorders, then enters a Berry-curvature mediated metallic phase at moderate disorders, and finally goes into the Anderson insulating phase at strong disorders. From the phase diagram, we find that at the charge neutrality point although the QAHE is most robust against disorders, the corresponding metallic phase is much easier to be localized into the Anderson insulating phase due to the interchange of Berry curvatures carried, respectively, by the conduction and valence bands. In the end, we provide a phenomenological picture related to the topological charges to better understand the underlying physical origin of the QAHE Anderson localization.

  17. Expression of Magnaporthe grisea Avirulence Gene ACE1 Is Connected to the Initiation of Appressorium-Mediated Penetration▿

    PubMed Central

    Fudal, Isabelle; Collemare, Jérôme; Böhnert, Heidi U.; Melayah, Delphine; Lebrun, Marc-Henri

    2007-01-01

    Magnaporthe grisea is responsible for a devastating fungal disease of rice called blast. Current control of this disease relies on resistant rice cultivars that recognize M. grisea signals corresponding to specific secreted proteins encoded by avirulence genes. The M. grisea ACE1 avirulence gene differs from others, since it controls the biosynthesis of a secondary metabolite likely recognized by rice cultivars carrying the Pi33 resistance gene. Using a transcriptional fusion between ACE1 promoter and eGFP, we showed that ACE1 is only expressed in appressoria during fungal penetration into rice and barley leaves, onion skin, and cellophane membranes. ACE1 is almost not expressed in appressoria differentiated on Teflon and Mylar artificial membranes. ACE1 expression is not induced by cellophane and plant cell wall components, demonstrating that it does not require typical host plant compounds. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling mutants ΔcpkA and Δmac1 sum1-99 and tetraspanin mutant Δpls1::hph differentiate melanized appressoria with normal turgor but are unable to penetrate host plant leaves. ACE1 is normally expressed in these mutants, suggesting that it does not require cAMP signaling or a successful penetration event. ACE1 is not expressed in appressoria of the buf1::hph mutant defective for melanin biosynthesis and appressorial turgor. The addition of hyperosmotic solutes to buf1::hph appressoria restores appressorial development and ACE1 expression. Treatments of young wild-type appressoria with actin and tubulin inhibitors reduce both fungal penetration and ACE1 expression. These experiments suggest that ACE1 appressorium-specific expression does not depend on host plant signals but is connected to the onset of appressorium-mediated penetration. PMID:17142568

  18. The Effect of Interchange Rotation Period and Number on Australian Football Running Performance.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Paul G; Wisbey, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Montgomery, PG, and Wisbey, B. The effect of interchange rotation period and number on Australian Football running performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1890-1897, 2016-To determine the effect of on-field rotation periods and total number of game rotations on Australian Football running performance, elite Australian Football players (n = 21, mean ± SD; 23.2 ± 1.7 years; 183.5 ± 3.7 cm; 83.2 ± 4.5 kg) had Global Positioning System game data from 22 rounds divided into a total of 692 on-field playing periods. These periods were allocated into time blocks of 2:00-minute increments, with the log transformed percentage differences in running performance (m·min) between blocks analyzed by effect size and meaningful differences. A total of 7,730 game rotation and associated average m·min combinations collected over 3 Australian Football seasons were also assessed by effect size and meaningful differences. Running capacity decreases after 5:00 minutes by ∼3% for each 2:00 minutes of on-field time up to 9:00 minutes, with variable responses between positions up to 6.7% for nomadic players. For each rotation less than 6 per game, clear small-to-moderate decreases up to 3.6% in running capacity occurred per rotation. To maintain a high level of running capacity, shorter on-field periods are more effective in Australian Football; however, players and coaches should be aware that with interchange restriction, slightly longer on-field periods achieve similar results. PMID:27328273

  19. Structure and consequences of the kinetic ballooning/interchange instability in the magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchett, P. L.; Coroniti, F. V.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<p label="1">The structure and dynamical consequences of the kinetic ballooning/<span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability (BICI) that can be excited in the curved magnetic geometry characteristic of the terrestrial plasma sheet are investigated by means of three-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations. Compared with earlier studies that considered a single Bz minimum configuration with an extremely large midtail field, additional simulations are performed in which this maximum is reduced to a more realistic value, the dependence on the values of the plasma beta and of the mass and temperature ratios mi/me and Ti/Te is investigated, and the limiting case of a constant Bz profile is examined. The general properties of the BICI modes are found to be unaltered by these changes. Significantly, the BICI excitation is found not to require an explicit tailward magnetic field gradient; it appears to be sufficient for the entropy to decrease with distance down the tail. The BICI wavelength varies inversely with Bz, and the eigenmodes are strongly field aligned with parallel electron flows comparable to the ion thermal velocity. In the edge of the plasma sheet, the oscillations in Bx and Bz have comparable magnitude. Once excited, the growth of the modes is robust and leads to the formation of intense <span class="hlt">interchange</span> heads that propagate earthward. When the equatorial plasma beta is on the order of 500 or higher, the Bz field can be driven southward in the wake of the heads. This results in the onset of localized magnetic reconnection and a violent disruption of the plasma sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3299299','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3299299"><span id="translatedtitle">Recombinant Expression and Characterization of Human and Murine <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2: Species-Specific Activation of the Alternative Renin-Angiotensin-System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Poglitsch, Marko; Domenig, Oliver; Schwager, Cornelia; Stranner, Stefan; Peball, Bernhard; Janzek, Evelyne; Wagner, Bettina; Jungwirth, Helmut; Loibner, Hans; Schuster, Manfred</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>2) is a monocarboxypeptidase of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) which is known to cleave several substrates among vasoactive peptides. Its preferred substrate is Angiotensin II, which is tightly involved in the regulation of important physiological functions including fluid homeostasis and blood pressure. Ang 1–7, the main enzymatic product of <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2, became increasingly important in the literature in recent years, as it was reported to counteract hypertensive and fibrotic actions of Angiotensin II via the MAS receptor. The functional connection of <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2, Ang 1–7, and the MAS receptor is also referred to as the alternative axis of the RAS. In the present paper, we describe the recombinant expression and purification of human and murine <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 (rh<span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 and rm<span class="hlt">ACE</span>2). Furthermore, we determined the conversion rates of rh<span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 and rm<span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 for different natural peptide substrates in plasma samples and discovered species-specific differences in substrate specificities, probably leading to functional differences in the alternative axis of the RAS. In particular, conversion rates of Ang 1–10 to Ang 1–9 were found to be substantially different when applying rh<span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 or rm<span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 in vitro. In contrast to rh<span class="hlt">ACE</span>2, rm <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 is substantially less potent in transformation of Ang 1–10 to Ang 1–9. PMID:22518284</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=motorcycle&pg=7&id=ED187834','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=motorcycle&pg=7&id=ED187834"><span id="translatedtitle">Adult Competency Education Kit. Basic Skills in Speaking, Math, and Reading for Employment. Part G. <span class="hlt">ACE</span> Competency Based Job Descriptions: #22--Refrigerator Mechanic; #24--Motorcycle Repairperson.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. Career Preparation Centers.</p> <p></p> <p>This fourth of fifteen sets of Adult Competency Education (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) Competency Based Job Descriptions in the <span class="hlt">ACE</span> kit contains job descriptions for Refrigerator Mechanic and Motorcycle Repairperson. Each begins with a fact sheet that includes this information: occupational title, D.O.T. code, <span class="hlt">ACE</span> number, career ladder, D.O.T. general educational…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20839302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20839302"><span id="translatedtitle">N-<span class="hlt">Ace</span>: using solvent accessibility and physicochemical properties to identify protein N-acetylation sites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Tzong-Yi; Hsu, Justin Bo-Kai; Lin, Feng-Mao; Chang, Wen-Chi; Hsu, Po-Chiang; Huang, Hsien-Da</p> <p>2010-11-30</p> <p>Protein acetylation, which is catalyzed by acetyltransferases, is a type of post-translational modification and crucial to numerous essential biological processes, including transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, and cytokine signaling. As the experimental identification of protein acetylation sites is time consuming and laboratory intensive, several computational approaches have been developed for identifying the candidates of experimental validation. In this work, solvent accessibility and the physicochemical properties of proteins are utilized to identify acetylated alanine, glycine, lysine, methionine, serine, and threonine. A two-stage support vector machine was applied to learn the computational models with combinations of amino acid sequences, and the accessible surface area and physicochemical properties of proteins. The predictive accuracy thus achieved is 5% to 14% higher than that of models trained using only amino acid sequences. Additionally, the substrate specificity of the acetylated site was investigated in detail with reference to the subcellular colocalization of acetyltransferases and acetylated proteins. The proposed method, N-<span class="hlt">Ace</span>, is evaluated using independent test sets in various acetylated residues and predictive accuracies of 90% were achieved, indicating that the performance of N-<span class="hlt">Ace</span> is comparable with that of other acetylation prediction methods. N-<span class="hlt">Ace</span> not only provides a user-friendly input/output interface but also is a creative method for predicting protein acetylation sites. This novel analytical resource is now freely available at http://N-<span class="hlt">Ace</span>.mbc.NCTU.edu.tw/. PMID:20839302</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ809722.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ809722.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Professional Knowledge Formation and Organisational Capacity-Building in <span class="hlt">ACE</span>: Lessons from the Victorian Research Circles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McIntyre, John</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The national reform agenda of the Council of Australian Governments challenges community education agencies to contribute to its goals and raises questions about their capacity to do so. It is crucial to define the conditions that are necessary to develop the capability of adult and community education (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) organisations to play a broader social…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26658948','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26658948"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of <span class="hlt">ACE</span> and PAI-1 Polymorphisms in the Development and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saleem, Saba; Azam, Aisha; Maqsood, Sundus Ijaz; Muslim, Irfan; Bashir, Shaheena; Fazal, Nosheen; Riaz, Moeen; Ali, Syeda Hafiza Benish; Niazi, Muhammad Khizar; Ishaq, Mazhar; Waheed, Nadia Khalida; Qamar, Raheel; Azam, Maleeha</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In the present study we determined the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its sub-clinical classes in Pakistani type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 353 diabetic subjects including 160 DR and 193 diabetic non retinopathy (DNR) as well as 198 healthy controls were genotyped by allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for <span class="hlt">ACE</span> Insertion/Deletion (ID) polymorphism, rs4646994 in intron 16 and PAI-1 4G/5G (deletion/insertion) polymorphism, rs1799768 in promoter region of the gene. To statistically assess the genotype-phenotype association, multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to the genotype data of DR, DNR and control individuals as well as the subtypes of DR. The <span class="hlt">ACE</span> genotype ID was found to be significantly associated with DR (p = 0.009, odds ratio (OR) 1.870 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-3.36]) and its sub-clinical class non-proliferative DR (NPDR) (p = 0.006, OR 2.250 [95% CI = 1.098-4.620]), while PAI polymorphism did not show any association with DR in the current cohort. In conclusion in Pakistani population the <span class="hlt">ACE</span> ID polymorphism was observed to be significantly associated with DR and NPDR, but not with the severe form of the disease i.e. proliferative DR (PDR). PMID:26658948</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=eel&id=ED437177','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=eel&id=ED437177"><span id="translatedtitle">Accounting Early for Life Long Learning: The <span class="hlt">AcE</span> Project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>University Coll. Worcester (England). Centre for Research in Early Childhood Education.</p> <p></p> <p>Building upon the work of the Effective Early Learning (EEL) Project in raising the quality of early learning for young children in the United Kingdom, the 3-year Accounting Early for Life Long Learning Project (<span class="hlt">AcE</span> Project) focuses on enhancing in 3- to 6-year-olds those attitudes and dispositions that are important to life-long learning. This…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840021900','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840021900"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ACEE</span> Composite Structures Technology: Review of selected NASA research on composite materials and structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (<span class="hlt">ACEE</span>) Composite Primary Aircraft Structures Program was designed to develop technology for advanced composites in commercial aircraft. Research on composite materials, aircraft structures, and aircraft design is presented herein. The following parameters of composite materials were addressed: residual strength, damage tolerance, toughness, tensile strength, impact resistance, buckling, and noise transmission within composite materials structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980hwi..reptT.....','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980hwi..reptT....."><span id="translatedtitle">Economic evaluation of the Annual Cycle Energy System (<span class="hlt">ACES</span>), volume 3, appendices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-06-01</p> <p>Seven appendices related to <span class="hlt">ACES</span>, the first three of which are concerned with computer programs are presented. The appendices are entitled: ACESIM: Residential Program Listing; Typical inputs and outputs OF ACESIM; CACESS: Commercial Building Program Listing; Typical Weather Year Selection Requirements; Building Characteristics; List of AJOR Variables Used in the Computer Programs; and Bibliography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=business+AND+psychology&pg=7&id=ED493398','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=business+AND+psychology&pg=7&id=ED493398"><span id="translatedtitle">Educational Measurement. Fourth Edition. <span class="hlt">ACE</span>/Praeger Series on Higher Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brennan, Robert L., Ed.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>"Educational Measurement" has been the bible in its field since the first edition was published by <span class="hlt">ACE</span> in 1951. The importance of this fourth edition of "Educational Measurement" is to extensively update and extend the topics treated in the previous three editions. As such, the fourth edition documents progress in the field and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED454428.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED454428.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Further Local Participation Study: TAFE and <span class="hlt">ACE</span> in Melbourne Postcodes. Working Paper.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McIntyre, John</p> <p></p> <p>A study analyzed patterns of participation at the local level in adult and community education (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) and technical and further education (TAFE) in Melbourne, Australia postcodes. Patterns of participation were hypothesized as being different from those in Sydney, New South Wales, where previous research established the marked differentiation of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4891624','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4891624"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress pathways to health inequalities: Embedding <span class="hlt">ACEs</span> within social and behavioral contexts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nurius, Paula S.; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Longhi, Dario; Song, Chiho</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective This study addresses whether adverse childhood experiences (<span class="hlt">ACEs</span>) demonstrate disproportional prevalence across demographic- and health-affecting characteristics, offer significant explanation of adult health outcomes, and show patterned association with illness susceptibility early within and across adulthood when viewed in combination with income and psychosocial resources. Methods Data were derived from a population-based state health survey using stratified random sampling of household adults (n=7,470): ages 18–99 (M=55), 59.9% females, and race/ethnicity, income and education levels representative of the region. We assessed <span class="hlt">ACEs</span> by aggregating 8 adversity forms, 5 health behaviors and 3 psychosocial resources; and health outcomes (number of chronic conditions, subjective wellness). Results Disproportionality was evident in <span class="hlt">ACEs</span> levels by demographics, adult SES, health behaviors, and psychosocial resources in expected directions. Stepped multiple regressions of health outcomes demonstrated significant betas and R2 change for each predictor block, revealing cumulative as well as unique explanatory utility. Early onset chronic illness was evident on the basis of <span class="hlt">ACEs</span> levels. These illnesses were amplified for low income respondents. Prevalence was highest across adulthood for those also reporting low psychosocial assets. Conclusions Findings offer novel insights as to the “long reach” of childhood adversity on health, conditioned by circumstances under which these effects may occur. Health resilience offered by health behaviors and psychosocial resources should shape thinking about preventive and remedial interventions by social work and allied professionals across a range of settings. PMID:27274786</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ethical+AND+Decision-Making+AND+Organizations&id=EJ1043816','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ethical+AND+Decision-Making+AND+Organizations&id=EJ1043816"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ACED</span> IT: A Tool for Improved Ethical and Moral Decision-Making</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kreitler, Crystal Mata; Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Rodarte, Allen M.; Piñón DuMond, Rebecca</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Numerous examples of unethical organizational decision-making highlighted in the media have led many to question the general moral perception and ethical judgments of individuals. The present study examined two forms of a straightforward ethical decision-making (EDM) tool (<span class="hlt">ACED</span> IT cognitive map) that could be a relatively simple instrument for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/900098','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/900098"><span id="translatedtitle">Purple Computational Environment With Mappings to <span class="hlt">ACE</span> Requirements for the General Availability User Environment Capabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barney, B; Shuler, J</p> <p>2006-08-21</p> <p>Purple is an Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) funded massively parallel supercomputer located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Purple Computational Environment documents the capabilities and the environment provided for the FY06 LLNL Level 1 General Availability Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories, but also documents needs of the LLNL and Alliance users working in the unclassified environment. Additionally, the Purple Computational Environment maps the provided capabilities to the Trilab ASC Computing Environment (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) Version 8.0 requirements. The <span class="hlt">ACE</span> requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the General Availability user environment capabilities of the ASC community. Appendix A lists these requirements and includes a description of <span class="hlt">ACE</span> requirements met and those requirements that are not met for each section of this document. The Purple Computing Environment, along with the <span class="hlt">ACE</span> mappings, has been issued and reviewed throughout the Tri-lab community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27643121','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27643121"><span id="translatedtitle">SY 12-2 <span class="hlt">ACE</span> INHIBITORS AND ARBS: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN CV RISK REDUCTION.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Danser, Alexander</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) can be accomplished at the level of the angiotensin-generating enzymes renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>; using renin inhibitors or <span class="hlt">ACE</span> inhibitors), the type 1 angiotensin II (AT1) receptor or mineralocorticoid receptor (MR; using angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs] or MR blockers) and/or renin release (using beta-blockers). Several of these drugs are often combined-for example in heart failure-but such approaches may ultimately lead to RAAS annihilation with adverse consequences such as hypotension, renal dysfunction and hyperkalaemia. The biochemical consequences of each type of blockade are different. For instance, <span class="hlt">ACE</span> inhibitors will lower angiotensin II, thus no longer allowing stimulation of both AT1 and type 2 angiotensin II (AT2) receptors, while ARBs raise angiotensin II, allowing selective stimulation of the unoccupied AT2 receptor. This might be of particular importance in women, in whom the protective AT2 receptor pathway is believed to be upregulated. Multiple clinical trials have compared the various types of RAAS blockers and/or their combination. This talk will summarize the current evidence with regard to similarities and differences between <span class="hlt">ACE</span> inhibitors and ARBs, also considering their side-effect profile, dose and combination with other RAAS blockers. PMID:27643121</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311063&keyword=star&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65533637&CFTOKEN=88954704','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311063&keyword=star&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65533637&CFTOKEN=88954704"><span id="translatedtitle">Informational webinar for EPA STAR RFA on "Air, Climate and Energy (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) Centers: Science Supporting Solutions"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this webinar presentation is to discuss the application process and required elements for the Air, Climate and Energy (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) Centers: Science Supporting Solutions RFA. EPA is seeking research on the development of sound science to systematically inform policy makers...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-31/pdf/2012-2033.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-31/pdf/2012-2033.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 4815 - <span class="hlt">Ace</span> Info Solutions, Inc., and Information International Associates; Transfer of Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-31</p> <p>... coding, Web 2.0 project support for wikis and blogs and web site design. OPP has determined that access... accordance with 40 CFR 2.307(h)(3) and 2.308(i)(2). <span class="hlt">Ace</span> Info Solutions, Inc., and its subcontractor... public access reference and referral: 1. EPA Desktop Library support; 2. Electronic resources...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26690037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26690037"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ACE</span> and ACTN3 genes polymorphisms among female Hungarian athletes in the aspect of sport disciplines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bosnyák, E; Trájer, E; Udvardy, A; Komka, Z; Protzner, A; Kováts, T; Györe, I; Tóth, M; Pucsok, J; Szmodis, M</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to determine the importance of two sport-associated gene polymorphisms, alpha-actinin-3 R577X (ACTN3) and angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>), among Hungarian athletes in different sports. The examination was carried out only on women (n = 100). Sport-specific groups were formed in order to guarantee the most homogeneous clusters. Human genomic DNA was isolated from blood, and genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction. To measure the differences between the participating groups, Chi-squared test was performed using Statistica 9.0 for Windows® (significance level: p < 0.05). In comparing the <span class="hlt">ACE</span> I/D allele frequencies, significant difference was detected between water polo (I = 61.11%; D = 38.89%) and combat sports (I = 35.71%, D = 64.29%) athletes (p < 0.03). There was no statistical difference when <span class="hlt">ACE</span> I/D alleles in combat sports and kayaking/rowing (p > 0.05) were compared. A similarity was detectable in the I allele frequencies of the water polo (61.11%) and kayaking/rowing (56.67%) groups. The ACTN3 R/X polymorphism showed no differences in comparison with the sport groups. R allele frequencies were higher in every group compared to the X allele. The potential significance of the <span class="hlt">ACE</span> I allele in sports of an aerobic nature was not clearly confirmed among Hungarian athletes. PMID:26690037</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17521860','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17521860"><span id="translatedtitle">Monoclonal antibodies recognizing the Enterococcus faecalis collagen-binding MSCRAMM <span class="hlt">Ace</span>: conditional expression and binding analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hall, Andrea E; Gorovits, Elena L; Syribeys, Peter J; Domanski, Paul J; Ames, Brenda R; Chang, Cathy Y; Vernachio, John H; Patti, Joseph M; Hutchins, Jeff T</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Enterococci are opportunistic pathogens known to cause numerous clinical infections and complications in humans. Adhesin-mediated binding to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins of the host is thought to be a crucial step in the pathogenesis of these bacterial infections. Adhesin of collagen from Enterococcus faecalis (<span class="hlt">Ace</span>) is a cell-wall anchored protein of E. faecalis that has been shown to be important for bacterial binding to the ECM. In this report, we characterize the conditions for <span class="hlt">Ace</span> expression and demonstrate <span class="hlt">Ace</span> binding to mammalian epithelial and endothelial cells as well as to collagens found in the ECM. To further characterize <span class="hlt">Ace</span> expression and function, we report the generation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against this important E. faecalis virulence factor. Through the use of multiple in vitro assays, surface plasmon resonance and flow cytometry, we have characterized this panel of mAbs which may prove to be not only beneficial in studies that address the precise biological role of adhesion of E. faecalis, but may also serve as beneficial therapeutic agents against E. faecalis infections. PMID:17521860</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15018037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15018037"><span id="translatedtitle">Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) insertion/deletion polymorphism in Mexican populations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Hernández-Pacheco, Guadalupe; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Pavón, Zinnia; Fragoso, José Manuel; Juarez-Cedillo, Teresa; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Granados, Julio</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) insertion/deletion polymorphism was determined in 211 Mexican healthy individuals belonging to different Mexican ethnic groups (98 Mestizos, 64 Teenek, and 49 Nahuas). <span class="hlt">ACE</span> polymorphism differed among Mexicans with a high frequency of the D allele and the D/D genotype in Mexican Mestizos. The D/D genotype was absent in Teenek and present in only one Nahua individual (2.0%). When comparisons were made, we observed that Caucasian, African, and Asian populations presented the highest frequencies of the D allele, whereas Amerindian (Teenek and Pima) and Australian Aboriginals showed the highest frequencies of the I allele. The distribution of I/D genotype was heterogeneous in all populations: Australian Aboriginals presented the lowest frequency (4.9%), whereas Nahuas presented the highest (73.4%). The present study shows the frequencies of a polymorphism not analyzed previously in Mexican populations and establishes that this polymorphism distinguishes the Amerindian populations of other groups. On the other hand, since <span class="hlt">ACE</span> alleles have been associated with genetic susceptibility to developing cardiovascular diseases and hypertension, knowledge of the distribution of these alleles could help to define the true significance of <span class="hlt">ACE</span> polymorphism as a genetic susceptibility marker in the Amerindian populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23217308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23217308"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated multi-step purification protocol for Angiotensin-I-Converting-Enzyme (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eisele, Thomas; Stressler, Timo; Kranz, Bertolt; Fischer, Lutz</p> <p>2012-12-12</p> <p>Highly purified proteins are essential for the investigation of the functional and biochemical properties of proteins. The purification of a protein requires several steps, which are often time-consuming. In our study, the Angiotensin-I-Converting-Enzyme (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>; EC 3.4.15.1) was solubilised from pig lung without additional detergents, which are commonly used, under mild alkaline conditions in a Tris-HCl buffer (50mM, pH 9.0) for 48h. An automation of the <span class="hlt">ACE</span> purification was performed using a multi-step protocol in less than 8h, resulting in a purified protein with a specific activity of 37Umg(-1) (purification factor 308) and a yield of 23.6%. The automated <span class="hlt">ACE</span> purification used an ordinary fast-protein-liquid-chromatography (FPLC) system equipped with two additional switching valves. These switching valves were needed for the buffer stream inversion and for the connection of the Superloop™ used for the protein parking. Automated <span class="hlt">ACE</span> purification was performed using four combined chromatography steps, including two desalting procedures. The purification methods contained two hydrophobic interaction chromatography steps, a Cibacron 3FG-A chromatography step and a strong anion exchange chromatography step. The purified <span class="hlt">ACE</span> was characterised by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and native-PAGE. The estimated monomer size of the purified glycosylated <span class="hlt">ACE</span> was determined to be ∼175kDa by SDS-PAGE, with the dimeric form at ∼330kDa as characterised by a native PAGE using a novel activity staining protocol. For the activity staining, the tripeptide l-Phe-Gly-Gly was used as the substrate. The <span class="hlt">ACE</span> cleaved the dipeptide Gly-Gly, releasing the l-Phe to be oxidised with l-amino acid oxidase. Combined with peroxidase and o-dianisidine, the generated H(2)O(2) stained a brown coloured band. This automated purification protocol can be easily adapted to be used with other protein purification tasks. PMID:23217308</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EurSS..48..410C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EurSS..48..410C"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">diversity</span> indices for the characterization of the soil prokaryotic community by metagenomic analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chernov, T. I.; Tkhakakhova, A. K.; Kutovaya, O. V.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">diversity</span> indices used in ecology for assessing the metagenomes of soil prokaryotic communities at different phylogenetic levels were compared. The following indices were considered: the number of detected taxa and the Shannon, Menhinick, Margalef, Simpson, Chao1, and <span class="hlt">ACE</span> indices. The <span class="hlt">diversity</span> analysis of the prokaryotic communities in the upper horizons of a typical chernozem (Haplic Chernozem (Pachic)), a dark chestnut soil (Haplic Kastanozem (Chromic)), and an extremely arid desert soil (Endosalic Calcisol (Yermic)) was based on the analysis of 16S rRNA genes. The Menhinick, Margalef, Chao1, and <span class="hlt">ACE</span> indices gave similar results for the classification of the communities according to their <span class="hlt">diversity</span> levels; the Simpson index gave good results only for the high-level taxa (phyla); the best results were obtained with the Shannon index. In general, all the indices used showed a decrease in the <span class="hlt">diversity</span> of the soil prokaryotes in the following sequence: chernozem > dark chestnut soil > extremely arid desert soil.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-29/pdf/2011-19199.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-29/pdf/2011-19199.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 45649 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on I-5: Fern Valley <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Project: Jackson County, OR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-29</p> <p>... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on I-5: Fern Valley <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>... the meaning of 23 U.S.C. 139(l)(1). The actions relate to a proposed highway project, I-5: Fern Valley... Administration, 530 Center Street, NE., Suite 420, Salem, Oregon 97301, Telephone: (503) 316-2559. The I-5:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013163','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013163"><span id="translatedtitle">Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) Fluid Toxicity Technical <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Meeting (TIM) with the Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sheredy, William A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A Technical <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> meeting was held between the payload developers for the Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) and the NASA Safety Review Panel concerning operational anomaly that resulted in overheating one of the fluid heaters, shorted a 24VDC power supply and generated Perfluoroisobutylene (PFiB) from Perfluorohexane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">22 CFR 501.9 - <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. 501.9 Section 501.9 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING... Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. Foreign Service Officers (FSOs)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">22 CFR 501.9 - <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. 501.9 Section 501.9 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING... Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. Foreign Service Officers (FSOs)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">22 CFR 501.9 - <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. 501.9 Section 501.9 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING... Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. Foreign Service Officers (FSOs)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">22 CFR 501.9 - <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. 501.9 Section 501.9 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING... Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. Foreign Service Officers (FSOs)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">22 CFR 501.9 - <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. 501.9 Section 501.9 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING... Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. Foreign Service Officers (FSOs)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical... Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of traffic... application is to be addressed; (c) Nature of the proposed change; (d) Identification of community or part...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of traffic with another carrier. 63.501 Section 63.501 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) EXTENSION OF LINES, NEW LINES, AND...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical... Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of traffic... application is to be addressed; (c) Nature of the proposed change; (d) Identification of community or part...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical... Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of traffic... application is to be addressed; (c) Nature of the proposed change; (d) Identification of community or part...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical... Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of traffic... application is to be addressed; (c) Nature of the proposed change; (d) Identification of community or part...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-08-22/pdf/2013-20500.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-08-22/pdf/2013-20500.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 52232 - 2013 Temporary Closure of I-65 (I-70/I-65 South Split <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>) in the City of Indianapolis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-08-22</p> <p>... restricted area but, currently using I-65 and the local street system to reach their ultimate destinations... Federal Highway Administration 2013 Temporary Closure of I-65 (I-70/I-65 South Split <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>) in the... close a 2-mile portion of I-65 in Indiana (from I-70/I-65 south split <span class="hlt">interchange</span> to I-70/I-65...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Seating&pg=3&id=EJ959487','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Seating&pg=3&id=EJ959487"><span id="translatedtitle">Attention <span class="hlt">Interchanges</span> at Story-Time: A Case Study from a Deaf and Hearing Twin Pair Acquiring Swedish Sign Language in Their Deaf Family</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cramer-Wolrath, Emelie</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This case study longitudinally analyzes and describes the changes of attentional expressions in <span class="hlt">interchanges</span> between a pair of fraternal twins, 1 deaf and 1 hearing, from the age of 10-40 months, and their Deaf family members. The video-observed attentional expressions of initiating and reestablishing <span class="hlt">interchange</span> were grouped in 5 functional…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-16/pdf/2010-20092.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-16/pdf/2010-20092.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 50038 - Temporary Closure of I-70 (I-70/I-465 West Leg <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> to the I-70/I-65 South Split...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-08-16</p> <p>... Federal Highway Administration Temporary Closure of I-70 (I-70/I-465 West Leg <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> to the I-70/I-65... Department of Transportation (INDOT) to temporarily close a segment of I-70 (from the I-70/I-465 west leg... temporary closure of a segment of I-70 in Indiana (from the I-70/I-465 west leg <span class="hlt">interchange</span> to the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950021356','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950021356"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a Robust star identification technique for use in attitude determination of the <span class="hlt">ACE</span> spacecraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Woodard, Mark; Rohrbaugh, Dave</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The Advanced Composition Explorer (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) spacecraft is designed to fly in a spin-stabilized attitude. The spacecraft will carry two attitude sensors - a digital fine Sun sensor and a charge coupled device (CCD) star tracker - to allow ground-based determination of the spacecraft attitude and spin rate. Part of the processing that must be performed on the CCD star tracker data is the star identification. Star data received from the spacecraft must be matched with star information in the SKYMAP catalog to determine exactly which stars the sensor is tracking. This information, along with the Sun vector measured by the Sun sensor, is used to determine the spacecraft attitude. Several existing star identification (star ID) systems were examined to determine whether they could be modified for use on the <span class="hlt">ACE</span> mission. Star ID systems which exist for three-axis stabilized spacecraft tend to be complex in nature and many require fairly good knowledge of the spacecraft attitude, making their use for <span class="hlt">ACE</span> excessive. Star ID systems used for spinners carrying traditional slit star sensors would have to be modified to model the CCD star tracker. The <span class="hlt">ACE</span> star ID algorithm must also be robust, in that it will be able to correctly identify stars even though the attitude is not known to a high degree of accuracy, and must be very efficient to allow real-time star identification. The paper presents the star ID algorithm that was developed for <span class="hlt">ACE</span>. Results from prototype testing are also presented to demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and robustness of the algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27420103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27420103"><span id="translatedtitle">Modulation of Vascular <span class="hlt">ACE</span> by Oxidative Stress in Young Syrian Cardiomyopathic Hamsters: Therapeutic Implications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cruz, Nildris; Miranda, Jorge D; Crespo, Maria J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Increased vascular angiotensin-converting enzyme (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) activity and oxidative stress are present in young Syrian cardiomyopathic hamsters (SCH) before the clinical manifestation of heart failure (HF). The developmental time-course of these alterations and their potential interactions, however, are still unknown. We evaluated mRNA and protein levels of <span class="hlt">ACE</span>, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the vasculature of SCH from one to four months of age. Total RNA and proteins were quantified with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. The role of nitric oxide (NO) on vascular <span class="hlt">ACE</span> activity was also assessed. <span class="hlt">ACE</span> mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in SCH at two months of age compared with controls (CT) (p < 0.05). At this two-month stage, eNOS protein levels were lower in SCH (87%) than in CT (100%) (p < 0.05), although iNOS protein levels increased significantly (482%) compared to CT (100%; p < 0.05). In addition, <span class="hlt">ACE</span> mRNA expression and activity were modulated by NO at two months of age. Thus, the combination of low eNOS and high iNOS protein levels may underlie vascular renin-angiotensin system (RAS) over-activation. Altogether, these factors may contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hyper-reactivity in the early stages of heart failure, and eventually trigger cardiac deterioration in this animal model of HF. PMID:27420103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691102','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691102"><span id="translatedtitle">Antioxidant and <span class="hlt">ACE</span> Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yousr, Marwa; Howell, Nazlin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF). Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y) and tryptophan (W), in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23) and KLSDW (EYGF-33), contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56) was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high <span class="hlt">ACE</span> inhibitory activity (69%) and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL). The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL) had <span class="hlt">ACE</span> inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL). In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33) (10 mg/mL) had higher <span class="hlt">ACE</span> inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and <span class="hlt">ACE</span> inhibitory activity from egg yolk. PMID:26690134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4961995','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4961995"><span id="translatedtitle">Modulation of Vascular <span class="hlt">ACE</span> by Oxidative Stress in Young Syrian Cardiomyopathic Hamsters: Therapeutic Implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cruz, Nildris; Miranda, Jorge D.; Crespo, Maria J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Increased vascular angiotensin-converting enzyme (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) activity and oxidative stress are present in young Syrian cardiomyopathic hamsters (SCH) before the clinical manifestation of heart failure (HF). The developmental time-course of these alterations and their potential interactions, however, are still unknown. We evaluated mRNA and protein levels of <span class="hlt">ACE</span>, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the vasculature of SCH from one to four months of age. Total RNA and proteins were quantified with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. The role of nitric oxide (NO) on vascular <span class="hlt">ACE</span> activity was also assessed. <span class="hlt">ACE</span> mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in SCH at two months of age compared with controls (CT) (p < 0.05). At this two-month stage, eNOS protein levels were lower in SCH (87%) than in CT (100%) (p < 0.05), although iNOS protein levels increased significantly (482%) compared to CT (100%; p < 0.05). In addition, <span class="hlt">ACE</span> mRNA expression and activity were modulated by NO at two months of age. Thus, the combination of low eNOS and high iNOS protein levels may underlie vascular renin-angiotensin system (RAS) over-activation. Altogether, these factors may contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hyper-reactivity in the early stages of heart failure, and eventually trigger cardiac deterioration in this animal model of HF. PMID:27420103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4337561','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4337561"><span id="translatedtitle">Homologs of the Acinetobacter baumannii <span class="hlt">Ace</span>I Transporter Represent a New Family of Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Qi; Henderson, Peter J. F.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Multidrug efflux systems are a major cause of resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria, including those pathogenic to humans, animals, and plants. These proteins are ubiquitous in these pathogens, and five families of bacterial multidrug efflux systems have been identified to date. By using transcriptomic and biochemical analyses, we recently identified the novel <span class="hlt">Ace</span>I (Acinetobacter chlorhexidine efflux) protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that conferred resistance to the biocide chlorhexidine, via an active efflux mechanism. Proteins homologous to <span class="hlt">Ace</span>I are encoded in the genomes of many other bacterial species and are particularly prominent within proteobacterial lineages. In this study, we expressed 23 homologs of <span class="hlt">Ace</span>I and examined their resistance and/or transport profiles. MIC analyses demonstrated that, like <span class="hlt">Ace</span>I, many of the homologs conferred resistance to chlorhexidine. Many of the <span class="hlt">Ace</span>I homologs conferred resistance to additional biocides, including benzalkonium, dequalinium, proflavine, and acriflavine. We conducted fluorimetric transport assays using the <span class="hlt">Ace</span>I homolog from Vibrio parahaemolyticus and confirmed that resistance to both proflavine and acriflavine was mediated by an active efflux mechanism. These results show that this group of <span class="hlt">Ace</span>I homologs represent a new family of bacterial multidrug efflux pumps, which we have designated the proteobacterial antimicrobial compound efflux (PACE) family of transport proteins. PMID:25670776</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26563847','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26563847"><span id="translatedtitle">The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>-R) and its sub-scores: normative values in an Italian population sample.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Siciliano, Mattia; Raimo, Simona; Tufano, Dario; Basile, Giuseppe; Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Franco; Trojano, Luigi; Santangelo, Gabriella</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>-R) is a rapid screening battery, including five sub-scales to explore different cognitive domains: attention/orientation, memory, fluency, language and visuospatial. <span class="hlt">ACE</span>-R is considered useful in discriminating cognitively normal subjects from patients with mild dementia. The aim of present study was to provide normative values for <span class="hlt">ACE</span>-R total score and sub-scale scores in a large sample of Italian healthy subjects. Five hundred twenty-six Italian healthy subjects (282 women and 246 men) of different ages (age range 20-93 years) and educational level (from primary school to university) underwent <span class="hlt">ACE</span>-R and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on <span class="hlt">ACE</span>-R total score and sub-scale scores. A significant effect of gender was found only in sub-scale attention/orientation. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for raw scores was built. Inferential cut-offs score were estimated using a non-parametric technique and equivalent scores (ES) were computed. Correlation analysis showed a good significant correlation between <span class="hlt">ACE</span>-R adjusted scores with MoCA adjusted scores (r = 0.612, p < 0.001). The present study provided normative data for the <span class="hlt">ACE</span>-R in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:26563847</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27643120','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27643120"><span id="translatedtitle">SY 12-1 RENIN ANGIOTENSIN PATHWAY BEYOND <span class="hlt">ACE</span> AND ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTORS: HOW IT RELATES TO THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF HYPERTENSION.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burrell, Louise</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, a major risk factor for stroke, coronary events, heart failure and kidney disease. Within the RAS, angiotensin converting enzyme (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) converts angiotensin (Ang) I into the vasoconstrictor Ang II, which mediates its effects via the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R). An "alternate" arm of the RAS is now known to exist in which the monocarboxypeptidase <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 counterbalances the effects of the classic RAS through degradation of the vasoconstrictor peptide, Ang II, and generation of the vasodilatory peptide, Ang 1-7. <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 is highly expressed in tissues of cardiovascular relevance including the heart, blood vessels and kidney. The catalytically active ectodomain of <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 undergoes shedding resulting in <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 in the circulation. The finding that the <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 gene maps to a quantitative trait locus on the X chromosome in three strains of genetically hypertensive rats suggests that the <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 gene may be a candidate gene for hypertension. It is hypothesised that disruption of tissue <span class="hlt">ACE/ACE</span>2 balance results in changes in blood pressure, with increased <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 expression protecting against increased blood pressure, and <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 deficiency contributing to hypertension. Studies in experimental models of hypertension have measured <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 gene, protein and/or activity, in either the heart or kidney and/or plasma, usually at one time point, and most commonly in animals with established hypertension. As experimental studies report that deletion or inhibition of <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 leads to hypertension, whilst enhancing <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 protects against the development of hypertension, increasing or activating <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 may be a therapeutic option for the management of high blood pressure in man. There have been relatively few studies of <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2, either at the gene or the circulating level in patients with hypertension. The available data indicates that plasma <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 activity is low in healthy subjects, but elevated in patients with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4398349','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4398349"><span id="translatedtitle">A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Uncovers a Novel Function for the Transcription Factor <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2 during Candida albicans Hyphal Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Orellana-Muñoz, Sara; Gutiérrez-Escribano, Pilar; Arnáiz-Pita, Yolanda; Dueñas-Santero, Encarnación; Suárez, M. Belén; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; del Rey, Francisco; Sherlock, Gavin; d’Enfert, Christophe; Correa-Bordes, Jaime; de Aldana, Carlos R. Vázquez</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Candida albicans is a major invasive fungal pathogen in humans. An important virulence factor is its ability to switch between the yeast and hyphal forms, and these filamentous forms are important in tissue penetration and invasion. A common feature for filamentous growth is the ability to inhibit cell separation after cytokinesis, although it is poorly understood how this process is regulated developmentally. In C. albicans, the formation of filaments during hyphal growth requires changes in septin ring dynamics. In this work, we studied the functional relationship between septins and the transcription factor <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2, which controls the expression of enzymes that catalyze septum degradation. We found that alternative translation initiation produces two <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2 isoforms. While full-length <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2, <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2L, influences septin dynamics in a transcription-independent manner in hyphal cells but not in yeast cells, the use of methionine-55 as the initiation codon gives rise to <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2S, which functions as the nuclear transcription factor required for the expression of cell separation genes. Genetic evidence indicates that <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2L influences the incorporation of the Sep7 septin to hyphal septin rings in order to avoid inappropriate activation of cell separation during filamentous growth. Interestingly, a natural single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) present in the C. albicans WO-1 background and other C. albicans commensal and clinical isolates generates a stop codon in the ninth codon of <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2L that mimics the phenotype of cells lacking <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2L. Finally, we report that <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2L and <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2S interact with the NDR kinase Cbk1 and that impairing activity of this kinase results in a defect in septin dynamics similar to that of hyphal cells lacking <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2L. Together, our findings identify <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2L and the NDR kinase Cbk1 as new elements of the signaling system that modify septin ring dynamics in hyphae to allow cell-chain formation, a feature that appears to have evolved in specific C. albicans lineages</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRA..11311214Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRA..11311214Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Rice Convection Model simulation of the 18 April 2002 sawtooth event and evidence for <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, J.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Wolf, R. A.; Sazykin, S.; Spiro, R. W.; Brandt, P. C.; Henderson, M. G.; Frey, H. U.</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>We present the results of a Rice Convection Model (RCM) simulation of the 18 April 2002 sawtooth event. This event occurred as a series of quasi-periodic substorms during fairly stable solar wind conditions. It is modeled by (1) prescribing a solar-wind-driven magnetic field model (T01_s) augmented by additional current loops representing the magnetic effects of the substorm current wedge and (2) by carefully specifying a substorm-phase-dependent plasma distribution at the RCM outer boundary at 8 Re such that a hot and attenuated plasma distribution is used after every substorm onset. The set of input parameters was adjusted to make the simulation results agree with the primary signatures of the sawtooth event, specifically the sequence of magnetic field stretching and dipolarization observed by the GOES spacecraft and the associated sharp increases and gradual decreases in the flux of energetic protons measured by the LANL/Synchronous Orbit Plasma Analyzer (SOPA) instruments on other geosynchronous spacecrafts. The results suggest the important role that higher temperature and lower density plasma-sheet plasma plays in producing flux enhancements at geosynchronous orbit. The results also confirm that induction electric fields associated with magnetic field collapse after substorm onsets can serve as a likely mechanism for the energization of particles up to 25 keV. Synthetic high-energy neutral atom images are compared with IMAGE/HENA measurements for 10-60 keV hydrogen atoms. Magnetic field dipolarization over a large range of local time resulted in a dramatic reduction in the plasma entropy parameter PV5/3 on the boundary. The simulation indicates that the ring current intensified 10-20 minutes after every onset, associated with the injection of low PV5/3 flux tubes through the boundary. The low PV5/3 plasma also produced an <span class="hlt">interchange</span> convection in the inner magnetosphere, which drives Birkeland currents in a quasi-periodic upward-downward pattern with a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24354756','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24354756"><span id="translatedtitle">Small portable <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> imager of fluorescence for fluorescence guided surgery and research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Okusanya, Olugbenga T; Madajewski, Brian; Segal, Erin; Judy, Brendan F; Venegas, Ollin G; Judy, Ryan P; Quatromoni, Jon G; Wang, May D; Nie, Shuming; Singhal, Sunil</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Fluorescence guided surgery (FGS) is a developing field of surgical and oncologic research. Practically, FGS has shown useful applications in urologic surgery, benign biliary surgery, colorectal cancer liver metastasis resection, and ovarian cancer debulking. Most notably in in cancer surgery, FGS allows for the clear delineation of cancerous tissue from benign tissue. FGS requires the utilization of a fluorescent contrast agent and an intraoperative fluorescence imaging device (IFID). Currently available IFIDs are expensive, unable to work with multiple fluorophores, and can be cumbersome. This study aims to describe the development and utility of a small, cost-efficient, and <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> IFID made from commercially available components. Extensive research was done to design and construct a light-weight, portable, and cost-effective IFID. We researched the capabilities, size, and cost of several camera types and eventually decided on a near-infrared (NIR) charged couple device (CCD) camera for its overall profile. The small portable <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> imager of fluorescence (SPIIF) is a "scout" IFID system for FGS. The main components of the SPIIF are a NIR CCD camera with an articulating light filter. These components and a LED light source with an attached heat sink are mounted on a small metal platform. The system is connected to a laptop by a USB 2.0 cable. Pixielink © software on the laptop runs the system by controlling exposure time, gain, and image capture. After developing the system, we evaluated its utility as an IFID. The system weighs less than two pounds and can cover a large area. Due to its small size, it is easily made sterile by covering it with any sterile plastic sheet. To determine the system's ability to detect fluorescent signal, we used the SPIIF to detect indocyanine green under ex and in-vivo conditions and fluorescein under ex-vivo conditions. We found the SPIIF was able to detect both ICG and fluorescein under different depths of a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4134767','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4134767"><span id="translatedtitle">Small Portable <span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> Imager of Fluorescence for Fluorescence Guided Surgery and Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Okusanya, Olugbenga T.; Madajewski, Brian; Segal, Erin; Judy, Brendan F.; Venegas, Ollin G.; Judy, Ryan P.; Quatromoni, Jon G.; Wang, May D.; Nie, Shuming; Singhal, Sunil</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Fluorescence guided surgery (FGS) is a developing field of surgical and oncologic research. Practically, FGS has shown useful applications in urologic surgery, benign biliary surgery, colorectal cancer liver metastasis resection, and ovarian cancer debulking. Most notably in in cancer surgery, FGS allows for the clear delineation of cancerous tissue from benign tissue. FGS requires the utilization of a fluorescent contrast agent and an intraoperative fluorescence imaging device (IFID). Currently available IFIDs are expensive, unable to work with multiple fluorophores, and can be cumbersome. This study aims to describe the development and utility of a small, cost-efficient, and <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> IFID made from commercially available components. Extensive research was done to design and construct a light-weight, portable, and cost-effective IFID. We researched the capabilities, size, and cost of several camera types and eventually decided on a near-infrared (NIR) charged couple device (CCD) camera for its overall profile. The small portable <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> imager of fluorescence (SPIIF) is a “scout” IFID system for FGS. The main components of the SPIIF are a NIR CCD camera with an articulating light filter. These components and a LED light source with an attached heat sink are mounted on a small metal platform. The system is connected to a laptop by a USB 2.0 cable. Pixielink © software on the laptop runs the system by controlling exposure time, gain, and image capture. After developing the system, we evaluated its utility as an IFID. The system weighs less than two pounds and can cover a large area. Due to its small size, it is easily made sterile by covering it with any sterile plastic sheet. To determine the system’s ability to detect fluorescent signal, we used the SPIIF to detect indocyanine green under ex and in-vivo conditions and fluorescein under ex-vivo conditions. We found the SPIIF was able to detect both ICG and fluorescein under different depths of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812459N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812459N"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional consequences of a biotic <span class="hlt">interchange</span>: insights from the Lessepsian invasion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nawrot, Rafal; Albano, Paolo G.; Chattopadhyay, Devapriya; Zuschin, Martin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The fossil record provides ample evidence of large-scale biotic <span class="hlt">interchanges</span> and their pervasive effects on regional biotas, but mechanisms controlling such events are difficult to decipher in deep time. Massive invasion of Indo-Pacific species into the Mediterranean Sea triggered by the opening of the Suez Canal offers a unique opportunity to examine the ecological consequences of breaking down biogeographic barriers. We developed an extensive database of taxonomic composition, body size and ecological characteristics of the Red Sea and Mediterranean bivalve fauna in order to link biotic selectivity of the invasion process with its effects on the recipient biota. Shallow-water occurrence and presence outside the tropical zone in other regions are the strongest predictors of the successful transition through the Suez Canal. Subsequent establishment of alien species in the Mediterranean Sea correlates with early arrival and preference for hard substrates. Finally, large-bodied species and hard-bottom dwellers are over-represented among the invasive aliens that have reached the spread stage and impose a strong impact on native communities. Although body size is important only at the last invasion stage, alien species are significantly larger compared to native Mediterranean bivalves. This reflects biogeographic difference in the body-size distributions of the source and recipient species pools related to the recent geological history of the Mediterranean Sea. Contrary to the general expectations on the effects of temperature on average body size, continued warming of the Mediterranean Sea accelerates the entry of tropical aliens and thus indirectly leads to increase in the proportion of large-bodied species in local communities and the regional biota. Invasion-driven shifts in species composition are stronger in hard-substrate communities, which host a smaller pool of incumbent species and are more susceptible to the establishment of newcomers. Analogous differences</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26078188','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26078188"><span id="translatedtitle">Administration of 17β-estradiol to ovariectomized obese female mice reverses obesity-hypertension through an <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2-dependent mechanism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yu; Shoemaker, Robin; Thatcher, Sean E; Batifoulier-Yiannikouris, Frederique; English, Victoria L; Cassis, Lisa A</p> <p>2015-06-15</p> <p>We recently demonstrated that female mice are resistant to the development of obesity-induced hypertension through a sex hormone-dependent mechanism that involved adipose angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>2). In this study, we hypothesized that provision of 17β-estradiol (E2) to ovariectomized (OVX) high-fat (HF)-fed female hypertensive mice would reverse obesity-hypertension through an <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2-dependent mechanism. Pilot studies defined dose-dependent effects of E2 in OVX female mice on serum E2 concentrations and uterine weights. An E2 dose of 36 μg/ml restored normal serum E2 concentrations and uterine weights. Therefore, HF-fed OVX female <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2(+/+) and <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2(-/-) mice were administered vehicle or E2 (36 μg/ml) for 16 wk. E2 administration significantly decreased body weights of HF-fed OVX female <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2(+/+) and <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2(-/-) mice of either genotype. At 15 wk, E2 administration decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) of OVX HF-fed <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2(+/+) but not <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2(-/-) females during the light but not the dark cycle. E2-mediated reductions in SBP in <span class="hlt">Ace</span>2(+/+) females were associated with significant elevations in adipose <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 mRNA abundance and activity and reduced plasma ANG II concentrations. In contrast to females, E2 administration had no effect on any parameter quantified in HF-fed male hypertensive mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, E2 promoted <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 mRNA abundance through effects at estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and resulted in ERα-mediated binding at the <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2 promoter. These results demonstrate that E2 administration to OVX females reduces obesity-induced elevations in SBP (light cycle) through an <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2-dependent mechanism. Beneficial effects of E2 to decrease blood pressure in OVX obese females may result from stimulation of adipose <span class="hlt">ACE</span>2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4565160','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4565160"><span id="translatedtitle">Microfluidic impact printer with <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> cartridges for versatile non-contact multiplexed micropatterning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ding, Yuzhe; Huang, Eric; Lam, Kit S.; Pan, Tingrui</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Biopatterning has been increasingly used for well-defined cellular microenvironment, patterned surface topology, and guided biological cues; however, it meets additional challenges on biocompatibility, temperature and chemical sensitivity and limited reagent volume. In this paper, we target at combining the desired features from the non-contact inkjet printing and the dot-matrix impact printing to establish a versatile multiplexed micropatterning platform, referred to as Microfluidic Impact Printer (MI-Printer), for emerging biomedical applications. Using this platform, we can achieve the distinct features of no cross-contamination, minute volume manipulation with minimal dead volume, high-throughput and biocompatible printing process, multiplexed patterning with automatic alignment, printing availability for complex medium (cell suspension or colloidal solutions), <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span>/disposable microfluidic cartridge design with out-of-cleanroom microfabrication, simple printing system assembly and configuration, all highly desirable towards biological applications. Specifically, the printing resolution of the MI-printer platform has been experimentally characterized and theoretically analyzed. Printed droplets with 80µm in diameter have been repeatedly obtained. Furthermore, two unique features of MI-printer platform, multiplexed printing and self-alignment printing, have been successfully experimentally demonstrated (less than 10µm misalignment). In addition, combinatorial patterning and biological patterning, which utilizes the multiplexed and self-alignment printing nature of the MI-printer, have been devised to demonstrate the applicability of this robust printing technique for emerging biomedical applications. PMID:23525299</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26810193','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26810193"><span id="translatedtitle">Biosolids reduction by the oxic-settling-anoxic process: Impact of sludge <span class="hlt">interchange</span> rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Semblante, Galilee U; Hai, Faisal I; Bustamante, Heriberto; Guevara, Nelly; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The impact of sludge <span class="hlt">interchange</span> rate (SIR) on sludge reduction by oxic-settling-anoxic (OSA) process was investigated. The sludge yield of an OSA system (a sequencing batch reactor, SBR, integrated with external anoxic reactors) was compared to that of a control (an SBR attached to a single-pass aerobic digester). SIR (%) is the percentage by volume of sludge returned from the external reactor into the main bioreactor of the OSA, and was varied from 0% to 22%. OSA achieved greater sludge reduction when fed with unsettled sewage (sCOD=113mg/L) rather than settled sewage (sCOD=60mg/L). The SIR of 11% resulted in the highest OSA performance. At the optimum SIR, higher volatile solids destruction and nitrification/denitrification (i.e., conversion of destroyed volatile solids into inert forms) were observed in the external anoxic and intermittently aerated (i.e., aerobic/anoxic) reactors, respectively. Denitrification in the aerobic/anoxic reactor was inefficient without SIR. Effluent quality and sludge settleability of the main SBR were unaffected by SIR. PMID:26810193</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990051031','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990051031"><span id="translatedtitle">Summary of Work for Joint Research <span class="hlt">Interchanges</span> with DARWIN Integrated Product Team</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hesselink, Lambertus</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The intent of Stanford University's SciVis group is to develop technologies that enabled comparative analysis and visualization techniques for simulated and experimental flow fields. These techniques would then be made available un- der the Joint Research <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> for potential injection into the DARWIN Workspace Environment (DWE). In the past, we have focused on techniques that exploited feature based comparisons such as shock and vortex extractions. Our current research effort focuses on finding a quantitative comparison of general vector fields based on topological features. Since the method relies on topological information, grid matching an@ vector alignment is not needed in the comparison. This is often a problem with many data comparison techniques. In addition, since only topology based information is stored and compared for each field, there is a significant compression of information that enables large databases to be quickly searched. This report will briefly (1) describe current technologies in the area of comparison techniques, (2) will describe the theory of our new method and finally (3) summarize a few of the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990041450','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990041450"><span id="translatedtitle">Summary of Work for Joint Research <span class="hlt">Interchanges</span> with DARWIN Integrated Product Team 1998</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hesselink, Lambertus</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The intent of Stanford University's SciVis group is to develop technologies that enabled comparative analysis and visualization techniques for simulated and experimental flow fields. These techniques would then be made available under the Joint Research <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> for potential injection into the DARWIN Workspace Environment (DWE). In the past, we have focused on techniques that exploited feature based comparisons such as shock and vortex extractions. Our current research effort focuses on finding a quantitative comparison of general vector fields based on topological features. Since the method relies on topological information, grid matching and vector alignment is not needed in the comparison. This is often a problem with many data comparison techniques. In addition, since only topology based information is stored and compared for each field, there is a significant compression of information that enables large databases to be quickly searched. This report will briefly (1) describe current technologies in the area of comparison techniques, (2) will describe the theory of our new method and finally (3) summarize a few of the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4850808','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4850808"><span id="translatedtitle">Can higher end tonometers be used <span class="hlt">interchangeably</span> in routine clinical practice?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Patel, Kunjan Jayantilal; Jain, Saurabh P; Kapadia, Priti R; Patel, Nikunj V; Patel, Saurabh; Patel, Vikas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Context: Precise intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement is important in glaucoma practise. Various instruments are available today to accurately measure IOP. Thus, the question arises about which instrument to use and whether all of them can be used <span class="hlt">interchangeably</span>. Aims: To assess the agreement between noncontact tonometer (NCT), rebound tonometer (RBT), Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), and dynamic contour tonometer (DCT) in measuring IOP. Subjects and Methods: 499 eyes of 250 patients were evaluated during a period of 24 months from September 2010 to August 2012 and measurement of IOP by NCT, RBT, GAT, and DCT was done in the given sequence. The agreement was assessed by use of the Bland–Altman plot keeping GAT as a gold standard technique. Results: The mean IOP value of NCT, RBT, GAT, and DCT was 15.9 ± 5.5, 15.9 ± 5.8, 15.9 ± 4.9, and 16.0 ± 4.7 mm of Hg, respectively. The limits of agreement of GAT with DCT, NCT, and RBT were found to be +5.4 to −5.2, −4.7 to +4.6, and −5.2 to +5.1 mm of Hg, respectively. Conclusions: A positive and strong correlation was found between newer tonometers and GAT, but the limit of agreement was clinically unacceptable. The use of a single tonometer should be practised at a glaucoma clinic for a patient at each follow-up. PMID:27050348</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JInst..11C2009S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JInst..11C2009S"><span id="translatedtitle">Developments of frequency comb microwave reflectometer for the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode observations in LHD plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soga, R.; Tokuzawa, T.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yamada, I.; Inagaki, S.; Kasuya, N.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We have upgraded the multi-channel microwave reflectometer system which uses a frequency comb as a source and measure the distribution of the density fluctuation caused by magneto-hydro dynamics instability. The previous multi-channel system was composed of the Ka-band, and the U-band system has been developed. Currently, the U-band system has eight frequency channels, which are 43.0, 45.0, 47.0, 49.0, 51.0, 53.0, 55.0, and 57.0 GHz, in U-band. Before the installation to the Large Helical Device (LHD), several tests for understanding the system characteristics, which are the phase responsibility, the linearity of output signal, and others, have been carried out. The in situ calibration in LHD has been done for the cross reference. In the neutral beam injected plasma experiments, we can observe the density fluctuation of the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode and obtain the radial distribution of fluctuation amplitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.P53B..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.P53B..07H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Injection and Drift Dispersion of Hot Plasma in Saturn's Magnetosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hill, T. W.; Burch, J. L.; Crary, F. J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Delapp, D.; Rymer, A. M.; Coates, A. J.; Young, D. T.; Bolton, S. J.; Sittler, E. C.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>During the first pass of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft through Saturn's magnetosphere, the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) observed several intermittent occurrences of multi-keV ions and electrons superimposed on a cooler (10 - 100 eV) background plasma. These events are tentatively interpreted as signatures of centrifugally driven <span class="hlt">interchange</span> motions that inject isolated flux tubes of hot tenuous plasma toward Saturn, similar to injection events reported at Jupiter by the Galileo spacecraft. Both ions and electrons show evidence of energy-time dispersion resulting from adiabatic (gradient-curvature) drift relative to the partially corotating plasma frame of reference. Rotation converts a longitude structure in the rotating frame into a temporal structure in the spacecraft frame. Ions (electrons) drift eastward (westward) relative to the rotating frame with a speed proportional to thermal energy. Thus ions (electrons) display a negative (positive) slope in an energy-time spectrogram. The magnitude of the slope is a measure of the elapsed time since injection. Such events are observed both inbound and outbound in a radial range L = 6 - 10, and are frequently associated with narrow but deep density cavities in the cooler background plasma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24584134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24584134"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing safety and immunogenicity of post-exposure prophylaxis following <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> of rabies vaccines in humans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ravish, Hardanahalli S; Sudarshan, Mysore K; Madhusudana, Shampur N; Annadani, Rachana R; Narayana, Doddabele H Ashwath; Belludi, Ashwin Y; Anandaiah, Gangaboraiah; Vijayashankar, Veena</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Rabies post exposure prophylaxis with cell culture vaccines by either intramuscular route or intradermal route spans over a period of one month. World Health Organization recommends completing post exposure prophylaxis against rabies with the same cell culture or embryonated egg rabies vaccine and with same route of administration and any deviation from this shall be an exception. In the present study, the safety and immunogenicity of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was studied prospectively in 90 animal bite cases that had <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> of rabies vaccines either by route of administration or brand/type and such changes had occurred due to logistical/financial problems. Among them, 47 had change in route of administration from intramuscular to intradermal or vice versa and 43 had change in the brand/type of cell culture rabies vaccine. All of them had category III rabies exposure and received equine rabies immunoglobulin along with the rabies vaccine. None of the study subjects had any adverse reactions. The rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers was assessed by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and all the vaccinees had titers ≥0.5 IU per mL on day 14 which is considered as adequate for protection against rabies. Thus, the present study showed that, rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was safe and immunogenic despite changes in the route of administration and brand/type of rabies vaccine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26398861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26398861"><span id="translatedtitle">Identical but not <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span>: Preschoolers view owned objects as non-fungible.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McEwan, Stephanie; Pesowski, Madison L; Friedman, Ori</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Owned objects are typically viewed as non-fungible-they cannot be freely <span class="hlt">interchanged</span>. We report three experiments (total N=312) demonstrating this intuition in preschool-aged children. In Experiment 1, children considered an agent who takes one of two identical objects and leaves the other for a peer. Children viewed this as acceptable when the agent took his own item, but not when he took his peer's item. In Experiment 2, children considered scenarios where one agent took property from another. Children said the victim could take back her own property from the perpetrator, but that she could not take an identical object belonging to the perpetrator. Finally, in Experiment 3A and 3B, children considered scenarios where a teacher could give a child either of two objects to play with-an object that the child had recently played with, or another object that looked the same. Children were more likely to say that the teacher should give the object recently played with when it belonged to the child, compared with when it belonged to the teacher. These findings are informative about the basis of judgments that property is non-fungible, and about young children's representation of ownership rights. They show that children's representation of ownership rights is not limited to principles protecting owners from being deprived. Our findings instead suggest that ownership rights are viewed as pertaining to individual objects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM51E4294H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM51E4294H"><span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Electron Density on the <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Instability at Saturn</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kennelly, T.; Thomsen, M. F.; Persoon, A. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Achilleos, N. A.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Khurana, K. K.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Paranicas, C.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interchange</span> events, where "injections" of hotter, less dense plasma moves inward to return the magnetic flux carried outward by the colder, more dense plasma in rapidly rotating magnetospheres, are detected at Saturn by Cassini on almost every orbit that encounters the inner and middle (<15 Rs) magnetosphere. Significant changes can occur in the number of injection events and their location (L shell) between inbound and outbound passes on a given orbit (over a several hour time span). Furthermore, changes are observed between orbits for the same local time sampling (over tens of days). Similar changes between inbound and outbound passes, and between orbits have been observed in the electron density values measured by Cassini. We examine the period in 2010 when Cassini was in near equatorial orbits with the inbound period between L of 4.5 and 10 primarily in the midnight sector and the outbound period was near noon. Using Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) and Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) data we determine the occurrence of injection events, their signature in a wide range of energies (eV to MeV), and examine their relationship with the electron density determined from the upper hybrid resonance emission measured by the Radio and Plasma Wave Science instrument.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4332249','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4332249"><span id="translatedtitle">Telomeres and centromeres have <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> roles in promoting meiotic spindle formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fennell, Alex; Fernández-Álvarez, Alfonso; Tomita, Kazunori</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Telomeres and centromeres have traditionally been considered to perform distinct roles. During meiotic prophase, in a conserved chromosomal configuration called the bouquet, telomeres gather to the nuclear membrane (NM), often near centrosomes. We found previously that upon disruption of the fission yeast bouquet, centrosomes failed to insert into the NM at meiosis I and nucleate bipolar spindles. Hence, the trans-NM association of telomeres with centrosomes during prophase is crucial for efficient spindle formation. Nonetheless, in approximately half of bouquet-deficient meiocytes, spindles form properly. Here, we show that bouquet-deficient cells can successfully undergo meiosis using centromere–centrosome contact instead of telomere–centrosome contact to generate spindle formation. Accordingly, forced association between centromeres and centrosomes fully rescued the spindle defects incurred by bouquet disruption. Telomeres and centromeres both stimulate focal accumulation of the SUN domain protein Sad1 beneath the centrosome, suggesting a molecular underpinning for their shared spindle-generating ability. Our observations demonstrate an unanticipated level of <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> between the two most prominent chromosomal landmarks. PMID:25688135</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhPl...13j2104P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhPl...13j2104P"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental characterization of drift-<span class="hlt">interchange</span> instabilities in a simple toroidal plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poli, F. M.; Brunner, S.; Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Müller, S. H.; Plyushchev, G.; Podestà, M.</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>Low frequency electrostatic instabilities are investigated on TORPEX [Fasoli, Labit, McGrath, Müller, Podestà, and Poli, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 48, 119 (2003)], a toroidal device for basic plasma physics experiments with a toroidal magnetic field 100mT and a small vertical magnetic field (⩽4mT). A two-dimensional (2D) profile of the frequency and amplitude of density and potential fluctuations is reconstructed using electrostatic probes with high space and time resolution. The measured phase velocity, corrected for the Doppler shift induced by the E×B drift, is consistent with the electron diamagnetic drift velocity. The local dispersion relation, measured along and across the magnetic field, is in agreement with the predictions of a linear kinetic slab model for drift waves. Unstable modes are generated in regions of unfavorable curvature, where the pressure gradient is colinear with the magnetic field gradient. It is demonstrated that the curvature of the magnetic field lines is essential for driving the observed instabilities, which are therefore identified as drift-<span class="hlt">interchange</span> modes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26691957','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26691957"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Standards Consortium Standardization of Biobank Data: A Feasibility Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sato, Izumi; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Sakakibara, Iori; Konomura, Keiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasuhiro</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The National Center Biobank Network (NCBN), consisting of six national centers (NCs) for advanced and specialized medical care, was launched in Japan in 2012 to collect biological specimens and health-related data. The common data formats of the six NCs, however, are not widely known outside the NCs. Therefore, we investigated whether the data elements collected by the NCBN could be made to conform to the international standards of the Clinical Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Standards Consortium (CDISC). We attempted to map the NCBN data elements (202 items) onto the Study Data Tabulation Model (SDTM), a set of CDISC standards on the submission format of electronic clinical data approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The results showed that all 202 items of the NCBN data could be mapped onto the SDTM and fulfilled 50%-70% of the required items of each domain specified in the SDTM. We concluded that, while the standardization of biobank data according to the CDISC standards is possible, there is a need to consider whether additional items must be included in the NCBN and to have experts familiar with the CDISC standards review the standardization needs. PMID:26691957</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294255','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294255"><span id="translatedtitle">Pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, C. K.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Seguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Soures, J. M.</p> <p>2009-07-15</p> <p>Recent experiments using proton backlighting of laser-foil interactions provide unique opportunities for studying magnetized plasma instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas. Time-gated proton radiograph images indicate that the outer structure of a magnetic field entrained in a hemispherical plasma bubble becomes distinctly asymmetric after the laser turns off. It is shown that this asymmetry is a consequence of pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instabilities. In contrast to the predictions made by ideal MHD theory, the increasing plasma resistivity after laser turn-off allows for greater low-mode destabilization (m>1) from reduced stabilization by field-line bending. For laser-generated plasmas presented herein, a mode-number cutoff for stabilization of perturbations with m>{approx}[8{pi}{beta}(1+D{sub m}k{sub perpendicular}{sup 2}{gamma}{sub max}{sup -1})]{sup 1/2} is found in the linear growth regime. The growth is measured and is found to be in reasonable agreement with model predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20860283','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20860283"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental characterization of drift-<span class="hlt">interchange</span> instabilities in a simple toroidal plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Poli, F. M.; Brunner, S.; Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Mueller, S. H.; Plyushchev, G.; Podesta, M.</p> <p>2006-10-15</p> <p>Low frequency electrostatic instabilities are investigated on TORPEX [Fasoli, Labit, McGrath, Mueller, Podesta, and Poli, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 48, 119 (2003)], a toroidal device for basic plasma physics experiments with a toroidal magnetic field 100 mT and a small vertical magnetic field ({<=}4 mT). A two-dimensional (2D) profile of the frequency and amplitude of density and potential fluctuations is reconstructed using electrostatic probes with high space and time resolution. The measured phase velocity, corrected for the Doppler shift induced by the ExB drift, is consistent with the electron diamagnetic drift velocity. The local dispersion relation, measured along and across the magnetic field, is in agreement with the predictions of a linear kinetic slab model for drift waves. Unstable modes are generated in regions of unfavorable curvature, where the pressure gradient is colinear with the magnetic field gradient. It is demonstrated that the curvature of the magnetic field lines is essential for driving the observed instabilities, which are therefore identified as drift-<span class="hlt">interchange</span> modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21868027','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21868027"><span id="translatedtitle">Inadvertent <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of electrocardiogram limb lead connections: analysis of predicted consequences part II: double interconnection errors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rowlands, Derek J</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Limb lead connection errors are known to be very common in clinical practice. The consequences of all possible single limb lead interconnection errors were analyzed in an earlier publication (J Electrocardiology 2008;41:84-90). With a single limb lead interconnection error, 6 combinations of limb lead connections are possible. Two of these combinations give rise to records in which the limb lead morphology is uninterpretable. Such records show a "flat line" in lead II or III. Three of the errors give rise to records that are fully interpretable once the specific interconnection error has been identified (although one of the errors cannot reliably be recognized in the absence of a previous record for comparison). One of the errors produces no change in the electrocardiogram recording. In all cases, the precordial leads are interpretable, although there are very minor changes in the voltages. This communication predicts the changes in limb lead appearances consequent upon all possible double limb lead <span class="hlt">interchanges</span> and illustrates these with records electively taken with such double interconnection errors. There are only 3 possible double limb lead interconnection errors. In 2 of the possible combinations, interpretation of the limb leads is impossible, and each of these errors gives rise to a flat line in lead I. In the third combination, the record is fully interpretable once the abnormality has been identified. In all 3 types, the precordial leads are interpretable, although there are very minor changes in the voltages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1999APS..DPPCP1101U&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1999APS..DPPCP1101U&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of shear flow formation between resonant and non-resonant resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> modes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Unemura, T.; Hamaguchi, S.; Wakatani, M.</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>It is known that the poloidal shear flow is produced from the nonlinear resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> modes(A. Hasegawa and M. Wakatani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59) 1581 (1987)(B.A. Carreras and V. E. Lynch, Phys. Fluids B 5) 1795 (1993). Since the non-resonant resistive modes also become unstable(K. Ichiguchi, Y. Nakamura and M. Wakatani, Nucl. Fusion 31) 2073 (1991), the nonlinear behavior is compared between the resonant and non-resonant modes from the point of view of poloidal flow formation. For understanding the difference, we studied single helicity (m,n)=(3,2) mode in a cylindrical geometry.Rotational transform profile, ι(r), was changed. First, we assumed ι(r)=0.51+0.39r^2, and increased ι(0). This change represents a finite beta effect in currentless stellarators. When the resonant surface exists with ι(r_s)=2/3, the poloidal flow are created near the resonant surface. And, in the case when no resonant surface exists but ι_min ~ 2/3, the non-resonant (3,2) mode grows and poloidal shear flow is also generated; however, the magnitude decreases sharply with the increase of ι_min.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASPC..290..105K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASPC..290..105K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Method in Compressible Magnetized Couette Flow: Magnetorotational and Magnetoconvective Instabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kazanas, D.; Christodoulou, D.; Contopoulos, J.</p> <p></p> <p>We obtain the general form of the axisymmetric stability criteria in a magnetized, compressible Couette flow using a variational principle, the so-called <span class="hlt">interchange</span> method, which we applied successfully in the incompressible case in the past. This formulation accounts for the simultaneous presence of gravity, rotation, entropy and density gradients, a toroidal magnetic field and a weak axial magnetic field in its initial equilibrium state. The crucial aspect of the method is its explicit implementation of the relevant conservation laws in the computation of the "free energy" of the system in its original equilibrium. As in the incompressilbe case, the presence of an axial field invalidates the conservation laws of angular momentum and azimuthal magnetic flux, introducing instead isorotation and axial current conservation along field lines. The stability criteria are therefore markedly different depending on whether an axial magnetic field is present. In limiting cases our formulation transparently recovers the convective and Parker instability criteria, as well as those of Newcomb and Terkovnikov pertaining to rotating magnetized plasmas derived through the implementation of much more laborious techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1695863','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1695863"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of disease and health between the Old and New Worlds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Berlinguer, G</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A review of the five centuries since Columbus discovered America helps us understand the mutual contributions of the Old and the New Worlds to the history of diseases and their treatment. It also shows the consequences of this "mutual discovery" as they are currently emerging in the fields of health, culture, and the environment. To evaluate the multiple aspects of the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> between the Old and New Worlds, this paper discusses the following: the causes of the rapid decline of the original American populations; the diffusion of communicable diseases between the two civilizations; the health consequences of nutritional changes on both sides of the Atlantic; drug addictions, as they developed through the centuries and as they exist today; the ways diseases were and are evaluated, prevented, diagnosed, and treated; and the mutual impact of different models of health services. Arguing that a major global change following the discovery of America was the transition from isolation of the two worlds to communication, and, more recently, to global interdependence, the paper also discusses some problems of bioethical relevance and the possible impact of new epidemics. Finally, it suggests that a critical analysis of the past may help stimulate future cooperation and solidarity. PMID:1384365</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24089632','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24089632"><span id="translatedtitle">Equivalence and <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> of narrow therapeutic index drugs in organ transplantation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnston, Atholl</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), ciclosporin and tacrolimus, are the mainstay of immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation. Generic formulations of these drugs are now available. With increasing pressure on healthcare budgets and the consequent need to match health expectations to available resources, substitution with a generic product appears an attractive option to reduce costs. Approval of generic products differs from innovator drugs, and narrow therapeutic index drugs (NTIs; including CNIs) bring their own particular considerations. With NTIs, small variations in drug exposure could result in reduced immunosuppression or drug toxicity with potentially adverse effects on patient outcomes. NTIs are subject to stricter regulatory approval versus many other generic drugs. However, different generic formulations may still not necessarily be therapeutically equivalent in individuals, raising the possibility of significant differences in exposure between products. Although regional recommendations vary, many guidelines emphasise the need for NTI drug substitution to be initiated by the transplant physician, thus ensuring careful therapeutic monitoring and reduced negative patient impact. The need for therapeutic monitoring during generic substitution has important implications for the overall costs of generic treatment as these costs have to be factored in to the potential savings made from using generic formulations. The reduced acquisition costs of generic products may not necessarily translate into lower overall healthcare costs. This article examines the issue of equivalence and <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> of NTI drugs used in organ transplantation, the implications of the approval process for generic drugs on treatment efficacy and safety, and the effective management of substitutions between products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3786630','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3786630"><span id="translatedtitle">Equivalence and <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> of narrow therapeutic index drugs in organ transplantation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Johnston, Atholl</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), ciclosporin and tacrolimus, are the mainstay of immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation. Generic formulations of these drugs are now available. With increasing pressure on healthcare budgets and the consequent need to match health expectations to available resources, substitution with a generic product appears an attractive option to reduce costs. Approval of generic products differs from innovator drugs, and narrow therapeutic index drugs (NTIs; including CNIs) bring their own particular considerations. With NTIs, small variations in drug exposure could result in reduced immunosuppression or drug toxicity with potentially adverse effects on patient outcomes. NTIs are subject to stricter regulatory approval versus many other generic drugs. However, different generic formulations may still not necessarily be therapeutically equivalent in individuals, raising the possibility of significant differences in exposure between products. Although regional recommendations vary, many guidelines emphasise the need for NTI drug substitution to be initiated by the transplant physician, thus ensuring careful therapeutic monitoring and reduced negative patient impact. The need for therapeutic monitoring during generic substitution has important implications for the overall costs of generic treatment as these costs have to be factored in to the potential savings made from using generic formulations. The reduced acquisition costs of generic products may not necessarily translate into lower overall healthcare costs. This article examines the issue of equivalence and <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> of NTI drugs used in organ transplantation, the implications of the approval process for generic drugs on treatment efficacy and safety, and the effective management of substitutions between products. PMID:24089632</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23525299','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23525299"><span id="translatedtitle">Microfluidic impact printer with <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> cartridges for versatile non-contact multiplexed micropatterning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ding, Yuzhe; Huang, Eric; Lam, Kit S; Pan, Tingrui</p> <p>2013-05-21</p> <p>Biopatterning has been increasingly used for well-defined cellular microenvironment, patterned surface topology, and guided biological cues; however, it meets challenges on biocompatibility, thermal and chemical sensitivity, as well as limited availability of reagents. In this paper, we aim at combining the desired features from non-contact inkjet printing and dot-matrix impact printing to establish a versatile multiplexed micropatterning platform, referred to as Microfluidic Impact Printer (MI-Printer), for emerging biomedical applications. Using this platform, we can achieve the distinct features of no cross-contamination, sub-microliter ink loading with a minimal dead volume, high-throughput printing, biocompatible non-contact processing, sequential patterning with self-alignment, wide adaptability for complex media (e.g., cell suspension or colloidal solutions), <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span>/disposable cartridge design, and simple assembly and configuration, all highly desirable towards laboratory-based research and development. Specifically, the printing resolution of the MI-printer platform has been experimentally characterized and theoretically analysed. Optimal printing resolution of 80 μm has been repeatedly obtained. Furthermore, two useful functions of the MI-printer, multiplexed printing and combinatorial printing, have been experimentally demonstrated with less than 10 μm misalignment. Moreover, molecular and biological patterning, utilizing the multiplexed and combinatorial printing, has been implemented to illustrate the utility of this versatile printing technique for emerging biomedical applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070009876','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070009876"><span id="translatedtitle">Badhwar-O'Neil 2007 Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) Model Using Advanced Composition Explorer (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) Measurements for Solar Cycle 23</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>ONeill, P. M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Advanced Composition Explorer (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) satellite measurements of the galactic cosmic ray flux and correlation with the Climax Neutron Monitor count over Solar Cycle 23 are used to update the Badhwar O'Neill Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-24/pdf/2011-15834.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-24/pdf/2011-15834.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 37136 - Post-Summary Corrections to Entry Summaries Filed in <span class="hlt">ACE</span> Pursuant to the ESAR IV Test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-24</p> <p>... to conduct a National Customs Automation Program test concerning new Automated Commercial Environment... requirements, and test development and evaluation methods. DATES: The ESAR IV test will commence July 25, 2011... INFORMATION: Background I. Automated Commercial Environment (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) Test Programs Automated...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015jsrs.conf...79L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015jsrs.conf...79L"><span id="translatedtitle">Time and frequency transfer with a microwave link in the <span class="hlt">ACES</span>/PHARAO mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Delva, P.; Meynadier, F.; Guerlin, C.; Wolf, P.; Laurent, P.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The Atomic Clocks Ensemble in Space (<span class="hlt">ACES</span>/PHARAO mission), which will be installed on board the International Space Station (ISS), uses a dedicated two-way microwave link in order to compare the timescale generated on board with those provided by many ground stations disseminated on the Earth. Phase accuracy and stability of this long range link will have a key role in the success of the <span class="hlt">ACES</span>/PHARAO experiment. SYRTE laboratory is heavily involved in the design and development of the data processing software: from theoretical modeling and numerical simulations to the development of a software prototype. Our team is working on a wide range of problems that need to be solved in order to achieve high accuracy in (almost) real time. In this article we present some key aspects of the measurement, as well as current status of the software's development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6778685','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6778685"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ACE</span> 1992 summary data report: Aircraft measurements of meteorological parameters and SF6. Technical memo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Watkins, B.A.; Boatman, J.F.; Wellman, D.L.; Wilkison, S.W.</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>Meteorological parameters and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) were measured with the NOAA King Air C-90 aircraft during October 1992 in central Florida as part of the Air Force Technical Applications Command (AFTAC) Airborne Collection Equipment (<span class="hlt">ACE</span> 1992) experiment. Airborne sampling was used to locate a plume containing SF6 as a tracer. Before take off, a trajectory model was used to provide the expected plume path. An onboard tracking program gave current predictions of the location of the plume, based on the location of tetroons expected to travel with the plume. Once the plume was located, samples were collected of triethyl phosphate oxide and methyl salicylate, which had been released with the SF6. This report discusses the objectives of <span class="hlt">ACE</span> 1992, the instrumentation used and the data obtained by the NOAA King Air ground and airborne operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3283597','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3283597"><span id="translatedtitle">Language Comprehension in the Balance: The Robustness of the Action-Compatibility Effect (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zwaan, Rolf A.; van der Stoep, Nathan; Guadalupe, Tulio; Bouwmeester, Samantha</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>How does language comprehension interact with motor activity? We investigated the conditions under which comprehending an action sentence affects people's balance. We performed two experiments to assess whether sentences describing forward or backward movement modulate the lateral movements made by subjects who made sensibility judgments about the sentences. In one experiment subjects were standing on a balance board and in the other they were seated on a balance board that was mounted on a chair. This allowed us to investigate whether the action compatibility effect (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) is robust and persists in the face of salient incompatibilities between sentence content and subject movement. Growth-curve analysis of the movement trajectories produced by the subjects in response to the sentences suggests that the <span class="hlt">ACE</span> is indeed robust. Sentence content influenced movement trajectory despite salient inconsistencies between implied and actual movement. These results are interpreted in the context of the current discussion of embodied, or grounded, language comprehension and meaning representation. PMID:22363580</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030011270','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030011270"><span id="translatedtitle">Intercalibration and Cross-Correlation of <span class="hlt">Ace</span> and Wind Solar Wind Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This report covers activities funded from October 1, 1998 through September 30, 2002. Two yearly status reports have been filed on this grant, and they are included as Appendix 1. The purpose of this grant was to compare <span class="hlt">ACE</span> and Wind solar wind parameters when the two spacecraft were near to one another and then to use the intercalibrated parameters to carry out scientific investigations. In September, 2001 a request for a one-year, no-cost extension until September 30, 2002 was submitted and approved. The statement of work for that extension included adjustment of <span class="hlt">ACE</span> densities below wind speeds of 350 km/s, a study of shock normal orientations using travel time delays between the two spacecraft, comparison of density jumps at shocks, and a study of temperature anisotropies and double streaming to see if such features evolved between the spacecraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19879122','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19879122"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ACE</span> inhibition by astilbin isolated from Erythroxylum gonocladum (Mart.) O.E. Schulz.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lucas-Filho, M D; Silva, G C; Cortes, S F; Mares-Guia, T R; Perpétua Ferraz, V; Serra, C P; Braga, F C</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Erythroxylum species have several traditional uses in different countries, including the treatment of hypertension. The ethanol extract from E. gonocladum aerial parts, a species endemic to the Brazilian cerrado, elicited a concentration-dependent inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) (pIC(50)=4.53+/-0.05). Extract fractionation led to the isolation of two compounds, whose structures were assigned by spectrometric data as astilbin and beta-sitosterol, along with a mixture of palmitic, stearic and linolenic acids. This is the first report on the occurrence of these compounds on E. gonocladum. Astilbin promoted significant <span class="hlt">ACE</span> inhibition in vitro (pIC(50)=5.86+/-0.33) and its activity did not differ from captopril, when both compounds were assayed at 10 microM concentration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4837W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4837W"><span id="translatedtitle">The Canadian Arctic <span class="hlt">ACE</span>/OSIRIS Validation Project at PEARL: Validating Satellite Observations Over the High Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walker, Kaley A.; Strong, Kimberly; Fogal, Pierre F.; Drummond, James R.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Ground-based measurements provide critical data for the validation of satellite retrievals of atmospheric trace gases and for the assessment of long-term stability of these measurements. As of February 2016, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>) satellite mission has been making measurements of the Earth's atmosphere for nearly twelve years and Canada's Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) instrument on the Odin satellite has been operating for fourteen years. As <span class="hlt">ACE</span> and OSIRIS operations have extended beyond their planned two-year missions, there is an ongoing need to validate the trace gas data profiles from the <span class="hlt">ACE</span>-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>-FTS), the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>-MAESTRO) and OSIRIS. In particular, validation comparisons are needed during Arctic springtime to understand better the measurements of species involved in stratospheric ozone chemistry. To this end, thirteen Canadian Arctic <span class="hlt">ACE</span>/OSIRIS Validation Campaigns have been conducted during the spring period (February - April in 2004 - 2016) at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (80N, 86W). For the past decade, these campaigns have been undertaken in collaboration with the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). The spring period coincides with the most chemically active time of year in the Arctic, as well as a significant number of satellite overpasses. A suite of as many as 12 ground-based instruments, as well as frequent balloon-borne ozonesonde and radiosonde launches, have been used in each campaign. These instruments include: a ground-based version of the <span class="hlt">ACE</span>-FTS (PARIS - Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer), a terrestrial version of the <span class="hlt">ACE</span>-MAESTRO, a SunPhotoSpectrometer, two CANDAC zenith-viewing UV-visible grating spectrometers, a Bomem DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23860294','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23860294"><span id="translatedtitle">Match intensity and pacing strategies in rugby league: an examination of whole-game and <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players, and winning and losing teams.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Black, Georgia M; Gabbett, Tim J</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>There is currently limited information on whether pacing occurs during rugby league match play. In addition, to date no research has investigated whether pacing strategies differ between winning and losing teams. This study investigated the pacing strategies of whole-game and <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> rugby league players. Furthermore, we investigated the pacing strategies of winning and losing teams. Fifty-two rugby league players, from a sample of 11 teams competing in a semi-elite competition, underwent global positioning system analysis. Performances were divided into match quartiles for whole-game and <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players. Total distance, including low- and high-speed distances, and repeated high-intensity effort bouts were recorded. The total distance and low-speed distance covered across all quartiles of the match, but specifically quartiles 1 and 8, were greater for <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players than whole-game players. The match outcome differentially affected the pacing strategies of whole-game and <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players. Whole-game players from winning teams set a higher pacing strategy than whole-game players from losing teams (effect size [ES] = 1.03 ± 0.77, 96%, very likely), whereas <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players from losing teams demonstrated a greater "end-spurt" than <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players from winning teams (ES = 0.60 ± 0.52, 96%, very likely). The pacing strategies of <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players were higher than whole-game players, irrespective of playing position. The results of this study suggest that pacing strategies differ between <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> and whole-game rugby league players. Furthermore, our results demonstrate a different pacing strategy between winning and losing teams. These findings suggest that physical preparation for rugby league matches, and recovery from these matches, should be individualized for whole-game and <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players. Finally, performing physically intense training on a regular basis is likely to develop the physical and mental qualities required to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24436618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24436618"><span id="translatedtitle">Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (SDG) Isolated from Flaxseed, an Alternative to <span class="hlt">ACE</span> Inhibitors in the Treatment of Hypertension.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prasad, Kailash</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Secoisolariciresionol diglucoside (SDG) is a plant lignan isolated from flaxseed and is phytoestrogen. SDG is a potent and long-acting hypotensive agent. Plant phytoestrogens have inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (<span class="hlt">ACE</span>). The hypotensive effects of SDG, a phytoestrogen, may be mediated through inhibition of <span class="hlt">ACE</span>. The objective of this study was to investigate if SDG-induced hypotension is mediated through inhibition of <span class="hlt">ACE</span>. The Sprague Dawley male rats were anesthetized and trachea was cannulated. The right jugular vein was cannulated to administer the drug and the carotid artery was cannulated to record arterial pressures using PIOEZ-1 miniature model transducer (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) and Beckman dynograph (Beckman Instruments, Inc., Schiller Park, IL). The effects of angiotensin I (0.2 µg/kg, intravenously [IV]) in the absence and presence of SDG (10 mg/kg, IV), and SDG alone on systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures were measured before and after 15, 30, and 60 minutes of drug administration. SDG decreased the systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure by 37, 47, and 43%, respectively, at 15 minutes and 18.8, 21.2, and 20.3%, respectively, at 60 minutes. Angiotensin I increased the arterial pressure. SDG decreased angiotensin I-induced rise in the systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures by 60, 58, and 51%, respectively, at 15 minutes and 48, 46, and 30%, respectively, at 60 minutes. The data suggest that SDG reduced the angiotensin I-induced rise in the arterial pressures and hence SDG is a potent <span class="hlt">ACE</span> inhibitor.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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