Science.gov

Sample records for ace diversity interchange

  1. Improving Area Control Error Diversity Interchange (ADI) Program by Incorporating Congestion Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Etingov, Pavel V.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guttromson, Ross T.; McManus, Bart

    2010-04-30

    The area control error (ACE) determines how much a balancing authority (BA) needs to move its regulating units to meet mandatory control performance standard requirements. Regulation is an expensive resource that could cost several hundred million dollars a year for a BA. The amount of regulation needed in a system is increasing with more intermittent generation resources added to the system. The ACE diversity interchange (ADI) program provides a tool for reducing the regulation requirement by combining ACEs from several participating BAs followed by sharing the total ACE among all participating balancing areas. The effect is achieved as a result of the low statistical correlation between the original ACEs of participating BAs. A rule-based ADI approach has already been put into practice in the US Western Interconnection. The degree of actual ACE sharing is artificially limited because of the unknown redistribution of power flows and possible system congestion (these factors are not monitored in the existing ADI). This paper proposes a two-step linear programming (LP) ADI approach that incorporates congestion constraints. In the first step of the proposed LP ADI, the line transmission limits are enforced by setting up corresponding constraints. In the second step, the business fairness is pursued. Simulation is performed to compare the properties of the proposed LP ADI and the existing rule-based ADI. Favorable features, such as avoiding line limit violations and increasing the degree of possible ACE sharing, are observed for the proposed LP ADI.

  2. ACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumia, R.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the progress made during the fourth year of the Center for Autonomous Control Engineering (ACE). We currently support 30 graduate students, 52 undergraduate students, 9 faculty members, and 4 staff members. Progress will be divided into two categories. The first category explores progress for ACE in general. The second describes the results of each specific project supported within ACE.

  3. Neotropical mammal diversity and the Great American Biotic Interchange: spatial and temporal variation in South America's fossil record

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Juan D.; Forasiepi, Analía; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2015-01-01

    The vast mammal diversity of the Neotropics is the result of a long evolutionary history. During most of the Cenozoic, South America was an island continent with an endemic mammalian fauna. This isolation ceased during the late Neogene after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, resulting in an event known as the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). In this study, we investigate biogeographic patterns in South America, just before or when the first immigrants are recorded and we review the temporal and geographical distribution of fossil mammals during the GABI. We performed a dissimilarity analysis which grouped the faunal assemblages according to their age and their geographic distribution. Our data support the differentiation between tropical and temperate assemblages in South America during the middle and late Miocene. The GABI begins during the late Miocene (~10–7 Ma) and the putative oldest migrations are recorded in the temperate region, where the number of GABI participants rapidly increases after ~5 Ma and this trend continues during the Pleistocene. A sampling bias toward higher latitudes and younger records challenges the study of the temporal and geographic patterns of the GABI. PMID:25601879

  4. Neotropical mammal diversity and the Great American Biotic Interchange: spatial and temporal variation in South America's fossil record.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Juan D; Forasiepi, Analía; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2014-01-01

    The vast mammal diversity of the Neotropics is the result of a long evolutionary history. During most of the Cenozoic, South America was an island continent with an endemic mammalian fauna. This isolation ceased during the late Neogene after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, resulting in an event known as the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). In this study, we investigate biogeographic patterns in South America, just before or when the first immigrants are recorded and we review the temporal and geographical distribution of fossil mammals during the GABI. We performed a dissimilarity analysis which grouped the faunal assemblages according to their age and their geographic distribution. Our data support the differentiation between tropical and temperate assemblages in South America during the middle and late Miocene. The GABI begins during the late Miocene (~10-7 Ma) and the putative oldest migrations are recorded in the temperate region, where the number of GABI participants rapidly increases after ~5 Ma and this trend continues during the Pleistocene. A sampling bias toward higher latitudes and younger records challenges the study of the temporal and geographic patterns of the GABI.

  5. ACE--Some Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Annie, Ed.; Curtin, Penelope, Ed.

    This publication contains four papers that identify issues within the adult and community education (ACE) sector. "Overview" (Annie Campbell, Peter Thomson) considers what defines ACE; who offers ACE programs; who participates in ACE programs and who does not participate; what are the barriers to participation; who is responsible for…

  6. ACE and ACE2 in kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Mizuiri, Sonoo; Ohashi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Renin angiotensin system (RAS) activation has a significant influence on renal disease progression. The classical angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-angiotensin II (Ang II)-Ang II type 1 (AT1) axis is considered to control the effects of RAS activation on renal disease. However, since its discovery in 2000 ACE2 has also been demonstrated to have a significant impact on the RAS. The synthesis and catabolism of Ang II are regulated via a complex series of interactions, which involve ACE and ACE2. In the kidneys, ACE2 is expressed in the proximal tubules and less strongly in the glomeruli. The synthesis of inactive Ang 1-9 from Ang I and the catabolism of Ang II to produce Ang 1-7 are the main functions of ACE2. Ang 1-7 reduces vasoconstriction, water retention, salt intake, cell proliferation, and reactive oxygen stress, and also has a renoprotective effect. Thus, in the non-classical RAS the ACE2-Ang 1-7-Mas axis counteracts the ACE-Ang II-AT1 axis. This review examines recent human and animal studies about renal ACE and ACE2. PMID:25664248

  7. ACES: The Development of a Reliable and Valid Instrument to Assess Faculty Support of Diversity Goals in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Jennifer; Skorupski, William; Frey, Bruce; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Diversity is an increasingly important value for institutions of higher education. Yet, few measures exist to assess whether college and university faculty share in this objective and how their beliefs relate to specific aspects of their work. In this study, we gathered data from a sample of faculty at one American research university to develop a…

  8. Comprehensive Database Service : ACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroki, Morio; Abe, Tetsuya

    The Data base, ACE commercialized by Chunichi Shimbun in Feb. 1986, aims at covering not only newspaper articles but also the other information which composes different data bases. This paper introduces newspaper articles, new material information and character information which are included in ACE. The content of ACE, how to use the online service, and future subjects are described.

  9. Multiphase interchange inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesi, V.

    1991-08-01

    Phase interchange inequalities have been studied since the early work of Keller [J. Math. Phys. 5, 548 (1964)]. They constrain the effective conductivity of composite materials which are obtained from each other, for fixed configuration, by interchanging the position of the phases. Optimal results in this direction for the case of a two-phase composite are due to Keller in spatial dimension d=2 and to Avellaneda et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 63, 4989 (1988)] in dimension d=3. In this paper new inequalities in spatial dimension d=2 and d=3, which are valid when an arbitrary number of phases is present, are proven. When specialized to two-phase composites, they agree with those of Keller in d=2 and of Avellaneda et al. in d=3, respectively.

  10. Tether Technology Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, James K. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This is a compilation of 25 papers presented at a tether technical interchange meeting in Huntsville, AL, on September 9-10, 1997. After each presentation, a technical discussion was held to clarify and expand the salient points. A wide range of subjects was covered including tether dynamics, electrodynamics, space power generation, plasma physics, ionospheric physics, towing tethers, tethered reentry schemes, and future tether missions.

  11. Marketing ACE in Victoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This publication presents options raised through various forums for marketing adult and community education (ACE) in Victoria, Australia, and suggested strategies. After an introduction (chapter 1), chapters 2 and 3 provide a broad view of the current situation for marketing ACE. Chapter 2 discusses general issues in the current position--ACE…

  12. Validated ligand mapping of ACE active site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuster, Daniel J.; Marshall, Garland R.

    2005-08-01

    Crystal structures of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) complexed with three inhibitors (lisinopril, captopril, enalapril) provided experimental data for testing the validity of a prior active site model predicting the bound conformation of the inhibitors. The ACE active site model - predicted over 18 years ago using a series of potent ACE inhibitors of diverse chemical structure - was recreated using published data and commercial software. Comparison between the predicted structures of the three inhibitors bound to the active site of ACE and those determined experimentally yielded root mean square deviation (RMSD) values of 0.43-0.81 Å, among the distances defining the active site map. The bound conformations of the chemically relevant atoms were accurately deduced from the geometry of ligands, applying the assumption that the geometry of the active site groups responsible for binding and catalysis of amide hydrolysis was constrained. The mapping of bound inhibitors at the ACE active site was validated for known experimental compounds, so that the constrained conformational search methodology may be applied with confidence when no experimentally determined structure of the enzyme yet exists, but potent, diverse inhibitors are available.

  13. Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    distribution is unlimited. Key Data Requirements • Sea Ice – Location: Area, Onset, Growth, Drift, and Decay – Characterization: % Coverage, Thickness...Cloud ACE Developmental Server hosted at UAHuntsville ACE User Community Public Internet Tailored Ice Product Generation (NIC) Arctic Research...distribution is unlimited. Arctic Map 26 July 2012 13 Multi-sensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent; National Data Buoy Center DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A

  14. 77 FR 20835 - National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... submit official CBP documents and specified PGA forms via the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). This... and who file entry summaries in ACE to submit specified CBP and PGA documents via the Electronic Data... will be able to submit electronic images of a specific set of CBP and Participating Government...

  15. ACES--Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Harold

    1991-01-01

    Presents text of Presidential Address delivered March 24, 1991, at the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) luncheon, part of the American Association for Counseling and Development Convention held in Reno, Nevada. Comments on past, present, and future of ACES, particularly on future challenges and role of ACES. (ABL)

  16. Interstate Highway Interchanges Reshape Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Henry E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Highway interchanges offer rural counties practically ready-made sites for development, but some interchanges offer better development opportunities than others. A study of a Kentucky interchange identified seven factors that make a difference in development, including traffic volume, distance to an urban area, ruggedness of terrain, and sale of…

  17. ACEE composite structures technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klotzsche, M. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Composite Primary Aircraft Structures Program has made significant progress in the development of technology for advanced composites in commercial aircraft. Commercial airframe manufacturers have demonstrated technology readiness and cost effectiveness of advanced composites for secondary and medium primary components and have initiated a concerted program to develop the data base required for efficient application to safety-of-flight wing and fuselage structures. Oral presentations were compiled into five papers. Topics addressed include: damage tolerance and failsafe testing of composite vertical stabilizer; optimization of composite multi-row bolted joints; large wing joint demonstation components; and joints and cutouts in fuselage structure.

  18. Third SEI Technical Interchange: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Given here are the proceedings of the 3rd Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Technical Interchange. Topics covered include the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), the Lunar Resource Mapper, lunar rovers, lunar habitat concepts, lunar shelter construction analysis, thermoelectric nuclear power systems for SEI, cryogenic storage, a space network for lunar communications, the moon as a solar power satellite, and off-the-shelf avionics for future SEI missions.

  19. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Offers suggestions from six contributors regarding a variety of classroom activities, including the use of high interest-low vocabulary books with gifted and average readers, an exercise in sequencing, a Halloween project to improve students' grammar, a technique to improve students' dictionary skills, and methods for helping students write books.…

  20. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Contains suggestions from six contributors, including the use of parents as an audience for beginning readers; outdoor activities to motivate readers; word order recognition exercise; a books-by-mail library service for rural students; using remedial students to read to younger children; and a language arts/social studies project. (FL)

  1. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Suggestions from eight contributors include the following: how to use pattern books with beginning readers, how to develop a locally relevant basic sight word list, how to use learning styles in individualizing instruction, and how to personalize handouts. (FL)

  2. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Contains contributions from three educators concerning the following: (1) child-made books in beginning reading, (2) ideas for celebrating a "reading week" as part of American Education Week, and (3) using doll families to teach phonics to beginning readers. (FL)

  3. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Five contributors discuss the following topics: bringing comics to life through readers theatre, peer tutoring to improve word attack and comprehension skills, using storytelling to increase reading comprehension skills on Okinawa, beginning reading in Italy, and using remedial reading students as tutors for younger students. (FL)

  4. ACES's Challenges: Past Presidents Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeley, Vernon Lee

    1990-01-01

    Recognizes the golden anniversary of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) and presents the statements of 15 past presidents of the association. Presidential leaders briefly review the association's past and suggest opportunities to help create a promising future for ACES. Outlines nine challenges which confront members of…

  5. FIRE_ACE_SHIP_SSFR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    FIRE_ACE_SHIP_SSFR Project Title:  FIRE III ACE Discipline:  ... Level:  L3 Platform:  SHEBA Ship Instrument:  Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer ... Info:  Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) Ship SCAR-B Block:  SCAR-B Products ...

  6. FIRE_ACE_UTRECHT_TOWER

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    FIRE_ACE_UTRECHT_TOWER Project Title:  FIRE II ACE Discipline:  ... L3 Platform:  SHEBA Ship Site; Meteorological tower Instrument:  Eppley precision pyrgeometers Meteorological tower Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding ...

  7. [ACE inhibitors and the kidney].

    PubMed

    Hörl, W H

    1996-01-01

    Treatment with ACE inhibitors results in kidney protection due to reduction of systemic blood pressure, intraglomerular pressure, an antiproliferative effect, reduction of proteinuria and a lipid-lowering effect in proteinuric patients (secondary due to reduction of protein excretion). Elderly patients with diabetes melitus, coronary heart disease or peripheral vascular occlusion are at risk for deterioration of kidney function due to a high frequency of renal artery stenosis in these patients. In patients with renal insufficiency dose reduction of ACE inhibitors is necessary (exception: fosinopril) but more important is the risk for development of hyperkalemia. Patients at risk for renal artery stenosis and patients pretreated with diuretics should receive a low ACE inhibitor dosage initially ("start low - go slow"). For compliance reasons once daily ACE inhibitor dosage is recommended.

  8. Atmospheric Constituent Explorer System (ACES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrach, M. R.; Madzunkov, S.; Neidholdt, E.; Simcic, J.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the Atmospheric Constituent Explorer System (ACES), a mass spectrometer based instrument for atmospheric probe missions (e.g. Venus and ice giant) that can determine abundances and isotopic ratios of the noble-gases and trace species.

  9. ACE3 Draft Indicators: Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The page information was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 – April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.

  10. ACE3 Draft Indicators: Biomonitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The page information was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 – April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.

  11. Performance Enhancement of the Automated Concrete Evaluation System (ACES)

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgart,C.W.; Cave,S.P.; Linder,K.E.

    2002-02-14

    The objective of this proposed research is to improve and expand the detection and analysis capabilities of the automated, concrete evaluation (ACE) system. MoDOT and Honeywell jointly developed this system. The focus of this proposed research will be on the following: Coordination of concrete imaging efforts with other states, Validation and testing of the ACE system on a broad range of concrete samples, and Identification and development of software and hardware enhancements. These enhancements will meet the needs of diverse users in the field of concrete materials, construction, and research.

  12. Geoscience terminology for data interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Workgroups formed by the Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a Commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) have been developing vocabulary resources to promote geoscience information exchange. The Multilingual Thesaurus Working Group (MLT) was formed in 2003 to continue work of the Multhes working group of the 1990s. The Concept Definition Task Group was formed by the CGI Interoperability Working Group in 2007 to develop concept vocabularies for populating GeoSciML interchange documents. The CGI council has determined that it will be more efficient and effective to merge the efforts of these groups and has formed a new Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG, http://www.cgi-iugs.org/tech_collaboration/geoscience_terminology_working_group.html). Each GTWG member will be expected to shepherd one or more vocabularies. There are currently 31 vocabularies in the CGI portfolio, developed for GeoSciML interchange documents (e.g. see http://resource.geosciml.org/ 201202/). Vocabulary development in both groups has been conducted first by gathering candidate terms in Excel spreadsheets because these are easy for text editing and review. When the vocabulary is mature, it is migrated into SKOS, an RDF application for encoding concepts with identifiers, definitions, source information, standard thesaurus type relationships, and language-localized labels. Currently there are 30 vocabularies still required for GeoSciML v3, and 38 proposed vocabularies for use with EarthResourceML (https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/CGIModel/EarthResourceML). In addition, a project to develop a lithogenetic map unit vocabulary to use for regional geologic map integration using OGC web map services is underway. Considerable work remains to be done to integrate multilingual geoscience terms developed by the MLT Working Group with existing CGI vocabularies to provide multilingual support, and to make the thesaurus compiled by the

  13. Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara; Jonsson, Ari; Pasareanu, Corina; Simmons, Reid; Tso, Kam; Verma, Vandi

    2006-01-01

    Plan execution is a cornerstone of spacecraft operations, irrespective of whether the plans to be executed are generated on board the spacecraft or on the ground. Plan execution frameworks vary greatly, due to both different capabilities of the execution systems, and relations to associated decision-making frameworks. The latter dependency has made the reuse of execution and planning frameworks more difficult, and has all but precluded information sharing between different execution and decision-making systems. As a step in the direction of addressing some of these issues, a general plan execution language, called the Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL), is being developed. PLEXIL is capable of expressing concepts used by many high-level automated planners and hence provides an interface to multiple planners. PLEXIL includes a domain description that specifies command types, expansions, constraints, etc., as well as feedback to the higher-level decision-making capabilities. This document describes the grammar and semantics of PLEXIL. It includes a graphical depiction of this grammar and illustrative rover scenarios. It also outlines ongoing work on implementing a universal execution system, based on PLEXIL, using state-of-the-art rover functional interfaces and planners as test cases.

  14. VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan; Kettenis, Mark; Phillips, Chris; Sekido, Mamoru

    2010-01-01

    One important outcome of the 7th International e-VLBI Workshop in Shanghai in June 2008 was the creation of a task force to study and recommend a universal VLBI data format that is suitable for both on-the-wire e-VLBI data transfer, as well as direct disk storage. This task force, called the VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) Task Force, is the first part of a two-part effort, the second of which will address standardization of e-VLBI data-transmission-protocols. The formation of the VDIF Task Force was prompted particularly by increased e-VLBI activity and the difficulties encountered when data arrive at a correlator in different formats from various instruments in various parts of the world. The task force created a streaming packetized data format that may be used for real-time and non-realtime e-VLBI, as well as direct disk storage. The data may contain multiple channels of time-sampled data with an arbitrary number of channels, arbitrary #bits/sample up to 32, and real or complex data; data rates in excess of 100 Gbps are supported. Each data packet is completely self-identifying via a short header, and data may be decoded without reference to any external information. The VDIF task force has completed its work, and the VDIF standard was ratified at the 2009 e-VLBI workshop in Madrid.

  15. Random Interchange of Magnetic Connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Servidio, S.; Wan, M.; Rappazzo, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic connectivity, the connection between two points along a magnetic field line, has a stochastic character associated with field lines random walking in space due to magnetic fluctuations, but connectivity can also change in time due to dynamical activity [1]. For fluctuations transverse to a strong mean field, this connectivity change be caused by stochastic interchange due to component reconnection. The process may be understood approximately by formulating a diffusion-like Fokker-Planck coefficient [2] that is asymptotically related to standard field line random walk. Quantitative estimates are provided, for transverse magnetic field models and anisotropic models such as reduced magnetohydrodynamics. In heliospheric applications, these estimates may be useful for understanding mixing between open and close field line regions near coronal hole boundaries, and large latitude excursions of connectivity associated with turbulence. [1] A. F. Rappazzo, W. H. Matthaeus, D. Ruffolo, S. Servidio & M. Velli, ApJL, 758, L14 (2012) [2] D. Ruffolo & W. Matthaeus, ApJ, 806, 233 (2015)

  16. Limit Interchange and L'Hopital's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecker, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional application of these two calculus staples is stretched here, somewhat recreationally, but also to raise solid questions about the role of limit interchange in analysis--without, however, delving any deeper than first-year Calculus.

  17. Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2015-07-15

    The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.

  18. Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2015-07-01

    The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.

  19. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.

    2017-01-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), also called SCISAT, is a Canadian-led small satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere. ACE was launched into a low Earth circular orbit by NASA on August 12, 2003 and it continues to function nominally. The ACE instruments are a high spectral resolution (0.02 cm-1) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2.2 to 13.3 μm (750-4400 cm-1), a spectrophotometer known as Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (MAESTRO) with wavelength coverage of 285-1020 nm and two filtered detector arrays to image the Sun at 0.525 and 1.02 μm. ACE operates in solar occultation mode to provide altitude profiles of temperature, pressure, atmospheric extinction and the volume mixing ratios (VMRs) for several dozen molecules and related isotopologues. This paper presents a mission overview and a summary of selected scientific results.

  20. On safety margin for drug interchangeability.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiayin; Chow, Shein-Chung; Song, Fuyu

    2016-12-02

    As more and more generic (or biosimilar) drug products become available in the market place, it is a concern whether the approved generic (or biosimilar) drug products are safe and efficacious and hence can be used interchangeably. According to current regulation, most regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) indicate an approved generic (or biosimilar) drug product can serve as a substitute for the innovative drug product. Bioequivalence (biosimilarity) assessment for regulatory approval among generic copies (or biosimilars) of the innovative drug product are not required. In practice, approved generic (or biosimilar) drugs are commonly used interchangeably without any mechanism of safety monitoring. In this article, current bioequivalence (or biosimilarity) limit is adjusted according to the observed geometric mean ratio and corresponding variability for development of safety margins for monitoring of drug interchangeability by minimizing the relative change in response with and without the switching.

  1. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  2. ACE2 alterations in kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Soler, María José; Wysocki, Jan; Batlle, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a monocarboxypeptidase that degrades angiotensin (Ang) II to Ang-(1–7). ACE2 is highly expressed within the kidneys, it is largely localized in tubular epithelial cells and less prominently in glomerular epithelial cells and in the renal vasculature. ACE2 activity has been shown to be altered in diabetic kidney disease, hypertensive renal disease and in different models of kidney injury. There is often a dissociation between tubular and glomerular ACE2 expression, particularly in diabetic kidney disease where ACE2 expression is increased at the tubular level but decreased at the glomerular level. In this review, we will discuss alterations in circulating and renal ACE2 recently described in different renal pathologies and disease models as well as their possible significance. PMID:23956234

  3. Electronic Data Interchange: Selected Issues and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigand, Rolf T.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes electronic data interchange (EDI) as the application-to-application exchange of business documents in a computer-readable format. Topics discussed include EDI in various industries, EDI in finance and banking, organizational impacts of EDI, future EDI markets and organizations, and implications for information resources management.…

  4. Interchange of Data Bases. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Rita G.; And Others

    This report describes the methods, developed by the American Institute of Physics in cooperation with Engineering Index, Inc., by which both organizations could reduce costs by eliminating duplication of keyboarding and indexing. The three sets of problems that confronted the interchange of their data bases (classification and indexing, formats,…

  5. Structural Equation Modeling with Interchangeable Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Joseph A.; Kenny, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) can be adapted in a relatively straightforward fashion to analyze data from interchangeable dyads (i.e., dyads in which the 2 members cannot be differentiated). The authors describe a general strategy for SEM model estimation, comparison, and fit assessment that can be used with either dyad-level or pairwise…

  6. Bioboxes: standardised containers for interchangeable bioinformatics software.

    PubMed

    Belmann, Peter; Dröge, Johannes; Bremges, Andreas; McHardy, Alice C; Sczyrba, Alexander; Barton, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Software is now both central and essential to modern biology, yet lack of availability, difficult installations, and complex user interfaces make software hard to obtain and use. Containerisation, as exemplified by the Docker platform, has the potential to solve the problems associated with sharing software. We propose bioboxes: containers with standardised interfaces to make bioinformatics software interchangeable.

  7. Focus on Nutrition. MCH Program Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This issue of the "MCH Program Interchange" describes selected materials and publications in maternal and child health (MCH) nutrition services and programs. The materials were developed by or are available from federal agencies, state and local public health agencies, and voluntary and professional organizations. The information is intended to…

  8. Characterization of ACE and ACE2 Expression within Different Organs of the NOD Mouse.

    PubMed

    Roca-Ho, Heleia; Riera, Marta; Palau, Vanesa; Pascual, Julio; Soler, Maria Jose

    2017-03-05

    Renin angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a key role in several diseases such as diabetes, and renal and cardiovascular pathologies. Its blockade has been demonstrated to delay chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular damage in diabetic patients. In this sense, since local RAS has been described, the aim of this study is to characterize angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 activities, as well as protein expression, in several tissues of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice model. After 21 or 40 days of diabetes onset, mouse serums and tissues were analyzed for ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities and protein expression. ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities were detected in different tissues. Their expressions vary depending on the studied tissue. Thus, whereas ACE activity was highly expressed in lungs, ACE2 activity was highly expressed in pancreas among the studied tissues. Interestingly, we also observed that diabetes up-regulates ACE mainly in serum, lung, heart, and liver, and ACE2 mainly in serum, liver, and pancreas. In conclusion, we found a marked serum and pulmonary alteration in ACE activity of diabetic mice, suggesting a common regulation. The increase of ACE2 activity within the circulation in diabetic mice may be ascribed to a compensatory mechanism of RAS.

  9. Characterization of ACE and ACE2 Expression within Different Organs of the NOD Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Roca-Ho, Heleia; Riera, Marta; Palau, Vanesa; Pascual, Julio; Soler, Maria Jose

    2017-01-01

    Renin angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a key role in several diseases such as diabetes, and renal and cardiovascular pathologies. Its blockade has been demonstrated to delay chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular damage in diabetic patients. In this sense, since local RAS has been described, the aim of this study is to characterize angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 activities, as well as protein expression, in several tissues of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice model. After 21 or 40 days of diabetes onset, mouse serums and tissues were analyzed for ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities and protein expression. ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities were detected in different tissues. Their expressions vary depending on the studied tissue. Thus, whereas ACE activity was highly expressed in lungs, ACE2 activity was highly expressed in pancreas among the studied tissues. Interestingly, we also observed that diabetes up-regulates ACE mainly in serum, lung, heart, and liver, and ACE2 mainly in serum, liver, and pancreas. In conclusion, we found a marked serum and pulmonary alteration in ACE activity of diabetic mice, suggesting a common regulation. The increase of ACE2 activity within the circulation in diabetic mice may be ascribed to a compensatory mechanism of RAS. PMID:28273875

  10. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): MLT Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, Peter

    2010-05-01

    ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of numerous trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The primary instrument is a high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4400 cm-1). ACE was launched by NASA on 12 August 2003 for a nominal 2-year mission; after 6 years on orbit the ACE-FTS performance is still excellent. The first results of ACE have been presented in a special issue of Geophysics Research Letters (http://www.agu.org/journals/ss/ACECHEM1/) in 2005 and recently a special issue on ACE validation has been prepared for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/special_issue114.html) by K. Walker and K. Strong; more information can be found at http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca. The ACE mission goals were initially focussed mainly on polar ozone chemistry, and more recently have shifted more to the troposphere where organic pollutants such as methanol and formaldehyde have been detected. ACE makes limb observations from about 5 km (cloud free scenes) up to nearly 150 km in the lower thermosphere, where CO2 absorption is still weakly detectable. This talk will review ACE-FTS results in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Topics covered will include the mesospheric descent of NOx in the polar winter, spectra of polar mesospheric clouds, concentration profiles of CO2 (which do not match model predictions), and combined Odin-Osiris/ACE-FTS observations.

  11. ACE program/UNIX user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Feng-Berman, S.K.

    1993-01-12

    This report the following: How to use the ace program?; Introduction to the ace program; Online command; Define a macro file; Macro commands; Counters and MCA; Counters usage; Counters database; Feedback Counter Database; MCA functions and macro command; X window Interclient Communication; and How to get around in UNIX?

  12. ACE program/UNIX user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Feng-Berman, S.K.

    1993-01-12

    This report the following: How to use the ace program ; Introduction to the ace program; Online command; Define a macro file; Macro commands; Counters and MCA; Counters usage; Counters database; Feedback Counter Database; MCA functions and macro command; X window Interclient Communication; and How to get around in UNIX

  13. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchanges in low density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yimin; Goel, Deepak; Hassam, A.B.

    2005-03-01

    The ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations are usually derived under the assumption V{sub A}<interchange instabilities in 'line-tied' slab geometry as well as to centrifugally confined plasmas. It is found that interchange growth rates are reduced by a factor of 1+V{sub A}{sup 2}/c{sup 2}, corresponding to a larger effective mass resulting from the extra electromagnetic momentum. Line tying is unaffected.

  14. The Aerosol, Clouds and Ecosystem (ACE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M.; Remer, L.; Kahn, R.; Starr, D.; Hildebrand, P.; Colarco, P.; Diner, D.; Vane, D.; Im, E.; Behrenfeld, M.; Stephens, G.; Maring, H.; Bontempi, P.; Martins, J. V.

    2008-12-01

    The Aerosol, Clouds and Ecosystem (ACE) Mission is a second tier Decadal Survey mission designed to characterize the role of aerosols in climate forcing, especially their impact on precipitation and cloud formation. ACE also includes ocean biosphere measurements (chlorophyll and dissolved organic materials) which will be greatly improved by simultaneous measurements of aerosols. The nominal ACE payload includes lidar and multiangle spectropolarimetric polarimetric measurements of aerosols, radar measurements of clouds and multi-band spectrometer for the measurement of ocean ecosystems. An enhancement to ACE payload under consideration includes µ-wave radiometer measurements of cloud ice and water outside the nadir path of the radar/lidar beams. This talk will cover ACE instrument and science options, updates on the science team definition activity and science potential.

  15. A reference model for scientific information interchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reich, Lou; Sawyer, Don; Davis, Randy

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an Information Interchange Reference Model (IIRM) currently being developed by individuals participating in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Panel 2, the Planetary Data Systems (PDS), and the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS). This is an ongoing research activity and is not an official position by these bodies. This reference model provides a framework for describing and assessing current and proposed methodologies for information interchange within and among the space agencies. It is hoped that this model will improve interoperability between the various methodologies. As such, this model attempts to address key information interchange issues as seen by the producers and users of space-related data and to put them into a coherent framework. Information is understood as the knowledge (e.g., the scientific content) represented by data. Therefore, concern is not primarily on mechanisms for transferring data from user to user (e.g., compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM), wide-area networks, optical tape, and so forth) but on how information is encoded as data and how the information content is maintained with minimal loss or distortion during transmittal. The model assumes open systems, which means that the protocols or methods used should be fully described and the descriptions publicly available. Ideally these protocols are promoted by recognized standards organizations using processes that permit involvement by those most likely to be affected, thereby enhancing the protocol's stability and the likelihood of wide support.

  16. Interchange of electronic design through VHDL and EIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    The need for both robust and unambiguous electronic designs is a direct requirement of the astonishing growth in design and manufacturing capability during recent years. In order to manage the plethora of designs, and have the design data both interchangeable and interoperable, the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program is developing two major standards for the electronic design community. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is designed to be the lingua franca for transmission of design data between designers and their environments. The Engineering Information System (EIS) is designed to ease the integration of data betweeen diverse design automation systems. This paper describes the rationale for the necessity for these two standards and how they provide a synergistic expressive capability across the macrocosm of design environments.

  17. Interchange of electronic design through VHDL and EIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Richard M.

    1987-10-01

    The need for both robust and unambiguous electronic designs is a direct requirement of the astonishing growth in design and manufacturing capability during recent years. In order to manage the plethora of designs, and have the design data both interchangeable and interoperable, the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program is developing two major standards for the electronic design community. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is designed to be the lingua franca for transmission of design data between designers and their environments. The Engineering Information System (EIS) is designed to ease the integration of data betweeen diverse design automation systems. This paper describes the rationale for the necessity for these two standards and how they provide a synergistic expressive capability across the macrocosm of design environments.

  18. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) dimerization is the initial step in the ACE inhibitor-induced ACE signaling cascade in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kohlstedt, Karin; Gershome, Cynthia; Friedrich, Matthias; Müller-Esterl, Werner; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Busse, Rudi; Fleming, Ingrid

    2006-05-01

    The binding of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to ACE initiates a signaling cascade that involves the phosphorylation of the enzyme on Ser1270 as well as activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and leads to alterations in gene expression. To clarify how ACE inhibitors activate this pathway, we determined their effect on the ability of the enzyme to dimerize and the role of ACE dimerization in the initiation of the ACE signaling cascade. In endothelial cells, ACE was detected as a monomer as well as a dimer in native gel electrophoresis and dimerization/oligomerization was confirmed using the split-ubiquitin assay in yeast. ACE inhibitors elicited a rapid, concentration-dependent increase in the dimer/monomer ratio that correlated with that of the ACE inhibitorinduced phosphorylation of ACE. Cell treatment with galactose and glucose to prevent the putative lectin-mediated self-association of ACE or with specific antibodies shielding the N terminus of ACE failed to affect either the basal or the ACE inhibitor-induced dimerization of the enzyme. In ACE-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells, ACE inhibitors elicited ACE dimerization and phosphorylation as well as the activation of JNK with similar kinetics to those observed in endothelial cells. However, these effects were prevented by the mutation of the essential Zn2+-complexing histidines in the C-terminal active site of the enzyme. Mutation of the N-terminal active site of ACE was without effect. Together, our data suggest that ACE inhibitors can initiate the ACE signaling pathway by inducing ACE dimerization, most probably via the C-terminal active site of the enzyme.

  19. Advanced control evaluation for structures (ACES) programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Jerome; Waites, Henry

    1988-01-01

    The ACES programs are a series of past, present, and future activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Ground facility for Large Space Structure Control Verification (GF/LSSCV). The main objectives of the ACES programs are to implement control techniques on a series of complex dynamical systems, to determine the control/structure interaction for the control techniques, and to provide a national facility in which dynamics and control verification can be effected. The focus is on these objectives and how they are implemented under various engineering and economic constraints. Future plans that will be effected in upcoming ACES programs are considered.

  20. Interchange Reconnection and Coronal Hole Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Lynch, B. J.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of magnetic reconnection between open and closed field, (often referred to as "interchange" reconnection), on the dynamics and topology of coronal hole boundaries. The most important and most prevalent 3D topology of the interchange process is that of a small-scale bipolar magnetic field interacting with a large-scale background field. We determine the evolution of such a magnetic topology by numerical solution of the fully 3D MHD equations in spherical coordinates. First, we calculate the evolution of a small-scale bipole that initially is completely inside an open field region and then is driven across a coronal hole boundary by photospheric motions. Next the reverse situation is calculated in which the bipole is initially inside the closed region and driven toward the coronal hole boundary. In both cases we find that the stress imparted by the photospheric motions results in deformation of the separatrix surface between the closed field of the bipole and the background field, leading to rapid current sheet formation and to efficient reconnection. When the bipole is inside the open field region, the reconnection is of the interchange type in that it exchanges open and closed field. We examine, in detail, the topology of the field as the bipole moves across the coronal hole boundary, and find that the field remains well-connected throughout this process. Our results imply that open flux cannot penetrate deeply into the closed field region below a helmet streamer and, hence, support the quasi-steady models in which open and closed flux remain topologically distinct. Our results also support the uniqueness hypothesis for open field regions as postulated by Antiochos et al. We discuss the implications of this work for coronal observations. Subject Headings: Sun: corona Sun: magnetic fields Sun: reconnection Sun: coronal hole

  1. Interchange Reconnection and Coronal Hole Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Lynch, B. J.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of magnetic reconnection between open and closed fields, often referred to as interchange reconnection, on the dynamics and topology of coronal hole boundaries. The most important and most prevalent three-dimensional topology of the interchange process is that of a small-scale bipolar magnetic field interacting with a large-scale background field. We determine the evolution of such a magnetic topology by numerical solution of the fully three-dimensional MHD equations in spherical coordinates. First, we calculate the evolution of a small-scale bipole that initially is completely inside an open field region and then is driven across a coronal hole boundary by photospheric motions. Next the reverse situation is calculated in which the bipole is initially inside the closed region and driven toward the coronal hole boundary. In both cases, we find that the stress imparted by the photospheric motions results in deformation of the separatrix surface between the closed field of the bipole and the background field, leading to rapid current sheet formation and to efficient reconnection. When the bipole is inside the open field region, the reconnection is of the interchange type in that it exchanges open and closed fields. We examine, in detail, the topology of the field as the bipole moves across the coronal hole boundary and find that the field remains well connected throughout this process. Our results, therefore, provide essential support for the quasi-steady models of the open field, because in these models the open and closed flux are assumed to remain topologically distinct as the photosphere evolves. Our results also support the uniqueness hypothesis for open field regions as postulated by Antiochos et al. On the other hand, the results argue against models in which open flux is assumed to diffusively penetrate deeply inside the closed field region under a helmet streamer. We discuss the implications of this work for coronal observations.

  2. Magnetic interchange instability in accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubow, Stephen H.; Spruit, Hendrik C.

    1995-05-01

    We investigate the stability of a disk to magnetic interchange in the disk plane, when a poloidal magentic field provides some radial support of the disk. The disk is assumed to be geometrically thin and may possess rotation and shear. We assume the unperturbed magnetic field vertically threads the disk and has a comparable radial component at the disk surface. We formulate the linear stability problem as an initial value problem in shearing coordinates and ignore any effects of winds. Shear stabilizes the interchange instability strongly compared to the uniformly rotating case studied previously and makes the growth algebraic rather than exponential. A second form of instability with long wavelengths is identified, whose growth appears to be transient. If the field strength is measured by the travel time tauA of an Alfven wave across the disk thickness, significant amplification for both forms of instability requires (tauA Omega)-2 greater than or approximately equal to L/H, where L is the radial length scale of the field gradient and H is the disk thickness. Field strengths such that 1 less than or approximately equal (tauA Omega)-2 less than or approximately equal L/H are stable to these instabilities as well as the instability recently investigated by Balbus & Hawley (1991). The results suggest that in dark environments in which the magnetic energy density is greater than the thermal energy density, disks are stable over a substantial range of parameter space, with radial advection of magnetic flux limited by the interchange instability possibly near the disk center. Such environments may be relevant for the production of magnetic winds or jets in young stars or active galactic nuclei.

  3. Transport Bifurcation in Plasma Interchange Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Transport bifurcation and mean shear flow generation in plasma interchange turbulence are explored with self-consistent two-fluid simulations in a flux-driven system with both closed and open field line regions. The nonlinear evolution of interchange modes shows the presence of two confinement regimes characterized by the low and high mean flow shear. By increasing the input heat flux above a certain threshold, large-amplitude oscillations in the turbulent and mean flow energy are induced. Both clockwise and counter-clockwise types of oscillations are found before the transition to the second regime. The fluctuation energy is decisively transferred to the mean flows by large-amplitude Reynolds power as turbulent intensity increases. Consequently, a transition to the second regime occurs, in which strong mean shear flows are generated in the plasma edge. The peak of the spectrum shifts to higher wavenumbers as the large-scale turbulent eddies are suppressed by the mean shear flow. The transition back to the first regime is then triggered by decreasing the input heat flux to a level much lower than the threshold for the forward transition, showing strong hysteresis. During the back transition, the mean flow decreases as the energy transfer process is reversed. This transport bifurcation, based on a field-line-averaged 2D model, has also been reproduced in our recent 3D simulations of resistive interchange turbulence, in which the ion and electron temperatures are separated and the parallel current is involved. Supported by the MOST of China Grant No. 2013GB112006, US DOE Contract No. DE-FC02-08ER54966, US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734.

  4. Interchangeable breech lock for glove boxes

    DOEpatents

    Lemonds, David Preston

    2015-11-24

    A breech lock for a glove box is provided that may be used to transfer one or more items into the glove box. The breech lock can be interchangeably installed in place of a plug, glove, or other device in a port or opening of a glove box. Features are provided to aid the removal of items from the breech lock by a gloved operator. The breech lock can be reused or, if needed, can be replaced with a plug, glove, or other device at the port or opening of the glove box.

  5. A drift model of interchange instability

    SciTech Connect

    Benilov, E. S.; Power, O. A.

    2007-08-15

    A set of asymptotic equations is derived, describing the dynamics of the flute mode in a magnetized plasma with cold ions, under a 'local' approximation (i.e., near a particular point). The asymptotic set is then used to calculate the growth rate of interchange instability in the slab model. It is shown that, unlike the magnetohydrodynamic ordering, the drift one allows instability to occur for either sign of the pressure gradient (i.e., for both 'bad' and 'good' curvature of the magnetic field). It is also demonstrated that finite beta gives rise to an extra instability that does not exist in the small-beta limit.

  6. Nuclear Propulsion Technical Interchange Meeting, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Propulsion Technical Interchange Meeting (NP-TIM-92) was sponsored and hosted by the Nuclear Propulsion Office at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The purpose of the meeting was to review the work performed in fiscal year 1992 in the areas of nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion technology development. These proceedings are a compilation of the presentations given at the meeting (many of the papers are presented in outline or viewgraph form). Volume 1 covers the introductory presentations and the system concepts and technology developments related to nuclear thermal propulsion.

  7. ACE3 Draft Indicators: Environments and Contaminants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The information on this page was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 – April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.

  8. FIRE_ACE_ER2_MAS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    ... First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Cloud Experiment (ACE) NASA ER-2 Moderate Resolution Imaging ... SSFR Location:  Northern Alaska Arctic Ocean Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding ...

  9. ACE3 Draft Indicators: Special Features

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The page information was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 – April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.

  10. ACE-FTS measurements of HCFC-22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolonjari, F.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Strahan, S.; McLinden, C. A.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Bernath, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    In the 1980s scientists discovered an annual springtime minimum in stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic. It was determined that the decline in ozone concentration was primarily caused by catalytic reactions of ozone and chlorine. The emissions of anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were determined to be major sources of the chlorine. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (with its subsequent amendments) restricts the emissions of ozone depleting substances. To fulfill the need for safe, stable replacements of CFCs, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) were developed. The use of HCFC-22 as a replacement has led to an increase in its atmospheric abundance. This is of concern due to its ozone depletion potential and its global warming potential. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a mission on-board the Canadian satellite SCISAT. The primary instrument on SCISAT is a high-resolution infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). With its wide spectral range, the ACE-FTS is capable of measuring an extensive range of gases including key CFC and HCFC species. The altitude distribution from the ACE-FTS profiles provides information that is complementary to the ground-based measurements that have been used to monitor these species. The global distribution of HCFC-22 has been computed from measurements by ACE-FTS. Both seasonal variations and an inter-hemispheric difference are observed. Additionally, a rapid increase in the global concentration of HCFC-22 has been observed since the start of the ACE mission in 2004. Comparisons to ground-based and air-borne measurements show good agreement with the ACE-FTS measurements. The global distributions of HCFC-22 have also been compared to a chemistry and transport model (CTM), the Global Modelling Initiative Combined Stratospheric-Tropospheric Model. There are distinct differences between the model results and ACE-FTS measurements. The causes and

  11. Ligand-Signaled Upregulation of Enterococcus faecalis ace Transcription, a Mechanism for Modulating Host-E. faecalis Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2006-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis, the third most frequent cause of bacterial endocarditis, appears to be equipped with diverse surface-associated proteins showing structural-fold similarity to the immunoglobulin-fold family of staphylococcal adhesins. Among the putative E. faecalis surface proteins, the previously characterized adhesin Ace, which shows specific binding to collagen and laminin, was detectable in surface protein preparations only after growth at 46°C, mirroring the finding that adherence was observed in 46°C, but not 37°C, grown E. faecalis cultures. To elucidate the influence of different growth and host parameters on ace expression, we investigated ace expression using E. faecalis OG1RF grown in routine laboratory media (brain heart infusion) and found that ace mRNA levels were low in all growth phases. However, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed 18-fold-higher ace mRNA amounts in cells grown in the presence of collagen type IV compared to the controls. Similarly, a marked increase was observed when cells were either grown in the presence of collagen type I or serum but not in the presence of fibrinogen or bovine serum albumin. The production of Ace after growth in the presence of collagen type IV was demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy, mirroring the increased ace mRNA levels. Furthermore, increased Ace expression correlated with increased collagen and laminin adhesion. Collagen-induced Ace expression was also seen in three of three other E. faecalis strains of diverse origins tested, and thus it appears to be a common phenomenon. The observation of host matrix signal-induced adherence of E. faecalis may have important implications on our understanding of this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:16926389

  12. The Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The goals and measurement strategy of the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE) are described. ACE will help to answer fundamental science questions associated with aerosols, clouds, air quality and global ocean ecosystems. Specifically, the goals of ACE are: 1) to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions and to assess the impact of aerosols on the hydrological cycle and 2) determine Ocean Carbon Cycling and other ocean biological processes. It is expected that ACE will: narrow the uncertainty in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction and quantify the role of aerosols in climate change; measure the ocean ecosystem changes and precisely quantify ocean carbon uptake; and, improve air quality forecasting by determining the height and type of aerosols being transported long distances. Overviews are provided of the aerosol-cloud community measurement strategy, aerosol and cloud observations over South Asia, and ocean biology research goals. Instruments used in the measurement strategy of the ACE mission are also highlighted, including: multi-beam lidar, multiwavelength high spectra resolution lidar, the ocean color instrument (ORCA)--a spectroradiometer for ocean remote sensing, dual frequency cloud radar and high- and low-frequency micron-wave radiometer. Future steps for the ACE mission include refining measurement requirements and carrying out additional instrument and payload studies.

  13. The Great American Biotic Interchange in birds

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Jason T.; Bermingham, Eldredge; Schluter, Dolph

    2009-01-01

    The sudden exchange of mammals over the land bridge between the previously isolated continents of North and South America is among the most celebrated events in the faunal history of the New World. This exchange resulted in the rapid merging of continental mammalian faunas that had evolved in almost complete isolation from each other for tens of millions of years. Yet, the wider importance of land bridge-mediated interchange to faunal mixing in other groups is poorly known because of the incompleteness of the fossil record. In particular, the ability of birds to fly may have rendered a land bridge unnecessary for faunal merging. Using molecular dating of the unique bird faunas of the two continents, we show that rates of interchange increased dramatically after land bridge completion in tropical forest-specializing groups, which rarely colonize oceanic islands and have poor dispersal abilities across water barriers, but not in groups comprised of habitat generalists. These results support the role of the land bridge in the merging of the tropical forest faunas of North and South America. In contrast to mammals, the direction of traffic across the land bridge in birds was primarily south to north. The event transformed the tropical avifauna of the New World. PMID:19996168

  14. MAGNETIC FLUX TUBE INTERCHANGE AT THE HELIOPAUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Florinski, V.

    2015-11-01

    The magnetic field measured by Voyager 1 prior to its heliocliff encounter on 2012.65 showed an unexpectedly complex transition from the primarily azimuthal inner-heliosheath field to the draped interstellar field tilted by some 20° to the nominal azimuthal direction. Most prominent were two regions of enhanced magnetic field strength depleted in energetic charged particles of heliospheric origin. These regions were interpreted as magnetic flux tubes connected to the outer heliosheath that provided a path for the particles to escape. Despite large increases in strength, the field’s direction did not change appreciably at the boundaries of these flux tubes. Rather, the field’s direction changed gradually over several months prior to the heliocliff crossing. It is shown theoretically that the heliopause, as a pressure equilibrium layer, can become unstable to interchange of magnetic fields between the inner and the outer heliosheaths. The curvature of magnetic field lines and the anti-sunward gradient in plasma kinetic pressure provide conditions favorable for an interchange. Magnetic shear between the heliosheath and the interstellar fields reduces the growth rates, but does not fully stabilize the heliopause against perturbations propagating in the latitudinal direction. The instability could create a transition layer permeated by magnetic flux tubes, oriented parallel to each other and alternately connected to the heliosheath or the interstellar regions.

  15. The Great American Biotic Interchange in birds.

    PubMed

    Weir, Jason T; Bermingham, Eldredge; Schluter, Dolph

    2009-12-22

    The sudden exchange of mammals over the land bridge between the previously isolated continents of North and South America is among the most celebrated events in the faunal history of the New World. This exchange resulted in the rapid merging of continental mammalian faunas that had evolved in almost complete isolation from each other for tens of millions of years. Yet, the wider importance of land bridge-mediated interchange to faunal mixing in other groups is poorly known because of the incompleteness of the fossil record. In particular, the ability of birds to fly may have rendered a land bridge unnecessary for faunal merging. Using molecular dating of the unique bird faunas of the two continents, we show that rates of interchange increased dramatically after land bridge completion in tropical forest-specializing groups, which rarely colonize oceanic islands and have poor dispersal abilities across water barriers, but not in groups comprised of habitat generalists. These results support the role of the land bridge in the merging of the tropical forest faunas of North and South America. In contrast to mammals, the direction of traffic across the land bridge in birds was primarily south to north. The event transformed the tropical avifauna of the New World.

  16. Technical Report Interchange Through Synchronized OAI Caches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xiaming; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Tang, Rong; Padshah, Mohammad Imran; Roncaglia, George; Rocker, JoAnne; Nelson, Michael; vonOfenheim, William; Luce, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Report Interchange project is a cooperative experimental effort between NASA Langley Research Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Air Force Research Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory and Old Dominion University to allow for the integration of technical reports. This is accomplished using the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) and having each site cache the metadata from the other participating sites. Each site also implements additional software to ingest the OAI-PMH harvested metadata into their native digital library (DL). This allows the users at each site to see an increased technical report collection through the familiar DL interfaces and tale advantage of whatever valued added are provided by the native DL.

  17. Internet-based data interchange with XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, a complete concept for Internet Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) - a well-known buzzword in the area of logistics and supply chain management to enable the automation of the interactions between companies and their partners - using XML (eXtensible Markup Language) will be proposed. This approach is based on Internet and XML, because the implementation of traditional EDI (e.g. EDIFACT, ANSI X.12) is mostly too costly for small and medium sized enterprises, which want to integrate their suppliers and customers in a supply chain. The paper will also present the results of the implementation of a prototype for such a system, which has been developed for an industrial partner to improve the current situation of parts delivery. The main functions of this system are an early warning system to detect problems during the parts delivery process as early as possible, and a transport following system to pursue the transportation.

  18. INTERCHANGE RECONNECTION IN A TURBULENT CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M.

    2012-10-10

    Magnetic reconnection at the interface between coronal holes and loops, the so-called interchange reconnection, can release the hotter, denser plasma from magnetically confined regions into the heliosphere, contributing to the formation of the highly variable slow solar wind. The interchange process is often thought to develop at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers, near Y- and X-type neutral points, but slow streams with loop composition have been recently observed along fanlike open field lines adjacent to closed regions, far from the apex. However, coronal heating models, with magnetic field lines shuffled by convective motions, show that reconnection can occur continuously in unipolar magnetic field regions with no neutral points: photospheric motions induce a magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade in the coronal field that creates the necessary small scales, where a sheared magnetic field component orthogonal to the strong axial field is created locally and can reconnect. We propose that a similar mechanism operates near and around boundaries between open and closed regions inducing a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivity. We examine a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of a simplified interface region between open and closed corona threaded by a strong unipolar magnetic field. This boundary is not stationary, becomes fractal, and field lines change connectivity continuously, becoming alternatively open and closed. This model suggests that slow wind may originate everywhere along loop-coronal-hole boundary regions and can account naturally and simply for outflows at and adjacent to such boundaries and for the observed diffusion of slow wind around the heliospheric current sheet.

  19. High resolution critical habitat mapping and classification of tidal freshwater wetlands in the ACE Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Melissa Anne

    In collaboration with the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources ACE Basin National Estuarine Research Reserve (ACE Basin NERR), the tidal freshwater ecosystems along the South Edisto River in the ACE Basin are being accurately mapped and classified using a LIDAR-Remote Sensing Fusion technique that integrates LAS LIDAR data into texture images and then merges the elevation textures and multispectral imagery for very high resolution mapping. This project discusses the development and refinement of an ArcGIS Toolbox capable of automating protocols and procedures for marsh delineation and microhabitat identification. The result is a high resolution habitat and land use map used for the identification of threatened habitat. Tidal freshwater wetlands are also a critical habitat for colonial wading birds and an accurate assessment of community diversity and acreage of this habitat type in the ACE Basin will support SCDNR's conservation and protection efforts. The maps developed by this study will be used to better monitor the freshwater/saltwater interface and establish a baseline for an ACE NERR monitoring program to track the rates and extent of alterations due to projected environmental stressors. Preliminary ground-truthing in the field will provide information about the accuracy of the mapping tool.

  20. AERIAL VIEW OF FOURLEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF FOUR-LEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND HIGHWAY 101, HOLLYWOOD FREEWAY. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY ON LOWER LEVEL FROM LOWER LEFT TO UPPER RIGHT. LOOKING NORTH - Four Level Interchange, Intersection of Arroyo Seco Parkway & Harbor, Hollywood, & Santa Ana Freeways (milepost 23.69), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. AERIAL VIEW OF FOURLEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF FOUR-LEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND HIGHWAY 101, HOLLYWOOD FREEWAY. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY ON LOWER LEVEL AT CENTER. HIGHWAY 101 AT BOTTOM. CAESAR CHAVEZ AVENUE AT CENTER. LOOKING NE - Four Level Interchange, Intersection of Arroyo Seco Parkway & Harbor, Hollywood, & Santa Ana Freeways (milepost 23.69), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND INTERSTATE I-5 INTERCHANGE. NOTE ARROYO SECO DRAINAGE INTO LOS ANGELES RIVER AT BOTTOM CENTER. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 49 CFR 376.31 - Interchange of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... equipment to be interchanged. This written agreement shall set forth the specific points of interchange, how... commodities at the point where the physical exchange occurs. (c) Through bills of lading. The traffic... divisions of the joint rates or the proportions of such rates accruing to the carriers by the application...

  4. 76 FR 43477 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...The Board is adopting an interim final rule and requesting comment on provisions in Regulation II (Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing) adopted in accordance with Section 920(a)(5) of the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, which governs adjustments to debit interchange transaction fees for fraud-prevention costs. The provisions allow an issuer to receive an adjustment of 1 cent to its......

  5. Novel Theory of Energetic-Ion-Induced Interchange Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2015-06-01

    On the basis of a kinetic energy principle, it is shown that the interchange mode in helical systems is excited by trapped energetic ions, where the ideal interchange mode is stable. The mode has a rotation frequency comparable to precession drift frequencies of trapped energetic ions. The theory explains how to apply the fishbone mode theory originally developed in tokamaks to helical systems.

  6. Stiffening of the ACES deployable space boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidwell, Vince

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this design project was to design an active planar stiffening device for the existing ACES (Acoustic Containerless Experiment System) structure. the ACES structure was modeled using simple beam theory. Various concepts were generated about how the stiffening device should be configured in order to perform at an optimum level. The optimum configuration was selected to be a single set of spreaders located approximately 63% of the distance down the beam. Actuation was to be provided by a DC electric motor. From the test results, the design group was able to draw conclusions and make recommendations about the utility of further research into this area.

  7. Coordinating shared care using electronic data interchange.

    PubMed

    Branger, P; van't Hooft, A; van der Wouden, H C

    1995-01-01

    Shared care is the situation in which physicians jointly treat the same patient. Shared care may occur with elderly patients suffering from several health problems, patients with chronic disorders such as diabetes, mellitus, obstructive pulmonary diseases, or cardiological disorders. For a number of health problems, including diabetes, shared care protocols have been developed involving division of tasks between health care providers from different disciplines [1]. Optimal communication is considered to be a vital aspect of shared care, both from medical and cost-effectiveness points of view, but at the same time communication forms the bottleneck as physicians often lack time to comply with the protocol [2]. At present, new technologies are emerging that hold the promise of improving communication between health care providers. One such technology is Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), defined as "the replacement of paper documents by standard electronic messages conveyed from one computer to another without manual intervention" [3]. In Europe, the ISO syntax standard EDIFACT has been adopted as the standard for defining EDI-messages [4]. In The Netherlands, coordination of the standardization of health care messages is performed by a national organization. At present, several standardized messages are available for a variety of purposes. One is a message for data exchange between physicians; in this message, however, only physician-patient- and hospital-identifying data are structured, and all medical data is transferred as free text. Consequently, using this message, the receiving system is unable to integrate the data into the computer-based patient record. In order to support shared care, a message is needed that can also transfer the structure of the data in a computer-based record in order to allow integration of records from multiple sources. Therefore, we developed a new message, called MEDEUR, that is designed for integrated patient data exchange between

  8. 76 FR 29267 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ...--Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on April 21, 2011, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. has filed written notifications... research project remains open, and Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. intends to...

  9. 75 FR 28294 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ...--Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on April 15, 2010, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. has filed written notifications... Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. intends to file additional written notifications...

  10. 76 FR 16820 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ...--Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on February 24, 2011, pursuant... seq. (``the Act''), Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. has filed written... research project. Membership in this group research project remains open, and Interchangeable...

  11. 75 FR 54652 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ...--Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on July 8, 2010, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. has filed written notifications... research project remains open, and Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. intends to...

  12. 77 FR 9266 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ...--Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on January 26, 2012, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. has filed written notifications... research project. Membership in this group research project remains open, and Interchangeable...

  13. 78 FR 117 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ...--Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on December 6, 2012, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. has filed written notifications.... Membership in this group research project remains open, and Interchangeable Virtual Instruments...

  14. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C.; Walker, K.; McLeod, S.; Nassar, R.

    2003-12-01

    The ACE mission goals are: (1) to measure and to understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region; (2) to explore the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (3) to study the effects of biomass burning in the free troposphere; (4) to measure aerosol number density, size distribution and composition in order to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy balance. ACE will make a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols, and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The solar occultation advantages are high sensitivity and self-calibration. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4100 cm-1) will measure the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. The ACE concept is derived from the now-retired ATMOS FTS instrument, which flew on the Space Shuttle in 1985, 1992, 1993, 1994. Climate-chemistry coupling may lead to the formation of an Arctic ozone hole. ACE will provide high quality data to confront these model predictions and will monitor polar chemistry as chlorine levels decline. The ACE-FTS can measure water vapor and HDO in the tropical tropopause region to study dehydration and strat-trop exchange. The molecular signatures of massive forest fires will evident in the ACE infrared spectra. The CO2 in our spectra can be used to either retrieve atmospheric pressure or (if the instrument pointing knowledge proves to be satisfactory) for an independent retrieval of a CO2 profile for carbon cycle science. Aerosols and clouds will be monitored using the extinction of solar radiation at

  15. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P.

    2003-04-01

    The ACE mission goals are: (1) to measure and to understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region; (2) to explore the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (3) to study the effects of biomass burning in the free troposphere; (4) to measure aerosol number density, size distribution and composition in order to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy balance. ACE will make a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols, and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) will give ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The solar occultation advantages are high sensitivity and self-calibration. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4100 cm-1) will measure the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. The ACE concept is derived from the now-retired ATMOS FTS instrument, which flew on the Space Shuttle in 1985, 1992, 1993, 1994. Climate-chemistry coupling may lead to the formation of an Arctic ozone hole. ACE will provide high quality data to confront these model predictions and will monitor polar chemistry as chlorine levels decline. The ACE-FTS can measure water vapor and HDO in the tropical tropopause region to study dehydration and strat-trop exchange. The molecular signatures of massive forest fires will evident in the ACE infrared spectra. The CO_2 in our spectra can be used to either retrieve atmospheric pressure or (if the instrument pointing knowledge proves to be satisfactory) for an independent retrieval of a CO_2 profile for carbon cycle science. Aerosols and clouds will be monitored using the extinction of solar

  16. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Maslow, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.

  17. The Super Lightweight Interchangeable Carrier (SLIC) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Super Lightweight Interchangeable Carrier (SLIC) Grant consists of two separate but related phases. The first phase of this grant was conducted under a separate Institute for Scientific Research, Inc. (ISR) subcontract to FMW Composite Systems, Inc., of Bridgeport, West Virginia. FMW conducted early design and engineering associated with the future development of a stronger and lighter Space Shuttle carrier pallet. This improved pallet is intended to support the next and last planned Shuttle servicing mission for the on-orbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The salient characteristics of this carrier are increased performance, together with significantly reduced mass. As the next servicing mission is the last planned upgrade mission for the HST, this lighter and stronger pallet will enable greater payload delivery to the HST, potentially increasing the servicing mission effectiveness and science lifetime of the telescope. The second phase of this grant, conducted by ISR, consisted of a data systems study to exploit further the potential of the HST servicing pallet for other space missions, specifically for application of semi-permanent placement of science payloads on the International Space Station (ISS). As in the case of the HST, a lightweight and more rigid pallet could be employed to increase science return for the ISS. A data systems study intended to complement the current ISS s Institutional data system holds the potential of increasing the science return for data efficiency, just as the lightweight pallet serves to increase payload mass efficiency.

  18. Targeting ACE and ECE with dual acting inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hanessian, Stephen; Guesné, Sébastien; Riber, Ludivine; Marin, Julien; Benoist, Alain; Mennecier, Philippe; Rupin, Alain; Verbeuren, Tony J; De Nanteuil, Guillaume

    2008-02-01

    A series of urea analogues related to SA6817 and a GSK phosphonic acid with reported ACE inhibitory activity were prepared and tested for dual ACE and ECE activities. Although excellent ACE and NEP inhibition was achieved, only modest ECE inhibition was observed with one analogue.

  19. Developing Communities: Serving ACE through Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofo, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the focus and practice of Adult and Community Education (ACE) as well as its conceptualization and delivery and to suggest parameters for an approach based on excellence, a balanced scorecard and performance to meet community needs. Design/methodology/approach: The review examines key aspects of the…

  20. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  1. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Chmiel, Alan J.; Eustace, John; LaBarbera, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Increment 43 - 44 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  2. Ace the Verbal on the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meierding, Loren

    2005-01-01

    Many students are not accepted in to certain colleges and universities because of low SAT scores. Loren Meierding has written Ace the Verbal on the SAT to help students with minimal preparation do well by improving their vocabulary and use better techniques for finding the answers to the questions. This book provides strategies needed to score…

  3. Triple ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition in heart failure: a comparison with ACE and dual ECE-NEP inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mellin, Virginie; Jeng, Arco Y; Monteil, Christelle; Renet, Sylvanie; Henry, Jean Paul; Thuillez, Christian; Mulder, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Mortality remains high in chronic heart failure (CHF) because under ACE inhibitor treatment other neurohumoral systems remain/become (de)activated, such as the endothelin and atrial natriuretic peptide pathways. Dual endothelin-converting enzyme-neutral endopeptidase (ECE-NEP) inhibition exerts beneficial effects in experimental CHF, but whether "triple" ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition is superior to ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition is unknown. We compared, in rats with CHF, ACE-ECE-NEP to ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition in terms of left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics and remodeling. Benazepril (2 mg/kg/d) or the ECE-NEP inhibitor CGS26303 (10 mg/kg/d) were administered alone or in combination (subcutaneously for 28 days starting 7 days after coronary ligation). ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition reduced blood pressure more markedly than ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition. All treatments increased cardiac output to the same extent, but ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition reduced LV diameter and LV end-diastolic pressure more markedly than ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition. The reduction of LV weight and collagen accumulation in the "viable" myocardium was most pronounced after ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition. These results, obtained in experimental CHF, illustrate a further improvement of LV hemodynamics and structure after ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition compared with either ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition, but whether this is associated with a further improvement of exercise tolerance and/or survival remains to be determined.

  4. Advanced logic gates for ultrafast network interchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammed N.

    1995-08-01

    By overcoming speed bottlenecks from electronic switching as well as optical/electronic conversions, all-optical logic gates can permit further exploitation of the nearly 40 THz of bandwidth available from optical fibers. We focus on the use of optical solitons and all-optical logic gates to implement ultrafast ``interchanges'' or switching nodes on packet networks with speeds of 100 Gbit/s or greater. For example, all-optical logic gates have been demonstrated with speeds up to 200 Gbit/s, and they may be used to decide whether to add or drop a data packet. The overall goal of our effort is to demonstrate the key enabling technologies and their combination for header processing in 100 Gbit/s, time-division-multiplexed, packed switched networks. Soliton-based fiber logic gates are studied with the goal of combining attractive features of soliton-dragging logic gates, nonlinear loop mirrors, and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers to design logic gates with optimum switching energy, contrast ratio, and timing sensitivity. First, the experimental and numerical work studies low-latency soliton logic gates based on frequency shifts associated with cross-phase modulation. In preliminary experiments, switching in 15 m long low-birefringent fibers has been demonstrated with a contrast ratio of 2.73:1. Using dispersion-shifted fiber in the gate should lower the switching energy and improve the contrast ratio. Next, the low-birefringent fiber can be cross-spliced and wrapped into a nonlinear optical loop mirror to take advantage of mechanisms from both soliton dragging and loop mirrors. The resulting device can have low switching energy and a timing window that results from a combination of soliton dragging and the loop mirror mechanisms.

  5. 119. AERIAL VIEW OF CLARA BARTON PARKWAY NEAR INTERCHANGE WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. AERIAL VIEW OF CLARA BARTON PARKWAY NEAR INTERCHANGE WITH MACARTHUR BLVD. JUST SOUTH OF GLEN ECHO LOOKING NORTHEAST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  6. 131. AERIAL VIEW OF OVERPASS AT INTERCHANGE WITH MACARTHUR BLVD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. AERIAL VIEW OF OVERPASS AT INTERCHANGE WITH MACARTHUR BLVD. AT CABIN JOHN LOOKING NORTHEAST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  7. SGML as a message interchange format in healthcare.

    PubMed Central

    Dolin, R. H.; Alschuler, L.; Bray, T.; Mattison, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 1993, The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) studied several syntaxes for interchange formats in healthcare, but excluded SGML due to resource constraints. We sought to extend the CEN report and formally evaluate the use of SGML as a message interchange format. METHODS: We followed the methodology set forth by CEN, using their example scenarios and healthcare data model. General message descriptions based on this model set the functional requirements for the interchange format. These general requirements are then mapped into SGML to see how well they can be supported. RESULTS: Results follow the CEN format, enabling a direct comparison of SGML with ASN.1, ASTM E1238, EDIFACT, EUCLIDES, and ODA (those syntaxes studied by CEN). CONCLUSION: SGML compares favorably with other syntaxes investigated by CEN. None of the interchange formats support all functional requirements. Optimal and standard mechanisms of combining different formats through a modular approach to achieve greater overall functionality requires further study. PMID:9357703

  8. Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce, Including Electronic Data Interchange

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange...Report 12/1/1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...Maximum 200 Words) Electronic commerce (EC) is the use of documents in electronic form, rather than paper, for carrying out functions of business or

  9. Interchangeability of gas detection tubes and hand pumps.

    PubMed

    Haag, W R

    2001-01-01

    Users of gas detection tubes occasionally seek the convenience of using a single hand pump with different brands of tubes, to avoid the need to carry more than one pump. Several professional organizations recommend against such interchange. However, these recommendations appear to be based on a single study of pump designs that mostly are no longer in use. The present study was undertaken to determine if current hand pumps are interchangeable. Both piston-type and bellows-type hand pumps were evaluated by comparing pump flow profiles and test gas measurements with a variety of tubes. The results demonstrate that three piston hand pumps in common use (Sensidyne/Gastec GV/100, RAE Systems LP-1200, and Matheson-Kitagawa 8104-400A) are fully interchangeable. Two bellows pumps (Draeger Accuro and MSA Kwik-Draw) also are interchangeable with each other. Mixing of bellows and piston systems is often possible, but there are enough exceptions to conclude that such practice should be discouraged because it can give inaccurate readings. It is recommended that technical standards be adopted, such as total volume and an initial pump vacuum or a pump flow curve, to assess hand pump interchangeability. When two manufacturers' pumps meet the same standard and routine leak tests are conducted, interchangeability is scientifically valid and poses no risk to the end user while offering greater convenience.

  10. The Great American Biotic Interchange: Dispersals, Tectonics, Climate, Sea Level and Holding Pens.

    PubMed

    Woodburne, Michael O

    2010-12-01

    The biotic and geologic dynamics of the Great American Biotic Interchange are reviewed and revised. Information on the Marine Isotope Stage chronology, sea level changes as well as Pliocene and Pleistocene vegetation changes in Central and northern South America add to a discussion of the role of climate in facilitating trans-isthmian exchanges. Trans-isthmian land mammal exchanges during the Pleistocene glacial intervals appear to have been promoted by the development of diverse non-tropical ecologies. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10914-010-9144-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  11. The Great American Biotic Interchange: Dispersals, Tectonics, Climate, Sea Level and Holding Pens

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The biotic and geologic dynamics of the Great American Biotic Interchange are reviewed and revised. Information on the Marine Isotope Stage chronology, sea level changes as well as Pliocene and Pleistocene vegetation changes in Central and northern South America add to a discussion of the role of climate in facilitating trans-isthmian exchanges. Trans-isthmian land mammal exchanges during the Pleistocene glacial intervals appear to have been promoted by the development of diverse non-tropical ecologies. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10914-010-9144-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21125025

  12. Interaction of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with membrane-bound carboxypeptidase M (CPM) - a new function of ACE.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoou; Wiesner, Burkhard; Lorenz, Dorothea; Papsdorf, Gisela; Pankow, Kristin; Wang, Po; Dietrich, Nils; Siems, Wolf-Eberhard; Maul, Björn

    2008-12-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) demonstrates, besides its typical dipeptidyl-carboxypeptidase activity, several unusual functions. Here, we demonstrate with molecular, biochemical, and cellular techniques that the somatic wild-type murine ACE (mACE), stably transfected in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, interacts with endogenous membranal co-localized carboxypeptidase M (CPM). CPM belongs to the group of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. Here we report that ACE, completely independent of its known dipeptidase activities, has GPI-targeted properties. Our results indicate that the spatial proximity between mACE and the endogenous CPM enables an ACE-evoked release of CPM. These results are discussed with respect to the recently proposed GPI-ase activity and function of sperm-bound ACE.

  13. Evaluation of a Web-Based Professional Development Program (Project ACE) for Teachers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakap, Salih; Jones, Hazel A.; Emery, Alice Kaye

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, and second-year evaluation of Project Autism Competencies for Endorsement (ACE), a web-based professional development (PD) program that is designed to train teachers currently working in the field to meet the unique and diverse needs of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A…

  14. An Assessment for Learning System Called ACED: Designing for Learning Effectiveness and Accessibility. Research Report. ETS RR-07-26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Valerie J.; Hansen, Eric G.; Almond, Russell G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a 3-year, NSF-funded research and development project called ACED: Adaptive Content with Evidence-based Diagnosis. The purpose of the project was to design, develop, and evaluate an assessment for learning (AfL) system for diverse students, using Algebra I content related to geometric sequences (i.e., successive numbers…

  15. Human intestine luminal ACE2 and amino acid transporter expression increased by ACE-inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vuille-dit-Bille, Raphael N; Camargo, Simone M; Emmenegger, Luca; Sasse, Tom; Kummer, Eva; Jando, Julia; Hamie, Qeumars M; Meier, Chantal F; Hunziker, Schirin; Forras-Kaufmann, Zsofia; Kuyumcu, Sena; Fox, Mark; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Lindenmeyer, Maja; Götze, Oliver; Verrey, François

    2015-04-01

    Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) and imino acid (proline) transporter SIT1 (SLC6A20) are expressed at the luminal membrane of small intestine enterocytes and proximal tubule kidney cells where they exert key functions for amino acid (re)absorption as documented by their role in Hartnup disorder and iminoglycinuria, respectively. Expression of B(0)AT1 was shown in rodent intestine to depend on the presence of the carboxypeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This enzyme belongs to the renin-angiotensin system and its expression is induced by treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) in many rodent tissues. We show here in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system that human ACE2 also functionally interacts with SIT1. To investigate in human intestine the potential effect of ACEIs or ARBs on ACE2, we analysed intestinal biopsies taken during routine gastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy from 46 patients of which 9 were under ACEI and 13 ARB treatment. Analysis of transcript expression by real-time PCR and of proteins by immunofluorescence showed a co-localization of SIT1 and B(0)AT1 with ACE2 in the brush-border membrane of human small intestine enterocytes and a distinct axial expression pattern of the tested gene products along the intestine. Patients treated with ACEIs displayed in comparison with untreated controls increased intestinal mRNA levels of ACE2, peptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) and AA transporters B(0)AT1 and PAT1 (SLC36A1). This study unravels in human intestine the localization and distribution of intestinal transporters involved in amino acid absorption and suggests that ACEIs impact on their expression.

  16. Renewable Generation Effect on Net Regional Energy Interchange: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, Victor; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas; Margolis, Robert

    2015-07-30

    Using production-cost model (PLEXOS), we simulate the Western Interchange (WECC) at several levels of the yearly renewable energy (RE) generation, between 13% and 40% of the total load for the year. We look at the overall energy exchange between a region and the rest of the system (net interchange, NI), and find it useful to examine separately (i) (time-)variable and (ii) year-average components of the NI. Both contribute to inter-regional energy exchange, and are affected by wind and PV generation in the system. We find that net load variability (in relatively large portions of WECC) is the leading factor affecting the variable component of inter-regional energy exchange, and the effect is quantifiable: higher regional net load correlation with the rest of the WECC lowers net interchange variability. Further, as the power mix significantly varies between WECC regions, effects of ‘flexibility import’ (regions ‘borrow’ ramping capability) are also observed.

  17. Weakening of magnetohydrodynamic interchange instabilities by Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Benilov, E. S.; Hassam, A. B.

    2008-02-15

    Alfven waves, made to propagate along an ambient magnetic field and polarized transverse to a gravitational field g, with wave amplitude stratified along g, are shown to reduce the growth rate of interchange instability by increasing the effective inertia by a factor of 1+(B{sub y}{sup '}/B{sub z}k{sub z}){sup 2}, where B{sub z} is the ambient magnetic field, k{sub z} is the wavenumber, and B{sub y}{sup '} is the wave amplitude shear. Appropriately placed Alfven wave power could thus be used to enhance the stability of interchange and ballooning modes in tokamaks and other interchange-limited magnetically confined plasmas.

  18. The formation of blobs from a pure interchange process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, P.; Sovinec, C. R.; Hegna, C. C.

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we focus on examining a pure interchange process in a shear-less slab configuration as a prototype mechanism for blob formation. We employ full magnetohydrodynamic simulations to demonstrate that the blob-like structures can emerge through the nonlinear development of a pure interchange instability originating from a pedestal-like transition region. In the early nonlinear stage, filamentary structures develop and extend in the direction of the effective gravity. The blob-like structures appear when the radially extending filaments break off and disconnect from the core plasma. The morphology and the dynamics of these filaments and blobs vary dramatically with a sensitive dependence on the dissipation mechanisms in the system and the initial perturbation. Despite the complexity in morphology and dynamics, the nature of the entire blob formation process in the shear-less slab configuration remains strictly interchange without involving any change in magnetic topology.

  19. Tissue-Specific Expression of Transgenic Secreted ACE in Vasculature Can Restore Normal Kidney Functions, but Not Blood Pressure, of Ace-/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Kessler, Sean P.; Colucci, Juliana Almada; Yamashita, Michifumi; Senanayake, Preenie deS; Sen, Ganes C.

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) regulates normal blood pressure and fluid homeostasis through its action in the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS). Ace-/- mice are smaller in size, have low blood pressure and defective kidney structure and functions. All of these defects are cured by transgenic expression of somatic ACE (sACE) in vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice. sACE is expressed on the surface of vascular endothelial cells and undergoes a natural cleavage secretion process to generate a soluble form in the body fluids. Both the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE are enzymatically active, and generate the vasoactive octapeptide Angiotensin II (Ang II) with equal efficiency. To assess the relative physiological roles of the secreted and the cell-bound forms of ACE, we expressed, in the vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice, the ectodomain of sACE, which corresponded to only the secreted form of ACE. Our results demonstrated that the secreted form of ACE could normalize kidney functions and RAS integrity, growth and development of Ace-/- mice, but not their blood pressure. This study clearly demonstrates that the secreted form of ACE cannot replace the tissue-bound ACE for maintaining normal blood pressure; a suitable balance between the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE is essential for maintaining all physiological functions of ACE. PMID:24475296

  20. Regulation of urinary ACE2 in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Jan; Garcia-Halpin, Laura; Ye, Minghao; Maier, Christoph; Sowers, Kurt; Burns, Kevin D; Batlle, Daniel

    2013-08-15

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) enhances the degradation of ANG II and its expression is altered in diabetic kidneys, but the regulation of this enzyme in the urine is unknown. Urinary ACE2 was studied in the db/db model of type 2 diabetes and stretozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes during several physiological and pharmacological interventions. ACE2 activity in db/db mice was increased in the serum and to a much greater extent in the urine compared with db/m controls. Neither a specific ANG II blocker, telmisartan, nor an ACE inhibitor, captopril, altered the levels of urinary ACE2 in db/db or db/m control mice. High-salt diet (8%) increased whereas low-salt diet (0.1%) decreased urinary ACE2 activity in the urine of db/db mice. In STZ mice, urinary ACE2 was also increased, and insulin decreased it partly but significantly after several weeks of administration. The increase in urinary ACE2 activity in db/db mice reflected an increase in enzymatically active protein with two bands identified of molecular size at 110 and 75 kDa and was associated with an increase in kidney cortex ACE2 protein at 110 kDa but not at 75 kDa. ACE2 activity was increased in isolated tubular preparations but not in glomeruli from db/db mice. Administration of soluble recombinant ACE2 to db/m and db/db mice resulted in a marked increase in serum ACE2 activity, but no gain in ACE2 activity was detectable in the urine, further demonstrating that urinary ACE2 is of kidney origin. Increased urinary ACE2 was associated with more efficient degradation of exogenous ANG II (10(-9) M) in urine from db/db compared with that from db/m mice. Urinary ACE2 could be a potential biomarker of increased metabolism of ANG II in diabetic kidney disease.

  1. Multiphysics Applications of ACE3P

    SciTech Connect

    K.H. Lee, C. Ko, Z. Li, C.-K. Ng, L. Xiao, G. Cheng, H. Wang

    2012-07-01

    The TEM3P module of ACE3P, a parallel finite-element electromagnetic code suite from SLAC, focuses on the multiphysics simulation capabilities, including thermal and mechanical analysis for accelerator applications. In this pa- per, thermal analysis of coupler feedthroughs to supercon- ducting rf (SRF) cavities will be presented. For the realistic simulation, internal boundary condition is implemented to capture RF heating effects on the surface shared by a di- electric and a conductor. The multiphysics simulation with TEM3P matched the measurement within 0.4%.

  2. The ACES Mission: System Tests Results and Development Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciapuoti, Luigi

    Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) is a mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) testing fundamental laws of physics with high-performance atomic clocks1 . Operated on-board the International Space Station, the ACES payload will distribute a clock signal with fractional frequency instability and inaccuracy of 1·10-16 . This frequency reference is resulting from the medium-term stability of an active hydrogen maser (SHM) and the long-term stability and accuracy of a primary standard based on samples of laser cooled Cs atoms (PHARAO). The ACES clocks are combined by two servo-loops, the first stabilizing the PHARAO local oscillator on SHM, the second controlling the long-term instabilities of SHM using the error signal generated by the PHARAO Cesium resonator. A link in the microwave domain (MWL) and an optical link (ELT) will make the ACES clock signal available to ground laboratories equipped with atomic clocks, connecting them in a worldwide network. Space-to-ground and ground-to-ground comparisons of atomic frequency standards will be used to test Einstein's theory of general relativity including a precision measurement of the gravitational red-shift, a search for time variations of fundamental constants, and Lorentz Invariance tests. Applications in geodesy, optical time transfer, and ranging will also be supported. The ACES main instruments and subsystems have now reached an advanced status of devel-opment, demonstrated by the completion and the successful test of their engineering models. In particular, a dedicated test campaign has recently verified the performance of the ACES system, where PHARAO and SHM, locked together via the ACES servo loops, are operated as a unique oscillator to generate the ACES frequency reference. The test campaign conducted 1 Luigi Cacciapuoti and Christophe Salomon, Space Clocks and Fundamental Tests: The ACES Experiment, EPJ Special topics 172, 57 (2009). at CNES premises in Toulouse between July and November 2009 concluded

  3. Active Control Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J.; Yuen, W.

    1986-01-01

    The Air Force goal is to develop vibration control techniques for large flexible spacecraft by addressing sensor, actuator, and control hardware and dynamic testing. The Active Control Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES) program will address the Air Force goal by looking at two leading control techniques and implementing them on a structural model of a flexible spacecraft under laboratory testing. The first phase in the ACES program is to review and to assess the High Authority Control/Low Authority Control (HAC/LAC) and Filter accomodated Model Error Sensitivity Suppression (FAMESS) control techniques for testing on the modified VCOSS structure. Appropriate sensors and actuators will be available for use with both techniques; locations will be the same for both techniques. The control actuators will be positioned at the midpoint and free end of the structure. The laser source for the optical sensor is mounted on the feed mast. The beam will be reflected from a mirror on the offset antenna onto the detectors mounted above the shaker table bay. The next phase is to develop an analysis simulation with the control algorithms implemented for dynamics verification. The third phase is to convert the control laws into high level computer language and test them in the NASA-MSFC facility. The final phase is to compile all analytical and test results for performance comparisons.

  4. ACE: Detecting Volatile Organic Compounds from Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.; Allen, Nicholas D. C.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution infrared absorption cross sections for ethane, propane (both in the 3 μm region) and acetone (in the 3 μm and 5-8 μm regions) have been determined from spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125/HR). Data are presented for mixtures with dry synthetic air at 0.015 cm-1 resolution (calculated as 0.9/MOPD using the Bruker definition of resolution), at a number of temperatures and pressures appropriate for atmospheric conditions. Intensities were calibrated using spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database. Methane measurements are currently being performed in the 3 μm region in order to retrieve line mixing parameters, which will be used in an improved ACE forward model to minimize CH4 residuals in the retrievals of organic species. Preliminary retrievals of acetone from ACE spectra using a microwindow from 1364.7 to 1367.1 cm-1 have been performed.

  5. Knowledge Representation Standards and Interchange Formats for Causal Graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throop, David R.; Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land

    2005-01-01

    In many domains, automated reasoning tools must represent graphs of causally linked events. These include fault-tree analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), planning, procedures, medical reasoning about disease progression, and functional architectures. Each of these fields has its own requirements for the representation of causation, events, actors and conditions. The representations include ontologies of function and cause, data dictionaries for causal dependency, failure and hazard, and interchange formats between some existing tools. In none of the domains has a generally accepted interchange format emerged. The paper makes progress towards interoperability across the wide range of causal analysis methodologies. We survey existing practice and emerging interchange formats in each of these fields. Setting forth a set of terms and concepts that are broadly shared across the domains, we examine the several ways in which current practice represents them. Some phenomena are difficult to represent or to analyze in several domains. These include mode transitions, reachability analysis, positive and negative feedback loops, conditions correlated but not causally linked and bimodal probability distributions. We work through examples and contrast the differing methods for addressing them. We detail recent work in knowledge interchange formats for causal trees in aerospace analysis applications in early design, safety and reliability. Several examples are discussed, with a particular focus on reachability analysis and mode transitions. We generalize the aerospace analysis work across the several other domains. We also recommend features and capabilities for the next generation of causal knowledge representation standards.

  6. Data interchange across cores of multi-core optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Ehab S.

    2015-12-01

    A novel device for data interchange among space-division multiplexed cores inside MCF is demonstrated using numerical simulations. The device allows complete exchange of all WDM data channels between MCF cores in propagation direction whether the channels have the same or different sets of wavelengths. This is crucial in future MCF optical networks where in-fiber data interchange over space-division multiplexed cores can allow for a simple and fast data swapping among cores without a need for space-division demultiplexing to single-mode single-core fibers. The data core-interchange (DCI) device consists of a graded refractive-index rectangular waveguide enclosing the two interchanged cores in addition to the cladding region in between them. Both finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) and eigenmode expansion (EME) simulations are performed to verify the device operation and characterize its performance. The simulations demonstrate that the DCI has a very short-length with polarization independent operation, and high performance over the broadband wavelength range S, C, L, and U bands. Moreover, the device shows a high coupling-factor of -0.13 dB with small cross-talk, back-reflection, and return-loss of -26.3, -46.1, and -48.8 dB, respectively.

  7. 5. SITE OVERVIEW. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SITE OVERVIEW. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT RIGHT, INTERSTATE 1-5 AT CENTER, AND FIGUEROA STREET AT LEFT. NOTE ARROYO SECO CHANNEL PARALLEL TO PARKWAY. NOTE AVENUE 26 BRIDGE AT CENTER. LOOKING 30° NNE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Electronic Data Interchange: Using Technology to Exchange Transcripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John T.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Florida Automated System for Transferring Educational Records (FASTER) project, which permits the electronic exchange of student transcripts; uses of similar electronic data interchange (EDI) programs in other states; and the national SPEEDE/ExPRESS project, which uses a standard format for transferring electronic transcripts.…

  9. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for Libraries and Publishers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santosuosso, Joe

    1992-01-01

    Defines electronic data interchange (EDI) as the exchange of data between computer systems without human intervention or interpretation. Standards are discussed; and the implementation of EDI in libraries and the serials publishing community in the areas of orders and acquisitions, claims, and invoice processing is described. (LRW)

  10. The Implications of a Mixed Media Network for Information Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, John W.

    A mixed media network for information interchange is what we are always likely to have. Amid the current permutations of the storage and distribution media we see the emergence of two trends -- toward the common denominators of electronic display on the TV system and of digital processing and control. The economic implications of a mixed network…

  11. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU 3) Technical Interchange Meeting: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU III) Technical Interchange Meeting, February 11-12, 1999, hosted by the Lockheed Martin Astronautics Waterton Facility, Denver, Colorado. Administration and publication support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  12. Kinetic ballooning/interchange instability in a bent plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, E. V.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Kubyshkina, M. G.; Artemyev, A. V.; Sergeev, V. A.; Petrukovich, A. A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; McFadden, J. P.; Larson, D.

    2012-06-01

    We use Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) and GOES observations to investigate the plasma sheet evolution on 28 February 2008 between 6:50 and 7:50 UT, when there developed strong magnetic field oscillations with periods of 100 s. Using multispacecraft analysis of the plasma sheet observations and an empirical plasma sheet model, we determine both the large-scale evolution of the plasma sheet and the properties of the oscillations. We found that the oscillations exhibited signatures of kinetic ballooning/interchange instability fingers that developed in a bent current sheet. The interchange oscillations had a sausage structure, propagated duskward at a velocity of about 100 km/s, and were associated with fast radial electron flows. We suggest that the observed negative gradient of the ZGSM magnetic field component (∂BZ/∂X) was a free energy source for the kinetic ballooning/interchange instability. Tens of minutes later a fast elongation of ballooning/interchange fingers was detected between 6 and 16 RE downtail with the length-to-width ratio exceeding 20. The finger elongation ended with signatures of reconnection in an embedded current sheet near the bending point. These observations suggest a complex interplay between the midtail and near-Earth plasma sheet dynamics, involving localized fluctuations in both cross-tail and radial directions before current sheet reconnection.

  13. 9. View of the Crockett interchange. The 1927 bridge is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of the Crockett interchange. The 1927 bridge is to the left. Entrance and exit ramps for west-bound 1-80 traffic over the 1927 bridge are visible in the center of the image. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. The Interchange Instability in High-Latitude Plasma Blobs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-30

    identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB- GROUP Ionospheric structure, Radio scintillation mechanism Interchange instability High latitude ionosphere...become important. We present Fome sImple analytical expressions for the growth rate of The E* B Instability "or the above three cases in Appendix B. It

  15. On Ideal Stability of Cylindrical Localized Interchange Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Umansky, M V

    2007-05-15

    Stability of cylindrical localized ideal pressure-driven interchange plasma modes is revisited. Converting the underlying eigenvalue problem into the form of the Schroedinger equation gives a new simple way of deriving the Suydam stability criterion and calculating the growth rates of unstable modes. Near the marginal stability limit the growth rate is exponentially small and the mode has a double-peak structure.

  16. Arctic warming will promote Atlantic-Pacific fish interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisz, M. S.; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, P.; Møller, P. R.; Olsen, S. M.; Swingedouw, D.; Hedeholm, R. B.; Nielsen, E. E.; Guisan, A.; Pellissier, L.

    2015-03-01

    Throughout much of the Quaternary Period, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North Atlantic from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating the interchange of marine biota between the two seas. Here, we forecast the potential northward progression of 515 fish species following climate change, and report the rate of potential species interchange between the Atlantic and the Pacific via the Northwest Passage and the Northeast Passage. For this, we projected niche-based models under climate change scenarios and simulated the spread of species through the passages when climatic conditions became suitable. Results reveal a complex range of responses during this century, and accelerated interchange after 2050. By 2100 up to 41 species could enter the Pacific and 44 species could enter the Atlantic, via one or both passages. Consistent with historical and recent biodiversity interchanges, this exchange of fish species may trigger changes for biodiversity and food webs in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, with ecological and economic consequences to ecosystems that at present contribute 39% to global marine fish landings.

  17. NASA/DOD Flight Experiments Technical Interchange Meeting Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Flight Experiments Technical Interchange Meeting held in Monterey California, October 5-9, 1992. Technical sessions 4 through 8 addressing space structures, propulsion, space power systems, space environments and effects, and space operations are covered. Many of the papers are presented in outline and viewgraph form.

  18. 46 CFR 535.305 - Equipment interchange agreements-exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment interchange agreements-exemption. 535.305 Section 535.305 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  19. ACE and AGTR1 polymorphisms in elite rhythmic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Alessandra; Sapere, Nadia; Piazza, Marina; Aquino, Giovanna; Iuliano, Enzo; Intrieri, Mariano; Calcagno, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    In the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, Alu deletion, in intron 16, is associated with higher concentrations of ACE serum activity and this may be associated with elite sprint and power performance. The Alu insertion is associated with lower ACE levels and this could lead to endurance performance. Moreover, recent studies have identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor gene AGTR1, which seems to be related to ACE activity. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the ACE and the AGTR1 gene polymorphisms in 28 Italian elite rhythmic gymnasts (age range 21 ± 7.6 years), and compare them to 23 middle level rhythmic gymnasts (age range 17 ± 10.9 years). The ACE D allele was significantly more frequent in elite athletes than in the control population (χ(2)=4.07, p=0.04). Comparisons between the middle level and elite athletes revealed significant differences (p<0.0001) for the ACE DD genotype (OR=6.48, 95% confidence interval=1.48-28.34), which was more frequent in elite athletes. There were no significant differences in the AGTR1 A/C genotype or allele distributions between the middle level and elite athletes. In conclusion, the ACE D allele genotype could be a contributing factor to high-performance rhythmic gymnastics that should be considered in athlete development and could help to identify which skills should be trained for talent promotion.

  20. Desert Dust Layers Over Polluted Marine Boundary Layers: ACE-2 Measurements and ACE-Asia Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Aerosols in ACE-Asia are expected to have some commonalties with those in ACE-2, along with important differences. Among the commonalities are occurrences of desert dust layers over polluted marine boundary layers. Differences include the nature of the dust (yellowish in the East Asia desert outflow, vs. reddish-brown in the Sahara Outflow measured in ACE-2) and the composition of boundary-layer aerosols (e.g., more absorbing, soot and organic aerosol in-the Asian plume, caused by coal and biomass burning, with limited controls). In this paper we present ACE-2 measurements and analyses as a guide to our plans for ACE-2 Asia. The measurements include: (1) Vertical profiles of aerosol optical depth and extinction (380-1558 nm), and of water vapor column and concentration, from the surface through the elevated desert dust, measured by the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14); (2) Comparisons of airborne and shipborne sunphotometer optical depths to satellite-retrieved values, with and without desert dust; (3) Comparisons between airborne Sunphotometer optical depth and extinction spectra and those derived from coincident airborne in situ measurements of aerosol size distribution, scattering and absorption; (4) Comparisons between size distributions measured in situ and retrieved from sunphotometer optical depth spectra; (5) Comparisons between aerosol single scattering albedo values obtained by several techniques, using various combinations of measurements of backscatter, extinction, size distribution, scattering, absorption, and radiative flux. We show how analyses of these data can be used to address questions important to ACE-Asia, such as: (1) How do dust and other absorbing aerosols affect the accuracy of satellite optical depth retrievals? How important are asphericity effects? (2) How important are supermicron dust and seasalt aerosols to overall aerosol optical depth and radiative forcing? How well are these aerosols sampled by aircraft

  1. The solar array is installed on ACE in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Applied Physics Laboratory engineers and technicians from Johns Hopkins University install solar array panels on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II. The panel on which they are working is identical to the panel (one of four) seen in the foreground on the ACE spacecraft. Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low- energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles for a better understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system as well as the astrophysical processes involved. The ACE observatory will be placed into an orbit almost a million miles (1.5 million kilometers) away from the Earth, about 1/100 the distance from the Earth to the Sun. The collecting power of instrumentation aboard ACE is at least 100 times more sensitive than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  2. Lysozyme and bilirubin bind to ACE and regulate its conformation and shedding

    PubMed Central

    Danilov, Sergei M.; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Akinbi, Henry T.; Nesterovitch, Andrew B.; Epshtein, Yuliya; Letsiou, Eleftheria; Kryukova, Olga V.; Piegeler, Tobias; Golukhova, Elena Z.; Schwartz, David E.; Dull, Randal O.; Minshall, Richard D.; Kost, Olga A.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) hydrolyzes numerous peptides and is a critical participant in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated tissue ACE levels are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Blood ACE concentrations are determined by proteolytic cleavage of ACE from the endothelial cell surface, a process that remains incompletely understood. In this study, we identified a novel ACE gene mutation (Arg532Trp substitution in the N domain of somatic ACE) that increases blood ACE activity 7-fold and interrogated the mechanism by which this mutation significantly increases blood ACE levels. We hypothesized that this ACE mutation disrupts the binding site for blood components which may stabilize ACE conformation and diminish ACE shedding. We identified the ACE-binding protein in the blood as lysozyme and also a Low Molecular Weight (LMW) ACE effector, bilirubin, which act in concert to regulate ACE conformation and thereby influence ACE shedding. These results provide mechanistic insight into the elevated blood level of ACE observed in patients on ACE inhibitor therapy and elevated blood lysozyme and ACE levels in sarcoidosis patients. PMID:27734897

  3. ACE2 and Microbiota: Emerging Targets for Cardiopulmonary Disease Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Jeffrey, Colleen T; Liu, Meng; Katovich, Michael J; Raizada, Mohan K; Shenoy, Vinayak

    2015-01-01

    The health of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems is inextricably linked to the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Physiologically speaking, a balance between the vasodeleterious (ACE/Ang II/AT1R) and vasoprotective (ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/MasR) components of the RAS is critical for cardiopulmonary homeostasis. Upregulation of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis shifts the system toward vasoconstriction, proliferation, hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis, all factors that contribute to the development and progression of cardiopulmonary diseases. Conversely, stimulation of the vasoprotective ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/MasR axis produces a counter-regulatory response that promotes cardiovascular health. Current research is investigating novel strategies to augment actions of the vasoprotective RAS components, particularly ACE2, in order to treat various pathologies. While multiple approaches to increase the activity of ACE2 have displayed beneficial effects against experimental disease models, the mechanisms behind its protective actions remain incompletely understood. Recent work demonstrating a non-catalytic role for ACE2 in amino acid transport in the gut has led us to speculate that the therapeutic effects of ACE2 can be mediated, in part, by its actions on the gastrointestinal tract and/or gut microbiome. This is consistent with emerging data which suggests that dysbiosis of the gut and lung microbiomes is associated with cardiopulmonary disease. This review highlights new developments in the protective actions of ACE2 against cardiopulmonary disorders, discusses innovative approaches to targeting ACE2 for therapy, and explores an evolving role for gut and lung microbiota in cardiopulmonary health. PMID:26322922

  4. ACE2 and Microbiota: Emerging Targets for Cardiopulmonary Disease Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cole-Jeffrey, Colleen T; Liu, Meng; Katovich, Michael J; Raizada, Mohan K; Shenoy, Vinayak

    2015-12-01

    The health of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems is inextricably linked to the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Physiologically speaking, a balance between the vasodeleterious (Angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE]/Angiotensin II [Ang II]/Ang II type 1 receptor [AT1R]) and vasoprotective (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [ACE2]/Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]/Mas receptor [MasR]) components of the RAS is critical for cardiopulmonary homeostasis. Upregulation of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis shifts the system toward vasoconstriction, proliferation, hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis, all factors that contribute to the development and progression of cardiopulmonary diseases. Conversely, stimulation of the vasoprotective ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis produces a counter-regulatory response that promotes cardiovascular health. Current research is investigating novel strategies to augment actions of the vasoprotective RAS components, particularly ACE2, in order to treat various pathologies. Although multiple approaches to increase the activity of ACE2 have displayed beneficial effects against experimental disease models, the mechanisms behind its protective actions remain incompletely understood. Recent work demonstrating a non-catalytic role for ACE2 in amino acid transport in the gut has led us to speculate that the therapeutic effects of ACE2 can be mediated, in part, by its actions on the gastrointestinal tract and/or gut microbiome. This is consistent with emerging data which suggest that dysbiosis of the gut and lung microbiomes is associated with cardiopulmonary disease. This review highlights new developments in the protective actions of ACE2 against cardiopulmonary disorders, discusses innovative approaches to targeting ACE2 for therapy, and explores an evolving role for gut and lung microbiota in cardiopulmonary health.

  5. DAF: differential ACE filtering image quality assessment by automatic color equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouni, S.; Chambah, M.; Saint-Jean, C.; Rizzi, A.

    2008-01-01

    test set "Single Stimulus Continuous Quality Scale" (SSCQS) method and in the second "Double Stimulus Continuous Quality Scale" (DSCQS) method. The users, which are non-experts, were asked to identify their preferred image (between original and ACE filtered images) according to contrast, naturalness, colorfulness, quality, chromatic diversity and overall subjective preference. Test and results are presented.

  6. Active Control Technique Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-16

    Due to Test Results 3-9 3.5 Representative Data 3-11 3.6 Control Model 3-21 4.0 Simulation 4-1 5.0 HAC/LAC 5-1 5.1 Theory 5-1...5.1.1 HAC Theory 5-1 5.1.2 LAC Theory 5-4 5.1.3 HAC/LAC Combined Control 5-6 5.1.4 HAC/LAC Applied to ACES 5-7 5.2 Model Selection and...5-39 5-50 6.0 Positivity 6-1 6-1 6-9 6-9 6-17 6-31 5.4 Observation 5.5 Test Results 5.6 Conclusions 6.1 Theory 6.2 Model

  7. Rules and Norms: Requirements for Rule Interchange Languages in the Legal Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Thomas F.; Governatori, Guido; Rotolo, Antonino

    In this survey paper we summarize the requirements for rule interchange languages for applications in the legal domain and use these requirements to evaluate RuleML, SBVR, SWRL and RIF. We also present the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format (LKIF), a new rule interchange format developed specifically for applications in the legal domain.

  8. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  9. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  10. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  11. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  12. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  13. 76 FR 80405 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. Notice... Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Interchangeable Virtual... Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. intends to file additional written notifications...

  14. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  15. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  16. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  17. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  18. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  19. Human ACE gene polymorphism and distilled water induced cough

    PubMed Central

    Morice, A. H.; Turley, A. J.; Linton, T. K.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) cause a non-productive cough. The insertion/deletion polymorphism of ACE was used as a genetic marker to investigate the relationship between ACE genotype and cough sensitivity. METHODS: A double blind cough challenge was performed in 66 normotensive subjects (34 men) of mean age 34.8 years (range 18-80) using aerosols of distilled water. The number of coughs during the one minute exposure to water was recorded. DNA samples from venous blood were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and resolved on a 1% agarose gel. They were analysed for the presence of a polymorphism in intron 16 of the ACE gene consisting of an insertion (I) or deletion (D) of an Alu repetitive sequence 287 base pairs long. RESULTS: The distribution of genotypes was 20 II, 26 ID, and 20 DD. The cough response was significantly (p < 0.01) related to the ACE genotype, the mean number of coughs being 15.8, 11.3, and 9.6, respectively, in subjects with the II, ID, and DD genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The observation that cough challenge is dependent on ACE genotype in normal subjects is evidence of a link between ACE activity and the cough reflex. 


 PMID:9059468

  20. XAFS Data Interchange: A single spectrum XAFS data file format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravel, B.; Newville, M.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a standard data format for the interchange of XAFS data. The XAFS Data Interchange (XDI) standard is meant to encapsulate a single spectrum of XAFS along with relevant metadata. XDI is a text-based format with a simple syntax which clearly delineates metadata from the data table in a way that is easily interpreted both by a computer and by a human. The metadata header is inspired by the format of an electronic mail header, representing metadata names and values as an associative array. The data table is represented as columns of numbers. This format can be imported as is into most existing XAFS data analysis, spreadsheet, or data visualization programs. Along with a specification and a dictionary of metadata types, we provide an application-programming interface written in C and bindings for programming dynamic languages.

  1. XAFS Data Interchange: A single spectrum XAFS data file format.

    PubMed

    Ravel, B; Newville, M

    We propose a standard data format for the interchange of XAFS data. The XAFS Data Interchange (XDI) standard is meant to encapsulate a single spectrum of XAFS along with relevant metadata. XDI is a text-based format with a simple syntax which clearly delineates metadata from the data table in a way that is easily interpreted both by a computer and by a human. The metadata header is inspired by the format of an electronic mail header, representing metadata names and values as an associative array. The data table is represented as columns of numbers. This format can be imported as is into most existing XAFS data analysis, spreadsheet, or data visualization programs. Along with a specification and a dictionary of metadata types, we provide an application-programming interface written in C and bindings for programming dynamic languages.

  2. Therapeutic Interchange of Clevidipine For Sodium Nitroprusside in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Joseph E.; Thomas, Zachariah; Lee, David; Moskowitz, David M.; Nemeth, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Background: Generic price inflation has resulted in rising acquisition costs for sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an agent historically described as the drug of choice for the treatment of perioperative hypertension in cardiac surgery. Purpose: To describe the implementation and cost avoidance achieved by utilizing clevidipine as an alternative to SNP in cardiac surgery patients at a 520-bed community teaching hospital that performs more than 300 cardiac surgeries each year. Methods: A multidisciplinary team inclusive of anesthesiologists, intensivists, pharmacists, and surgeons collaborated to develop a therapeutic interchange for SNP in cardiac surgery patients. Consistent with current guidelines for therapeutic interchange, the goal was to encourage a less expensive alternative that was demonstrated to be at least therapeutically equivalent to SNP based on data derived from clinical trials published in peer-reviewed literature. A comprehensive literature review identified clevidipine as an alternative to SNP for perioperative hypertension in cardiac surgery. Nicardipine was considered as well, but was not chosen as a substitute due to lack of strong evidence and comparative data with SNP. Results: Clevidipine was implemented successfully in our cardiac surgery patients and will result in a net cost avoidance of approximately $300,000 in 2016. This is thought to be driven largely by the difference in acquisition cost between clevidipine and SNP. The operating room in our institution no longer keeps SNP stocked in anesthesia trays as a result of the success of our interchange. No requests have been made to return to the SNP standard. Conclusion: Through effective communication and multidisciplinary collaboration, our institution was able to develop an evidence-based and effective therapeutic interchange program for SNP. PMID:27757002

  3. XML-Based SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi

    2008-01-01

    The SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language software has been designed to more efficiently send new knowledge bases to spacecraft that have been embedded with the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) tool. The intention of the behavioral model is to capture most of the information generally associated with a spacecraft functional model, while specifically addressing the needs of execution within SHINE and Livingstone. As such, it has some constructs that are based on one or the other.

  4. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU II) Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, David (Compiler); Saunders, Stephen R. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains extended abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU II) Technical Interchange Meeting, November 18-19, 1997, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas. Included are topics which include: Extraterrestrial resources, in situ propellant production, sampling of planetary surfaces, oxygen production, water vapor extraction from the Martian atmosphere, gas generation, cryogenic refrigeration, and propellant transport and storage.

  5. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Technical Interchange Meeting, February 4-5, 1997, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas. Abstracts are arranged in order of presentation at the meetings, with corresponding page numbers shown in the enclosed agenda. Logistics, administration, and publication support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  6. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  7. Induction of segmental interchanges in pearl millet (Pennisetum typhides).

    PubMed

    Lal, J; Srinivasachar, D

    1979-01-01

    Dry seeds of two varieties of Pennisetum typhoides (2n=14), 'Tift 23-B' and 'Bil-3B', were treated with gamma rays, diethyl sulphate (DES) and ethylene imine (EI) at their approximate LD50 dosages and the pollen mother cells of the M1 (first generation immediately after the seed treatment) plants were analysed at diakinesis for multivalent configurations resulting from segmental interchanges. While quadrivalents and trivalents were commonly found in all the mutagenic treatments, hexavalents were seen in the gamma-ray treatment only. Ring quadrivalents were common in all the treatments and their frequency was higher in gamma-ray treatment than in the treatments with the chemical mutagens of which EI produced more quadrivalents than DES. The variety 'BIL3B' was more responsive to all the mutagens used than 'Tift-23B' in which, excepting in gamma-ray treatment, no multivalents were observed in EI and DES treatments.The quadrivalents induced by different mutagens were of different types involving different chromosomes, indicating some kind of specificity of the mutagens in causing chromosome breaks. Thus, in EI-induced quadrivalents the nucleolar chromosome, the shortest chromosome of the complement, was involved, whereas in the case of DES and gamma rays it was the longest chromosome of the complement that was involved in the quadrivalent. Apparently the breaks must have been produced in different chromosomes preferentially.Self-pollinated seeds of two heterozygotes whose interchanges were induced by EI and gamma rays were given a second cycle treatment with gamma rays, again at the LD50 dosage (35 kR), and interchange stocks involving different chromosomes, up to a maximum of eight chromosomes were realized. Alternate use of EI and gamma rays offered better possibilities of obtaining inter-change heterozygotes involving more, if not all, chromosomes in a ring than two successive treatments with gamma rays alone.

  8. Residual turbulence from velocity shear stabilized interchange instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, C. P.; Hassam, A. B.

    2013-01-15

    The stabilizing effect of velocity shear on the macroscopic, broad bandwidth, ideal interchange instability is studied in linear and nonlinear regimes. A 2D dissipative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code is employed to simulate the system. For a given flow shear, V Prime , linear growth rates are shown to be suppressed to below the shear-free level at both the small and large wavelengths. With increasing V Prime , the unstable band in wavenumber-space shrinks so that the peak growth results for modes that correspond to relatively high wavenumbers, on the scale of the density gradient. In the nonlinear turbulent steady state, a similar turbulent spectrum obtains, and the convection cells are roughly circular. In addition, the density fluctuation level and the degree of flattening of the initial inverted density profile are found to decrease as V Prime increases; in fact, unstable modes are almost completely stabilized and the density profile reverts to laminar when V Prime is a few times the classic interchange growth rate. Moreover, the turbulent particle flux diminishes with increasing velocity shear such that all the flux is carried by the classical diffusive flux in the asymptotic limit. The simulations are compared with measurements of magnetic fluctuations from the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment, MCX, which investigated interchange modes in the presence of velocity shear. The experimental spectral data, taken in the plasma edge, are in general agreement with the numerical data obtained in higher viscosity simulations for which the level of viscosity is chosen consistent with MCX Reynolds numbers at the edge. In particular, the residual turbulence in both cases is dominated by elongated convection cells. Finally, concomitant Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the system are also examined. Complete stability to interchanges is obtained only in the parameter space wherein the generalized Rayleigh inflexion theorem is satisfied.

  9. Theory of semicollisional drift-interchange modes in cylindrical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T.S.; Chen, L.

    1985-01-01

    Resistive interchange instabilities in cylindrical plasmas are studied, including the effects of electron diamagnetic drift, perpendicular resistivity, and plasma compression. The analyses are pertinent to the semicollisional regime where the effective ion gyro-radius is larger than the resistive layer width. Both analytical and numerical results show that the modes can be completely stabilized by the perpendicular plasma transport. Ion sound effects, meanwhile, are found to be negligible in the semicollisional regime.

  10. AceCloud: Molecular Dynamics Simulations in the Cloud.

    PubMed

    Harvey, M J; De Fabritiis, G

    2015-05-26

    We present AceCloud, an on-demand service for molecular dynamics simulations. AceCloud is designed to facilitate the secure execution of large ensembles of simulations on an external cloud computing service (currently Amazon Web Services). The AceCloud client, integrated into the ACEMD molecular dynamics package, provides an easy-to-use interface that abstracts all aspects of interaction with the cloud services. This gives the user the experience that all simulations are running on their local machine, minimizing the learning curve typically associated with the transition to using high performance computing services.

  11. ACE--Alliance for Clinical Enhancement: a collaborative model.

    PubMed

    Poirrier, G P; Granger, M; Todaro, M

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces an innovative collaborative model developed by nursing educators and practitioners, the Alliance for Clinical Enhancement Program (ACE), that combines components of traditional internship and extender programs. The goals of ACE are opportunities for role socialization, role transition, and role modeling for nursing students; enhancing clinical competence and provision of financial assistance to the students; increased recruitment of RN graduates by the involved hospital; and decreased RN time spent on non-nursing tasks by hospital RNs. The total development, implementation, and analysis of ACE Program is discussed.

  12. A format for the interchange of scheduling models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John P.; Davis, Elizabeth K.

    1994-01-01

    In recent years a variety of space-activity schedulers have been developed within the aerospace community. Space-activity schedulers are characterized by their need to handle large numbers of activities which are time-window constrained and make high demands on many scarce resources, but are minimally constrained by predecessor/successor requirements or critical paths. Two needs to exchange data between these schedulers have materialized. First, there is significant interest in comparing and evaluating the different scheduling engines to ensure that the best technology is applied to each scheduling endeavor. Second, there is a developing requirement to divide a single scheduling task among different sites, each using a different scheduler. In fact, the scheduling task for International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will be distributed among NASA centers and among the international partners. The format used to interchange scheduling data for ISSA will likely use a growth version of the format discussed in this paper. The model interchange format (or MIF, pronounced as one syllable) discussed in this paper is a robust solution to the need to interchange scheduling requirements for space activities. It is highly extensible, human-readable, and can be generated or edited with common text editors. It also serves well the need to support a 'benchmark' data case which can be delivered on any computer platform.

  13. ACE-Asia Chemical Transport Modeling Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    UNO, I.; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Ginoux, P.; Rasch, P.; Carmichael, G. R.; Yienger, J. J.

    2001-12-01

    ACE-Asia (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) was designed to increase our understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth?s climate system. The intensive observation period was carried out during March to May, 2001, and more than 100 researchers from several countries (United States, Japan, Korea, China, and many other Asian countries) participated using aircraft, a research vessel, surface stations and numerical models. Aerosol transport forecast activities played an important role during the ACE-Asia intensive observation period. Three independent modeling groups operated chemical transport models in forecast mode and participated in flight planning activities at the operations center. These models were: MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry; Rasch and Collins); GOCART (Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model; Chin and Ginour) and CFORS (Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University + University of Iowa - Chemical weather FORecast System; Uno, Carmichael and Yienger). The MATCH model used in ACE-Asia was a transport model applied for the Asia region, driven by NCEP forecast meteorology. A unique feature of this model was that it assimilated satellite derived optical depths into its forecast algorithm. The GOCART model provided global aerosol forecast using forecast meteorological fields provided by the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The CFORS model provided regional forecasts using a limited area transport model coupled with Regional Meteorological Modeling System (RAMS), initialized by NCEP and JMA forecasts. All models produced 3-d aerosol forecast products consisting of aerosol mass distributions and optical depths for sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea salt, and dust. In the field these model products were made available to all participating scientists via the Web, and were also presented during the

  14. ACE/SWICS OBSERVATIONS OF HEAVY ION DROPOUTS WITHIN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Weberg, Micah J.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Lepri, Susan T. E-mail: thomasz@umich.edu

    2012-11-20

    We present the first in situ observations of heavy ion dropouts within the slow solar wind, observed for select elements ranging from helium to iron. For iron, these dropouts manifest themselves as depletions of the Fe/H ratio by factors up to {approx}25. The events often exhibit mass-dependent fractionation and are contained in slow, unsteady wind found within a few days from known stream interfaces. We propose that such dropouts are evidence of gravitational settling within large coronal loops, which later undergo interchange reconnection and become source regions of slow, unsteady wind. Previously, spectroscopic studies by Raymond et al. in 1997 (and later Feldman et al. in 1999) have yielded strong evidence for gravitational settling within these loops. However, their expected in situ signature plasma with heavy elements fractionated by mass was not observed prior to this study. Using data from the SWICS instrument on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), we investigate the composition of the solar wind within these dropouts and explore long term trends over most of a solar cycle.

  15. The Canadian Arctic Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Validation Project: Overview and results from ten years of ACE operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kaley; Strong, Kimberly

    2014-05-01

    As of February 2014, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite mission has been making measurements of the Earth's atmosphere for ten years. As ACE operations have extended beyond the initial two-year mission, there is a continuing need to validate the trace gas data products from the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) instruments. Ground-based measurements provide critical data for the validation of satellite retrievals of trace gases and for the assessment of long-term stability of these measurements. In particular, validation comparisons are needed for ACE during Arctic springtime to understand better the measurements of species involved in stratospheric ozone chemistry. To this end, eleven Canadian Arctic Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Validation Campaigns have been conducted during the spring period (February - April in 2004 - 2014) at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (80°N, 86°W). This period coincides with the most chemically active time of year in the Arctic, as well as a significant number of satellite overpasses. A suite of as many as 12 ground-based instruments, as well as frequent balloon-borne ozonesonde and radiosonde launches, have been used in each campaign. These instruments include: a ground-based version of the ACE-FTS (PARIS - Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer), a terrestrial version of the ACE-MAESTRO, a SunPhotoSpectrometer, two zenith-viewing UV-visible grating spectrometers, a Bomem DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer, a Bruker 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer, a Systeme d'Analyse par Observations Zenithales (SAOZ) instrument, and several Brewer spectrophotometers. In the past several years, these results have been used to validate the measurements by the ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO instruments on SCISAT as well

  16. The solar array is installed on ACE in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Applied Physics Laboratory Engineer Cliff Willey (kneeling) and Engineering Assistant Jim Hutcheson from Johns Hopkins University install solar array panels on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II. Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles for a better understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system as well as the astrophysical processes involved. The ACE observatory will be placed into an orbit almost a million miles (1.5 million kilometers) away from the Earth, about 1/100 the distance from the Earth to the Sun. The collecting power of instrumentation aboard ACE is at least 100 times more sensitive than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  17. The solar array is installed on ACE in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Applied Physics Laboratory engineers and technicians from Johns Hopkins University assist in guiding the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) as it is hoisted over a platform for solar array installation in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II. Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles. The ACE observatory will contribute to the understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system as well as the astrophysical processes involved. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  18. Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations (ACES). Phase 1. Concept. Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    63 6-3 Schematic Layout of the York Fiber- Optic DTS System... optic thermal detection system. XS Federal Aviation Administration Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations (ACES) Final Report II N ’(0) 1 ( .i...fiber optic (York) 2.1 (OBECTIVES OF STUDY S;ivo n Imoli.0it ,moke, fire emergency: The oh1cctivc tf the ACES study was to develop two system concepts

  19. The Louisiana ACES Student-built BalloonSat Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, B.; Giammanco, J.; Guzik, T. G.; Johnson, K.; Wefel, J. P.

    The Aerospace Catalyst Experiences for Students (ACES) pilot project was funded at Louisiana State University by NASA's National Space Grant College and Fellowship program during the 2002-2003 academic year with the primary goal of giving students a true hands-on experience with project management, life-cycle, experiment construction, data collection, analysis and interpretation. In this project students design, build, fly and analyze the data returned from small payloads (typical dimensions 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm, typical weight ˜ 500 grams) carried up to ˜ 100,000 feet by a helium-filled latex sounding balloon. During the pilot project the 13 students that participated in the program, grouped in 4 teams, built payloads that included studies in atmospheric science, cosmic rays and remote sensing. These payloads were then launched from the NASA National Scientific Balloon Facility in Palestine, Texas on May 21, 2003. Most recently, the LaACES (Louisiana ACES) program has been selected for funding by NASA. During LaACES we will expand the pilot program to institutions across the state including developing student training materials, holding a workshop for institution representatives, awarding payload development grants to student teams, monitoring the progress of these teams and supporting the balloon flight of the completed payloads. Here we describe the ACES pilot, the outcomes, and plans for La ACES.

  20. Molecular and recombinational mapping of mutations in the Ace locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Nagoshi, R.N.; Gelbart, W.M.

    1987-11-01

    The Ace locus in Drosophila melanogaster is known to be the structural gene for acetylcholinesterase. Ace is located in a region of chromosome arm 3R which has been subjected to intensive genetic and molecular analysis. Previous deletion mapping studies have identified a 40-kb region with which the Ace gene resides. This report focuses on the further localization of Ace within this 40-kb interval. Within this region, selective fine structure recombinational analysis was employed to localize three recessive Ace lethals relative to unselected restriction site variations. These three mutations fall into a segment of 7 kb within the Ace interval. Fine structure recombinational analysis was also used to confirm that the Ace/sup -/ phenotype of one deletion, Df(3R)Ace/sup HD1/, co-segregated with the molecular deletion. This deletion does not fully remove Ace activity, but it behaves as a recessive Ace lethal. Df(3R)Ace/sup HD1/ is the most distal Ace lesion identified and indicates that the Ace locus must extend at least 16 kb. Several poly(A)transcripts are detectable in the region defined by the Ace lesions. The position and extent of the Ace locus, as well as the types of transcripts found, is consistent with the recent findings which identified Torpedo-AChE homologous cDNA sequences in this region.

  1. Molecular and Recombinational Mapping of Mutations in the Ace Locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nagoshi, Rodney N.; Gelbart, William M.

    1987-01-01

    The Ace locus in Drosophila melanogaster is known to be the structural gene for acetylcholinesterase. Ace is located in a region of chromosome arm 3R which has been subjected to intensive genetic and molecular analysis. Previous deletion mapping studies have identified a 40-kb region within which the Ace gene resides. This report focuses on the further localization of Ace within this 40-kb interval. Within this region, selective fine structure recombinational analysis was employed to localize three recessive Ace lethals relative to unselected restriction site variations. These three mutations fall into a segment of 7 kb within the Ace interval. Fine structure recombinational analysis was also used to confirm that the Ace- phenotype of one deletion, Df(3R)AceHD1, co-segregated with the molecular deletion. This deletion does not fully remove Ace activity, but it behaves as a recessive Ace lethal. Df(3R)AceHD1 is the most distal Ace lesion identified and indicates that the Ace locus must extend at least 16 kb. Several poly(A)transcripts are detectable in the region defined by the Ace lesions. The position and extent of the Ace locus, as well as the types of transcripts found, is consistent with the recent findings which identified Torpedo-AChE homologous cDNA sequences in this region. PMID:2826288

  2. Mutations in Escherichia coli aceE and ribB genes allow survival of strains defective in the first step of the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gil, Jordi; Uros, Eva Maria; Sauret-Güeto, Susanna; Lois, L Maria; Kirby, James; Nishimoto, Minobu; Baidoo, Edward E K; Keasling, Jay D; Boronat, Albert; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A functional 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway is required for isoprenoid biosynthesis and hence survival in Escherichia coli and most other bacteria. In the first two steps of the pathway, MEP is produced from the central metabolic intermediates pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate via 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) by the activity of the enzymes DXP synthase (DXS) and DXP reductoisomerase (DXR). Because the MEP pathway is absent from humans, it was proposed as a promising new target to develop new antibiotics. However, the lethal phenotype caused by the deletion of DXS or DXR was found to be suppressed with a relatively high efficiency by unidentified mutations. Here we report that several mutations in the unrelated genes aceE and ribB rescue growth of DXS-defective mutants because the encoded enzymes allowed the production of sufficient DXP in vivo. Together, this work unveils the diversity of mechanisms that can evolve in bacteria to circumvent a blockage of the first step of the MEP pathway.

  3. Effects of radial motion on interchange injections at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranicas, C.; Thomsen, M. F.; Achilleos, N.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Hospodarsky, G.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kennelly, T.; Khurana, K.; Kollmann, P.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.

    2016-01-01

    Charged particle injections are regularly observed in Saturn's inner magnetosphere by Cassini. They are attributed to an ongoing process of flux-tube interchange driven by the strong centrifugal force associated with Saturn's rapid rotation. Numerical simulations suggest that these interchange injections can be associated with inward flow channels, in which plasma confined to a narrow range of longitudes moves radially toward the planet, gaining energy, while ambient plasma in the adjacent regions moves more slowly outward. Most previous analyses of these events have neglected this radial motion and inferred properties of the events under the assumption that they appear instantaneously at the spacecraft's L-shell and thereafter drift azimuthally. This paper describes features of injections that can be related to their radial motion prior to observation. We use a combination of phase space density profiles and an updated version of a test-particle model to quantify properties of the injection. We are able to infer the longitudinal width of the injection, the radial travel time from its point of origin, and the starting L shell of the injection. We can also predict which energies can remain inside the channel during the radial transport. To highlight the effects of radial propagation at a finite speed, we focus on those interchange injections without extensive features of azimuthal dispersion. Injections that have traveled radially for one or more hours prior to observation would have been initiated at a different local time than that of the observation. Finally, we describe an injection where particles have drifted azimuthally into a flow channel prior to observation by Cassini.

  4. Reconnection and interchange instability in the near magnetotail

    DOE PAGES

    Birn, Joachim; Liu, Yi -Hsin; Daughton, William; ...

    2015-07-16

    This paper provides insights into the possible coupling between reconnection and interchange/ballooning in the magnetotail related to substorms and flow bursts. The results presented are largely based on recent simulations of magnetotail dynamics, exploring onset and progression of reconnection. 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with different tail deformation demonstrate a clear boundary between stable and unstable cases depending on the amount of deformation, explored up to the real proton/electron mass ratio. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are governed by the conservation of integral flux tube entropy S as imposed in ideal MHD, maintainingmore » a monotonic increase with distance downtail. This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. 3-D MHD simulations confirm this conclusion, showing no indication of ballooning prior to reconnection, if the initial state is ballooning stable. The simulation also shows that, after imposing resistivity necessary to initiate reconnection, the reconnection rate and energy release initially remain slow. However, when S becomes reduced from plasmoid ejection and lobe reconnection, forming a negative slope in S as a function of distance from Earth, the reconnection rate and energy release increase drastically. The latter condition has been shown to be necessary for ballooning/interchange instability, and the cross-tail structures that develop subsequently in the MHD simulation are consistent with such modes. The simulations support a concept in which tail activity is initiated by tearing instability but significantly enhanced by the interaction with ballooning/interchange enabled by plasmoid loss and lobe reconnection.« less

  5. Reconnection and interchange instability in the near magnetotail

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, Joachim; Liu, Yi -Hsin; Hesse, Michael

    2015-07-16

    This paper provides insights into the possible coupling between reconnection and interchange/ballooning in the magnetotail related to substorms and flow bursts. The results presented are largely based on recent simulations of magnetotail dynamics, exploring onset and progression of reconnection. 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with different tail deformation demonstrate a clear boundary between stable and unstable cases depending on the amount of deformation, explored up to the real proton/electron mass ratio. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are governed by the conservation of integral flux tube entropy S as imposed in ideal MHD, maintaining a monotonic increase with distance downtail. This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. 3-D MHD simulations confirm this conclusion, showing no indication of ballooning prior to reconnection, if the initial state is ballooning stable. The simulation also shows that, after imposing resistivity necessary to initiate reconnection, the reconnection rate and energy release initially remain slow. However, when S becomes reduced from plasmoid ejection and lobe reconnection, forming a negative slope in S as a function of distance from Earth, the reconnection rate and energy release increase drastically. The latter condition has been shown to be necessary for ballooning/interchange instability, and the cross-tail structures that develop subsequently in the MHD simulation are consistent with such modes. The simulations support a concept in which tail activity is initiated by tearing instability but significantly enhanced by the interaction with ballooning/interchange enabled by plasmoid loss and lobe reconnection.

  6. System comprising interchangeable electronic controllers and corresponding methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Glen F. (Inventor); Salazar, George A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system comprising an interchangeable electronic controller is provided with programming that allows the controller to adapt a behavior that is dependent upon the particular type of function performed by a system or subsystem component. The system reconfigures the controller when the controller is moved from one group of subsystem components to another. A plurality of application programs are provided by a server from which the application program for a particular electronic controller is selected. The selection is based on criteria such as a subsystem component group identifier that identifies the particular type of function associated with the system or subsystem group of components.

  7. EDI (electronic data interchange) provides strategy for laboratory results reporting.

    PubMed

    McLure, M; Barnett, P

    1994-01-01

    Historically, results of laboratory tests have been transmitted from hospitals to physicians' offices by mail and telephone. Two problems inherent in this system are the difficulty in notifying the physician and in the timeliness of delivery of results. Telephone messages may fail to reach the physician. Hard copies of reports may be misfiled, lost, or delayed in the mail. Today, test results can be transmitted between physicians' offices and hospitals via facsimile machines and electronic data interchange (EDI). This article examines the cost effectiveness, confidentiality, and opportunity for growth these alternative methods of transmission offer.

  8. Directory interchange format manual, version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Directory Interchange Format (DIF) is a data structure used to exchange directory level information about data sets among information systems. The format consists of a number of fields that describe the attributes of a directory entry and text blocks that contain a descriptive summary of and references for the directory entry. All fields and the summary are preceded by labels identifying their contents. All values are ASCII character strings. The structure is intended to be flexible, allowing for future changes in the contents of directory entries.

  9. Interchange instability in finite conductivity accelerated plasma arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourouis, M.; Huerta, M. A.; Rodriguez-Trelles, F.

    1993-01-01

    A first order perturbation expansion of the MHD equations is used to study the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor or interchange instability in accelerated plasma arcs. The mode equation is fourth-order, due to the inclusion of finite conductivity. It is solved numerically to yield results that are an improvement over previous work. The growth rates are less than in the infinite conductivity model. As in previous work the growth rates in typical rail launcher situations are large enough to permit full development of the instability.

  10. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... recognized leader in digestive diagnosis, treatments and surgical innovations. Cleveland Clinic News & More Cleveland Clinic News & More {{& ... Safety Office of Diversity & Inclusion Patient Experience Research & Innovations Careers For Employees Resources for Medical Professionals Site ...

  11. Cromolyn sodium for ACE inhibitor-induced cough.

    PubMed

    Allen, T L; Gora-Harper, M L

    1997-06-01

    There are several theories on the cause of ACE inhibitor-induced cough, but the exact mechanism is not known. In many patients, if cough develops, the ACE inhibitor can be discontinued and a drug in another therapeutic class used in its place. However, in patients with CHF, diabetic nephropathy, and patients who have experienced a myocardial infarction, discontinuing the ACE inhibitor may not be in the best interest of the patient. In this patient population it would be reasonable to try cromolyn sodium to treat cough, while continuing the ACE inhibitor. Data are not available to support the efficacy of cromolyn sodium to treat cough in patients with diabetic nephropathy, but these patients clearly benefit from the use of an ACE inhibitor. Other factors not addressed in the case reports and the clinical trial such as patient adherence, cost, and quality of life should also play a role in the decision to use cromolyn sodium. Cromolyn sodium has been effective for the treatment of ACE inhibitor-induced cough in many case reports and has had mild success in one small clinical trial. Although none of the reports adequately assessed adverse effects, studies examining cromolyn for other indications have demonstrated a relatively benign adverse effect profile. It is difficult to recommend an exact dose to use because of the dosing variability in the case reports. The majority of the case reports and the one clinical trial used dosages similar to recommendations for bronchial asthma (i.e., 2 puffs [1.6 mg] 4 times daily via MDI or 20-mg capsules 4 times daily via breath-activated inhalation). At this time, the use of cromolyn sodium is a viable option, but more controlled studies are needed to fully elucidate its role in the treatment of ACE inhibitor-induced cough.

  12. Directory interchange format manual, version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Directory Interchange Format (DIF) is a data structure used to exchange directory-level information about data sets among information systems. In general the format consists of a number of fields that describe the attributes of a directory entry and text blocks that contain a descriptive summary of and references for the directory entry. All fields and the summary are preceded by labels identifying their contents. All values are ASCII character strings. The structure is intended to be flexible, allowing for future changes in the contents of directory entries. The manual is structured as follows: section 1 is a general description of what constitutes a directory entry; section 2 describes the content of the individual fields within the data structure, together with some examples. Also included in the six appendices is a description of the syntax used within the examples; samples of the directory interchange format applied to different data sets; the allowable discipline keywords; a current list of valid location keywords; a list of allowable parameter keywords; a list of acronyns and a glossary of terms used; and a description of the Standard Formatted Data Unit header, which may be added to the front of a DIF file to identify the file as a registered standard format.

  13. Deep water X-mas tree standardization -- Interchangeability approach

    SciTech Connect

    Paula, M.T.R.; Paulo, C.A.S.; Moreira, C.C.

    1995-12-31

    Aiming the rationalization of subsea operations to turn the production of oil and gas more economical and reliable, standardization of subsea equipment interfaces is a tool that can play a very important role. Continuing the program initiated some years ago, Petrobras is now harvesting the results from the first efforts. Diverless guidelineless subsea Christmas trees from four different suppliers have already been manufactured in accordance to the standardized specification. Tests performed this year in Macae (Campos Basin onshore base), in Brazil, confirmed the interchangeability among subsea Christmas trees, tubing hangers, adapter bases and flowline hubs of different manufacturers. This interchangeability, associated with the use of proven techniques, results in operational flexibility, savings in rig time and reduction in production losses during workovers. By now, 33 complete sets of subsea Christmas trees have already been delivered and successfully tested. Other 28 sets are still being manufactured by the four local suppliers. For the next five years, more than a hundred of these trees will be required for the exploration of the new discoveries. This paper describes the standardized equipment, the role of the operator in an integrated way of working with the manufacturers on the standardization activities, the importance of a frank information flow through the involved companies and how a simple manufacturing philosophy, with the use of construction jigs, has proved to work satisfactorily.

  14. Uncertainty-based Estimation of the Secure Range for ISO New England Dynamic Interchange Adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Wu, Di; Hou, Zhangshuan; Sun, Yannan; Maslennikov, S.; Luo, Xiaochuan; Zheng, T.; George, S.; Knowland, T.; Litvinov, E.; Weaver, S.; Sanchez, E.

    2014-04-14

    The paper proposes an approach to estimate the secure range for dynamic interchange adjustment, which assists system operators in scheduling the interchange with neighboring control areas. Uncertainties associated with various sources are incorporated. The proposed method is implemented in the dynamic interchange adjustment (DINA) tool developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for ISO New England. Simulation results are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Contemplating Synergistic Algorithms for the NASA ACE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Gerald G.; Starr, David O.; Marchand, Roger; Ackerman, Steven A.; Platnick, Steven E.; Fridlind, Ann; Cooper, Steven; Vane, Deborah G.; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2013-01-01

    ACE is a proposed Tier 2 NASA Decadal Survey mission that will focus on clouds, aerosols, and precipitation as well as ocean ecosystems. The primary objective of the clouds component of this mission is to advance our ability to predict changes to the Earth's hydrological cycle and energy balance in response to climate forcings by generating observational constraints on future science questions, especially those associated with the effects of aerosol on clouds and precipitation. ACE will continue and extend the measurement heritage that began with the A-Train and that will continue through Earthcare. ACE planning efforts have identified several data streams that can contribute significantly to characterizing the properties of clouds and precipitation and the physical processes that force these properties. These include dual frequency Doppler radar, high spectral resolution lidar, polarimetric visible imagers, passive microwave and submillimeter wave radiometry. While all these data streams are technologically feasible, their total cost is substantial and likely prohibitive. It is, therefore, necessary to critically evaluate their contributions to the ACE science goals. We have begun developing algorithms to explore this trade space. Specifically, we will describe our early exploratory algorithms that take as input the set of potential ACE-like data streams and evaluate critically to what extent each data stream influences the error in a specific cloud quantity retrieval.

  16. The absence of intrarenal ACE protects against hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Janjoulia, Tea; Fletcher, Nicholas K.; Giani, Jorge F.; Nguyen, Mien T.X.; Riquier-Brison, Anne D.; Seth, Dale M.; Fuchs, Sebastien; Eladari, Dominique; Picard, Nicolas; Bachmann, Sebastian; Delpire, Eric; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Navar, L. Gabriel; Bernstein, Kenneth E.; McDonough, Alicia A.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can elicit hypertension independently from the systemic RAS. However, the precise mechanisms by which intrarenal Ang II increases blood pressure have never been identified. To this end, we studied the responses of mice specifically lacking kidney angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) to experimental hypertension. Here, we show that the absence of kidney ACE substantially blunts the hypertension induced by Ang II infusion (a model of high serum Ang II) or by nitric oxide synthesis inhibition (a model of low serum Ang II). Moreover, the renal responses to high serum Ang II observed in wild-type mice, including intrarenal Ang II accumulation, sodium and water retention, and activation of ion transporters in the loop of Henle (NKCC2) and distal nephron (NCC, ENaC, and pendrin) as well as the transporter activating kinases SPAK and OSR1, were effectively prevented in mice that lack kidney ACE. These findings demonstrate that ACE metabolism plays a fundamental role in the responses of the kidney to hypertensive stimuli. In particular, renal ACE activity is required to increase local Ang II, to stimulate sodium transport in loop of Henle and the distal nephron, and to induce hypertension. PMID:23619363

  17. The absence of intrarenal ACE protects against hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A; Janjoulia, Tea; Fletcher, Nicholas K; Giani, Jorge F; Nguyen, Mien T X; Riquier-Brison, Anne D; Seth, Dale M; Fuchs, Sebastien; Eladari, Dominique; Picard, Nicolas; Bachmann, Sebastian; Delpire, Eric; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Navar, L Gabriel; Bernstein, Kenneth E; McDonough, Alicia A

    2013-05-01

    Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can elicit hypertension independently from the systemic RAS. However, the precise mechanisms by which intrarenal Ang II increases blood pressure have never been identified. To this end, we studied the responses of mice specifically lacking kidney angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) to experimental hypertension. Here, we show that the absence of kidney ACE substantially blunts the hypertension induced by Ang II infusion (a model of high serum Ang II) or by nitric oxide synthesis inhibition (a model of low serum Ang II). Moreover, the renal responses to high serum Ang II observed in wild-type mice, including intrarenal Ang II accumulation, sodium and water retention, and activation of ion transporters in the loop of Henle (NKCC2) and distal nephron (NCC, ENaC, and pendrin) as well as the transporter activating kinases SPAK and OSR1, were effectively prevented in mice that lack kidney ACE. These findings demonstrate that ACE metabolism plays a fundamental role in the responses of the kidney to hypertensive stimuli. In particular, renal ACE activity is required to increase local Ang II, to stimulate sodium transport in loop of Henle and the distal nephron, and to induce hypertension.

  18. Contemporary evolution of resistance at the major insecticide target site gene Ace-1 by mutation and copy number variation in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Weetman, David; Mitchell, Sara N; Wilding, Craig S; Birks, Daniel P; Yawson, Alexander E; Essandoh, John; Mawejje, Henry D; Djogbenou, Luc S; Steen, Keith; Rippon, Emily J; Clarkson, Christopher S; Field, Stuart G; Rigden, Daniel J; Donnelly, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Functionally constrained genes are ideal insecticide targets because disruption is often fatal, and resistance mutations are typically costly. Synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential neurotransmission enzyme targeted by insecticides used increasingly in malaria control. In Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, a glycine–serine substitution at codon 119 of the Ace-1 gene confers both resistance and fitness costs, especially for 119S/S homozygotes. G119S in Anopheles gambiae from Accra (Ghana) is strongly associated with resistance, and, despite expectations of cost, resistant 119S alleles are increasing significantly in frequency. Sequencing of Accra females detected only a single Ace-1 119S haplotype, whereas 119G diversity was high overall but very low at non-synonymous sites, evidence of strong purifying selection driven by functional constraint. Flanking microsatellites showed reduced diversity, elevated linkage disequilibrium and high differentiation of 119S, relative to 119G homozygotes across up to two megabases of the genome. Yet these signals of selection were inconsistent and sometimes weak tens of kilobases from Ace-1. This unexpected finding is attributable to apparently ubiquitous amplification of 119S alleles as part of a large copy number variant (CNV) far exceeding the size of the Ace-1 gene, whereas 119G alleles were unduplicated. Ace-1 CNV was detectable in archived samples collected when the 119S allele was rare in Ghana. Multicopy amplification of resistant alleles has not been observed previously and is likely to underpin the recent increase in 119S frequency. The large CNV compromised localization of the strong selective sweep around Ace-1, emphasizing the need to integrate CNV analysis into genome scans for selection. PMID:25865270

  19. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE) Science Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Luna, Unique J.; Chaiken, Paul M.; Hollingsworth, Andrew; Secanna, Stefano; Weitz, David; Lu, Peter; Yodh, Arjun; Yunker, Peter; Lohr, Matthew; Gratale, Matthew; Lynch, Matthew; Kodger, Thomas; Piazza, Roberto; Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Cipelletti, Luca; Schall, Peter; Veen, Sandra; Wegdam, Gerhard; Lee, Chand-Soo; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J.; Cohen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    accessible with the availability of the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) on ISS. To meet these goals, the ACE experiment is being built-up in stages, with the availability of confocal microscopy being the ultimate objective. Supported by NASAs Physical Sciences Research Program, ESAESTEC, and the authors respective governments.

  20. [Job satisfaction among the professionals of AceS Baixo Vouga II].

    PubMed

    Santana, Silvina; Cerdeira, José

    2011-12-01

    Job satisfaction is a measure of quality of life at work and is related to emotional states. The interest for this theme is increasing and, in the last years, many studies have attempted to demonstrate its relation with professional performance. Primary care professionals are in the first line of the Serviço Nacional de Saúde (SNS). Therefore, it is necessary that they feel satisfaction with their jobs, in order to perform the tasks with the quality required. Several factors seem to have impact in the satisfaction of these professionals, such as payment, promotion, recognition from supervisors and peers, physical conditions at work and available resources, opportunities for personal development, among others. Insatisfaction may lead to absentism and in the limit to job quit. The main objective of this work is to study job satisfaction among the professionals working at the health centers of ACeS Baixo Vouga II, namely, the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction and between job characteristics and considering job quit as a serious option. All the professionals working in the four health centers were inquired. Results show that job characteristics are defined by six dimensions: leadership and supervision, task characteristics and autonomy, payment, personal and professional development and promotion, peers and relations inside the organization and work environment. Globally, payment and opportunities for personal and professional development and promotion are perceived at low level by all the professional groups. Results also show that there are differences by gender and professional groups regarding job satisfaction and the will to quit job. Considering the specificity of the tasks performed by these professionals, measures should be taken in order to improve job satisfaction in the Portuguese health centers.

  1. Bioactive peptides: are there more antihypertensive mechanisms beyond ACE inhibition?

    PubMed

    Marques, Claudia; Amorim, Maria Manuela; Pereira, Joana Odila; Pintado, Manuela Estevez; Moura, Daniel; Calhau, Conceicao; Pinheiro, Helder

    2012-01-01

    Diet has a high relevance in health. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has an important impact on public health, and consequently on countries economy. Scientific research gathered strong evidence about the role of several dietary factors either in etiology or in treatment/prevention of these diseases. Peptides from different food matrices have been studied, and indicated as compounds with particular interest in the context of hypertension. The classical approach involves the identification of peptides with an in vitro ACE inhibitory activity and the assumption that the observed in vivo effects are due to this enzyme blockade. However, in some cases the potency of ACE blockade does not correlate with the antihypertensive activity in vivo. This paper reviews the current literature that identifies mechanisms of action, other than ACE inhibition, that might explain antihypertensive effects of biologically active peptides from different food sources.

  2. Insulin treatment attenuates renal ADAM17 and ACE2 shedding in diabetic Akita mice.

    PubMed

    Salem, Esam S B; Grobe, Nadja; Elased, Khalid M

    2014-03-15

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is located in several tissues and is highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it degrades the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (ANG II) to ANG-(1-7). Accumulating evidence supports protective roles of ACE2 in several disease states, including diabetic nephropathy. A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 17 is involved in the shedding of several transmembrane proteins, including ACE2. Our previous studies showed increased renal ACE2, ADAM17 expression, and urinary ACE2 in type 2 diabetic mice (Chodavarapu H, Grobe N, Somineni HK, Salem ES, Madhu M, Elased KM. PLoS One 8: e62833, 2013). The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of insulin on ACE2 shedding and ADAM17 in type 1 diabetic Akita mice. Results demonstrate increased renal ACE2 and ADAM17 expression and increased urinary ACE2 fragments (≈70 kDa) and albumin excretion in diabetic Akita mice. Immunostaining revealed colocalization of ACE2 with ADAM17 in renal tubules. Renal proximal tubular cells treated with ADAM17 inhibitor showed reduced ACE2 shedding into the media, confirming ADAM17-mediated shedding of ACE2. Treatment of Akita mice with insulin implants for 20 wk normalized hyperglycemia and decreased urinary ACE2 and albumin excretion. Insulin also normalized renal ACE2 and ADAM17 but had no effect on tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) protein expression. There was a positive linear correlation between urinary ACE2 and albuminuria, blood glucose, plasma creatinine, glucagon, and triglycerides. This is the first report showing an association between hyperglycemia, cardiovascular risk factors, and increased shedding of urinary ACE2 in diabetic Akita mice. Urinary ACE2 could be used as a biomarker for diabetic nephropathy and as an index of intrarenal ACE2 status.

  3. Vascular Wall ACE is not required for Atherogenesis in ApoE-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Daiana; Bernstein, Kenneth E.; Fuchs, Sebastian; Adams, Jonathan; Synetos, Andreas; Taylor, W. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that elements of the renin angiotensin system expressed in the arterial wall are critical for the development of atherosclerosis. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is highly expressed by the endothelium and is responsible for a critical enzymatic step in the generation of angiotensin II. However, the functional contribution of ACE expression in the vascular wall in atherogenesis is unknown. Therefore, we made use of unique genetic models in which mice without expression of ACE in the vascular wall were crossed with apoE-/- mice in order to determine the contribution of tissue ACE expression to atherosclerotic lesion formation. Methods and Results Mice expressing either a soluble form of ACE (ACE 2/2) or mice with somatic ACE expression restricted to the liver and kidney (ACE 3/3) on an ApoE-/- background were placed on a standard chow or Western diet for 6 months. Atherosclerotic lesion area in the ACE 2/2 mice was significantly lower than that seen in the ACE 3/3 mice. However, these animals also had significantly lower blood pressure and reduced plasma ACE activity which precluded establishing a specific causal relationship between absent tissue ACE activity and decreased atherosclerotic lesion extent. Therefore, we studied the ACE 3/3 mice which are normotensive and lack vascular ACE expression. In the ACE 3/3 animals, atherosclerotic lesion area was no different from wild type controls despite reduced plasma ACE activity. Conclusions We concluded that under these experimental conditions, expression of ACE in the arterial wall is not required for atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:19880118

  4. Improved ACE-FTS observations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy; Chipperfield, Martyn; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), on board the SCISAT satellite, has been recording solar occultation spectra through the Earth's atmosphere since 2004 and continues to take measurements with only minor loss in performance. ACE-FTS time series are available for a range of chlorine 'source' gases, including CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3Cl and CCl4. Recently there has been much community interest in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a substance regulated by the Montreal Protocol because it leads to the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. Estimated sources and sinks of CCl4 remain inconsistent with observations of its abundance. Satellite observations of CCl4 in the stratosphere are particularly useful in validating stratospheric loss (photolysis) rates; in fact the atmospheric loss of CCl4 is essentially all due to photolysis in the stratosphere. However, the latest ACE-FTS v3.5 CCl4 retrieval is biased high by ˜ 20-30%. A new ACE-FTS retrieval scheme utilising new laboratory spectroscopic measurements of CCl4 and improved microwindow selection has recently been developed. This improves upon the v3.5 retrieval and resolves the issue of the high bias; this new scheme will form the basis for the upcoming v4 processing version of ACE-FTS data. This presentation will outline the improvements made in the retrieval, and a subset of data will be compared with modelled CCl4 distributions from SLIMCAT, a state-of-the-art three-dimensional chemical transport model. The use of ACE-FTS data to evaluate the modelled stratospheric loss rate of CCl4 will also be discussed. The evaluated model, which also includes a treatment of surface soil and ocean sinks, will then be used to quantify current uncertainties in the global budget of CCl4.

  5. Advanced Crew Escape Suits (ACES): Particle Impact Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosales, Keisa R.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested NASA JSC White Sands Test Facility to assist in determining the effects of impaired anodization on aluminum parts in advanced crew escape suits (ACES). Initial investigation indicated poor anodization could lead to an increased risk of particle impact ignition, and a lack of data was prevalent for particle impact of bare (unanodized) aluminum; therefore, particle impact tests were performed. A total of 179 subsonic and 60 supersonic tests were performed with no ignition of the aluminum targets. Based on the resulting test data, WSTF found no increased particle impact hazard was present in the ACES equipment.

  6. Defective intestinal amino acid absorption in Ace2 null mice.

    PubMed

    Singer, Dustin; Camargo, Simone M R; Ramadan, Tamara; Schäfer, Matthias; Mariotta, Luca; Herzog, Brigitte; Huggel, Katja; Wolfer, David; Werner, Sabine; Penninger, Josef M; Verrey, François

    2012-09-15

    Mutations in the main intestinal and kidney luminal neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (Slc6a19) lead to Hartnup disorder, a condition that is characterized by neutral aminoaciduria and in some cases pellagra-like symptoms. These latter symptoms caused by low-niacin are thought to result from defective intestinal absorption of its precursor L-tryptophan. Since Ace2 is necessary for intestinal B(0)AT1 expression, we tested the impact of intestinal B(0)AT1 absence in ace2 null mice. Their weight gain following weaning was decreased, and Na(+)-dependent uptake of B(0)AT1 substrates measured in everted intestinal rings was defective. Additionally, high-affinity Na(+)-dependent transport of L-proline, presumably via SIT1 (Slc6a20), was absent, whereas glucose uptake via SGLT1 (Slc5a1) was not affected. Measurements of small intestine luminal amino acid content following gavage showed that more L-tryptophan than other B(0)AT1 substrates reach the ileum in wild-type mice, which is in line with its known lower apparent affinity. In ace2 null mice, the absorption defect was confirmed by a severalfold increase of L-tryptophan and of other neutral amino acids reaching the ileum lumen. Furthermore, plasma and muscle levels of glycine and L-tryptophan were significantly decreased in ace2 null mice, with other neutral amino acids displaying a similar trend. A low-protein/low-niacin diet challenge led to differential changes in plasma amino acid levels in both wild-type and ace2 null mice, but only in ace2 null mice to a stop in weight gain. Despite the combination of low-niacin with a low-protein diet, plasma niacin concentrations remained normal in ace2 null mice and no pellagra symptoms, such as photosensitive skin rash or ataxia, were observed. In summary, mice lacking Ace2-dependent intestinal amino acid transport display no total niacin deficiency nor clear pellagra symptoms, even under a low-protein and low-niacin diet, despite gross amino acid homeostasis alterations.

  7. Collaboration for Education with the Apple Learning Interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Patrick A.; Zimmerman, T.; Knierman, K. A.

    2006-12-01

    We present a progressive effort to deliver online education and outreach resources in collaboration with the Apple Learning Interchange, a free community for educators. We have created a resource site with astronomy activities, video training for the activities, and the possibility of interactive training through video chat services. Also in development is an online textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in stellar evolution, featuring an updatable and annotated text with multimedia content, online lectures, podcasts, and a framework for interactive simulation activities. Both sites will be highly interactive, combining online discussions, the opportunity for live video interaction, and a growing library of student work samples. This effort promises to provide a compelling model for collaboration between science educators and corporations. As scientists, we provide content knowledge and a compelling reason to communicate, while Apple provides technical expertise, a deep knowledge of online education, and a way for us to reach a wide audience of higher education, community outreach, and K-12 educators.

  8. An Ensemble Approach for Forecasting Net Interchange Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Gosink, Luke J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Zhou, Ning; Tong, Jianzhong

    2013-09-01

    The net interchange schedule (NIS) is the sum of the transactions (MW) between an ISO/RTO and its neighbors. Effective forecasting of the submitted NIS can improve grid operation efficiency. This paper applies a Bayesian model averaging (BMA) technique to forecast submitted NIS. As an ensemble approach, the BMA method aggregates different forecasting models in order to improve forecasting accuracy and consistency. In this study, the BMA method is compared to two alternative approaches: a stepwise regression method and an artificial neural network (ANN) trained for NIS forecasting. In our comparative analysis, we use field measurement data from the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland (PJM) Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) to train and test each method. Our preliminary results indicate that ensemble-based methods can provide more accurate and consistent NIS forecasts in comparison to non-ensemble alternate methods.

  9. HST Super Lightweight Interchangeable Carrier (SLIC) Static Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, William V.

    2008-01-01

    The HST Super Light Weight Interchangeable Carrier Static Test program calls for a total of 15 load cases with an average of 9 simultaneous push/pull locations per load case. This testing program represents the most complex static test ever attempted at Goddard Space Flight Center. Many unique multi-pull fixtures were designed to apply the simultaneous loading. Additionally, a total of 600 channels of data required processing for each loadcase. A total of 1100 separate strain gages were installed on SLIC. A team of 15 trained technicians were needed to apply test loads via mechanical hand pumps for several load cases. All 15 load cases were successfully conducted within 15 weeks. The ManTech team successfully tested all SLIC 1200 interface clips to the required testing loads. Several unique designs were needed to address testing challenges as loadline interference, Payload Safety, payload flexibility and opposing load applications.

  10. SCHIP: Statistics for Chromosome Interphase Positioning Based on Interchange Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vives, Sergi; Loucas, Bradford; Vazquez, Mariel; Brenner, David J.; Sachs, Rainer K.; Hlatky, Lynn; Cornforth, Michael; Arsuaga, Javier

    2005-01-01

    he position of chromosomes in the interphase nucleus is believed to be associated with a number of biological processes. Here, we present a web-based application that helps analyze the relative position of chromosomes during interphase in human cells, based on observed radiogenic chromosome aberrations. The inputs of the program are a table of yields of pairwise chromosome interchanges and a proposed chromosome geometric cluster. Each can either be uploaded or selected from provided datasets. The main outputs are P-values for the proposed chromosome clusters. SCHIP is designed to be used by a number of scientific communities interested in nuclear architecture, including cancer and cell biologists, radiation biologists and mathematical/computational biologists.

  11. Interchangeable end effector tools utilized on the protoflight manipulator arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A subset of teleoperator and effector tools was designed, fabricated, delivered and successfully demonstrated on the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) protoflight manipulator arm (PFMA). The tools delivered included a rotary power tool with interchangeable collets and two fluid coupling mate/demate tools; one for a Fairchild coupling and the other for a Purolator coupling. An electrical interface connector was also provided for the rotary power tool. A tool set, from which the subset was selected, for performing on-orbit satellite maintenance was identified and conceptionally designed. Maintenance requirements were synthesized, evaluated and prioritized to develop design requirements for a set of end effector tools representative of those needed to provide on-orbit maintenance of satellites to be flown in the 1986 to 2000 timeframe.

  12. Transport scaling in interchange-driven toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, Paolo; Rogers, B. N.

    2009-06-15

    Two-dimensional fluid simulations of a simple magnetized torus are presented, in which the vertical and toroidal components of the magnetic field create helicoidal field lines that terminate on the upper and lower walls of the plasma chamber. The simulations self-consistently evolve the full radial profiles of the electric potential, density, and electron temperature in the presence of three competing effects: the cross-field turbulent transport driven by the interchange instability, parallel losses to the upper and lower walls, and the input of particles and heat by external plasma sources. Considering parameter regimes in which equilibrium ExB shear flow effects are weak, we study the dependence of the plasma profiles--in particular the pressure profile scale length--on the parameters of the system. Analytical scalings are obtained that show remarkable agreement with the simulations.

  13. Guidelines for Provision and Interchange of Geothermal Data Assets

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-07-03

    The US Department of Energy Office of Geothermal Technologies (OGT) is funding and overseeing the development of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS), a distributed information system providing access to integrated data in support of, and generated in, all phases of geothermal development. NGDS is being built in an open paradigm and will employ state-of-the-art informatics approaches and capabilities to advance the state of geothermal knowledge in the US. This document presents guidelines related to provision and interchange of data assets in the context of the National Geothermal Data System. It identifies general specifications for NGDS catalog metadata and data content, and provides specific instructions for preparation and submission of data assets by OGT-funded projects.

  14. The Harang reversal and the interchange stability of the magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Shinichi; Gkioulidou, Matina; Wang, Chih-Ping; Wolf, Richard A.

    2016-04-01

    The present study addresses steady convection in the plasma sheet in terms of the interchange stability with special attention to the Harang reversal. The closure of the tail current with a field-aligned current (FAC) results from the divergence/convergence of the pressure gradient current. If the magnetotail is in a steady state, the associated change of local plasma pressure p has to balance with its advective change. Accordingly, for adiabatic transport, the flux tube entropy parameter pVγ increases and decreases along the convection path in regions corresponding to downward and upward FACs, respectively. This requirement, along with the condition for the interchange stability imposes an important constraint on the direction of convection especially in the regions of downward FACs. It is deduced that for the dusk cell, the convection in the downward R2 current has to be directed azimuthally duskward, which follows the sunward, possibly dawnward deflected, convection in the region of the premidnight upward R1 current. This duskward turn of convection takes place in the vicinity of the R1-R2 demarcation, and it presumably corresponds to the Harang reversal. For the dawn cell the convection in the postmidnight downward R1 current has to deflect dawnward, and then it proceeds sunward in the upward R2 current. The continuity of the associated ionospheric currents consistently reproduces the assumed FAC distribution. The proposed interrelationships between the convection and FACs are also verified with a quasi-steady plasma sheet configuration and convection reproduced by a modified Rice Convection Model with force balance.

  15. The Harang Reversal and the Interchange Stability of the Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Wang, C. P.; Wolf, R.

    2015-12-01

    During the substorm growth phase the overall convection, electric currents, and aurora structures in the nightside ionosphere often change very gradually over prolonged (> 1 hr) periods, and therefore the magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) system can be considered to be in a quasi-steady state. For the source region of a downward field-aligned current (FAC) the cross-tail current, which is carried mostly by ions, closes with a FAC, which is carried by electrons moving away from the ionosphere. Thus both ions and electrons accumulate there and accordingly, the plasma pressure increases. In the source region of an upward FAC, in contrast, the reduction of plasma pressure is expected. Since the plasma pressure, more precisely the entropy parameter (pVr), is most critical for the interchange stability of the magnetotail, this simple assessment raises a fundamental question about the magnetotail dynamics, that is, how the magnetotail remains to be steady. In this study we argue that if the magnetosphere is in a steady state, those expected increase and decrease in plasma pressure need to balance with the change due to the plasma transport by convection. This requirement, along with the condition for the interchange stability, leads to the conclusion that the associated pattern of convection has a structure that is presumably the magnetospheric counter part of the Harang reversal. More specifically, for the dusk convection cell, the convection flow is directed azimuthally westward in the source region of the downward R2 current, whereas it is directed sunward in the source region of the upward R1 current. We verify this idea by examining a quasi-steady magnetotail modeled by the RCM-Dungey code. Using equi-potential contours as a reference we also suggest that auroral arcs mapped to the equator tend to be oriented in the east-west and Sun-Earth direction if they are located in the premidnight R2 and R1 currents, respectively.

  16. ACE-Asia: Ground Stations Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimoto, R.; Sugimoto, N.; Shimizu, A.; Kim, J.; Oh, S.; Kang, C.; Asia Science Team; Murayama, T.; Delta Group; Zhang, X.; Kim, Y.; VMAP Group

    2001-12-01

    Observations of aerosol properties made at a network of ground stations were an integral part of ACE-Asia. During an intensive observation period (IOP, March - May 2001), high dust loadings were observed at many stations. At Zhenbeitai, China mass loadings well above average (260 μ g m-3) were observed during eleven dust storms, and ˜82% of the total particle mass at the site could be attributed to Asian dust. Daily bulk dust concentrations at Kosan, Korea ranged from 130 to 350 μ g m-3 from April 10 - 13. Important sub-micron dust signatures were obtained during this storm, coincident with highly absorbing ultra-fine (< 0.24 μ m) soot and other anthropogenic materials. PM2.5 aerosol concentrations at Kosan varied from 15.7 to 92.6 μ g m-3 during the IOP. Comparisons with prior data show some evidence for a decrease in the relative amount of nitrate vs. sulfate. An Asian dust storm with peak PM10 concentrations of about 200 μ g m-3 was observed over Taiwan on April 12 - 13. While most of the PM10 was dust, significant levels (up to about 30%) of pollutants also were found. Analysis of this and previous events indicates that the concentrations of pollutants over Taiwan during Asian dust storms are controlled more by long-range transport than local sources. Measurements of aerosols and associated species on four Japanese islands showed clear intermittent transport of continental aerosols, especially at Rishiri. A Mie and Raman lidar system with auxiliary instruments, including a sun photometer, operated at Tokyo during the IOP; some of these data were used for C-130 flight planning. From combined Raman lidar observations of dust at Tokyo, a typical extinction-to-backscatter ratio was found to be ˜40 sr, ranging from 30 and 70 sr and tending to increase with Angstrom exponent. A lidar intercomparison with C-130 flight observations on April 23 showed widely distributed dust and non-dust aerosols up to 8 km. A multi-channel backscatter lidar system operating at

  17. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE and ACE2) imbalance correlates with the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruixia; Qi, Haiyu; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yan; Cui, Lijian; Wen, Yan; Yin, Chenghong

    2014-04-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and its effector peptide angiotensin II (Ang II) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) degrades Ang II to angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] and has recently been described to have an antagonistic effect on ACE signalling. However, the specific underlying role of ACE2 in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is unclear. In the present study, the local imbalance of ACE and ACE2, as well as Ang II and Ang-(1-7) expression, was compared in wild-type (WT) and ACE2 knock-out (KO) or ACE2 transgenic (TG) mice subjected to cerulein-induced SAP. Serum amylase, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 levels and histological morphometry were used to determine the severity of pancreatitis. In WT mice, pancreatic ACE and Ang II and serum Ang II expression increased (P < 0.05), while pancreatic ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) and serum Ang-(1-7) levels were also significantly elevated (P < 0.05) from 2 to 72 h after the onset of SAP. However, the ratio of pancreatic ACE2 to ACE expression was significantly reduced (from 1.46 ± 0.09 to 0.27 ± 0.05, P < 0.001) and paralleled the severity of pancreatitis. The Ace2 KO mice exhibited increased levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, multifocal coagulative necrosis and inflammatory infiltrate, and lower levels of serum IL-10 and pancreatic Ang-(1-7) (4.70 ± 2.13 versus 10.87 ± 2.51, P < 0.001) compared with cerulein-treated WT mice at the same time point. Conversely, Ace2 TG mice with normal ACE expression were more resistant to SAP challenge as evidenced by a decreased inflammatory response, attenuated pathological changes and increased survival rates. These data suggest that the ACE2-ACE imbalance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of SAP and that pancreatic ACE2 is an important factor in determining the severity of SAP.

  18. 77 FR 48527 - National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) Simplified Entry: Modification of Participant Selection Criteria and... (NCAP) test concerning the simplified entry functionality in the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...) National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning Automated Commercial Environment...

  19. What Kind of International Interchange Is Beneficial? Experiences of Taiwanese Indigenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shan-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Because of globalization, international interchanges among indigenes in every country have become more frequent. Influenced by international multicultural trends, Taiwan's government not only supports indigenous populations to revive their traditional cultures, but also encourages the promotion of the international interchange activities among…

  20. 78 FR 18666 - Agency Information Collection Activities; New Information Collection: Lease and Interchange of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Information Collection: Lease and Interchange of Vehicles AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... codified in 49 CFR Part 376, ``Lease and Interchange of Vehicles.'' These regulations require certain for-hire motor carriers to have a formal lease when leasing equipment. ACTION: Notice and request...

  1. Structural Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Language: A Comparative Analysis of InterChange Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kwang-Kyu

    1996-01-01

    Compares one form of synchronous computer-mediated communication, Daedalus InterChange, with analogous spoken and written corpora. Finds that the InterChange discourse mode is not merely intermediate between speaking and writing; rather the electronic medium uniquely fosters some behaviors and inhibits others, in support of the view that physical…

  2. WEDI (Workgroup for Electronic Data Interchange) co-chair predicts big savings from EDI.

    PubMed

    Brophy, J T

    1992-10-01

    Electronic data interchange has the potential to save billions of healthcare dollars--that's the gospel according to Joe Brophy. The Travelers Insurance Company president and co-chair of the Health and Human Services Workgroup on Electronic Data Interchange is taking this sermon to the people.

  3. 22 CFR 501.3 - Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service. 501.3 Section 501.3 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS APPOINTMENT OF FOREIGN SERVICE OFFICERS § 501.3 Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and...

  4. 78 FR 6845 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Interchange Project in Massachusetts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Interchange Project in Massachusetts AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Limitations on Claims for.... 139(l)(1). The actions relate to the proposed Route 79/I-195 Interchange Project in Fall...

  5. 77 FR 66165 - Information Required in Notices and Petitions Containing Interchange Commitments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... 11323 to acquire (through purchase or lease) and operate a rail line. The collection of agreements with... exemption where the underlying lease or line sale includes an interchange commitment. DATES: Comments are.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Interchange commitments are ``contractual provisions included with a sale or lease...

  6. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  7. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  8. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  9. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  10. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  11. Compressibility effect on magnetic-shear-localized ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchange instability

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sangeeta; Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.

    2005-08-15

    Eigenmode analysis of a magnetic-shear-localized ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchange instability in the presence of plasma compressibility indicates the marginal stability criterion (D{sub I}=1/4) is not affected by the compressibility effects. Above the marginal stability criterion, plasma compressibility causes a significant reduction in the growth rate of an ideal interchange instability.

  12. Finite Larmor radius assisted velocity shear stabilization of the interchange instability in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ng Sheungwah; Hassam, A.B.

    2005-06-15

    Finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects, originally shown to stabilize magnetized plasma interchange modes at short wavelength, are shown to assist velocity shear stabilization of long wavelength interchanges. It is shown that the FLR effects result in stabilization with roughly the same efficacy as the stabilization from dissipative (resistive and viscous) effects found earlier.

  13. The Place of Community-Based Learning in Higher Education: A Case Study of Interchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Louise

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on one strand of community engagement: community-based learning for students. It considers in particular Interchange as a case study. Interchange is a registered charity based in, but independent of, a department in a Higher Education Institution. It brokers between undergraduate research/work projects and Voluntary Community…

  14. 76 FR 69755 - National Customs Automation Program Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Commercial Environment (ACE) Simplified Entry AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Commercial Environment (ACE) entry capability. This new capability will include functionality specific to the... was on trade compliance and the development of the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE), the...

  15. ACE TECH: The Fourth Year of CTE and Academic Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Eileen Quinn; Donahue, John; Knight, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    It only takes an hour or two of roaming the halls of Architecture, Construction and Engineering (ACE) Tech Charter High School to detect an enduring attitude of accomplishment from both the teachers and the students. This atmosphere is intentional. The school, located in Chicago, was created specifically to hone the skills of individuals choosing…

  16. Hyperspectral Detection and Discrimination Using the ACE Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-08

    08-2011 Proceedings AUG 2011 - SEPT 2011 Hyperspectral Detection and Discrimination Using the ACE Algorithm FA8720-05-C-0002 M. L. Pieper , D...relative to the background. If an object spectrum has a close resemblance to its surroundings, it will Correspondence to M. L. Pieper E-mail: mpieper

  17. Linkages between ACE Vocational Provision and Mainstream VET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, John

    A study investigated linkages between adult community education (ACE) and mainstream vocational education and training (VET) in Australia, which enable people to move between the two sectors in their pursuit of vocational learning, and the ways in which linkages might be improved or new ones developed. The data from the study were derived from 69…

  18. Applying computationally efficient schemes for biogeochemical cycles (ACES4BGC)

    SciTech Connect

    Vertenstein, Mariana

    2016-01-11

    NCAR contributed to the ACES4BGC project through software engineering work on aerosol model implementation, build system and script changes, coupler enhancements for biogeochemical tracers, improvements to the Community Land Model (CLM) code and testing infrastructure, and coordinating and integrating code changes from the various project participants.

  19. Observational test of the interchange stability associated with near-tail dipolarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Kim, K.; Ohtani, S.; Park, M.

    2010-12-01

    The interchange instability is a pressure gradient-driven instability. Formally speaking, the interchange mode can be considered to be a special case of the more general ballooning mode in the sense that the perpendicular displacement (as multiplied by the magnetic field strength) of the interchange mode is defined to be constant along the magnetic field line while that of a ballooning mode can be localized to the “bad curvature” region (i.e. the equatorial plane). Since the radial pressure profile in the near-earth tail is expected to become steeper prior to the substorm onset, instability of either interchange or ballooning type mode may be expected to occur. An observational test is generally non-trivial and difficult for the ballooning mode. For the interchange mode, however, the classic analytic criterion has long been known and thus using this criterion an observational test of the instability can be more feasible. The only difficulty has been how to evaluate the flux tube volume, for which Wolf et al. [2006] have suggested a useful formula. Using the formula, we have evaluated the interchange criterion for a set of pair-dipolarization events that are radially aligned. We found that the near-tail configuration before and during a dipolarization is likely stable against the interchange mode. Using a number of more dipolarizations, we have performed an analysis on evaluating the interchange criterion in a statistical manner and reached the results that support the conclusion of the interchange stability. This seems to suggest to us that the interchange instability is unlikely a candidate to trigger dipolarizations in association with substorms. But, the ballooning instability, the mode structure of which can be localized near the equatorial plane, remains a possibility responsible for dipolarizations.

  20. Household and community-level Adverse Childhood Experiences and adult health outcomes in a diverse urban population.

    PubMed

    Wade, Roy; Cronholm, Peter F; Fein, Joel A; Forke, Christine M; Davis, Martha B; Harkins-Schwarz, Mary; Pachter, Lee M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), which include family dysfunction and community-level stressors, negatively impact the health and well being of children throughout the life course. While several studies have examined the impact of these childhood exposures amongst racially and socially diverse populations, the contribution of ACEs in the persistence of socioeconomic disparities in health is poorly understood. To determine the association between ACEs and health outcomes amongst a sample of adults living in Philadelphia and examine the moderating effect of Socioeconomic Status (SES) on this association, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,784 Philadelphia adults, ages 18 and older, using random digit dialing methodology to assess Conventional ACEs (experiences related to family dysfunction), Expanded ACEs (community-level stressors), and health outcomes. Using weighted, multivariable logistic regression analyses along with SES stratified models, we examined the relationship between ACEs and health outcomes as well as the modifying effect of current SES. High Conventional ACE scores were significantly associated with health risk behaviors, physical and mental illness, while elevated Expanded ACE scores were associated only with substance abuse history and sexually transmitted infections. ACEs did have some differential impacts on health outcomes based on SES. Given the robust impact of Conventional ACEs on health, our results support prior research highlighting the primacy of family relationships on a child's life course trajectory and the importance of interventions designed to support families. Our findings related to the modifying effect of SES may provide additional insight into the complex relationship between poverty and childhood adversity.

  1. Accelerated Cartesian expansion (ACE) based framework for the rapid evaluation of diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein-Gordon potentials

    DOE PAGES

    Baczewski, Andrew David; Vikram, Melapudi; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; ...

    2010-08-27

    Diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein–Gordon equations find numerous applications in practical problems across a range of diverse disciplines. The temporal dependence of all three Green’s functions are characterized by an infinite tail. This implies that the cost complexity of the spatio-temporal convolutions, associated with evaluating the potentials, scales as O(Ns2Nt2), where Ns and Nt are the number of spatial and temporal degrees of freedom, respectively. In this paper, we discuss two new methods to rapidly evaluate these spatio-temporal convolutions by exploiting their block-Toeplitz nature within the framework of accelerated Cartesian expansions (ACE). The first scheme identifies a convolution relation inmore » time amongst ACE harmonics and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used for efficient evaluation of these convolutions. The second method exploits the rank deficiency of the ACE translation operators with respect to time and develops a recursive numerical compression scheme for the efficient representation and evaluation of temporal convolutions. It is shown that the cost of both methods scales as O(NsNtlog2Nt). Furthermore, several numerical results are presented for the diffusion equation to validate the accuracy and efficacy of the fast algorithms developed here.« less

  2. Accelerated Cartesian expansion (ACE) based framework for the rapid evaluation of diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein-Gordon potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Baczewski, Andrew David; Vikram, Melapudi; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; Kempel, Leo

    2010-08-27

    Diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein–Gordon equations find numerous applications in practical problems across a range of diverse disciplines. The temporal dependence of all three Green’s functions are characterized by an infinite tail. This implies that the cost complexity of the spatio-temporal convolutions, associated with evaluating the potentials, scales as O(Ns2Nt2), where Ns and Nt are the number of spatial and temporal degrees of freedom, respectively. In this paper, we discuss two new methods to rapidly evaluate these spatio-temporal convolutions by exploiting their block-Toeplitz nature within the framework of accelerated Cartesian expansions (ACE). The first scheme identifies a convolution relation in time amongst ACE harmonics and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used for efficient evaluation of these convolutions. The second method exploits the rank deficiency of the ACE translation operators with respect to time and develops a recursive numerical compression scheme for the efficient representation and evaluation of temporal convolutions. It is shown that the cost of both methods scales as O(NsNtlog2Nt). Furthermore, several numerical results are presented for the diffusion equation to validate the accuracy and efficacy of the fast algorithms developed here.

  3. AceDRG: a stereochemical description generator for ligands

    PubMed Central

    Emsley, Paul; Gražulis, Saulius; Merkys, Andrius; Vaitkus, Antanas

    2017-01-01

    The program AceDRG is designed for the derivation of stereochemical information about small molecules. It uses local chemical and topological environment-based atom typing to derive and organize bond lengths and angles from a small-molecule database: the Crystallography Open Database (COD). Information about the hybridization states of atoms, whether they belong to small rings (up to seven-membered rings), ring aromaticity and nearest-neighbour information is encoded in the atom types. All atoms from the COD have been classified according to the generated atom types. All bonds and angles have also been classified according to the atom types and, in a certain sense, bond types. Derived data are tabulated in a machine-readable form that is freely available from CCP4. AceDRG can also generate stereochemical information, provided that the basic bonding pattern of a ligand is known. The basic bonding pattern is perceived from one of the computational chemistry file formats, including SMILES, mmCIF, SDF MOL and SYBYL MOL2 files. Using the bonding chemistry, atom types, and bond and angle tables generated from the COD, AceDRG derives the ‘ideal’ bond lengths, angles, plane groups, aromatic rings and chirality information, and writes them to an mmCIF file that can be used by the refinement program REFMAC5 and the model-building program Coot. Other refinement and model-building programs such as PHENIX and BUSTER can also use these files. AceDRG also generates one or more coordinate sets corresponding to the most favourable conformation(s) of a given ligand. AceDRG employs RDKit for chemistry perception and for initial conformation generation, as well as for the interpretation of SMILES strings, SDF MOL and SYBYL MOL2 files. PMID:28177307

  4. AceDRG: a stereochemical description generator for ligands.

    PubMed

    Long, Fei; Nicholls, Robert A; Emsley, Paul; Graǽulis, Saulius; Merkys, Andrius; Vaitkus, Antanas; Murshudov, Garib N

    2017-02-01

    The program AceDRG is designed for the derivation of stereochemical information about small molecules. It uses local chemical and topological environment-based atom typing to derive and organize bond lengths and angles from a small-molecule database: the Crystallography Open Database (COD). Information about the hybridization states of atoms, whether they belong to small rings (up to seven-membered rings), ring aromaticity and nearest-neighbour information is encoded in the atom types. All atoms from the COD have been classified according to the generated atom types. All bonds and angles have also been classified according to the atom types and, in a certain sense, bond types. Derived data are tabulated in a machine-readable form that is freely available from CCP4. AceDRG can also generate stereochemical information, provided that the basic bonding pattern of a ligand is known. The basic bonding pattern is perceived from one of the computational chemistry file formats, including SMILES, mmCIF, SDF MOL and SYBYL MOL2 files. Using the bonding chemistry, atom types, and bond and angle tables generated from the COD, AceDRG derives the `ideal' bond lengths, angles, plane groups, aromatic rings and chirality information, and writes them to an mmCIF file that can be used by the refinement program REFMAC5 and the model-building program Coot. Other refinement and model-building programs such as PHENIX and BUSTER can also use these files. AceDRG also generates one or more coordinate sets corresponding to the most favourable conformation(s) of a given ligand. AceDRG employs RDKit for chemistry perception and for initial conformation generation, as well as for the interpretation of SMILES strings, SDF MOL and SYBYL MOL2 files.

  5. Association between ACE D allele and elite short distance swimming.

    PubMed

    Costa, Aldo Matos; Silva, António José; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; Louro, Hugo; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Breitenfeld, Luiza

    2009-08-01

    The influence of ACE gene on athletic performance has been widely explored, and most of the published data refers to an I/D polymorphism leading to the presence (I allele) or absence (D allele) of a 287-bp sequence in intron 16, determining ACE activity in serum and tissues. A higher I allele frequency has been reported among elite endurance athletes, while the D allele was more frequent among those engaged in more power-orientated sports. However, on competitive swimming, the reproducibility of such associations is controversial. We thus compared the ACE genotype of elite swimmers with that of non-elite swimming cohort and of healthy control subjects. We thus sought an association of the ACE genotype of elite swimmers with their competitive distance. 39 Portuguese Olympic swimming candidates were classified as: short (<200 m) and middle (400-1,500 m) distance swimmers, respectively. A group of 32 non-elite swimmers were studied and classified as well, and a control group (n = 100) was selected from the Portuguese population. Chelex 100 was used for DNA extraction and genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP methods. We found that ACE genotype distribution and allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance only among elite swimmers (P < or = 0.05). Moreover, the allelic frequency of the elite short distance swimmers differed significantly from that of the controls (P = 0.021). No associations were found between middle distance swimmers and controls. Our results seem to support an association between the D allele and elite short distance swimming.

  6. Epitope mapping of mAbs to denatured human testicular ACE (CD143).

    PubMed

    Balyasnikova, I V; Metzger, R; Franke, F E; Conrad, N; Towbin, H; Schwartz, D E; Sturrock, E D; Danilov, S M

    2008-10-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE; CD143) has two homologous enzymatically active domains (N and C) and plays a crucial role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. A wide spectrum of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to different epitopes on the N and C domains of human ACE have been used to study different aspects of ACE biology. In this study, we characterized a set of nine mAbs, developed against the C domain of human ACE, which recognize the denatured forms of ACE and thus are suitable for the detection and quantification of somatic ACE (sACE) and testicular ACE (tACE) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded human tissues. The epitopes for these mAbs were defined using species cross-reactivity, phage display library screening, Western blotting and ACE mutagenesis. Most of the mAbs recognized common/overlapping region(s) on both somatic and testicular forms of human ACE, whereas mAb 4E10 was relatively specific for the testicular isoform and mAb 5B9 mainly recognized the glycan attached to Asn 731. This set of mAbs is useful for identifying even subtle changes in human ACE conformation because of denaturation. These mAbs are also sensitive tools for the detection of human sACE and tACE in biological fluids and tissues using proteomic approaches. Their high reactivity in paraffin-embedded tissues provides opportunities to study changes in the pattern of ACE expression and glycosylation (particularly with mAb 5B9) in different tissues and cells.

  7. Intermittent versus Continuous Incremental Field Tests: Are Maximal Variables Interchangeable?

    PubMed Central

    Carminatti, Lorival J.; Possamai, Carlos A. P.; de Moraes, Marcelo; da Silva, Juliano F.; de Lucas, Ricardo D.; Dittrich, Naiandra; Guglielmo, Luiz G. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR) and the Vameval test (T-VAM)), characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat), volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE) at peak test velocities (PV). No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h-1) and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm). During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm). However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04) (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s) with a low correlation (r = 0.41). The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l-1). Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs. Key points T-CAR is an intermittent shuttle run test that predicts the maximal aerobic speed with accuracy, hence, test results could be interchangeable with continuous straight-line tests. T-CAR provides valid field data for evaluating aerobic fitness. In comparison with T-VAM, T-CAR may be a more favourable way to prescribe intermittent training using a shuttle-running protocol. PMID:24149741

  8. Use of data description languages in the interchange of data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pignede, M.; Real-Planells, B.; Smith, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is developing Standards for the interchange of information between systems, including those operating under different environments. The objective is to perform the interchange automatically, i.e. in a computer interpretable manner. One aspect of the concept developed by CCSDS is the use of a separate data description to specify the data being transferred. Using the description, data can then be automatically parsed by the receiving computer. With a suitably expressive Data Description Language (DDL), data formats of arbitrary complexity can be handled. The advantages of this approach are: (1) that the description need only be written and distributed once to all users, and (2) new software does not need to be written for each new format, provided generic tools are available to support writing and interpretation of descriptions and the associated data instances. Consequently, the effort of 'hard coding' each new format is avoided and problems of integrating multiple implementations of a given format by different users are avoided. The approach is applicable in any context where computer parsable description of data could enhance efficiency (e.g. within a spacecraft control system, a data delivery system or an archive). The CCSDS have identified several candidate DDL's: EAST (Extended Ada Subset), TSDN (Transfer Syntax Data Notation) and MADEL (Modified ASN.1 as a Data Description Language -- a DDL based on the Abstract Syntax Notation One - ASN.1 - specified in the ISO/IEC 8824). This paper concentrates on ESA's development of MADEL. ESA have also developed a 'proof of concept' prototype of the required support tools, implemented on a PC under MS-DOS, which has successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the approach, including the capability within an application of retrieving and displaying particular data elements, given its MADEL description (i.e. a data description written in MADEL). This paper outlines

  9. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2): comparative modeling of the active site, specificity requirements, and chloride dependence.

    PubMed

    Guy, Jodie L; Jackson, Richard M; Acharya, K Ravi; Sturrock, Edward D; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J

    2003-11-18

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a homologue of ACE, represents a new and potentially important target in cardio-renal disease. A model of the active site of ACE2, based on the crystal structure of testicular ACE, has been developed and indicates that the catalytic mechanism of ACE2 resembles that of ACE. Structural differences exist between the active site of ACE (dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase) and ACE2 (carboxypeptidase) that are responsible for the differences in specificity. The main differences occur in the ligand-binding pockets, particularly at the S2' subsite and in the binding of the peptide carboxy-terminus. The model explains why the classical ACE inhibitor lisinopril is unable to bind to ACE2. On the basis of the ability of ACE2 to cleave a variety of biologically active peptides, a consensus sequence of Pro-X-Pro-hydrophobic/basic for the protease specificity of ACE2 has been defined that is supported by the ACE2 model. The dipeptide, Pro-Phe, completely inhibits ACE2 activity at 180 microM with angiotensin II as the substrate. As with ACE, the chloride dependence of ACE2 is substrate-specific such that the hydrolysis of angiotensin I and the synthetic peptide substrate, Mca-APK(Dnp), are activated in the presence of chloride ions, whereas the cleavage of angiotensin II is inhibited. The ACE2 model is also suggestive of a possible mechanism for chloride activation. The structural insights provided by these analyses for the differences in inhibition pattern and substrate specificity among ACE and its homologue ACE2 and for the chloride dependence of ACE/ACE2 activity are valuable in understanding the function and regulation of ACE2.

  10. DOD Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in contracting report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    Use of Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) to support Department of Defense (DoD) procurement processes has been under consideration for some time. A 1988 Deputy Secretary of Defense memo calls for maximum use of EDI, based on 10 years of DoD EDI investigation and experiments. In 1990, Defense Management Review Decision 941 stated, 'The strategic goal of DoD's current efforts is to provide the department with the capability to initiate, conduct, and maintain its external business related transactions and internal logistics, contracting, and financial activities without requiring the use of hard copy media.' The EC in Contracting PAT membership reflected a broad cross section of Military Services and Defense Agencies working on a full-time basis for 60 days. The diversity of the EC in Contracting PAT ensured that the needs and concerns of all DoD components were addressed during the creation of the report. The resultant plan, therefore, represents a comprehensive approach for implementing EC throughout the DoD.

  11. Modulation of the renal response to ACE inhibition by ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism during hyperglycemia in normotensive, normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Weekers, Laurent; Bouhanick, Béatrice; Hadjadj, Samy; Gallois, Yves; Roussel, Ronen; Pean, Franck; Ankotche, Amos; Chatellier, Gilles; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Lefebvre, Pierre J; Marre, Michel

    2005-10-01

    ACE inhibition protects kidney function, but ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism affects renal prognosis in type 1 diabetic patients. ACE genotype may influence the renal benefits of ACE inhibition. We studied the impact of ACE I/D polymorphism on the renal hemodynamic changes induced by ACE inhibition in type 1 diabetes. We studied renal hemodynamics (glomerular filtration rate [GFR], effective renal plasma flow [ERPF], filtration fraction [GFR/ERPF], mean arterial pressure [MAP], and total renal resistances [MAP/ERPF]) repeatedly during normoglycemia and then hyperglycemia in 12 normotensive, normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetes and the II genotype (associated with nephroprotection) versus 22 age- and sex-matched subjects with the ACE D allele after three randomly allocated 2- to 6-week periods on placebo, 1.25 mg/day ramipril, and 5 mg/day ramipril in a double-blind, cross-over study. During normoglycemia, the hemodynamic changes induced by ramipril were similar in both genotypes. During hyperglycemia, the changes induced by ramipril were accentuated in the II genotype group and attenuated dose dependently in the D allele group (treatment-genotype interaction P values for ERPF, 0.018; MAP, 0.018; and total renal resistances, 0.055). These results provide a basis to different renal responses to ACE inhibition according to ACE genotype in type 1 diabetes.

  12. A Discussion of Aerodynamic Control Effectors (ACEs) for Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A Reynolds number based, unmanned air vehicle classification structure has been developed which identifies four classes of unmanned air vehicle concepts. The four unmanned air vehicle (UAV) classes are; Micro UAV, Meso UAV, Macro UAV, and Mega UAV. In a similar fashion a labeling scheme for aerodynamic control effectors (ACE) was developed and eleven types of ACE concepts were identified. These eleven types of ACEs were laid out in a five (5) layer scheme. The final section of the paper correlated the various ACE concepts to the four UAV classes and ACE recommendations are offered for future design activities.

  13. ACE gene titration in mice uncovers a new mechanism for ACE on the control of body weight.

    PubMed

    Heimann, A S; Favarato, M H; Gozzo, F C; Rioli, V; Carreño, F R; Eberlin, M N; Ferro, E S; Krege, J H; Krieger, J E

    2005-01-20

    Mice harboring 1, 2, or 3 copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene were used to evaluate the quantitative role of the ACE locus on obesity. Three-copy mice fed with a high-fat diet had lower body weight and peri-epididymal adipose tissue than did 1- and 2-copy mice (P < 0.05). On regular diet, 3-copy mice had to eat more to maintain the same body weight; on a high-fat diet, they ate the same but weighed less than 1- and 2-copy mice (P < 0.05), indicating a higher metabolic rate in 3-copy mice that was not affected by ANG II AT(1) blocker treatment. A catalytically inactive form of thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15; EP24.15) was used to isolate ACE substrates from adipose tissue. Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) identified 162 peptide peaks; 16 peptides were present in both groups (1- and 3-copy mice fed with a high-fat diet), whereas 58 of the 72 unique peptides were found only in the 3-copy mice. Peptide size distribution was shifted to lower molecular weight in 3-copy mice. Two of the identified peptides, LVVYPWTQRY and VVYPWTQRY, which are ACE substrates, inhibited in vitro protein kinase C phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16; EP24.16) activity was lower in fat tissue from 3- vs. 1-copy mice (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results provide evidence that ACE is associated with body weight and peri-epididymal fat accumulation. This response may involve the generation of oligopeptides that inhibit the activity of EP24.16 and other oligopeptidases within the adipose tissue.

  14. Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

  15. Planetary Interchange of Bioactive Material: Probability Factors and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    2001-02-01

    It is now well-accepted that both lunar and martian materials are represented in the meteorite collections. Early suggestions that viable organisms might survive natural transport between planets have not yet been thoroughly examined. The concept of Planetary Interchange of Bioactive Material (PIBM) is potentially relevant to the conditions under which life originated. PIBM has been also invoked to infer that the potential danger to Earth from martian materials is non-existent, an inference with, however, many pitfalls. Numerous impediments to efficient transfer of viable organisms exist. In this work, the lethality of space radiation during long transients and the biasing of launched objects toward materials unlikely to host abundant organisms are examined and shown to reduce the likelihood of successful transfer by orders of magnitude. It is also shown that martian meteorites studied to date assuredly have been subjected to sterilizing levels of ionizing radiation in space. PIBM considerations apply to both the solar system locale(s) of the origin of life and to the applicability of planetary protection protocols to preserve the biospheres of planetary bodies, including our own.

  16. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  17. Using electronic data interchange to report product quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Donald F.; Frank, Donald T.

    1993-03-01

    The Product Quality Deficiency Report (PQDR) is a Department of Defense form that identifies deficiencies in the manufacture, repair, or procurement of materiel. It may be used by DoD employees or contractors to identify defects at any point in the item's life. DoD generates nearly 75,000 such deficiency reports each year. In most cases, when a defect is identified, Standard Form (SF) 368 is completed and sent to the activity managing the contract under which the materiel was procured. That activity, usually in conjunction with the contractor, investigates the complaint, attempts to determine a cause and a corrective action, and must make some disposition of the defective materiel. The process is labor- and paper-intensive and time-consuming. Technology can reduce the costs of the process and at the same time improve timeliness by electronically exchanging discrepancy data between activities. Electronic data interchange (EDI) is one technology for electronically passing PQDR data. It is widely used in industry and increasingly within DoD. DMRD 941 defines DoD's commitment to use EDI and cites the PQDR and other discrepancy reports as early candidates for EDI. In this report, we describe how EDI can be linked to changes in PQDR processing practices to provide further improvements.

  18. RCM simulation of interchange transport in Saturn's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T. W.; Liu, X.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Wolf, R.

    2013-12-01

    Numerical simulations with the Rice Convection Model have been used to study the radial transport of plasma in Saturn's inner magnetosphere (L < 12) where the magnetic field is dominated by the planetary dipole. This transport occurs through a time-variable pattern of wider outflow channels containing cool, dense plasma from interior sources, alternating with narrower inflow channels containing hot, tenuous plasma from the outer magnetosphere. The 'smoking gun' of this interchange transport process is the pervasive presence of V-shaped injection/dispersion signatures in linear energy-time spectrograms that are observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) on every pass through the inner magnetosphere. Using observed hot plasma distributions at L~12 as input, we have now successfully simulated these V-shaped signatures. We will show these simulation results and compare them with observed signatures. We will also describe future improvements to the model including relaxing the dipole-field assumption, thus enabling us to simulate local-time asymmetries imposed by the outer magnetosphere and tail.

  19. Format for Interchange and Display of 3D Terrain Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul; Powell, Mark; Vona, Marsette; Norris, Jeffrey; Morrison, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Visible Scalable Terrain (ViSTa) is a software format for production, interchange, and display of three-dimensional (3D) terrain data acquired by stereoscopic cameras of robotic vision systems. ViSTa is designed to support scalability of data, accuracy of displayed terrain images, and optimal utilization of computational resources. In a ViSTa file, an area of terrain is represented, at one or more levels of detail, by coordinates of isolated points and/or vertices of triangles derived from a texture map that, in turn, is derived from original terrain images. Unlike prior terrain-image software formats, ViSTa includes provisions to ensure accuracy of texture coordinates. Whereas many such formats are based on 2.5-dimensional terrain models and impose additional regularity constraints on data, ViSTa is based on a 3D model without regularity constraints. Whereas many prior formats require external data for specifying image-data coordinate systems, ViSTa provides for the inclusion of coordinate-system data within data files. ViSTa admits highspeed loading and display within a Java program. ViSTa is designed to minimize file sizes and maximize compressibility and to support straightforward reduction of resolution to reduce file size for Internet-based distribution.

  20. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI): implications for parent child relationships.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Anne; Steele, Miriam; Dube, Shanta Rishi; Bate, Jordan; Bonuck, Karen; Meissner, Paul; Goldman, Hannah; Steele, Howard

    2014-02-01

    Although Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are linked to increased health problems and risk behaviors in adulthood, there are no studies on the association between ACEs and adults' states of mind regarding their early childhood attachments, loss, and trauma experiences. To validate the ACEs questions, we analyzed the association between ACEs and emotional support indicators and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications in terms of unresolved mourning regarding past loss or trauma and discordant states of mind in cannot classify (U/CC) interviews. Seventy-five urban women (41 clinical and 34 community) completed a questionnaire on ACEs, which included 10 categories of abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, in addition to emotional support. Internal psychological processes or states of mind concerning attachment were assessed using the AAI. ACE responses were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=.88). In the clinical sample, 84% reported≥4 ACEs compared to 27% among the community sample. AAIs judged U/CC occurred in 76% of the clinical sample compared to 9% in the community sample. When ACEs were≥4, 65% of AAIs were classified U/CC. Absence of emotional support in the ACEs questionnaire was associated with 72% of AAIs being classified U/CC. As the number of ACEs and the lack of emotional support increases so too does the probability of AAIs being classified as U/CC. Findings provide rationale for including ACEs questions in pediatric screening protocols to identify and offer treatment reducing the intergenerational transmission of risk associated with problematic parenting.

  1. Evaluation of cardiac output by 5 arterial pulse contour techniques using trend interchangeability method

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Marc-Olivier; Diouf, Momar; de Wilde, Robert B.P.; Dupont, Hervé; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Lorne, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac output measurement with pulse contour analysis is a continuous, mini-invasive, operator-independent, widely used, and cost-effective technique, which could be helpful to assess changes in cardiac output. The 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot have been described to compare the changes between 2 measurements performed under different conditions, and the direction of change by using different methods of measurements. However, the 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot present a number of limitations, with a risk of misinterpretation in routine clinical practice. We describe a new trend interchangeability method designed to objectively define the interchangeability of each change of a variable. Using the repeatability of the reference method, we classified each change as either uninterpretable or interpretable and then as either noninterchangeable, in the gray zone or interchangeable. An interchangeability rate can then be calculated by the number of interchangeable changes divided by the total number of interpretable changes. In this observational study, we used this objective method to assess cardiac output changes with 5 arterial pulse contour techniques (Wesseling's method, LiDCO, PiCCO, Hemac method, and Modelflow) in comparison with bolus thermodilution technique as reference method in 24 cardiac surgery patients. A total of 172 cardiac output variations were available from the 199 data points: 88 (51%) were uninterpretable, according to the first step of the method. The second step of the method, based on the 84 (49%) interpretable variations, showed that only 18 (21%) to 30 (36%) variations were interchangeable regardless of the technique used. None of pulse contour cardiac output technique could be interchangeable with bolus thermodilution to assess changes in cardiac output using the trend interchangeability method in cardiac surgery patients. Future studies may consider using this method to assess interchangeability of changes between different

  2. Individuality of Item Interpretation in Interchangeable ACL Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Donald W.; Barack, Leonard I.

    1976-01-01

    The diversity among interpretations of single items in personality questionnaires has been noted previously. Using adjectives from the Adjective Check List (ACL), the study sought evidence bearing on these questions: Does such diversity make the responses to an item not comparable across subjects? If so, what are the implications for scores based…

  3. Kinetic and resistive effects on interchange instabilities for a cylindrical model spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Hammett, G.W.; Tang, W.M.

    1983-04-01

    The stabilizing influence of diamagnetic drift effects on ideal and resistive interchange modes is investigated. A resistive-ballooning-mode equation is derived using a kinetic theory approach and is applied to a cylindrical model spheromak equilibrium. It is found that these kinetic effects can significantly improve the ..beta.. limits for collisionless interchange stability. For the resistive modes, the diamagnetic drift terms lead to growth rates which scale linearly with resistivity and are considerably reduced in magnitude. However, the resistive interchange growth rates estimated for near-term spheromak parameters remain significant.

  4. Parallel Signal Processing and System Simulation using aCe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.; Aburdene, Maurice F.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, networked and cluster computation have become very popular for both signal processing and system simulation. A new language is ideally suited for parallel signal processing applications and system simulation since it allows the programmer to explicitly express the computations that can be performed concurrently. In addition, the new C based parallel language (ace C) for architecture-adaptive programming allows programmers to implement algorithms and system simulation applications on parallel architectures by providing them with the assurance that future parallel architectures will be able to run their applications with a minimum of modification. In this paper, we will focus on some fundamental features of ace C and present a signal processing application (FFT).

  5. ACE infrared spectral atlases of the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Ryan; Bernath, Peter; Boone, Chris

    2014-11-01

    Five infrared atmospheric atlases are presented using solar occultation spectra from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) in low earth orbit. The spectral atlases were created for Arctic summer, Arctic winter, mid-latitude summer, mid-latitude winter and the tropics. Each covers the spectral range from 700 to 4400 cm-1 and consists of 31 spectra that span an altitude range of 6-126 km in 4-km altitude intervals. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, each spectrum in the atlas is an average of at least several hundred individual ACE-FTS limb transmission spectra. Representative plots in pdf format at 10 km (troposphere), 30 km (stratosphere), 70 km (mesosphere), and 110 km (lower thermosphere) are also available.

  6. Overview of ACE-Asia Spring 2001 Investigations on Aerosol Radiative Effects and Related Aerosol Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Valero, F. P. J.; Flatau, P. J.; Bergin, M.; Holben, B.; Nakajima, T.; Pilewskie, P.; Bergstrom, R.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A primary, ACE-Asia objective was to quantify the interactions between aerosols and radiation in the Asia-Pacific region. Toward this end, radiometric and related aerosol measurements were made from ocean, land, air and space platforms. Models that predict aerosol fields guided the measurements and are helping integrate and interpret results. Companion overview's survey these measurement and modeling components. Here we illustrate how these components were combined to determine aerosol radiative. impacts and their relation to aerosol properties. Because clouds can obscure or change aerosol direct radiative effects, aircraft and ship sorties to measure these effects depended on predicting and finding cloud-free areas and times with interesting aerosols present. Pre-experiment satellite cloud climatologies, pre-flight aerosol and cloud forecasts, and in-flight guidance from satellite imagery all helped achieve this. Assessments of aerosol regional radiative impacts benefit from the spatiotemporal coverage of satellites, provided satellite-retrieved aerosol properties are accurate. Therefore, ACE-Asia included satellite retrieval tests, as part of many comparisons to judge the consistency (closure) among, diverse measurements. Early results include: (1) Solar spectrally resolved and broadband irradiances and optical depth measurements from the C-130 aircraft and at Kosan, Korea yielded aerosol radiative forcing efficiencies, permitting comparisons between efficiencies of ACE-Asia and INDOEX aerosols, and between dust and "pollution" aerosols. Detailed results will be presented in separate papers. (2) Based on measurements of wavelength dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo the estimated 24-h a average aerosol radiative forcing efficiency at the surface for photosynthetically active radiation (400 - 700 nm) in Yulin, China is approx. 30 W sq m per AOD(500 nm). (3) The R/V Brown cruise from Honolulu to Sea of Japan sampled an aerosol optical

  7. Space clocks to test relativiy: ACES and SAGAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Peter; Salomon, Christophe; Reynaud, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Atomic clocks are an outstanding tool for the experimental verification of general relativity and more generally for fundamental astronomy (VLBI, pulsar timing, navigation, etc). Recent years have seen a rapid improvement in the performance of such clocks, promising new improved tests of relativity, in particular onboard terrestrial and interplanetary space missions. We present the scientific motivations of such tests taking the ACES Salomon et al. and SAGAS Wolf et al. (2009) projects as particular examples.

  8. [ACE inhibitors from the viewpoint of the clinical pharmacologist].

    PubMed

    Hitzenberger, G

    1996-01-01

    For treatment of hypertension drugs are desirable which exert a 24 hours lasting blood pressure control. Among the ACE-inhibitors some drugs exist which have this action. The elimination pathway plays a minor role in this respect. Not only the inhibition of Angiotensin II generation but also the decreased inhibition of bradykinin-degeneration plays a crucial role with regard to several endothelial functions controlling the so called remodeling of the cardiovascular system.

  9. Morphology of Interchange-Driven Injections in Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranicas, C.; Achilleos, N.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Jia, X.; Jackman, C. M.; Khurana, K. K.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    As Cassini passes close to Saturn during its regular orbits, evidence of particle injections can often be found in many different data sets (including MAG, CAPS, MIMI, and RPWS). One reason injections are easily visible in Saturn's inner magnetosphere is that the circumplanetary neutral gas distribution can reduce the intensities of some charged particles. For example, energetic ions can be lost from the system following charge exchange with neutrals and energetic electrons can lose energy in collisions with gas and dust. Injections in the inner magnetosphere are believed to be flux tube interchange events that are part of a larger circulation system in which cold dense plasma flows outward carrying magnetic flux with it. The closed magnetic flux is ultimately returned to the inner magnetosphere in the form of injections of rapidly moving hotter but lighter flux tubes from the middle magnetosphere. In this presentation, we will look at injections from the perspective of multiple Cassini data sets. Some features of these structures have already been identified in the literature from one or more data sets. For example, the tendency for injections to appear as enhancements (depressions) in magnetic field strength at low (high) magnetic latitude has been documented (Andre et al. 2007). Furthermore, that flux tube bundles seem to narrow in spatial extent in the equatorial plane in the higher magnetic field region has also been described. Here, we will look at selected structures distributed in radial distance and latitude as a step toward generalizing their characteristics at various locations. We will consider issues such as the magnetic signature in the field components, the typical wave signatures, the energy range of the injection, and the presence of isolated features versus multiple features occurring simultaneously. We will also discuss observational issues, such as when each instrument is optimally suited to detect injections, and how this relates to their

  10. Cassini evidence for rapid interchange transport at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rymer, A. M.; Mauk, B. H.; Hill, T. W.; André, N.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C.; Young, D. T.; Smith, H. T.; Persoon, A. M.; Menietti, J. D.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Coates, A. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    During its tour Cassini has observed numerous plasma injection events in Saturn's inner magnetosphere. Here, we present a case study of one "young" plasma bubble observed when Cassini was in the equatorial plane. The bubble was observed in the equatorial plane at ˜7 Saturn radii from Saturn and had a maximum azimuthal extent of ˜0.25 Rs (Rs=Saturn radius ˜60330 km). We show that the electron density inside the event is lower by a factor ˜3 and the electron temperature higher by over an order of magnitude compared to its surroundings. The injection contains slightly increased magnetic field magnitude of 49 nT compared with a background field of 46 nT. Modelling of pitch angle distributions inside the plasma bubble and measurements of plasma drift provide a novel way to estimate that the bubble originated between 9< L<11 and had an average radial propagation speed of ˜260+60/-70 km s -1. An independent estimate of the speed of the injection following theoretical work of Pontius et al. [1986. Steady State Plasma transport in a Corotation-Dominated Magnetosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 13(11), 1097-1100] based on the mass per unit flux gives a maximum radial propagation speeds of 140 km s -1. These results are similar to those found by Thorne et al. [1997. Galileo evidence for rapid interchange transport in the Io torus. Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2131] for one event observed in Jupiter's magnetosphere near Io. We therefore suggest this is evidence of the same process operating at both planets.

  11. Interchange Slip-Running Reconnection and Sweeping SEP-Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, S.; Aulanier, G.; Pariat, E.; Klein, K.-L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model to explain how particles, accelerated at a reconnection site that is not magnetically connected to the Earth, could eventually propagate along the well-connected open flux tube. Our model is based on the results of a low-beta resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulation of a three-dimensional line-tied and initially current-free bipole, that is embedded in a non-uniform open potential field. The topology of this configuration is that of an asymmetric coronal null-point, with a closed fan surface and an open outer spine. When driven by slow photospheric shearing motions, field lines, initially fully anchored below the fan dome, reconnect at the null point, and jump to the open magnetic domain. This is the standard interchange mode as sketched and calculated in 2D. The key result in 3D is that, reconnected open field lines located in the vicinity of the outer spine, keep reconnecting continuously, across an open quasi-separatrix layer, as previously identified for non-open-null-point reconnection. The apparent slipping motion of these field lines leads to form an extended narrow magnetic flux tube at high altitude. Because of the slip-running reconnection, we conjecture that if energetic particles would be travelling through, or be accelerated inside, the diffusion region, they would be successively injected along continuously reconnecting field lines that are connected farther and farther from the spine. At the scale of the full Sun, owing to the super-radial expansion of field lines below 3 solar radius, such energetic particles could easily be injected in field lines slipping over significant distances, and could eventually reach the distant flux tube that is well-connected to the Earth.

  12. ACES: An Enabling Technology for Next Generation Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Wuerl, Adam M.; Andrews, Jason E.; Andrews, Dana G.

    2004-02-01

    Andrews Space has developed the ``Alchemist'' Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES), a dual-mode propulsion system that enables safe, economical launch systems that take off and land horizontally. Alchemist generates liquid oxygen through separation of atmospheric air using the refrigeration capacity of liquid hydrogen. The key benefit of Alchemist is that it minimizes vehicle takeoff weight. All internal and NASA-funded activities have shown that ACES, previously proposed for hypersonic combined cycle RLVs, is a higher payoff, lower-risk technology if LOX generation is performed while the vehicle cruises subsonically. Andrews Space has developed the Alchemist concept from a small system study to viable Next Generation launch system technology, conducting not only feasibility studies but also related hardware tests, and it has planned a detailed risk reduction program which employs an experienced, proven contractor team. Andrews also has participated in preliminary studies of an evolvable Next Generation vehicle architecture-enabled by Alchemist ACES-which could meet civil, military, and commercial space requirements within two decades.

  13. The Louisiana ACES student-built BalloonSat program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Brad; Giammanco, James; Guzik, T. Gregory; Johnson, Karen; Wefel, John P.

    2006-01-01

    A major concern of many aerospace industries and space agencies worldwide is the continuing decrease in undergraduate student enrollment and graduation from aerospace and closely related degree programs. With a decreasing number of new aerospace workforce candidates, expanding or sustaining our exploration of the universe over the coming decades could be at risk. In Louisiana, we have developed the Aerospace Catalyst Experiences for Students (ACES) program to address this issue by attracting new students to aerospace-related programs and providing interdisciplinary training on how to design, build, and manage aerospace payloads. Based upon the National Space Grant Student Satellite Program "Crawl, Walk, Run, Fly!" methodology, ACES closely ties cross-discipline content knowledge with extensive hands-on experiences to instill skills that are then applied by the students to design, document, build, test, and operate a small balloon-borne scientific payload. The ACES concept was initially piloted during 2002-2003 and now includes a semi-formal "Student Ballooning Course", five Louisiana institutions and serves ˜45 students.

  14. The electromagnetic interchange mode in a partially ionized collisional plasma. [spread F region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, M. K.; Kennel, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    A collisional electromagnetic dispersion relation is derived from two-fluid theory for the interchange mode coupled to the Alfven, acoustic, drift and entropy modes in a partially ionized plasma. The fundamental electromagnetic nature of the interchange model is noted; coupling to the intermediate Alfven mode is strongly stabilizing for finite k sub z. Both ion viscous and ion-neutral stabilization are included, and it was found that collisions destroy the ion finite Larmor radius cutoff at short perpendicular wavelengths.

  15. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): Using Electronic Commerce to Enhance Defense Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    AD-A238 559 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Using Electronic Commerce to Enhance Defense Logistics Judith E. Payne, Robert H. Anderson N STATEN= A... electronic commerce to enhance defense logistics / Judith L. Payne and Robert H, Anderson. "Prepared for the Assistant Sccretary of Defense (Production and...by RAND 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138 | ,! R-4030-P&L Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Using Electronic Commerce to

  16. Geothermal Energy and the Eastern US: Fifth technical information interchange meeting, Minutes

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    The technical interchange meeting documented here is the fifth meeting where people interested in geothermal energy in the Eastern US have met to interchange technical information. These meetings are intended to assist all in the difficult task of balancing time and effort in doing their assigned jobs and keeping track of what others are doing in similar or related tasks. All of the aforementioned meetings have served their intended purpose and further regional and national meetings are sure to follow.

  17. VO2 max is associated with ACE genotype in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, J M; Ferrell, R E; McCole, S D; Wilund, K R; Moore, G E

    1998-11-01

    Relationships have frequently been found between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotype and various pathological and physiological cardiovascular outcomes and functions. Thus we sought to determine whether ACE genotype affected maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max) and maximal exercise hemodynamics in postmenopausal women with different habitual physical activity levels. Age, body composition, and habitual physical activity levels did not differ among ACE genotype groups. However, ACE insertion/insertion (II) genotype carriers had a 6.3 ml . kg-1 . min-1 higher VO2 max (P < 0.05) than the ACE deletion/deletion (DD) genotype group after accounting for the effect of physical activity levels. The ACE II genotype group also had a 3.3 ml . kg-1 . min-1 higher VO2 max (P < 0.05) than the ACE insertion/deletion (ID) genotype group. The ACE ID group tended to have a higher VO2 max than the DD genotype group, but the difference was not significant. ACE genotype accounted for 12% of the variation in VO2 max among women after accounting for the effect of habitual physical activity levels. The entire difference in VO2 max among ACE genotype groups was the result of differences in maximal arteriovenous O2 difference (a-vDO2). ACE genotype accounted for 17% of the variation in maximal a-vDO2 in these women. Maximal cardiac output index did not differ whatsoever among ACE genotype groups. Thus it appears that ACE genotype accounts for a significant portion of the interindividual differences in VO2 max among these women. However, this difference is the result of genotype-dependent differences in maximal a-vDO2 and not of maximal stroke volume and maximal cardiac output.

  18. The SNOMED DICOM microglossary: controlled terminology resource for data interchange in biomedical imaging.

    PubMed

    Bidgood, W D

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes an authoritative, non-proprietary information resource that provides an efficient mechanism for embedding specialized clinical knowledge into the design of healthcare telecommunications systems. The resource marries two types of data interchange standards, a message/electronic-document standard and a terminology standard. In technical terms, it is part protocol and part database. Industry, academia, professional specialty societies, and the federal government participated in its development. The development of multi-specialty content has broadly engaged biomedical domain experts to an unprecedented degree in voluntary, non-proprietary message/document-standards development. The resource is the SNOMED DICOM Microglossary (SDM), a message-terminology (or document-content) mapping resource. The message/electronic-document standard is DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine). The terminology standard is SNOMED, (Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine). The SDM specifies the mapping of multi-specialty imaging terminology from SNOMED to DICOM data elements. DICOM provides semantic constraints and a framework for discourse that are lacking in SNOMED. Thus the message standard and the computer-based terminology both depend upon and complete each other. The combination is synergistic. By substitution of different templates of specialty terminology from the SDM, a generic message template, such as the DICOM Visible Light (Color Diagnostic) Image or the DICOM Structured Reporting specification can be reconfigured for diverse applications. Professional societies, with technical assistance from the College of American Pathologists, contribute and maintain their portions of the terminology, and can use SDM templates and term lists in clinical practice guidelines for the structure and content of computer-based patient records.

  19. Transcriptional activity of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta Holobiont: molecular evidence for metabolic interchange

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Cara L.; Labrie, Micheline; Jarett, Jessica K.; Lesser, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Compared to our understanding of the taxonomic composition of the symbiotic microbes in marine sponges, the functional diversity of these symbionts is largely unknown. Furthermore, the application of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic techniques to functional questions on sponge host-symbiont interactions is in its infancy. In this study, we generated a transcriptome for the host and a metatranscriptome of its microbial symbionts for the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, from the Caribbean. In combination with a gene-specific approach, our goals were to (1) characterize genetic evidence for nitrogen cycling in X. muta, an important limiting nutrient on coral reefs (2) identify which prokaryotic symbiont lineages are metabolically active and, (3) characterize the metabolic potential of the prokaryotic community. Xestospongia muta expresses genes from multiple nitrogen transformation pathways that when combined with the abundance of this sponge, and previous data on dissolved inorganic nitrogen fluxes, shows that this sponge is an important contributor to nitrogen cycling biogeochemistry on coral reefs. Additionally, we observed significant differences in gene expression of the archaeal amoA gene, which is involved in ammonia oxidation, between coral reef locations consistent with differences in the fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen previously reported. In regards to symbiont metabolic potential, the genes in the biosynthetic pathways of several amino acids were present in the prokaryotic metatranscriptome dataset but in the host-derived transcripts only the catabolic reactions for these amino acids were present. A similar pattern was observed for the B vitamins (riboflavin, biotin, thiamin, cobalamin). These results expand our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in sponges, and the metabolic interchange highlighted here advances the field of symbiont physiology by elucidating specific metabolic pathways where there is high potential for host

  20. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Jonathan I.; Woodruff, Emily D.; Wood, Aaron R.; Rincon, Aldo F.; Harrington, Arianna R.; Morgan, Gary S.; Foster, David A.; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Jud, Nathan A.; Jones, Douglas S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.

  1. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Jonathan I; Woodruff, Emily D; Wood, Aaron R; Rincon, Aldo F; Harrington, Arianna R; Morgan, Gary S; Foster, David A; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Jud, Nathan A; Jones, Douglas S; MacFadden, Bruce J

    2016-05-12

    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.

  2. Structure of human ACE gives new insights into inhibitor binding and design.

    PubMed

    Brew, Keith

    2003-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a primary target of drugs used for controlling hypertension. A new X-ray crystallographic structure of the key catalytic domain of ACE provides detailed information about the structure of its active site, located in a deep channel, and its interactions with an inhibitor. Such information might facilitate the rational design of ACE inhibitors that are more potent and more selective and therefore of clinical use.

  3. Accessory cholera enterotoxin, Ace, from Vibrio cholerae: structure, unfolding, and virstatin binding.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Mukherjee, Debadrita; Dey, Sucharita; Pal, Aritrika; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2011-04-12

    Vibrio cholerae accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) is the third toxin, along with cholera toxin (CT) and zonula occludens toxin (Zot), that causes the endemic disease cholera. Structural characterization of Ace has been restricted because of the limited production of this toxic protein by V. cholerae. We have cloned, overexpressed, and purified Ace from V. cholerae strain O395 in Escherichia coli to homogeneity and determined its biological activity. The unfolding of the purified protein was investigated using circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Because Ace is predominantly a hydrophobic protein, the degree of exposure of hydrophobic regions was identified from the spectral changes of the environment-sensitive fluorescent probe 4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid (bis-ANS) that quenches the fluorescence of tryptophan residues of Ace in a concentration-dependent manner. Results showed that bis-ANS binds one monomeric unit of Ace with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a K' of 0.72 μM. Ace exists as a dimer, with higher oligomeric forms appearing upon glutaraldehyde cross-linking. This study also reports the binding of virstatin, a small molecule that inhibits virulence regulation in V. cholerae, to Ace. The binding constant (K=9×10(4) M(-1)) and the standard free energy change (ΔG°=-12 kcal mol(-1)) of Ace-virstatin interaction have been evaluated by the fluorescence quenching method. The binding does not affect the oligomeric status of Ace. A cell viability assay of the antibacterial activity of Ace has been performed using various microbial strains. A homology model of Ace, consistent with the experimental results, has been constructed.

  4. Brain ACE2 shedding contributes to the development of neurogenic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Kavaljit H.; Lazartigues, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Over-activity of the brain Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) is a major contributor to neurogenic hypertension. While over-expression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme type 2 (ACE2) has been shown to be beneficial in reducing hypertension by transforming Angiotensin (Ang)-II into Ang-(1-7), several groups have reported decreased brain ACE2 expression and activity during the development of hypertension. Objective We hypothesized that ADAM17-mediated ACE2 shedding results in decreased membrane-bound ACE2 in the brain, thus promoting the development of neurogenic hypertension. Methods and Results To test this hypothesis, we used the DOCA-salt model of neurogenic hypertension in non-transgenic (NT) and syn-hACE2 mice over-expressing ACE2 in neurons. DOCA-salt treatment in NT mice led to significant increases in blood pressure, hypothalamic Ang-II levels, inflammation, impaired baroreflex sensitivity, autonomic dysfunction, as well as decreased hypothalamic ACE2 activity and expression, while these changes were blunted or prevented in syn-hACE2 mice. In addition, reduction of ACE2 expression and activity in the brain paralleled a rise in ACE2 activity in the cerebrospinal fluid of NT mice following DOCA-salt treatment and was accompanied by enhanced ADAM17 expression and activity in the hypothalamus. Chronic knockdown of ADAM17 in the brain blunted the development of hypertension and restored ACE2 activity and baroreflex function. Conclusions Our data provide the first evidence that ADAM17-mediated shedding impairs brain ACE2 compensatory activity, thus contributing to the development of neurogenic hypertension. PMID:24014829

  5. Extension of the ACE solar panels is tested in SAEF-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Extension of the solar panels is tested on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II (SAEF-II). Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  6. ACE2 orthologues in non-mammalian vertebrates (Danio, Gallus, Fugu, Tetraodon and Xenopus).

    PubMed

    Chou, Chih-Fong; Loh, Chay Boon; Foo, Yik Khoon; Shen, Shuo; Fielding, Burtram C; Tan, Timothy H P; Khan, Sehaam; Wang, Yue; Lim, Seng Gee; Hong, Wanjin; Tan, Yee-Joo; Fu, Jianlin

    2006-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a newly identified member in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), acts as a negative regulator of ACE. It is mainly expressed in cardiac blood vessels and the tubular epithelia of kidneys and abnormal expression has been implicated in diabetes, hypertension and heart failure. The mechanism and physiological function of this zinc metallopeptidase in mammals are not yet fully understood. Non-mammalian vertebrate models offer attractive and simple alternatives that could facilitate the exploration of ACE2 function. In this paper we report the in silico analysis of Ace2 genes from the Gallus (chicken), Xenopus (frog), Fugu and Tetraodon (pufferfish) genome assembly databases, and from the Danio (zebrafish) cDNA library. Exon ambiguities of Danio and Xenopus Ace2s were resolved by RT-PCR and 3'RACE. Analyses of the exon-intron structures, alignment, phylogeny and hydrophilicity plots, together with the conserved synteny among these vertebrates, support the orthologous relationship between mammalian and non-mammalian ACE2s. The putative promoters of Ace2 from human, Tetraodon and Xenopus tropicalis drove the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) specifically in the heart tissue of transgenic Xenopus thus making it a suitable model for future functional genomic studies. Additionally, the search for conserved cis-elements resulted in the discovery of WGATAR motifs in all the putative Ace2 promoters from 7 different animals, suggesting a possible role of GATA family transcriptional factors in regulating the expression of Ace2.

  7. CD36/Sirtuin 1 Axis Impairment Contributes to Hepatic Steatosis in ACE2-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Penninger, Josef M.; Santos, Robson Augusto S.; Bader, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an important component of the renin-angiotensin system. Since angiotensin peptides have been shown to be involved in hepatic steatosis, we aimed to evaluate the hepatic lipid profile in ACE2-deficient (ACE2−/y) mice. Methods. Male C57BL/6 and ACE2−/y mice were analyzed at the age of 3 and 6 months for alterations in the lipid profiles of plasma, faeces, and liver and for hepatic steatosis. Results. ACE2−/y mice showed lower body weight and white adipose tissue at all ages investigated. Moreover, these mice had lower levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and nonesterified fatty acids in plasma. Strikingly, ACE2−/y mice showed high deposition of lipids in the liver. Expression of CD36, a protein involved in the uptake of triglycerides in liver, was increased in ACE2−/y mice. Concurrently, these mice exhibited an increase in hepatic oxidative stress, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and expression of uncoupling protein 2, and downregulation of sirtuin 1. ACE2−/y mice also showed impairments in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in the liver. Conclusions. Deletion of ACE2 causes CD36/sirtuin 1 axis impairment and thereby interferes with lipid homeostasis, leading to lipodystrophy and steatosis. PMID:28101297

  8. Calmodulin interacts with angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and inhibits shedding of its ectodomain.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Daniel W; Clarke, Nicola E; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J

    2008-01-23

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is a regulatory protein of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and a receptor for the causative agent of severe-acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the SARS-coronavirus. We have previously shown that ACE2 can be shed from the cell surface in response to phorbol esters by a process involving TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE; ADAM17). In this study, we demonstrate that inhibitors of calmodulin also stimulate shedding of the ACE2 ectodomain, a process at least partially mediated by a metalloproteinase. We also show that calmodulin associates with ACE2 and that this interaction is decreased by calmodulin inhibitors.

  9. The Aspergillus fumigatus Transcription Factor Ace2 Governs Pigment Production, Conidiation and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Ejzykowicz, Daniele E.; Cunha, Marcel M.; Rozental, Sonia; Solis, Norma V.; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Sheppard, Donald C.; Filler, Scott G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Aspergillus fumigatus causes serious and frequently fatal infections in immunocompromised patients. To investigate the regulation of virulence of this fungus, we constructed and analyzed an A. fumigatus mutant that lacked the transcription factor Ace2, which influences virulence in other fungi. The Δace2 mutant had dysmorphic conidiophores, reduced conidia production, and abnormal conidial cell wall architecture. This mutant produced an orange pigment when grown on solid media, although its conidia had normal pigmentation. Conidia of the Δace2 mutant were larger and had accelerated germination. The resulting germlings were resistant to hydrogen peroxide, but not other stressors. Non-neutropenic mice that were immunosuppressed with cortisone acetate and infected with the Δace2 mutant had accelerated mortality, greater pulmonary fungal burden, and increased pulmonary inflammatory responses compared to mice infected with the wild-type or Δace2∷ace2 complemented strains. The Δace2 mutant had reduced ppoC, ecm33, and ags3 mRNA expression. It is known that A. fumigatus mutants with absent or reduced expression of these genes have increased virulence in mice, as well as other phenotypic similarities to the Δace2 mutant. Therefore, reduced expression of these genes likely contributes to the increased virulence of the Δace2 mutant. PMID:19220748

  10. CD36/Sirtuin 1 Axis Impairment Contributes to Hepatic Steatosis in ACE2-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Souza, Valéria; Alenina, Natalia; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Penninger, Josef M; Santos, Robson Augusto S; Bader, Michael; Rabelo, Luiza A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an important component of the renin-angiotensin system. Since angiotensin peptides have been shown to be involved in hepatic steatosis, we aimed to evaluate the hepatic lipid profile in ACE2-deficient (ACE2(-/y)) mice. Methods. Male C57BL/6 and ACE2(-/y) mice were analyzed at the age of 3 and 6 months for alterations in the lipid profiles of plasma, faeces, and liver and for hepatic steatosis. Results. ACE2(-/y) mice showed lower body weight and white adipose tissue at all ages investigated. Moreover, these mice had lower levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and nonesterified fatty acids in plasma. Strikingly, ACE2(-/y) mice showed high deposition of lipids in the liver. Expression of CD36, a protein involved in the uptake of triglycerides in liver, was increased in ACE2(-/y) mice. Concurrently, these mice exhibited an increase in hepatic oxidative stress, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and expression of uncoupling protein 2, and downregulation of sirtuin 1. ACE2(-/y) mice also showed impairments in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in the liver. Conclusions. Deletion of ACE2 causes CD36/sirtuin 1 axis impairment and thereby interferes with lipid homeostasis, leading to lipodystrophy and steatosis.

  11. Rediscovering ACE: Novel insights into the many roles of the angiotensin-converting enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Shen, Xiao Z.; Bernstein, Ellen A.; Janjulia, Tea; Taylor, Brian; Giani, Jorge F.; Blackwell, Wendell-Lamar B.; Shah, Kandarp H.; Shi, Peng D.; Fuchs, Sebastien; Bernstein, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is best known for the catalytic conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. However, the use of gene-targeting techniques has led to mouse models highlighting many other biochemical properties and actions of this enzyme. This review discusses recent studies examining the functional significance of ACE tissue-specific expression and the presence in ACE of two independent catalytic sites with distinct substrates and biological effects. It is these features which explain why ACE makes important contributions to many different physiological processes including renal development, blood pressure control, inflammation and immunity. PMID:23686164

  12. RNAi of ace1 and ace2 in Blattella germanica reveals their differential contribution to acetylcholinesterase activity and sensitivity to insecticides.

    PubMed

    Revuelta, L; Piulachs, M D; Bellés, X; Castañera, P; Ortego, F; Díaz-Ruíz, J R; Hernández-Crespo, P; Tenllado, F

    2009-12-01

    Cyclorrhapha insect genomes contain a single acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene while other insects contain at least two ace genes (ace1 and ace2). In this study we tested the hypothesis that the two ace paralogous from Blattella germanica have different contributions to AChE activity, using RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown each one individually. Paralogous-specific depletion of Bgace transcripts was evident in ganglia of injected cockroaches, although the effects at the protein level were less pronounced. Using spectrophotometric and zymogram measurements, we obtained evidence that BgAChE1 represents 65-75% of the total AChE activity in nerve tissue demonstrating that ace1 encodes a predominant AChE. A significant increase in sensitivity of Bgace1-interfered cockroaches was observed after 48 h of exposure to chlorpyrifos. In contrast, Bgace2 knockdown had a negligible effect on mortality to this organophosphate. These results point out a key role, qualitative and/or quantitative, of AChE1 as target of organophosphate insecticides in this species. Silencing the expression of Bgace1 but not Bgace2 also produced an increased mortality in insects when synergized with lambda-cyhalothrin, a situation which resembles the synergistic effects observed between organophosphates and pyrethroids. Gene silencing of ace genes by RNAi offers an exciting approach for examining a possible functional differentiation in ace paralogous.

  13. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors modulate cellular retinol-binding protein 1 and adiponectin expression in adipocytes via the ACE-dependent signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Kohlstedt, Karin; Gershome, Cynthia; Trouvain, Caroline; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Fichtlscherer, Stephan; Fleming, Ingrid

    2009-03-01

    Inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) decrease angiotensin II production and activate an intracellular signaling cascade that affects gene expression in endothelial cells. Because ACE inhibitors have been reported to delay the onset of type 2 diabetes, we determined ACE signaling-modulated gene expression in endothelial cells and adipocytes. Using differential gene expression analysis, several genes were identified that were 3-fold up- or down-regulated by ramiprilat in cells expressing wild-type ACE versus cells expressing a signaling-dead ACE mutant. One up-regulated gene was the cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP1). In adipocytes, the overexpression of CRBP1 enhanced (4- to 5-fold) the activity of promoters containing response elements for retinol-dependent nuclear receptors [retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR)] or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). CRBP1 overexpression also enhanced the promoter activity (by 470 +/- 40%) and expression/release of the anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic adipokine adiponectin (cellular adiponectin by 196 +/- 24%, soluble adiponectin by 228 +/- 74%). Significantly increased adiponectin secretion was also observed after ACE inhibitor treatment of human preadipocytes, an effect prevented by small interfering RNA against CRBP1. Furthermore, in ob/ob mice, ramipril markedly potentiated both the basal (approximately 2-fold) and rosiglitazonestimulated circulating levels of adiponectin. In patients with coronary artery disease or type 2 diabetes, ACE inhibition also significantly increased plasma adiponectin levels (1.6- or 2.1-fold, respectively). In summary, ACE inhibitors affect adipocyte homeostasis via CRBP1 through the activation of RAR/RXR-PPAR signaling and up-regulation of adiponectin. The latter may contribute to the beneficial effects of ACE inhibitors on the development of type 2 diabetes in patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system.

  14. Helium at Interplanetary Discontinuities: ACE STEREO Observations and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Allegrini, F.; Desai, M.; Klecker, B.; Popecki, M.; Farrugia, C.; Galvin, A.; Bochsler, P.; Karrer, R.; Opitz, A.; Simunac, K.

    2007-12-01

    ACE/SEPICA observations showed that, on average, energetic He+ is after H+ and He2+ the third most abundant energetic particle species in the heliosphere. Depending on the type of the energetic population the He+/He2+ ratio can reach unusually high values in the energy range 250 - 800keV/n ratios up to unity. As a major source of energetic He+ interplanetary pickup ions have been identified that are preferentially accelerated at co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs), transient interaction regions (TIRs), and interplanetary traveling shocks. Most recent data from STEREO/PLASTIC in the energy range of 0.2-80keV/Q show clear evidence of abundant He+ at interplanetary discontinuities. Thus PLASTIC extends the energy range into injection region of the source. Furthermore, ACE/ULEIS and ACE/SEPICA measurements showed that very often 3He2+ and He+ are also accelerated simultaneously at CME-driven IP shocks. This is surprising because, these to species originate from different sources. However, this may indicate that the injection, or the acceleration efficiency of the accelerator for different source population may be similar. From observations, however, this cannot be differentiated easily. In numerical simulations this can be done because there is control over species and distribution functions. In a numerical study we applied test particle simulations and multi-dimensional hybrid simulations to address the contribution of source, injection and acceleration efficiency at shocks to the variability of the helium ratio. These, simulations with and without superimposed turbulence in the shock region will be compared with observations.

  15. Dynamics of ADAM17-Mediated Shedding of ACE2 Applied to Pancreatic Islets of Male db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Kim Brint; Chodavarapu, Harshita; Porretta, Constance; Robinson, Leonie K.

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene therapy aimed at counteracting pancreatic ACE2 depletion improves glucose regulation in two diabetic mouse models: db/db mice and angiotensin II-infused mice. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) can cause shedding of ACE2 from the cell membrane. The aim of our studies was to determine whether ADAM17 depletes ACE2 levels in pancreatic islets and β-cells. Dynamics of ADAM17-mediated ACE2 shedding were investigated in 832/13 insulinoma cells. Within a wide range of ACE2 expression levels, including the level observed in mouse pancreatic islets, overexpression of ADAM17 increases shed ACE2 and decreases cellular ACE2 levels. We provide a mathematical description of shed and cellular ACE2 activities as a function of the ADAM17 activity. The effect of ADAM17 on the cellular ACE2 content was relatively modest with an absolute control strength value less than 0.25 and approaching 0 at low ADAM17 activities. Although we found that ADAM17 and ACE2 are both expressed in pancreatic islets, the β-cell is not the major cell type expressing ACE2 in islets. During diabetes progression in 8-, 12-, and 15-week-old db/db mice, ACE2 mRNA and ACE2 activity levels in pancreatic islets were not decreased over time nor significantly decreased compared with nondiabetic db/m mice. Levels of ADAM17 mRNA and ADAM17 activity were also not significantly changed. Inhibiting basal ADAM17 activity in mouse islets failed to affect ACE2 levels. We conclude that whereas ADAM17 has the ability to shed ACE2, ADAM17 does not deplete ACE2 from pancreatic islets in diabetic db/db mice. PMID:26441236

  16. ACE Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema following Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Hussam

    2017-01-01

    Angioedema is a well-known side effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi). However, ACE inhibitors induced angioedema after cervical surgery is a rare condition. They result in increased levels of circulating bradykinins. Rare cases of angioedema following local trauma in patients using ACE inhibitors have been published. We present such a case. A 54-year-old Caucasian female with a history significant for hypertension, controlled with lisinopril, was admitted for routine cervical spine surgery. She has severe degenerative cervical disc disease and was admitted to the hospital for an elective cervical diskectomy. The patient failed weaning off the ventilator on multiple attempts postoperatively. There were no observed symptoms of an allergic reaction. A CT scan of the neck showed extensive soft tissue edema at the level of the arytenoids. Dexamethasone was given to reduce the edema without successful resolution. On review of her medications, it was found that the patient was resumed on lisinopril following the procedure. It was subsequently discontinued. By the following day the patient had a positive leak around the ET tube cuff and patient was successfully extubated. PMID:28348897

  17. ACE: A distributed system to manage large data archives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daily, Mike I.; Allen, Frank W.

    1993-01-01

    Competitive pressures in the oil and gas industry are requiring a much tighter integration of technical data into E and P business processes. The development of new systems to accommodate this business need must comprehend the significant numbers of large, complex data objects which the industry generates. The life cycle of the data objects is a four phase progression from data acquisition, to data processing, through data interpretation, and ending finally with data archival. In order to implement a cost effect system which provides an efficient conversion from data to information and allows effective use of this information, an organization must consider the technical data management requirements in all four phases. A set of technical issues which may differ in each phase must be addressed to insure an overall successful development strategy. The technical issues include standardized data formats and media for data acquisition, data management during processing, plus networks, applications software, and GUI's for interpretation of the processed data. Mass storage hardware and software is required to provide cost effective storage and retrieval during the latter three stages as well as long term archival. Mobil Oil Corporation's Exploration and Producing Technical Center (MEPTEC) has addressed the technical and cost issues of designing, building, and implementing an Advanced Computing Environment (ACE) to support the petroleum E and P function, which is critical to the corporation's continued success. Mobile views ACE as a cost effective solution which can give Mobile a competitive edge as well as a viable technical solution.

  18. Interaction between static magnetic islands and interchange modes in a straight heliotron plasma with high resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Kinya; Ichiguchi, Katsuji; Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi

    2010-06-15

    Fundamental mechanism of the nonlinear interaction between static magnetic islands generated by an external field and a resistive interchange mode is investigated in a straight heliotron plasma with high resistivity by using a numerical method based on the reduced magnetohydrodynamics equations. The behavior of the magnetic islands is examined at the steady state after the nonlinear saturation of the interchange mode. The width and the phase of the magnetic islands are changed by the mode evolution. These changes are almost determined by the linear combination of the two perturbed poloidal magnetic fluxes, the flux imposed externally and the flux attributed to the interchange mode, in spite of the fact that the changes result from the nonlinear process. It is also obtained that the amount of the local change of the pressure at the resonant surface in the saturation state depends on the phase of the static magnetic islands.

  19. Characteristics of magnetic island formation due to resistive interchange instability in helical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, R.; Matsumoto, Y.; Itagaki, M.; Oikawa, S.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Sato, M.

    2014-05-15

    Focusing attention on the magnetic island formation, we investigate the characteristics of the resistive interchange magnetohydrodynamics instabilities, which would limit a high beta operational regime in helical type fusion reactors. An introduction of a new index, i.e., the ratio of the magnetic fluctuation level to the radial displacement, enables us to make a systematic analysis on the magnetic island formation in the large helical device-like plasmas during the linear growth phase; (i) the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate makes the magnetic island larger than that with the largest growth rate when the amplitude of the radial displacement in both cases is almost the same as each other; (ii) applied to a typical tearing instability, the index is smaller than that for the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate.

  20. Theory of energetic trapped particle-induced resistive interchange-ballooning modes

    SciTech Connect

    Biglari, H.; Chen, L.

    1986-02-01

    A theory describing the influence of energetic trapped particles on resistive interchange-ballooning modes in tokamaks is presented. It is shown that a population of hot particles trapped in the region of adverse curvature can resonantly interact with and destabilize the resistive interchange mode, which is stable in their absence because of favorable average curvature. The mode is different from the usual resistive interchange mode not only in its destabilization mechanism, but also in that it has a real component to its frequency comparable to the precessional drift frequency of the rapidly circulating energetic species. Corresponding growth rate and threshold conditions for this trapped-particle-driven instability are derived and finite banana width effects are shown to have a stabilizing effect on the mode. Finally, the ballooning/tearing dispersion relation is generalized to include hot particles, so that both the ideal and the resistive modes are derivable in the appropriate limits. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Biotic interchange between the Indian subcontinent and mainland Asia through time

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Sebastian; Morley, Robert J.; Plath, Martin; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Li, Jia-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Biotic interchange after the connection of previously independently evolving floras and faunas is thought to be one of the key factors that shaped global biodiversity as we see it today. However, it was not known how biotic interchange develops over longer time periods of several million years following the secondary contact of different biotas. Here we present a novel method to investigate the temporal dynamics of biotic interchange based on a phylogeographical meta-analysis by calculating the maximal number of observed dispersal events per million years given the temporal uncertainty of the underlying time-calibrated phylogenies. We show that biotic influx from mainland Asia onto the Indian subcontinent after Eocene continental collision was not a uniform process, but was subject to periods of acceleration, stagnancy and decrease. We discuss potential palaeoenvironmental causes for this fluctuation. PMID:27373955

  2. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and ACE inhibitory peptides of salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysates obtained by human and porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Darewicz, Małgorzata; Borawska, Justyna; Vegarud, Gerd E; Minkiewicz, Piotr; Iwaniak, Anna

    2014-08-13

    The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes) and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes). Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50%) of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

  3. A Consolidation of ACE Research, 1990-2000. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Barry; Davies, Merryn; Volkoff, Veronica

    The volume and scope of research into adult and community education (ACE) in Australia have increased significantly over the past decade. Studies designed to map, reevaluate, showcase, and promote ACE have been funded by Australia's federal and state governments and by bodies such as Adult Learning Australia. Practitioner-generated research has…

  4. Preparing GMAT for Operational Maneuver Planning of the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qureshi, Rizwan Hamid; Hughes, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is an open-source space mission design, analysis and trajectory optimization tool. GMAT is developed by a team of NASA, private industry, public and private contributors. GMAT is designed to model, optimize and estimate spacecraft trajectories in flight regimes ranging from low Earth orbit to lunar applications, interplanetary trajectories and other deep space missions. GMAT has also been flight qualified to support operational maneuver planning for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission. ACE was launched in August, 1997 and is orbiting the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. The primary science objective of ACE is to study the composition of both the solar wind and the galactic cosmic rays. Operational orbit determination, maneuver operations and product generation for ACE are conducted by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF). This paper discusses the entire engineering lifecycle and major operational certification milestones that GMAT successfully completed to obtain operational certification for the ACE mission. Operational certification milestones such as gathering of the requirements for ACE operational maneuver planning, gap analysis, test plans and procedures development, system design, pre-shadow operations, training to FDF ACE maneuver planners, shadow operations, Test Readiness Review (TRR) and finally Operational Readiness Review (ORR) are discussed. These efforts have demonstrated that GMAT is flight quality software ready to support ACE mission operations in the FDF.

  5. Screening for Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in an Integrated Pediatric Care Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purewal, Sukhdip K.; Bucci, Monica; Wang, Lisa Gutiérrez; Koita, Kadiatou; Marques, Sara Silvério; Oh, Debora; Harris, Nadine Burke

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are stressful or traumatic events that place children at risk of negative health, mental health, and behavioral outcomes. The Center for Youth Wellness (CYW), working in partnership with the Bayview Child Health Center (BCHC), pioneered ACE screening for children and adolescents. This article describes the…

  6. 75 FR 64737 - Automated Commercial Environment (ACE): Announcement of a National Customs Automation Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Automated Commercial Environment (ACE): Announcement of a... required advance ocean and rail data through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). This notice... application period for participation, outlines the development and evaluation methodology to be used,...

  7. Isolation of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting triterpenes from Schinus molle.

    PubMed

    Olafsson, K; Jaroszewski, J W; Smitt, U W; Nyman, U

    1997-08-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of extracts of Schinus molle leaves, using an in vitro assay, led to the isolation of ACE-inhibitory steroidal triterpenes of the euphane type, identified by means of NMR spectroscopic methods. One of the triterpenes was isolated as an equilibrium mixture of epimeric aldehydes. The triterpenes showed moderate ACE-inhibitory activity (IC(50) about 250 microM).

  8. Formative Evaluation of ACES Program: Findings from Surveys and Interviews Year One, Grades 11 and 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanin, Natalie; Modarresi, Shahpar

    2015-01-01

    The Office of Shared Accountability (OSA) in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) is conducting a multiyear evaluation of the Achieving Collegiate Excellence and Success (ACES) program. The ACES program is a collaboration between MCPS, Montgomery College (MC), and the Universities at Shady Grove (USG) to create a seamless pathway…

  9. Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance Models in ACES: Design Implementation and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubat, Greg; Vandrei, Don; Satapathy, Goutam; Kumar, Anil; Khanna, Manu

    2006-01-01

    Presentation objectives include: a) Overview of the ACES/CNS System Models Design and Integration; b) Configuration Capabilities available for Models and Simulations using ACES with CNS Modeling; c) Descriptions of recently added, Enhanced CNS Simulation Capabilities; and d) General Concepts Ideas that Utilize CNS Modeling to Enhance Concept Evaluations.

  10. The Evolution of the Automated Continuous Evaluation System (ACES) for Personnel Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-12

    recession, which reduced funding across the government for research and development of efficiencies like ACES, the obvious promise of ACES continues. The...Approved for Public Distribution: Distribution Unlimited Defense Personnel and Security Research Center Defense Manpower Data Center Technical... Research Center Defense Manpower Data Center Defense Personnel and Security Research Center Defense Manpower Data Center 400 Gigling

  11. ACE expression in monocytes is induced by cytokines, phorbol ester and steroid

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, D.; Lanzillo, J.; Fanburg, B. )

    1991-03-15

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) levels are elevated in the serum and peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) of patients with granulomatous diseases. However, the role of ACE in (Mo) physiology and the regulation of the inflammatory response is not well understood. Since Mo can be stimulated to form giant cells using phorbol esters, glucocorticoids or certain inflammatory cytokines, the authors examined production of ACE protein by normal PBM, a Mo-like cell line, THP-1, and a macrophage-like cell line, U937 following stimulation with these agents. Using a sensitive ELISA assay, they found that in U937 cells, expression of ACE protein increased by 3.4 fold with dexamethasone, 3.7. fold with phorbol 12-myristate acetate (PMA), and 5.8 fold with the two agents combined. The cytokines IL-4 and GM-CSF substantially increased ACE expression, by 7.6 and 7.7 fold respectively, with maximal effect at 0.01 U/ml, while IFN-{gamma} and TNF-{alpha} had little effect. Similar results were found with PBM and THP-1 cells. The combination of dexamethasone and PMA also induced homotypic cluster formation in PBM, suggesting a correlation between cell adhesion and ACE production. The authors conclude that ACE expression in monocytes and macrophages is stimulated by low concentration of glucocorticoids and certain inflammatory cytokines. ACE may participate in the initiation and propagation of granulomatous inflammatory processes.

  12. ACE2 is augmented in dystrophic skeletal muscle and plays a role in decreasing associated fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Cecilia; Acuña, María José; Torrejón, Javiera; Rebolledo, Daniela; Cabrera, Daniel; Santos, Robson A; Brandan, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common inherited neuromuscular disease and is characterized by absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, muscle wasting, and fibrosis. We previously demonstrated that systemic infusion or oral administration of angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), a peptide with opposing effects to angiotensin II, normalized skeletal muscle architecture, decreased local fibrosis, and improved muscle function in mdx mice, a dystrophic model for DMD. In this study, we investigated the presence, activity, and localization of ACE2, the enzyme responsible for Ang-(1-7) production, in wild type (wt) and mdx skeletal muscle and in a model of induced chronic damage in wt mice. All dystrophic muscles studied showed higher ACE2 activity than wt muscle. Immunolocalization studies indicated that ACE2 was localized mainly at the sarcolemma and, to a lesser extent, associated with interstitial cells. Similar results were observed in the model of chronic damage in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of ACE2 overexpression in mdx TA muscle using an adenovirus containing human ACE2 sequence and showed that expression of ACE2 reduced the fibrosis associated with TA dystrophic muscles. Moreover, we observed fewer inflammatory cells infiltrating the mdx muscle. Finally, mdx gastrocnemius muscles from mice infused with Ang-(1-7), which decreases fibrosis, contain less ACE2 associated with the muscle. This is the first evidence supporting ACE2 as an important therapeutic target to improve the dystrophic skeletal muscle phenotype.

  13. Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), Concept Simulations using Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubat, Greg; Vandrei, Don

    2006-01-01

    Project Objectives include: a) CNS Model Development; b Design/Integration of baseline set of CNS Models into ACES; c) Implement Enhanced Simulation Capabilities in ACES; d) Design and Integration of Enhanced (2nd set) CNS Models; and e) Continue with CNS Model Integration/Concept evaluations.

  14. Line-tying of interchange modes in a hot electron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gerver, M.J.; Lane, B.G.

    1986-07-01

    The dispersion relation of low-frequency (..omega..<<..omega../sub c/i) electrostatic flute-like interchange modes in a mirror cell with a fraction ..cap alpha.. of hot bi-Maxwellian electrons, with bulk line-tying to cold (nonemitting) end walls, has been solved using a slab model and the local approximation. In the absence of line-tying, hot-electron interchange modes are never completely stabilized (in contrast to the conventional theory (Phys. Fluids 9, 820 (1966); Phys. Fluids 19, 1255 (1976)), which assumes monoenergetic hot electrons and has little relevance to real plasmas). In the presence of line-tying, hot-electron interchange modes are more effectively stabilized than magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) interchange modes, because (1) the line-tying is enhanced by a factor of (..omega../..nu../sub e/)/sup 1//sup ///sup 2/ when the wave frequency ..omega.. is greater than the cold-electron collision frequency ..nu../sub e/; and (2) hot-electron interchange modes can be completely stabilized, rather than merely having their growth rates reduced, if there is a spread of hot-electron-curvature drift velocities. Predictions of the minimum ..cap alpha.. needed for instability and of the first azimuthal mode number m to go unstable, and of the scaling of these quantities with neutral gas pressure, are in good quantitative agreement with observations of hot-electron interchange instabilities in the Tara tendem mirror experiment (Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 1581 (1985)), provided a correction is made for the fact that the modes in Tara are not flute-like, but should have higher amplitudes in the plug than in the central cell.

  15. Positional interchanges influence the physical and technical match performance variables of elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Schuth, G; Carr, G; Barnes, C; Carling, C; Bradley, P S

    2016-01-01

    Positional variation in match performance is well established in elite soccer but no information exists on players switching positions. This study investigated the influence of elite players interchanging from one position to another on physical and technical match performance. Data were collected from multiple English Premier League (EPL) seasons using a computerised tracking system. After adhering to stringent inclusion criteria, players were examined across several interchanges: central-defender to fullback (CD-FB, n = 11, 312 observations), central-midfielder to wide-midfielder (CM-WM, n = 7, 171 observations), wide-midfielder to central-midfielder (WM-CM, n = 7, 197 observations) and attacker to wide-midfielder (AT-WM, n = 4, 81 observations). Players interchanging from CD-FB covered markedly more high-intensity running and sprinting distance (effect size [ES]: -1.56 and -1.26), lost more possessions but made more final third entries (ES: -1.23 and -1.55). Interchanging from CM-WM and WM-CM resulted in trivial to moderate differences in both physical (ES: -0.14-0.59 and -0.21-0.39) and technical performances (ES: -0.48-0.64 and -0.36-0.54). Players interchanging from AT-WM demonstrated a moderate difference in high-intensity running without possession (ES: -0.98) and moderate-to-large differences in the number of clearances, tackles and possessions won (ES: -0.77, -1.16 and -1.41). The data demonstrate that the physical and technical demands vary greatly from one interchange to another but utility players seem able to adapt to these positional switches.

  16. 76 FR 34246 - Automated Commercial Environment (ACE); Announcement of National Customs Automation Program Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... mutually identified electronic data interchange (EDI) highway cargo (manifest) and conveyance transaction... Nations/Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport (UN/EDIFACT) are not... the mandatory transmission of electronic cargo information by way of a CBP approved electronic...

  17. An ace-1 gene duplication resorbs the fitness cost associated with resistance in Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Assogba, Benoît S.; Djogbénou, Luc S.; Milesi, Pascal; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Perez, Julie; Ayala, Diego; Chandre, Fabrice; Makoutodé, Michel; Labbé, Pierrick; Weill, Mylène

    2015-01-01

    Widespread resistance to pyrethroids threatens malaria control in Africa. Consequently, several countries switched to carbamates and organophophates insecticides for indoor residual spraying. However, a mutation in the ace-1 gene conferring resistance to these compounds (ace-1R allele), is already present. Furthermore, a duplicated allele (ace-1D) recently appeared; characterizing its selective advantage is mandatory to evaluate the threat. Our data revealed that a unique duplication event, pairing a susceptible and a resistant copy of the ace-1 gene spread through West Africa. Further investigations revealed that, while ace-1D confers less resistance than ace-1R, the high fitness cost associated with ace-1R is almost completely suppressed by the duplication for all traits studied. ace-1 duplication thus represents a permanent heterozygote phenotype, selected, and thus spreading, due to the mosaic nature of mosquito control. It provides malaria mosquito with a new evolutionary path that could hamper resistance management. PMID:26434951

  18. Line-tying of interchange modes in a hot electron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerver, M. J.; Lane, B. G.

    1986-07-01

    The dispersion relation of low-frequency (ω≪ωci) electrostatic flute-like interchange modes in a mirror cell with a fraction α of hot bi-Maxwellian electrons, with bulk line-tying to cold (nonemitting) end walls, has been solved using a slab model and the local approximation. In the absence of line-tying, hot-electron interchange modes are never completely stabilized (in contrast to the conventional theory [Phys. Fluids 9, 820 (1966); Phys. Fluids 19, 1255 (1976)], which assumes monoenergetic hot electrons and has little relevance to real plasmas). In the presence of line-tying, hot-electron interchange modes are more effectively stabilized than magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) interchange modes, because (1) the line-tying is enhanced by a factor of (ω/νe)1/2 when the wave frequency ω is greater than the cold-electron collision frequency νe; and (2) hot-electron interchange modes can be completely stabilized, rather than merely having their growth rates reduced, if there is a spread of hot-electron-curvature drift velocities. Predictions of the minimum α needed for instability and of the first azimuthal mode number m to go unstable, and of the scaling of these quantities with neutral gas pressure, are in good quantitative agreement with observations of hot-electron interchange instabilities in the Tara tendem mirror experiment [Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 1581 (1985)], provided a correction is made for the fact that the modes in Tara are not flute-like, but should have higher amplitudes in the plug than in the central cell. The theory may also explain observations in other experiments [Phys. Fluids 27, 1019 (1984); Phys. Fluids 19, 1203 (1976)]. Increasing the ion temperature Ti should have a modest stabilizing effect. In addition to the hot-electron interchange modes, there are also ion-driven interchange modes, which are unstable even in the absence of hot electrons, but generally have low growth rates, much less than MHD growth rates. Even these modes may be

  19. Electromagnetic interchange-like mode and zonal flow in electron-magnetohydrodynamic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Horiuchi, Ritoku

    2006-10-15

    A numerical simulation of the nonlinear state of interchange instability associated with electron inertia in an unmagnetized plasma is studied. It is shown that a self-consistent sheared transverse electron current flow is generated due to nonlinear mechanisms. This zonal flow can reduce the growth rate of the magnetic interchange-like instability and reach a steady state. The zonal flow generation mechanisms are discussed by truncated Fourier mode representation. In the truncated model, three mode equations are considered that have an exact analytic solution that matches well with the numerical solution. The effect of different boundary conditions in such investigations is also discussed.

  20. ACE2 Inhibits Angiotensin II-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, QingQing; Dong, XueFei; Chen, Xu; Yan, Feng; Wang, Xiaoyu; Shi, Haishui; Dong, Bo

    2017-01-31

    Recent study have demonstrated that ACE2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA). But, little study was reported about the direct effect of ACE2 overexpression on the aneurysm. In this study, we hypothesize that overexpression of ACE2 may prevent the pathogenesis of aneurysm by decreasing RAS activation. Thirty-nine Mice were assigned to 3 groups randomly (n=13 in each group), ACE2 group, Ad.EGFP group and Control group. After 8-week treatment, abdominal aortas with AAA were obtained for HE staining, VVG, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The incidence and severity of AAA, macrophage infiltration and MMP protein expression were all detected. The results showed that ACE2 gene transfer significantly decreased the occurrence of AAA and inhibited AAA formation in ApoE-/- mice by inhibiting inflammatory response and MMP activation, the mechanisms may involve decreased ERK and AngII-NF-kB signaling pathways.

  1. Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors from Marine Resources: Prospects in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    PubMed Central

    Wijesekara, Isuru; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension or high blood pressure is one of the major independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1; ACE) plays an important physiological role in regulation of blood pressure by converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. Therefore, the inhibition of ACE activity is a major target in the prevention of hypertension. Recently, the search for natural ACE inhibitors as alternatives to synthetic drugs is of great interest to prevent several side effects and a number of novel compounds such as bioactive peptides, chitooligosaccharide derivatives (COS) and phlorotannins have been derived from marine organisms as potential ACE inhibitors. These inhibitory derivatives can be developed as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals with potential to prevent hypertension. Hence, the aim of this review is to discuss the marine-derived ACE inhibitors and their future prospects as novel therapeutic drug candidates for treat hypertension. PMID:20479968

  2. Unique Kinase Catalytic Mechanism of AceK with a Single Magnesium Ion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quanjie; Zheng, Jimin; Tan, Hongwei; Li, Xichen; Chen, Guangju; Jia, Zongchao

    2013-01-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase (AceK) is the founding member of the protein phosphorylation system in prokaryotes. Based on the novel and unique structural characteristics of AceK recently uncovered, we sought to understand its kinase reaction mechanism, along with other features involved in the phosphotransfer process. Herein we report density functional theory QM calculations of the mechanism of the phosphotransfer reaction catalysed by AceK. The transition states located by the QM calculations indicate that the phosphorylation reaction, catalysed by AceK, follows a dissociative mechanism with Asp457 serving as the catalytic base to accept the proton delivered by the substrate. Our results also revealed that AceK prefers a single Mg2+-containing active site in the phosphotransfer reaction. The catalytic roles of conserved residues in the active site are discussed. PMID:23977203

  3. The effect of saturation of ACE binding sites on the pharmacokinetics of enalaprilat in man.

    PubMed Central

    Wade, J R; Meredith, P A; Hughes, D M; Elliott, H L

    1992-01-01

    1. Eight healthy male volunteers received oral enalapril, 10 mg, in the presence and absence of pretreatment with captopril, 50 mg, twice daily for 5 days. 2. Enalaprilat pharmacokinetics were characterised after both doses of enalapril to investigate the effect of saturating ACE binding sites by pretreatment with captopril. 3. The pharmacokinetics of enalaprilat were best described by a one compartment model with zero order input incorporating saturable binding to plasma and tissue ACE. 4. Values of AUC (0.72 h) for enalaprilat were 419 +/- 97 and 450 +/- 87 ng ml-1 h in the presence and absence of captopril, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant nor were there any other differences in model parameters. 5. Induction of ACE by captopril resulting in an increase in the number of ACE binding sites, may have obscured any effect of captopril on the occupancy of ACE binding sites by enalapril. PMID:1312853

  4. Isolation, Purification and Molecular Mechanism of a Peanut Protein-Derived ACE-Inhibitory Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aimin; Liu, Hongzhi; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Wang, Qiang; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of bioactive peptides are capable of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effects, little is known regarding the mechanism of peanut peptides using molecular simulation. The aim of this study was to obtain ACE inhibiting peptide from peanut protein and provide insight on the molecular mechanism of its ACE inhibiting action. Peanut peptides having ACE inhibitory activity were isolated through enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration. Further chromatographic fractionation was conducted to isolate a more potent peanut peptide and its antihypertensive activity was analyzed through in vitro ACE inhibitory tests and in vivo animal experiments. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was used to identify its amino acid sequence. Mechanism of ACE inhibition of P8 was analyzed using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. A peanut peptide (P8) having Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence was obtained which had the highest ACE inhibiting activity of 85.77% (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 0.0052 mg/ml). This peanut peptide is a competitive inhibitor and show significant short term (12 h) and long term (28 days) antihypertensive activity. Dynamic tests illustrated that P8 can be successfully docked into the active pocket of ACE and can be combined with several amino acid residues. Hydrogen bond, electrostatic bond and Pi-bond were found to be the three main interaction contributing to the structural stability of ACE-peptide complex. In addition, zinc atom could form metal-carboxylic coordination bond with Tyr, Met residues of P8, resulting into its high ACE inhibiting activity. Our finding indicated that the peanut peptide (P8) having a Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence can be a promising candidate for functional foods and prescription drug aimed at control of hypertension. PMID:25347076

  5. Cosmic Ray Helium Intensities over the Solar Cycle from ACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeNolfo, G. A.; Yanasak, N. E.; Binns, W. R.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; George, J. S.; Hink. P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Lave, K.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Ogliore, R.; Stone, E. C.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenback, M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Observations of cosmic-ray helium energy spectra provide important constraints on cosmic ray origin and propagation. However, helium intensities measured at Earth are affected by solar modulation, especially below several GeV/nucleon. Observations of helium intensities over a solar cycle are important for understanding how solar modulation affects galactic cosmic ray intensities and for separating the contributions of anomalous and galactic cosmic rays. The Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) on ACE has been measuring cosmic ray isotopes, including helium, since 1997 with high statistical precision. We present helium elemental intensities between approx. 10 to approx. 100 MeV/nucleon from the Solar Isotope Spectrometer (SIS) and CRIS observations over a solar cycle and compare these results with the observations from other satellite and balloon-borne instruments, and with GCR transport and solar modulation models.

  6. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Extends Caenorhabditis elegans Life Span.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dietrich, Nicholas; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2016-02-01

    Animal aging is characterized by progressive, degenerative changes in many organ systems. Because age-related degeneration is a major contributor to disability and death in humans, treatments that delay age-related degeneration are desirable. However, no drugs that delay normal human aging are currently available. To identify drugs that delay age-related degeneration, we used the powerful Caenorhabditis elegans model system to screen for FDA-approved drugs that can extend the adult lifespan of worms. Here we show that captopril extended mean lifespan. Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure in humans. To explore the mechanism of captopril, we analyzed the acn-1 gene that encodes the C. elegans homolog of ACE. Reducing the activity of acn-1 extended the mean life span. Furthermore, reducing the activity of acn-1 delayed age-related degenerative changes and increased stress resistance, indicating that acn-1 influences aging. Captopril could not further extend the lifespan of animals with reduced acn-1, suggesting they function in the same pathway; we propose that captopril inhibits acn-1 to extend lifespan. To define the relationship with previously characterized longevity pathways, we analyzed mutant animals. The lifespan extension caused by reducing the activity of acn-1 was additive with caloric restriction and mitochondrial insufficiency, and did not require sir-2.1, hsf-1 or rict-1, suggesting that acn-1 functions by a distinct mechanism. The interactions with the insulin/IGF-1 pathway were complex, since the lifespan extensions caused by captopril and reducing acn-1 activity were additive with daf-2 and age-1 but required daf-16. Captopril treatment and reducing acn-1 activity caused similar effects in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, consistent with the model that they act by the same mechanism. These results identify a new drug and a new gene that can extend the lifespan of worms and suggest new

  7. The Solar Package on ISS: SOL-ACES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienhold, F. G.; Anders, J.; Galuska, B.; Klocke, U.; Knothe, M.; Neske, E.; Riedel, W. J.; Schmidtke, G.; Singler, R.; Ulmer, U.; Wolf, H.

    The "solar package" comprises the experiments SOLSPEC (UV/Vis to IR spectral range), SOVIM (total solar radiation) and SOL-ACES to be installed on a Coarse Pointing Device (CPD) of the International Space Station for a 1.5 year mission launched in 2003. The CPD allows for measuring periods of at least fifteen minutes per orbit totaling approximately 600 hours per year of solar observations. The Solar Auto Calibrating EUV/UV Spectrometers (SOL-ACES) are currently developed to measure the solar radiation (full disk) in the 17 nm to 220 nm spectral range with four grazing-incidence grating spectrometers. To obtain high radiometric accuracy of better than 10 %, a double ionization chamber is assigned to each of the spectrometers as a primary detector standard. Optical bandpass filters are mounted on a filter wheel to be placed at the entrance apertures of the spectrometers and ionization chambers and thereby will establish the radiometric link between these devices. The spectrometers are designed as scanning monochromators operating at fixed incidence angles. The deflected radiation is monitored by rotating an assembly containing a parabolic mirror, an exit slit and a channel electron multiplier around the grating center. The optical length of the ionization chamber of 0.5 m is divided into two identical electrode sections. In addition, the transmitted radiation is measured by a silicon diode detector located at the end of the absorption path. Detector and electrode signals are recorded as a function of the gas pressure in the chamber, which is increased from zero to a few hectopascal during a single measurement. These data permit the absolute quantification of the radiant solar flux in the wavelength interval transmitted by the bandpass filter and the correction for secondary effects, such as ionization caused by photoelectrons. With these measurements the spectrometer efficiencies at the filter bandpass wavelengths can be recalibrated as required during the mission.

  8. 75 FR 62919 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... at McIntire Road Project in Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road project in the City of Charlottesville, Virginia... approvals for the following project in the State of Virginia: Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire...

  9. Defense Information Systems Agency Management of Trouble Tickets for Electronic Commerce/Electronic Data Interchange

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Institute CSC Customer Service Center DISA Defense Information Systems Agency DLA Defense Logistics Agency EC/EDI Electronic Commerce / Electronic Data...INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY SUBJECT: *Audit Report on the Defense Information Systems Agency Management of Trouble Tickets for the Electronic Commerce ...Information Systems Agency Management of Trouble Tickets for Electronic Commerce / Electronic Data Interchange Executive Summary Introduction. The Deputy

  10. Specification for Teaching Machines and Programmes (Interchangeability of Programmes). Part 1, Linear Machines and Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Standards Institution, London (England).

    To promote interchangeability of teaching machines and programs, so that the user is not so limited in his choice of programs, the British Standards Institute has offered a standard. Part I of the standard deals with linear teaching machines and programs that make use of the roll or sheet methods of presentation. Requirements cover: spools,…

  11. On the Interchangeability of Individually Administered and Group Administered Ability Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, Baruch; Sela, Roni

    2003-01-01

    This research studied the interchangeability of individually administered and group administered cognitive tests. Seventy undergraduate students took the Hebrew version of the WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised), and their IQs were measured. They also took the IPET (Israeli Psychometric Entrance Test) and their IPET scores were…

  12. The Use of Electronic Data Interchange under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhinehart, Paul T.

    1996-01-01

    When used in managing college student records, electronic data interchange allows electronic student records to be fed directly into a receiving institution's database instead of being sent by mail. Although the process offers many clear advantages, one important question that must be addressed is how students' privacy will be protected under a…

  13. EDI (electronic data interchange) for human resources saves money and time.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, J J; Kibat, G

    1994-01-01

    Healthcare financial managers seeking immediate cost savings through the use of electronic data interchange (EDI) may find that the automation of repetitive transactions can reduce staffing levels in hospital human resource departments and lower the cost of employee benefits. New procedures and EDI also can tighten controls on hospital employee health benefit eligibility and reduce the per employee cost of benefits.

  14. Using EDI (electronic data interchange) to improve the accounts payable department.

    PubMed

    Bort, R; Schinderle, D R

    1994-01-01

    Additional paperwork, escalating costs, and an outdated accounts payable system at St. Joseph Health System forced management staff to alter the way the accounts payable department operates. This article describes the process the health system used to automate one of its accounts payable departments by using electronic data interchange/electronic funds transfer (EDI/EFT) technology.

  15. Nonlinear excitation of convective cells by interchange modes and spectrum cascade processes

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlenko, V.P.; Weiland, J.

    1980-04-01

    Convective cell formation due to interchange modes has been studied. The spectral cascade processes between such waves have been considered in the limit k/sub parallel/=0 where the influence of gravity is particularly strong. Possibilities for up conversion are found.

  16. Baseline Assessment Literature Review and Pre-School Record Keeping in Scotland. Interchange No. 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, J. Eric; Watt, Joyce; Napuk, Angela; Normand, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Every opportunity should be taken to communicate research findings both inside and outside government programs and make them accessible to policy makers, teachers, lecturers, parents, and employers. The "Interchange" series aims to further improve the Educational Research Unit's (ERU) dissemination of the findings of research funded by…

  17. N-231 High Reynolds Number Channel I is a blowdown Facility that utilizes interchangeable test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    N-231 High Reynolds Number Channel I is a blowdown Facility that utilizes interchangeable test sections and nozzles. The facility provides experimental support for the fluid mechanics research, including experimental verification of aerodynamic computer codes and boundary-layer and airfoil studies that require high Reynolds number simulation. (Tunnel 1)

  18. The Implicit Curriculum in Social Work Education: The Culture of Human Interchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogo, Marion; Wayne, Julianne

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the culture of human interchange, which is included as a component of the implicit curriculum in the current EPAS. It presents the use of the implicit curriculum concept in teacher and medical education as a context for its application to social work education. The authors argue that professional behaviors taught in the…

  19. Fluency Effects in Recognition Memory: Are Perceptual Fluency and Conceptual Fluency Interchangeable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M.; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2014-01-01

    On a recognition memory test, both perceptual and conceptual fluency can engender a sense of familiarity and elicit recognition memory illusions. To date, perceptual and conceptual fluency have been studied separately but are they interchangeable in terms of their influence on recognition judgments? Five experiments compared the effect of…

  20. Is there an ACE ID - ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms interaction that influences sprint performance?

    PubMed

    Eynon, N; Alves, A J; Yamin, C; Sagiv, M; Duarte, J A; Oliveira, J; Ayalon, M; Goldhammer, E; Sagiv, M; Meckel, Y

    2009-12-01

    Functional R577X (rs.1815739) and ID (rs.5186) polymorphisms in the alpha-actinin-3 ( ACTN3) and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genes, respectively, have been associated with sprint performance. The aim of this study was to determine their effect on sprint performance among 81 Israeli sprinters and 240 healthy controls. Results revealed that the ACE II genotype+ ACTN3 R allele (P=0.003 for sprinters vs. controls), and the ACTN3 RR genotype +ACE I allele (P=0.001 for sprinters vs. controls) might be the genotype for sprinters. In the whole cohort the probability of ACTN3 RR genotype+ ACE I allele being a sprinter (odds ratio 2.67, 95% confidence interval 1.45-4.93) and of ACE II genotype+ ACTN3 R allele being a sprinter (odds ratio 3.57, 95% confidence interval 1.78-7.15) was significantly higher than that in the controls. In conclusion, the above data suggest that ACE ID/ ACTN3 R577X genotype combination is associated with sprint ability. However, ACE ID/ ACTN3 R577X genotype combination is not related to the level of performance.

  1. Effect of phlorotannins isolated from Ecklonia cava on angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Wijesinghe, W.A.J.P.; Ko, Seok-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity is the most common mechanism underlying the lowering of blood pressure. In the present study, five organic extracts of a marine brown seaweed Ecklonia cava were prepared by using ethanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, hexane, and diethyl ether as solvents, which were then tested for their potential ACE inhibitory activities. Ethanol extract showed the strongest ACE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.96 mg/ml. Five kinds of phlorotannins, phloroglucinol, triphlorethol-A, eckol, dieckol, and eckstolonol, were isolated from ethanol extract of E. cava, which exhibited potential ACE inhibition. Dieckol was the most potent ACE inhibitor and was found to be a non-competitive inhibitor against ACE according to Lineweaver-Burk plots. Dieckol had an inducible effect on the production of NO in EAhy926 cells without having cytotoxic effect. The results of this study indicate that E. cava could be a potential source of phlorotannins with ACE inhibitory activity for utilization in production of functional foods. PMID:21556221

  2. Effect of phlorotannins isolated from Ecklonia cava on angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, W A J P; Ko, Seok-Chun; Jeon, You-Jin

    2011-04-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity is the most common mechanism underlying the lowering of blood pressure. In the present study, five organic extracts of a marine brown seaweed Ecklonia cava were prepared by using ethanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, hexane, and diethyl ether as solvents, which were then tested for their potential ACE inhibitory activities. Ethanol extract showed the strongest ACE inhibitory activity with an IC(50) value of 0.96 mg/ml. Five kinds of phlorotannins, phloroglucinol, triphlorethol-A, eckol, dieckol, and eckstolonol, were isolated from ethanol extract of E. cava, which exhibited potential ACE inhibition. Dieckol was the most potent ACE inhibitor and was found to be a non-competitive inhibitor against ACE according to Lineweaver-Burk plots. Dieckol had an inducible effect on the production of NO in EAhy926 cells without having cytotoxic effect. The results of this study indicate that E. cava could be a potential source of phlorotannins with ACE inhibitory activity for utilization in production of functional foods.

  3. ACE I/D Polymorphism in Hypertensive Patients of Kashmiri Population

    PubMed Central

    Sameer, A. Syed; Syeed, Nidda; Tak, Shahid A.; Bashir, Samina; Nissar, Saniya; Siddiqi, Mushtaq A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene in humans has an insertion-deletion (I/D) polymorphic state in intron 16 on chromosome 17q23. This polymorphism has been widely investigated in different diseases. In this study we aimed to investigate the ACE I/D genotype frequency in hypertensive cases in Kashmiri population. Materials and Methods We designed a case control study, where 52 hypertensive cases were studied for ACE I/D polymorphism against 150 age/sex matched controls taken from general population. The polymorphisms of ACE gene were investigated using polymerase chain reaction for detection of ACE I/D genotype. Fisher’s Chi square test was used for calculation of P value and OR. Results We found the frequency of ACE DD genotype to be 46.15% (24/52), II 23.07% (12/52) and DI 30.77% (16/52) in 52 hypertensive cases. Conclusions The ACE I/D genotype is positively associated with hypertension in our population.

  4. Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Li, Jia-Lu; Yang, Xing-Lou; Chmura, Aleksei A.; Zhu, Guangjian; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Mazet, Jonna K.; Hu, Ben; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Ji; Luo, Chu-Ming; Tan, Bing; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Yan; Crameri, Gary; Zhang, Shu-Yi; Wang, Lin-Fa; Daszak, Peter; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2016-01-01

    The 2002–3 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was one of the most significant public health events in recent history1. An ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)2 suggests that this group of viruses remains a major threat and that their distribution is wider than previously recognized. Although bats have been suggested as the natural reservoirs of both viruses3–5, attempts to isolate the progenitor virus of SARS-CoV from bats have been unsuccessful. Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have now been reported from bats in China, Europe and Africa5–8, but none are considered a direct progenitor of SARS-CoV because of their phylogenetic disparity from this virus and the inability of their spike proteins (S) to use the SARS-CoV cellular receptor molecule, the human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)9,10. Here, we report whole genome sequences of two novel bat CoVs from Chinese horseshoe bats (Family: Rhinolophidae) in Yunnan, China; RsSHC014 and Rs3367. These viruses are far more closely related to SARS-CoV than any previously identified bat CoVs, particularly in the receptor binding domain (RDB) of the S protein. Most importantly, we report the first recorded isolation of a live SL-CoV (bat SL-CoV-WIV1) from bat fecal samples in Vero E6 cells, which has typical coronavirus morphology, 99.9% sequence identity to Rs3367 and uses the ACE2s from human, civet and Chinese horseshoe bat for cell entry. Preliminary in vitro testing indicates that WIV1 also has a broad species tropism. Our results provide the strongest evidence to date that Chinese horseshoe bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV, and that intermediate hosts may not be necessary for direct human infection by some bat SL-CoVs. They also highlight the importance of pathogen discovery programs targeting high-risk wildlife groups in emerging disease hotspots as a strategy for pandemic preparedness. PMID:24172901

  5. Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Li, Jia-Lu; Yang, Xing-Lou; Chmura, Aleksei A; Zhu, Guangjian; Epstein, Jonathan H; Mazet, Jonna K; Hu, Ben; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Ji; Luo, Chu-Ming; Tan, Bing; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Yan; Crameri, Gary; Zhang, Shu-Yi; Wang, Lin-Fa; Daszak, Peter; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2013-11-28

    The 2002-3 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was one of the most significant public health events in recent history. An ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus suggests that this group of viruses remains a key threat and that their distribution is wider than previously recognized. Although bats have been suggested to be the natural reservoirs of both viruses, attempts to isolate the progenitor virus of SARS-CoV from bats have been unsuccessful. Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have now been reported from bats in China, Europe and Africa, but none is considered a direct progenitor of SARS-CoV because of their phylogenetic disparity from this virus and the inability of their spike proteins to use the SARS-CoV cellular receptor molecule, the human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). Here we report whole-genome sequences of two novel bat coronaviruses from Chinese horseshoe bats (family: Rhinolophidae) in Yunnan, China: RsSHC014 and Rs3367. These viruses are far more closely related to SARS-CoV than any previously identified bat coronaviruses, particularly in the receptor binding domain of the spike protein. Most importantly, we report the first recorded isolation of a live SL-CoV (bat SL-CoV-WIV1) from bat faecal samples in Vero E6 cells, which has typical coronavirus morphology, 99.9% sequence identity to Rs3367 and uses ACE2 from humans, civets and Chinese horseshoe bats for cell entry. Preliminary in vitro testing indicates that WIV1 also has a broad species tropism. Our results provide the strongest evidence to date that Chinese horseshoe bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV, and that intermediate hosts may not be necessary for direct human infection by some bat SL-CoVs. They also highlight the importance of pathogen-discovery programs targeting high-risk wildlife groups in emerging disease hotspots as a strategy for pandemic preparedness.

  6. New Tools to Prepare ACE Cross-section Files for MCNP Analytic Test Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Forrest B.

    2016-06-17

    Monte Carlo calculations using one-group cross sections, multigroup cross sections, or simple continuous energy cross sections are often used to: (1) verify production codes against known analytical solutions, (2) verify new methods and algorithms that do not involve detailed collision physics, (3) compare Monte Carlo calculation methods with deterministic methods, and (4) teach fundamentals to students. In this work we describe 2 new tools for preparing the ACE cross-section files to be used by MCNP® for these analytic test problems, simple_ace.pl and simple_ace_mg.pl.

  7. Progress on the Multiphysics Capabilities of the Parallel Electromagnetic ACE3P Simulation Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Kononenko, Oleksiy

    2015-03-26

    ACE3P is a 3D parallel simulation suite that is being developed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Effectively utilizing supercomputer resources, ACE3P has become a key tool for the coupled electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical research and design of particle accelerators. Based on the existing finite-element infrastructure, a massively parallel eigensolver is developed for modal analysis of mechanical structures. It complements a set of the multiphysics tools in ACE3P and, in particular, can be used for the comprehensive study of microphonics in accelerating cavities ensuring the operational reliability of a particle accelerator.

  8. Interaction of diabetes and ACE2 in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tikellis, Chris; Pickering, Raelene; Tsorotes, Despina; Du, Xiao-Jun; Kiriazis, Helen; Nguyen-Huu, Thu-Phuc; Head, Geoffrey A; Cooper, Mark E; Thomas, Merlin C

    2012-10-01

    Local and systemic AngII (angiotensin II) levels are regulated by ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), which is reduced in diabetic tissues. In the present study, we examine the effect of ACE2 deficiency on the early cardiac and vascular changes associated with experimental diabetes. Streptozotocin diabetes was induced in male C57BL6 mice and Ace2-KO (knockout) mice, and markers of RAS (renin-angiotensin system) activity, cardiac function and injury were assessed after 10 weeks. In a second protocol, diabetes was induced in male ApoE (apolipoprotein E)-KO mice and ApoE/Ace2-double-KO mice, and plaque accumulation and markers of atherogenesis assessed after 20 weeks. The induction of diabetes in wild-type mice led to reduced ACE2 expression and activity in the heart, elevated circulating AngII levels and reduced cardiac Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)] levels. This was associated structurally with thinning of the LV (left ventricular) wall and mild ventricular dilatation, and histologically with increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis on TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) staining and compensatory hypertrophy denoted by an increased cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area. By contrast Ace2-KO mice failed to increase circulating AngII concentration, experienced a paradoxical fall in cardiac AngII levels and no change in Ang-(1-7) following the onset of diabetes. At the same time the major phenotypic differences between Ace2-deficient and Ace2-replete mice with respect to BP (blood pressure) and cardiac hypertrophy were eliminated following the induction of diabetes. Consistent with findings in the heart, the accelerated atherosclerosis that was observed in diabetic ApoE-KO mice was not seen in diabetic ApoE/Ace2-KO mice, which experienced no further increase in plaque accumulation or expression in key adhesion molecules beyond that seen in ApoE/Ace2-KO mice. These results point to the potential role of ACE2 deficiency in regulating

  9. APL workers install CRIS on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Workers from the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) install the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2). From left, are Al Sadilek, Marcos Gonzalez and Cliff Willey. CRIS is one of nine instruments on ACE, which will investigate the origin and evolution of solar phenomenon, the formation of the solar corona, solar flares and the acceleration of the solar wind. ACE was developed for NASA by the APL. The spacecraft is scheduled to be launched Aug. 21 aboard a two-stage Delta II 7920-8 rocket from Space Launch Complex 17, Pad A.

  10. The first stage of the Delta II for ACE is erected at LC 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The first stage of the Delta II rocket which will to be used to launch the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft is erected at Launch Complex 17A at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Scheduled for launch on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles. The ACE observatory will be placed into an orbit almost a million miles (1.5 million kilometers) away from the Earth, about 1/100 the distance from the Earth to the Sun.

  11. Differential regulation of the cellulase transcription factors XYR1, ACE2, and ACE1 in Trichoderma reesei strains producing high and low levels of cellulase.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Thomas; Margeot, Antoine; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Le Crom, Stéphane; Ben Chaabane, Fadhel; Linke, Rita; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P

    2011-02-01

    Due to its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases, Trichoderma reesei is increasingly being investigated for second-generation biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. The induction mechanisms of T. reesei cellulases have been described recently, but the regulation of the genes involved in their transcription has not been studied thoroughly. Here we report the regulation of expression of the two activator genes xyr1 and ace2, and the corepressor gene ace1, during the induction of cellulase biosynthesis by the inducer lactose in T. reesei QM 9414, a strain producing low levels of cellulase (low producer). We show that all three genes are induced by lactose. xyr1 was also induced by d-galactose, but this induction was independent of d-galactose metabolism. Moreover, ace1 was carbon catabolite repressed, whereas full induction of xyr1 and ace2 in fact required CRE1. Significant differences in these regulatory patterns were observed in the high-producer strain RUT C30 and the hyperproducer strain T. reesei CL847. These observations suggest that a strongly elevated basal transcription level of xyr1 and reduced upregulation of ace1 by lactose may have been important for generating the hyperproducer strain and that thus, these genes are major control elements of cellulase production.

  12. Effect of extrusion process on antioxidant and ACE inhibition properties from bovine haemoglobin concentrate hydrolysates incorporated into expanded maize products.

    PubMed

    Cian, Raúl E; Luggren, Pablo; Drago, Silvina R

    2011-11-01

    Extrusion process has been widely used for the development of many functional foods. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of extrusion process on antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition properties from bovine haemoglobin concentrate (BHC) hydrolysates (P, FC, PF and FCF). Extrusion was carried out with a Brabender single screw extruder. The ACE inhibition and the antioxidant capacity (AC) were estimated by the inhibition of the ACE and ABTS+√ radical cation expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), respectively. The ACE inhibition and TEAC values from hydrolysates were significantly higher than that from BHC. The highest ACE inhibition corresponded to P hydrolysate and the highest TEAC corresponded to PF and FCF hydrolysates. The ACE inhibition and AC from extruded products with added hydrolysates were higher than that from maize control; however, the extrusion process modified both ACE inhibition and AC formerly present in hydrolysates.

  13. Differential downregulation of ACE2 by the spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human coronavirus NL63.

    PubMed

    Glowacka, Ilona; Bertram, Stephanie; Herzog, Petra; Pfefferle, Susanne; Steffen, Imke; Muench, Marcus O; Simmons, Graham; Hofmann, Heike; Kuri, Thomas; Weber, Friedemann; Eichler, Jutta; Drosten, Christian; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The human coronaviruses (CoVs) severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and NL63 employ angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for cell entry. It was shown that recombinant SARS-CoV spike protein (SARS-S) downregulates ACE2 expression and thereby promotes lung injury. Whether NL63-S exerts a similar activity is yet unknown. We found that recombinant SARS-S bound to ACE2 and induced ACE2 shedding with higher efficiency than NL63-S. Shedding most likely accounted for the previously observed ACE2 downregulation but was dispensable for viral replication. Finally, SARS-CoV but not NL63 replicated efficiently in ACE2-positive Vero cells and reduced ACE2 expression, indicating robust receptor interference in the context of SARS-CoV but not NL63 infection.

  14. ACES: The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obland, M. D.; Prasad, N. S.; Harrison, F. W.; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Dobler, J. T.; Moore, B.; Zaccheo, T.; Campbell, J.; Chen, S.; Cleckner, C. S.; DiJoseph, M.; Little, A.; Notari, A.; Refaat, T. F.; Rosenbaum, D.; Vanek, M. D.; Bender, J.; Braun, M.; Chavez-Pirson, A.; Neal, M.; Rayner, P. J.; Rosiewicz, A.; Shure, M.; Welch, W.

    2012-12-01

    The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) is a NASA Langley Research Center project funded by NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) that seeks to advance technologies critical to measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The technologies being advanced are: (1) a high bandwidth detector, (2) a multi-aperture telescope assembly, (3) advanced algorithms for cloud and aerosol discrimination, and (4) high-efficiency, multiple-amplifier CO2 and O2 laser transmitters. The instrument architecture will be developed to operate on a high-altitude aircraft and will be directly scalable to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. These technologies are viewed as critical towards developing an airborne simulator and eventual spaceborne instrument with lower size, mass, and power consumption, and improved performance. The detector effort will improve the existing detector subsystem by increasing its bandwidth to a goal of 5 MHz, reducing its overall mass from 18 lbs to <10 lbs, and stretching the duration of autonomous, service-free operation periods from 4 hrs to >24 hrs. The development goals are to permit higher laser modulation rates, which provides greater flexibility for implementing thin-cloud discrimination algorithms as well as improving range resolution and error reduction, and to enable long flights on a high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The telescope development consists of a three-telescope design built for the constraints of the Global Hawk aircraft. This task addresses the ability of multiple smaller telescopes to provide equal or greater collection efficiency compared with a single larger telescope with a reduced impact on launch mass and cost. The telescope assembly also integrates fiber-coupled transmit collimators for all of the laser transmitters and fiber-coupled optical

  15. ACE2: Angiotensin II/Angiotensin-(1-7) balance in cardiorenal injury

    PubMed Central

    Varagic, Jasmina; Ahmad, Sarfaraz; Nagata, Sayaka; Ferrario, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    Our current recognition of the renin-angiotensin system is more convoluted than originally thought due to the discovery of multiple novel enzymes, peptides, and receptors inherent to this interactive biochemical cascade. Over the last decade angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has emerged as a key player in the pathophysiology of hypertension and cardiovascular and renal disease due to its pivotal role in metabolizing vasoconstrictive/hypertrophic/proliferative angiotensin II into favorable angiotensin-(1-7). This review addresses a considerable advancement in research on the role of tissue ACE2 in development and progression of hypertension and cardiorenal injury. We also summarize the results from recent clinical and experimental studies suggesting that serum or urine soluble ACE2 may serve as a novel biomarker or independent risk factor relevant for diagnosis and prognosis of cardiorenal disease. Recent proceedings on novel therapeutic approaches to enhance ACE2/angiotensin-(1-7) axis are also reviewed. PMID:24510672

  16. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from Jasminum azoricum and Jasminum grandiflorum.

    PubMed

    Somanadhan, B; Smitt, U W; George, V; Pushpangadan, P; Rajasekharan, S; Duus, J O; Nyman, U; Olsen, C E; Jaroszewski, J W

    1998-04-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of extracts of the aerial parts of Jasminum azoricum var. travancorense, using an in vitro ACE inhibition assay, led to isolation of three oligomeric, iridoid-type compounds, which were named sambacein I-III. Their structures are based on spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Similarly, fractionation of extracts of aerial parts of J. grandiflorum resulted in the isolation of the previously reported ACE inhibitor, oleacein. The IC50 values of purified ACE inhibitors were 26-36 microM. Moreover, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethanol, isoquercitrin and ursolic acid were isolated from J. grandiflorum. Sambaceins and oleacein are formed from genuine iridoid glucosides during processing of the plant material. NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the level of the ACE inhibitors in the traditional medicines prepared in Kerala from these Jasminum species.

  17. Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Measurements of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Chemistry and Long-Term Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Bernath, Peter; Boone, Chris; Nassar, Ray

    2007-01-01

    We highlight chemistry and trend measurement results from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) which is providing precise middle troposphere to the lower thermosphere measurements with a 0.02/cm resolution Fourier transform spectrometer covering 750-4400/cm

  18. Single and combined influence of ACE and ACTN3 genotypes on muscle phenotypes in octogenarians.

    PubMed

    Garatachea, Nuria; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Torres-Luque, Gema; Yvert, Thomas; Santiago, Catalina; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Lucia, Alejandro

    2012-07-01

    We studied the single and combined influence of the ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms on muscle phenotypes (thigh muscles' cross-sectional area assessed with magnetic resonance imaging) and strength (maximal handgrip, 30-s chair stand test), functional ability during activities of daily living (Barthel index) and bone mineral density (proximal femur) in Caucasian (Spanish) community-dwelling old people [n = 81, 59 women; mean age 82.8 ± 4.8 years (range 71-93 years)]. We found no significantly differences in the aforementioned phenotypes across ACE and ACTN3 genotypes (all P > 0.05), except for handgrip in the ACE I/D recessive model (DD 19.5 ± 6.7 kg, ID 24.0 ± 9.1 kg, II 22.1 ± 7.9; P = 0.047), yet statistical significance disappeared after correction for multiple comparisons. Likewise, the analyses of the combined effects between genotypes did not yield any significant difference (all P > 0.05) between the two 'extreme' genotypes [theoretically 'power or muscularity oriented' [(ACTN3 RR + RX & ACE DD) versus 'non-power' (ACTN3 XX & ACE II + ID)]. The aforementioned analyses were adjusted by sex, age and physical activity levels as covariates. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association of single or combined effect of ACE and ACTN3 genotypes or genotype combination group (ACE + ACTN3) with sarcopenia (i.e. being in the lowest 25th sex-specific percentile for a combined score of the muscle and functional phenotypes we measured). Though ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms are candidates to modulate exercise-related phenotypes in adults, our data suggest that they do not exert a major influence in the muscle phenotypes of old people. More studies with larger sample sizes are needed.

  19. ACES II Seat Roller Study: Findings of Detrimental Friction under High Windblast or Adverse Flight Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-12

    seat rollers with modern industrial “cam rollers” (or similar load-rated roll-and-thrust bearing wheel system), and (2) insure that no future ejection...of 1500 lbf. 15. SUBJECT TERMS ACES-II, Ejection, Seat, Cam, Roller, Bearing , Friction, CKU-5, Rocket, Catapult, ROCAT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...ACES-II Seat Roller Design, Installation, and Use ................................ 16 Figure 7 – Images of some Typical Cam Rollers and Bearings

  20. Antagonism of angiotensin 1–7 prevents the therapeutic effects of recombinant human ACE2

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vaibhav B.; Takawale, Abhijit; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Das, Subhash K.; Basu, Ratnadeep; Grant, Maria B.; Hall, David A.; Kassiri, Zamaneh

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the angiotensin 1–7/Mas receptor (MasR) axis counteracts angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated cardiovascular disease. Recombinant human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (rhACE2) generates Ang 1–7 from Ang II. We hypothesized that the therapeutic effects of rhACE2 are dependent on Ang 1–7 action. Wild type male C57BL/6 mice (10–12 weeks old) were infused with Ang II (1.5 mg/kg/d) and treated with rhACE2 (2 mg/kg/d). The Ang 1–7 antagonist, A779 (200 ng/kg/min), was administered to a parallel group of mice. rhACE2 prevented Ang II-induced hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction while A779 prevented these beneficial effects and precipitated systolic dysfunction. rhACE2 effectively antagonized Ang II-mediated myocardial fibrosis which was dependent on the action of Ang 1–7. Myocardial oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity was further increased by Ang 1–7 inhibition even in the presence of rhACE2. Activation of Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by rhACE2 were suppressed by the antagonism of Ang 1–7 while the activation of pathological signaling pathways was maintained. Blocking Ang 1–7 action prevents the therapeutic effects of rhACE2 in the setting of elevated Ang II culminating in systolic dysfunction. These results highlight a key cardioprotective role of Ang 1–7, and increased Ang 1–7 action represents a potential therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25874965

  1. ACE2 and vasoactive peptides: novel players in cardiovascular/renal remodeling and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Torres, Evelyn; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Mondaca-Ruff, David; Azocar, Andrés; Castro, Pablo F; Jalil, Jorge E; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio; Ocaranza, María Paz

    2015-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key component of cardiovascular physiology and homeostasis due to its influence on the regulation of electrolyte balance, blood pressure, vascular tone and cardiovascular remodeling. Deregulation of this system contributes significantly to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and renal diseases. Numerous studies have generated new perspectives about a noncanonical and protective RAS pathway that counteracts the proliferative and hypertensive effects of the classical angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin (Ang) II/angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis. The key components of this pathway are ACE2 and its products, Ang-(1-7) and Ang-(1-9). These two vasoactive peptides act through the Mas receptor (MasR) and AT2R, respectively. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR and ACE2/Ang-(1-9)/AT2R axes have opposite effects to those of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis, such as decreased proliferation and cardiovascular remodeling, increased production of nitric oxide and vasodilation. A novel peptide from the noncanonical pathway, alamandine, was recently identified in rats, mice and humans. This heptapeptide is generated by catalytic action of ACE2 on Ang A or through a decarboxylation reaction on Ang-(1-7). Alamandine produces the same effects as Ang-(1-7), such as vasodilation and prevention of fibrosis, by interacting with Mas-related GPCR, member D (MrgD). In this article, we review the key roles of ACE2 and the vasoactive peptides Ang-(1-7), Ang-(1-9) and alamandine as counter-regulators of the ACE-Ang II axis as well as the biological properties that allow them to regulate blood pressure and cardiovascular and renal remodeling.

  2. A prospective study of frequency and characteristics of cough during ACE inhibitor treatment.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuhisa; Fukuda, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are reportedly effective, and positively indicated in patients with chronic heart failure with decreased contractility, after myocardial infarction, after cerebrovascular disorders, and in those with chronic kidney disease. However, the biggest challenge to continuous use of ACE inhibitors is the adverse reaction of cough. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated the present state and characteristics of ACE inhibitor-induced cough in patients with essential hypertension currently being treated with an ACE inhibitor for an average of 18 months, who could be regularly checked for cough. Subjects in this study were 176 patients overall (mean age 67 ± 11 years old), 90 men and 86 women. The adverse reaction of cough was observed in 20% of patients, and more frequently in women than in men. However, in 26 of the patients with cough, the cough either resolved naturally or completely disappeared while the treatment continued, after which patients could continue taking the medication. Specifically, ACE inhibitor treatment was eventually discontinued due to cough in 5.1% of patients. Cough occurred less frequently with concomitant calcium antagonists or diuretics than with ACE inhibitor monotherapy. Cough as an adverse reaction occurred at a low frequency when medication was taken at bedtime. We considered a number of measures to counteract cough, then in addition to starting the ACE inhibitor treatment as early as possible, it is important to devise ways for the ACE inhibitor treatment to be continued for as long as possible, through the adept use of these measures.

  3. Operation Heli-STAR - Atlanta Communications Experiment (ACE). Volume 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Operation Heli-STAR (Helicopter Short-Haul Transportation and Aviation Research) was established and operated in Atlanta, Georgia, during the period of the 1996 Centennial Olympic Games. Heli-STAR had three major thrusts: (1) the establishment and operation of a helicopter-based cargo transportation system, (2) the management of low-altitude air traffic in the airspace of an urban area, and (3) the collection and analysis of research and development data associated with items 1 and 2. Heli-STAR was a cooperative industry/government program that included parcel package shippers and couriers in the Atlanta area, the helicopter industry, aviation electronics manufacturers, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and support contractors. Several detailed reports have been produced as a result of Operation Heli-STAR. These include four reports on acoustic measurements and associated analyses, and reports on the Heli-STAR tracking data including the data processing and retrieval system, the Heli-STAR cargo simulation, and the community response system. In addition, NASA's Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) program has produced a report describing the Atlanta Communications Experiment (ACE) which produced the avionics and ground equipment using automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) technology. This latter report is restricted to organizations belonging to NASA's AGATE industry consortium. A complete list of these reports is shown on the following page.

  4. ACE-Asia: Asian Aerosol Transport Into Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, C. F.; Perry, K. D.; Cliff, S. S.; Jimenez-Cruz, M. P.; Cahill, T. A.

    2001-12-01

    Adak Island, one of the southernmost Aleutian Islands, and the Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), approximately 30 miles north of Fairbanks, Alaska, both experienced Asian dust transport during the ACE-Asia campaign in March/April 2001. The Asian soil reaching both Adak and PFRR appeared in both the sub-micron (0.07-0.34 and 0.34-1.15 micron) and super-micron (1.15-2.5 micron) stages of the 3-stage DRUM aerosol impactor. This contrasts with the 'typical Arctic haze' event observed at PFRR in which the aerosol is predominantly sub-micron. Although Asian soil and anthropogenic emissions reaching PFRR caused a significant deterioration in local visibility, the models and satellites did not show the dust reaching PFRR. However, back-trajectory modeling does point to Asia as the origin of the aerosol at PFRR. In contrast to PFRR, the soil reaching Adak was predicted by models, visible to satellites, concentrated enough to set off volcanic ash alarms in the Aleutians, and caused 'brown snow' near Valdez, Alaska. In addition to the dust, a suite of typically anthropogenic fine metals were seen during the six week experiment, confirming the back-trajectory indications of an Asian source. The study also provided additional information on the optically important sub-micron component of sea salt aerosols for comparison to similar observations with DRUM technology at the Mace Head Research Facility on the western coast of Ireland.

  5. ACE inhibitors could be therapeutic for antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Hobgood, Donna K

    2013-11-01

    Antisocial personality traits are an important topic for research. The societal cost of these behaviors encourages efforts at a better understanding of central nervous system causes. Catecholamine genes are being studied to facilitate this understanding, and some tentative findings are being reached about several of these genes. It seems that many genes play a role to produce antisocial behaviors so complexity of elucidating each gene is obvious. One conclusion that could be drawn from the current research findings is that DA2 like receptors (DRD2, DRD3, DRD4) with alleles that decrease neurotransmission are facilitatory of antisocial behaviors. DA2 like receptors cause neuronal firing to inhibit many peripheral functions through adenylyl cyclase inhibition. When these receptors are less active by genetically decreased density, lower affinity, or by low dopamine levels as final common pathways then inhibition is released and a state of disinhibition can be said to describe this state. Peripheral metabolism is increased and behavioral activation is noted. Renin is disinhibited in this setting thus allowing sympathetic nervous system activation. The fight or flight behaviors thus produced, in the extreme, would be the setting of antisocial behavior. Research validates this hypothesis. Understanding this final common pathway toward antisocial behavior should lead to better treatment for individuals with this pattern of behavior before they have caused harm to themselves and others. ACE inhibitors are well tolerated drugs used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure and would also treat antisocial behavior disorders.

  6. Several benthic species can be used interchangeably in integrated sediment quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romero, A; Khosrovyan, A; Del Valls, T A; Obispo, R; Serrano, F; Conradi, M; Riba, I

    2013-06-01

    The selection of the best management option for contaminated sediments requires the biological assessment of sediment quality using bioindicator organisms. There have been comparisons of the performance of different test species when exposed to naturally occurring sediments. However, more research is needed to determine their suitability to be used interchangeably. The sensitivity of two amphipod species (Ampelisca brevicornis and Corophium volutator) to sediments collected from four different commercial ports in Spain was tested. For comparison the lugworm, Arenicola marina, which is typically used for bioaccumulation testing, was also tested. Chemical analyses of the sediments were also conducted. All species responded consistently to the chemical exposure tests, although the amphipods, as expected, were more sensitive than the lugworm. It was found that C. volutator showed higher vulnerability than A.brevicornis. It was concluded that the three species can be used interchangeably in the battery of tests for integrated sediment quality assessment.

  7. Fluctuation-induced shear flow and energy transfer in plasma interchange turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Sun, C. K.; Wang, X. Y.; Zhou, A.; Wang, X. G.; Ernst, D. R.

    2015-11-15

    Fluctuation-induced E × B shear flow and energy transfer for plasma interchange turbulence are examined in a flux-driven system with both closed and open magnetic field lines. The nonlinear evolution of interchange turbulence shows the presence of two confinement regimes characterized by low and high E × B flow shear. In the first regime, the large-scale turbulent convection is dominant and the mean E × B shear flow is at a relatively low level. By increasing the heat flux above a certain threshold, the increased turbulent intensity gives rise to the transfer of energy from fluctuations to mean E × B flows. As a result, a transition to the second regime occurs, in which a strong mean E × B shear flow is generated.

  8. Fast detection of genetic information by an optimized PCR in an interchangeable chip.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinbo; Kodzius, Rimantas; Xiao, Kang; Qin, Jianhua; Wen, Weijia

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we report the construction of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device for fast amplification and detection of DNA. This device consists of an interchangeable PCR chamber, a temperature control component as well as an optical detection system. The DNA amplification happens on an interchangeable chip with the volumes as low as 1.25 μl, while the heating and cooling rate was as fast as 12.7°C/second ensuring that the total time needed of only 25 min to complete the 35 cycle PCR amplification. An optimized PCR with two-temperature approach for denaturing and annealing (Td and Ta) of DNA was also formulated with the PCR chip, with which the amplification of male-specific sex determining region Y (SRY) gene marker by utilizing raw saliva was successfully achieved and the genetic identification was in-situ detected right after PCR by the optical detection system.

  9. Modulation of thermal conductivity in kinked silicon nanowires: phonon interchanging and pinching effects.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Wu; Yang, Nuo; Wang, Bing-Shen; Rabczuk, Timon

    2013-04-10

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the reduction of the thermal conductivity by kinks in silicon nanowires. The reduction percentage can be as high as 70% at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the reduction is also calculated. By calculating phonon polarization vectors, two mechanisms are found to be responsible for the reduced thermal conductivity: (1) the interchanging effect between the longitudinal and transverse phonon modes and (2) the pinching effect, that is, a new type of localization, for the twisting and transverse phonon modes in the kinked silicon nanowires. Our work demonstrates that the phonon interchanging and pinching effects, induced by kinking, are brand-new and effective ways in modulating heat transfer in nanowires, which enables the kinked silicon nanowires to be a promising candidate for thermoelectric materials.

  10. Transition from drift to interchange instabilities in an open magnetic field line configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Poli, F. M.; Ricci, P.; Fasoli, A.; Podesta, M.

    2008-03-15

    The transition from a regime dominated by drift instabilities to a regime dominated by pure interchange instabilities is investigated and characterized in the simple magnetized toroidal device TORPEX [TORoidal Plasma EXperiment, A. Fasoli et al., Phys. of Plasmas 13, 055906 (2006)]. The magnetic field lines are helical, with a dominant toroidal component and a smaller vertical component. Instabilities with a drift character are observed in the favorable curvature region, on the high field side with respect to the maximum of the background density profile. For a limited range of values of the vertical field they coexist with interchange instabilities in the unfavorable curvature region, on the plasma low field side. With increasing vertical magnetic field magnitude, a gradual transition between the two regimes is observed on the low field side, controlled by the value of the field line connection length. The observed transition follows the predictions of a two-fluid linear model.

  11. Ion finite Larmor radius effects on the interchange instability in an open system

    SciTech Connect

    Katanuma, I.; Sato, S.; Okuyama, Y.; Kato, S.; Kubota, R.

    2013-11-15

    A particle simulation of an interchange instability was performed by taking into account the ion finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects. It is found that the interchange instability with large FLR grows in two phases, that is, linearly growing phase and the nonlinear phase subsequent to the linear phase, where the instability grows exponentially in both phases. The linear growth rates observed in the simulation agree well with the theoretical calculation. The effects of FLR are usually taken in the fluid simulation through the gyroviscosity, the effects of which are verified in the particle simulation with large FLR regime. The gyroviscous cancellation phenomenon observed in the particle simulation causes the drifts in the direction of ion diamagnetic drifts.

  12. Interchange and Flow Velocity Shear Instabilities in the Presence of Finite Larmor Radius Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Mishin, E.; Genoni, T.; Rose, D.; Mehlhorn, T.

    2014-09-01

    Ionospheric irregularities cause scintillations of electromagnetic signals that can severely affect navigation and transionospheric communication, in particular during Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs) events. However, the existing ionospheric models do not describe density irregularities with typical scales of several ion Larmor radii that affect UHF and L bands. These irregularities can be produced in the process of nonlinear evolution of interchange or flow velocity shear instabilities. The model of nonlinear development of these instabilities based on two-fluid hydrodynamic description with inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects will be presented. The derived nonlinear equations will be numerically solved by using the code Flute, which was originally developed for High Energy Density applications and modified to describe interchange and flow velocity shear instabilities in the ionosphere. The high-resolution simulations will be driven by the ambient conditions corresponding to the AFRL C/NOFS satellite low-resolution data during EPBs.

  13. Device interchangeability on anterior chamber depth and white-to-white measurements: a thorough literature review

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Vicent, Alberto; Pérez-Vives, Cari; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; García-Lázaro, Santiago; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We have reviewed a set of recently published studies that compared the anterior chamber depth (ACD) and/or white-to-white (WTW) distance obtained by means of different measuring devices. Since some of those studies reached contradictory conclusions regarding device interchangeability, this review was carried out in attempting to clarify which clinical devices can or cannot be considered as interchangeable in clinical practice to measure ACD and/or WTW distance, among these devices: A-scan, ultrasound biomicroscopy, Orbscan and Orbscan II (Bausch&Lomb Surgical Inc., San Dimas, California, USA), Pentacam and Pentacam HR (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany), Galilei (Ziemer, Switzerland), Visante optical coherence tomography (Visante OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, California, USA), IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany), and Lenstar LS 900/Biograph (Haag-Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland/Alcon Laboratories Inc., Ft Worth, Texas, USA). PMID:27500117

  14. Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

  15. Exercise manual for the Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) software

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, P.R.; Widney, T.W.; Goolsby, P.T.; Nelson, J.D.; Evanko, D.A.

    1997-09-01

    The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspected Party and the Inspection Team. Current training techniques include table-top inspections and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. ACE-IT has been designed to provide training for a hypothetical challenge inspection under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC); however, this training tool can be modified for other inspection regimes. Although ACE-IT provides training from notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities, the primary emphasis of ACE-IT is in the inspection itself--particularly with the concept of managed access. ACE-IT also demonstrates how inspection provisions impact compliance determination and the protection of sensitive information. The Exercise Manual supplements the ACE-IT software by providing general information on on-site inspections and detailed information for the CWC challenge inspection exercise. The detailed information includes the pre-inspection briefing, maps, list of sensitive items, medical records, and shipping records.

  16. Spatial characteristics of professional tennis serves with implications for serving aces: A machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, David; Reid, Machar

    2017-04-01

    This study sought to determine the features of an ideal serve in men's professional tennis. A total of 25,680 first serves executed by 151 male tennis players during Australian Open competition were classified as either aces or returned into play. Spatiotemporal (impact location, speed, projection angles, landing location and relative player locations) and contextual (score) features of each serve were extracted from Hawk-Eye data and used to construct a classification tree model (with decision rules) that predicted serve outcome. k-means clustering was applied to the landing locations to quantify optimal landing locations for aces. The classification tree revealed that (1) serve directionality, relative to the returner; (2) the ball's landing proximity to the nearest service box line and (3) serve speed classified aces with an accuracy of 87.02%. Hitting aces appeared more contingent on accuracy than speed, with serves directed >5.88° from the returner and landing <15.27 cm from a service box line most indicative of an ace. k-means clustering revealed four distinct locations (≈0.73 m wide × 2.35 m deep) in the corners of the service box that corresponded to aces. These landing locations provide empirically derived target locations for players to adhere to during practice and competition.

  17. Implementing Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) with Small Business Suppliers in the Pre-Award Acquisition Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    initiative " Electronic Commerce through EDI." Consistent with the DoD initiative to implement EDI with industry, participation of small businesses in the pre...paperwork associated with the pre-award acquisition process, electronic commerce is being integrated with EDI through electronic bulletin boards...This thesis will explore the issues surrounding DoD’s successfully implementing the use of Electronic Commerce / Electronic Data Interchange (EC/EDI

  18. Observation of Centrifugally Driven Interchange Instabilities in a Plasma Confined by a Magnetic Dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, B.; Maslovsky, D.; Mauel, M.E.

    2005-05-06

    Centrifugally driven interchange instabilities are observed in a laboratory plasma confined by a dipole magnetic field. The instabilities appear when an equatorial mesh is biased to drive a radial current that causes rapid axisymmetric plasma rotation. The observed instabilities are quasicoherent in the laboratory frame of reference; they have global radial mode structures and low azimuthal mode numbers, and they are modified by the presence of energetic, magnetically confined electrons. Results from a self-consistent nonlinear simulation reproduce the measured mode structures.

  19. Regulation of toxin and bacteriocin gene expression in Clostridium by interchangeable RNA polymerase sigma factors.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Bruno; Raffestin, Stéphanie; Matamouros, Susana; Mani, Nagraj; Popoff, Michel R; Sonenshein, Abraham L

    2006-05-01

    The production of major extracellular toxins by pathogenic strains of Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium difficile, and a bacteriocin by Clostridium perfringens is dependent on a related group of RNA polymerase sigma-factors. These sigma-factors (BotR, TetR, TcdR and UviA) were shown to be sufficiently similar that they could substitute for one another in in vitro DNA binding and run-off transcription experiments. In cells, however, the sigma-factors fell into two subclasses. BotR and TetR were able to direct transcription of their target genes in a fully reciprocal manner. Similarly, UviA and TcdR were fully interchangeable. Neither BotR nor TetR could substitute for UviA or TcdR, however, and neither UviA nor TcdR could direct transcription of the natural targets of BotR or TetR. The extent of functional interchangeability of the sigma-factors was attributed to the strong conservation of their subregion 4.2 sequences and the conserved -35 sequences of their target promoters, while restrictions on interchangeability were attributed to variations in their subregion 2.4 sequences and the target site -10 sequences. The four sigma-factors have been assigned to group 5 of the sigma(70) family and seem to have arisen from a common ancestral protein that may have co-evolved with the genes whose transcription they direct. A fifth Clostridiumsigma-factor, sigma(Y) of Clostridium acetobutylicum, resembles the TcdR family, but was not functionally interchangeable with members of this family.

  20. Concepts for a Standard Data Interchange Structure (SDIS) INPE proposal to CCSDS/Panel 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamini, E. W.; Martins, R. C.

    1983-05-01

    Concepts for a standard data interchange structure (SDIS) are proposed. Applications processes, products and an end-to-end reference physical and system model are identified for characterization of services to be offered with the aid of a SDIS, as a system. Implementation aspects are proposed for the SDIS: logical structure, format and protocol, inspired on the ISO/ANSI Reference Model for open systems interconnection.

  1. Diverse Thinking about Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the concept of diversity in educational decision making. It is noted that the differences that distinguish the needs, interests and abilities are identified by educators. It lists misconceptions resulting from not attending to within-group diversity, and states that a "loss of self" for individual members of…

  2. New Perspectives in the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) II: Albumin Suppresses Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Activity in Human

    PubMed Central

    Fagyas, Miklós; Úri, Katalin; Siket, Ivetta M.; Fülöp, Gábor Á.; Csató, Viktória; Daragó, Andrea; Boczán, Judit; Bányai, Emese; Szentkirályi, István Elek; Maros, Tamás Miklós; Szerafin, Tamás; Édes, István; Papp, Zoltán; Tóth, Attila

    2014-01-01

    About 8% of the adult population is taking angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to treat cardiovascular disease including hypertension, myocardial infarction and heart failure. These drugs decrease mortality by up to one-fifth in these patients. We and others have reported previously that endogenous inhibitory substances suppress serum ACE activity, in vivo, similarly to the ACE inhibitor drugs. Here we have made an effort to identify this endogenous ACE inhibitor substance. ACE was crosslinked with interacting proteins in human sera. The crosslinked products were immunoprecipitated and subjected to Western blot. One of the crosslinked products was recognized by both anti-ACE and anti-HSA (human serum albumin) antibodies. Direct ACE-HSA interaction was confirmed by binding assays using purified ACE and HSA. HSA inhibited human purified (circulating) and human recombinant ACE with potencies (IC50) of 5.7±0.7 and 9.5±1.1 mg/mL, respectively. Effects of HSA on the tissue bound native ACE were tested on human saphenous vein samples. Angiotensin I evoked vasoconstriction was inhibited by HSA in this vascular tissue (maximal force with HSA: 6.14±1.34 mN, without HSA: 13.54±2.63 mN), while HSA was without effects on angiotensin II mediated constrictions (maximal force with HSA: 18.73±2.17 mN, without HSA: 19.22±3.50 mN). The main finding of this study is that HSA was identified as a potent physiological inhibitor of the ACE. The enzymatic activity of ACE appears to be almost completely suppressed by HSA when it is present in its physiological concentration. These data suggest that angiotensin I conversion is limited by low physiological ACE activities, in vivo. PMID:24691203

  3. Angiotensin-II mediates ACE2 Internalization and Degradation through an Angiotensin-II type I receptor-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lazartigues, Eric; Filipeanu, Catalin M.

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin Converting Enzyme type 2 (ACE2) is a pivotal component of the renin-angiotensin system, promoting the conversion of Angiotensin (Ang)-II to Ang-(1-7). We previously reported that decreased ACE2 expression and activity contribute to the development of Ang-II-mediated hypertension in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in ACE2 down-regulation during neurogenic hypertension. In ACE2-transfected Neuro-2A cells, Ang-II treatment resulted in a significant attenuation of ACE2 enzymatic activity. Examination of the subcellular localization of ACE2 revealed that Ang-II treatment leads to ACE2 internalization and degradation into lysosomes. These effects were prevented by both the Ang-II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker losartan and the lysosomal inhibitor leupeptin. In contrast, in HEK293T cells, which lack endogenous AT1R, Ang-II failed to promote ACE2 internalization. Moreover, this effect could be induced after AT1R transfection. Further, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that AT1R and ACE2 form complexes and these interactions were decreased by Ang-II treatment, which also enhanced ACE2 ubiquitination. In contrast, ACE2 activity was not changed by transfection of AT2 or Mas receptors. In vivo, Ang-II-mediated hypertension was blunted by chronic infusion of leupeptin in wildtype C57Bl/6, but not in ACE2 knockout mice. Overall, this is the first demonstration that elevated Ang-II levels reduce ACE2 expression and activity by stimulation of lysosomal degradation through an AT1R-dependent mechanism. PMID:25225202

  4. A standardized SOA for clinical data interchange in a cardiac telemonitoring environment.

    PubMed

    Gazzarata, Roberta; Vergari, Fabio; Cinotti, Tullio Salmon; Giacomini, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Care of chronic cardiac patients requires information interchange between patients' homes, clinical environments, and the electronic health record. Standards are emerging to support clinical information collection, exchange and management and to overcome information fragmentation and actors delocalization. Heterogeneity of information sources at patients' homes calls for open solutions to collect and accommodate multidomain information, including environmental data. Based on the experience gained in a European Research Program, this paper presents an integrated and open approach for clinical data interchange in cardiac telemonitoring applications. This interchange is supported by the use of standards following the indications provided by the national authorities of the countries involved. Taking into account the requirements provided by the medical staff involved in the project, the authors designed and implemented a prototypal middleware, based on a service-oriented architecture approach, to give a structured and robust tool to congestive heart failure patients for their personalized telemonitoring. The middleware is represented by a health record management service, whose interface is compliant to the healthcare services specification project Retrieve, Locate and Update Service standard (Level 0), which allows communication between the agents involved through the exchange of Clinical Document Architecture Release 2 documents. Three performance tests were carried out and showed that the prototype completely fulfilled all requirements indicated by the medical staff; however, certain aspects, such as authentication, security and scalability, should be deeply analyzed within a future engineering phase.

  5. Ion pressure gradient effects on Kelvin-Helmholtz and interchange instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, David; Myra, James

    2016-10-01

    In the flow-free state, radial force-balance implies that the poloidal components of the ExB and ion diamagnetic drifts, grad(Pi) / n, are mirrored : vE + vdi = 0. Analysis of the linearized fluid equations shows that the mirrored state is stable in the absence of the interchange drive, grad(Pe +Pi) / n, i.e., the K-H instability is absent. With the interchange drive present, the mirrored-state growth rate passes through a global minimum value with increasing ion pressure gradient, due to sheared ExB flow and diamagnetic suppression, admitting a stability interval in a neighborhood of the minimum if other damping mechanisms are present. The K-H instability is recovered, absent the interchange drive, if force-balance is generalized to include neoclassical poloidal flows (vE + vdi + vnc = 0, vnc grad(Ti)), so that mirroring is lost. Implications for achieving a quiescent H-mode are discussed, and SOLT simulations, which include nonlinear ion pressure effects, are compared with the linear picture. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under Award Number DE-FG02-97ER54392.

  6. Excitation of the centrifugally driven interchange instability in a plasma confined by a magnetic dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, B.; Maslovsky, D.; Mauel, M.E.; Waksman, J.

    2005-05-15

    The centrifugally driven electrostatic interchange instability is excited for the first time in a laboratory magnetoplasma. The plasma is confined by a dipole magnetic field, and the instability is excited when an equatorial mesh is biased to induce a radial current that creates rapid axisymmetric plasma rotation. The observed instabilities appear quasicoherent in the lab frame of reference; they have global radial mode structures and low azimuthal mode numbers, and they are modified by the presence of energetic, magnetically confined electrons. The mode structure is measured using a multiprobe correlation technique as well as a novel 96-point polar imaging diagnostic which measures particle flux along field lines that map to the pole. Interchange instabilities caused by hot electron pressure are simultaneously observed at the hot electron drift frequency. Adjusting the hot electron fraction {alpha} modifies the stability as well as the structures of the centrifugally driven modes. In the presence of larger fractions of energetic electrons, m=1 is observed to be the dominant mode. For faster rotating plasmas containing fewer energetic electrons, m=2 dominates. Results from a self-consistent nonlinear simulation reproduce the measured mode structures in both regimes. The low azimuthal mode numbers seen in the experiment and simulation can also be interpreted with a local, linear dispersion relation of the electrostatic interchange instability. Drift resonant hot electrons give the instability a real frequency, inducing stabilizing ion polarization currents that preferentially suppress high-m modes.

  7. Observation of n=1 Resistive Interchange Mode in low-β Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    in, Y.; Ramos, J. J.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Marmar, E.; Porkolab, M.; Snipes, J.; Wolfe, S.; Taylor, G.

    1999-11-01

    A localized MHD perturbation, which is identified as a resistive interchange mode, has been observed during the current ramp of Alcator C-Mod, when βN is as low as 0.15. Using two grating polychromators which can cover more than half of the whole plasma profile, very localized (within 2cm) Te fluctuations were observed in the core region, which has a hollow equilibrium Te profile. Based on magnetic diagnostics, the toroidal mode number is n=1. The pressure gradients at the channels where the fluctuations were observed were positive (p^' >0) and they were located close to an inner rational surface of the reversed q-profile with q = 5. According to resistive interchange mode theory(GLASSER, A.H. et al., Phys. Fluids. 19) (1976) 567, such a hollow pressure profile with q > 1 in a low-β plasma can be unstable. A resistive MHD analysis of this equilibrium, using the MARS(BONDESON, A. et al, Phys. Fluids B4) (1992) 1889 code, predicts such an unstable mode with toroidal mode number, n=1. Unlike DIII-D observations(CHU, M.S. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 )(1996) 2710, this resistive interchange mode during low-β plasma is due to the inverted pressure gradient in the core, not to high β.

  8. Identification of new polymorphisms of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, and study of their relationship to plasma ACE levels by two-QTL segregation-linkage analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Villard, E.; Tiret, L.; Visvikis, S.; Rakotovao, R.; Cambien, F.; Soubrier, F.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) levels are highly genetically determined. A previous segregation-linkage analysis suggested the existence of a functional mutation located within or close to the ACE locus, in almost complete linkage desequilibrium (LD) with the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and accounting for half the ACE variance. In order to identify the functional variant at the molecular level, we compared ACE gene sequences between four subjects selected for having contrasted ACE levels and I/D genotypes. We identified 10 new polymorphisms, among which 8 were genotyped in 95 healthy nuclear families, in addition to the I/D polymorphism. These polymorphisms could be divided into two groups: five polymorphisms in the 5' region and three in the coding sequence and the 3' UTR. Within each group, polymorphisms were in nearly complete association, whereas polymorphisms from the two groups were in strong negative LD. After adjustment for the I/D polymorphism, all polymorphisms of the 5' group remained significantly associated with ACE levels, which suggests the existence of two quantitative trait loci (QTL) acting additively on ACE levels. Segregation-linkage analyses including one or two ACE-linked QTLs in LD with two ACE markers were performed to test this hypothesis. The two QTLs and the two markers were assumed to be in complete LD. Results supported the existence of two ACE-linked QTLs, which would explain 38% and 49% of the ACE variance in parents and offspring, respectively. One of these QTLs might be the I/D polymorphism itself or the newly characterized 4656(CT)2/3 polymorphism. The second QTL would have a frequency of approximately .20, which is incompatible with any of the yet-identified polymorphisms. More extensive sequencing and extended analyses in larger samples and in other populations will be necessary to characterize definitely the functional variants. PMID:8651305

  9. Cleavage of arginyl-arginine and lysyl-arginine from the C-terminus of pro-hormone peptides by human germinal angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and the C-domain of human somatic ACE.

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, R E; Williams, T A; Sajid, M; Corvol, P; Coates, D

    1997-01-01

    Mammalian germinal angiotensin I-converting enzyme (gACE) is a single-domain dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase found exclusively in male germ cells, which has almost identical sequence and enzymic properties with the C-domain of the two-domain somatic ACE. Mutant mice that do not express gACE are infertile, suggesting a role for the enzyme in the processing of undefined peptides involved in fertilization. A number of spermatid peptides [e.g. cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin] are processed from pro-hormones by endo- and exo-proteolytic cleavages which might generate substrates for gACE. We have shown that peptide hormone intermediates with Lys/Arg-Arg at the C-terminus are high-affinity substrates for human gACE. gACE from human sperm cleaved Arg-Arg from the C-terminus of the CCK5-GRR (GWMDFGRR), a peptide corresponding to the C-terminus of a CCK-gastrin prohormone intermediate. Hydrolysis of CCK5-GRR by recombinant human C-domain ACE was Cl- dependent, with maximal activity achieved in 5-10 mM NaCl at pH 6.4. C-Domain ACE cleaved Lys/Arg-Arg from the C-terminus of dynorphin-(1-7), a pro-TRH peptide KRQHPGKR, and two insect peptides FSPRLGKR and FSPRLGRR. C-Domain ACE displayed high affinity towards all these substrates with Vmax/Km values between 14 and 113 times greater than the Vmax/Km for the conversion of the best known ACE substrate, angiotensin I, into angiotensin II. In conclusion, we have identified a new class of substrates for human gACE, and we suggest that gACE might be an alternative to carboxypeptidase E for the trimming of basic dipeptides from the C-terminus of intermediates generated from pro-hormones by subtilisin-like convertases in human male germ cells. PMID:9371719

  10. A Solar Electron Burst Spanning a Stream Interface: ACE Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, J. T.; Skoug, R. M.; McComas, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Where coronal hole fast wind runs into slow wind ahead, a compression region forms. The boundary between the compressed slow and fast wind is referred to as the stream interface (SI). Ideally, if the coronal source regions of slow and fast wind are distinct and stationary, and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) foot point locations are fixed, the SI is a discontinuous plasma boundary for both solar wind ions and 100eV-1keV suprathermal electrons which stream out from the sun through the ions along the IMF. In the ideal case, IMF lines do not cross the SI. However, field line crossing of the SI may result from IMF foot point motion during the time required for solar wind ions to travel from the sun to 1 AU. On January 29, 2005 ACE encountered a stream interface within a CIR at the leading edge of a coronal hole fast stream. A solar electron burst was observed from 11-15 UT at 0.5-1.3 keV energies. The burst was observed across the SI, indicating magnetic connection to the electron burst source region on both sides of the SI. This could indicate that the electron burst source region spanned a coronal hole boundary. A more likely alternative is that field lines on opposite sides of the SI at 1 AU were no longer connected to different sides of a coronal hole boundary. Instead, footpoint motion occurred during solar wind ion transit to 1 AU, so that field lines on both sides of the SI were connected to a single coronal electron burst source region.

  11. Shipboard Measurements During ACE-Asia: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Uematsu, M.; Miura, K.

    2001-12-01

    Shipboard measurements of aerosol properties and related parameters were conducted from the US NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown and the Japanese R/V Mirai (MR01-K02) during the ACE-Asia Intensive Field Program (http://saga.pmel.noaa.gov/aceasia/). The R/V Brown cruise (14 March - 20 April 2001), with scientists from 22 research institutions, included measurements across the Pacific Ocean from Hawaii to Japan, in the East China Sea and in the Sea of Japan. Measurements were coordinated with the US NSF/NCAR C-130, US CIRPAS Twin Otter, and the Australian ARA King Air Aircraft, Terra and SeaWiFS satellite overpasses, and the ground station at Hachijo, Japan. Distinct aerosol and trace gas signatures were observed from the Miyakejima volcano, the deserts of China and Mongolia, the Chang Jiang Basin, the Korean Peninsula and the islands of Japan. The R/V Mirai cruise (14 - 28 May 2001), with scientists from 10 research institutions, focused on the region east of Japan along 146.5 E from 30 N to 38 N. Enhanced concentrations of radon and super-micron aerosol were measured in a post-frontal air mass along the 146.5 E transect. Observations from a Kytoon and the NIES two-wavelength (1064 nm and 532 nm) dual-polarization lidar detected dust and sulfate aerosol plumes from the Asian continent. The vertical distribution patterns of the dust and sulfate aerosols qualitatively agreed with the model prediction by the Chemical Weather Forecasting System (CFORS).

  12. A sex-linked Ace gene, not linked to insensitive acetylcholinesterase-mediated insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, C A; Bourguet, D; Ascolillo, A; Rooker, S J; Garvey, C F; Hall, L M; Pasteur, N; Raymond, M

    1998-05-01

    An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene, Ace.x, showing 93% identity of deduced amino acid sequence to Anopheles stephensi Ace has been cloned from a Culex pipiens strain homozygous for insensitive AChE (iAChE) mediated insecticide resistance. DNA sequence of genomic DNA clones identified exons 2-5. RFLP of six clones indicated four possible alleles. Linkage analysis located Ace.x to chromosome I, less than 0.8 centimorgans from the sex locus, whereas the locus conferring resistance was 2.0 centimorgans from plum-eye on chromosome II. Ace.1 coding for AChE1, which is associated with resistance, is therefore autosomal. We propose that Ace.x is the recently postulated Ace.2 coding for the biochemically distinct AChE2, which is not associated with resistance.

  13. Occurrence and fate of ACE-inhibitor peptides in cheeses and in their digestates following in vitro static gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Stuknytė, Milda; Cattaneo, Stefano; Masotti, Fabio; De Noni, Ivano

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of the casein-derived angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor (ACE-I) peptides VPP, IPP, RYLGY, RYLG, AYFYPEL, AYFYPE, LHLPLP and HLPLP were investigated in 12 different cheese samples by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. The total amount of ACE-I peptides was in the range 0.87-331mgkg(-1). VPP and IPP largely prevailed in almost all cheeses. Following in vitro static gastrointestinal digestion of Cheddar, Gorgonzola, Maasdam and Grana Padano cheeses, type and amount of ACE-I peptides changed, and only VPP, IPP, HLPLP and LHLPLP were detected in the intestinal digestates. The results evidenced that the degree of proteolysis itself cannot be regarded as a promoting or hindering factor for ACE-I peptide release during cheese digestion. Moreover, the data indicated that the ACE-I potential of cheeses cannot be inferred based on the type and amount of ACE-I peptides present in undigested samples.

  14. Molecular and Thermodynamic Mechanisms of the Chloride-dependent Human Angiotensin-I-converting Enzyme (ACE)*

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Christopher J.; Masuyer, Geoffrey; Schwager, Sylva L. U.; Akif, Mohd; Sturrock, Edward D.; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme (sACE), a key regulator of blood pressure and electrolyte fluid homeostasis, cleaves the vasoactive angiotensin-I, bradykinin, and a number of other physiologically relevant peptides. sACE consists of two homologous and catalytically active N- and C-domains, which display marked differences in substrate specificities and chloride activation. A series of single substitution mutants were generated and evaluated under varying chloride concentrations using isothermal titration calorimetry. The x-ray crystal structures of the mutants provided details on the chloride-dependent interactions with ACE. Chloride binding in the chloride 1 pocket of C-domain ACE was found to affect positioning of residues from the active site. Analysis of the chloride 2 pocket R522Q and R522K mutations revealed the key interactions with the catalytic site that are stabilized via chloride coordination of Arg522. Substrate interactions in the S2 subsite were shown to affect chloride affinity in the chloride 2 pocket. The Glu403-Lys118 salt bridge in C-domain ACE was shown to stabilize the hinge-bending region and reduce chloride affinity by constraining the chloride 2 pocket. This work demonstrated that substrate composition to the C-terminal side of the scissile bond as well as interactions of larger substrates in the S2 subsite moderate chloride affinity in the chloride 2 pocket of the ACE C-domain, providing a rationale for the substrate-selective nature of chloride dependence in ACE and how this varies between the N- and C-domains. PMID:24297181

  15. A phase 1 study of ACE-536, a regulator of erythroid differentiation, in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Attie, Kenneth M; Allison, Mark J; McClure, Ty; Boyd, Ingrid E; Wilson, Dawn M; Pearsall, Amelia E; Sherman, Matthew L

    2014-07-01

    ACE-536, a recombinant protein containing a modified activin receptor type IIB, is being developed for the treatment of anemias caused by ineffective erythropoiesis, such as thalassemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. ACE-536 acts through a mechanism distinct from erythropoiesis-stimulating agents to promote late-stage erythroid differentiation by binding to transforming growth factor-β superfamily ligands and inhibiting signaling through transcription factors Smad 2/3. The goal of this Phase 1 study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic effects of ascending dose levels of ACE-536 in healthy volunteers. Thirty-two postmenopausal women were randomized in sequential cohorts of eight subjects each to receive up to two doses of either ACE-536 (0.0625-0.25 mg/kg) or placebo (3:1 randomization) given subcutaneously every 2 weeks. Mean baseline age was 59.4 years, and hemoglobin was 13.2 g/dL. ACE-536 was well tolerated at dose levels up to 0.25 mg/kg over the 1-month treatment period. There were no serious or severe adverse events, nor clinically meaningful changes in safety laboratory measures or vital signs. Mean ACE-536 AUC0-14d and Cmax increased proportionally after first dose; mean t½ was 15-16 days. Dose-dependent increases in hemoglobin concentration were observed, beginning 7 days after initiation of treatment and maintained for several weeks following treatment. The proportion of subjects with a hemoglobin increase ≥1.0 g/dL increased in a dose-dependent manner to 83.3% of subjects in the highest dose group, 0.25 mg/kg. ACE-536 was well tolerated and resulted in sustained increases in hemoglobin levels in healthy postmenopausal women.

  16. The sweeter side of ACE2: physiological evidence for a role in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bindom, Sharell M; Lazartigues, Eric

    2009-04-29

    Diabetes mellitus is a growing problem in all parts of the world. Both clinical trials and animal models of type I and type II diabetes have shown that hyperactivity of angiotensin-II (Ang-II) signaling pathways contribute to the development of diabetes and diabetic complications. Of clinical relevance, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system prevents new-onset diabetes and reduces the risk of diabetic complications. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is a recently discovered mono-carboxypeptidase and the first homolog of ACE. It is thought to inhibit Ang-II signaling cascades mostly by cleaving Ang-II to generate Ang-(1-7), which effects oppose Ang-II and are mediated by the Mas receptor. The enzyme is present in the kidney, liver, adipose tissue and pancreas. Its expression is elevated in the endocrine pancreas in diabetes and in the early phase during diabetic nephropathy. ACE2 is hypothesized to act in a compensatory manner in both diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Recently, we have shown the presence of the Mas receptor in the mouse pancreas and observed a reduction in Mas receptor immuno-reactivity as well as higher fasting blood glucose levels in ACE2 knockout mice, indicating that these mice may be a new model to study the role of ACE2 in diabetes. In this review we will examine the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the physiopathology and treatment of diabetes and highlight the potential benefits of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, focusing on recent data about ACE2.

  17. Role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in diabetic cardiovascular complications.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vaibhav B; Parajuli, Nirmal; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2014-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus results in severe cardiovascular complications, and heart disease and failure remain the major causes of death in patients with diabetes. Given the increasing global tide of obesity and diabetes, the clinical burden of diabetes-induced cardiovascular disease is reaching epidemic proportions. Therefore urgent actions are needed to stem the tide of diabetes which entails new prevention and treatment tools. Clinical and pharmacological studies have demonstrated that AngII (angiotensin II), the major effector peptide of the RAS (renin-angiotensin system), is a critical promoter of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. The role of RAS and AngII has been implicated in the progression of diabetic cardiovascular complications and AT1R (AngII type 1 receptor) blockers and ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors have shown clinical benefits. ACE2, the recently discovered homologue of ACE, is a monocarboxypeptidase which converts AngII into Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)] which, by virtue of its actions on the MasR (Mas receptor), opposes the effects of AngII. In animal models of diabetes, an early increase in ACE2 expression and activity occurs, whereas ACE2 mRNA and protein levels have been found to decrease in older STZ (streptozotocin)-induced diabetic rats. Using the Akita mouse model of Type 1 diabetes, we have recently shown that loss of ACE2 disrupts the balance of the RAS in a diabetic state and leads to AngII/AT1R-dependent systolic dysfunction and impaired vascular function. In the present review, we will discuss the role of the RAS in the pathophysiology and treatment of diabetes and its complications with particular emphasis on potential benefits of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis activation.

  18. Association of Increased Serum ACE Activity with Logical Memory Ability in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Tian, Sai; Han, Jing; Huang, Rong; Xia, Wenqing; Sun, Jie; Cai, Rongrong; Dong, Xue; Shen, Yanjue; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is involved in the chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to assess the pathogenetic roles of ACE and the genetic predisposition of its insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among T2DM patients. Methods: A total of 210 T2DM patients were enrolled. Among these patients, 116 satisfied the MCI diagnostic criteria and 94 exhibited healthy cognition. The cognitive functions of the patients were extensively assessed. The serum level and activity of ACE were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ultraviolet spectrophotography. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms of I/D gene of ACE were analyzed. Results: The serum level and activity of ACE in diabetic MCI patients (p = 0.022 and p = 0.008, respectively) were both significantly higher than those in the healthy controls. A significant negative correlation was found between their ACE activity and logical memory test score (LMT) (p = 0.002). Multiple stepwise regression iterated the negative correlation between ACE activity and LMT score (p = 0.035). Although no significant difference was found in the genotype or allele distribution of ACE I/D polymorphism between the groups, the serum levels and activity of ACE were higher in the DD group than in the ID and II groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Serum ACE activity could better predict logical memory in T2DM patients than ACE level. Further investigations on a large population size are necessary to test whether the D-allele of the ACE gene polymorphism is susceptible to memory deterioration.

  19. Association of Increased Serum ACE Activity with Logical Memory Ability in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Sai; Han, Jing; Huang, Rong; Xia, Wenqing; Sun, Jie; Cai, Rongrong; Dong, Xue; Shen, Yanjue; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is involved in the chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to assess the pathogenetic roles of ACE and the genetic predisposition of its insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among T2DM patients. Methods: A total of 210 T2DM patients were enrolled. Among these patients, 116 satisfied the MCI diagnostic criteria and 94 exhibited healthy cognition. The cognitive functions of the patients were extensively assessed. The serum level and activity of ACE were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ultraviolet spectrophotography. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms of I/D gene of ACE were analyzed. Results: The serum level and activity of ACE in diabetic MCI patients (p = 0.022 and p = 0.008, respectively) were both significantly higher than those in the healthy controls. A significant negative correlation was found between their ACE activity and logical memory test score (LMT) (p = 0.002). Multiple stepwise regression iterated the negative correlation between ACE activity and LMT score (p = 0.035). Although no significant difference was found in the genotype or allele distribution of ACE I/D polymorphism between the groups, the serum levels and activity of ACE were higher in the DD group than in the ID and II groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Serum ACE activity could better predict logical memory in T2DM patients than ACE level. Further investigations on a large population size are necessary to test whether the D-allele of the ACE gene polymorphism is susceptible to memory deterioration. PMID:28066203

  20. ACE2 Deficiency Worsens Epicardial Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Cardiac Dysfunction in Response to Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vaibhav B.; Mori, Jun; McLean, Brent A.; Basu, Ratnadeep; Das, Subhash K.; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Parajuli, Nirmal; Penninger, Josef M.; Grant, Maria B.; Lopaschuk, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is increasing in prevalence and is strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has emerged as a key pathogenic mechanism for these disorders; angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) negatively regulates RAS by metabolizing Ang II into Ang 1-7. We studied the role of ACE2 in obesity-mediated cardiac dysfunction. ACE2 null (ACE2KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a control diet and studied at 6 months of age. Loss of ACE2 resulted in decreased weight gain but increased glucose intolerance, epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) inflammation, and polarization of macrophages into a proinflammatory phenotype in response to HFD. Similarly, human EAT in patients with obesity and heart failure displayed a proinflammatory macrophage phenotype. Exacerbated EAT inflammation in ACE2KO-HFD mice was associated with decreased myocardial adiponectin, decreased phosphorylation of AMPK, increased cardiac steatosis and lipotoxicity, and myocardial insulin resistance, which worsened heart function. Ang 1-7 (24 µg/kg/h) administered to ACE2KO-HFD mice resulted in ameliorated EAT inflammation and reduced cardiac steatosis and lipotoxicity, resulting in normalization of heart failure. In conclusion, ACE2 plays a novel role in heart disease associated with obesity wherein ACE2 negatively regulates obesity-induced EAT inflammation and cardiac insulin resistance. PMID:26224885

  1. Polymorphisms of ACE2 gene are associated with essential hypertension and antihypertensive effects of Captopril in women.

    PubMed

    Fan, X; Wang, Y; Sun, K; Zhang, W; Yang, X; Wang, S; Zhen, Y; Wang, J; Li, W; Han, Y; Liu, T; Wang, X; Chen, J; Wu, H; Hui, R

    2007-08-01

    ACE2 appears to counterbalance the vasopressor effect of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) in the reninangiotensin system. We hypothesized that ACE2 polymorphisms could confer a high risk of hypertension and have an impact on the antihypertensive response to ACE inhibitors. The hypothesis was tested in two casecontrol studies and a clinical trial of 3,408 untreated hypertensive patients randomized to Atenolol, Hydrochlorothiazide, Captopril, or Nifedipine treatments for 4 weeks. ACE2 rs2106809 T allele was found to confer a 1.6-fold risk for hypertension in women (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.132.06), whereas when combined with the effect of the ACE DD genotype, the risk was 2.34-fold (95% CI, 1.754.85) in two independent samples. The adjusted diastolic blood pressure response to Captopril was 3.3 mm Hg lower in ACE2 T allele carriers than in CC genotype carriers (P=0.019) in women. We conclude that the ACE2 T allele confers a high risk for hypertension and reduced antihypertensive response to ACE inhibitors.

  2. ACE2 links amino acid malnutrition to microbial ecology and intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Tatsuo; Perlot, Thomas; Rehman, Ateequr; Trichereau, Jean; Ishiguro, Hiroaki; Paolino, Magdalena; Sigl, Verena; Hanada, Toshikatsu; Hanada, Reiko; Lipinski, Simone; Wild, Birgit; Camargo, Simone M R; Singer, Dustin; Richter, Andreas; Kuba, Keiji; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Schreiber, Stefan; Clevers, Hans; Verrey, Francois; Rosenstiel, Philip; Penninger, Josef M

    2012-07-25

    Malnutrition affects up to one billion people in the world and is a major cause of mortality. In many cases, malnutrition is associated with diarrhoea and intestinal inflammation, further contributing to morbidity and death. The mechanisms by which unbalanced dietary nutrients affect intestinal homeostasis are largely unknown. Here we report that deficiency in murine angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 2 (Ace2), which encodes a key regulatory enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), results in highly increased susceptibility to intestinal inflammation induced by epithelial damage. The RAS is known to be involved in acute lung failure, cardiovascular functions and SARS infections. Mechanistically, ACE2 has a RAS-independent function, regulating intestinal amino acid homeostasis, expression of antimicrobial peptides, and the ecology of the gut microbiome. Transplantation of the altered microbiota from Ace2 mutant mice into germ-free wild-type hosts was able to transmit the increased propensity to develop severe colitis. ACE2-dependent changes in epithelial immunity and the gut microbiota can be directly regulated by the dietary amino acid tryptophan. Our results identify ACE2 as a key regulator of dietary amino acid homeostasis, innate immunity, gut microbial ecology, and transmissible susceptibility to colitis. These results provide a molecular explanation for how amino acid malnutrition can cause intestinal inflammation and diarrhoea.

  3. Determination of association constants between steroid compounds and albumins by partial-filling ACE.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Lotta K; Sirén, Heli

    2007-10-01

    ACE is a popular technique for evaluating association constants between drugs and proteins. However, ACE has not previously been applied to study the association between electrically neutral biomolecules and plasma proteins. We studied the affinity between human and bovine serum albumins (HSA and BSA, respectively) and three neutral endogenous steroid hormones (testosterone, epitestosterone and androstenedione) and two synthetic analogues (methyltestosterone and fluoxymesterone) by applying the partial-filling technique in ACE (PF-ACE). From the endocrinological point of view, the distribution of endogenous steroids among plasma components is of great interest. Strong interactions with albumins suppress the biological activity of steroids. Notable differences in the association constants were observed. In the case of the endogenous steroids, the interactions between testosterone and the albumins were strongest, and those between androstenedione and the albumins were substantially weaker. The association constants, K(b), for testosterone, epitestosterone and androstenedione and HSA at 37 degrees C were 32 100 +/- 3600, 21 600 +/- 1500 and 13 300 +/- 1300 M(-1), respectively, while the corresponding values for the steroids and BSA were 18 800 +/- 1500, 14 000 +/- 400 and 7800 +/- 900 M(-1). Methyltestosterone was bound even more strongly than testosterone, while fluoxymesterone was only weakly bound by the albumins. Finally, the steroids were separated by PF-ACE with HSA and BSA used as resolving components.

  4. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Jong; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Son, Chang-Gue; Im, Hwi-Jin; Jo, Hyun-Kyung; Yoo, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Yoon-Sik; Seol, In-Chan

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi) and Curcuma longa (C. longa) radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM). In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE) on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group) were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group) were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg) or curcumin (50 mg/kg). Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides), glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα). The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model. PMID:26508977

  5. Individual and combined influence of ACE and ACTN3 genes on muscle phenotypes in Polish athletes.

    PubMed

    Orysiak, Joanna; Mazur-Różycka, Joanna; Busko, Krzysztof; Gajewski, Jan; Szczepanska, Beata; Malczewska-Lenczowska, Jadwiga

    2017-02-08

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between ACE and ACTN3 genes, independently or in combination, and muscle strength and power in male and female athletes. The study involved 398 young male (n=266) and female (n=132) athletes representing various sport disciplines (ice hockey, canoeing, swimming, volleyball). All were Caucasians. The following measurements were taken: height of jump and mechanical power in countermovement jump (CMJ) and spike jump (SPJ), and muscle strength of 10 muscle groups (flexors and extensors of the elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and trunk). The ID polymorphism of ACE and the R577X polymorphism of ACTN3 were typed using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism), respectively. The genotype distribution of the ACE and ACTN3 genes did not differ significantly between groups of athletes for either sex. There was no association between ACE and ACTN3 genotypes (alone or in combination) and sum of muscle strength, height of jump or mechanical power in both jump tests (CMJ and SPJ) for male and female athletes. These findings do not support an influential role of the ACE and ACTN3 genes in determining power/strength performance of elite athletes.

  6. Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) Project First Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, Robert; Kille, Robert; Kirsten, Richard; Rigterink, Paul; Sielski, Henry; Gratteau, Melinda F. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    A three-day NASA Virtual Airspace and Modeling Project (VAMS) Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) was held at the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. on May 21 through May 23,2002. The purpose of this meeting was to share initial concept information sponsored by the VAMS Project. An overall goal of the VAMS Project is to develop validated, blended, robust and transition-able air transportation system concepts over the next five years that will achieve NASA's long-term Enterprise Aviation Capacity goals. This document describes the presentations at the TIM, their related questions and answers, and presents the TIM recommendations.

  7. The free energy in a class of quantum spin systems and interchange processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björnberg, J. E.

    2016-07-01

    We study a class of quantum spin systems in the mean-field setting of the complete graph. For spin S = 1/2, the model is the Heisenberg ferromagnet, and for general spin S ∈ 1/2 N, it has a probabilistic representation as a cycle-weighted interchange process. We determine the free energy and the critical temperature (recovering results by Tóth and by Penrose when S = 1/2). The critical temperature is shown to coincide (as a function of S) with that of the q = 2S + 1 state classical Potts model, and the phase transition is discontinuous when S ≥ 1.

  8. Interchanging scores between clinical dementia rating scale and global deterioration scale.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong Hye; Lee, Byung Hwa; Kim, Seonwoo; Hahm, Dong Seok; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Yoon, Soo Jin; Jeong, Yong; Ha, Choong Keun; Nab, Duk L

    2003-01-01

    Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) are commonly used to measure the severity of dementia. However, no specific rules are available to convert the scores of CDR into those of GDS and vice versa. Using a semi-structured interview, two examiners independently rated CDR and GDS in 78 patients with dementia and 34 controls. Regression analysis showed a curvilinear relationship between CDR and GDS. This curve may provide a rule to interchange the scores of GDS and CDR (or Sum of Boxes of CDR).

  9. The neutronic and fuel cycle performance of interchangeable 3500 MWth metal and oxide fueled LMRs

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, E.K.; Wade, D.C.

    1989-03-01

    This study summarizes the neutronic and fuel cycle analysis performed at Argonne National Laboratory for an oxide and a metal fueled 3500 MWth LMR. The oxide and metal core designs were developed to meet reactor performance specifications that are constrained by requirements for core loading interchangeability and for small burnup reactivity swing. Differences in the computed performance parameters of the oxide and metal cores, arising from basic differences in their neutronic characteristics, were identified and discussed. It is shown that metal and oxide cores designed to the same ground rules exhibit many similar performance characteristics; however, they differ substantially in reactivity coefficients, control strategies, and fuel cycle options. 12 refs., 25 figs.

  10. Mapping XML documents into databases: a Data-Driven Framework for bioinformatic data interchange.

    PubMed

    Canfield, K; Sorace, J

    2000-01-01

    The Data-Driven Framework (DDF) described here addresses two major problems for healthcare Electronic Data Interchange, data formats and software development costs. The use of a standard XML Document Type Definition (DTD) allows robust representation in any application area and leverages industry-standard tools and development directions. The DDF allows reduced software development and maintenance costs since all data-entry and database tools are generated from the DTD. The DTD can change and the tools can be regenerated. The case-study below uses the DDF for reporting cell assays to determine the roles of factors influencing cellular gene expression and regulation.

  11. Assessing the value of laboratory electronic data interchange in the department of veterans affairs.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Colene M; Rudin, Robert S; Johnston, Douglas S; Pan, Eric C

    2010-11-13

    We modeled the adoption, costs and monetezied benefits of the Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA's) internally developed Laboratory Electronic Data Interchange (LEDI) application from 2001-2007. LEDI provides standards-based electronic exchange of laboratory data and secure transmission of laboratory test orders and results. Once the initial development and installation costs were accounted for, LEDI likely produced value for the VA in savings of laboratory staff time for test ordering and results processing. We estimate that the VA needed to realize 20 percent of projected labor saving to recover its investment in LEDI.

  12. From medical record to patient record through electronic data interchange (EDI).

    PubMed

    Kinkhorst, O M; Lalleman, A W; Hasman, A

    1996-07-01

    In this contribution the role of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for patient records is discussed. It is our opinion that unlimited access to patient records of different care provides is not a wise thing to do and may even not be acceptable legally. The exchange of EDI messages may be a solution in that the relevant information is exchanged on a need to know basis under the responsibility of the care provider that generated the information. The state of the art with respect to the availability of EDI messages in Europe is presented.

  13. Bringing Order to Chaos: RIF as the New Standard for Rule Interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawke, Sandro

    As the W3C Rule Interchange Format (RIF) nears completion, we consider what it offers users and how it may change the design of systems and change the industry. More than just a standard XML format for rules, RIF is integrated with the W3C Semantic Web technology stack, offering a vision for combining some of the best features of the Web with the best features of rule systems. RIF is designed to directly handle rule bases which use only standard features, but it can be extended. Some example extensions and possible areas for future standards work will be discussed.

  14. Second NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, D. A.; Mankins, J. C.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS), a spreadsheet analysis tool suite, applies parametric equations for sizing and lifecycle cost estimation. Performance, operation, and programmatic data used by the equations come from a Technology Tool Box (TTB) database. In this second TTB Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM), technologists, system model developers, and architecture analysts discussed methods for modeling technology decisions in spreadsheet models, identified specific technology parameters, and defined detailed development requirements. This Conference Publication captures the consensus of the discussions and provides narrative explanations of the tool suite, the database, and applications of ATLAS within NASA s changing environment.

  15. Design and development of an interchangeable nanomicroelectrospray source for a quadrupole mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Douglas R.; Sagerman, Gary; Wood, Troy D.

    2003-10-01

    An interchangeable microelectrospray and nanoelectrospray ionization source has been designed and constructed for use on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. This new source is specially designed to conduct nanoelectrospray experiments utilizing pulled borosilicate glass emitters, as well as various ionization modes utilizing silica capillaries. The source design facilitates the easy exchange between a microelectrospray source and nanoelectrospray source. The microionspray assembly can be quickly replaced by the nanoelectrospray adaptation in order to conduct nanoelectrospray experiments. Furthermore, this source design allows for the coupling of low flow separation techniques, like microliquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis.

  16. DoD Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in Contracting Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-20

    Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) to support Department of Defense (DoD) procurement processes has been under consideration for some time. A 1988 Deputy Secretary of Defense memo calls for maximum use of EDI, based on 10 years of DoD EDI investigation and experiments. In 1990, Defense Management Review Decision 941 stated, ’The strategic goal of DoD’s current efforts is to provide the department with the capability to initiate, conduct, and maintain its external business related transactions and internal logistics, contracting, and

  17. Universal Statistical Properties of Drift-Interchange Turbulence in TORPEX Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Labit, B.; Furno, I.; Fasoli, A.; Diallo, A.; Mueller, S. H.; Plyushchev, G.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F. M.

    2007-06-22

    A unique parabolic relation is observed to link skewness and kurtosis of around ten thousand density fluctuation signals, measured over the whole cross section of a toroidal magnetized plasma for a broad range of experimental conditions. All the probability density functions of the measured signals, including those characterized by a negative skewness, are universally described by a special case of the Beta distribution. Fluctuations in the drift-interchange frequency range are necessary and sufficient to assure that probability density functions can be described by this specific Beta distribution.

  18. Experimental Observation of the Blob-Generation Mechanism from Interchange Waves in a Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Podesta, M.; Fasoli, A.; Poli, F. M.; Ricci, P.; Theiler, C.; Brunner, S.; Diallo, A.; Graves, J.; Mueller, S. H.

    2008-02-08

    The mechanism for blob generation in a toroidal magnetized plasma is investigated using time-resolved measurements of two-dimensional structures of electron density, temperature, and plasma potential. The blobs are observed to form from a radially elongated structure that is sheared off by the ExB flow. The structure is generated by an interchange wave that increases in amplitude and extends radially in response to a decrease of the radial pressure scale length. The dependence of the blob amplitude upon the pressure radial scale length is discussed.

  19. Pressure driven tearing and interchange modes in the reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Paccagnella, R.

    2013-01-15

    In this work, the magneto-hydro-dynamic stability of pressure driven modes in the reversed field pinch has been analyzed. It is shown that at low and intermediate {beta}'s, i.e., typically for values below 20-25%, the tearing parity is dominant, while only at very high {beta}, well above the achieved experimental values, at least part of the modes are converted to ideal interchange instabilities. Before their transition to ideal instabilities, according to their Lundquist number scaling, they can be classified as resistive-g modes.

  20. Chemical and nuclear emergencies: Interchanging lessons learned from planning and accident experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, V.; Sorensen, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.

    1989-01-01

    Because the goal of emergency preparedness for both chemical and nuclear hazards is to reduce human exposure to hazardous materials, this paper examines the interchange of lessons learned from emergency planning and accident experience in both industries. While the concerns are slightly different, sufficient similarity is found for each to draw implications from the others experience. Principally the chemical industry can learn from the dominant planning experience associated with nuclear power plants, while the nuclear industry can chiefly learn from the chemical industry's accident experience. 23 refs.

  1. NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, D. A.; Craig, D. A.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this Technical Interchange Meeting was to increase the quantity and quality of technical, cost, and programmatic data used to model the impact of investing in different technologies. The focus of this meeting was the Technology Tool Box (TTB), a database of performance, operations, and programmatic parameters provided by technologists and used by systems engineers. The TTB is the data repository used by a system of models known as the Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This report describes the result of the November meeting, and also provides background information on ATLAS and the TTB.

  2. Role of Serratia marcescens ACE2 on diesel degradation and its influence on corrosion.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Babu, Thambidurai Ganesh; Pandian, Shunmugiah Thevar Karutha; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Palaniswamy, Narayanan; Rajendran, Annamalai

    2007-09-01

    A facultative anaerobic species Serratia marcescens ACE2 isolated from the corrosion products of diesel transporting pipeline in North West, India was identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The role of Serratia marcesens ACE2 on biodegradation of diesel and its influence on the corrosion of API 5LX steel has been elucidated. The degrading strain ACE2 is involved in the process of corrosion of steel API 5LX and also utilizes the diesel as an organic source. The quantitative biodegradation efficiency (BE) of diesel was 58%, calculated by gas-chromatography-mass spectrum analysis. On the basis of gas-chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD), the involvement of Serratia marcescens on degradation and corrosion has been investigated. This basic study will be useful for the development of new approaches for detection, monitoring and control of microbial corrosion.

  3. Distribution of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in Iranian populations

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE; OMIM: 106180) has an important role in the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and degradation of bradykinin. Genetic polymorphism I/D (rs4646994) in the gene encoding ACE has been well defined. To get more insight into the genetic structure of Iranian populations, the distribution of the ACE I/D polymorphism among Iranians was compared with each other and with other populations. Prevalence of the D allele was 0.5886 (95% CI: 0.5725-0.6047) in Iran. There was significant difference between Iranian populations (x2=27.7, df=6, P<0.001). The major part of this difference was due to difference between Zahedan study and the other populations, as by removing this population, the heterogeneity between populations, remarkably decreased (x2=10.15, df=5, P=0.071). The D allele showed high frequency in Iran which is similar to Caucasians. PMID:27843997

  4. Serum ACE Level in Sarcoidosis Patients with Typical and Atypical HRCT Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Kahkouee, Shahram; Samadi, Katayoon; Alai, Ali; Abedini, Atefeh; Rezaiian, Lida

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease that affects multiple organs. Before widespread use of computed tomography (CT), the severity of sarcoidosis was assessed based on chest X-ray abnormalities. HRCT can distinguish between active inflammatory changes and irreversible fibrosis. In this study, we analyzed different ACE levels in 148 patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis. Material/Methods We categorized these patients based on their HRCT results into four groups: 1) patients diagnosed with chronic disease; 2) patients diagnosed with non-chronic disease; 3) patients who exhibited typical HRCT changes; and 4) patients who exhibited atypical HRCT changes. Afterward the mean ACE level of each group was calculated and compared. Result The HRCT scans of chronic sarcoidosis patients tended to show more atypical sarcoidosis patterns. Moreover, there was a reverse correlation between chronicity and ACE level (P-value <0.05). Conclusions HRCT is another modality which would be useful when the diagnosis of sarcoidosis is not definite. PMID:27733890

  5. Translating the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study into public policy: progress and possibility in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Kagi, Ruth; Regala, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    On June 15, 2011, Washington became the first state in the United States to enact legislation aimed at preventing adverse childhood experiences (ACE), reducing their prevalence, and mitigating their effects. House Bill 1965 (HB 1965) was established on the understanding among legislators and Washington communities of the need for policies aimed at preventing child abuse, promoting healthy development of children, and building community capacity to improve public health. Empirical examples of integrating ACE-related research with public policy and programmatic design are chronicled. The legislators who developed HB 1965 lay out questions that, if answered, would further improve policymakers' ability to craft public policy and programs that prevent ACE, reduce their effects, and promote a healthier, safer future.

  6. High incidence of ace-1 duplicated haplotypes in resistant Culex pipiens mosquitoes from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Alout, Haoues; Labbé, Pierrick; Pasteur, Nicole; Weill, Mylène

    2011-01-01

    The status of genes conferring resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides has been examined in Culex pipiens pipiens mosquitoes sampled in Algeria. Presence of overproduced esterases was sporadic, but acetylcholinesterase-1 resistant alleles were observed in almost all samples. We focused our study on the AChE1 G119S substitution characterized in almost all samples, mostly at the heterozygous state. A genetic test revealed the presence of ace-1 duplication associating a susceptible and a resistant ace-1 copy. Molecular characterization showed a high occurrence of ace-1 duplication with six distinct duplicated alleles out of four samples. The inferred frequency of duplicated allele suggests that it is replacing the single resistant G119S allele. Finally, we discuss the mechanism at the origin of these duplicated haplotypes and their consequences on the management of insecticide resistance.

  7. PAPR reduction in FBMC using an ACE-based linear programming optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Neut, Nuan; Maharaj, Bodhaswar TJ; de Lange, Frederick; González, Gustavo J.; Gregorio, Fernando; Cousseau, Juan

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents four novel techniques for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) modulation systems. The approach extends on current PAPR reduction active constellation extension (ACE) methods, as used in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), to an FBMC implementation as the main contribution. The four techniques introduced can be split up into two: linear programming optimization ACE-based techniques and smart gradient-project (SGP) ACE techniques. The linear programming (LP)-based techniques compensate for the symbol overlaps by utilizing a frame-based approach and provide a theoretical upper bound on achievable performance for the overlapping ACE techniques. The overlapping ACE techniques on the other hand can handle symbol by symbol processing. Furthermore, as a result of FBMC properties, the proposed techniques do not require side information transmission. The PAPR performance of the techniques is shown to match, or in some cases improve, on current PAPR techniques for FBMC. Initial analysis of the computational complexity of the SGP techniques indicates that the complexity issues with PAPR reduction in FBMC implementations can be addressed. The out-of-band interference introduced by the techniques is investigated. As a result, it is shown that the interference can be compensated for, whilst still maintaining decent PAPR performance. Additional results are also provided by means of a study of the PAPR reduction of the proposed techniques at a fixed clipping probability. The bit error rate (BER) degradation is investigated to ensure that the trade-off in terms of BER degradation is not too severe. As illustrated by exhaustive simulations, the SGP ACE-based technique proposed are ideal candidates for practical implementation in systems employing the low-complexity polyphase implementation of FBMC modulators. The methods are shown to offer significant PAPR reduction and increase the feasibility of FBMC as

  8. ACE and response to pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD: two observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Samantha S C; Jolley, Caroline J; Shrikrishna, Dinesh; Montgomery, Hugh E; Skipworth, James R A; Puthucheary, Zudin; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I; Man, William D-C

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Skeletal muscle impairment is an important feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Renin–angiotensin system activity influences muscle phenotype, so we wished to investigate whether it affects the response to pulmonary rehabilitation. Methods Two studies are described; in the first, the response of 168 COPD patients (mean forced expiratory volume in one second 51.9% predicted) to pulmonary rehabilitation was compared between different ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism genotypes. In a second, independent COPD cohort (n=373), baseline characteristics and response to pulmonary rehabilitation were compared between COPD patients who were or were not taking ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists (ARB). Results In study 1, the incremental shuttle walk distance improved to a similar extent in all three genotypes; DD/ID/II (n=48/91/29) 69(67)m, 61 (76)m and 78 (78)m, respectively, (p>0.05). In study 2, fat free mass index was higher in those on ACE-I/ARB (n=130) than those who were not (n=243), 17.8 (16.0, 19.8) kg m−2 vs 16.5 (14.9, 18.4) kg/m2 (p<0.001). However change in fat free mass, walking distance or quality of life in response to pulmonary rehabilitation did not differ between groups. Conclusions While these data support a positive association of ACE-I/ARB treatment and body composition in COPD, neither treatment to reduce ACE activity nor ACE (I/D) genotype influence response to pulmonary rehabilitation. PMID:28321311

  9. Diminazene aceturate enhances ACE2 activity and attenuates ischemia-induced cardiac pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Qi, YanFei; Zhang, Juan; Cole-Jeffrey, Colleen T; Shenoy, Vinayak; Espejo, Andrew; Hanna, Mina; Song, Chunjuan; Pepine, Carl J; Katovich, Michael J; Raizada, Mohan K

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays a critical role against myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that activation of intrinsic ACE2 would be protective against ischemia-induced cardiac pathophysiology. Diminazine aceturate (DIZE), a small molecule ACE2 activator has been used to evaluate this hypothesis. DIZE (15 mg/kg/day, s.c.) was injected two days prior to MI surgery and continued throughout the study-period. MI rats showed a 62% decrease in fractional shortening (FS,%) [control (Con): 51.1 ± 3.2; DIZE alone (D) : 52.1 ± 3.2; MI (M): 19.1± 3.0], a 55% decrease in contractility (dP/dtmax mmHg/s) (Con: 9480 ± 425.3; D: 9585 ± 597.4; M: 4251 ± 657.7), and a 27% increase in ventricular hypertrophy [VH, mg/mm (Con: 26.5 ± 1.5; D: 26.9 ± 1.4; M: 33.4± 1.1)]. DIZE attenuated the MI-induced decrease in FS by 89%, improved dP/dtmax by 92%, and reversed VH by 18%. MI also significantly increased ACE and angiotensin type 1 receptor levels while decreased ACE2 activity by 40% (Con: 246.2 ± 25.1; D: 254.2 ± 20.6; M: 148.9 ± 29.2, RFU/min), which was reversed by DIZE treatment. Thus, DIZE treatment decreased the infarct area, attenuated LV remodeling post-MI and restored normal balance of the cardiac renin angiotensin system. Additionally, DIZE treatment increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells, increased engraftment of cardiac progenitor cells and decreased inflammatory cells in peri-infarct cardiac regions. All of the beneficial effects associated with DIZE treatment were abolished by C-16, an ACE2 inhibitor. Collectively, DIZE and DIZE-like small molecules may represent promising new therapeutic agents for MI. PMID:23959549

  10. Brain-targeted ACE2 overexpression attenuates neurogenic hypertension by inhibiting COX mediated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sriramula, Srinivas; Xia, Huijing; Xu, Ping; Lazartigues, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Overactivity of the renin angiotensin system (RAS), oxidative stress, and cyclooxygenases (COX) in the brain are implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We previously reported that Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) overexpression in the brain attenuates the development of DOCA-salt hypertension, a neurogenic hypertension model with enhanced brain RAS and sympathetic activity. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we investigated whether oxidative stress, mitogen activated protein kinase signaling and cyclooxygenase (COX) activation in the brain are modulated by ACE2 in neurogenic hypertension. DOCA-salt hypertension significantly increased expression of Nox-2 (+61 ±5 %), Nox-4 (+50 ±13 %) and nitrotyrosine (+89 ±32 %) and reduced activity of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (−29 ±4 %) and SOD (−31 ±7 %), indicating increased oxidative stress in the brain of non-transgenic mice. This increased oxidative stress was attenuated in transgenic mice overexpressing ACE2 in the brain. DOCA-salt-induced reduction of nNOS expression (−26 ±7 %) and phosphorylated eNOS/total eNOS (−30 ±3 %), and enhanced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), were reversed by ACE2 overexpression. In addition, ACE2 overexpression blunted the hypertension-mediated increase in gene and protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in the PVN. Furthermore, gene silencing of either COX-1 or COX-2 in the brain, reduced microglial activation and accompanied neuro-inflammation, ultimately attenuating DOCA-salt hypertension. Together, these data provide evidence that brain ACE2 overexpression reduces oxidative stress and COX-mediated neuro-inflammation, improves anti-oxidant and nitric oxide signaling, and thereby attenuates the development of neurogenic hypertension. PMID:25489058

  11. Validation of ACE-FTS version 3.5 NOy species profiles using correlative satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheese, Patrick E.; Walker, Kaley A.; Boone, Chris D.; McLinden, Chris A.; Bernath, Peter F.; Bourassa, Adam E.; Burrows, John P.; Degenstein, Doug A.; Funke, Bernd; Fussen, Didier; Manney, Gloria L.; McElroy, C. Thomas; Murtagh, Donal; Randall, Cora E.; Raspollini, Piera; Rozanov, Alexei; Russell, James M., III; Suzuki, Makoto; Shiotani, Masato; Urban, Joachim; von Clarmann, Thomas; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    2016-12-01

    The ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer) instrument on the Canadian SCISAT satellite, which has been in operation for over 12 years, has the capability of deriving stratospheric profiles of many of the NOy (N + NO + NO2+ NO3+ 2 × N2O5+ HNO3+ HNO4+ ClONO2+ BrONO2) species. Version 2.2 of ACE-FTS NO, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 has previously been validated, and this study compares the most recent version (v3.5) of these five ACE-FTS products to spatially and temporally coincident measurements from other satellite instruments - GOMOS, HALOE, MAESTRO, MIPAS, MLS, OSIRIS, POAM III, SAGE III, SCIAMACHY, SMILES, and SMR. For each ACE-FTS measurement, a photochemical box model was used to simulate the diurnal variations of the NOy species and the ACE-FTS measurements were scaled to the local times of the coincident measurements. The comparisons for all five species show good agreement with correlative satellite measurements. For NO in the altitude range of 25-50 km, ACE-FTS typically agrees with correlative data to within -10 %. Instrument-averaged mean relative differences are approximately -10 % at 30-40 km for NO2, within ±7 % at 8-30 km for HNO3, better than -7 % at 21-34 km for local morning N2O5, and better than -8 % at 21-34 km for ClONO2. Where possible, the variations in the mean differences due to changes in the comparison local time and latitude are also discussed.

  12. Megastigmane glycosides from leaves of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver with ACE inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jian-Kun; Ding, Li-Qin; Shi, Xu-Liu; Donkor, Paul Owusu; Chen, Li-Xia; Qiu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Four new megastigmane glycosides, eucomegastigsides A-D (2, 3, 5 and 7), together with three known megastigmane glycosides, (6R, 7E, 9R)-9-hydroxy-4, 7-megastigmadien-3-one-9-O-[α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(l→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), foliasalacioside B1 (4) and eleganoside A (6), were isolated from the leaves of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver. Their anti-hypertensive effect was investigated in vitro based on the inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) using HPLC. The results showed that the isolates (2, 3, 4, 5, 7) had moderate inhibitory effects on ACE in vitro compared with captopril.

  13. Kidney scintigraphy after ACE inhibition in the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Ghione, S.; Fommei, E.; Palombo, C.; Giaconi, S.; Mantovanelli, A.; Ragazzini, A.; Palla, L.

    1986-01-01

    Suppression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition may induce renal failure in patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis. Recent scintigraphic studies with the glomerular tracer technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetate (99m-Tc DTPA) indicate that in patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may be markedly reduced in the affected kidney after inhibition of ACE. This finding reflects the important role of the RAS in maintaining GFR (by increasing postglomerular resistance) in states of low renal perfusion pressure. Preliminary observations suggest that this scintigraphic test might be useful in the detection of renovascular hypertension.

  14. Satellite remote sensing and spectroscopy: Joint ACE-Odin meeting, October 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.

    2017-01-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) and Odin satellite teams had a joint meeting in October, 2015 and it was decided to publish some of the papers presented as a special issue of this journal (JQSRT). ACE and Odin measure atmospheric composition by remote sensing from low Earth orbit. This Special Issue also includes papers about other space instruments and related ground-based observations. Remote sensing of the atmosphere relies entirely on spectroscopy so many of the papers report on spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric molecules and computer programs used for spectroscopic analysis.

  15. Nh and CH in the Ace Satellite Solar Spectrumtitle of your Abstract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.; Ram, R. S.; Colin, R.

    2010-06-01

    The Canadian ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) mission has a high resolution (0.02 cm-1) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) in low earth orbit. The primary ACE mission goal is the study ozone chemistry in the stratosphere although it is making a wide range of other measurements, for example, of organic molecules in the troposphere. In the normal operating mode, the ACE-FTS measures a sequence of atmospheric absorption spectra during sunrise and sunset (``solar occultation''). As part of the measurement sequence about 16 high sun exoatmospheric spectra are recorded for each occultation to serve as reference spectra. We have co-added 224782 pure solar spectra to produce the ACE solar atlas in the 750--4400 cm-1 spectral region [Hase et al., JQSRT 111, 521 (2010), see http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca/solaratlas.html]. The ACE solar spectrum displays prominent vibration-rotation bands of CO, OH, NH and CH, and pure rotational lines of OH and NH. An improved spectroscopic analysis for OH has already been published [Bernath and Colin, JMS 257, 20 (2009)] and we now report on similar work for NH and CH. The vibration-rotation spectra of NH have been reinvestigated using laboratory spectra and infrared solar spectra recorded from orbit by the ACE and ATMOS instruments. In addition to identifying the previously unobserved 6-5 vibration-rotation band in the laboratory spectra, many additional high N rotational lines have been observed. By combining the new observations with the previously published data and recent far infrared data, an improved set of molecular constants and term values have been derived for the NH X^3Σ^- and A^3Π states. Vibration-rotation spectra of the CH X^2Π ground state have also been re-analyzed based on laboratory spectra, the ACE solar spectrum and published data. The previously unobserved 5-4 band has been measured and the other four bands (1-0 to 4-3) have been extended to higher J values. TEXT OF YOUR ABSTRACT

  16. An association analysis of Alzheimer disease candidate genes detects an ancestral risk haplotype clade in ACE and putative multilocus association between ACE, A2M, and LRRTM3

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Todd L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Gilbert, Johnny; Haines, Jonathan L.; Martin, Eden; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of progressive dementia in the elderly. It is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the neuropathologic findings of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloid plaques that accumulate in vulnerable brain regions. AD etiology has been studied by many groups, but since the discovery of the APOE ε4 allele, no further genes have been mapped conclusively to the late-onset form of the disease. In this study, we examined genetic association with late-onset Alzheimer’s susceptibility in 738 Caucasian families with 4704 individuals and an independent case-control dataset with 296 unrelated cases and 566 unrelated controls exploring 11 candidate genes with 47 SNPs common to both samples. In addition to tests for main effects and haplotype analyses, the Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction Pedigree Disequilibrium Test (MDR-PDT) was used to search for single-locus effects as well as 2-locus and 3-locus gene-gene interactions associated with AD in the family data. We observed significant haplotype effects in ACE in both family and case-control samples using standard and cladistic haplotype models. ACE was also part of significant 2-locus and 3-locus MDR-PDT joint effects models with Alpha-2-Macroglobulin (A2M), which mediates the clearance of Aβ, and Leucine-Rich Repeat Transmembrane 3 (LRRTM3), a nested gene in Alpha-3 Catenin (CTNNA3) which binds Presenilin 1. This result did not replicate in the case-control sample, and may not be a true positive. These genes are related to amyloid beta clearance; thus this constellation of effects might constitute an axis of susceptibility for late-onset AD. The consistent ACE haplotype result between independent data sets of families and unrelated cases and controls is strong evidence in favor of ACE as a susceptibility locus for AD, and replicates results from several other studies in a very large sample. PMID:19105203

  17. Parasites of freshwater fishes and the Great American Biotic Interchange: a bridge too far?

    PubMed

    Choudhury, A; García-Varela, M; Pérez-Ponce de León, G

    2017-03-01

    We examine the extent to which adult helminths of freshwater fishes have been part of the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI), by integrating information in published studies and new data from Panama with fish biogeography and Earth history of Middle America. The review illustrates the following: (1) the helminth fauna south of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, and especially south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, shows strong Neotropical affinities; (2) host-parasite associations follow principles of the 'biogeographic core fauna' in which host-lineage specificity is pronounced; (3) phylogenetic analysis of the widespread freshwater trematode family Allocreadiidae reveals a complex history of host-shifting and co-diversification involving mainly cyprinodontiforms and characids; (4) allocreadiids, monogeneans and spiruridan nematodes of Middle American cyprinodontiforms may provide clues to the evolutionary history of their hosts; and (5) phylogenetic analyses of cryptogonimid trematodes may reveal whether or how cichlids interacted with marine or brackish-water environments during their colonization history. The review shows that 'interchange' is limited and asymmetrical, but simple narratives of northward isthmian dispersal will likely prove inadequate to explain the historical biogeography of many host-parasite associations in tropical Middle America, particularly those involving poeciliids. Finally, our study highlights the urgent need for targeted survey work across Middle America, focused sampling in river drainages of Colombia and Venezuela, and deeper strategic sampling in other parts of South America, in order to develop and test robust hypotheses about fish-parasite associations in Middle America.

  18. Nonlinear saturation of ideal interchange modes in a sheared magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Beklemishev, A.D.

    1990-09-01

    Pressure-driven ideal modes cannot completely interchange flux tubes of a sheared magnetic field; instead, they saturate, forming new helical equilibria. These equilibria are studied both analytically and numerically with reduced MHD equations in a flux-conserving Lagrangian representation. For unstable localized modes, the structure of the nonlinear layer generated around the resonant flux surface depends on the value of Mercier parameter D{sub M}. Its width is found to be proportional to the position of the inflection point on the linear eigenfunction. Perturbed surfaces in equilibrium always have folds, i.e., areas where the direction of the original reduced magnetic field is reserved. But only far from the instability threshold does the internal structure of the nonlinear layer resemble bubble' formation. The appearance of sheet currents and island-like structures along the resonant flux surface may be of interest for the description of forced reconnection in models with finite resistivity. Analytic results are found to be in agreement with 2-D numerical simulations. This study also includes the case of ballooning instability by representing nonlocal driving terms through the matching parameter {Delta}{prime}, which defines the outer boundary conditions for the interchange layer. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Botulinum toxin type A products are not interchangeable: a review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Brin, Mitchell F; James, Charmaine; Maltman, John

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) products are injectable biologic medications derived from Clostridium botulinum bacteria. Several different BoNTA products are marketed in various countries, and they are not interchangeable. Differences between products include manufacturing processes, formulations, and the assay methods used to determine units of biological activity. These differences result in a specific set of interactions between each BoNTA product and the tissue injected. Consequently, the products show differences in their in vivo profiles, including preclinical dose response curves and clinical dosing, efficacy, duration, and safety/adverse events. Most, but not all, published studies document these differences, suggesting that individual BoNTA products act differently depending on experimental and clinical conditions, and these differences may not always be predictable. Differentiation through regulatory approvals provides a measure of confidence in safety and efficacy at the specified doses for each approved indication. Moreover, the products differ in the amount of study to which they have been subjected, as evidenced by the number of publications in the peer-reviewed literature and the quantity and quality of clinical studies. Given that BoNTAs are potent biological products that meet important clinical needs, it is critical to recognize that their dosing and product performance are not interchangeable and each product should be used according to manufacturer guidelines. PMID:25336912

  20. A longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for interchangeable and structurally different methods

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Tobias; Schultze, Martin; Eid, Michael; Geiser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    One of the key interests in the social sciences is the investigation of change and stability of a given attribute. Although numerous models have been proposed in the past for analyzing longitudinal data including multilevel and/or latent variable modeling approaches, only few modeling approaches have been developed for studying the construct validity in longitudinal multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) measurement designs. The aim of the present study was to extend the spectrum of current longitudinal modeling approaches for MTMM analysis. Specifically, a new longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for measurement designs with structurally different and interchangeable methods (called Latent-State-Combination-Of-Methods model, LS-COM) is presented. Interchangeable methods are methods that are randomly sampled from a set of equivalent methods (e.g., multiple student ratings for teaching quality), whereas structurally different methods are methods that cannot be easily replaced by one another (e.g., teacher, self-ratings, principle ratings). Results of a simulation study indicate that the parameters and standard errors in the LS-COM model are well recovered even in conditions with only five observations per estimated model parameter. The advantages and limitations of the LS-COM model relative to other longitudinal MTMM modeling approaches are discussed. PMID:24860515

  1. The Two-Component System GrvRS (EtaRS) Regulates ace Expression in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavindra V.; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Cohen, Ana Luisa V.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of ace (adhesin to collagen of Enterococcus faecalis), encoding a virulence factor in endocarditis and urinary tract infection models, has been shown to increase under certain conditions, such as in the presence of serum, bile salts, urine, and collagen and at 46°C. However, the mechanism of ace/Ace regulation under different conditions is still unknown. In this study, we identified a two-component regulatory system GrvRS as the main regulator of ace expression under these stress conditions. Using Northern hybridization and β-galactosidase assays of an ace promoter-lacZ fusion, we found transcription of ace to be virtually absent in a grvR deletion mutant under the conditions that increase ace expression in wild-type OG1RF and in the complemented strain. Moreover, a grvR mutant revealed decreased collagen binding and biofilm formation as well as attenuation in a murine urinary tract infection model. Here we show that GrvR plays a major role in control of ace expression and E. faecalis virulence. PMID:25385790

  2. T-lymphocyte induction of human monocyte angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is not dependent upon T-lymphocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Vuk-Pavlovic, Z.; Rohrbach, M.S.

    1986-03-05

    Human peripheral blood monocytes cultured in serum free media for seven days show a basal activity of the ectoenzyme ACE which is augmented 2-3 times by the presence of autologous peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. Since these two cell types are also involved in autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction if serum is present, the authors compared the ability of T-cells to stimulate ACE activity in the presence or absence of proliferation (measured by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation). By the seventh day, cultures with 5% AB/sup +/ serum showed significant increase in proliferation but no increase in ACE activity compared to the serum free cultures. Even higher proliferation rate achieved by co-culturing T-lymphocytes with allogeneic monocytes did not increase ACE production; on the contrary, ACE activity remained at the basal level. Monocyte-T-cell co-cultures stimulated with increasing concentrations of ConA or PHA showed dose dependent increases in proliferation but parallel decreases in ACE activity. Addition of soluble antigen (Candida albicans) also enhanced proliferation but not ACE synthesis. They conclude that T-lymphocyte induction of monocyte ACE is a result of cooperation between autologous cells which is not dependent upon T-cell proliferation.

  3. Validating the ACE Model for Evaluating Student Performance Using a Teaching-Learning Process Based on Computational Modeling Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louzada, Alexandre Neves; Elia, Marcos da Fonseca; Sampaio, Fábio Ferrentini; Vidal, Andre Luiz Pestana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to adapt and test, in a Brazilian public school, the ACE model proposed by Borkulo for evaluating student performance as a teaching-learning process based on computational modeling systems. The ACE model is based on different types of reasoning involving three dimensions. In addition to adapting the model and introducing…

  4. Comparison of speech perception benefits with SPEAK and ACE coding strategies in pediatric Nucleus CI24M cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Pasanisi, Enrico; Bacciu, Andrea; Vincenti, Vincenzo; Guida, Maurizio; Berghenti, Maria Teresa; Barbot, Anna; Panu, Francesco; Bacciu, Salvatore

    2002-06-17

    Nine congenitally deaf children who received a Nucleus CI24M cochlear implant and who were fitted with the SPrint speech processor participated in this study. All subjects were initially programmed with the SPEAK coding strategy and then converted to the ACE strategy. Speech perception was evaluated before and after conversion to the new coding strategy using word and Common Phrase speech recognition tests in both the presence and absence of noise. In quiet conditions, the mean percent correct scores for words were 68.8% with SPEAK and 91% with ACE; for phrases the percentage was 66.6% with SPEAK and 85.5% with ACE. In the presence of noise (at +10 dB signal-to-noise ratio), the mean percent correct scores for words were 43.3% with SPEAK compared to 84.4% with ACE; for phrases the percentage was 41.1% with SPEAK and 82.2% with ACE. Statistical analysis revealed significant improvement in open-set speech recognition with ACE compared to SPEAK. Preliminary data suggest that converting children from SPEAK to the ACE strategy improves their performance. Subjects showed significant improvements for open-set word and sentence recognition in quiet as well as in noise when ACE was used in comparison with SPEAK. The greatest improvements were obtained when tests were presented in the presence of noise.

  5. Adverse cardiac effects of exogenous angiotensin 1-7 in rats with subtotal nephrectomy are prevented by ACE inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Karen; Patel, Sheila K.

    2017-01-01

    We previously reported that exogenous angiotensin (Ang) 1–7 has adverse cardiac effects in experimental kidney failure due to its action to increase cardiac angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity. This study investigated if the addition of an ACE inhibitor (ACEi) to Ang 1–7 infusion would unmask any beneficial effects of Ang 1–7 on the heart in experimental kidney failure. Male Sprague–Dawley rats underwent subtotal nephrectomy (STNx) and were treated with vehicle, the ACEi ramipril (oral 1mg/kg/day), Ang 1–7 (subcutaneous 24 μg/kg/h) or dual therapy (all groups, n = 12). A control group (n = 10) of sham-operated rats were also studied. STNx led to hypertension, renal impairment, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and increased both left ventricular ACE2 activity and ACE binding. STNx was not associated with changes in plasma levels of ACE, ACE2 or angiotensin peptides. Ramipril reduced blood pressure, improved cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis and inhibited cardiac ACE. Ang 1–7 infusion increased blood pressure, cardiac interstitial fibrosis and cardiac ACE binding compared to untreated STNx rats. Although in STNx rats, the addition of ACEi to Ang 1–7 prevented any deleterious cardiac effects of Ang 1–7, a limitation of the study is that the large increase in plasma Ang 1–7 with ramipril may have masked any effect of infused Ang 1–7. PMID:28192475

  6. Cloning and functional characterization of the gene encoding the transcription factor Ace1 in the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Rubén; Canessa, Paulo; Rivas, Alexis; Larrondo, Luis F; Lobos, Sergio; Vicuña, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this report we describe the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding the transcription factor Ace1 (Activation protein of cup 1 Expression) in the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Pc-ace1 encodes a predicted protein of 633 amino acids containing the copper-fist DNA binding domain typically found in fungal transcription factors such as Ace1, Mac1 and Haa1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Pc-ace1 gene is localized in Scaffold 5, between coordinates 220841 and 222983. A S. cerevisiae ace1 null mutant strain unable to grow in high-copper medium was fully complemented by transformation with the cDNA of Pc-ace1. Moreover, Northern blot hybridization studies indicated that Pc-ace1 cDNA restores copper inducibility of the yeast cup 1 gene, which encodes the metal-binding protein metallothionein implicated in copper resistance. To our knowledge, this is first report describing an Ace1 transcription factor in basidiomycetes.

  7. A novel aggregation-induced emission based fluorescent probe for an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) assay and inhibitor screening.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoping; Gong, Wan; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Yiyu

    2014-12-11

    A 'turn-on' fluorescent probe based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) has been developed. It exhibits excellent selectivity and sensitivity for monitoring angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity both in solutions and in living cells as well as for screening ACE inhibitors in vitro.

  8. Academic Success of Montgomery College Students in the Achieving Collegiate Excellence and Success (ACES) Program: 2014-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper-Martin, Elizabeth; Wolanin, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    The Office of Shared Accountability in Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) is conducting a multiyear evaluation of the Achieving Collegiate Excellence and Success (ACES) program. The ACES program is a collaboration between MCPS, Montgomery College (MC) and the Universities at Shady Grove to create a seamless pathway from high school to college…

  9. 76 FR 42721 - Automated Commercial Environment (ACE): Announcement of a New Start Date for the National Customs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... electronic data interchange (EDI) history with CBP. Written comments concerning program and policy issues... in advance of arrival through a CBP-approved electronic data interchange (EDI).The data includes the... (NCAP) test concerning the transmission of required advance ocean and rail data through the...

  10. Long Term Missions at the Sun-Earth Libration Point L1: ACE, SOHO, and WIND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Craig E.

    2011-01-01

    Three heliophysics missions -- the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Global Geoscience WIND -- have been orbiting the Sun-Earth interior libration point L1 continuously since 1997, 1996, and 2004, respectively. ACE and WIND (both NASA missions) and SOHO (an ESA-NASA joint mission) are all operated from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). While ACE and SOHO have been dedicated libration point orbiters since their launches, WIND has had also a remarkable 10-year career flying a deep-space, multiple lunar-flyby trajectory prior to 2004. That era featured 36 targeted lunar flybys with excursions to both L1 and L2 before its final insertion in L1 orbit. A figure depicts the orbits of the three spacecraft, showing projections of the orbits onto the orthographic planes of a solar rotating ecliptic frame of reference. The SOHO orbit is a quasi-periodic halo orbit, where the frequencies of the in-plane and out-of-plane motions are practically equal. Such an orbit is seen to repeat itself with a period of approximately 178 days. For ACE and WIND, the frequencies of the in-plane and out-of-plane motions are unequal, giving rise to the characteristic Lissajous motion. ACE's orbit is of moderately small amplitude, whereas WIND's orbit is a large-amplitude Lissajous of dimensions close to those of the SOHO halo orbit. As motion about the collinear points is inherently unstable, stationkeeping maneuvers are necessary to prevent orbital decay and eventual escape from the L1 region. Though the three spacecraft are dissimilar (SOHO is a 3-axis stabilized Sun pointer, WIND is a spin-stabilized ecliptic pole pointer, and ACE is also spin-stabilized with its spin axis maintained between 4 and 20 degrees of the Sun), the stationkeeping technique for the three is fundamentally the same. The technique consists of correcting the energy of the orbit via a delta-V directed parallel or anti-parallel to the Spacecraft-to-Sun line. SOHO

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of novel triazoles and mannich bases functionalized 1,4-dihydropyridine as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kumbhare, Ravindra M; Kosurkar, Umesh B; Bagul, Pankaj K; Kanwal, Abhinav; Appalanaidu, K; Dadmal, Tulshiram L; Banerjee, Sanjay Kumar

    2014-11-01

    A series of novel diethyl 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate embedded triazole and mannich bases were synthesized, and evaluated for their angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Screening of above synthesized compounds for ACE inhibition showed that triazoles functionalized compounds have better ACE inhibitory activity compared to that of mannich bases analogues. Among all triazoles we found 6 h, 6 i and 6 j to have good ACE inhibition activity with IC50 values 0.713 μM, 0.409 μM and 0.653 μM, respectively. Among mannich bases series compounds, only 7c resulted as most active ACE inhibitor with IC50 value of 0.928 μM.

  12. Alternative Roles of STAT3 and MAPK Signaling Pathways in the MMPs Activation and Progression of Lung Injury Induced by Cigarette Smoke Exposure in ACE2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yi-Han; Hsieh, Wen-Yeh; Hsieh, Jih-Sheng; Liu, Fon-Chang; Tsai, Chin-Hung; Lu, Li-Che; Huang, Chen-Yi; Wu, Chien-Liang; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation-mediated abnormalities in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of lung injury. Angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2), an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) homologue that displays antagonist effects on ACE/angiotensin II (Ang II) axis, could also play a protective role against lung diseases. However, the relationship between ACE2 and MMPs activation in lung injury is still largely unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether MMPs activity could be affected by ACE2 and which ACE2 derived signaling pathways could be also involved via using a mouse model with lung injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure for 1 to 3 weeks. Wild-type (WT; C57BL/6) and ACE2 KO mice (ACE2-/-) were utilized to study CS-induced lung injury. Increases in the resting respiratory rate (RRR), pulmonary immunokines, leukocyte infiltration and bronchial hyperplasia were observed in the CS-exposed mice. Compared to WT mice, more serious physiopathological changes were found in ACE2-/- mice in the first week of CS exposure. CS exposure increased pulmonary ACE and ACE2 activities in WT mice, and significantly increased ACE in ACE2-/- mice. Furthermore, the activity of pulmonary MMPs was decreased in CS-exposed WT mice, whereas this activity was increased in ACE2-/- mice. CS exposure increased the pulmonary p-p38, p-JNK and p-ERK1/2 level in all mice. In ACE2-/- mice, a significant increase p-STAT3 signaling was detected; however, no effect was observed on the p-STAT3 level in WT mice. Our results support the hypothesis that ACE2 deficiency influences MMPs activation and STAT3 phosphorylation signaling to promote more pulmonary inflammation in the development of lung injury. PMID:27019629

  13. ACE2 deficiency reduces β-cell mass and impairs β-cell proliferation in obese C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, Robin; Yiannikouris, Frederique; Thatcher, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) decrease the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Pancreatic islets express RAS components, including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which cleaves angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin-(1–7) [Ang-(1–7)]. Overexpression of ACE2 in pancreas of diabetic mice improved glucose homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to determine if deficiency of endogenous ACE2 contributes to islet dysfunction and T2D. We hypothesized that ACE2 deficiency potentiates the decline in β-cell function and augments the development of diet-induced T2D. Male Ace2+/y or Ace2−/y mice were fed a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for 1 or 4 mo. A subset of 1-mo HF-fed mice were infused with Sal (Sal), losartan (Los), or Ang-(1–7). At 4 mo, while both genotypes of HF-fed mice developed a similar level of insulin resistance, adaptive hyperinsulinemia was reduced in Ace2−/y vs. Ace2+/y mice. Similarly, in vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was reduced in 1-mo HF-fed Ace2−/y compared with Ace2+/y mice, resulting in augmented hyperglycemia. The average islet area was significantly smaller in both LF- and HF-fed Ace2−/y vs. Ace2+/y mice. Additionally, β-cell mass and proliferation were reduced significantly in HF-fed Ace2−/y vs. Ace2+/y mice. Neither infusion of Los nor Ang-(1–7) was able to correct impaired in vivo GSIS of HF-fed ACE2-deficient mice. These results demonstrate a critical role for endogenous ACE2 in the adaptive β-cell hyperinsulinemic response to HF feeding through regulation of β-cell proliferation and growth. PMID:26389599

  14. ACE-FTS ozone, water vapour, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, and carbon monoxide profile comparisons with MIPAS and MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheese, Patrick E.; Walker, Kaley A.; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Funke, Bernd; Raspollini, Piera; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric limb sounders, ACE-FTS on the SCISAT satellite, MIPAS on ESA's Envisat satellite, and MLS on NASA's Aura satellite, take measurements used to retrieve atmospheric profiles of O3, N2O, H2O, HNO3, and CO. Each was taking measurements between February 2004 and April 2012 (ACE-FTS and MLS are currently operational), providing hundreds of profile coincidences in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, and during local morning and evening. Focusing on determining diurnal and hemispheric biases in the ACE-FTS data, this study compares ACE-FTS version 3.5 profiles that are collocated with MIPAS and MLS, and analyzes the differences between instrument retrievals for Northern and Southern hemispheres and for local morning and evening data. For O3, ACE-FTS is typically within ±5% of mid-stratospheric MIPAS and MLS data and exhibits a positive bias of 10 to 20% in the upper stratosphere - lower mesosphere. For H2O, ACE-FTS exhibits an average bias of -5% between 20 and 60 km. For N2O, ACE-FTS agrees with MIPAS and MLS within -20 to +10% up to 45 km and 35 km, respectively. For HNO3, ACE-FTS typically agrees within ±10% below 30 km, and exhibits a positive bias of 10 to 20% above 30 km. With respect to MIPAS CO, ACE-FTS exhibits an average -11% bias between 28 and 50 km, and at higher altitudes a positive bias on the order of 10% (>100%) in the winter (summer). With respect to winter MLS CO, ACE-FTS is typically within ±10% between 25 and 40 km, and has an average bias of -11% above 40 km.

  15. The health and social consequences of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) across the lifespan: an introduction to prevention and intervention in the community.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Heather; Shields, Joseph J; Anda, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to the themed issue overviews of the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study and discusses prevention and intervention with ACE and their consequences in communities. A commentary by Dr. Robert Anda, an ACE Study Co-Principal Investigator, is incorporated within this introduction. Implications of articles within the issue are addressed, and next steps are explored.

  16. Purple Computational Environment With Mappings to ACE Requirements for the General Availability User Environment Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, B; Shuler, J

    2006-08-21

    Purple is an Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) funded massively parallel supercomputer located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Purple Computational Environment documents the capabilities and the environment provided for the FY06 LLNL Level 1 General Availability Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories, but also documents needs of the LLNL and Alliance users working in the unclassified environment. Additionally, the Purple Computational Environment maps the provided capabilities to the Trilab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) Version 8.0 requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the General Availability user environment capabilities of the ASC community. Appendix A lists these requirements and includes a description of ACE requirements met and those requirements that are not met for each section of this document. The Purple Computing Environment, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and reviewed throughout the Tri-lab community.

  17. ACEE Composite Structures Technology: Review of selected NASA research on composite materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Composite Primary Aircraft Structures Program was designed to develop technology for advanced composites in commercial aircraft. Research on composite materials, aircraft structures, and aircraft design is presented herein. The following parameters of composite materials were addressed: residual strength, damage tolerance, toughness, tensile strength, impact resistance, buckling, and noise transmission within composite materials structures.

  18. Acute stress and cardiovascular health: is there an ACE gene connection?

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disorders (CVD) are associated with acute and posttraumatic stress responses, yet biological processes underlying this association are poorly understood. This study examined whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, as indicated by a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, is associated with both CVD and acute stress related to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. European-American respondents (N = 527) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of coping following 9/11 provided saliva for genotyping. Respondents had completed health surveys before 9/11 and annually for 3 years after, and acute stress assessments 9 to 23 days after 9/11. Respondents with rs4291 AA or TT genotypes reported high acute stress twice as often as those with the AT genotype. Individuals with the TT genotype were 43% more likely to report increased physician-diagnosed CVD over 3 years following 9/11, when the following variables were included in the model: (a) pre-9/11 CVD, mental health, and non-CVD ailments; (b) cardiac risk factors; (c) ongoing endocrine disorders; and (d) significant demographics. The ACE rs4291 TT genotype, which has been associated with HPA axis hyperactivity and higher levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), predicted acute stress response and reports of physician-diagnosed CVD in a national sample following collective stress. ACE gene function may be associated with both mental and physical health disorders following collective stress.

  19. Using NJOY to Create MCNP ACE Files and Visualize Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert Comstock

    2016-10-14

    We provide lecture materials that describe the input requirements to create various MCNP ACE files (Fast, Thermal, Dosimetry, Photo-nuclear and Photo-atomic) with the NJOY Nuclear Data Processing code system. Input instructions to visualize nuclear data with NJOY are also provided.

  20. ACED IT: A Tool for Improved Ethical and Moral Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitler, Crystal Mata; Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Rodarte, Allen M.; Piñón DuMond, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Numerous examples of unethical organizational decision-making highlighted in the media have led many to question the general moral perception and ethical judgments of individuals. The present study examined two forms of a straightforward ethical decision-making (EDM) tool (ACED IT cognitive map) that could be a relatively simple instrument for…

  1. 100 ns Z-Pinch Performance on the Inductive-Energy-Based ACE 4 Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Philip; Thompson, John; Crumley, Randy; Failor, Bruce; Goodrich, Phillip; Parks, Don; Rauch, John; Song, Yuanxu; Steen, Paul; Waisman, Eduardo; Weber, Bruce; Moosman, Bryan; Qi, Niansheng; Schein, Jochen; McFarland, Mike; Campbell, Kelly; Krishnan, Mahadevan

    2000-10-01

    We report on the performance of a short implosion time ( ~100 ns) argon z-pinch using an inductive-energy-storage system. The generator, ACE 4, used a plasma opening switch (POS) to conduct for over a microsecond before driving the short implosion time 2.5 cm diameter Double Eagle gas nozzle. (Previously reported ACE 4 results used longer implosion times, 150 to over 300 ns, with z-pinch load diameters up to 14 cm.) The Double Eagle nozzle, which produces more than 20 kJ of argon K-shell radiation with a current I of almost 4 MA on Double Eagle, produced more than 6 kJ with 3 MA on ACE 4. This performance is consistent with the expected I to the 4th scaling. Pinch behavior on the two machines was quite similar in terms of zippering, pulse width and pinch diameter. As on Double Eagle, the gas flow away from the nozzle was observed to pinch best. On ACE 4, recessing the nozzle behind a wire grid cathode plane moved the high output part of the pinch down to the cathode plane. This allowed us to reduce the pinch length and load inductance, hence increasing load current and yield. Similar changes could be exploited on other gas puff loads and generators to enhance x-ray output. (Thompson, et. al., report elsewhere at this meeting on the performance of the POS and its interaction with the PRS.)

  2. 77 FR 4815 - Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and Information International Associates; Transfer of Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... coding, Web 2.0 project support for wikis and blogs and web site design. OPP has determined that access... accordance with 40 CFR 2.307(h)(3) and 2.308(i)(2). Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and its subcontractor... public access reference and referral: 1. EPA Desktop Library support; 2. Electronic resources...

  3. Accounting Early for Life Long Learning: The AcE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Coll. Worcester (England). Centre for Research in Early Childhood Education.

    Building upon the work of the Effective Early Learning (EEL) Project in raising the quality of early learning for young children in the United Kingdom, the 3-year Accounting Early for Life Long Learning Project (AcE Project) focuses on enhancing in 3- to 6-year-olds those attitudes and dispositions that are important to life-long learning. This…

  4. Intergenerational Effects of Childhood Trauma: Evaluating Pathways Among Maternal ACEs, Perinatal Depressive Symptoms, and Infant Outcomes.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Christina G; Valentino, Kristin

    2016-07-25

    Maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. Less is known regarding how maternal ACEs relate to perinatal depressive symptoms or the intergenerational effect of maternal childhood trauma history on birth outcomes and infant functioning. To address this gap, an at-risk sample of 398 pregnant women was recruited from Women, Infants, and Children health clinics. Participants completed a prenatal (M = 4.84 months before due date) and postnatal (M = 6.76 months after birth) assessment and provided birth outcome data. At the prenatal assessment, mothers completed an ACEs measure which assessed experiences of childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction. Self-report measures of maternal depressive symptoms were obtained at both time points. Mothers reported on infant socioemotional functioning at 6 months. Maternal ACEs predicted higher levels of prenatal depressive symptoms. Childhood maltreatment experiences, in particular, predicted higher postnatal depressive symptoms and a smaller reduction in depressive symptoms across the perinatal period. Regarding intergenerational associations, maternal childhood maltreatment directly predicted higher levels of maladaptive infant socioemotional symptoms, whereas maternal household dysfunction indirectly related to infant socioemotional symptoms through maternal age at first pregnancy and infant birth weight. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  5. High-throughput interpretation of gene structure changes in human and nonhuman resequencing data, using ACE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe a suite of software tools for identifying possible functional changes in gene structure that may result from sequence variants. ACE (“Assessing Changes to Exons”) converts phased genotype calls to a collection of explicit haplotype sequences, maps transcript annotations onto them, detect...

  6. Educational Measurement. Fourth Edition. ACE/Praeger Series on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Educational Measurement" has been the bible in its field since the first edition was published by ACE in 1951. The importance of this fourth edition of "Educational Measurement" is to extensively update and extend the topics treated in the previous three editions. As such, the fourth edition documents progress in the field and…

  7. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. 862.1090 Section 862.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. 862.1090 Section 862.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. 862.1090 Section 862.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. 862.1090 Section 862.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. 862.1090 Section 862.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  12. The Association of ACE Genotypes on Cardiorespiratory Variables Related to Physical Fitness in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Salomão; Pasqua, Leonardo A.; de Araújo, Gustavo; Eduardo Lima-Silva, Adriano; Bertuzzi, Rômulo

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic power (VO2max), aerobic capacity (RCP), and running efficiency (RE) are important markers of aerobic fitness. However, the influence of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism on these markers has not been investigated in healthy individuals. One hundred and fifty physically active young men (age 25 ± 3 years; height 1.77 ± 0.06 m; body mass 76.6 ± 0.9 kg; VO2max 47.7 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) visited the laboratory on two separate occasions, and performed the following tests: a) a maximal incremental treadmill test to determine VO2max and RCP, and b) two constant-speed running tests (10 km·h-1 and 12 km·h-1) to determine RE. The genotype frequency was II = 21%; ID = 52%; and DD = 27%. There was a tendency for higher VO2max with the ACE II genotype (p = 0.08) compared to DD and ID genotypes. Magnitude based inferences suggested a likely beneficial effect on VO2max with the ACE II genotype. There was no association between genotypes for other variable. These findings suggest that individuals with the ACE II genotype have a tendency towards better values in aerobic power, but not with aerobic capacity or running economy. PMID:27861507

  13. Stress pathways to health inequalities: Embedding ACEs within social and behavioral contexts

    PubMed Central

    Nurius, Paula S.; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Longhi, Dario; Song, Chiho

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study addresses whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) demonstrate disproportional prevalence across demographic- and health-affecting characteristics, offer significant explanation of adult health outcomes, and show patterned association with illness susceptibility early within and across adulthood when viewed in combination with income and psychosocial resources. Methods Data were derived from a population-based state health survey using stratified random sampling of household adults (n=7,470): ages 18–99 (M=55), 59.9% females, and race/ethnicity, income and education levels representative of the region. We assessed ACEs by aggregating 8 adversity forms, 5 health behaviors and 3 psychosocial resources; and health outcomes (number of chronic conditions, subjective wellness). Results Disproportionality was evident in ACEs levels by demographics, adult SES, health behaviors, and psychosocial resources in expected directions. Stepped multiple regressions of health outcomes demonstrated significant betas and R2 change for each predictor block, revealing cumulative as well as unique explanatory utility. Early onset chronic illness was evident on the basis of ACEs levels. These illnesses were amplified for low income respondents. Prevalence was highest across adulthood for those also reporting low psychosocial assets. Conclusions Findings offer novel insights as to the “long reach” of childhood adversity on health, conditioned by circumstances under which these effects may occur. Health resilience offered by health behaviors and psychosocial resources should shape thinking about preventive and remedial interventions by social work and allied professionals across a range of settings. PMID:27274786

  14. ACE and ACTN3 genes polymorphisms among female Hungarian athletes in the aspect of sport disciplines.

    PubMed

    Bosnyák, E; Trájer, E; Udvardy, A; Komka, Z; Protzner, A; Kováts, T; Györe, I; Tóth, M; Pucsok, J; Szmodis, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the importance of two sport-associated gene polymorphisms, alpha-actinin-3 R577X (ACTN3) and angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D (ACE), among Hungarian athletes in different sports. The examination was carried out only on women (n = 100). Sport-specific groups were formed in order to guarantee the most homogeneous clusters. Human genomic DNA was isolated from blood, and genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction. To measure the differences between the participating groups, Chi-squared test was performed using Statistica 9.0 for Windows® (significance level: p < 0.05). In comparing the ACE I/D allele frequencies, significant difference was detected between water polo (I = 61.11%; D = 38.89%) and combat sports (I = 35.71%, D = 64.29%) athletes (p < 0.03). There was no statistical difference when ACE I/D alleles in combat sports and kayaking/rowing (p > 0.05) were compared. A similarity was detectable in the I allele frequencies of the water polo (61.11%) and kayaking/rowing (56.67%) groups. The ACTN3 R/X polymorphism showed no differences in comparison with the sport groups. R allele frequencies were higher in every group compared to the X allele. The potential significance of the ACE I allele in sports of an aerobic nature was not clearly confirmed among Hungarian athletes.

  15. Metaproteogenomic analysis of a dominant green sulfur bacterium from Ace Lake, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Ng, Charmaine; DeMaere, Matthew Z; Williams, Timothy J; Lauro, Federico M; Raftery, Mark; Gibson, John A E; Andrews-Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Lewis, Matt; Hoffman, Jeffrey M; Thomas, Torsten; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2010-08-01

    Green sulfur bacteria (GSB) (Chlorobiaceae) are primary producers that are important in global carbon and sulfur cycling in natural environments. An almost complete genome sequence for a single, dominant GSB species ('C-Ace') was assembled from shotgun sequence data of an environmental sample taken from the O(2)-H(2)S interface of the water column of Ace Lake, Antarctica. Approximately 34 Mb of DNA sequence data were assembled into nine scaffolds totaling 1.79 Mb, representing approximately 19-fold coverage for the C-Ace composite genome. A high level ( approximately 31%) of metaproteomic coverage was achieved using matched biomass. The metaproteogenomic approach provided unique insight into the protein complement required for dominating the microbial community under cold, nutrient-limited, oxygen-limited and extremely varied annual light conditions. C-Ace shows physiological traits that promote its ability to compete very effectively with other GSB and gain dominance (for example, specific bacteriochlorophylls, mechanisms of cold adaptation) as well as a syntrophic relationship with sulfate-reducing bacteria that provides a mechanism for the exchange of sulfur compounds. As a result we are able to propose an explanation of the active biological processes promoted by cold-adapted GSB and the adaptive strategies they use to thrive under the severe physiochemical conditions prevailing in polar environments.

  16. Assessment of diversity indices for the characterization of the soil prokaryotic community by metagenomic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, T. I.; Tkhakakhova, A. K.; Kutovaya, O. V.

    2015-04-01

    The diversity indices used in ecology for assessing the metagenomes of soil prokaryotic communities at different phylogenetic levels were compared. The following indices were considered: the number of detected taxa and the Shannon, Menhinick, Margalef, Simpson, Chao1, and ACE indices. The diversity analysis of the prokaryotic communities in the upper horizons of a typical chernozem (Haplic Chernozem (Pachic)), a dark chestnut soil (Haplic Kastanozem (Chromic)), and an extremely arid desert soil (Endosalic Calcisol (Yermic)) was based on the analysis of 16S rRNA genes. The Menhinick, Margalef, Chao1, and ACE indices gave similar results for the classification of the communities according to their diversity levels; the Simpson index gave good results only for the high-level taxa (phyla); the best results were obtained with the Shannon index. In general, all the indices used showed a decrease in the diversity of the soil prokaryotes in the following sequence: chernozem > dark chestnut soil > extremely arid desert soil.

  17. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene family of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hai-Yan; Mita, Kazuei; Zhao, Xia; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Moriyama, Minoru; Wang, Huabin; Iwanaga, Masashi; Kawasaki, Hideki

    2017-04-15

    We previously reported regarding an ecdysone-inducible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. We found another four ACE genes in the Bombyx genome. The present study was undertaken to clarify the evolutionally changed function of the ACE of Bombyx mori. Core regions of deduced amino acid sequences of ACE genes were compared with those of other insect ACE genes. Five Bombyx genes have the conserved Zn(2+)-binding-site motif (HEXXH); however, BmAcer4 has only one and BmAcer3 has no catalytic ligand. BmAcer1 and BmAcer2 were expressed in several organs. BmAcer3 was expressed in testes, and BmAcer4 and BmAcer5 were expressed in compound eyes; however, the transcription levels of these three genes were very low. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western analysis were conducted to determine the tissue distribution and developmental expression of BmAcer1and BmAcer2. Transcripts of BmAcer1 and BmAcer2 were found in the reproductive organs during the larval and pupal stages. BmAcer1 was dominant in fat bodies during the feeding stage and showed high expression in the epidermis, wing discs, and pupal wing tissues after the wandering stage. Its expression patterns in epidermis, wing discs, and wing tissues resembled the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer in the larval and pupal stages. Acer1 was observed in the hemolymph at all stages, appearing to be the source of it are fat bodies, wings, and epidermis, and functioning after being secreted into the hemolymph. BmAcer2 was abundant in the midgut during the feeding stage and after the wandering stage and in silk glands after the pupal stage. We conclude that the evolution of BmAcer occurred through duplication, and, thereafter, functional diversification developed.

  18. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yousr, Marwa; Howell, Nazlin

    2015-01-01

    Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF). Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y) and tryptophan (W), in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23) and KLSDW (EYGF-33), contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56) was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69%) and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL). The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL) had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL). In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33) (10 mg/mL) had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk. PMID:26690134

  19. HDO measurements from ACE-FTS and Odin/SMR: Validation comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kaley; Dupuy, Eric; Urban, Joachim; Boone, Chris; Kasai, Yasuko; Baron, Philippe; Bernath, Peter; Murtagh, Donal P.

    Understanding the trend in atmospheric water vapor (H2 O) is of critical importance for predicting climate change and ozone layer evolution. Accurate measurements of H2 O isotopologues, such as HDO, can contribute to a better understanding of water vapor distribution. Therefore, recent satellite missions have included measurements of H2 O isotopologues. A key step in the development of these data products is quality evaluation or validation. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a Canadian-led satellite mission launched on 12 August 2003 in a 74° -inclination orbit at an altitude of 650 km. The primary instrument on-board ACE is an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) operating in the spectral range 750-4400 cm-1 at high spectral resolution (0.02 cm-1 ). ACE-FTS uses the solar occultation technique to measure atmospheric absorption spectra. Vertical profiles of trace constituent abundances, temperature and pressure are provided over altitudes ranging from 5 km to the lower thermosphere. Odin is a Swedish-led international satellite mission launched on 20 February 2001 in a sunsynchronous polar orbit (inclination 98° ) at an altitude of ˜600 km. The Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) is one of two instruments aboard the platform. It performs limb-sounding measurements of thermal emission from molecular species in the frequency range 486 to 581 GHz. Volume mixing ratio profiles of the target molecules are retrieved mainly in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Deuterated water or HDO is one of the isotopologues of water vapor measured by both instruments. This paper will present the joint effort aiming at a comprehensive validation of the HDO products retrieved from the ACE-FTS and Odin/SMR observations. The first conclusions regarding the quality assessment of both HDO products will be given.

  20. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins.

    PubMed

    Yousr, Marwa; Howell, Nazlin

    2015-12-07

    Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF). Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y) and tryptophan (W), in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23) and KLSDW (EYGF-33), contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56) was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69%) and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL). The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL) had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL). In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33) (10 mg/mL) had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  1. Development of a Robust star identification technique for use in attitude determination of the ACE spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Mark; Rohrbaugh, Dave

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft is designed to fly in a spin-stabilized attitude. The spacecraft will carry two attitude sensors - a digital fine Sun sensor and a charge coupled device (CCD) star tracker - to allow ground-based determination of the spacecraft attitude and spin rate. Part of the processing that must be performed on the CCD star tracker data is the star identification. Star data received from the spacecraft must be matched with star information in the SKYMAP catalog to determine exactly which stars the sensor is tracking. This information, along with the Sun vector measured by the Sun sensor, is used to determine the spacecraft attitude. Several existing star identification (star ID) systems were examined to determine whether they could be modified for use on the ACE mission. Star ID systems which exist for three-axis stabilized spacecraft tend to be complex in nature and many require fairly good knowledge of the spacecraft attitude, making their use for ACE excessive. Star ID systems used for spinners carrying traditional slit star sensors would have to be modified to model the CCD star tracker. The ACE star ID algorithm must also be robust, in that it will be able to correctly identify stars even though the attitude is not known to a high degree of accuracy, and must be very efficient to allow real-time star identification. The paper presents the star ID algorithm that was developed for ACE. Results from prototype testing are also presented to demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and robustness of the algorithm.

  2. Interchange and Infernal Fishbone Modes in Plasmas with Tangentially Injected Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnichenko; Ya.I.; Marchenko; V.S.; White; R.B.

    2006-01-01

    New energetic particle mode instabilities of fishbone type are predicted. The considered instabilities are driven by the circulating energetic ions. They can arise in plasmas of tokamaks and spherical tori with weak magnetic shear in the wide core region and strong shear at the periphery, provided that the central safety factor is close to the ratio m/n, where m and n are the poloidal mode number and toroidal mode number, respectively. The instability with m = n = 1 has interchange-like spatial structure, whereas the structure of instabilities with m/n > 1 is similar to that of the infernal MHD mode (except for the region in vicinity of the local Alfvén resonance).

  3. The development of standards for the common ICAO Data Interchange Network /CIDIN/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, W. T.

    1982-12-01

    This paper describes recent work by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) to develop standards applicable to a modern data network to serve the aeronautical community. The ICAO work is discussed in relation to the seven layer architecture for open systems interconnection that has been identified by ISO and explains the transport service functions considered to date (Levels 1-4). The requirement for more modern facilities is reviewed in the light of evolution of air traffic facilities from manual to more automated type in which teleprocessing will become increasingly important. Compatibility with international standards and application of public data networks in the private aeronautical environment is discussed. An outline is presented of the domestic data interchange plan for aeronautical data, showing the evolution of the data network and provision of aeronautical data bases. Finally, an indication of the likely impact of satellite bearers on network topology is given.

  4. Net Interchange Schedule Forecasting of Electric Power Exchange for RTO/ISOs

    SciTech Connect

    Ferryman, Thomas A.; Haglin, David J.; Vlachopoulou, Maria; Yin, Jian; Shen, Chao; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lin, Guang; Zhou, Ning; Tong, Jianzhong

    2012-07-26

    Neighboring independent system operators (ISOs) exchange electric power to enable efficient and reliable operation of the grid. Net interchange (NI) schedule is the sum of the transactions (in MW) between an ISO and its neighbors. Effective forecasting of the amount of actual NI can improve grid operation efficiency. This paper presents results of a preliminary investigation into various methods of prediction that may result in improved prediction accuracy. The methods studied are linear regression, forward regression, stepwise regression, and support vector machine (SVM) regression. The work to date is not yet conclusive. The hope is to explore the effectiveness of other prediction methods and apply all methods to at least one new data set. This should enable more confidence in the conclusions.

  5. When driving on the left side is safe: Safety of the diverging diamond interchange ramp terminals.

    PubMed

    Claros, Boris; Edara, Praveen; Sun, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    How safe are the ramp terminals of a diverging diamond interchange (DDI)? This paper answered this question using data from DDI sites in Missouri. First, crash prediction models for ramp terminals for different crash severities were developed. These models were then utilized in the Empirical Bayes (EB) evaluation of DDI ramp terminals. Due to inconsistencies in crash reporting for freeways in Missouri, individual crash reports were reviewed to properly identify ramp terminal crashes. A total of 13,000 crash reports were reviewed for model development and EB evaluation. The study found that the DDI ramp terminals were safer than the conventional diamond signalized terminals. The DDI ramp terminals experienced 55% fewer fatal and injury crashes, 31.4% fewer property damage only crashes, and 37.5% fewer total crashes.

  6. Security aspects of electronic data interchange between a state health department and a hospital emergency department.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, J A; Klockner, Rocke; Ladd-Wilson, Stephen; Zechnich, Andrew; Bangs, Christopher; Kohn, Melvin A

    2004-01-01

    Electronic emergency department reporting provides the potential for enhancing local and state surveillance capabilities for a wide variety of syndromes and reportable conditions. The task of protecting data confidentiality and integrity while developing electronic data interchange between a hospital emergency department and a state public health department proved more complex than expected. This case study reports on the significant challenges that had to be resolved to accomplish this goal; these included application restrictions and incompatibilities, technical malfunctions, changing standards, and insufficient dedicated resources. One of the key administrative challenges was that of coordinating project security with enterprise security. The original project has evolved into an ongoing pilot, with the health department currently receiving secure data from the emergency department at four-hour intervals. Currently, planning is underway to add more emergency departments to the project.

  7. Assessing Interchangeability at Cluster-Levels with Multiple-Informant Data

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhehui; Breslau, Joshua; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Chen, Qiaoling; Breslau, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between neighborhood social disorder and health often rely on multiple informants. Such studies assume interchangeability of the latent constructs derived from multiple-informant data. Existing methods examining this assumption do not clearly delineate the uncertainty at individual levels from that at neighborhood levels. We propose a multi-level variance component factor model that allows this delineation. Data come from a survey of a representative sample of children born between 1983 and 1985 in the inner city of Detroit and nearby middle-class suburbs. Results indicate that the informant-level models tend to exaggerate the effect of places due to differences between persons. Our evaluations of different methodologies lead to the recommendation of the multi-level variance component factor model whenever multiple-informant reports can be aggregated at a neighborhood level. PMID:24038232

  8. Carnivorans at the Great American Biotic Interchange: new discoveries from the northern neotropics.

    PubMed

    Forasiepi, Analia M; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H; Gomez, Catalina Suarez; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Quiroz, Luis I; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2014-11-01

    We report two fossil procyonids, Cyonasua sp. and Chapalmalania sp., from the late Pliocene of Venezuela (Vergel Member, San Gregorio Formation) and Colombia (Ware Formation), respectively. The occurrence of these pre-Holocene procyonids outside Argentina and in the north of South America provides further information about the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). The new specimens are recognized in the same monophyletic group as procyonids found in the southern part of the continent, the "Cyonasua group," formed by species of Cyonasua and Chapalmalania. The phylogenetic analysis that includes the two new findings support the view that procyonids dispersed from North America in two separate events (initially, previous to the first major migration wave-GABI 1-and then within the last major migration wave-GABI 4-). This involved reciprocal lineage migrations from North to South America, and included the evolution of South American endemic forms.

  9. Neuronal Prediction of Opponent’s Behavior during Cooperative Social Interchange in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Haroush, Keren; Williams, Ziv M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY A cornerstone of successful social interchange is the ability to anticipate each other’s intentions or actions. While generating these internal predictions is essential for constructive social behavior, their single neuronal basis and causal underpinnings are unknown. Here, we discover specific neurons in the primate dorsal anterior cingulate that selectively predict an opponent’s yet unknown decision to invest in their common good or defect and distinct neurons that encode the monkey’s own current decision based on prior outcomes. Mixed population predictions of the other was remarkably near optimal compared to behavioral decoders. Moreover, disrupting cingulate activity selectively biased mutually beneficial interactions between the monkeys but, surprisingly, had no influence on their decisions when no net-positive outcome was possible. These findings identify a group of other-predictive neurons in the primate anterior cingulate essential for enacting cooperative interactions and may pave a way toward the targeted treatment of social behavioral disorders. PMID:25728667

  10. NASA's Single-Pilot Operations Technical Interchange Meeting: Proceedings and Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comerford, Doreen; Brandt, Summer L.; Lachter, Joel B.; Wu, Shu-Chieh; Mogford, Richard H.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center and Langley Research Center are jointly investigating issues associated with potential concepts, or configurations, in which a single pilot might operate under conditions that are currently reserved for a minimum of two pilots. As part of early efforts, NASA Ames Research Center hosted a technical interchange meeting in order to gain insight from members of the aviation community regarding single-pilot operations (SPO). The meeting was held on April 10-12, 2012 at NASA Ames Research Center. Professionals in the aviation domain were invited because their areas of expertise were deemed to be directly related to an exploration of SPO. NASA, in selecting prospective participants, attempted to represent various relevant sectors within the aviation domain. Approximately 70 people representing government, academia, and industry attended. A primary focus of this gathering was to consider how tasks and responsibilities might be re-allocated to allow for SPO.

  11. Interchange and infernal fishbone modes in plasmas with tangentially injected beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Marchenko, V.S.; White, R.B.

    2006-05-15

    New energetic particle mode instabilities of fishbone type are predicted. The considered instabilities are driven by circulating energetic ions. They can arise in plasmas of tokamaks and spherical tori with weak magnetic shear in the wide core region and strong shear at the periphery, provided that the central safety factor is close to the ratio m/n, where m and n are the poloidal mode number and toroidal mode number, respectively. The instability with m=n=1 has a mainly interchange-like radial structure, whereas the radial structure of instabilities with m/n>1 is mainly similar to that of the infernal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) mode; the differences between the fishbone mode structures and MHD mode structures are considerable only in the vicinity of the local Alfven resonance.

  12. The Effect of Interchange Rotation Period and Number on Australian Football Running Performance.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Paul G; Wisbey, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Montgomery, PG, and Wisbey, B. The effect of interchange rotation period and number on Australian Football running performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1890-1897, 2016-To determine the effect of on-field rotation periods and total number of game rotations on Australian Football running performance, elite Australian Football players (n = 21, mean ± SD; 23.2 ± 1.7 years; 183.5 ± 3.7 cm; 83.2 ± 4.5 kg) had Global Positioning System game data from 22 rounds divided into a total of 692 on-field playing periods. These periods were allocated into time blocks of 2:00-minute increments, with the log transformed percentage differences in running performance (m·min) between blocks analyzed by effect size and meaningful differences. A total of 7,730 game rotation and associated average m·min combinations collected over 3 Australian Football seasons were also assessed by effect size and meaningful differences. Running capacity decreases after 5:00 minutes by ∼3% for each 2:00 minutes of on-field time up to 9:00 minutes, with variable responses between positions up to 6.7% for nomadic players. For each rotation less than 6 per game, clear small-to-moderate decreases up to 3.6% in running capacity occurred per rotation. To maintain a high level of running capacity, shorter on-field periods are more effective in Australian Football; however, players and coaches should be aware that with interchange restriction, slightly longer on-field periods achieve similar results.

  13. ACE Gene I/D Polymorphism and Obesity in 1,574 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Huang, Yan-Mei; Wang, Ying-Hui; Chen, Yin-Ling; Geng, Li-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and the risk of overweight/obesity remains controversial. We investigated the possible relationship between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and obesity in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. In this study, obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) value ≥ 25 kg/m2 and subjects were classified into 4 groups (lean, normal, overweight, and obese). PCR (polymerase chain reaction) was used to detect the ACE gene I/D polymorphism in T2DM patients. Metabolic measurements including blood glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure were obtained. Frequencies of the ACE genotypes (DD, ID, and II) were not significant among the 4 groups of BMI-defined patients (P = 0.679) while ACE II carriers showed higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) (all P < 0.050). Hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in these T2DM patients were found to be significantly associated with BMI. In conclusion, the relationship of ACE gene I/D polymorphism with obesity is insignificant in Chinese patients with T2DM. SBP and PP might be higher in the ACE II carriers than in the DD and ID carriers. PMID:28115791

  14. Production of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory (ACE-I) Peptides during Milk Fermentation and Their Role in Reducing Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amit Kumar; Sanjukta, Samurailatpam; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2015-10-13

    Fermented milk is a potential source of various biologically active peptides with specific health benefits. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory (ACE-I) peptides are one of the most studied bioactive peptides produced during milk fermentation. The presence of these peptides is reported in various fermented milk products such as yoghurt, cheese, sour milk, etc, which are also available as commercial products. Many of the ACE-I peptides formed during milk fermentation are resistant to gastrointestinal digestion and inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the rennin angiotension system (RAS). There are various factors, which affect the formation ACE-I peptides and their ability to reach the target tissue in active form, which includes type of starters (lactic acid bacteria, yeast, etc), substrate composition (casein type, whey protein, etc), composition of ACE-I peptide, pre and post fermentation treatments, and its stability during gastrointestinal digestion. The antihypertensive effect of fermented milk products has also been proved by various in-vitro and in-vivo (animal and human trials) experiments. This article reviews the literature on fermented milk products as a source of ACE-I peptides and various factors affecting the production and activity of ACE-I peptides.

  15. Homologs of the Acinetobacter baumannii AceI Transporter Represent a New Family of Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Henderson, Peter J. F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multidrug efflux systems are a major cause of resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria, including those pathogenic to humans, animals, and plants. These proteins are ubiquitous in these pathogens, and five families of bacterial multidrug efflux systems have been identified to date. By using transcriptomic and biochemical analyses, we recently identified the novel AceI (Acinetobacter chlorhexidine efflux) protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that conferred resistance to the biocide chlorhexidine, via an active efflux mechanism. Proteins homologous to AceI are encoded in the genomes of many other bacterial species and are particularly prominent within proteobacterial lineages. In this study, we expressed 23 homologs of AceI and examined their resistance and/or transport profiles. MIC analyses demonstrated that, like AceI, many of the homologs conferred resistance to chlorhexidine. Many of the AceI homologs conferred resistance to additional biocides, including benzalkonium, dequalinium, proflavine, and acriflavine. We conducted fluorimetric transport assays using the AceI homolog from Vibrio parahaemolyticus and confirmed that resistance to both proflavine and acriflavine was mediated by an active efflux mechanism. These results show that this group of AceI homologs represent a new family of bacterial multidrug efflux pumps, which we have designated the proteobacterial antimicrobial compound efflux (PACE) family of transport proteins. PMID:25670776

  16. The S proteins of human coronavirus NL63 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus bind overlapping regions of ACE2.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhui; Sui, Jianhua; Huang, I-Chueh; Kuhn, Jens H; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Marasco, Wayne A; Choe, Hyeryun; Farzan, Michael

    2007-10-25

    The cellular receptor for human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), a group I coronavirus, is angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2). ACE2 is also the receptor for the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a group II coronavirus. Here we describe the ability of HCoV-NL63 to utilize a number of ACE2 variants previously characterized as SARS-CoV receptors. Several ACE2 variants that reduced SARS-CoV S-protein association similarly reduced that of HCoV-NL63, whereas alteration of a number of solvent-exposed ACE2 residues did not interfere with binding by either S protein. One notable exception is ACE2 residue 354, at the boundary of the SARS-CoV binding site, whose alteration markedly inhibited utilization by the HCoV-NL63 but not SARS-CoV S proteins. In addition, the SARS-CoV S-protein receptor-binding domain inhibited entry mediated by the HCoV-NL63 S protein. These studies indicate that HCoV-NL63, like SARS-CoV, associates region of human ACE2 that includes a key loop formed by beta-strands 4 and 5.

  17. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) and its sub-scores: normative values in an Italian population sample.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Mattia; Raimo, Simona; Tufano, Dario; Basile, Giuseppe; Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Franco; Trojano, Luigi; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is a rapid screening battery, including five sub-scales to explore different cognitive domains: attention/orientation, memory, fluency, language and visuospatial. ACE-R is considered useful in discriminating cognitively normal subjects from patients with mild dementia. The aim of present study was to provide normative values for ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores in a large sample of Italian healthy subjects. Five hundred twenty-six Italian healthy subjects (282 women and 246 men) of different ages (age range 20-93 years) and educational level (from primary school to university) underwent ACE-R and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores. A significant effect of gender was found only in sub-scale attention/orientation. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for raw scores was built. Inferential cut-offs score were estimated using a non-parametric technique and equivalent scores (ES) were computed. Correlation analysis showed a good significant correlation between ACE-R adjusted scores with MoCA adjusted scores (r = 0.612, p < 0.001). The present study provided normative data for the ACE-R in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  18. Determining the Enzymatic Activity of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) in Brain Tissue and Cerebrospinal Fluid Using a Quenched Fluorescent Substrate.

    PubMed

    Sriramula, Srinivas; Pedersen, Kim Brint; Xia, Huijing; Lazartigues, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure and volume homeostasis. Accumulating evidence shows alterations in ACE2 expression and activity in several hypertensive animal models, as well as in patients with hypertension. In order to assess the role of brain ACE2 in hypertension, a specific ACE2 assay is required. Based on a quenched fluorescent substrate, we describe an easy-to-use method for determining ACE2 activity in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid. The method can further be adapted for other tissues, plasma, cell extracts, and cell culture supernatants.

  19. Evolution of diuretics and ACE inhibitors, their renal and antihypertensive actions—parallels and contrasts

    PubMed Central

    Lant, Ariel F.

    1987-01-01

    1 The emergence of diuretic drugs and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors ranks amongst the major therapeutic advances of modern medicine. The discovery of these drug groups arose largely by chance, yet each has dramatically influenced the treatment of congestive cardiac failure and arterial hypertension. 2 The central role which diuretics have had in the management of both oedema and hypertension hinges on their ability to induce a net renal excretion of solute and water by selective interference with either active or passive ion transport processes in different segments of the nephron. Irrespective of sites of action, the continued antihypertensive action of diuretics is characterized by a reduction in plasma volume and extracellular fluid (ECF) volume that lasts for as long as the diuretic is given. The mechanism of this effect remains unclear but may involve autoregulatory reactions that leave cardiac output unaltered but maintain a sustained reduction in total peripheral resistance. 3 ACE inhibitors also lower blood pressure by decreasing total peripheral resistance, leaving cardiac output, plasma volume and ECF volume unchanged. The detailed way these haemodynamic changes are achieved remains unknown but inhibition of converting enzyme present not only in the kidney but also in many extrarenal tissue sites, appears important. In both hypertension and cardiac failure, however, the kidney acts as a key target organ for ACE inhibitors. The increased renal vascular resistance and inappropriate renal salt excretion are reversed with enhanced renal blood flow and saluresis. Both angiotensin II (AII) and vasopressin-mediated contraction of glomerular mesangial cells is inhibited, making glomerular filtration more efficient. Reduced aldosterone secondary to blockade of AII formation contributes to saluresis whilst encouraging positive potassium balance. ACE inhibition also impairs breakdown of kinins which may contribute to intrarenal and peripheral

  20. Attention Interchanges at Story-Time: A Case Study from a Deaf and Hearing Twin Pair Acquiring Swedish Sign Language in Their Deaf Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer-Wolrath, Emelie

    2012-01-01

    This case study longitudinally analyzes and describes the changes of attentional expressions in interchanges between a pair of fraternal twins, 1 deaf and 1 hearing, from the age of 10-40 months, and their Deaf family members. The video-observed attentional expressions of initiating and reestablishing interchange were grouped in 5 functional…